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Sample records for human periodontal ligaments

  1. Human periodontal ligament stem cells repair mental nerve injury*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bohan Li; Hun-Jong Jung; Soung-Min Kim; Myung-Jin Kim; Jeong Won Jahng; Jong-Ho Lee

    2013-01-01

    Human periodontal ligament stem cells are easily accessible and can differentiate into Schwann cells. We hypothesized that human periodontal ligament stem cells can be used as an alternative source for the autologous Schwann cells in promoting the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve. To validate this hypothesis, human periodontal ligament stem cells (1 × 106) were injected into the crush-injured left mental nerve in rats. Simultaneously, autologous Schwann cells (1 × 106) and PBS were also injected as controls. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that at 5 days after injection, mRNA expression of low affinity nerve growth factor receptor was sig-nificantaly increased in the left trigeminal ganglion of rats with mental nerve injury. Sensory tests, histomorphometric evaluation and retrograde labeling demonstrated that at 2 and 4 weeks after in-jection, sensory function was significantly improved, the numbers of retrograde labeled sensory neurons and myelinated axons were significantly increased, and human periodontal ligament stem cells and autologous Schwann cells exhibited similar therapeutic effects. These findings suggest that transplantation of human periodontal ligament stem cells show a potential value in repair of mental nerve injury.

  2. Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells on Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçin, Y Murat; İnanç, Bülend; Elçin, A Eser

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells' (hESCs) unlimited proliferative potential and differentiation capability to all somatic cell types makes them one of the potential cell sources in cell-based tissue engineering strategies as well as various experimental applications in fields such as developmental biology, pharmacokinetics, toxicology, and genetics. Periodontal tissue engineering is an approach to reconstitute the ectomesenchymally derived alveolar bone, periodontal ligament apparatus, and cementum tissues lost as a result of periodontal diseases. Cell-based therapies may offer potential advantage in overcoming the inherent limitations associated with contemporary regenerative procedures, such as dependency on defect type and size and the pool and capacity of progenitor cells resident in the wound area. Further elucidation of developmental mechanisms associated with tooth formation may also contribute to valuable knowledge based upon which the future therapies can be designed. Protocols for the differentiation of pluripotent hESCs into periodontal ligament fibroblastic cells (PDLF) as common progenitors for ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone tissue represent an initial step in developing hESC-based experimental and tissue engineering strategies. The present protocol describes methods associated with the guided differentiation of hESCs by the use of coculture with adult PDLFs and the resulting change of morphotype and phenotype of the pluripotent embryonic stem cells toward fibroblastic and osteoblastic lineages.

  3. Effects of Shuanghuangbu on the total protein content and ultrastructure in cultured human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许彦枝; 邹慧儒; 王小玲; 刘世正; 王永军

    2004-01-01

    Background Successful periodontal regeneration depends on the migration, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in periodontal defects. The total protein content and the ultrastructure demonstrate the metabolizability and activity of periodontal ligament cells. This study was conducted to observe the effects of Shuanghuangbu, a mixture of medicinal herbs, on the total protein content and the ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament cells.Methods Periodontal ligament cells were grown to confluence and then cultured in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with Shuanghuangbu over the concentration range of 0 to 1000 μg/ml. The total protein content in cultured cells was determined by using Coommasie brilliant blue technique. Periodontal ligament cells were incubated in 0 and 100 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu decoction for 5 days, then observed through transmission electron microscope.Results The total protein content of human periodontal ligament cells increased in each experiment group added 10-1000 μg/ml Shuanghuangbu respectively, and the effect of 100 μg/ml was excellent. Under the transmission electron microscope, there were more rough endoplasmic reticulums and mitochodrias in the experiment group than those in the control group. Conclusion Shuanghuangbu stimulates the protein synthesis of human periodontal ligament cells and improves human periodontal ligament cells' metabolizability and activity.

  4. Periodontitis promotes the proliferation and suppresses the differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Shi; Wang, Jianguo; Jin, Fang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontitis-associated changes in the number, proliferation and differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cultures of human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were established from healthy donors and donors with periodontitis. The numbers of stem cell were characterized using flow cytometry. PDLSCs were isolated from the PDLCs by immunomagnetic bead selection. Colony‑forming abilities, osteogenic and adipogenic potential, gene expression of cementoblast phenotype, alkaline phosphatase activity and in vivo differentiation capacities were then evaluated. Periodontitis caused an increase in the proliferation of PDLSCs and a decrease in the commitment to the osteoblast lineage. This is reflected by changes in the expression of osteoblast markers. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, PDLSCs from the healthy donors exhibited the capacity to produce cementum PDL‑like structures, whereas, the inflammatory PDLSCs transplants predominantly formed connective tissues. In conclusion, the data from the present study suggest that periodontitis affects the proliferation and differentiation potential of human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo.

  5. Xeno-free culture of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubiani, Oriana; Diomede, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of transplanting adult stem cells into damaged organs has opened a new prospective for the treatment of several human pathologies. Currently, in vitro expansion and culture of mesenchymal stem cells is founded on supplementing cell culture and differentiation medium with fetal calf serum (FCS) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) that contain numerous growth factors inducing cell attachment to plastic surfaces, proliferation, and differentiation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured with medium containing FCS or FBS are unusable in the cell therapy; in fact the central issues regarding limitations in using animal sera for cell therapy is that its components are highly variable and often unknown and may trigger a xenogenic immune response, immunological reactions, and the potential transmission of prion diseases and zoonoses. Here we describe the culture system protocols for the expansion and production of human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) using a new xeno-free medium formulation ensuring the maintenance of the stem cells features comprising the multiple passage expansion, mesengenic lineage differentiation, cellular phenotype, and genomic stability, essential elements for conforming to translation to cell therapy.

  6. Morinda citrifolia leaves enhance osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonanantanasarn, Kanitsak; Janebodin, Kajohnkiart; Suppakpatana, Prapan; Arayapisit, Tawepong; Rodsutthi, Jit-aree; Chunhabundit, Panjit; Boonanuntanasarn, Surintorn; Sripairojthikoon, Wanida

    2014-01-01

    This present study investigated the potential of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract to induce osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization of human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured in complete medium, ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate, or Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity compared to culturing in complete medium or ascorbic acid with β-glycerophosphate. Matrixcontaining mineralized nodules were formed only when the cells were cultured in the presence of Morinda citrifolia leaf aqueous extract. These nodules showed positive alizarin red S staining and were rich in calcium and phosphorus according to energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In conclusion, Morinda citrifolia leaf extract promoted osteogenic differentiation and matrix mineralization in human periodontal ligament cells, a clear indication of the therapeutic potential of Morinda citrifolia leaves in bone and periodontal tissue regeneration.

  7. Effect of storage media on human periodontal ligament cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Mónica M; Regan, John D; Opperman, Lynne A; Kramer, Phillip R

    2008-02-01

    The ability of storage media to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell vitality has been previously evaluated. However, the mechanisms by which different storage conditions alter the functional status of PDL cells have not been determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate, in vitro, the level of programed cell death or apoptosis in a population of PDL cells following storage under different conditions. Primary human PDL cells were plated into 24-well-culture plates and allowed to attach for 24 h. Cells were then exposed for 1 h to milk, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Soft Wear contact lens solution or Gatorade at room temperature or on ice. Culture medium was used as a negative control. Apoptosis was evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after treatment on quadruplicate samples by using the ST 160 ApopTag Fluorescein Direct In Situ Detection Kit. The total number of cells and the total number of apoptotic cells were counted. The results indicated that at 24 and 72 h, PDL treated with Gatorade and the contact lens solution displayed the highest percentages of apoptotic cells when compared with the other treatment groups at room temperature. Overall, cells treated on ice showed significantly lower levels of apoptosis when compared with treatments at room temperature. In conclusion, the results indicated that apoptosis plays a major role in cell death in cells treated with Gatorade and contact lens solutions in comparison to other storage solutions and that storage on ice can inhibit programed cell death.

  8. 人牙周膜干细胞与牙周膜细胞生物学特性的比较%Differences between biological characteristics of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    封艳; 粱学萍; 赵今; 孙玉亮; 钟良军

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The biological function of human periodontal ligament stem cells is a hot area of research in the treatment of periodontal disease. Human periodontal ligament cells are one of the end cells derived from human periodontal ligament stem cells;meanwhile, it can also provide supports to the development of human periodontal ligament stem cells. However, few studies are reported about the difference of biological characteristics between human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells. OBJECTIVE:To compare the differences of biological characteristics between human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells. METHODS:The human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were isolated and purified using tissue explant method and cellclone method, respectively, and then were observed under light microscope to compare the differences of morphology. cellproliferation curves of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were drawn respectively with cellcounting kit 8 assay. Flow cytometry analysis was used to detect their cellcircles and their surface markers expressions. The alkaline phosphatase gene, proliferating cellnuclear antigen gene and Scleraxis gene of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were detected by Real-time PCR assay.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells showed a notable difference in morphology under the light microscope observation. During the first 5 days, the cellproliferation curve of human periodontal ligament stem cells was lower than that of human periodontal ligament cells, but 5 days later, the curve of human periodontal ligament stem cells was significantly higher than that of human periodontal ligament cells. The cellcircles of human periodontal ligament stem cells and human periodontal ligament cells were 41.1%and 23

  9. Domain of dentine sialoprotein mediates proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkan Ozer

    Full Text Available Classic embryological studies have documented the inductive role of root dentin on adjacent periodontal ligament differentiation.  The biochemical composition of root dentin includes collagens and cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, such as dentin sialoprotein (DSP.  The high abundance of DSP in root dentin prompted us to ask the question whether DSP or peptides derived thereof would serve as potent biological matrix components to induce periodontal progenitors to further differentiate into periodontal ligament cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that domain of DSP influences cell fate. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the COOH-terminal DSP domain is expressed in mouse periodontium at various stages of root development. The recombinant COOH-terminal DSP fragment (rC-DSP enhanced attachment and migration of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC, human primary PDL cells without cell toxicity. rC-DSP induced PDLSC cell proliferation as well as differentiation and mineralization of PDLSC and PDL cells by formation of mineralized tissue and ALPase activity. Effect of rC-DSP on cell proliferation and differentiation was to promote gene expression of tooth/bone-relate markers, transcription factors and growth factors. The results for the first time showed that rC-DSP may be one of the components of cell niche for stimulating stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and a natural scaffold for periodontal regeneration application.

  10. Cytotoxicity evaluation of root repair materials in human-cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voruganti Samyuktha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three root repair materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from healthy premolar extracted for orthodontic purpose. Cells in the third passage were used in the study. The cultured fibroblast cells were placed in contact with root repair materials: (a Biodentine, (b MTA, (c Endosequence, (d control. The effects of these three materials on the viability of Periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts were determined by trypan blue dye assay after 24 hours and 48-hour time period. Cell viability was determined using inverted phase contrast microscope. Statistical Analysis: Cell viability was compared for all the experimental groups with Wilcoxons matched pair test. Results: At the 24-hour examination period, all the materials showed increased cell viability. At 48-hour time period, there is slight decrease in cell viability. Mineral trioxide aggregate showed statistically significant increase in the cell viability when compared to other root repair materials. Conclusion: Mineral trioxide aggregate was shown to be less toxic to periodontal ligament fibroblasts than Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine.

  11. Cytotoxicity evaluation of root repair materials in human-cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samyuktha, Voruganti; Ravikumar, Pabbati; Nagesh, Bolla; Ranganathan, K.; Jayaprakash, Thumu; Sayesh, Vemuri

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the cytotoxicity of three root repair materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: Periodontal ligament fibroblasts were cultured from healthy premolar extracted for orthodontic purpose. Cells in the third passage were used in the study. The cultured fibroblast cells were placed in contact with root repair materials: (a) Biodentine, (b) MTA, (c) Endosequence, (d) control. The effects of these three materials on the viability of Periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were determined by trypan blue dye assay after 24 hours and 48-hour time period. Cell viability was determined using inverted phase contrast microscope. Statistical Analysis: Cell viability was compared for all the experimental groups with Wilcoxons matched pair test. Results: At the 24-hour examination period, all the materials showed increased cell viability. At 48-hour time period, there is slight decrease in cell viability. Mineral trioxide aggregate showed statistically significant increase in the cell viability when compared to other root repair materials. Conclusion: Mineral trioxide aggregate was shown to be less toxic to periodontal ligament fibroblasts than Endosequence Root Repair Material and Biodentine. PMID:25298650

  12. Gomisin N Decreases Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka; Hosokawa, Ikuko; Shindo, Satoru; Ozaki, Kazumi; Matsuo, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    Gomisin N, which is a lignan isolated from Schisandra chinensis, has some pharmacological effects. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of gomisin N on periodontal disease are uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of gomisin N on inflammatory mediator production in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Gomisin N inhibited interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 2, and CCL20 production in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, we revealed that gomisin N could suppress extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation in TNF-α-stimulated HPDLC though protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation was not suppressed by gomisin N treatment. In summary, gomisin N might exert anti-inflammatory effects by attenuating cytokine production in periodontal ligament cells via inhibiting the TNF-α-stimulated ERK and JNK pathways activation.

  13. Impact of nicotine on the interplay between human periodontal ligament cells and CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xin; Liu, Ying-Feng; Wong, Yong; Wu, Li-Zheng; Tan, Ling; Liu, Fen; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-09-01

    Periodontitis is a common infectious disease associated with destruction of periodontal ligaments and alveolar bones. CD4(+) T cell-mediated immune response is involved in the progression of periodontitis. Tobacco consumption increases the risk of periodontal disease. However, the impact of nicotine on the interaction between human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and CD4(+) T cells remains unrevealed. Our study aims to investigate the effect of nicotine on PDL cells and the cocultured CD4(+) T cells. The PDL cell cultures were established by explants from healthy individuals, exposed to nicotine or α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), and incubated solely or in combination with CD4(+) T cells. Afterwards, cell viability, secreted cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were evaluated. In monoculture of PDL cells, nicotine dramatically repressed cell viability and increased apoptosis. Meanwhile, α-BTX largely reversed the nicotine-induced apoptosis and increased viability of PDL cells. Compared with the monoculture, MMP-1, MMP-3, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-21 in supernatant of cocultures were markedly elevated after treatment with nicotine. Moreover, α-BTX significantly attenuated nicotine-triggered production of these components either in mono- or co-cultures. In addition, PDL cell-derived CXCL12 following nicotine treatment recruited CD4(+) T cells. Above all, nicotine deteriorated periodontitis partially by promoting PDL cell-CD4(+) T cell-mediated inflammatory response and matrix degradation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. In vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue formation with porous poly-L-lactide matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Okada, Masahiro; Sakamoto, Fumito; Okita, Naoya; Inami, Kaoru; Nishiura, Aki; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Matsumoto, Naoyuki

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to establish an in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue (HPdLLT) by three-dimensional culturing of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLFs) in a porous poly-L-lactide (PLLA) matrix modified hydrophilically with ammonia solution. After ammonia modification, the surface roughness and culture-medium-soaking-up ability of the PLLA matrix increased, whereas the contact angle of water drops decreased. The thickness, porosity, and pore size of the PLLA matrix were 400±50 μm, 83.3%, and 75-150 μm, respectively. HPdLFs (1×10(5) cells) were seeded on the modified PLLA matrix and centrifuged to facilitate seeding into its interior and cultured for 14 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, proliferation assay, picrosirius-red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for type-1 collagen (COL1), periodontal ligament associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA were conducted on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. HPdLFs were observed entirely from the surface to the rear side of the matrix. Cell proliferation analysis, SEM observation, and picrosirius-red staining showed both progressive growth of 3D-cultured HPdLFs and extracellular matrix maturation by the secretion of COL1 and type 3 collagen (COL3) from days 1 to 14. Expressions of COL1, PLAP-1, and FGF-2 mRNA suggested the formation of cellular components and supplementation of extracellular components. Expressions of ALP, COL1, and PLAP-1 mRNA suggested the osteogenic potential of the HPdLLT. The results indicated in vitro HPdLLT formation, and it could be used in future periodontal ligament tissue engineering to achieve optimal periodontal regeneration.

  15. Characterization of the autocrine/paracrine function of vitamin D in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3, the precursor of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3, is abundant around periodontal soft tissues. Here we investigate whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3 is converted to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 in periodontal soft tissue cells and explore the possibility of an autocrine/paracrine function of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 in periodontal soft tissue cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established primary cultures of human gingival fibroblasts and human periodontal ligament cells from 5 individual donors. We demonstrated that 1α-hydroxylase was expressed in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, as was cubilin. After incubation with the 1α-hydroxylase substrate 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3, human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells generated detectable 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 that resulted in an up-regulation of CYP24A1 and RANKL mRNA. A specific knockdown of 1α-hydroxylase in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells using siRNA resulted in a significant reduction in both 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 production and mRNA expression of CYP24A1 and RANKL. The classical renal regulators of 1α-hydroxylase (parathyroid hormone, calcium and 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3 and Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide did not influence 1α-hydroxylase expression significantly, however, interleukin-1β and sodium butyrate strongly induced 1α-hydroxylase expression in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study, the expression, activity and functionality of 1α-hydroxylase were detected in human gingival fibroblasts and periodontal ligament cells, raising the possibility that vitamin D acts in an autocrine/paracrine manner in these cells.

  16. In vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue formation with porous poly-L-lactide matrix

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    Liao, Wen [Graduate School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Okada, Masahiro [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Sakamoto, Fumito; Okita, Naoya [Graduate School of Dentistry, Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Inami, Kaoru; Nishiura, Aki [Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiya, E-mail: yoshiya@cc.osaka-dent.ac.jp [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan); Matsumoto, Naoyuki [Department of Orthodontics, Osaka Dental University, 8-1 Kuzuha-hanazono-cho, Hirakata-shi, Osaka-fu 573-1121 (Japan)

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to establish an in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue (HPdLLT) by three-dimensional culturing of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPdLFs) in a porous poly-L-lactide (PLLA) matrix modified hydrophilically with ammonia solution. After ammonia modification, the surface roughness and culture-medium-soaking-up ability of the PLLA matrix increased, whereas the contact angle of water drops decreased. The thickness, porosity, and pore size of the PLLA matrix were 400 ± 50 μm, 83.3%, and 75–150 μm, respectively. HPdLFs (1 × 10{sup 5} cells) were seeded on the modified PLLA matrix and centrifuged to facilitate seeding into its interior and cultured for 14 days. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, proliferation assay, picrosirius-red staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for type-1 collagen (COL1), periodontal ligament associated protein-1 (PLAP-1), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) mRNA were conducted on days 1, 3, 7, and 14. HPdLFs were observed entirely from the surface to the rear side of the matrix. Cell proliferation analysis, SEM observation, and picrosirius-red staining showed both progressive growth of 3D-cultured HPdLFs and extracellular matrix maturation by the secretion of COL1 and type 3 collagen (COL3) from days 1 to 14. Expressions of COL1, PLAP-1, and FGF-2 mRNA suggested the formation of cellular components and supplementation of extracellular components. Expressions of ALP, COL1, and PLAP-1 mRNA suggested the osteogenic potential of the HPdLLT. The results indicated in vitro HPdLLT formation, and it could be used in future periodontal ligament tissue engineering to achieve optimal periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • First report on ammonia treated PLLA matrix for in vitro human periodontal ligament-like tissue generation. • Good combination of matrix thickness, pore size, and porosity. • Biodegradable PLLA is also possible to be used in vivo.

  17. In vivo measurements and numerical analysis of the biomechanical characteristics of the human periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilig, L; Drolshagen, M; Tran, K L; Hasan, I; Reimann, S; Deschner, J; Brinkmann, K T; Krause, R; Favino, M; Bourauel, C

    2016-07-01

    The periodontal ligament is a complex tissue with respect to its biomechanical behaviour. It is important to understand the mechanical behaviour of the periodontal ligament during physiological loading in healthy patients as well as during the movement of the tooth in orthodontic treatment or in patients with periodontal disease, as these might affect the mechanical properties of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Up to now, only a limited amount of in vivo data is available concerning this issue. The aim of this study has been to determine the time dependent material properties of the PDL in an experimental in vivo study, using a novel device that is able to measure tooth displacement intraorally. Using the intraoral loading device, tooth deflections at various velocities were realised in vivo on human teeth. The in vivo investigations were performed on the upper left central incisors of five volunteers aged 21-33 years with healthy periodontal tissue. A deflection, applied at the centre of the crown, was linearly increased from 0 to 0.15mm in a loading period of between 0.1 and 5.0s. Individual numerical models were developed based on the experimental results to simulate the relationship between the applied force and tooth displacement. The numerical force/displacement curves were fitted to the experimental ones to obtain the material properties of the human PDL. For the shortest loading time of 0.1s, the experimentally determined forces were between 7.0 and 16.2N. The numerically calculated Young's modulus varied between 0.9MPa (5.0s) and 1.2MPa (0.1s). By considering the experimentally and numerically obtained force curves, forces decreased with increasing loading time. The experimental data gained in this study can be used for the further development and verification of a multiphasic constitutive law of the PDL.

  18. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  19. Generation of functional hepatocyte-like cells from human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasanthan, Punitha; Jayaraman, Pukana; Kunasekaran, Wijenthiran; Lawrence, Anthony; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Musa, Sabri; Kasim, Noor Hayaty Abu

    2016-08-01

    Human deciduous periodontal ligament stem cells have been introduced for as an easily accessible source of stem cells from dental origin. Although recent studies have revealed the ability of these stem cells in multipotential attribute, their efficiency of hepatic lineage differentiation has not been addressed so far. The aim of this study is to investigate hepatic lineage fate competence of periodontal ligament stem cells through direct media induction. Differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells was conducted by the exposure of two phase media induction. First phase was performed in the presence of hepatocyte growth factors to induce a definitive endoderm formation. In the subsequent phase, the cells were treated with oncostatin M and dexamethosone followed by insulin and transferrin to generate hepatocyte-like cells. Hepatic-related characters of the generated hepatocyte-like cells were determined at both mRNA and protein level followed by functional assays. Foremost changes observed in the generation of hepatocyte-like cells were the morphological features in which these cells were transformed from fibroblastic shape to polygonal shape. Temporal expression of hepatic markers ranging from early endodermal up to late markers were detected in the hepatocyte-like cells. Crucial hepatic markers such as glycogen storage, albumin, and urea secretion were also shown. These findings exhibited the ability of periodontal ligament stem cells of dental origin to be directed into hepatic lineage fate. These cells can be regarded as an alternative autologous source in the usage of stem cell-based treatment for liver diseases.

  20. Relaxin stimulates MMP-2 and α-smooth muscle actin expression by human periodontal ligament cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, S.; Bildt, M.M.; Groot, J. de; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Von den Hoff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The main cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) are the fibroblasts, which play an important role in periodontal remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins in the PDL. Previous studies have indicated that MMP production

  1. Relaxin stimulates MMP-2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression by human periodontal ligament cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, S.; Bildt, M.M.; Degroot, J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2008-01-01

    The main cells in the periodontal ligament (PDL) are the fibroblasts, which play an important role in periodontal remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are largely responsible for the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins in the PDL. Previous studies have indicated that MMP production

  2. In Vitro Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Three Root-End Filling Materials in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coaguila-Llerena, Hernán; Vaisberg, Abraham; Velásquez-Huamán, Zulema

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the cytotoxicity on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts of three root-end filling materials: MTA Angelus®, EndoSequence Root Repair Material Putty® and Super EBA®. A primary culture of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts was previously obtained in order to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the three extracts from the root-end filling materials after 2 and 7 days of setting. Serial dilutions of these extracts (1:1, 1:2, 1:4 and 1:8) were evaluated at 1, 3 and 7 days using the methyl-thiazol-tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay. Cell viability was evaluated as percentage of the negative control group, which represented 100% cell viability. Statistical analyses were done with t-test, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis test at a significance level of 5%. It was found that the main difference among root-end filling materials was in the higher dilutions (p0.05). Cell viability of MTA Angelus® was superior for 2-day setting (pMaterial Putty®. Super EBA® showed the lowest percentage of cell viability at higher dilutions (pMaterial Putty® were less cytotoxic in the highest dilution (1:1) compared with Super EBA®.

  3. Prolactin receptor and osteogenic induction of prolactin in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surarit, Rudee; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee

    2016-04-01

    Prolactin is an important hormone involved in the interaction between maternal, extraembryonic, and fetal tissues that remains in high levels during the entire duration of pregnancy. Although many systemic alterations occur during pregnancy, such as hormonal changes, that are known to be associated with periodontitis and tooth loss, PRL function in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) had never been studied. Herein, we investigated the role of PRL in the regulation of HPDLF proliferation and differentiation. HPDLF were cultured in differentiating medium with various concentrations of PRL. The present study demonstrated that HPDLF and primary human PDL cells that were extracted for orthodontic purpose expressed both short and long isoforms of PRLR mRNA and its proteins. An incubation with of high concentration of PRL (600 and 1,000 ng/mL) modestly decreased the HPDLF number. In contrast, PRL at a non-reproductive level (10 ng/mL) and pregnant level (100 ng/mL) significantly upregulated the markers of osteogenesis, such as RUNX2, BMP2, and POSTN, but not SOX9. Mineral nodule formation was induced, whereas proteoglycan accumulation was reduced by PRL suggesting that HPDLF were undergoing differentiation into preosteoblastic cells. In conclusion, the presence of hPRLR in human PDL together with PRL-induced upregulation of osteogenic markers strongly suggested a direct regulatory role of PRL in PDL and periodontal tissue development.

  4. Anabolic Properties of High Mobility Group Box Protein-1 in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vitro

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    Michael Wolf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB1 is mainly recognized as a chemoattractant for macrophages in the initial phase of host response to pathogenic stimuli. However, recent findings provide evidence for anabolic properties in terms of enhanced proliferation, migration, and support of wound healing capacity of mesenchymal cells suggesting a dual role of the cytokine in the regulation of immune response and subsequent regenerative processes. Here, we examined potential anabolic effects of HMGB1 on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in the regulation of periodontal remodelling, for example, during orthodontic tooth movement. Preconfluent human PDL cells (hPDL were exposed to HMGB1 protein and the influence on proliferation, migration, osteogenic differentiation, and biomineralization was determined by MTS assay, real time PCR, immunofluorescence cytochemistry, ELISA, and von Kossa staining. HMGB1 protein increased hPDL cell proliferation, migration, osteoblastic marker gene expression, and protein production as well as mineralized nodule formation significantly. The present findings support the dual character of HMGB1 with anabolic therapeutic potential that might support the reestablishment of the structural and functional integrity of the periodontium following periodontal trauma such as orthodontic tooth movement.

  5. The pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of calprotectin on human periodontal ligament cells.

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    Yunfei Zheng

    Full Text Available Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9 and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis.

  6. The pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects of calprotectin on human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yunfei; Hou, Jianxia; Peng, Lei; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Lingfei; Wang, Xian'e; Wei, Shicheng; Meng, Huanxin

    2014-01-01

    Calprotectin, a heterodimer of S100A8 and S100A9 subunits, is associated with inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and cystic fibrosis. Although calprotectin levels are increased significantly in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of periodontitis patients, its effects on periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate calprotectin levels in the GCF of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) patients and to investigate the effects of recombinant human calprotectin (rhS100A8/A9) and its subunits (rhS100A8 and rhS100A9) in PDLCs. Both the concentration and amount of crevicular calprotectin were significantly higher in the AgP group compared with healthy controls. In addition, the GCF calprotectin levels were correlated positively with clinical periodontal parameters including bleeding index, probing depth, and clinical attachment loss. rhS100A8/A9 promoted cell apoptosis, whereas rhS100A8 and rhS100A9 individually exerted little effect on apoptosis in PDLCs. rhS100A9 and rhS100A8/A9 increased the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by promoting the nuclear translocation of p65 in PDLCs, subsequently inducing expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNFα, and COX2. Treatment with an NF-κB inhibitor partially reversed the rhS100A9- and rhS100A8/A9-induced upregulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines. rhS100A9, and not rhS100A8, was mainly responsible for the pro-inflammatory role of calprotectin. Collectively, our results suggest that calprotectin promotes apoptosis and the inflammatory response in PDLCs via rhS100A9. These findings might help identify novel treatments for periodontitis.

  7. [Cytocompatibility of chitosan-based thermosensitive hydrogel to human periodontal ligament cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qiu-xia; Yu, Xin-bo; Xu, Quan-chen; Wu, Hong

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the cytocompatibility of an in situ chitosan-quaternized chitosan/α, β-glycerophosphate (CS-HTCC/GP) thermosensitive hydrogel in vitro. The primary cells were isolated from human periodontal ligament and cultured. The role of different concentrations of CS-HTCC/GP extract to HPDLCs was evaluated by MTT assay and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Also, the ultra-architecture of HPDLCs was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) respectively. SPSS13.0 software package was used for statistical analysis. By immunocytochemical method, the cells were stained positively to antibodies against vimentin, and negatively to antibodies against cytokeratin, which indicated that they were external embryo mesenchymal cell without epithelial cell mixure. CS-HTCC/GP thermosensitive hydrogel promoted proliferation of HPDLCs,especially at 3d and 5d, the results was significantly different (Phydrogel exhibits excellent cytocompatibility and has potential to be used as an in situ injectable local periodontal drug delivery vehicle and a tissue-engineering scaffold for periodontal disease therapy.

  8. Effect of chlorophyllin on normothermic storage of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Won-Gyun; Lee, Eun Ju; Lee, Seung-Jong; Lee, Seung-Ae; Kim, Jin

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether chlorophyllin could serve as an effective constituent of a storage medium to enhance the human periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability. Freshly isolated PDL cells from premolars extracted from healthy people were stored at 37 degrees C for 6 h in various solutions: F-medium and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), supplemented with chlorophyllin. From MTT viability assays, the highest cell viability was found in the PDL cells stored in HBSS supplemented with 500 nM chlorophyllin, and the chlorophyllin-treated cells showed a dose-dependent response to concentration. Additionally, the results from flow cytometry showed that 77 to 80% of the PDL cells were in the G0/G1 phases of the cell cycle, which suggested that most were in a stable stage. These result showed that HBSS, supplemented with chlorophyllin, may be a useful solution for preserving the viability of PDL cells.

  9. In vitro toxicity of grey MTA in comparison to white MTA on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, S N; Al-Jundi, S H; Ditto, D J

    2014-12-01

    This was to define and compare the in vitro toxicity of grey MTA with that of white MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium. Cultures were subjected to different concentrations of grey and white MTA (0.5, 5, 50 and 500 µg/ml) for 24 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to grey or white MTA served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. The results were compared using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (p MTA presented higher in vitro toxicity than grey MTA. However, the differences were almost insignificant (p > 0.05). Both colours of MTA are biocompatible since they were both able to preserve PDL fibroblasts for up to 24 h. MTA is as a promising alternative in pulpotomy of primary teeth.

  10. In vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, S N; Al-Jundi, S H; Ditto, D J

    2015-02-01

    This was to assess and compare the in vitro toxicity of formocresol, ferric sulphate and MTA on cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts. PDL cells were obtained from sound first permanent molars and cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. PDL cells were subjected to different concentrations of formocresol, ferric sulphate, and grey MTA for 24, 48, and 72 h at 37 °C. Cells that were not exposed to the tested materials served as the negative control. In vitro toxicity was assessed using MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished using ANOVA and Tukey statistical tests (pformocresol>ferric sulphate>grey MTA. Only grey MTA had comparable cell viability to the negative control, the other tested materials were significantly inferior at the three exposure periods (pformocresol. However, considering MTA's unavailability and high price in Jordan, ferric sulphate may be the best alternative to formocresol in pulpotomy of primary teeth.

  11. Combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic mechanical strain in inhibiting osteogenicity in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chaofan; Chen, Lijiao; Shi, Xinlian; Cao, Zhensheng; Hu, Bibo; Yu, Wenbin; Ren, Manman; Hu, Rongdang; Deng, Hui

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical strain plays an important role in bone formation and resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The mechanism has not been fully studied, and the process becomes complex with increased amounts of periodontal patients seeking orthodontic care. Our aims were to elucidate the combined effects of proinflammatory cytokines and intermittent cyclic strain (ICS) on the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells. Cultured human periodontal ligament cells were exposed to proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β 5 ng/mL and tumor necrosis factor-α 10 ng/mL) for 1 and 5 days, and ICS (0.5 Hz, 12% elongation) was applied for 4 h per day. The autocrine of inflammatory cytokines was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of osteoblast markers runt-related transcription factor 2 and rabbit collagen type I was determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The osteogenic capacity was also detected by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining, ALP activity, and alizarin red staining. We demonstrated that ICS impaired the osteogenic capacity of human periodontal ligament cells when incubated with proinflammatory cytokines, as evidenced by the low expression of ALP staining, low ALP activity, reduced alizarin red staining, and reduced osteoblast markers. These data, for the first time, suggest that ICS has a negative effect on the inductive inhibition of osteogenicity in human PDL cells mediated by proinflammatory cytokines.

  12. In vitro viability of human periodontal ligament cells in green tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar; Abedian, Zeynab; Amir, Mahdi Pour; Feizi, Farideh; Gharekhani, Samane

    2015-01-01

    Context: Delayed replantation of avulsed teeth may be successful if the majority of periodontal ligament cells (PDL) survive. A proper transport medium is required when immediate replantation is not possible. Green tea extract (GTE) may be effective in preserving the cells because of its special properties. Aims: This study was done to evaluate the potential of GTE in periodontal ligament cells preservation. Materials and Methods: Fifty-four extracted human teeth with closed apices were randomly divided into three groups each with 18 teeth as follow: GTE, water (negative control), and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) (positive control). The specimens were immersed in the media for 1, 3, and 15 hours at 4°C (n = 6) and treated with collagenase 1A for 45 minutes. Cell viability was determined using the trypan blue exclusion technique. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc Tukey and paired t-test at significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Means (standard deviation, SD) of viable cells in HBSS, water, and GTE were estimated 348.33 ± 88.49, 101 ± 14.18, and 310.56 ± 56.97 at 1 hours; 273.4 ± 44.80, 64.16 ± 16.44, and 310.2 ± 11.21 at 3 hours; and 373.72 ± 67.81, 14.41 ± 2.88 and 315.24 ± 34.48 at 15 hours; respectively. No significant differences were found between HBSS and GTE at all the time intervals. Both these solutions could preserve the cells more than water significantly. Conclusion: GTE and HBSS were equally effective in preserving the cells and were significantly superior to water. PMID:25657527

  13. Asiaticoside induces type I collagen synthesis and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowwarote, Nunthawan; Osathanon, Thanaphum; Jitjaturunt, Peachaya; Manopattanasoontorn, Sukuman; Pavasant, Prasit

    2013-03-01

    Asiaticoside, an active ingredient extracted from Centella asiatica, has been widely used to promote wound healing. In this study, the effects of asiaticoside on proliferation, protein synthesis, and osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLs) were investigated. HPDLs were treated with asiaticoside at concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 µg/mL. Cell number was determined by MTT assay. The mRNA expression was analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry were used to confirm protein synthesis. Osteogenic differentiation was determined by alkaline phosphatase activity, osteoblast marker gene expression, and in vitro mineralization. The results showed that asiaticoside treatment, ranging from 25 to 100 mg/mL, had no effect on cytotoxicity or cell proliferation. When HPDLs were treated with asiaticoside in serum-free medium, dose-dependent increases in the levels of fibronectin and collagen type I mRNA and protein were observed at 72 h. Moreover, asiaticoside attenuated matrix metalloproteinase-1 but enhanced tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 mRNA expression. The addition of asiaticoside to osteogenic medium resulted in an increase in alkaline phosphatase enzymatic activity, up-regulation of osteoblast marker gene mRNA expression, and enhancement of mineralization by HPDLs. These results suggest the potential application of asiaticoside for enhancing periodontal tissue healing.

  14. Cytocompatibility of chitosan -based thermosensitive hydrogel to human periodontal ligament cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Jian-feng; Ji Qiu-xia; Lv Bing-hua; Li Chang-chun; Wu Hong; Li Dan-dan; Li-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the ef ect of thermosensitive chitosan /β-glycerophosphate (CS /β-GP)hydrogel on proliferation of human periodontal ligament cel s (HPDLCs). Methods:CS /β-GP were prepared into a thermosensitive hydrogel and its three -dimensional structure was observed under electron microscope.HPDLCs harvested and cultured in vitro were co -cultured with the thermosensitive CS /β-GP hydrogel.Growth of the cel s in the hydrogel was observed with HE staining,and the ef ect of the extract on proliferation of HPDLCs was exam-ined by CCK -8 assay.Results:Observations of SEMand HE staining showed that the thermosensitive CS /β-GP hydrogel was large in pore size and appropriate for cel growth.Dif erent levels of CS /α,β-GP extracts could promote proliferation of HPDLCs.Conclusion:Thermosensitive CS /β-GP hydrogel can promote proliferation of HPDLCs and be a good carrier for periodontal tis-sue engineering because of its thermosensitivity.

  15. Investigation of the Cell Surface Proteome of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

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    Jimin Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the cell surface proteome of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC compared to human fibroblasts. Cell surface proteins were prelabelled with CyDye before processing to extract the membrane lysates, which were separated using 2D electrophoresis. Selected differentially expressed protein “spots” were identified using Mass spectrometry. Four proteins were selected for validation: CD73, CD90, Annexin A2, and sphingosine kinase 1 previously associated with mesenchymal stem cells. Flow cytometric analysis found that CD73 and CD90 were highly expressed by human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts but not by keratinocytes, indicating that these antigens could be used as potential markers for distinguishing between mesenchymal cells and epithelial cell populations. Annexin A2 was also found to be expressed at low copy number on the cell surface of human PDLSC and gingival fibroblasts, while human keratinocytes lacked any cell surface expression of Annexin A2. In contrast, sphingosine kinase 1 expression was detected in all the cell types examined using immunocytochemical analysis. These proteomic studies form the foundation to further define the cell surface protein expression profile of PDLSC in order to better characterise this cell population and help develop novel strategies for the purification of this stem cell population.

  16. IL-4 Modulates CCL11 and CCL20 Productions from IL-1β-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

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    Yoshitaka Hosokawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: IL-4 is a multifunctional cytokine that is related with the pathological conditions of periodontal disease. However, it is uncertain whether IL-4 could control T cells migration in periodontal lesions. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of IL-4 on CCL11, which is a Th2-type chemokine, and CCL20, which is related with Th17 cells migration, productions from human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs. Methods: CCL20 and CCL11 productions from HPDLCs were monitored by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to detect phosphorylations of signal transduction molecules in HPDLCs. Results: IL-1β could induce both CCL11 and CCL20 productions in HPDLCs. IL-4 enhanced CCL11 productions from IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs, though IL-4 inhibited CCL20 production. Western blot analysis showed that protein kinase B (Akt and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT6 pathways were highly activated in IL-4/IL-1β-stimulated HPDLCs. Akt and STAT6 inhibitors decreased CCL11 production, but enhanced CCL20 production in HPDLCs stimulated with IL-4 and IL-1β. Conclusions: These results mean that IL-4 enhanced Th2 cells migration in periodontal lesion to induce CCL11 production from HPDLCs. On the other hand, IL-4 inhibits Th17 cells accumulation in periodontally diseased tissues to inhibit CCL20 production. Therefore, IL-4 is positively related with the pathogenesis of periodontal disease to control chemokine productions in periodontal lesions.

  17. The potential of human-derived periodontal ligament stem cells to osteogenic differentiation: An In vitro investigation

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    Behzad Houshmand

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs are considered as a type of mesenchymal stem cell that is beneficial target for numerous clinical applications in periodontal tissue regeneration therapy. Materials and Methods: This study examined the effects of dexamethasone (Dex on human PDLSCs in vitro. PDLSCs obtained from the roots of patient’s teeth were cultured with Dex (0.01 μM, and their proliferation was measured. The osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and Alizarin Red-S staining for calcium deposition. Results: After the administration of 0.01 μM Dex, the activity of ALP increased significantly. Furthermore, mineralized nodule formation showing the intracellular calcium deposition was significantly higher in the Dex-treated cells than that of the control cells. Conclusion: Collectively, Dex has positive effects on osteogenic differentiation of human PDLSCs in vitro. It is suggested that PDLSCs may serve as a potential material for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  18. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and β-TCP bioceramics

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    L Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of akermanite as compared to β-TCP on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and actin filament labeling were used to reveal attachment and growth of hPDLCs seeded on β-TCP and akermanite ceramic. Cell proliferation was tested by lactic acid production and MTT analysis, while osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP expression and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis on markers of osteopontin (OPN, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP-1, and osteocalcin (OCN, and further detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA analysis for OCN expression. Besides, the ions released from akermanite and their effect on hPDLCs was also measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, MTT analysis, ALP expression and real-time PCR analysis. hPDLCs attached well on both ceramics, but showed better spreading on akermanite. hPDLCs proliferated more rapidly on akermanite than β-TCP. Importantly, osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was enhanced on akermanite compared to β-TCP. Besides, Ca, Mg and Si ions were released from akermanite, while only Ca ions were released from β-TCP. Moreover, more pronounced proliferation and higher osteogenic gene expression for hPDLCs cultured with akermanite extract were detected as compared to cells cultured on akermanite. Therefore, akermanite ceramic showed an enhanced effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which might be attributed to the release of ions containing Ca, Mg and Si from the material. It is suggested that akermanite ceramics may serve as a potential material for periodontal bone regeneration.

  19. Assessment of Surface Markers Derived from Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells: An In Vitro Study

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    Zainab Kadkhoda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Periodontal tissue regeneration for treatment of periodontal disease has not yet been mastered in tissue engineering. Stem cells, scaffold, and growth factors are the three main basic components of tissue engineering. Periodontal ligament (PDL contains stem cells; however, the number, potency and features of these cells have not yet been understood. This study aimed to isolate and characterize the properties of PDL stem cells. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, samples were isolated from the PDL of extracted teeth of five patients and then stained immunohistochemically for detection of cell surface markers. Cells were then examined by immuno-flow cytometry for mesenchymal markers as well as for osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation.Results: The isolated cell population had fibroblast-like morphology and flow cytometry revealed that the mesenchymal surface markers were (means: CD90 (84.55, CD31 (39.97, CD166 (33.77, CD105 (31.19, CD45 (32/44, CD44 (462.11, CD34 (227.33, CD38 (86.94, CD13 (34.52 and CD73 (50.39. The PDL stem cells also differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in osteogenic and adipogenic media, respectively.Conclusions: PDL stem cells expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC markers and differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes in osteogenic and adipogenic media, respectively.Keywords: Adipocytes; Antigens; Mesenchymal Stromal Cells; Osteoblasts; Periodontal Ligament

  20. In vitro cytotoxicity of white MTA, MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Patrícia; Nishiyama, Celso Kenji; Modena, Karin Cristina da Silva; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Sipert, Carla Renata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the in vitro cytotoxicity of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement (PC) on human cultured periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Periodontal ligament fibroblast culture was established and the cells were used for cytotoxic tests after the fourth passage. Cell density was set at 1.25 X10 4 cells/well in 96-well plates. Endodontic material extracts were prepared by placing sealer/cement specimens (5x3mm) in 1mL of culture medium for 72 h. The extracts were then serially two-fold diluted and inserted into the cell-seeded wells for 24, 48 and 72 h. MTT assay was employed for analysis of cell viability. Cell supernatants were tested for nitric oxide using the Griess reagent system. MTA presented cytotoxic effect in undiluted extracts at 24 and 72 h. MTA Fillapex® presented the highest cytotoxic levels with important cell viability reduction for pure extracts and at ½ and ¼ dilutions. In this study, PC did not induce alterations in fibroblast viability. Nitric oxide was detected in extract-treated cell supernatants and also in the extracts only, suggesting presence of nitrite in the soluble content of the tested materials. In the present study, MTA Fillapex displayed the highest cytotoxic effect on periodontal ligament fibroblasts followed by white MTA and PC.

  1. The preservative effect of Thai propolis extract on the viability of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prueksakorn, Attaporn; Puasiri, Subin; Ruangsri, Supanigar; Makeudom, Anupong; Sastraruji, Thanapat; Krisanaprakornkit, Suttichai; Chailertvanitkul, Pattama

    2016-12-01

    Tooth avulsion causes an injury to the periodontal ligament (PDL). The success of tooth replantation depends on the quantity and quality of PDL cells. The aim of this study was to examine the preservative and proliferative effects of Thai propolis extract, previously shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, on human PDL cells. Ninety-six premolars were left to air dry for 30 min and stored in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk, or various concentrations of propolis extract from 0.25 to 10 mg ml(-1) for 3 h. PDL cells were isolated by collagenase and trypsin digestion, and their viability was determined by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay. PDL tissues were also scraped off the root surface and cultured to determine cell growth and morphology. The alamarBlue(®) and BrdU assays were performed to determine the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of the extract on cultured PDL cells, respectively. A non-toxic dose of 2.5 mg ml(-1) of propolis extract yielded the greatest percentage of cell viability (78.84 ± 3.34%), which was significantly higher than those of the other concentrations (P milk (71.27 ± 2.79%; P propolis extract at 2.5 mg ml(-1) appears to be the most effective dose for preserving the viability of PDL cells, and this was comparable to HBSS. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Experiment and hydro-mechanical coupling simulation study on the human periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhigang; Yu, Xiaoliu; Xu, Xiangrong; Chen, Xinyuan

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a new method involving an experiment in vivo and hydro-mechanical coupling simulations was proposed to investigate the biomechanical property of human periodontal ligament (PDL). Teeth were loaded and their displacements were measured in vivo. The finite element model of the experiment was built and hydro-mechanical coupling simulations were conducted to test some PDL's constitutive models. In the simulations, the linear elastic model, the hyperfoam model, and the Ogden model were assumed for the solid phase of the PDL coupled with a model of the fluid phase of the PDL. The displacements of the teeth derived from the simulations were compared with the experimental data to validate these constitutive models. The study shows that a proposed constitutive model of the PDL can be reliably tested by this method. Furthermore, the influence of species, areas, and the fluid volume ratio on PDL's mechanical property should be considered in the modeling and simulation of the mechanical property of the PDL.

  3. microRNA-21 mediates stretch-induced osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fulan; Liu, Dongxu; Feng, Cheng; Zhang, Fan; Yang, Shuangyan; Hu, Yijun; Ding, Gang; Wang, Songlin

    2015-02-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are short 20- to 22-nucleotide noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate the expression of target genes at the post-transcriptional level. The expression of specific miRNAs and their roles in the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exposed to mechanical stretch remain unclear. Here, we found that stretch induced both osteogenic differentiation and the differential expression of miR-21 in PDLSCs. Furthermore, we identified activin receptor type IIB (ACVR2B) as a target gene of miR-21. Luciferase reporter assays showed that miR-21 interacts directly with the 3'-untranslated repeat sequence of ACVR2B mRNA. Mechanical stretch suppressed ACVR2B protein levels in PDLSCs, and this suppressive effect was modulated when endogenous miR-21 levels were either enhanced or inhibited. Both stretch and the expression of miR-21 altered endogenous ACVR2B protein levels and thus the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. In addition, gain- and loss of function of ACVR2B mediated the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs. This study demonstrates that miR-21 is a mechanosensitive gene that plays an important role in the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs exposed to stretch.

  4. Survival of human periodontal ligament cells in media proposed for transport of avulsed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigalas, Emmanouil; Regan, John D; Kramer, Phillip R; Witherspoon, David E; Opperman, Lynne A

    2004-02-01

    Many solutions have been examined as possible storage media for avulsed teeth. In this report, human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were exposed for 1 h to culture medium, milk, Hanks Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), Soft Wear, Opti Free, and Solo Care contact lens solutions, Gatorade, and tap water, at room temperature and on ice. The number of viable cells was counted using the trypan blue exclusion technique, immediately after exposure (0 h) and at 24 and 48 h, to test the proliferative capacity of the cells after treatment. The results indicated that a significantly higher number of cells survived and proliferated when the exposures were performed at 0 degrees C. Water had a detrimental effect on the cells, whereas culture medium and HBSS preserved significantly more viable cells than the other experimental solutions. Within the parameters of this study, it appears that HBSS is the optimal storage medium for avulsed teeth. Low-fat milk could serve as an alternative if ice is available. Contact lens solutions or Gatorade on ice could serve as short-term (1 h) storage media if the other solutions are not readily available.

  5. Periodontal ligament stem cells: an update and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamila Prageeth Pandula, P K; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, Chengfei

    2014-05-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a serious infectious and inflammatory oral disease of humans worldwide. Conventional treatment modalities are effective for controlling periodontal disease. However, the regeneration of damaged periodontal tissues remains a major challenge in clinical practice due to the complex structure of the periodontium. Stem cell-based regenerative approaches combined with the usage of emerging biomaterials are entering a new era in periodontal regeneration. The present review updates the current knowledge of periodontal ligament stem cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration, and elaborates on the potentials for clinical application.

  6. Cytotoxic Effects of One-step Self-etching Dental Adhesives on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fangfang; Mao, Peng; Wang, Cong; Shi, Chaowen; Nie, Rongrong; Han, Ningning; Han, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential cytotoxic effects of four one-step self-etching dental adhesives [Adper Easy One (AEO), iBond (IB), Clearfil S³ Bond (CSB), and G-Bond (GB)] on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Cured adhesives were immersed in complete DMEM or deionized water and maintained at 37°C for 24 h, followed by sterilization. The deionized water-based extract was used for Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. The DMEM-based extract was diluted into various concentrations for cytotoxicity tests. The viability, integrity, and apoptosis of cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts upon treatment with the extracts were determined using the CCK-8 assay, microscopy, and flow cytometry. All of the four adhesives induced cell viability loss, cell morphology alteration, and cell death. GB showed the greatest cytotoxicity by inducing cell apoptosis and necrosis, while IB had the weakest cytotoxic effect on the cultured cells. All tested dental adhesives have significant adverse effects on cell viability. Therefore, precautions should be taken to protect the periodontal tissues when dental adhesives are applied in the clinic.

  7. [Effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on human periodontal ligament in vitro. Alterations of intracellular Ca2+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, T; Yasu, N; Kakai, Y; Kawamura, T; Sato, T; Nakano, T; Amino, S; Ishiwata, Y; Saito, S

    1990-03-01

    The concept of orthodontic tooth movement is based on the hypothesis that teeth move as a result of the biological response of periodontal tissues to the mechanical forces applied. There is a widely held hypothesis that mechanical stress generates an electrical signal which sets in motion the subsequent events, as in bone exposed to mechanical forces electrical currents are produced affect bone growth and remodeling. This implies a transduction mechanism which translates the electrical signal into a biochemical message, recognizable by the cellular machine. This study is aimed at the identification of the message and the investigation of its control. In fact, the effect of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields (PEMF) on the intracellular second messenger, cytoplasmic Ca2+ in Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts (HPLF) was investigated. The resting intracellular ionized calcium concentration ([Ca+2]i) of HPLF cells was 232.7 +/- 25.0 nM, and with PEMF [Ca2+]i increased from 12 hrs to 499.0 +/- 115.5 nM up to 12 hrs, then reached to a steady level through 24 hrs. The PEMF were also found to decrease the responses towards epidermal growth factor (EGF) and serum, when the degree of response was based on the intracellular Ca2+ transient. These effects of PEMF were mimicked by 12-0-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of protein kinase C. Some reports have suggested that fibroblasts of the periodontal ligament contain high alkaline phosphatase (ALPase) activity as much as osteoblast. Since similar results concerning the [Ca2+]i were obtained in osteoblast (OB)-like cells, this experiment also supports the hypothesis that fibroblasts of periodontal ligament have osteoblastic features.

  8. Effects of cathepsin K on Emdogain-induced hard tissue formation by human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fen; Zhou, Zhi-Fei; An, Ying; Yu, Yang; Wu, Rui-Xin; Yin, Yuan; Xue, Yang; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2016-07-12

    Recent studies have shown that patients with pycnodysostosis caused by cathepsin K (CTSK) genetic mutations exhibit significantly abnormal periodontal hard tissue structure. This finding suggests that CTSK may play a role in regulating the development of alveolar bone and cementum. However, the source of CTSK in the periodontal environment and the role of CTSK in periodontal regeneration, particularly hard tissue regeneration and development, remain unclear. After the isolation, cultivation, identification, and multi-lineage induction of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), the present study used light and scanning electron microscopy, reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting, micro-computed tomography, immunohistochemical assays and ectopic hard tissue formation experiments to examine CTSK expression in hPDLSCs. The results indicated that CTSK expression was significantly upregulated in hPDLSCs during Emdogain induction but underwent minimal change during osteogenic or adipogenic induction. The present study also showed that the downregulation of CTSK expression inhibited osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation and ectopic hard tissue formation of hPDLSCs. It is therefore concluded that hPDLSCs expressed CTSK and that CTSK levels were significantly upregulated during Emdogain induction. Furthermore, CTSK promoted not only the osteogenic/cementogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs but also their ability to form ectopic hard tissue. These new findings may enhance the understanding of periodontal hard tissue development and functional regeneration. However, the specific underlying mechanisms require further investigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Human periodontal ligament cells facilitate leukocyte recruitment and are influenced in their immunomodulatory function by Th17 cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, A; Beyer, M; Deschner, J; Allam, J P; Novak, N; Winter, J; Jepsen, S; Jäger, A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to examine the immunomodulatory impact of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells on the nature and magnitude of the leukocyte infiltrate in periodontal inflammation, particularly with regard to Th17 cells. PDL cells were challenged with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-17A, and IFN-γ) and analyzed for the expression of cytokines involved in periodontal immunoinflammatory processes (IL-6, MIP-3 alpha, IL-23A, TGFß1, IDO, and CD274). In order to further investigate a direct involvement of PDL cells in leukocyte function, co-culture experiments were conducted. The expression of the immunomodulatory cytokines studied was significantly increased under pro-inflammatory conditions in PDL cells. Although PDL cells did not stimulate leukocyte proliferation or Th17 differentiation, these cells induced the recruitment of leukocytes. The results of our study suggest that PDL cells might be involved in chronic inflammatory mechanisms in periodontal tissues and thus in the transition to an adaptive immune response in periodontitis.

  10. Thymosin Beta-4 Suppresses Osteoclastic Differentiation and Inflammatory Responses in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

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    Sang-Im Lee

    Full Text Available Recent reports suggest that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4 is a key regulator for wound healing and anti-inflammation. However, the role of Tβ4 in osteoclast differentiation remains unclear.The purpose of this study was to evaluate Tβ4 expression in H2O2-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, the effects of Tβ4 activation on inflammatory response in PDLCs and osteoclastic differentiation in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs, and identify the underlying mechanism.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions and Western blot analyses were used to measure mRNA and protein levels, respectively. Osteoclastic differentiation was assessed in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs using conditioned medium (CM from H2O2-treated PDLCs.Tβ4 was down-regulated in H2O2-exposed PDLCs in dose- and time-dependent manners. Tβ4 activation with a Tβ4 peptide attenuated the H2O2-induced production of NO and PGE2 and up-regulated iNOS, COX-2, and osteoclastogenic cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-17 as well as reversed the effect on RANKL and OPG in PDLCs. Tβ4 peptide inhibited the effects of H2O2 on the activation of ERK and JNK MAPK, and NF-κB in PDLCs. Furthermore, Tβ4 peptide inhibited osteoclast differentiation, osteoclast-specific gene expression, and p38, ERK, and JNK phosphorylation and NF-κB activation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs. In addition, H2O2 up-regulated Wnt5a and its cell surface receptors, Frizzled and Ror2 in PDLCs. Wnt5a inhibition by Wnt5a siRNA enhanced the effects of Tβ4 on H2O2-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and osteoclastogenic cytokines as well as helping osteoclastic differentiation whereas Wnt5a activation by Wnt5a peptide reversed it.In conclusion, this study demonstrated, for the first time, that Tβ4 was down-regulated in ROS-stimulated PDLCs as well as Tβ4 activation exhibited anti-inflammatory effects and anti-osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Thus, Tβ4 activation might be a

  11. Effect of temperature and seven storage media on human periodontal ligament fibroblast viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Beatriz Dulcineia Mendes; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes; Reyes-Carmona, Jessie; Dos Santos, Luciane Geanini Pena; Simões, Claudia Maria de Oliveira; Felippe, Wilson Tadeu; Felippe, Mara Cristina Santos

    2017-04-01

    Natural resources, such as coconut water, propolis, and egg whites, have been examined as possible storage media for avulsed teeth. However, there is a lack of research focused on the efficacy of these three products together compared with Hank's balanced salt solution and milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of seven storage media to maintain the viability of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLFs). PDLFs were kept at 5°C and 20°C, in skimmed milk (SMilk), whole milk (WMilk), recently prepared Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), Save-A-Tooth(®) system's HBSS (Save), natural coconut water (Coconut), Propolis, and egg white (Egg) for 3, 6, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, through the analysis of tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric (MTT) assay. At 5°C, SMilk and WMilk were better than HBSS in maintaining cell viability, from 24 h onward. At 20°C, HBSS was the best storage medium at 96 and 120 h. At both temperatures, from 6 h onward, Coconut, Propolis and Egg were less effective than SMilk, WMilk, and HBSS. In general, the performance of Coconut, Propolis and Egg were not influenced by storage temperature. However, the lowest temperature undermined the effectiveness of HBSS from 24 h and favored SMilk and WMilk, from 96 and 48 h onward, respectively. Save and water were the worst storage media. SMilk was the best storage medium, followed by WMilk and HBSS. Coconut, Propolis, and Egg can be indicated for the conservation of PDLF up to 3 h. The lower temperature (5°C) undermined the effectiveness of HBSS and favored SMilk and WMilk. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Marker of cemento-periodontal ligament junction associated with periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Ryohko; Wato, Masahiro; Tanaka, Akio

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors promoting formation of the cemento-periodontal ligament junction. Regeneration of the cemento-periodontal ligament junction is an important factor in recovery of the connective tissue attachment to the cementum and it is important to identify all specific substances that promote its formation. To clarify the substances involved in cemento-periodontal ligament junction formation, we produced a monoclonal antibody (mAb) to human cemento-periodontal ligament junction (designated as the anti-TAP mAb) and examined its immunostaining properties and reactive antigen. Hybridomas producing monoclonal antibody against human cemento-periodontal ligament junction antigens were established by fusing P3U1 mouse myeloma cells with spleen cells from BALB/c mice immunized with homogenized human cemento-periodontal ligament junction. The mAb, the anti-TAP mAb for cemento-periodontal ligament junction, was then isolated. The immunoglobulin class and light chain of the mAb were examined using an isotyping kit. Before immunostaining, antigen determination using an enzymatic method or heating was conducted. Human teeth, hard tissue-forming lesions, and animal tissues were immunostained by the anti-TAP mAb. The anti-TAP mAb was positive in human cemento-periodontal ligament junction and predentin but negative in all other human and animal tissues examined. In the cemento-osseous lesions, the anti-TAP mAb was positive in the peripheral area of the cementum and cementum-like hard tissues and not in the bone and bone-like tissues. The anti-TAP mAb showed IgM (kappa) and recognized phosphoprotein. The anti-TAP mAb is potentially useful for developing new agents promoting cementogenesis and periodontal regeneration.

  13. Periodontal ligament-derived cells for periodontal regeneration in animal models: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, R; Hynes, K; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M

    2015-04-01

    Implantation of periodontal ligament stem cells is emerging as a potential periodontal regenerative procedure. This systematic review considers the evidence from animal models investigating the use of periodontal ligament stem cells for successful periodontal regeneration. PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched to December 2013 for quantitative studies examining the outcome of implanting periodontal ligament stem cells into experimental periodontal defects in animals. Inclusion criteria were: implantation of periodontal ligament stem cells into surgically created periodontal defects for periodontal regeneration; animal models only; source of cells either human or animal; and published in English. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. From the literature search, 43 studies met the inclusion criteria. A wide variety of surgical defects were created in four species of animal (dog, rat, pig and sheep). Owing to wide variability in defect type, cell source and cell scaffold, no meta-analysis was possible. Outcome measures included new bone, new cementum and new connective tissue formation. In 70.5% of the results, statistically significant improvements of these measures was recorded. These results are notable in that they indicate that irrespective of the defect type and animal model used, periodontal ligament stem cell implantation can be expected to result in a beneficial outcome for periodontal regeneration. It is recommended that there is sufficient evidence from preclinical animal studies to warrant moving to human studies to examine the efficacy, safety, feasibility (autologous vs. allogeneic transplantation) and delivery of periodontal ligament stem cells for periodontal regeneration. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, X.Z.; Both, S.K.; Yang, P.S.; Jansen, J.A.; Beucken, J.J.J.P van den; Yang, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation th

  15. Effects of human relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and periodontal ligaments in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Monica S.; Liu, Zee J.; Gu, Gao M.; King, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The rate-limiting step in orthodontic treatment is often the rapidity with which teeth move. Using biological agents to modify the rate of tooth movement has been shown to be effective in animals. Relaxin is a hormone present in both males and females. Its main action is to increase the turnover of fibrous connective tissues. Thus, relaxin might increase the amount and rate of tooth movement through its effect on the periodontal ligament (PDL). The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of relaxin on orthodontic tooth movement and PDL structures. Methods Bilateral orthodontic appliances designed to tip maxillary molars mesially with a force of 40 cN were placed in 96 rats. At day 0, the animals were randomized to either relaxin or vehicle treatment. Twelve rats in each group were killed at 2, 4, 7, and 9 days after appliance activation. Cephalograms were taken at appliance placement and when the rats were killed. Tooth movement was measured cephalometrically in relation to palatal implants. Fractal analysis and visual analog scale assessments were used to evaluate the effect of relaxin on PDL fiber organization at the tension sites in histologic sections. The in-vitro testing for PDL mechanical strength and tooth mobility was performed by using tissue from an additional 20 rats that had previously received the same relaxin or vehicle treatments for 1 or 3 days (n = 5). Results Both groups had statistically significant tooth movement as functions of time. However, relaxin did not stimulate significantly greater or more rapid tooth movement. Fractal and visual analog scale analyses implied that relaxin reduced PDL fiber organization. In-vitro mechanical testing and tooth mobility assessments indicated that the PDL of the mandibular incisors in the relaxin-treated rats had reduced yield load, strain, and stiffness. Moreover, the range of tooth mobility of the maxillary first molars increased to 130% to 170%, over vehicle-treated rats at day 1

  16. Electrospun fibrous scaffolds combined with nanoscale hydroxyapatite induce osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu XN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiaonan Wu,1 Leiying Miao,2,# Yingfang Yao,3 Wenlei Wu,1 Yu Liu,1 Xiaofeng Chen,1 Weibin Sun1,# 1Department of Periodontology, Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cariology and Endodontics, Hospital of Stomatology, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 3Eco-materials and Renewable Energy Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China #These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Periodontal repair is a complex process in which regeneration of alveolar bone is a vital component. The aim of this study was to develop a biodegradable scaffold with good biocompatibility and osteoinductive ability. Two types of composite fibrous scaffolds were produced by electrospinning, ie, type I collagen/poly(є-caprolactone (COL/PCL and type I collagen/poly(є-caprolactone/nanoscale hydroxyapatite (COL/PCL/nHA with an average fiber diameter of about 377 nm. After a simulated body fluid (SBF immersion test, the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold developed a rough surface because of the calcium phosphate deposited on the fibers, suggesting that the presence of nHA promoted the mineralization potential of the scaffold. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy clearly showed the calcium and phosphorus content in the COL/PCL/nHA and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffolds, confirming the findings of nHA and calcium phosphate precipitation on scanning electron micrographs. Water contact analysis revealed that nHA could improve the hydrophilic nature of the COL/PCL/nHA-SBF scaffold. The morphology of periodontal ligament cells cultured on COL/PCL-SBF and COL/PCL/nHA-SBF was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that cells adhered to either type of scaffold and were slightly spindle-shaped in the beginning, then

  17. "THE STUDY OF DOSE-RESPONSE MITOGENIC EFFECT OF L-DOPA ON THE HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLAST CELLS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zarabian

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion is one of the most serious emergencies in dental office. In the event of any problem, the tooth should be stored in a medium that supports the periodontal ligament cell viability. In other clinical situations, preserving media, growth factors and mitogenic products may be useful in repairing the traumatized tissues. It has been previously reported that levodopa (L-dopa accelerates healing by increasing the growth hormone level. In this study, the local effect of L-dopa, as a mitogen, on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF cells was evaluated. Samples from impacted or semiimpacted wisdom or canine teeth, which were devoid of inflammation, were taken. The cells obtained from this tissue were cultured in an appropriate medium. The passage numbers between 3-6 were taken for further experiments. The viability of HPLF cells, which were treated by L-dopa, was evaluated by trypan blue dye exclusion and neutral red assay. Results indicated that low concentration of L-dopa produces significant increase of these cells compared to control group. These results confirmed previous studies about direct action of L- dopa on the viability of HPLF cells. On the basis of this study and previous reports, presence of L-dopa in preserving media may be useful in increasing the self-life transferring HPLF cells.

  18. Bioprinting 3D cell-laden hydrogel microarray for screening human periodontal ligament stem cell response to extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yufei; Ji, Yuan; Huang, Guoyou; Ling, Kai; Zhang, Xiaohui; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-22

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease negatively affecting up to 15% of adults worldwide. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) hold great promises for periodontal tissue regeneration, where it is necessary to find proper extracellular matrix (ECM) materials (e.g., composition, concentration). In this study, we proposed a bioprinting-based approach to generate nano-liter sized three-dimensional (3D) cell-laden hydrogel array with gradient of ECM components, through controlling the volume ratio of two hydrogels, such as gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) dimethacrylate. The resulting cell-laden array with a gradient of GelMA/PEG composition was used to screen human PDLSC response to ECM. The behavior (e.g., cell viability, spreading) of human PDLSCs in GelMA/PEG array were found to be depended on the volume ratios of GelMA/PEG, with cell viability and spreading area decreased along with increasing the ratio of PEG. The developed approach would be useful for screening cell-biomaterial interaction in 3D and promoting regeneration of functional tissue.

  19. Gold Nanoparticles Promote Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells and Have Limited Effects on Cells Differentiation

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    Chen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs had been widely applied in the practice and advancement of chemistry, biology, and medicine due to facility of synthesis and versatility in surface functionalization. Recent studies had shown that AuNPs can be applied to cells, affecting cellular physiological processes such as proliferation and differentiation. In this study, four diameters of AuNPs (20, 40, 60, and 80 nm were cocultured with human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs at six different concentrations. The optimal size and concentration of AuNPs were selected to treat human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs to evaluate proliferation. Moreover, the influence of AuNPs on multiple differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs was clarified. The results revealed that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs in vitro, slightly enhance osteoblastic differentiation, and have no effect on adipogenic differentiation. In addition, the expression of COL-1, Runx2, BSP, and OCN was upregulated in the presence of AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM. These results indicated that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs and have no significant effect on the differentiation of hPDLSCs. These results provide an insight on the advantage of implementing of AuNPs on hPDLSCs culture and expose the influence of these materials on periodontal tissue engineering.

  20. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, N; Laine, M L; de Vries, T J; Everts, V; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  1. The effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) promoter on force-induced MMP-1 expression in human periodontal ligament cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Sheng-Fu; Li, Yu-Hong; Ren, Yi-Jin; Cao, Zheng-Guo; Long, Xing

    2008-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) 1G/2G (-1,607) polymorphisms have been identified and shown to influence the transcription of the MMP-1 gene. In order to compare the expression of MMP-1 with different MMP-1 gene promoter alleles after force loading, human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were cul

  2. Expression of thymosin beta-4 in human periodontal ligament cells and mouse periodontal tissue and its role in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Im; Lee, Deok-Won; Yun, Hyung-Mun; Cha, Hee-Jae; Bae, Cheol-Hyeon; Cho, Eui-Sic; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    A recent report showed that thymosin beta-4 (Tβ4) is expressed during the development of tooth germ, but its effect on osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation is a controversial topic. Furthermore, the precise expression and function of Tβ4 in periodontal tissue remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization of Tβ4 in the developing periodontium of mouse, the function of Tβ4 in osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation, and the underlying mechanism regulating periodontal regeneration in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs), cementoblasts, and osteoblasts. Tβ4 expression was observed in differentiating hPDLCs, osteoblasts of the periodontium during development, as well as in mature tissue. Higher Tβ4 expression was observed in hPDLCs than in cementoblasts and osteoblasts in the developing periodontium. The expression of Tβ4 mRNA and protein gradually increased during PDL cell differentiation. The downregulation of Tβ4 expression by Tβ4 siRNA transfection inhibited osteoblastic differentiation by decreasing calcium nodule formation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression of differentiation markers in hPDLCs, cementoblasts, and osteoblasts. In contrast, Tβ4 activation using a Tβ4 peptide, promoted these processes by activation of Akt, p38, ERK MAPKs, and the NF-κB pathway. The expression of nuclear NFATc1 was upregulated by Tβ4 peptide in hPDLCs. Inhibition of the calcineurin/NFATc1 pathway by cyclosporin A and FK506, attenuated Tβ4-induced osteoblastic differentiation and activation of Wnt-related genes, as well as nuclear β-catenin in hPDLCs. In conclusion, this study demonstrates, for the first time, that Tβ4 is expressed in developing periodontal tissue and that its expression is associated with osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation. These results suggests that Tβ4 is a potential therapeutic target for periodontal regeneration or bone disease.

  3. C/EBP β Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulated Inflammatory Response and Extracellular Matrix Degradation in LPS-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yudi Bai; Yi Wei; Lian Wu; Jianhua Wei; Xiaojing Wang; Yuxiang Bai

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease that not only affects the integrity of local tooth-supporting tissues but also impacts systemic health. A compositional shift in oral microbiota has been considered as the main cause of periodontitis; however, the potential mechanism has not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β), a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) exposed t...

  4. EFFECTS OF TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR β AND RECOMBINANT HUMAN BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 2 ON HUMAN PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT FIBROBLASTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司晓辉; 刘正

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of transforming growth factor β(TGF-β) and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts ( HPDLFs ). Methods HPDLFs were done primary culture to detect the distinct concentrations of TGF-β and rhBMP2 on its proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin ( OC) synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules, respectively. Results TGF-β(5~100ng /ml) significantly stimulated the proliferation of HPDLFs. The ALP activity of HPDLFs was evaluated evidently by 5ng /ml TGF-β. TGF-β(0.5~100ng /ml) had no effects on OC synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules of HPDLFs. rhBMP2 (0.25~2mg/ ml) had no rernarkable effect on the proliferation of HPDLFs. The ALP activity, OC synthesis and formation of the mineralized nodules of HPDLFs were significantly stimulated by 0.5~2mg/ml rhBMP2. Conclusion The effects of TGF-β and rhBMP2 on HPDLFs are dose-dependent. TGF-β can stimulate HPDLFs to express the early marker of osteoblastic phenotype , and it lacks the ability to promote maturation of the osteogenic phenotype. rhBMP2 can not only stimulate the expression but also promote the maturation of osteoblastic phenotype of HPDLFs.

  5. Low-power laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyun-Yi Wu; Chia-Hsin Chen; Li-Yin Yeh; Ming-Long Yeh; Chun-Chan Ting; Yan-Hsiung Wang

    2013-01-01

    Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J?cm22. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J?cm22 significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J?cm22 showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  6. Review of common conditions associated with periodontal ligament widening

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. Materials and Methods An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Results Out of nearly 200 arti...

  7. Effects of IL-10 and glucose on expression of OPG and RANKL in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of interleukin-10 (IL-10 and glucose on mRNA and protein expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG, and its ligand, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL, were investigated in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs. Primary HPDLFs were treated with different concentrations of IL-10 (0, 1, 10, 25, 50, and 100 ng/mL or glucose (0, 5.5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 mmol/L. Changes in mRNA and protein expression were examined using the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. After IL-10 treatment, mRNA and protein levels of OPG were increased, while mRNA and protein levels of RANKL were decreased (P<0.05, both in a concentration-dependent manner. Glucose stimulation had the opposite concentration-dependent effect to that of IL-10 on OPG and RANKL expression. IL-10 upregulated OPG expression and downregulated RANKL expression, whereas high glucose upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG in HDPLFs. Abnormal levels of IL-10 and glucose may contribute to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease.

  8. Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 Enhances Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells via the JNK Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingxing; Pang, Yanan; Yang, Su; Wei, Yibo; Gao, Haochen; Wang, Dalin; Cao, Zhizhong

    2017-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-9 (BMP9) shows great osteoinductive potential in bone regeneration. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with multi-differentiation capability and low immunogenicity are increasingly used as seed cells for periodontal regenerative therapies. In the present study, we investigated the potent osteogenic activity of BMP9 on human PDLSCs (hPDLSCs), in which the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway is possibly involved. Our results showed that JNK inhibition by the specific inhibitor SP600125 or adenovirus expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting JNK (AdR-si-JNK) significantly decreased BMP9-induced gene and protein expression of early and late osteogenic markers, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN), in hPDLSCs. We also confirmed the in-vivo positive effect of JNKs on ectopic bone formation induced by hPDLSCs injected into the musculature of athymic nude mice and BMP9 ex vivo gene delivery. For the cellular mechanism, we found that BMP9 activated the phosphorylation of JNKs and Smad2/3, and that JNKs may engage in cross-talk with the Smad2/3 pathway in BMP9-mediated osteogenesis. PMID:28052093

  9. Human Periodontal Ligament Derived Progenitor Cells: Effect of STRO-1 Cell Sorting and Wnt3a Treatment on Cell Behavior

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    Xiang-Zhen Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. STRO-1 positive periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs and unsorted PDLCs have demonstrated potential for periodontal regeneration, but the comparison between unsorted cells and the expanded STRO-1 sorted cells has never been reported. Additionally, Wnt3a is involved in cell proliferation thus may benefit in vitro PDLC expansion. The aim was to evaluate the effect of STRO-1 cell sorting and Wnt3a treatment on cell behavior of human PDLCs (hPDLCs. Materials and Methods. STRO-1 positive hPDLCs were sorted and the sorted cells were expanded and compared with their unsorted parental cells. Thereafter, hPDLCs were treated with or without Wnt3a and the cell proliferation, self-renewal, and osteogenic differentiation were evaluated. Results. No differences were measured between the expanded STRO-1-sorted cells and unsorted parental cells in terms of proliferation, CFU, and mineralization capacity. Wnt3a enhanced the proliferation and self-renewal ability of hPDLCs significantly as displayed by higher DNA content values, a shorter cell population doubling time, and higher expression of the self-renewal gene Oct4. Moreover, Wnt3a promoted the expansion of hPDLCs for 5 passages without affecting cell proliferation, CFU, and osteogenic capacity. Conclusions. Expanded STRO-1-sorted hPDLCs showed no superiority compared to their unsorted parental cells. On the other hand, Wnt3a promotes the efficient hPDLC expansion and retains the self-renewal and osteogenic differentiation capacity.

  10. Vitamin D reduces the inflammatory response by Porphyromonas gingivalis infection by modulating human β-defensin-3 in human gingival epithelium and periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Anna; Fiorentino, Margherita; Guida, Luigi; Annunziata, Marco; Nastri, Livia; Rizzo, Antonietta

    2017-04-03

    Periodontitis is a multifactorial polymicrobial infection characterized by a destructive inflammatory process. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative black-pigmented anaerobe, is a major pathogen in the initiation and progression of periodontitis; it produces several virulence factors that stimulate human gingival epithelium (HGE) cells and human periodontal ligament (HPL) cells to produce various inflammatory mediators. A variety of substances, such as vitamin D, have growth-inhibitory effects on some bacterial pathogens and have shown chemo-preventive and anti-inflammatory activity. We used a model with HGE and HPL cells infected with P. gingivalis to determine the influence of vitamin D on P. gingivalis growth and adhesion and the immunomodulatory effect on TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 and human-β-defensin 3 production. Our results demonstrated, firstly, the lack of any cytotoxic effect on the HGE and HPL cells when treated with vitamin D; in addition, vitamin D inhibited P. gingivalis adhesion and infectivity in HGE and HPL cells. Our study then showed that vitamin D reduced TNF-α, IL-8, IL-12 production in P. gingivalis-infected HGE and HPL cells. In contrast, a significant upregulation of the human-β-defensin 3 expression in HGE and HPL cells induced by P. gingivalis was demonstrated. Our results indicate that vitamin D specifically enhances the production of the human-β-defensin 3 antimicrobial peptide and exerts an inhibitory effect on the pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus suggesting that vitamin D may offer possible therapeutic applications for periodontitis.

  11. Both 25-hydroxyvitamin-D3 and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin-D3 reduces inflammatory response in human periodontal ligament cells.

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    Oleh Andrukhov

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease leading to the destruction of periodontal tissue. Vitamin D3 is an important hormone involved in the preservation of serum calcium and phosphate levels, regulation of bone metabolism and inflammatory response. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D3 metabolism might play a role in the progression of periodontitis. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of 25(OHD3, which is stable form of vitamin D3 in blood, and biologically active form 1,25(OH2D3 on the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 by cells of periodontal ligament. Commercially available human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPdLF and primary human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLC were used. Cells were stimulated with either Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS or heat-killed P. ginigvalis in the presence or in the absence of 25(OHD3 or 1,25(OH2D3 at concentrations of 10-100 nM. Stimulation of cells with either P. gingivalis LPS or heat-killed P. gingivalis resulted in a significant increase of the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 in gene as well as in protein levels, measured by qPCR and ELISA, respectively. The production of these pro-inflammatory mediators in hPdLF was significantly inhibited by both 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH2D3 in a dose-dependent manner. In primary hPdLCs, both 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH2D3 inhibited the production of IL-8 and MCP-1 but have no significant effect on the IL-6 production. The effect of both 25(OHD3 and 1,25(OH2D3 was abolished by specific knockdown of vitamin D3 receptor by siRNA. Our data suggest that vitamin D3 might play an important role in the modulation of periodontal inflammation via regulation of cytokine production by cells of periodontal ligament. Further studies are required for better understanding of the extents of this anti-inflammatory effect and its involvement in the progression of periodontal disease.

  12. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells synergize osteo/odontogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in 3D cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandula, P K C Prgeeth; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, C F

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the expression of osteo/odontogenic differentiation markers and vascular network formation in a 3D cell sheet with varying cell ratios of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Human PDLSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry, and co-cultured with HUVECs for the construction of cell sheets. Both types of cells were seeded on temperature-responsive culture dishes with PDLSCs alone, HUVECs alone and various ratios of the latter cells (1 : 1, 2 : 1, 5 : 1 and 1 : 5) to obtain confluent cell sheets. The expressions of osteo/odontogenic pathway markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), were analyzed at 3 and 7 d using RT-PCR. Further ALP protein quantification was performed at 7 and 14 d using ALP assay. The calcium nodule formation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by alizarin red assay. Histological evaluations of three cell sheet constructs treated with different combinations (PDLSC-PDLSC-PDLSC/PDLSC-HUVEC-PDLSC/co-culture-co-culture-co-culture) were performed with hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test (p culture groups compared with other groups (p cultures as compared with monoculture cell sheets (p cell sheet structure with endothelial cell islands within the constructed PDLSC-HUVEC-PDLSC and co-culture groups. Furthermore, HUVECs invaded the layered cell sheet, suggestive of rudimentary vascular network initiation. This study suggests that the PDLSC-HUVEC co-culture, cell sheet, model exhibits significantly high levels of osteo/odontogenic markers with signs of initial vascular formation. This novel 3D cell sheet-based approach may be potentially beneficial for periodontal regenerative therapy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Focal adhesion kinase activation is required for TNF-α-induced production of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and proinflammatory cytokines in cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Ya-jing; Guo, Liu-yun; Wang, Guo-fang; Lu, Ke; Yue, Er-li

    2015-08-01

    Since focal adhesion kinase (FAK) was proposed as a mediator of the inflammatory response, we have investigated the role of this molecule in the release of inflammatory cytokines by cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs), cells that are thought to be important in the patient's response to periodontal infection. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts were stimulated by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and its effects on interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 release were measured by ELISA. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) protein was analysed by western blotting. The levels of IL6, IL8, and MMP2 mRNA were evaluated by real-time PCR. Tumor necrosis factor alpha dose-dependently induced the phosphorylation of FAK, whereas small interfering FAK (siFAK) inhibited TNF-α-induced FAK phosphorylation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha also stimulated the production of IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-2 in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of FAK significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced expression of IL6 and IL8 mRNA and release of IL-6 and IL-8 protein in HPDLFs. Similarly, MMP-2 down-regulation was significantly prevented by siFAK. Our results strongly suggest that knockdown of FAK can decrease the production of TNF-α-induced IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-2 in HPDLFs. These effects may help in understanding the mechanisms that control expression of inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

  14. Pathological cyclic strain-induced apoptosis in human periodontal ligament cells through the RhoGDIα/caspase-3/PARP pathway.

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    Li Wang

    Full Text Available AIM: Human periodontal ligament (PDL cells incur changes in morphology and express proteins in response to cyclic strain. However, it is not clear whether cyclic strain, especially excessive cyclic strain, induces PDL cell apoptosis and if so, what mechanism(s are responsible. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which pathological levels of cyclic strain induce human PDL cell apoptosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human PDL cells were obtained from healthy premolar tissue. After three to five passages in culture, the cells were subjected to 20% cyclic strain at a frequency of 0.1 Hz for 6 or 24 h using an FX-5000T system. Morphological changes of the cells were assessed by inverted phase-contrast microscopy, and apoptosis was detected by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-conjugated annexin V and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. Protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: The number of apoptotic human PDL cells increased in a time-dependent manner in response to pathological cyclic strain. The stretched cells were oriented parallel to each another with their long axes perpendicular to the strain force vector. Cleaved caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP protein levels increased in response to pathological cyclic strain over time, while Rho GDP dissociation inhibitor alpha (RhoGDIα decreased. Furthermore, knock-down of RhoGDIα by targeted siRNA transfection increased stretch-induced apoptosis and upregulated cleaved caspase-3 and PARP protein levels. Inhibition of caspase-3 prevented stretch-induced apoptosis, but did not change RhoGDIα protein levels. CONCLUSION: The overall results suggest that pathological-level cyclic strain not only influenced morphology but also induced apoptosis in human PDL cells through the RhoGDIα/caspase-3/PARP pathway. Our findings provide novel insight into the mechanism of apoptosis induced by pathological cyclic strain in

  15. Gravity loading induces adenosine triphosphate release and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Mai; Arakawa, Toshiya; Okayama, Miki; Shitara, Akiko; Mizoguchi, Itaru; Takuma, Taishin

    2014-11-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) receives mechanical stress (MS) from dental occlusion or orthodontic tooth movement. Mechanical stress is thought to be a trigger for remodeling of the PDL and alveolar bone, although its signaling mechanism is still unclear. So we investigated the effect of MS on adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) phosphorylation in PDL cells. Mechanical stress was applied to human PDL cells as centrifugation-mediated gravity loading. Apyrase, Ca(2+)-free medium and purinergic receptor agonists and antagonists were utilized to analyze the contribution of purinergic receptors to ERK phosphorylation. Gravity loading and ATP increased ERK phosphorylation by 5 and 2.5 times, respectively. Gravity loading induced ATP release from PDL cells by tenfold. Apyrase and suramin diminished ERK phosphorylation induced by both gravity loading and ATP. Under Ca(2+)-free conditions the phosphorylation by gravity loading was partially decreased, whereas ATP-induced phosphorylation was unaffected. Receptors P2Y4 and P2Y6 were prominently expressed in the PDL cells. Gravity loading induced ATP release and ERK phosphorylation in PDL fibroblasts, and ATP signaling via P2Y receptors was partially involved in this phosphorylation, which in turn would enhance gene expression for the remodeling of PDL tissue during orthodontic tooth movement. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  17. Cementum and Periodontal Ligament Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicanin, Danijela; Hynes, K; Han, J; Gronthos, S; Bartold, P M

    2015-01-01

    The unique anatomy and composition of the periodontium make periodontal tissue healing and regeneration a complex process. Periodontal regeneration aims to recapitulate the crucial stages of wound healing associated with periodontal development in order to restore lost tissues to their original form and function and for regeneration to occur, healing events must progress in an ordered and programmed sequence both temporally and spatially, replicating key developmental events. A number of procedures have been employed to promote true and predictable regeneration of the periodontium. Principally, the approaches are based on the use of graft materials to compensate for the bone loss incurred as a result of periodontal disease, use of barrier membranes for guided tissue regeneration and use of bioactive molecules. More recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been integrated into research and applications of regenerative dentistry, including periodontics, to aim to manage damaged and lost oral tissues, through reconstruction and regeneration of the periodontium and alleviate the shortcomings of more conventional therapeutic options. The essential components for generating effective cellular based therapeutic strategies include a population of multi-potential progenitor cells, presence of signalling molecules/inductive morphogenic signals and a conductive extracellular matrix scaffold or appropriate delivery system. Mesenchymal stem cells are considered suitable candidates for cell-based tissue engineering strategies owing to their extensive expansion rate and potential to differentiate into cells of multiple organs and systems. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from multiple tissue sources have been investigated in pre-clinical animal studies and clinical settings for the treatment and regeneration of the periodontium.

  18. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Lixia; Liu, Jiaqiang; Zhao, Jinglei; Chang, Jiang; Xia, Lunguo; Jiang, Lingyong; Wang, Xiuhui; Lin, Kaili; Fang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA) bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods]) were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, osteocalcin (OCN), cementum attachment protein (CAP), and cementum protein (CEMP) as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and β-catenin, which are the key genes of canonical Wnt signaling. Moreover, the stimulatory effect on ALP activity and osteogenic and cementogenic gene expression, including that of ALP, OCN, CAP, CEMP, and Runx2 of mnHA bioceramics could be repressed by canonical Wnt signaling inhibitor dickkopf1 (Dkk1). The results suggested that the HA bioceramics with mnHA could act as promising grafts for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  19. Influence of baicalin on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin in human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of baicalin on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand(RANKL)and osteoprotegerin(OPG)in cultured human periodontal ligament(HPDL)cells.Methods Small interfering RNA(siRNA)eukaryotic expression vector targeted transforming growth factor βⅡ receptor(TGF-β RⅡ)was constructed and transfected into T cells.HPDL cells with T cells transfected with siRNA or not were placed in the culture medium that had been added with lipopolysaccharide(LPS)and baicalin.The ob...

  20. Effect of micro-nano-hybrid structured hydroxyapatite bioceramics on osteogenic and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cell via Wnt signaling pathway

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    Mao LX

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Lixia Mao,1,* Jiaqiang Liu,1,* Jinglei Zhao,1 Jiang Chang,2 Lunguo Xia,1 Lingyong Jiang,1 Xiuhui Wang,2 Kaili Lin,2,3 Bing Fang11Center of Craniofacial Orthodontics, Department of Oral and Cranio-maxillofacial Science, Top Priority Clinical Medical Center of Shanghai Municipal Commission of Health and Family Planning, Ninth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 2State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 3Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Tooth Restoration and Regeneration, School of Stomatology, Tongji University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: The surface structure of bioceramic scaffolds is crucial for its bioactivity and osteoinductive ability, and in recent years, human periodontal ligament stem cells have been certified to possess high osteogenic and cementogenic differential ability. In the present study, hydroxyapatite (HA bioceramics with micro-nano-hybrid surface (mnHA [the hybrid of nanorods and microrods] were fabricated via hydrothermal reaction of the α-tricalcium phosphate granules as precursors in aqueous solution, and the effects of mnHA on the attachment, proliferation, osteogenic and cementogenic differentiations of human periodontal ligament stem cells as well as the related mechanisms were systematically investigated. The results showed that mnHA bioceramics could promote cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and expression of osteogenic/cementogenic-related markers including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2, ALP, osteocalcin (OCN, cementum attachment protein (CAP, and cementum protein (CEMP as compared to the HA bioceramics with flat and dense surface. Moreover, mnHA bioceramics stimulated gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor

  1. Effects of Intermittent Administration of Parathyroid Hormone (1-34 on Bone Differentiation in Stromal Precursor Antigen-1 Positive Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

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    Xiaoxiao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is the most common cause of tooth loss and bone destruction in adults worldwide. Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs may represent promising new therapeutic biomaterials for tissue engineering applications. Stromal precursor antigen-1 (STRO-1 has been shown to have roles in adherence, proliferation, and multipotency. Parathyroid hormone (PTH has been shown to enhance proliferation in osteoblasts. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to compare the functions of STRO-1(+ and STRO-1(− hPDLSCs and to investigate the effects of PTH on the osteogenic capacity of STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs in order to evaluate their potential applications in the treatment of periodontitis. Our data showed that STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs expressed higher levels of the PTH-1 receptor (PTH1R than STRO-1(− hPDLSCs. In addition, intermittent PTH treatment enhanced the expression of PTH1R and osteogenesis-related genes in STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs. PTH-treated cells also exhibited increased alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization ability. Therefore, STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs represented a more promising cell resource for biomaterials and tissue engineering applications. Intermittent PTH treatment improved the capacity for STRO-1(+ hPDLSCs to repair damaged tissue and ameliorate the symptoms of periodontitis.

  2. Electrospun scaffold development for periodontal ligament regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourattar, Parisa

    Periodontitis is a major chronic inflammatory disorder that can lead to the destruction of the periodontal tissues and, ultimately, tooth loss. It is a major cause of tooth loss in adults and a substantial public-health burden worldwide. There is thus a significant need for periodontal ligament (PDL) regeneration to enable functional mechanical support of tooth prostheses and prevent occlusal overloading. The goal of stem cell-based dental tissue engineering, is to create tooth-like structures using scaffold materials to guide the dental stem cells. Current resorbable membranes act as an epithelial tissue down-growth into the defect, favoring the regeneration of periodontal tissues. In order to develop synthetic grafts for these applications, different biocompatible materials have been used to fabricate fibers with different structures and morphologies. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using a composite material that combines the advantage of multiple materials to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol/ chitosan blend fiber scaffolds to promote PDL regeneration and to achieve a synthetic composite that match the native PDL modulus. Morphology, dispersibility, and mechanical properties of blend nanofibrous mats were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and tensile test.

  3. Gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts differ in their inflammatory response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, N.; Laine, M.L.; de Vries, T.J.; Everts, V.; van Winkelhoff, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objective: Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral pathogen strongly associated with destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues in human periodontitis. Gingival fibroblasts (GF) and periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) are functionally different cell types in the periodontium that can

  4. Stem cell regulatory gene expression in human adult dental pulp and periodontal ligament cells undergoing odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Ling, Junqi; Wei, Xi; Wu, Liping; Xiao, Yin

    2009-10-01

    During development and regeneration, odontogenesis and osteogenesis are initiated by a cascade of signals driven by several master regulatory genes. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of 84 stem cell-related genes in dental pulp cells (DPCs) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) undergoing odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation. Our results showed that, although there was considerable overlap, certain genes had more differential expression in PDLCs than in DPCs. CCND2, DLL1, and MME were the major upregulated genes in both PDLCs and DPCs, whereas KRT15 was the only gene significantly downregulated in PDLCs and DPCs in both odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation. Interestingly, a large number of regulatory genes in odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation interact or crosstalk via Notch, Wnt, transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta)/bone morphogenic protein (BMP), and cadherin signaling pathways, such as the regulation of APC, DLL1, CCND2, BMP2, and CDH1. Using a rat dental pulp and periodontal defect model, the expression and distribution of both BMP2 and CDH1 have been verified for their spatial localization in dental pulp and periodontal tissue regeneration. This study has generated an overview of stem cell-related gene expression in DPCs and PDLCs during odontogenic/osteogenic differentiation and revealed that these genes may interact through the Notch, Wnt, TGF-beta/BMP, and cadherin signaling pathways to play a crucial role in determining the fate of dental derived cell and dental tissue regeneration. These findings provided a new insight into the molecular mechanisms of the dental tissue mineralization and regeneration.

  5. Periodontal ligament stem cells modulate root resorption of human primary teeth via Runx2 regulating RANKL/OPG system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bei; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qingchao; Dong, Zhiwei; Shang, Linjuan; Wu, Lizheng; Wang, Xiaojing; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-15

    Physiological primary teeth exfoliation is a normal phenomenon during teeth development. However, retained primary teeth can often be observed in the patients with cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) caused by mutation of Runx2. The potential regulative mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) were derived from different resorbed stages of primary teeth and permanent teeth from normal patients and primary teeth from CCD patient. The proliferative, osteogenic and osteoclast-inductive capacities of PDLSCs from each group were detected. We demonstrated here that the proliferative ability of PDLSCs was reduced while the osteogenic and the osteoclast-inductive capacity of PDLSCs were enhanced during root resorption. The results also showed that PDLSCs from permanent teeth and CCD patient expressed low level of Runx2 and RANKL while high level of OPG. However, expression of Runx2 and RANKL were increased while expression of OPG was decreased in PDLSCs derived from resorbed teeth. Furthermore, Runx2 regulating the expression of RANKL and OPG and the osteoclast-inductive capacity of PDLSCs were confirmed by gain or loss of function assay. These data suggest that PDLSCs promote osteoclast differentiation via Runx2 upregulating RANKL and downregulating OPG, leading to enhanced root resorption that results in physiological exfoliation of primary teeth.

  6. Evaluation of fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-ß expression by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts exposed to root end filling materials

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    Razmi H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several materials have been introduced for retrograde fillings, pulp capping and sealing root perforations, but their biological effect on vital tissues and cells is not clear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reaction of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts to four root canal filling materials: Pro Root MTA, Root MTA, Portland cement and amalgam. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, impacted or semi impacted third molar teeth were extracted in aseptic conditions and tissues around the roots were used to obtain fibroblast cell line. After proliferation, cells were cultured in chamber slides and extracts of materials were added to wells. Fibronectin, type I collagen and TGF-  expression were measured by immunocytochemistry method. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.0 using one way ANOVA and Tukey test. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: Collagen I expression was higher in Pro Root MTA group after 24 hours (p<0.05 and in Portland cement group and positive controls after 48  hours. Portland cement group showed the highest expression of collagen after 1 week. There was no significant difference in fibronectin expression after 24 hours. After 1 week the highest expression of fibronectin was seen in Portland cement, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA groups. TGF-  expression was higher in amalgam, Root MTA and Pro Root MTA specimens after 24 hours and was the highest in Pro Root MTA group after 48 hours. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Portland cement and Root MTA are comparable with Pro Root MTA and better than amalgam regarding their effects on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

  7. MicroRNA expression profile of human periodontal ligament cells under the influence of Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is caused by bacterial infection and leads to the destruction of periodontal tissues and resorption of alveolar bone. Thus, special attention should be paid to the mechanism under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐induced periodontitis because LPS is the major cause of periodontitis. However, to date, miRNA expression in the LPS‐induced periodontitis has not been well characterized. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression patterns ...

  8. Role of Cortico-Cancellous Heterologous Bone in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Xeno-Free Culture Studied by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Serena; Mohammadi, Sara; Tromba, Giuliana; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Trubiani, Oriana; Giuliani, Alessandra

    2017-02-10

    This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D) images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT), the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block-DB) cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs) in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks. 3D images were obtained by SR-PhC-microCT after one and three weeks from culture beginning. MicroCT data were successively processed with a phase-retrieval algorithm based on the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE). The chosen experimental method, previously demonstratively applied for the 3D characterization of the same constructs in not xeno-free media, quantitatively monitored also in this case the early stages of bone formation in basal and differentiating conditions. Interestingly, it quantitatively showed in the xeno-free environment a significant acceleration of the mineralization process, regardless of the culture (basal/differentiating) medium. This work showed in 3D that the DB guides the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in xeno-free cultures, in agreement with 2D observations and functional studies previously performed by some of the authors. Indeed, here we fully proved in 3D that expanded hPDLSCs, using xeno-free media formulation, not only provide the basis for Good Manufacturing Practice (preserving the stem cells' morphological features and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage) but have to be considered, combined to DB scaffolds, as interesting candidates for potential clinical use in new custom made tissue-engineered constructs.

  9. Role of Cortico-Cancellous Heterologous Bone in Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Xeno-Free Culture Studied by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography

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    Serena Mazzoni

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to quantitatively demonstrate via three-dimensional (3D images, through the Synchrotron Radiation Phase-Contrast Microtomography (SR-PhC-MicroCT, the osteoinductive properties of a cortico-cancellous scaffold (Osteobiol Dual Block—DB cultured with human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (hPDLSCs in xeno-free media. In vitro cultures of hPDLSCs, obtained from alveolar crest and horizontal fibers of the periodontal ligament, were seeded onto DB scaffolds and cultured in xeno-free media for three weeks. 3D images were obtained by SR-PhC-microCT after one and three weeks from culture beginning. MicroCT data were successively processed with a phase-retrieval algorithm based on the Transport of Intensity Equation (TIE. The chosen experimental method, previously demonstratively applied for the 3D characterization of the same constructs in not xeno-free media, quantitatively monitored also in this case the early stages of bone formation in basal and differentiating conditions. Interestingly, it quantitatively showed in the xeno-free environment a significant acceleration of the mineralization process, regardless of the culture (basal/differentiating medium. This work showed in 3D that the DB guides the osteogenic differentiation of hPDLSCs in xeno-free cultures, in agreement with 2D observations and functional studies previously performed by some of the authors. Indeed, here we fully proved in 3D that expanded hPDLSCs, using xeno-free media formulation, not only provide the basis for Good Manufacturing Practice (preserving the stem cells’ morphological features and their ability to differentiate into mesenchymal lineage but have to be considered, combined to DB scaffolds, as interesting candidates for potential clinical use in new custom made tissue-engineered constructs.

  10. Prostaglandin E2 inhibits in-vitro mineral deposition by human periodontal ligament cells via modulating the expression of TWIST1 and RUNX2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, J; Pimkhaokhum, A; Everts, V; Pavasant, P

    2014-12-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) has been shown to be able to influence both bone formation and resorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of PGE2 on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament (HPDL) cells. HPDL cells were cultured with 0.001-1 μm PGE2 in osteogenic medium. In-vitro mineral deposition was determined by Alizarin Red S staining, and gene expression was determined by real-time PCR. PGE2 inhibited in-vitro mineral deposition by HPDL cells in a dose-dependent manner. PCR analyses showed that PGE2 upregulated the expression of Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), but had no effect on osteocalcin expression. Upregulation of TWIST-related protein1 (TWIST1), a functional antagonist of RUNX2, was also observed. In addition, increased levels of RUNX2 and TWIST1 proteins, induced by PGE2, were detected by western blot analysis. Using a chemical activator of E prostanoid (EP) receptors as well as small interfering RNA against an EP receptor, it was shown that PGE2 regulated RUNX2 and TWIST1 via the EP2 receptor. The role of protein kinase A in the inductive effect of PGE2 was also demonstrated. The results of this study revealed that PGE2 modulates the osteogenic differentiation of HPDL cells via regulating the expression of RUNX2 and TWIST1. The results suggest a possible role for PGE2 in regulating the homeostasis of periodontal ligament tissue. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts stimulated by nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste or enamel matrix derivative. An in vitro assessment of PDL attachment, migration, and proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasaj, A.; Willershausen, B.; Junker, R.; Stratul, S.I.; Schmidt, M.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the effects of soluble or coated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite paste (nano-HA) and enamel matrix derivative (EMD) on proliferation, adhesion, and migration of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs). Cultured PDLs were stimulated with nano-HA paste or EMD in a soluble form or were

  12. Effect of orthodontic force on the expression of PI3K, Akt, and P70S6 K in the human periodontal ligament during orthodontic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yunhe; Shen, Jiayuan; Muhammed, Fenik Kaml; Zheng, Bowen; Zhang, Yuejiao; Liu, Yi

    2017-08-28

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is an atypical serine/threonine protein kinases involved in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation through the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6 K signalling pathway. P70S6 K as a downstream molecule of mTOR is activated by phosphorylation and subsequently promotes the synthesis of ribosomal and translational proteins. In this study, we investigated the role of PI3K, Akt, and P70S6 K in human periodontal tissue remodelling during orthodontic loading. The prepared tissue specimens taken from 4 extracted premolars were processed for immunolabelling. The changes in the expression of PI3K, Akt, and P70S6 K in the periodontal tissues were detected by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. The results from real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot both showed that the expression of PI3K, Akt, and P70S6 K in the experimental group began to increase at 3 days and increased significantly at 10 days, then decreased approaching the control group level at 28 days. Our findings showed that the expression of PI3K, Akt, and P70S6 K in human periodontal ligament demonstrated a variability during the orthodontic loading, which suggested that the PI3K/Akt/mTOR/P70S6 K signal pathway was involved in orthodontic tooth movement and played a role in the process of periodontium remodelling. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of goat milk as storage media to preserve viability of human periodontal ligament cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulusoy, Ayça Tuba; Kalyoncuoglu, Elif; Kaya, Senay; Cehreli, Zafer Cavit

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of goat milk as a storage media for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth and compare it with commonly used and/or investigated storage media. PDL cells were obtained from the root surface of healthy premolars and were cultured in Eagle's maintenance medium (EMM). Cell cultures were treated with the following storage media: tap water (negative control); EMM (positive control); Hank's balanced salt solution; ultra high temperature (UHT) long-shelf-life lactose-free cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life whole cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life skimmed cow milk; UHT long-shelf-life soy milk; UHT long-shelf-life goat milk, UHT long-shelf-life follow on milk with probiotic, 20% propolis, and egg white. Culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 20°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h. PDL cell viability was assessed by tetrazolium salt-based colorimetric (MTT) assay at each test period. One-way anova was used to evaluate the effects of storage solutions at each time point, followed by post hoc Duncan's multiple comparison test (P = 0.05). A dendrogram was constructed to show the arrangement of hierarchical clustering. Goat milk displayed the highest capacity to maintain cell viability at all test intervals (P milk with the probiotic showed the lowest time-dependent PDL cell viability among all test media (P milks, HBSS performed significantly less effectively in maintaining PDL cell viability during the entire test period (P milk can be recommended as a suitable storage medium for avulsed teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Characterization of the osteogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells from human periodontal ligament based on cell surface markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruth Alvarez; Hye-Lim Lee; Cun-Yu Wang; Christine Hong

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated therapy has been shown to be clinically effective in regenerating tissue defects. For improved regenerative therapy, it is critical to isolate homogenous populations of MSCs with high capacity to differentiate into appropriate tissues. The utilization of stem cell surface antigens provides a means to identify MSCs from various tissues. However, few surface markers that consistently isolate highly regenerative MSCs have been validated, making it challenging for routine clinical applications and making it all the more imperative to identify reliable surface markers. In this study, we used three surface marker combinations:CD51/CD140a, CD271, and STRO-1/CD146 for the isolation of homogenous populations of dental mesenchymal stem cells (DMSCs) from heterogeneous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed that 24%of PDLCs were CD511/CD140a1, 0.8%were CD2711, and 2.4%were STRO-11/CD1461. Sorted cell populations were further assessed for their multipotent properties by inducing osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. All three subsets of isolated DMSCs exhibited differentiation capacity into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages but with varying degrees. CD2711 DMSCs demonstrated the greatest osteogenic potential with strong induction of osteogenic markers such as DLX5, RUNX2, and BGLAP. Our study provides evidence that surface marker combinations used in this study are sufficient markers for the isolation of DMSCs from PDLCs. These results provide important insight into using specific surface markers for identifying homogenous populations of DMSCs for their improved utilization in regenerative medicine.

  15. Luteolin and apigenin activate the Oct-4/Sox2 signal via NFATc1 in human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Peng, Zhengjun; Huang, Haoquan; Xu, Zhezhen; Wei, Xi

    2016-10-01

    Identifying small molecules to activate the Oct-4/Sox2-derived pluripotency network represents a hopeful and safe method to pluripotency without genetic manipulation. Luteolin and apigenin, two major bioactive flavonoids, enhance reprogramming efficiency and increase expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc, albeit the detailed mechanism regulating pluripotency in dental-derived cells remains unknown. In the present study, to elucidate the effect of luteolin/apigenin on pluripotency of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) through interaction with downstream signals, we examined cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, expression of Oct-4/Sox2/c-Myc, and multilineage differentiation of PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment. Moreover, we profiled the differentially expressed pluripotency genes by PCR arrays. Our results demonstrated that luteolin/apigenin restrained cell proliferation, increased apoptosis, and arrested PDLCs in G2/M and S phase. Luteolin and apigenin activated expression of Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc in a time- and dose-dependent pattern, and repressed lineage-specific differentiation. PCR arrays profiled multiple signals in PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment, among which NFATc1 was the major upregulated gene. Notably, blocking of the NFATc1 signal with INCA-6 significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4, Sox2, and c-Myc in PDLCs with luteolin/apigenin treatment, indicating that NFATc1 may act as an upstream modulator of Oct-4/Sox2 signal. Taken together, this study showed that luteolin and apigenin effectively maintain pluripotency of PDLCs through activation of Oct-4/Sox2 signal via NFATc1.

  16. Generation of Neural Crest-Like Cells From Human Periodontal Ligament Cell-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Hynes, Kim; Ng, Jia; Menicanin, Danijela; Camp, Esther; Arthur, Agnes; Gronthos, Stan; Mark Bartold, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Neural crest cells (NCC) hold great promise for tissue engineering, however the inability to easily obtain large numbers of NCC is a major factor limiting their use in studies of regenerative medicine. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) are emerging as a novel candidate that could provide an unlimited source of NCC. In the present study, we examined the potential of neural crest tissue-derived periodontal ligament (PDL) iPSC to differentiate into neural crest-like cells (NCLC) relative to iPSC generated from a non-neural crest derived tissue, foreskin fibroblasts (FF). We detected high HNK1 expression during the differentiation of PDL and FF iPSC into NCLC as a marker for enriching for a population of cells with NCC characteristics. We isolated PDL iPSC- and FF iPSC-derived NCLC, which highly expressed HNK1. A high proportion of the HNK1-positive cell populations generated, expressed the MSC markers, whilst very few cells expressed the pluripotency markers or the hematopoietic markers. The PDL and FF HNK1-positive populations gave rise to smooth muscle, neural, glial, osteoblastic and adipocytic like cells and exhibited higher expression of smooth muscle, neural, and glial cell-associated markers than the PDL and FF HNK1-negative populations. Interestingly, the HNK1-positive cells derived from the PDL-iPSC exhibited a greater ability to differentiate into smooth muscle, neural, glial cells and adipocytes, than the HNK1-positive cells derived from the FF-iPSC. Our work suggests that HNK1-enriched NCLC from neural crest tissue-derived iPSC more closely resemble the phenotypic and functional hallmarks of NCC compared to the HNK1-low population and non-neural crest iPSC-derived NCLC. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 402-416, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. C/EBP β Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulated Inflammatory Response and Extracellular Matrix Degradation in LPS-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Bai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease that not only affects the integrity of local tooth-supporting tissues but also impacts systemic health. A compositional shift in oral microbiota has been considered as the main cause of periodontitis; however, the potential mechanism has not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β, a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS. RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of C/EBP β was significantly increased in hPDLCs stimulated with LPS stimuli. Overexpression of C/EBP β by the recombinant adenoviral vector pAd/C/EBP β markedly increased the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-8 and -9 in hPDLCs in response to LPS. Furthermore, the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress was confirmed in LPS-stimulated hPDLCs by measuring the expression of the ER stress marker molecules protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK, eIF2α, GRP78/Bip, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP. The ER stress inhibitor salubrinal repressed, but inducer tunicamycin enhanced, the production of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-9 in hPDLCs. Additionally, ER stress inducer tunicamycin significantly increased the expression level of C/EBP β in hPDLCs. Blocking of C/EBP β by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 and expression of MMP-8 and MMP-9 induced by tunicamycin treatment in hPDLCs. Taken together, ER stress appears to play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response and extracellular matrix (ECM degradation in hPDLCs in response to LPS stimuli by activating C/EBP β expression. This enhances our understanding of human periodontitis pathology.

  18. C/EBP β Mediates Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulated Inflammatory Response and Extracellular Matrix Degradation in LPS-Stimulated Human Periodontal Ligament Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yudi; Wei, Yi; Wu, Lian; Wei, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaojing; Bai, Yuxiang

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is an oral inflammatory disease that not only affects the integrity of local tooth-supporting tissues but also impacts systemic health. A compositional shift in oral microbiota has been considered as the main cause of periodontitis; however, the potential mechanism has not been fully defined. Herein, we investigated the role of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBP β), a member of the C/EBP family of transcription factors, in human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) exposed to Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) lipopolysaccharide (LPS). RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis showed that the expression of C/EBP β was significantly increased in hPDLCs stimulated with LPS stimuli. Overexpression of C/EBP β by the recombinant adenoviral vector pAd/C/EBP β markedly increased the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-8 and -9 in hPDLCs in response to LPS. Furthermore, the activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was confirmed in LPS-stimulated hPDLCs by measuring the expression of the ER stress marker molecules protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), eIF2α, GRP78/Bip, and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). The ER stress inhibitor salubrinal repressed, but inducer tunicamycin enhanced, the production of IL-6, IL-8, MMP-8, and MMP-9 in hPDLCs. Additionally, ER stress inducer tunicamycin significantly increased the expression level of C/EBP β in hPDLCs. Blocking of C/EBP β by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 and expression of MMP-8 and MMP-9 induced by tunicamycin treatment in hPDLCs. Taken together, ER stress appears to play a regulatory role in the inflammatory response and extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation in hPDLCs in response to LPS stimuli by activating C/EBP β expression. This enhances our understanding of human periodontitis pathology.

  19. Review of common conditions associated with periodontal ligament widening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Baharvand, Maryam [Dept. of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Out of nearly 200 articles, about 60 were broadly relevant to the topic. Ultimately, 47 articles closely related to the topic of interest were reviewed. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 entities were identified: occlusal/orthodontic trauma, periodontal disease/periodontitis, pulpo-periapical lesions, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, progressive systemic sclerosis, radiation-induced bone defect, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, and osteomyelitis. Although PDL widening may be encountered by many dentists during their routine daily procedures, the clinician should consider some serious related conditions as well.

  20. Review of common conditions associated with periodontal ligament widening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this article is to review a group of lesions associated with periodontal ligament (PDL) widening. Materials and Methods An electronic search was performed using specialized databases such as Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus to find relevant studies by using keywords such as “periodontium”, “periodontal ligament”, “periodontal ligament space”, “widened periodontal ligament”, and “periodontal ligament widening”. Results Out of nearly 200 articles, about 60 were broadly relevant to the topic. Ultimately, 47 articles closely related to the topic of interest were reviewed. When the relevant data were compiled, the following 10 entities were identified: occlusal/orthodontic trauma, periodontal disease/periodontitis, pulpo-periapical lesions, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, progressive systemic sclerosis, radiation-induced bone defect, bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis, and osteomyelitis. Conclusion Although PDL widening may be encountered by many dentists during their routine daily procedures, the clinician should consider some serious related conditions as well. PMID:28035300

  1. Biological transport of tetracycline hydrochloride by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%人牙周膜成纤维细胞对四环素的跨膜转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 刘洪臣; 吴霞; 鄂玲玲; 冷斌

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate biological transport of tetracycline hydrochloride by human periodontal ligament fibmblasts(HPDLF) for verifying the hypothesis of delivering medicine to the periodonfium and whole bodv through the root canal.Methods HPDLF and MC3,13-E1 cells were ineubated in antibiotics solutions. The intracellulaF antibiotics contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) and the cell total protein was measured by bradford protein assay.Results The intracellular contents increased with ineubation time. The extracellular medicine concentration had effect on the intracellular contents. Conclusions Tetracycline hydrochloride can be transported into HPDLF with incubation and this transport is time-dependent and concentration-dependent.%目的 研究人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts,HPDLF)对四环素的跨膜转运,为通过根管局部或全身给药假说提供实验依据.方法 盐酸四环素溶液孵育HPDLF和MC3T3-E1细胞,超声破碎细胞后,高效液相色谱法测定胞内药物含量,考马斯亮蓝法测定细胞蛋白质量.结果 10 mg/L四环素孵育1、5、10 min后细胞内四环素含量与细胞蛋白质量的比值分别为(0.192±0.008)、(0.212±0.082)、(0.620±0.075)ng/μg.20 mg/L四环素孵育5 min后细胞内四环素含量与细胞蛋白质量的比值为(0.503±0.056)ng/μg.10 mg/L四环素孵育5 min后MC3T3-E1细胞内四环素含量与细胞蛋白质量的比值为(0.666±0.560)ng/μg.结论 HPDLF可跨膜转运四环素.转运与孵育时间及细胞外药物浓度相关.

  2. Chemically modified tetracyclines stimulate matrix metalloproteinase-2 production by periodontal ligament cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bildt, M.M.; Snoek-van Beurden, A.M.; Groot, J. de; El, B. van; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Hoff, J.W. Von den

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of chemically modified tetracyclines (CMTs) on the production of gelatinases [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9] by human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and on the activity of recombinant gelatinases. MATERIA

  3. Promise of periodontal ligament stem cells in regeneration of periodontium

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

    2011-01-01

    A great number of patients around the world experience tooth loss that is attributed to irretrievable damage of the periodontium caused by deep caries, severe periodontal diseases or irreversible trauma. The periodontium is a complex tissue composed mainly of two soft tissues and two hard tissues; the former includes the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and gingival tissue, and the latter includes alveolar bone and cementum covering the tooth root. Tissue engineering techniques are therefore...

  4. The response of periodontal ligament collagen fibres and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noengki Prameswari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has indicated that there were several reactions in cellular activity and periodontal ligament collagen fibre as a response after orthodontic force application. Cementum has function to give attachment to collagen fibres of the periodontal ligament, maintaining the integrity of the root, helping to maintain the tooth in its functional position in the mouth, and being involved in tooth repair and regeneration so in the orthodontic tooth movement can induce changes in the cementum. The aim of this research is to investigate that fixed orthodontic appliance can change the amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at pressure site of cementum. This experimental study was held in laboratory with post test only control group design. Twenty two (22 premolar sample from 11 patient were divided into 2 groups. K group as control group (without treatment and P group as treatment group (with using fixed orthodontic appliance. The amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles was examined by light microscopy and measured by image tool program. In the summary, there are increasing amount of periodontal ligament collagen fibre and the thickness of inserting periodontal ligament fibre bundles at cementum pressure sites as a normal response to remodeling and regenerating to orthodontic appliance and have function for strengthen adhering tooth cementum to the periodontal ligament.

  5. Effects of decellularized matrices derived from periodontal ligament stem cells and SHED on the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Boon Chin; Zhu, Shaoyue; Xu, Jianguang; Yuan, Changyong; Gong, Ting; Zhang, Chengfei

    2016-04-01

    A major bottleneck to the therapeutic applications of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) are their limited proliferative capacity ex vivo and tendency to undergo senescence. This may be partly due to the sub-optimal in vitro culture milieu, which could be improved by an appropriate extracellular matrix substratum. This study therefore examined decellularized matrix (DECM) from stem cells derived from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC), as potential substrata for DPSC culture. Both SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM promoted rapid adhesion and spreading of newly-seeded DPSC compared to bare polystyrene (TCPS), with vinculin immunocytochemistry showing expression of more focal adhesions by newly-adherent DPSC cultured on DECM versus TCPS. Culture of DPSC on SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM yielded higher proliferation of cell numbers compared to TCPS. The qRT-PCR data showed significantly higher expression of nestin by DPSC cultured on DECM versus the TCPS control. Osteogenic differentiation of DPSC was enhanced by culturing on PDLSC-DECM and SHED-DECM versus TCPS, as demonstrated by alizarin red S staining for mineralized calcium deposition, alkaline phosphatase assay and qRT-PCR analysis of key osteogenic marker expression. Hence, both SHED-DECM and PDLSC-DECM could enhance the ex vivo culture of DPSC under both non-inducing and osteogenic-inducing conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A low-level diode laser therapy reduces the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced periodontal ligament cell inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T. H.; Chen, C. C.; Liu, S. L.; Lu, Y. C.; Kao, C. T.

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the cytologic effects of inflammatory periodontal ligament cells in vitro after low-level laser therapy. Human periodontal ligament cells were cultured, exposed to lipopolysaccharide and subjected to low-level laser treatment of 5 J cm-2 or 10 J cm-2 using a 920 nm diode laser. A periodontal ligament cell attachment was observed under a microscope, and the cell viability was quantified by a mitochondrial colorimetric assay. Lipopolysaccharide-treated periodontal ligament cells were irradiated with the low-level laser, and the expression levels of several inflammatory markers, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1, and pErk kinase, were analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The data were collected and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance; p low-level laser treatment of periodontal ligament cells increased their ability to attach and survive. After irradiation, the expression levels of iNOS, TNF-α and IL-1 in lipopolysaccharide-exposed periodontal ligament cells decreased over time (p low-level diode laser treatment increased the cells’ proliferative ability and decreased the expression of the examined inflammatory mediators.

  7. Potential of the propolis as storage medium to preserve the viability of cultured human periodontal ligament cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Payal; Pant, Vandana Aditya; Wadhwani, Kulvindar Kaur; Kashyap, Mahendra Pratap; Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2011-04-01

    In vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate the potential of propolis, a natural resin known for its wide therapeutic window, as storage medium to preserve the viability of cultured human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells. Primary cultures of human PDL cells were subjected to either independent exposure of propolis (2.5%, 5.0%, 10.0%, and 20.0%), Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk (0.5%), artificial saliva, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) or combination of propolis 10% + DMEM, propolis 20% + DMEM for 30 min to 24 h at 37 °C. Cell viability was assessed using standard endpoints i.e., tetrazolium bromide salt (MTT), neutral red uptake, and trypan blue dye exclusion assay. In general, combinations of propolis 10% + DMEM, propolis 20% + DMEM, and DMEM alone were found to be better than other media used in this study. The difference in the potentials of these media to maintain the cell viability reached to the statistically significant levels by 24 h, when compared with other media used viz., propolis 2.5% (P propolis 5.0% (P propolis 10.0% (P propolis 20.0% (P milk (P propolis 10% + DMEM, propolis 20% + DMEM, and DMEM alone are equally good as storage media of choice to keep PDL cells viable during extra-alveolar period up to 24 h. Other more readily available medium such as milk may serve as appropriate alternative storage medium for shorter time periods i.e., up to 12 h. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Exposure to transforming growth factor-β1 after basic fibroblast growth factor promotes the fibroblastic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem/progenitor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Kiyomi; Maeda, Hidefumi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naohide; Wada, Naohisa; Monnouchi, Satoshi; Teramatsu, Yoko; Hamano, Sayuri; Koori, Katsuaki; Akamine, Akifumi

    2013-05-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a cytokine that promotes the regeneration of the periodontium, the specialized tissues supporting the teeth. bFGF, does not, however, induce the synthesis of smooth muscle actin alpha 2 (ACTA2), type I collagen (COL1), or COL3, which are principal molecules in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue, a component of the periodontium. We have suggested the feasibility of using transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1) to induce fibroblastic differentiation of PDL stem/progenitor cells (PDLSCs). Here, we investigated the effect of the subsequent application of TGFβ1 after bFGF (bFGF/TGFβ1) on the differentiation of PDLSCs into fibroblastic cells. We first confirmed the expression of bFGF and TGFβ1 in rat PDL tissue and primary human PDL cells. Receptors for both bFGF and TGFβ1 were expressed in the human PDLSC lines 1-11 and 1-17. Exposure to bFGF for 2 days promoted vascular endothelial growth factor gene and protein expression in both cell lines and down-regulated the expression of ACTA2, COL1, and COL3 mRNA in both cell lines and the gene fibrillin 1 (FBN1) in cell line 1-11 alone. Furthermore, bFGF stimulated cell proliferation of these cell lines and significantly increased the number of cells in phase G2/M in the cell lines. Exposure to TGFβ1 for 2 days induced gene expression of ACTA2 and COL1 in both cell lines and FBN1 in cell line 1-11 alone. BFGF/TGFβ1 treatment significantly up-regulated ACTA2, COL1, and FBN1 expression as compared with the group treated with bFGF alone or the untreated control. This method might thus be useful for accelerating the generation and regeneration of functional periodontium.

  9. Transcriptome Reveals Cathepsin K in Periodontal Ligament Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Ozaki, N; Tsushima, K; Yamaba, S; Fujihara, C; Awata, T; Sakashita, H; Kajikawa, T; Kitagaki, J; Yamashita, M; Yanagita, M; Murakami, S

    2016-08-01

    Periodontal ligaments (PDLs) play an important role in remodeling the alveolar bond and cementum. Characterization of the periodontal tissue transcriptome remains incomplete, and an improved understanding of PDL features could aid in developing new regenerative therapies. Here, we aimed to generate and analyze a large human PDL transcriptome. We obtained PDLs from orthodontic treatment patients, isolated the RNA, and used a vector-capping method to make a complementary DNA library from >20,000 clones. Our results revealed that 58% of the sequences were full length. Furthermore, our analysis showed that genes expressed at the highest frequencies included those for collagen type I, collagen type III, and proteases. We also found 5 genes whose expressions have not been previously reported in human PDL. To access which of the highly expressed genes might be important for PDL cell differentiation, we used real-time polymerase chain reaction to measure their expression in differentiating cells. Among the genes tested, the cysteine protease cathepsin K had the highest upregulation, so we measured its relative expression in several tissues, as well as in osteoclasts, which are known to express high levels of cathepsin K. Our results revealed that PDL cells express cathepsin K at similar levels as osteoclasts, which are both expressed at higher levels than those of the other tissues tested. We also measured cathepsin K protein expression and enzyme activity during cell differentiation and found that both increased during this process. Immunocytochemistry experiments revealed that cathepsin K localizes to the interior of lysosomes. Last, we examined the effect of inhibiting cathepsin K during cell differentiation and found that cathepsin K inhibition stimulated calcified nodule formation and increased the levels of collagen type I and osteocalcin gene expression. Based on these results, cathepsin K seems to regulate collagen fiber accumulation during human PDL cell

  10. Purmorphamine promotes osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells under dynamic tensile%purmorphamine促进人牙周膜干细胞应力成骨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常慧君; 申涛; 董世武; 杨彦春; 张洁; 周继祥

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究purmorphamine在动态张应力促人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem cells,PDLSCs)向成骨细胞分化过程中的作用.方法 分离培养鉴定PDLSCs,在矿化诱导环境中加入purmorphamine,采用Flexcell FX4000T应力加载系统对细胞加力24 h,以Red-time PCR检测成骨相关指标Runx2、alkaline phosphatase(ALP)以及Hedgehog(Hh)通路的标志物GLI1、Pathed1( PTCH1)、Smoothend(SMO).结果 动态张应力作用24 h后,成骨相关指标Runx2、ALP,Hh通路的标志物GHI1、PTCH1、SMO的表达水平明显升高(P<0.05);加入purmorphamine后,成骨相关指标Runx2、ALP,Hh通路的标志物GLI1、PTCH1、SMO的表达水平较加力组均有增强,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 purmorphamine可能通过激活Hh通路,进而增强人PDLSCs应力条件下向成骨细胞分化.%Objective To determine the effect of purmorphamine on the osteogenic differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells ( PDLSCs) under dynamic strain. Methods PDLSCs were isolated from freshly extracted teeth and identified with flow cytometry for expression of STRO-1 and CD146, and then subcultured into six-well flexible-bottomed Uniflex culture plates. When 80% confluence was achieved, purmorphamine, an activator of the hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway, was added into the wells in mineralization induction medium at the concentration of 1 μxmol/L, and dynamic strains were applied to PDLSCs with the Flex-cell FX-4000T Tension Plus System for 24 h. Then the mRNA expression of osteoblastic related indexes of Runx2, ALP and Hh pathway markers GLI1, PTCH1, SMO was detected by real-time PCR. Results After 24 h loading, the gene expression of osteogenic markers Runx2 and ALP and Hh pathway markers ( GLI1 , PTCH1 and SMO) was all increased (P<0. 05). And the group with purmorphamine treatment showed much higher expression of these genes than the control group and the only mechanical loading group (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion

  11. IRE1α促进人牙周膜成纤维细胞增殖%Effect of IRE1α on proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭志庆; 李苹苹; 初颜兵; 王燕

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究内质网跨膜蛋白IRE1α对人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts,hPDLFs)增殖的影响.方法 将成功构建的人IRE1α基因重组质粒染入hPDLFs细胞,采用免疫印迹法检测IRE1α重组基因在真核细胞内的表达情况,XTT法和流式细胞仪(FCM)检测转染后hPDLFs细胞增殖和细胞周期变化.结果 酶切及测序结果证实IRE1α重组质粒构建成功;免疫印迹分析结果证实,IRE1α重组质粒能在hPDLFs细胞内正确表达;在内质网应激(ERs)状态下,与衣霉素(tunicamycin,TM)对照组相比,XTT检测结果显示:IRE1 α实验组hPDLFs细胞增殖率明显增高(P<0.01);FCM结果分析显示:IRE1α实验组hPDLFs细胞s期比例增加而G1期减少(P<0.05).结论 在ERS状态下,IRE1α促讲hPDLFs细胞增殖,促进hPDLFs细胞从G1期进入S期.%Objective To study the effect of IRE1α on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs). Methods The IRE1α full-length eukaryotic expression vectors were constructed and transiently transferred into hPDLFs, and the expression of IRE1α was identified by Western blot analysis. The proliferation of hPDLFs was analyzed by XTT assay, and the changes of cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry ( FCM). Results Restriction enzyme digestion and gene sequencing identified that the IRE1α recombinant plasmid was successfully constructed, and the correct expression of IRE1α in hPDLFs was detected by Western blotting. Compared with the control group (tunicamycin), the XTT results showed that the cell proliferation rate of the IRE1α group increased significantly (P <0. 01) , and the FCM results showed that the cell proportion increased at S phase and decreased at G, phase in the IRE1α group (P <0. 05 ) . Conclu-sion IRE1α can improve hPDLFs proliferation, and promote hPDLFs from G1 phase into S phase.

  12. The investigation of human periodontal ligament cell-sheet in vitro%人牙周韧带细胞膜片的体外实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张剑英; 付云; 俞少杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate human periodontal ligament cells' capacities of osteogenesis and adipogenesis,and to identify the expression of type-Ⅰ collagen,laminin and fibronectin which are the main components of extracellular matrix in human periodontal ligament cell sheet through establish cell sheet model in vitro experiment.Methods Human periondontal ligament cells were purified and cultured by using enzymes digesting/tissue culture method.Immunocytochemistry was applied to identify the source and putative stem-cell marker STRO-1 of hPDLCs.The second to fourth passages of hPDLCs were cultured in the osteogenic medium and adipogenic medium for indicated days.Alizarin red and Oil red O staining method were applied to identify capabilities of osteogenesis and adipogenesis of hPDLCs.Haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry were applied to identify expression of type-Ⅰ collagen,laminin and fibronectin in hPDLCs cell sheet.Results The cultured hPDLCs demonstrated extensive proliferation and could be expanded in vitro.Immunostaining demonstrated that the cells expressed intermediate filament protein vimentin and the mesenchymal stem-cell marker STRO-1.hPDLCs in the osteogenic medium formed alizarin red-positive nodules.When hPDLCs were incubated in adipogenic medium,the cells developed into oil red O-positive lipid clusters and a significant high expression of type-Ⅰ collagen,laminin and fibronectin in human periodontalligament cell sheet.Conclusions Our findings confirm that hPDLCs contained stem cells population from culture,source identification,expression of the mesenchymai stem cell marker STRO-1,multilineage differentiation potent under defined culture conditions.Our study indicates that the hPDLCs turn out to be an efficient source and cell sheet to be an excellent bio-material that can be used for periodontal tissue regeneration.%目的 观察体外培养人牙周韧带细胞(hPDLCs)的成骨、成脂能力;构建hPDLCs膜片并鉴定膜片

  13. AMP-activated protein kinase acts as a negative regulator of high glucose-induced RANKL expression in human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yuan; LIU Jia-qiang; LIU Hong-chen

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that the function of periodontal ligament cells may be affected by high glucose levels.This study investigated the direct effect of high glucose on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in human PDL (hPDL) cells.In addition,we examined whether this effect was mediated via AMPK activation.Methods We examined the expression of osteoprotegerin in hPDL cells cultured at different concentrations of glucose using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),and Western blotting analysis.AMPK phosphorylation in hPDL cells was studied using immunoprecipitate kinase assay and Western blotting.The effect of AMPK activation on RANKL expression in hPDL cells was investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting.Results High glucose levels caused an increase in RANKL mRNA and protein expression in hPDL cells.Moreover,the amount of p-AMPK and AMPK activity was lower in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose levels than in cells exposed to normal glucose levels.Suppression of AMPK by Compound C augmented RANKL expression,and AMPK activation by metformin significantly decreased RANKL expression in hPDL cells.Additionally,metformin down-regulated RANKL expression in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose via AMPK activation.Conclusion High glucose-induced up-regulation of RANKL could be due to decreased AMPK activity,and AMPK activation may be involved in regulating of RANKL expression in hPDL cells.

  14. The effect of surface microgrooves and anodic oxidation on the surface characteristics of titanium and the osteogenic activity of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Hyun; Kang, Jong Ho; Lee, Suk Won

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of titanium (Ti) surface microgrooves and anodic oxidation on the surface characteristics of titanium and the osteogenic activity of human periodontal ligament cells (PLCs) cultured on theses surfaces. Mechanically ground Ti was used as the control substratum (NE0). Truncated V-shaped microgrooves, 60μm-wide and 10μm-deep in cross-sections, were created on the Ti substrata by photolithography (NE60/10). Anodically oxidized Ti (NE0AO) and anodically oxidized microgrooved Ti (NE60/10AO) were also prepared. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed for surface characterization. Cell proliferation assay, osteoblast differentiation assay, and quantitative real-time PCR analysis were performed to compare the osteogenic activity of PLCs on NE0, NE60/10, NEAO, and NE60/10AO. A decrease in the microgroove-width of NE60/10AO compared to NE60/10 due to Ti oxide layer generation by anodic oxidation was detected with XRD and XPS. Cell proliferation, osteoblast differentiation, and osteo-related gene expression were enhanced on the NE60/10AO substrata compared with NE0, NE60/10, and NE0AO. The combination of Ti surface microgrooves and subsequent anodic oxidation treatment synergistically upregulated osteo-related gene expression, despite showing limited ability to increase cell proliferation and osteoblast differentiation levels in PLCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preparation of the fast setting and degrading Ca-Si-Mg cement with both odontogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Hsu, Tuan-Ti; Wang, Kan; Shie, Ming-You

    2016-03-01

    Develop a fast setting and controllable degrading magnesium-calcium silicate cement (Mg-CS) by sol-gel, and establish a mechanism using Mg ions to stimulate human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs) are two purposes of this study. We have used the diametral tensile strength measurement to obtain the mechanical strength and stability of Mg-CS cement; in addition, the cement degradation properties is realized by measuring the releasing amount of Si and Mg ions in the simulated body fluid. The other cell characteristics of hPDLs, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were examined while hPDLs were cultured on specimen surfaces. This study found out the degradation rate of Mg-CS cements depends on the Mg content in CS. Regarding in vitro bioactivity; the CS cements were covered with abundant clusters of apatite spherulites after immersion of 24h, while less apatite spherulites were formatted on the Mg-rich cement surfaces. In addition, the authors also explored the effects of Mg ions on the odontogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation of hPDLs in comparison with CS cement. The proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, odontogenesis-related genes (DSPP and DMP-1), and angiogenesis-related protein (vWF and ang-1) secretion of hPDLs were significantly stimulated when the Mg content of the specimen was increased. The results in this study suggest that Mg-CS materials with this modified composition could stimulate hPDLs behavior and can be good bioceramics for bone substitutes and hard tissue regeneration applications as they stimulate odontogenesis/angiogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Endocannabinoids and inflammatory response in periodontal ligament cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Özdemir

    Full Text Available Endocannabinoids are associated with multiple regulatory functions in several tissues. The main endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG, have been detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients, but the association between periodontal disease or human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLCs and endocannabinoids still remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of AEA and 2-AG on the proliferation/viability and cytokine/chemokine production of hPdLCs in the presence/absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS. The proliferation/viability of hPdLCs was measured using 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT-assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-8 (IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 levels were examined at gene expression and protein level by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. AEA and 2-AG did not reveal any significant effects on proliferation/viability of hPdLCs in the absence of P. gingivalis LPS. However, hPdLCs viability was significantly increased by 10-20 µM AEA in the presence of P. gingivalis LPS (1 µg/ml. In the absence of P. gingivalis LPS, AEA and 2-AG did not exhibit any significant effect on the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 expression in hPdLCs, whereas IL-6 expression was slightly enhanced by 10 µM 2-AG and not affected by AEA. In P.gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs, 10 µM AEA down-regulated gene-expression and protein production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. In contrast, 10 µM 2-AG had an opposite effect and induced a significant up-regulation of gene and protein expression of IL-6 and IL-8 (P<0.05 as well as gene-expression of MCP-1 in P. gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs. Our data suggest that AEA appears to have an anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effect on hPdLCs' host response to P.gingivalis LPS, whereas 2-AG appears to promote detrimental inflammatory processes. In conclusion

  17. Endocannabinoids and inflammatory response in periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Burcu; Shi, Bin; Bantleon, Hans Peter; Moritz, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Andrukhov, Oleh

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are associated with multiple regulatory functions in several tissues. The main endocannabinoids, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), have been detected in the gingival crevicular fluid of periodontitis patients, but the association between periodontal disease or human periodontal ligament cells (hPdLCs) and endocannabinoids still remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of AEA and 2-AG on the proliferation/viability and cytokine/chemokine production of hPdLCs in the presence/absence of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (P. gingivalis LPS). The proliferation/viability of hPdLCs was measured using 3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) levels were examined at gene expression and protein level by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. AEA and 2-AG did not reveal any significant effects on proliferation/viability of hPdLCs in the absence of P. gingivalis LPS. However, hPdLCs viability was significantly increased by 10-20 µM AEA in the presence of P. gingivalis LPS (1 µg/ml). In the absence of P. gingivalis LPS, AEA and 2-AG did not exhibit any significant effect on the expression of IL-8 and MCP-1 expression in hPdLCs, whereas IL-6 expression was slightly enhanced by 10 µM 2-AG and not affected by AEA. In P.gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs, 10 µM AEA down-regulated gene-expression and protein production of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. In contrast, 10 µM 2-AG had an opposite effect and induced a significant up-regulation of gene and protein expression of IL-6 and IL-8 (P<0.05) as well as gene-expression of MCP-1 in P. gingivalis LPS stimulated hPdLCs. Our data suggest that AEA appears to have an anti-inflammatory and immune suppressive effect on hPdLCs' host response to P.gingivalis LPS, whereas 2-AG appears to promote detrimental inflammatory processes. In conclusion, AEA and 2

  18. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  19. 釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞群骨钙素的影响%Effects of emdogain on the osteocalcin in human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟永荣; 程燕飞; 轩东英; 冯二玫; 章锦才

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the expression changes of osteocalcin in human periodontal ligament cells under induction of emdogain (EMD). Methods Cultured human periodontal ligament cell populations (hPDLPs) were exposed to the conditioned culture media containing 100 mg/L EMD for six days. Expression of osteocalcin was detected by immunohistochemistry and real time polymerase chain reaction. Results Immunohistochemistry results showed that yellow or brown granules in the cell cytoplasm were visited in the experimental group and the control group hPDLPs; the average optical density value of OCN in the experimental group hPDLPs was 0. 172 43 ±0. 014 85 , and that was 0. 167 01 + 0.017 03 in the control group hPDLPs, there was not statistically significant between the two groups (t = 0. 757 , P = 0.459). Real time polymerase chain reaction showed that the relative expression of osteocalcin is 1. 13 times in the experiment group, compared to the control group. Conclusion The expression of osteocalcin in human periodontal ligament cells induced was not affected by EMD.%目的 研究人牙周膜细胞群(human periodontal ligament cell populations,hPDLPs)在釉基质蛋白(emdogain,EMD)诱导下骨钙素(osteocalcin,OCN)表达的改变.方法 组织块法分离培养人牙周膜细胞,实验组用含100 mg/L EMD的培养液诱导6d,对照组不经EMD诱导培养.免疫细胞化学和实时定量聚合酶链反应(polymerase chain reaction,PCR)检测成牙骨质细胞矿化相关蛋白OCN的表达.结果 免疫细胞化学结果显示,实验组和对照组hPDLPs细胞胞浆均可见黄色或棕黄色颗粒,OCN表达呈阳性;实验组hPDLPs的OCN检测平均光密度值为0.172 43 ±0.014 85,对照组为0.167 01 ±0.017 03,组间差异无统计学意义(t=0.757,P=0.459);实时定量PCR检测结果显示,实验组骨钙素相对表达量是对照组的1.13倍.结论 EMD对hPDLPs的OCN表达无明显影响.

  20. Influence of different concentrations of enamel matrix proteins on bioactivity of human periodontal ligament cells%不同质量浓度釉基质蛋白培养人牙周膜细胞的生物活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲哲; 张静莹; 郭英; 马卫东; 马岚

    2015-01-01

      结果与结论:当釉基质蛋白质量浓度在0-100 mg/L范围内,随着其质量浓度的升高,细胞增殖、活性、碱性磷酸酶活性、骨钙素分泌均逐渐升高,以100 mg/L升高最明显;当釉基质蛋白质量浓度增至250 mg/L时,细胞增殖、活性、碱性磷酸酶活性、骨钙素分泌均有所下降,但仍高于0 mg/L组。100 mg/L组在初始观察6 h时,创缘周围的细胞开始向中心生长,待培养12 h时,创缘两侧细胞开始融合,培养20 h后创缘两侧细胞融合完全创缘完全关闭完全,创面愈合优于其他质量浓度组。结果表明釉基质蛋白具有促进牙周膜细胞增殖、分化与迁移的能力。%BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have confirmed that enamel matrix proteins can promote the regeneration of osteoblasts and cementoblast, and then it can achieve approaching physiological periodontal regeneration in the treatment of periodontal defects. OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of different concentrations of enamel matrix proteins on proliferation, viability, differentiation and migration of human periodontal ligament cels. METHODS: The human periodontal ligament cels at the third generation were gained, and then cultured in serum-free DMEM containing different concentrations of enamel matrix proteins (0, 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 250 mg/L). After 24 hours of culture, proliferation and viability of periodontal ligament cels were measured using [(3)H]-thymidine uptake and MTT assay. After 48 hours of culture, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin production were detected with commercial available test kits. When the cels grew as a monolayer, the cel culture fluid was removed, and then with a pipette head, a cel incision, 1 mm wideness, was prepared in a monolayer of cels to further observe the cel fusion continuously within 24 hours. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The proliferation, viability and differentiation of periodontal ligament cels were gradualy increased with

  1. Basic Finite Element Analysis of Para-periodontal Ligament in All-ceramic Zirconia Fixed Partial Denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Syuntaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Sato, Toru; Yotsuya, Mamoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity of incorporating a para-periodontal ligament in the test mold used in a basic fracture test of a zirconia all-ceramic fixed partial denture (FPD). A simplified three-dimensional finite element analysis model was designed based on the three-unit FPD fracture test. Two types of model, one with and one without a para-periodontal ligament between the abutment and base mold, were fabricated. Microfocus CT of the missing first molar area in a dry human mandible was performed. A three-dimensional model was then fabricated based on the data obtained. A load of 600 N was applied to the center of the pontic and stress distribution observed. The model with the para-periodontal ligament showed stress dispersion to the dental root with rotation of the abutment mold. Stress distribution in the finite element analysis model with a para-periodontal ligament showed greater similarity with that in the mandibular model than with that in the other two models without a para-periodontal ligament.

  2. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in the Periodontitis Microenvironment Are Sensitive to Static Mechanical Strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthodontic treatment, periodontium remodeling of periodontitis patients under mechanical force was abnormal. We have previously confirmed the function impairment of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs in the periodontitis microenvironment which might be involved in this pathological process. However, the response of PDLSCs in periodontitis microenvironment to mechanical force remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we introduced a Flexcell tension apparatus and investigated the response of PDLSCs obtained from periodontal tissues of periodontitis patients (PPDLSCs and of those obtained from healthy periodontal tissues (HPDLSCs to different magnitudes of static mechanical strain (SMS. PPDLSCs showed increased proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity, activated osteoclastogenesis, and greater secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Different magnitudes of SMS exerted distinct effects on HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs. An SMS of 12% induced optimal effects in HPDLSCs, including the highest proliferation, the best osteogenic ability, the lowest osteoclastogenesis, and the lowest secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while the optimal SMS for PPDLSCs was 8%. Excessive SMS damaged PPDLSCs function, including decreased proliferation, an imbalance between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and an activated inflammatory response. Our data suggest that PPDLSCs are more sensitive and less tolerant to SMS, and this may explain why mechanical force results in undesirable effects in periodontitis patients.

  3. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in the Periodontitis Microenvironment Are Sensitive to Static Mechanical Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Shiyu; Gao, Jie; Qin, Wen; Song, Yang

    2017-01-01

    During orthodontic treatment, periodontium remodeling of periodontitis patients under mechanical force was abnormal. We have previously confirmed the function impairment of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in the periodontitis microenvironment which might be involved in this pathological process. However, the response of PDLSCs in periodontitis microenvironment to mechanical force remains unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we introduced a Flexcell tension apparatus and investigated the response of PDLSCs obtained from periodontal tissues of periodontitis patients (PPDLSCs) and of those obtained from healthy periodontal tissues (HPDLSCs) to different magnitudes of static mechanical strain (SMS). PPDLSCs showed increased proliferation, decreased osteogenic activity, activated osteoclastogenesis, and greater secretion of inflammatory cytokines. Different magnitudes of SMS exerted distinct effects on HPDLSCs and PPDLSCs. An SMS of 12% induced optimal effects in HPDLSCs, including the highest proliferation, the best osteogenic ability, the lowest osteoclastogenesis, and the lowest secretion of inflammatory cytokines, while the optimal SMS for PPDLSCs was 8%. Excessive SMS damaged PPDLSCs function, including decreased proliferation, an imbalance between osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis, and an activated inflammatory response. Our data suggest that PPDLSCs are more sensitive and less tolerant to SMS, and this may explain why mechanical force results in undesirable effects in periodontitis patients. PMID:28316629

  4. Preparation of the fast setting and degrading Ca–Si–Mg cement with both odontogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yi-Wen [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); 3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Tuan-Ti [Institute of Oral Science, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, Taiwan (China); Wang, Kan [H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Shie, Ming-You, E-mail: eviltacasi@gmail.com [3D Printing Medical Research Center, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung City, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-01

    Develop a fast setting and controllable degrading magnesium–calcium silicate cement (Mg–CS) by sol–gel, and establish a mechanism using Mg ions to stimulate human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs) are two purposes of this study. We have used the diametral tensile strength measurement to obtain the mechanical strength and stability of Mg–CS cement; in addition, the cement degradation properties is realized by measuring the releasing amount of Si and Mg ions in the simulated body fluid. The other cell characteristics of hPDLs, such as proliferation, differentiation and mineralization were examined while hPDLs were cultured on specimen surfaces. This study found out the degradation rate of Mg–CS cements depends on the Mg content in CS. Regarding in vitro bioactivity; the CS cements were covered with abundant clusters of apatite spherulites after immersion of 24 h, while less apatite spherulites were formatted on the Mg-rich cement surfaces. In addition, the authors also explored the effects of Mg ions on the odontogenesis and angiogenesis differentiation of hPDLs in comparison with CS cement. The proliferation, alkaline phosphatase, odontogenesis-related genes (DSPP and DMP-1), and angiogenesis-related protein (vWF and ang-1) secretion of hPDLs were significantly stimulated when the Mg content of the specimen was increased. The results in this study suggest that Mg–CS materials with this modified composition could stimulate hPDLs behavior and can be good bioceramics for bone substitutes and hard tissue regeneration applications as they stimulate odontogenesis/angiogenesis. - Highlights: • The fast setting and degrading Mg–CS cement was synthesized by sol–gel. • Promoted proliferation of hPDLs on Mg–CS specimens • Mg–CS can degrade and release Si and Mg ions into SBF. • Up-regulation of odontogenic and angiogenic of hPDLs • Mg–CS may be good bone substitutes for hard tissue regeneration applications.

  5. 左旋聚乳酸羟基磷灰石材料上人牙周膜细胞的生长%Growth of human periodontal ligament cells on the poly-L-lactic acid hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高永志; 殷志远

    2016-01-01

      结果与结论:①经免疫组化染色,培养所得细胞波形蛋白、碱性磷酸酶染色均呈阳性表达,抗角蛋白染色呈阴性,表明所得细胞为实验所需人牙周膜细胞;②经MTT法检测,不同时间点2组细胞毒性的吸光度(A)值经比较差异均无显著性意义(P>0.05);2组人牙周膜细胞的生长曲线形态基本一致;③共培养1,2,3 d,2组碱性磷酸酶活性经比较差异均无显著性意义(P>0.05);④2组Ⅲ型胶原A值经比较差异均无显著性意义(P >0.05);⑤结果提示,人牙周膜细胞可以在左旋聚乳酸羟基磷灰石材料上正常生长与增殖,未出现细胞毒性等不良反应。%BACKGROUND:Inconstructing tissue-engineered periodontiumin vitto, the effective combination of seed cels with scaffold materials is the key to promote the quality of tissue-engineered periodontium,in which human periodontal ligament cels are commonly used. OBJECTIVE:To explore the growth of human periodontal ligament cels on the poly-L-lactic acid hydroxyapatite. METHODS:Human periodontal ligament cels were isolated and culturedin vitro, and passage 3 cels were chosen to be randomly divided into two groups: celscultured alone as control group, and cultured with poly-L-lactic acid hydroxyapatite as experimental group.After1, 2 and 3 days, alkaline phosphatase activity and expression of type III colagen in the two groups were detected, and the cel growth curve was depicted using MTT method. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:By immunohistochemical staining,culturedcels were positive for vimentin and alkaline phosphatase staining and negative for anti-keratin staining, indicating that the cels wereidentifiedas human periodontal ligament cels. By MTT method, there was no significant difference in the absorbance value of two groups at different time points (P> 0.05). And after 1, 2 and 3-day co-culture, the alkaline phosphatase activity levels showed no significant differencebetween two groups

  6. Nicotine Induces the Production of IL-1ß and IL-8 via the a7 nAChR/NF-κB Pathway in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells: an in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizheng Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for the occurrence and progression of periodontitis. We previously demonstrated that nicotine could induce the expression of a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (a7 nAChR in human and rat periodontal tissues. To further examine the signal pathways mediated by a7 nAChR in periodontal ligament (PDL cells, we investigated whether nicotine affects interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß and interleukin-8 (IL-8 via the a7 nAChR/NF-κB pathway in human PDL cells. Methods: Human PDL cells were pre-incubated with alpha-bungarotoxin (a-BTX or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, then cultured with nicotine. Then, we used western blotting, a dual-luciferase reporter, real-time quantitative PCR and an enzyme-linked immunoassay to assess expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, NF-κB activity and production of IL-1ß and IL-8 in human PDL cells. Results: Compared with the control group, nicotine could significantly induce production of IL-1ß and IL-8 in human PDL cells and cause the similar effects on the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit and NF-κB activity. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that nicotine could induce production of IL-1ß and IL-8 via the a7 nAChR/NF-κB pathway in human PDL cells, providing data for a better understanding of the relationships among smoking, nicotine, and periodontitis.

  7. Nicotine induces the production of IL-1β and IL-8 via the α7 nAChR/NF-κB pathway in human periodontal ligament cells: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lizheng; Zhou, Yongchuan; Zhou, Zhifei; Liu, Yingfeng; Bai, Yudi; Xing, Xianghui; Wang, Xiaojing

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for the occurrence and progression of periodontitis. We previously demonstrated that nicotine could induce the expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChR) in human and rat periodontal tissues. To further examine the signal pathways mediated by α7 nAChR in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, we investigated whether nicotine affects interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) via the α7 nAChR/NF-κB pathway in human PDL cells. Human PDL cells were pre-incubated with alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX) or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), then cultured with nicotine. Then, we used western blotting, a dual-luciferase reporter, real-time quantitative PCR and an enzyme-linked immunoassay to assess expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, NF-κB activity and production of IL-1β and IL-8 in human PDL cells. Compared with the control group, nicotine could significantly induce production of IL-1β and IL-8 in human PDL cells and cause the similar effects on the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit and NF-κB activity. This study demonstrates that nicotine could induce production of IL-1β and IL-8 via the α7 nAChR/NF-κB pathway in human PDL cells, providing data for a better understanding of the relationships among smoking, nicotine, and periodontitis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Regulate Apoptosis of Neutrophils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Ding, Gang; Xu, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) are promising cell resource for the cell-based therapy for periodontitis and regeneration of bio-root. In this study, we investigated the effect of PDLSCs on neutrophil, a critical constituent of innate immunity, and the underlying mechanisms. The effect of PDLSCs on the proliferation and apoptosis of resting neutrophils and IL-8 activated neutrophils was tested under cell-cell contact culture and Transwell culture, with or without anti-IL-6 neutralizing antibody. We found that PDLSCs could promote the proliferation and reduce the apoptosis of neutrophils whether under cell-cell contact or Transwell culture. Anti-IL-6 antibody reduced PDLSCs-mediated inhibition of neutrophil apoptosis. IL-6 at the concentration of 10ng/ml and 20ng/ml could inhibit neutrophil apoptosis statistically. Collectively, PDLSCs could reduce the apoptosis of neutrophils via IL-6.

  9. A nonlinear poroelastic model for the periodontal ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favino, Marco; Bourauel, Christoph; Krause, Rolf

    2016-05-01

    A coupled elastic-poroelastic model for the simulation of the PDL and the adjacent tooth is presented. A poroelastic constitutive material model for the periodontal ligament (PDL) is derived. The solid phase is modeled by means of a Fung material law, accounting for large displacements and strains. Numerical solutions are performed by means of a multigrid Newton method to solve the arising large nonlinear system. Finally, by means of numerical experiments, the biomechanical response of the PDL is studied. In particular, the effect of the hydraulic conductivity and of the mechanical parameters of a Fung potential is investigated in two realistic applications.

  10. A challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis differentially affects the osteoclastogenesis potential of periodontal ligament fibroblasts from periodontitis patients and non-periodontitis donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokos, D.; Scheres, N.; Schoenmaker, T.; Everts, V.; de Vries, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) may cause an immune-inflammatory response in host cells leading to bone degradation by osteoclasts. We investigated the osteoclast-inducing capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts from periodontitis patients and non-periodontitis donors after a challenge with

  11. Capturing the Regenerative Potential of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Springstead Scanlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell population within the periodontal ligament (PDL tissue is remarkably heterogeneous1. Fibroblasts, a mixed population of cells, are the main cellular component of the PDL and the cell type most often studied for periodontal regeneration. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are found on the bone side, while fibroblasts, macrophages, undifferentiated adult/mesenchymal stem cells, neural elements, and endothelial cells are found throughout the PDL. Epithelial rests of Malassez cells and cementoblasts are focused near the root surface. PDL tissue also includes loose connective tissue between dense fiber bundles that contain branches of the periodontal blood vessels and nerves2. The complexity of the PDL tissue, with its various cell types and cell progenitor components, explains the challenges involved in therapies to restore tissue following periodontal disease. Cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and endothelial cells must migrate, differentiate, and coordinately interact with a variety of soluble mediators to regenerate the periodontium3. Stem cells located in the PDL tissue are key contributors to this process4. Stem cells in the PDL are important not only for formation and maintenance of the tissue but also for repair, remodeling, and regeneration of adjacent alveolar bone and cementum5. Our laboratory has shown that progenitor cells isolated from PDL tissue by selection with cell surface markers STRO-1+ and CD146+ are capable of differentiating into chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic phenotypes under appropriate culture conditions6.

  12. Biomaterials in periodontal regenerative surgery: effects of cryopreserved bone, commercially available coral, demineralized freeze-dried dentin, and cementum on periodontal ligament fibroblasts and osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devecioğlu, Didem; Tözüm, Tolga F; Sengün, Dilek; Nohutcu, Rahime M

    2004-10-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal therapy is to achieve successful periodontal regeneration. The effects of different biomaterials, allogenic and alloplastic, used in periodontal surgeries to achieve regeneration have been studied in vitro on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and MC3T3-E1 cells. The materials tested included cryopreserved bone allograft (CBA), coralline hydroxyapatite (CH), demineralized freeze-dried dentin (DFDD), and cementum. CBA and CH revealed an increase in initial PDL cell attachment, whereas CH resulted in an increase in long-term PDL cell attachment. Mineral-like nodule formation was observed significantly higher in DFDD compared to other materials tested for osteoblasts. Based on the results of this in vitro study, we conclude that the materials used are all biocompatible with human PDL cells and osteoblasts, which have pivotal importance in periodontal regeneration.

  13. Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001059.htm Periodontitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Periodontitis is inflammation and infection of the ligaments and ...

  14. Successful periodontal ligament regeneration by periodontal progenitor preseeding on natural tooth root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangaria, Smit Jayant; Ito, Yoshihiro; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H

    2011-10-01

    The regeneration of lost periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone is the purpose of periodontal tissue engineering. The goal of the present study was to assess the suitability of 3 odontogenic progenitor populations from dental pulp, PDL, and dental follicle for periodontal regeneration when exposed to natural and synthetic apatite surface topographies. We demonstrated that PDL progenitors featured higher levels of periostin and scleraxis expression, increased adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential, and pronounced elongated cell shapes on barren root chips when compared with dental pulp and dental follicle cells. When evaluating the effect of surface characteristics on PDL progenitors, natural root surfaces resulted in elongated PDL cell shapes, whereas PDL progenitors on synthetic apatite surfaces were rounded or polygonal. In addition, surface coatings affected PDL progenitor gene expression profiles: collagen I coatings enhanced alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression levels and laminin-1 coatings increased epidermal growth factor (EGF), nestin, cadherin 1, and keratin 8 expression. PDL progenitors seeded on natural tooth root surfaces in organ culture formed new periodontal fibers after 3 weeks of culture. Finally, replantation of PDL progenitor-seeded tooth roots into rat alveolar bone sockets resulted in the complete formation of a new PDL and stable reattachment of teeth over a 6-month period. Together, these findings indicate that periodontal progenitor cell type as well as mineral surface topography and molecular environment play crucial roles in the regeneration of true periodontal anchorage.

  15. Promise of periodontal ligament stem cells in regeneration of periodontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Hidefumi; Tomokiyo, Atsushi; Fujii, Shinsuke; Wada, Naohisa; Akamine, Akifumi

    2011-07-28

    A great number of patients around the world experience tooth loss that is attributed to irretrievable damage of the periodontium caused by deep caries, severe periodontal diseases or irreversible trauma. The periodontium is a complex tissue composed mainly of two soft tissues and two hard tissues; the former includes the periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue and gingival tissue, and the latter includes alveolar bone and cementum covering the tooth root. Tissue engineering techniques are therefore required for regeneration of these tissues. In particular, PDL is a dynamic connective tissue that is subjected to continual adaptation to maintain tissue size and width, as well as structural integrity, including ligament fibers and bone modeling. PDL tissue is central in the periodontium to retain the tooth in the bone socket, and is currently recognized to include somatic mesenchymal stem cells that could reconstruct the periodontium. However, successful treatment using these stem cells to regenerate the periodontium efficiently has not yet been developed. In the present article, we discuss the contemporary standpoints and approaches for these stem cells in the field of regenerative medicine in dentistry.

  16. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Li, Bei; Zhao, Lingzhou; Jin, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells (PDLSCs) and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs) layered on titanium (Ti) provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA) complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL, were observed in the NT5 and NT10 sample groups. Our study provides the first evidence that the nanotopographical cues obviously influence the functions of PDLSCs and improve the PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration size dependently, which provides new insight to the periodontal regeneration. The Ti/cell sheets/HA complex may constitute a good model to predict the effect of biomaterials on periodontal regeneration.

  17. Biological Events in Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Associated with Application of Orthodontic Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Feller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic force-induced stresses cause dynamic alterations within the extracellular matrix and within the cytoskeleton of cells in the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, mediating bone remodelling, ultimately enabling orthodontic tooth movement. In the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, the mechanically induced tensile strains upregulate the expression of osteogenic genes resulting in bone formation, while mechanically induced compressive strains mediate predominantly catabolic tissue changes and bone resorption. In this review article we summarize some of the currently known biological events occurring in the periodontal ligament and in the alveolar bone in response to application of orthodontic forces and how these facilitate tooth movement.

  18. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects

  19. Effects icariin of on the alkline phosphatase activity of human periodontal ligament cells inhibited by LPS%淫羊藿苷对内毒素抑制牙周膜细胞ALP表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜瑛; 王祥; 许华; 刘英群

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of icariin (ICA) on proliferation of huaman periodontal ligament cells (human periodontal ligament cells, hPDLC) and the alkaline phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase, ALP) activity inhibited by LPS. Method: HPDLC were cultured in virto and stimulated with icariin with different concentrations (0, 10-5、 10-6、 10-7、 10-8、 10-9 mol / L) for 96 hours.The ability of proliferation of HPDLC was detected by MTT method.The activity of alkaline phosphatase and the expression of alkaline phosphatase mRNA was seperately determined by p-Nitrophnyl phosphate (pNPP) method and RT-PCR after being treated with icariin at the concentration of 10-6 mol / L inhibited by LPS. Result: icariin had a dose-dependent effect on the proliferation the hPDLC in a suitable concentration range from l0-6-10-8 mol / L. The alkaline phosphatase activity was remarkably inhibited by incubation of PDLC with 10 μg / mL LPS and was improved in the presence of icariin at the concentration of 10-6 mol / L. Conclusion: Icariin have the effect on the proliferation of PDLC and improve the ALP activity inhibited by LPS, which could help for Peri—apical tissue regeneration.%目的:探讨淫羊藿苷对人牙周膜细胞(periodontal ligament cells,PDLC)增殖及对内毒素(Lipopolysaccharide,LPS)干扰下碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)的影响.方法:原代培养PDLC,MTT法检测不同浓度(0、10-5~10-9 mol/L)淫羊藿苷对PDLC增殖的影响;RT-PCR、对硝基苯酚法测定淫羊藿苷对LPS抑制PDLC的ALP mRNA表达和分泌的影响.结果:淫羊藿苷在一定浓度下(10-6~10-7 mol/L)可促进PDLC增殖;10 μg/mL LPS可抑制PDLC的ALP活性;加入10-6 mol/L淫羊藿苷干扰后,对LPS抑制PDLC的ALP有拮抗作用,可提高其mRNA表达和活性.结论:淫羊藿苷在一定浓度时可促进PDLC增殖;可能通过拮抗LPS抑制其ALP的活性.

  20. The influence of root surface distance to alveolar bone and periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this animal study was to perform a 3-dimensional micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis in order to investigate the influence of root surface distance to the alveolar bone and the periodontal ligament on periodontal wound healing after a guided tissue regeneration (GTR) procedure. Methods Three adult Sus scrofa domesticus specimens were used. The study sample included 6 teeth, corresponding to 2 third mandibular incisors from each animal. After coronectomy, a circumferential bone defect was created in each tooth by means of calibrated piezoelectric inserts. The experimental defects had depths of 3 mm, 5 mm, 7 mm, 9 mm, and 11 mm, with a constant width of 2 mm. One tooth with no defect was used as a control. The defects were covered with a bioresorbable membrane and protected with a flap. After 6 months, the animals were euthanised and tissue blocks were harvested and preserved for micro-CT analysis. Results New alveolar bone was consistently present in all experimental defects. Signs of root resorption were observed in all samples, with the extent of resorption directly correlated to the vertical extent of the defect; the medial third of the root was the most commonly affected area. Signs of ankylosis were recorded in the defects that were 3 mm and 7 mm in depth. Density and other indicators of bone quality decreased with increasing defect depth. Conclusions After a GTR procedure, the periodontal ligament and the alveolar bone appeared to compete in periodontal wound healing. Moreover, the observed decrease in bone quality indicators suggests that intrabony defects beyond a critical size cannot be regenerated. This finding may be relevant for the clinical application of periodontal regeneration, since it implies that GTR has a dimensional limit. PMID:27800213

  1. Pneumatic pressure bioreactor for cyclic hydrostatic stress application: mechanobiology effects on periodontal ligament cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Karl H; El-Awady, Ahmed R; Messer, Regina L W; Sharawy, Mohamed M; White, Greg; Lapp, Carol A

    2011-10-01

    A bioreactor system was developed to provide high-amplitude cyclic hydrostatic compressive stress (cHSC) using compressed air mixed commercially as needed to create partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide appropriate for the cells under investigation. Operating pressures as high as 300 psi are achievable in this system at cyclic speeds of up to 0.2 Hz. In this study, ligamentous fibroblasts from human periodontal ligaments (n = 6) were compressed on two consecutive days at 150 psi for 3 h each day, and the mRNA for families of extracellular matrix protein and protease isoforms was evaluated by real-time PCR array. Several integrins were significantly upregulated, most notably alpha-3 (6.4-fold), as was SPG7 (12.1-fold). Among the collagens, Col8a1 was highly upregulated at 53.5-fold, with Col6a1, Col6a2, and Col7a1 also significantly upregulated 4.4- to 8.5-fold. MMP-1 was the most affected at 122.9-fold upregulation. MMP-14 likewise increased 17.8-fold with slight reductions for the gelatinases and a significant increase of TIMP-2 at 5.8-fold. The development of this bioreactor system and its utility in characterizing periodontal ligament fibroblast mechanobiology in intermediate-term testing hold promise for better simulating the conditions of the musculoskeletal system and the large cyclic compressive stresses joints may experience in gait, exertion, and mastication.

  2. Effects of Plants on Osteogenic Differentiation and Mineralization of Periodontal Ligament Cells: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cláudio Rodrigues Rezende; Amorim, Bruna Rabelo; de Magalhães, Pérola; De Luca Canto, Graziela; Acevedo, Ana Carolina; Guerra, Eliete Neves Silva

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation and mineralization of human periodontal ligament cells. The included studies were selected using five different electronic databases. The reference list of the included studies was crosschecked, and a partial gray literature search was undertaken using Google Scholar and ProQuest. The methodology of the selected studies was evaluated using GRADE. After a two-step selection process, eight studies were identified. Six different types of plants were reported in the selected studies, which were Morinda citrifolia, Aloe vera, Fructus cnidii, Zanthoxylum schinifolium, Centella asiatica, and Epimedium species. They included five types of isolated plant components: acemannan, osthole, hesperetin, asiaticoside, and icariin. In addition, some active substances of these components were identified as polysaccharides, coumarins, flavonoids, and triterpenes. The studies demonstrated the potential effects of plants on osteogenic differentiation, cell proliferation, mineral deposition, and gene and protein expression. Four studies showed that periodontal ligament cells induce mineral deposition after plant treatment. Although there are few studies on the subject, current evidence suggests that plants are potentially useful for the treatment of periodontal diseases. However, further investigations are required to confirm the promising effect of these plants in regenerative treatments.

  3. The Effects of Dense/Nanometer Hydroxyapatite on Proliferation and Osteogenetic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate possible effects of nanometer powder of hydroxyapatite on proliferation of periodontal ligament cells. With sol-gel method, the nanometer hydroxyapatite powder were fabricated. The primary periodontal ligament cells were cultured on dense panicle hydroxyapatite and nanometer particle hydroxyapatite. The effects on proliferation of periodontal ligament cell were examined in vitro with MTT( methyl thiazolil tetracolium) test. The intercellular effects were observed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In addition, the influence of two materials on osteogenetic differentiation was determined with measurement of ALP ( alkaline phosphatase) activity. It is concluded that nanometer hydroxyapatite can promote proliiferation and osteogenetic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells and it may become absorbable agent in osseous restoration.

  4. Dentists' level of knowledge of the treatment plans for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of th...

  5. Periodontal Ligament Cell Sheet Engineering: A new Possible Strategy to Promote Periodontal Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-sheng Zhang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osseointegration represents a direct structural and functional connection between ordered, living bone and the surface of a load-carrying implant without the periodontium. As a result, im-plant fracture or aggressive bone loss sometime occurs because the patient cannot feel the mechanical overloads exerted on the implant. Until now, no available method has been used to solve this problem.The hypothesis: Periodontal ligament (PDL cells are a desirable cell population capable of regenerating a functional periodontal at-tachment apparatus. Cell sheet engineering has emerged as a novel alternative approach for periodontal tissue engineering without the disruption of both critical cell surface proteins such as ion channels, growth factor receptors and cell-to-cell junction proteins. PDL cells can be isolated from an extracted tooth and can be cultured on temperature-responsive culture dishes at 37°C. Transplantable cell sheets can be harvested by reducing the temperature to 20°C, and would be transplanted into the implant beds before insertion of the implant.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Controlling the differentiation of PDL cell sheets to different functional peri-implant periodontal tissues is very difficult. Further studies are required to determine the fate of implanted cells. Fluorescence protein-labeled cell sheets would be a good approach to investigate the fate of the grafted cell sheet.

  6. Biological Behavior of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Simulated Microgravity Environment MA%模拟微重力培养环境下牙周膜干细胞生长状态的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兆峰; 李石; 牛忠英

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the growth status of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in simulated microgravity in vitro. Methods HPDLSCs were isolated and cultivated, then characterized by immunohistochemis-try of stromal cell antigen-1 ( STRO-1). After 21 days of induction, the results were evaluated by Alizarin red staining and oil' 0' staining. HPDLSCs were co-incubated with microcarrier beads of Cytodex-3, and were placed in rotary cell culture system. Cells morphology and proliferation potential were examined. Results HPDLSCs were cultivated, and growth characteristics and multipotent differentiation were assessed. The results showed that hPDLSCs can be cultured in simulated microgravity environment. On the 1st day (t =5. 590, P =0. 005), the 3rd day ( t = 12. 238, P =0.000) , the 5th day (t = 19.124, P = 0.000), the 7th day (t=35. 103, P =0.000), simulated microgravity statistically promoted the proliferation potential compared with cells in normal gravity environment. Conclusion The simulated microgravity culture system has the potential to be used for the bioengineering reconstruction of the periodontal tissues.%目的 探讨模拟微重力培养体系下人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem cells,HPDLSCs)的生长特点.方法 在体外用有限稀释法克隆化生长获得HPDLSCs,接种于葡聚糖微载体,观察在旋转微重力细胞培养环境下与普通重力环境下细胞生长状态的差异.结果 利用克隆生长法成功获取具备多向分化潜能的HPDLSCs,在微重力环境下的微载体表面细胞多呈半球形,少数铺展为不规则扁平形或长梭形,与普通重力环境相比,细胞生长速度明显加快.结论 三维微重力培养环境可以迅速获得大量的HPDLSCs,为构建工程化牙周组织奠定了实验基础.

  7. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  8. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  9. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.D.; Smit, T.H.; Walboomers, X.F.; Everts, V.; Jansen, J.A.; Bronckers, A.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  10. Three-dimensional loading model for periodontal ligament regeneration in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Berendsen; T.H. Smit; X.F. Walboomers; V. Everts; J.A. Jansen; A.L.J.J. Bronckers

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a new three-dimensional (3D) model to study effects of mechanical loading on tendon/ligament formation in vitro. The model mimics a functional periodontal ligament (PDL), which anchors dental roots to the jaw bone and transfers the axial load of mastication to the jaw bone.

  11. LPS from P. gingivalis and Hypoxia Increases Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts and Contributes to Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gölz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is characterized by an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays a key role in the progression of inflammatory diseases. We hypothesize that hypoxic and inflammatory events induce oxidative stress in the periodontal ligament (PDL by activating NOX4. Human primary PDL fibroblasts were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from Porphyromonas gingivalis (LPS-PG, a periodontal pathogen bacterium under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. By quantitative PCR, immunoblot, immunostaining, and a specific ROS assay we determined the amount of NOX4, ROS, and several redox systems. Healthy and inflamed periodontal tissues were collected to evaluate NOX4 and redox systems by immunohistochemistry. We found significantly increased NOX4 levels after hypoxic or inflammatory stimulation in PDL cells (P<0.001 which was even more pronounced after combination of the stimuli. This was accompanied by a significant upregulation of ROS and catalase (P<0.001. However, prolonged incubation with both stimuli induced a reduction of catalase indicating a collapse of the protective machinery favoring ROS increase and the progression of inflammatory oral diseases. Analysis of inflamed tissues confirmed our hypothesis. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the interplay of NOX4 and redox systems is crucial for ROS formation which plays a pivotal role during oral diseases.

  12. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.X.; Deng, T.Z.; Lv, J.; Ke, J. [Department of Stomatology, Air Force General Hospital PLA, Haidian District, Beijing (China)

    2014-09-19

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01) and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05). Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  13. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their receptor (RAGE induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.X. Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs and their receptor (RAGE. We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA, bovine serum albumin (BSA alone, or given no treatment (control. Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80±5.50%, P<0.01 and increased apoptosis (11.31±1.73%, P<0.05. Hoechst 33258 staining and terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling revealed that AGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  14. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE) induce apoptosis of periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D X; Deng, T Z; Lv, J; Ke, J

    2014-12-01

    Diabetics have an increased prevalence of periodontitis, and diabetes is one of the causative factors of severe periodontitis. Apoptosis is thought to be involved in this pathogenic relationship. The aim of this study was to investigate apoptosis in human periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor (RAGE). We examined the roles of apoptosis, AGEs, and RAGE during periodontitis in diabetes mellitus using cultured PDL fibroblasts that were treated by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA) alone, or given no treatment (control). Microscopy and real-time quantitative PCR indicated that PDL fibroblasts treated with AGE-BSA were deformed and expressed higher levels of RAGE and caspase 3. Cell viability assays and flow cytometry indicated that AGE-BSA reduced cell viability (69.80 ± 5.50%, PAGE-BSA significantly increased apoptosis of PDL fibroblasts. The results showed that the changes in PDL fibroblasts induced by AGE-BSA may explain how AGE-RAGE participates in and exacerbates periodontium destruction.

  15. The biomechanical role of periodontal ligament in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth under cyclic biting forces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Nan Zhu; Wei-Dong Yang; Paul V Abbott; Nicolas Martin; Wen-Jia Wei; Jing-Jing Li; Zhi Chen; Wen-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    After teeth are replanted, there are two possible healing responses:periodontal ligament healing or ankylosis with subsequent replacement resorption. The purpose of this study was to compare the fatigue resistance of vertically fractured teeth after bonding the fragments under conditions simulating both healing modes. Thirty-two human premolars were vertically fractured and the fragments were bonded together with Super-Bond C&B. They were then randomly distributed into four groups (BP, CP, CA, BA). The BP and CP groups were used to investigate the periodontal ligament healing mode whilst the BA and CA groups simulated ankylosis. All teeth had root canal treatment performed. Metal crowns were constructed for the CP and CA groups. The BP and BA groups only had composite resin restorations in the access cavities. All specimens were subjected to a 260 N load at 4 Hz until failure of the bond or until 23106 cycles had been reached if no fracture occurred. Cracks were detected by stereomicroscope imaging and also assessed via dye penetration tests. Finally, interfaces of the resin luting agent were examined by scanning electron microscope. The results confirmed that the fatigue resistance was higher in the groups with simulated periodontal ligament healing. Periodontal reattachment showed important biomechanical role in bonded and replanted vertically fractured teeth.

  16. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Isolated from the Periodontium of Healthy Teeth and Periodontitis-Affected Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soheilifar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Stem cell (SC therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients.Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment. Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test.Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035. The proliferation ability (population doubling time of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02.Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth.Keywords: Stem Cells; Periodontitis; Tooth; Regeneration

  17. Effect of storage media on the proliferation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, H.C.; Mueller, J.G.; Gross, J.; Horster, M.F.

    1987-07-01

    The effect of storage media, which are routinely used in replantation, upon the proliferative capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, was compared with the effect of a tissue culture medium. The periodontal tissue was obtained from mandibular central incisors of White New Zealand rabbits. The experiments were performed in fibroblasts derived during second subculture. The storage media were physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol; the tissue culture medium was alpha-minimum essential medium without nucleosides. The incubation period was 1 hour. (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation and cell counts were taken to indicate changes in the proliferative capacity of the fibroblasts. The tissue culture experiments showed that the proliferative ability of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts was dependent upon the composition of the storage medium. Physiologic salt solution, Ringer's solution and Rivanol were unable to maintain the metabolism of the fibroblasts. alpha-MEM medium, however, was capable of stimulating proliferation of the periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

  18. Inclusion of the periodontal ligament in studies on the biomechanical behavior of fiber post-retained restorations: An in vitro study and three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Lluch, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Forner, Leopoldo; Barjau, Amaya

    2016-03-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Periodontal ligament may influence fracture resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of including the periodontal ligament in biomechanical studies about endodontically treated and restored teeth. Forty human maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and randomly divided into four groups: non-crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) and crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) with glass-ceramic crowns. All groups received prefabricated glass-fiber posts and a composite resin core. Specimens were tested, under a flexural-compressive load, until failure occurred. The failure mode was registered for all specimens. The failure loads were recorded and analyzed using an analysis of variance test (p teeth and in core in non-crowned groups. For non-crowned teeth, adhesive failure occurred along the cement-enamel junction with a slight tendency in specimens without periodontal ligament. Furthermore, an unfavorable failure mode affects partially the root with no differences regarding non-crown specimens. In crowned teeth, the tendency was an adhesive failure along the cement-enamel junction. The model predicted a distribution of the safety factor consistent with these results. This study showed that inclusion of periodontal ligament is not particularly important on biomechanical behavior of post-retained restorations. However, we recommend its inclusion in fatigue studies.

  19. Extracellular matrix derived from periodontal ligament cells maintains their stemness and enhances redifferentiation via the Wnt pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Chun; Song, Zhong-Chen; Xia, Yi-Ru; Shu, Rong

    2017-09-07

    Large numbers of viable cells cannot be obtained from periodontal ligament tissues of patients with periodontitis. Therefore, it is imperative to establish an ex vivo environment that can support cell proliferation and delay senescence. Here, we have successfully reconstructed a native extracellular matrix (ECM), derived from early-passage human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) using the NH4 OH/Triton X-100 protocol. The ECM was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining for specific ECM proteins (collagen I and fibronectin). Late-passage ECM-expanded PDLCs exhibited a much higher proliferation index and lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed by the increased expression of pluripotent markers. and enhanced osteogenic capacity. Interestingly, the Wnt pathway was suppressed during the ECM expansion-mediated increase in pluripotency, but was activated in an osteogenic differentiation environment, as confirmed by treatment with the XAV-939 β-catenin inhibitor or the SP600125 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. Cell sheets formed by ECM-expanded PDLCs exhibited an enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration capacity compared to those formed on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces in vivo. Taken together, the cell-free ECM provides a tissue-specific cell niche for the ex vivo expansion of PDLCs while retaining stemness and osteogenic potential, partially via the Wnt pathway. This represents a promising matrix for future applications in periodontal tissue regeneration therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Isolated from the Periodontium of Healthy Teeth and Periodontitis-Affected Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheilifar, Sara; Amiri, Iraj; Bidgoli, Mohsen; Hedayatipanah, Morad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Stem cell (SC) therapy is a promising technique for tissue regeneration. This study aimed to compare the viability and proliferation ability of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontium of healthy and periodontitis-affected teeth to obtain an autologous, easily accessible source of SCs for tissue regeneration in periodontitis patients. Materials and Methods: The PDLSCs were isolated from the roots of clinically healthy premolars extracted for orthodontic purposes and periodontally involved teeth with hopeless prognosis (with and without phase I periodontal treatment). Cells were cultured and viability and proliferation ability of third passage cells in each group were evaluated using the methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results were statistically analyzed using t-test. Results: No SCs could be obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth without phase I periodontal treatment. The viability of cells was 0.86±0.13 OD/540 in healthy group and 0.4±0.25 OD/540 in periodontitis-affected group (P=0.035). The proliferation ability (population doubling time) of cells obtained from healthy teeth was 4.22±1.23 hours. This value was 2.3±0.35 hours for those obtained from periodontitis-affected teeth (P=0.02). Conclusions: Viability and proliferation ability of cells isolated from the periodontium of healthy teeth were significantly greater than those of cells isolated from the periodontitis-affected teeth.

  1. Biological transport of cefotaxime sodium by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%人牙周膜成纤维细胞对头孢噻肟钠的跨膜转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇; 刘洪臣; 吴霞; 鄂玲玲; 冷斌

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, HPDLF)对头孢噻肟钠的跨膜转运,为根管牙周局部及全身给药假说提供实验依据.方法:头孢噻肟钠溶液孵育HPDLF和MC3T3-E1细胞,超声破碎细胞后,HPLC测定不同时间点的胞内药物含量,考马斯亮蓝法测定细胞蛋白总量.结果:100 μg/ml的头孢噻肟钠孵育1、5、10 min时HPDLF胞内含量分别是(0.104±0.030) ng/μg、(0.151±0.007) ng/μg、(0.161±0.046) ng/μg;孵育5 min时, MC3T3-E1胞内含量(0.096±0.027) ng/μg.结论:HPLC可用于细胞内头孢噻肟钠的测定.头孢噻肟钠在HPDLF内存在跨膜转运,这种转运存在着细胞差异.%Objective: To investigate biological transport of cefotaxime sodium by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLF) to verify the hypothesis of delivering medicine to periodontium and the whole body through the root canal. Methods; HPDLF and MC3T3-El cells were incubated in cefotaxime sodium solutions. The intracellular antibiotics contents were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the total proteins were measured by Bradford protein assay. Results: The HPDLF intracellular contents were (0.104 ±0.030) ng/μg, (0. 151 ±0.007) ng/μg, (0. 161 ±0.046) ng/μg at 1, 5, 10 min respectively, when incubated in 100 μg/ml antibiotics solution. The MC3T3-E1 intracellular content was (0.096 ±0.027) ng/μg at 5 min, when incubated in 100 H#/ml antibiotics solution. Conclusion; HPLC is an accurate, sensitive method for measurement of the intracellular antibiotics. Cefotaxime sodium can be transported by HPDLF. The transport is time-dependent and cell specific.

  2. Dental trauma involving root fracture and periodontal ligament injury: a 10-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Regina Panzarini

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this retrospective study was to analyze the cases of traumatic dental injuries involving root fracture and/or periodontal ligament injury (except avulsion treated at the Discipline of Integrated Clinic, School of Dentistry of Araçatuba, São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil, from January 1992 to December 2002. Clinical and radiographic records from 161 patients with 287 traumatized teeth that had sustained root fracture and/or injuries to the periodontal ligament were examined. The results of this survey revealed that subluxation (25.09% was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury, followed by extrusive luxation (19.86%. There was a predominance of young male patients and most of them did not present systemic alterations. Among the etiologic factors, the most frequent causes were falls and bicycle accidents. Injuries on extraoral soft tissues were mostly laceration and abrasion, while gingival and lip mucosa lacerations prevailed on intraoral soft tissues injuries. Radiographically, the most common finding was an increase of the periodontal ligament space. The most commonly performed treatment was root canal therapy. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that traumatic dental injuries occur more frequently in young male individuals, due to falls and bicycle accidents. Subluxation was the most common type of periodontal ligament injury. Root canal therapy was the type of treatment most commonly planned and performed.

  3. 人牙周膜干细胞的分离培养及体外诱导分化研究%Isolation, Identification and Differentiation Induction of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 徐婕; 刘宏伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and identify the periodontal ligament stem cells. Methods: Periodontal ligament cells (PDLSCs) were obtained from healthy young human teeth extracted for orthodontic reason. PDLSCs were isolated by limited dilute method. Immunohistochemistry procedure was employed to detect the surface marker of the cloned cells. Multidirectional differentiation potential of PDLSCs were evaluated. Results: The acquired cells had clonality. The test of the cells in vimentin and STRO-1 proved positive, and their multidirectional differentiation ability was confirmed in vitro. Conclusion; Cloning incubation may be the effective way to isolate and purify the periodontal ligament stem cells. The acquired cells showed the characteristics of stem cells.%目的:从成体人牙周组织中分离培养牙周膜干细胞,研究其生物学特性并进行诱导分化,为牙周组织工程提供可靠的种子细胞来源.方法:选取12~20岁的年轻患者因正畸拔除的健康牙齿,采用酶消化组织块培养法得到牙周膜细胞,待细胞达一定量后用有限元稀释法进行单细胞克隆,筛选牙周膜干细胞( PDLSCs).计算细胞克隆形成率(CFU- F);免疫细胞化学染色检测细胞的表面蛋白表达;通过对牙周膜干细胞进行体外成骨、成软骨、成脂肪诱导,检测其多向分化潜能.结果:获得纯化的人牙周膜干细胞,其在体外具有一定的克隆形成能力,该细胞免疫细胞化学检测显示波形丝蛋白(vimentin)、STRO-1表达阳性,诱导条件下可向成骨细胞、软骨细胞、脂肪细胞方向分化,符合干细胞的特征.结论:从人年轻恒牙牙周膜中可以分离培养得到牙周膜干细胞,其具有较高的增殖能力和间充质干细胞表面特征,在体外诱导下能分化为成骨样细胞、软骨细胞、脂肪细胞,证实该细胞具有多向分化能力,具有作为牙周组织工程种子细胞来源的可能,为牙周组织工程的应用奠定了实验基础.

  4. 乏氧微环境下机械应力对人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的影响%Effects of mechanical stress on osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells under hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许悦; 李璐; 徐艳

    2016-01-01

    人牙周膜干细胞是牙周组织中具有自我更新和多向分化潜能的一类成体干细胞,在特定诱导条件下可以成骨分化。牙周膜处于一个相对乏氧的环境,人牙周膜干细胞在牙周膜中承载着多种机械应力。探讨乏氧环境下机械应力对人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的影响更接近于体内环境,更有助于获得真实的牙周组织改建的实验室资料。该文对乏氧微环境下机械应力对人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的影响做一系统性回顾。%Human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs), which reside in the perivascular space of the periodontium, are a kind of adult stem cells with self-renewal capacity and potential of multi-directional differentiation, and are able to induce osteogenic differentiation under specific condition. The periodontium exists in a hypoxic microenvironment and the hPDLSCs constitutively receive mechanical stress. The aim of this review is to get the laboratory data of periodontal tissue reconstruction by reviewing relevant literature that assesses the effects of tensile stress on osteogenic differentiation of hPLSCs under hypoxia.

  5. Differentiation of Human Periodontal Ligament Cell Populations to Cementoblasts under Induction of Emdogain: A Preliminary Study%Emdogain诱导人牙周膜细胞群向成牙骨质细胞分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟永荣; 轩东英; 黄雁红; 谢宝仪; 章锦才

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨人牙周膜细胞群(human periodontal ligament cell populations,hPDLPs)在Emdogain(EMD,商品化的猪釉基质蛋白)诱导下生物学特性的改变.方法 组织块法分离培养牙周膜细胞,用含100 mg/L EMD的培养液诱导6 d,光镜下观察细胞形态改变,扫描电镜观察细胞在牙骨质片上的形态变化.免疫细胞化学检测成牙骨质细胞相关矿化蛋白:骨涎蛋白(bone sialoprotein,BSP)、Ⅰ型胶原蛋白(collagen Ⅰ,COLⅠ)的表达.结果 EMD诱导后细胞由长梭形向多角形的类成牙骨质细胞分化.免疫组织化学检测结果显示诱导后BSP、COLⅠ的表达增强.结论 EMD可以诱导人牙周膜细胞群向类成牙骨质细胞方向分化.

  6. Migration of periodontal ligament fibroblasts on nanometric topographical patterns: influence of filopodia and focal adhesions on contact guidance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas W Hamilton

    Full Text Available Considered to be the "holy grail" of dentistry, regeneration of the periodontal ligament in humans remains a major clinical problem. Removal of bacterial biofilms is commonly achieved using EDTA gels or lasers. One side effect of these treatment regimens is the etching of nanotopographies on the surface of the tooth. However, the response of periodontal ligament fibroblasts to such features has received very little attention. Using laser interference lithography, we fabricated precisely defined topographies with continuous or discontinuous nanogrooves to assess the adhesion, spreading and migration of PDL fibroblasts. PDL fibroblasts adhered to and spread on all tested surfaces, with initial spreading and focal adhesion formation slower on discontinuous nanogrooves. Cells had a significantly smaller planar area on both continuous and discontinuous nanogrooves in comparison with cells on non-patterned controls. At 24 h post seeding, cells on both types of nanogrooves were highly elongated parallel to the groove long axis. Time-lapse video microscopy revealed that PDL fibroblast movement was guided on both types of grooves, but migration velocity was not significantly different from cells cultured on non-patterned controls. Analysis of filopodia formation using time-lapse video microscopy and labeling of vinculin and F-actin revealed that on nanogrooves, filopodia were highly aligned at both ends of the cell, but with increasing time filopodia and membrane protrusions developed at the side of the cell perpendicular to the cell long axis. We conclude that periodontal ligament fibroblasts are sensitive to nanotopographical depths of 85-100 µm, which could be utilized in regeneration of the periodontal ligament.

  7. Micro-Raman Spectroscopy for Monitoring Changes in Periodontal Ligaments and Gingival Crevicular Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Camerlingo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-Raman Spectroscopy is an efficient method for analyzing biological specimens due to its sensitivity to subtle chemical and structural changes. The aim of this study was to use micro-Raman spectroscopy to analyze chemical and structural changes in periodontal ligament after orthodontic force application and in gingival crevicular fluid in presence of periodontal disease. The biopsy of periodontal ligament samples of premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons and the gingival crevicular fluid samples collected by using absorbent paper cones; were analyzed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Changes of the secondary protein structure related to different times of orthodontic force application were reported; whereas an increase of carotene was revealed in patients affected by periodontal inflammation.

  8. Trophic factors from adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells promote cytodifferentiation of periodontal ligament cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawada, Keigo [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Takedachi, Masahide, E-mail: takedati@dent.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Yamamoto, Satomi; Morimoto, Chiaki; Ozasa, Masao; Iwayama, Tomoaki [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan); Lee, Chun Man [Medical Center for Translational Research, Osaka University Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Okura, Hanayuki; Matsuyama, Akifumi [Research on Disease Bioresources, Platform of Therapeutics for Rare Disease, National Institute of Biomedical Innovation, Osaka (Japan); Kitamura, Masahiro; Murakami, Shinya [Department of Periodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-08-14

    Stem and progenitor cells are currently being investigated for their applicability in cell-based therapy for periodontal tissue regeneration. We recently demonstrated that the transplantation of adipose tissue-derived multi-lineage progenitor cells (ADMPCs) enhances periodontal tissue regeneration in beagle dogs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which transplanted ADMPCs induce periodontal tissue regeneration remain to be elucidated. In this study, trophic factors released by ADMPCs were examined for their paracrine effects on human periodontal ligament cell (HPDL) function. ADMPC conditioned medium (ADMPC-CM) up-regulated osteoblastic gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity and calcified nodule formation in HPDLs, but did not significantly affect their proliferative response. ADMPCs secreted a number of growth factors, including insulin-like growth factor binding protein 6 (IGFBP6), hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. Among these, IGFBP6 was most highly expressed. Interestingly, the positive effects of ADMPC-CM on HPDL differentiation were significantly suppressed by transfecting ADMPCs with IGFBP6 siRNA. Our results suggest that ADMPCs transplanted into a defect in periodontal tissue release trophic factors that can stimulate the differentiation of HPDLs to mineralized tissue-forming cells, such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. IGFBP6 may play crucial roles in ADMPC-induced periodontal regeneration. - Highlights: • ADMPC-derived humoral factors stimulate cytodifferentiation of HPDLs. • ADMPCs secret growth factors including IGFBP6, VEGF and HGF. • IGFBP6 is involved in the promotion effect of ADMPC-CM on HPDL cytodifferentiation.

  9. Degenerative alterations of the cementum-periodontal ligament complex and early tooth loss in a young patient with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruţiu, S A; Buiga, Petronela; Roman, Alexandra; Danciu, Theodora; Mihu, Carmen Mihaela; Mihu, D

    2012-01-01

    Premature exfoliation of primary or permanent teeth in children or adolescents is extremely rare and it can be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. This study aims to present the histological aspects associated with early tooth loss in a case of periodontal disease developed without local inflammation and with minimal periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The maxillary left second premolar was extracted together with a gingival collar attached to the root surface. The histological analysis recorded the resorption of the cementum in multiple areas of the entire root surface with the connective tissue of the desmodontium invading the lacunae defects. The connective tissue rich in cells occupied the periodontal ligamentar space and the resorptive areas. No inflammation was obvious in the periodontal ligament connective tissue. This report may warn clinicians about the possibility of the association of cemental abnormalities with early tooth loss.

  10. Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Forces on Gene Transcription in Periodontal Ligament Cells in Vitro

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    Seyed Nasser Ostad

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological mechanisms of tooth movement are based on the response of periodontal tissues to mechanical forces. The final result of these responses is remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Tissue reactions may vary depending upon the type, magnitude and duration of the applied forces. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of centrifugal force on the transcription of collagen type-I (Col-I, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase- 1 (TIMP-1 genes in human periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts. Human fibroblasts obtained from the PDL were cultured and subjected to centrifugal forces (36.3 g/cm2 for 30, 60 and 90 min continuously. This was also carried out interruptedly, three times for 30 min and six times for 15 min. The mRNAs encoding for Col-I, MMP-1, and TIMP-1 were quantified using RT-PCR. The mRNA levels of Col-I and MMP-1 were increased when continuous force was applied for 30 min and 60 min respectively. The interrupted force had almost no effect on Col-I, MMP-1 and TIMP-1 genes. These results indicate that continuous forces may have a greater effect in inducing gene expression during the remodeling process of PDL compared to interrupted forces with short rest periods.

  11. Effect of Calcitriol on Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells to Osteoblasts

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    Soheilifar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Periodontium may be able to respond to injuries by regeneration via the function of stem cells. Objectives This study sought to assess the differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs into osteoblasts in standard osteogenic medium and in a medium supplemented with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, PDLSCs were isolated under sterile conditions by scraping the periodontal ligament tissues attached to the middle third of the root surface of extracted teeth, which were obtained from patients who were candidates for orthodontics therapy in the dental faculty at Hamadan University. The collected cells were cultured on four culture plates for 24 hours. Group 1 contained a basic medium (α-MEM, containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS, 5 mM β-glycerophosphate, and 50 μg/mL l-ascorbic acid, supplemented with 10 - 8 M dexamethasone. Group 2 contained a basic medium supplemented with vitamin D3. Group 3 contained a basic medium supplemented with vitamin D3 and dexamethasone, Group4 contained negative control cultures. Alizarin red staining (ARS, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and calcium content (CC tests were performed to evaluate osteogenic differentiation of third passage cells in the developing adherent layer. Results Quantitative analysis of ARS demonstrated that mineralized nodule formation was highest in the group supplemented with calcitriol and dexamethasone (P < 0.001. Results of the ALP test on day 28 demonstrated the highest ALP activity in the group supplemented with calcitriol (P < 0.001. The amount of CC was lowest in the control group at all-time points, and was highest in the group supplemented with both calcitriol and dexamethasone on day 28 (P < 0.001. Conclusions The combination of calcitriol with dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and beta-glycerophosphate (that is, the osteogenic medium may be beneficial for differentiation of PDLSCs into osteoblasts.

  12. Effect of thermoplastic appliance thickness on initial stress distribution in periodontal ligament

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    De-Shin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation into the initial stress distribution induced within the periodontal ligament by thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses is performed. Based on the plaster model of a 25-year-old male patient, a finite element model of the maxillary lateral incisors and their supporting structures is constructed. In addition, four finite element models of thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses in the range of 0.5–1.25 mm are also constructed based on the same plaster model. Finite element analysis simulations are performed to examine the effects of the force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances on the stress response of the periodontal ligament during the elastic recovery process. The results show that the stress induced in the periodontal ligament increases with an increasing appliance thickness. For example, the stress triples from 0.0012 to 0.0038 MPa as the appliance thickness is increased from 0.75 to 1.25 mm. The results presented in this study provide a useful insight into as a result of the compressive and tensile stresses induced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses. Moreover, the results enable the periodontal ligament stress levels produced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses to be reliably estimated.

  13. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonsdottir, S.H.; Giesen, E.B.W.; Maltha, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five y

  14. Periodontal ligament formation around different types of dental titanium implants. I. The self-tapping screw type implant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, K; Karring, T; Gotfredsen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a periodontal ligament can form around self-tapping, screw type titanium dental implants. Implants were inserted in contact with the periodontal ligament of root tips retained in the mandibular jaws of 7 monkeys. In each side of the mandible, 1 premolar......, a periodontal ligament can form on self-tapping, screw type titanium dental implants in areas where a void is present between the surrounding bone and the implant at the time of insertion....

  15. Enhanced compatibility of chemically modified titanium surface with periodontal ligament cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kado, T.; Hidaka, T. [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Aita, H. [Division of Occlusion and Removable Prosthodontics, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Endo, K. [Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Furuichi, Y., E-mail: furuichi@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp [Division of Periodontology and Endodontology, Department of Oral Rehabilitation, School of Dentistry, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Kanazawa, Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell-adhesive molecules were covalently immobilized on a Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized cell-adhesive molecules maintained native function on the Ti surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Immobilized collagen enhanced adhesion of periodontal ligament cells to the Ti. - Abstract: A simple chemical modification method was developed to immobilize cell-adhesive molecules on a titanium surface to improve its compatibility with human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs).The polished titanium disk was immersed in 1% (v/v) p-vinylbenzoic acid solution for 2 h to introduce carboxyl groups onto the surface. After rinsing with distilled deionized water, the titanium disk was dipped into 1.47% 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide solution containing 0.1 mg/ml Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS), human plasma fibronectin (pFN), or type I collagen from calf skin (Col) to covalently immobilize the cell-adhesive molecules on the titanium surface via formation of peptide bonds. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that cell-adhesive molecules were successfully immobilized on the titanium surfaces. The Col-immobilized titanium surface revealed higher values regarding nano rough characteristics than the as-polished titanium surface under scanning probe microscopy. The number of HPDLCs attached to both the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces was twice that attached to the as-polished titanium surfaces. The cells were larger with the cellular processes that stretched to a greater extent on the pFN- and Col-immobilized titanium surfaces than on the as-polished titanium surface (p < 0.05). HPDLCs on the Col-immobilized titanium surfaces showed more extensive expression of vinculin at the tips of cell projections and more contiguously along the cell outline than on the as-polished, GRGDS-immobilized and pFN-immobilized titanium surfaces. It was concluded that cell-adhesive molecules successfully

  16. Role of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez in the development, maintenance and regeneration of periodontal ligament tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jimin; Gronthos, Stan; Bartold, P Mark

    2013-10-01

    Periodontitis is a highly prevalent inflammatory disease that results in damage to the tooth-supporting tissues, potentially leading to tooth loss. Periodontal tissue regeneration is a complex process that involves the collaboration of two hard tissues (cementum and alveolar bone) and two soft tissues (gingiva and periodontal ligament). To date, no periodontal-regenerative procedures provide predictable clinical outcomes. To understand the rational basis of regenerative procedures, a better understanding of the events associated with the formation of periodontal components will help to establish reliable strategies for clinical practice. An important aspect of this is the role of the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in periodontal development and that of its descendants, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, in the maintenance of the periodontium. An important structure during tooth root development, the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath is not only a barrier between the dental follicle and dental papilla cells but is also involved in determining the shape, size and number of roots and in the development of dentin and cementum, and may act as a source of mesenchymal progenitor cells for cementoblasts. In adulthood, the epithelial cell rests of Malassez are the only odontogenic epithelial population in the periodontal ligament. Although there is no general agreement on the functions of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez, accumulating evidence suggests that the putative roles of the epithelial cell rests of Malassez in adult periodontal ligament include maintaining periodontal ligament homeostasis to prevent ankylosis and maintain periodontal ligament space, to prevent root resorption, to serve as a target during periodontal ligament innervation and to contribute to cementum repair. Recently, ovine epithelial cell rests of Malassez cells have been shown to harbor clonogenic epithelial stem-cell populations that demonstrate similar properties to mesenchymal stromal

  17. 干细胞在牙周病学中的应用进展%The application of periodontal ligament stem cells in periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢军; 陆玉林; 曹庆堂

    2014-01-01

    牙周病是造成牙齿缺失的常见病因之一。随着对干细胞的深入研究,牙周膜干细胞得以从牙周膜提取分离,具有分化成牙周组织细胞的能力。通过分析近年的组织工程学文章,探讨牙周膜干细胞的应用前景。%Periodontal disease is one of the common cause of tooth loss.With the in-depth study of stem cells,periodontal ligament stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament tissue, has the ability to differentiate into periodontal tissue cells. To analyze articles tissue engineering in recent years, this article discussed the application prospect of the periodontal ligament stem cell.

  18. 人参皂苷Rg1促进人牙周膜干细胞增殖与成骨分化%Promotion of ginsenoside Rg1 on proliferation and osteogenic potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萍; 周玥; 王亚平; 屈晨

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察人参皂苷Rg1对体外培养的人牙周膜干细胞(periodontal ligament stem cells,PDLSCs)增殖和成骨分化的影响.方法 选取第3代PDLSCs,采用MTT法和细胞周期检测不同浓度(0.25、0.5、1、2、4μmol/L)人参皂苷Rg1对PDLSCs增殖的影响;采用碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活性、实时荧光定量RT-PCR和放免法检测人参皂苷Rg1对PDLSCs成骨分化的影响;采用ELISA方法检测人参皂苷Rg1对PDLSCs碱性成纤维细胞生长因子(basic fibroblast growth factor,bFGF)表达的影响.结果 与对照组比较,浓度为0.5、1、2μmol/L的人参皂苷Rg1能明显提高PDLSCs的增殖能力(P<0.05),其中浓度为1μmol/L的促增殖作用最强,S+G2/M期细胞百分率明显高于对照组(P<0.05);浓度为1μmol/L的人参皂苷Rg1组ALP活性、骨钙素(osteocalcin,OCN)和bFGF的表达水平明显高于对照组(P<0.05).结论 人参皂苷Rg1对体外培养的PDLSCs有促进增殖和成骨分化的作用.%Objective To evaluate the effect of ginsenoside Rgl on the proliferation and osteogenic potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).Methods PDLSCs at passage 3 were incubated with different concentrations of ginsenoside Rg1 (0.25,0.5,1,2 and 4 μmol/L).The effect of ginsenoside Rg1 on the proliferative ability of PDLSCs was evaluated by MTT assay,and flow cytometry was used for detecting cell cycle.The osteogenic potential of the cells was assayed by ALP enzymatic activity,realtime RT-PCR and radioimmunoassay,respectively.Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results Compared with the control group,the proliferative ability of PDLSCs in ginsenoside Rg1 groups (0.5,1 and 2 μmol/L) was significantly enhanced (P <0.05),especially in the ginsenoside Rg1 group (1 μmol/L).Cell cycle analysis showed that ginsenoside Rg1 (1 μmol/L) significantly increased the proportion of PDLSCs in proliferative phase (S + G2/M phase).ALP activity and the

  19. DKK1 rescues osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from periodontal ligaments of patients with diabetes mellitus induced periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Zhou, Cui-Hong; Cui, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Kun; Deng, Chao; Xia, Jia-Jia; Wu, Yan; Liu, Lu-Chuan; Jin, Yan

    2015-08-17

    Multiple studies have shown that diabetes mellitus is an established risk factor for periodontitis. Recently mesenchymal stem cells derived from periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) have been utilized to reconstruct tissues destroyed by chronic inflammation. However, impact of periodontitis with diabetes mellitus on PDLSCs and mechanisms mediating effects of complex microenvironments remain poorly understood. In this study, we found multiple differentiation potential of PDLSCs from chronic periodontitis with diabetes mellitus donors (D-PDLSCs) was damaged significantly. Inhibition of NF-κB signaling could rescue osteogenic potential of PDLSCs from simple chronic periodontitis patients (P-PDLSCs), whereas did not promote D-PDLSCs osteogenesis. In addition, we found expression of DKK1 in D-PDLSCs did not respond to osteogenic signal and decreased osteogenic potential of D-PDLSCs treated with DKK1 could be reversed. To further elucidate different character between P-PDLSCs and D-PDLSCs, we treated PDLSCs with TNF-α and advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and find out AGEs which enhance effect of TNF-α in PDLSCs might mediate special personality of D-PDLSCs. The adverse effect of AGEs in PDLSCs could be reversed when PDLSCs were treated with DKK1. These results suggested DKK1 mediating WNT signaling might be a therapy target to rescue potential of PDLSCs in periodontitis with diabetes mellitus.

  20. Influence of nanotopography on periodontal ligament stem cell functions and cell sheet based periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hui Gao,1–3,* Bei Li,1,2,* Lingzhou Zhao,4 Yan Jin1,21State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Center for Tissue Engineering, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 2Research and Development Center for Tissue Engineering, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, 3Department of Stomatology, PLA 309th Hospital, Beijing, 4State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Periodontal regeneration is an important part of regenerative medicine, with great clinical significance; however, the effects of nanotopography on the functions of periodontal ligament (PDL stem cells (PDLSCs and on PDLSC sheet based periodontal regeneration have never been explored. Titania nanotubes (NTs layered on titanium (Ti provide a good platform to study this. In the current study, the influence of NTs of different tube size on the functions of PDLSCs was observed. Afterward, an ectopic implantation model using a Ti/cell sheets/hydroxyapatite (HA complex was applied to study the effect of the NTs on cell sheet based periodontal regeneration. The NTs were able to enhance the initial PDLSC adhesion and spread, as well as collagen secretion. With the Ti/cell sheets/HA complex model, it was demonstrated that the PDLSC sheets were capable of regenerating the PDL tissue, when combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC sheets and HA, without the need for extra soluble chemical cues. Simultaneously, the NTs improved the periodontal regeneration result of the ectopically implanted Ti/cell sheets/HA complex, giving rise to functionally aligned collagen fiber bundles. Specifically, much denser collagen fibers, with abundant blood vessels as well as cementum-like tissue on the Ti surface, which well-resembled the structure of natural PDL

  1. Effect of platelet-derived growth factor beta on in vitro proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells%血小板衍化生长因子β对体外人牙周膜细胞增殖分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林景广; 亓峰; 葛一鸣; 韩杰

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periodontal supporting tissues destroy and attachment losses are the main reasons for tooth loss. Cytokine can promote periodontal tissue regeneration.OBJECTIVE: To research the effect of platelet-derived growth factor- β (PDGF-β) in the human periodontal ligament cells proliferation.METHODS: Human fibroblasts were cultured with tissue block method in vitro. The passaged cells were identified by Bosi protein,keratin immunohistochemistry for qualitative analysis. PDGF-β was added to induce periodontal ligament cells proliferation, and the absorbance value was measured by MTT method.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The cell proliferation was accelerated after adding 10 μg/L PDGF-β factor, the absorbance value of the experimental group was greater than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The findings demonstrated that PDGF-β can promote the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells.%背景:牙周支持组织破坏及附着丧失是导致失牙的最主要原因,细胞因子能促进牙周组织再生形成新附着.目的:观察血小板衍化生长因子β在人牙周膜成纤维细胞增殖过程中的作用.方法:体外利用组织块法培养人牙周膜成纤维细胞,对传代后细胞进行组织来源鉴定,通过波丝蛋白、角蛋白免疫组化染色进行定性分析,并加入生物因子血小板衍化生长因子β对人牙周膜成纤维细胞进行增殖诱导,采用MTT 法测定吸光度值.结果与结论:加入质量浓度为10 μg/L 的血小板衍化生长因子β后,细胞增殖加速,在加入生长因子血小板衍化生长因子β后,实验组的吸光度显著高于对照组,说明血小板衍化生长因子β对人牙周膜成纤维细胞的增殖具有明显的促进作用.

  2. Crucial role of Notch signaling in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, S Q; Gao, Y M; Li, Jin; Zhang, Bin

    2014-06-01

    Estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis typically occurs in postmenopausal women and has been strongly associated with periodontal diseases. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) isolated from the periodontal ligament can differentiate into many types of specialized cells, including osteoblast-like cells that contribute to periodontal tissue repair. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved and associated with self-renewal potential and cell-fate determination. Recently, several studies have focused on the relationship between Notch signaling and osteogenic differentiation. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this relationship are largely unknown. We have successfully isolated PDLSCs from both ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated rats. Both the mRNA and protein levels of Notch1 and Jagged1 were upregulated when PDLSCs were cultured in osteogenic induction media. Mineralization assays showed decreased calcium deposits in OVX-PDLSCs treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor compared with control cells. Thus Notch signaling is important in maintaining the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in osteoporotic rats, which help in the development of a potential therapeutic strategy for periodontal disease in postmenopausal women.

  3. The periodontal ligament (PDL) injection: an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F

    1982-02-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) injection for mandibular anesthesia in isolated regions was evaluated, using both a conventional syringe and two devices designed for this procedure. A high success rate was achieved, with a low incidence of adverse reaction and highly favorable comment from both patients and administrators. Duration of pulpal anesthesia following the technique described proved adequate for most dental procedures. The newer devices appear to have some advantage over the conventional syringe technique. However, the PDL injection technique can readily be used with any conventional syringe. Further study is recommended to determine the response of periodontal and pulpal tissues.

  4. Tri-Layered Nanocomposite Hydrogel Scaffold for the Concurrent Regeneration of Cementum, Periodontal Ligament, and Alveolar Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, S; Mony, Ullas; Jayachandran, P; Reshma, S; Kumar, R Arun; Arzate, H; Nair, Shantikumar V; Jayakumar, R

    2017-04-01

    A tri-layered scaffolding approach is adopted for the complete and concurrent regeneration of hard tissues-cementum and alveolar bone-and soft tissue-the periodontal ligament (PDL)-at a periodontal defect site. The porous tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold is composed of chitin-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/nanobioactive glass ceramic (nBGC)/cementum protein 1 as the cementum layer, chitin-PLGA/fibroblast growth factor 2 as the PDL layer, and chitin-PLGA/nBGC/platelet-rich plasma derived growth factors as the alveolar bone layer. The tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold is cytocompatible and favored cementogenic, fibrogenic, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental follicle stem cells. In vivo, tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with/without growth factors is implanted into rabbit maxillary periodontal defects and compared with the controls at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with growth factors demonstrates complete defect closure and healing with new cancellous-like tissue formation on microcomputed tomography analysis. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses further confirm the formation of new cementum, fibrous PDL, and alveolar bone with well-defined bony trabeculae in comparison to the other three groups. In conclusion, the tri-layered nanocomposite hydrogel scaffold with growth factors can serve as an alternative regenerative approach to achieve simultaneous and complete periodontal regeneration. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Jawbone microenvironment promotes periodontium regeneration by regulating the function of periodontal ligament stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Liu, Wenjia; Liu, Yihan; Zhao, Xicong; Zhang, Hao; Luo, Zhuojing; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    During tooth development, the jawbone interacts with dental germ and provides the development microenvironment. Jawbone-derived mesenchymal stem cells (JBMSCs) maintain this microenvironment for root and periodontium development. However, the effect of the jawbone microenvironment on periodontium tissue regeneration is largely elusive. Our previous study showed that cell aggregates (CAs) of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells promoted periodontium regeneration on the treated dentin scaffold. Here, we found that JBMSCs enhanced not only the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) but also their adhesion to titanium (Ti) material surface. Importantly, the compound CAs of PDLSCs and JBMSCs regenerated periodontal ligament-like fibers and mineralized matrix on the Ti scaffold surface, both in nude mice ectopic and minipig orthotopic transplantations. Our data revealed that an effective regenerative microenvironment, reconstructed by JBMSCs, promoted periodontium regeneration by regulating PDLSCs function on the Ti material. PMID:28053317

  6. Porphyromonas gingivalis GroEL induces osteoclastogenesis of periodontal ligament cells and enhances alveolar bone resorption in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Yen Lin

    Full Text Available Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major periodontal pathogen that contains a variety of virulence factors. The antibody titer to P. gingivalis GroEL, a homologue of HSP60, is significantly higher in periodontitis patients than in healthy control subjects, suggesting that P. gingivalis GroEL is a potential stimulator of periodontal disease. However, the specific role of GroEL in periodontal disease remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of P. gingivalis GroEL on human periodontal ligament (PDL cells in vitro, as well as its effect on alveolar bone resorption in rats in vivo. First, we found that stimulation of PDL cells with recombinant GroEL increased the secretion of the bone resorption-associated cytokines interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8, potentially via NF-κB activation. Furthermore, GroEL could effectively stimulate PDL cell migration, possibly through activation of integrin α1 and α2 mRNA expression as well as cytoskeletal reorganization. Additionally, GroEL may be involved in osteoclastogenesis via receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL activation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP mRNA inhibition in PDL cells. Finally, we inoculated GroEL into rat gingiva, and the results of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT and histomorphometric assays indicated that the administration of GroEL significantly increased inflammation and bone loss. In conclusion, P. gingivalis GroEL may act as a potent virulence factor, contributing to osteoclastogenesis of PDL cells and resulting in periodontal disease with alveolar bone resorption.

  7. Dentists' level of knowledge of the treatment plans for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Pedrini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Dental Research, and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis. Either the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was applied to assess associations among variables, at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that dentists experienced difficulty in establishing a treatment plan for subluxation, and for extrusive, lateral and intrusive luxations. In general, holding a dental specialty degree had no influence on the knowledge about treatment plan procedures for the most severe injuries. It could be concluded that the dentists participating in this study, whether specialists or not, did not have sufficient knowledge to treat most of the periodontal ligament injuries resulting from dentoalveolar trauma adequately.

  8. Dentists' level of knowledge of the treatment plans for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, Denise; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sundefeld, Maria Lúcia Marçal Mazza; Tiveron, Adelisa Rodolfo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the level of knowledge held by dentists about the possible treatment plan procedures for periodontal ligament injuries after dentoalveolar trauma. A 5-item self-applied questionnaire was prepared with questions referring to the professional profile of the interviewees and to the treatment plan they would propose for periodontal ligament injuries secondary to dentoalveolar trauma. The questionnaires were filled out by 693 dentists attending the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Brazilian Society for Dental Research, and the data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis. Either the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test was applied to assess associations among variables, at a 5% level of significance. The results revealed that dentists experienced difficulty in establishing a treatment plan for subluxation, and for extrusive, lateral and intrusive luxations. In general, holding a dental specialty degree had no influence on the knowledge about treatment plan procedures for the most severe injuries. It could be concluded that the dentists participating in this study, whether specialists or not, did not have sufficient knowledge to treat most of the periodontal ligament injuries resulting from dentoalveolar trauma adequately.

  9. Rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Hong; XU Qing-feng; LU Hong-fei; MAI Zhi-hui; AN Ai-qun; LIU Guo-ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal models are needed for the study of rapid tooth movement into the extraction socket through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.Methods Modified distraction devices were placed on eight dogs between the first and third mandibular premolars on the left sides;similar placement of traditional straight wise appliances on the right sides served as the control.The experimental distractors were activated(0.25 mm/d)twice a day and the control devices were activated(100 g)for two weeks with consolidation periods at weeks two,three,six,and ten.Two dogs were sacrificed at each consolidation time point;rates and patterns of tooth movement,loss of anchorage,and periapical films were evaluated,and the aftected premolars and surrounding periodontal tissues were decalcified and examined histologically.General observations,X-ray periapical filming and histology examination were performed.Results Distal movement((3.66±0.1 4)mm)measured two weeks after modified distraction exceeded that achieved using the traditional device((1.15±0.21)mm;P<0.05).Loss of anchorage was minimally averaged(0.34±0.06)mm and (0.32±0.07)mm in the experimental and control sides,respectively.By radiography,apical and lateral surface root resorptions on both sides were minimal.Alveolar bone Iesions were never evident.Fibroblasts were endched in periodontal ligaments and bone spicules formed actively along directions of distraction.Conclusions The canine model is suitable for the study of rapid tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament.The technique accelerates tooth movement,periodontal remodeling,alveolar bone absorption,and may induce fibroblast formation,as compared to the traditional orthodontic method,without adversely affecting root absorption,bone loss,tooth mobility and anchorage loss.

  10. 釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞生物学影响的体外研究%Effects of emdogain on human periodontal ligament cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤秋; 孟焕新; 韩劼; 刘凯宁

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of emdogain, enamel matrix derivative ( EMD) , on the proliferation, cell cycle, mineralization and ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro. Methods; The influence of cell growth on PDL cells was evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) in the presence and absence of emdogain, after 1,3, and 5 d of culture. DNA synthesis and ultrastructure of PDL cells were observed by flow cytometry(FCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in the presence and absence of emdogain after 3 d of culture. The increasing of osteogenic capacity was verified by the expression changes of osteogenic differentiation markers of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) in emdogain-treated PDL cells by immunohistochemicl staining. Results; Incubation of PDL cells with emdogain after 3 d significantly stimulated cell growth and DNA synthesis. Emdogain enhanced the osteogenic potential of PDL cells by high expression of osteogenic diffe-rentiation markers of BSP and OPN. Conclusion: The data indicate that Emdogain enhances cell prolife-ration and promotes differentiation of PDL cells, which contributes to periodontal tissue regeneration .%目的:了解釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞的增殖、矿化、蛋白合成及超微结构的影响.方法:组织块法原代培养人牙周膜细胞,茜素红染色进行细胞表型的鉴定;采用细胞增殖试剂盒及流式细胞仪检测釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞增殖及细胞周期的影响;BCA蛋白定量试剂盒分析釉基质蛋白对牙周膜细胞蛋白合成的影响;并用透射电镜观察牙周膜细胞超微结构的改变;免疫组化染色观察釉基质蛋白作用下对牙周膜细胞骨涎蛋白和骨桥蛋白表达的影响.结果:釉基质蛋白可促进牙周膜细胞增殖,促进牙周膜细胞DNA的合成,使牙周膜细胞周期的G1期细胞所占百分比降低,而S期细胞所占百分比升高,并可提高牙周膜细胞蛋白

  11. Emdogain和辛伐他汀联合应用对人牙周膜细胞碱性磷酸酶活性的影响%Effects of Emdogain and Simvastatin on the ALP Activity in Human Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵华; 熊红珍; 王小娟; 李毅; 赵红宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of combinated Emdogain and Simvastatin on the activity of ALP in human periodontal ligament cells ( HPLCs ) . Methods Four groups were enrolled including control group 1 ( to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM with 50μg/mL Emdogain for 3 days ), control group 2 (to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM with 0. 125 μmol/L Simvastatins for 3 days), control group 3 ( to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM without Simvastatins and Emdogain for 3 days), and treated group ( to culture P5HPLCs in DMEM with 0. 125 μmol/L Simvastatins and 50μg/mL Emdogain for 3 days). Then the activity of ALP activity in P5HPLCs was observed by PNPP. Results Optical density of ALP in control group 1 is 0. 193 ± 0. 002; optical density of ALP in control group 2 is 0. 197 ± 0.003; optical density of ALP in control group 3 is 0. 166 ±0.002;optical density of ALP in treated group is 0.325 ±0. 002. Compared with control groups, treated group can increase the ALP activity of HPLCs ( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The combination of Emdogain and Simvastatin showed positive effects on the ALP activity of HPLCs, and it may give experimental proofs to the treatment of periodontal disease associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes.%目的 观察Emdogain、辛伐他汀联合应用对人牙周膜细胞碱性磷酸酶活性的影响.方法 取培养至第五代的人牙周膜细胞,分别用含50 μg/mL Emdogain、含0.125 μmol/L辛伐他汀、同时含50 μg/mL Emdogain和0.125 μmol/L辛伐他汀以及不含上述药物的4组无血清DMEM培养液培养,3 d后酶标仪检测各组细胞的碱性磷酸酶活性.结果 仅含Emdogain、仅含辛伐他汀以及不含上述药物的培养液培养的人牙周膜细胞碱性磷酸酶光密度值分别为0.193±0.002、0.197±0.003及0.166±0.002.同时含Emdogain和辛伐他汀的培养液培养的细胞碱性磷酸酶光密度值为0.325±0.002,与其他3组比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 Emdogain和辛伐他汀联合应用对

  12. Beneficial effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament cells under normal and regenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokhbehsaim, Marjan; Keser, Sema; Nogueira, Andressa Vilas Boas; Cirelli, Joni Augusto; Jepsen, Søren; Jäger, Andreas; Eick, Sigrun; Deschner, James

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  13. Beneficial Effects of Adiponectin on Periodontal Ligament Cells under Normal and Regenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.

  14. Static compression regulates OPG expression in periodontal ligament cells via the CAMK II pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Jianru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This study aimed to investigate the potential role of CAMK II pathway in the compression-regulated OPG expression in periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs. Material and Methods The PDL tissue model was developed by 3-D culturing human PDLCs in a thin sheet of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA scaffolds, which was subjected to static compression of 25 g/cm2 for 3, 6 and 12 h, with or without treatment of KN-93. After that, the expression of OPG, RANKL and NFATC2 was investigated through real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Results After static compression, the NFATC2 and RANKL expression was significantly up-regulated, while partially suppressed by KN-93 for 6 and 12 h respectively. The OPG expression was significantly down-regulated by compression in 3 h, started to elevate in 6 h, and significantly up-regulated in 12 h. The up-regulation after 12 h was significantly suppressed by KN-93. Conclusions Long-term static compression increases OPG expression in PDLCs, at least partially, via the CAMK II pathway.

  15. The secretome of periodontal ligament stem cells from MS patients protects against EAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Diomede, Francesca; Ballerini, Patrizia; Paolantonio, Michele; Marchisio, Marco; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2016-12-07

    Manipulation of stem cells or stem cells-derived secretome has emerged as a novel alternative therapeutic option for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we show that human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs)-derived conditioned medium (hPDLSCs-CM) and purified exosomes/microvesicles (hPDLSCs-EMVs) obtained from Relapsing Remitting (RR)-MS patients and healthy donors block experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of MS, by inducing anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects in spinal cord and spleen, and reverse disease progression by restoring tissue integrity via remyelination in the spinal cord. We show that hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-17, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and induce anti-inflammatory IL-10. In addition, apoptosis related STAT1, p53, Caspase 3, and Bax expressions were attenuated. Our findings unravel the immunosuppressive effects of hPDLSCs-CM and hPDLSCs-EMVs in EAE mice, and suggest simple alternative autologous source for patient-customized cell-free targeting treatment in MS patients.

  16. Cryopreservation of periodontal ligament cells with magnetic field for tooth banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, M; Kamada, H; Kawata, T; Koseki, H; Abedini, S; Kojima, S; Motokawa, M; Fujita, T; Ohtani, J; Tsuka, N; Matsuda, Y; Sunagawa, H; Hernandes, R A M; Ohwada, N; Tanne, K

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a long-term tooth cryopreservation method that can be used for tooth autotransplantation. Human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells were frozen in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO) using a programmed freezer with a magnetic field. Cells were cryopreserved for 7 days at -150 degrees C. Immediately after thawing, the number of surviving cells was counted and the cells were cultured; cultured cells were examined after 48 h. Results indicated that a 0.01 mT of a magnetic field, a 15-min hold-time, and a plunging temperature of -30 degrees C led to the greatest survival rate of PDL cells. Based on these findings, whole teeth were cryopreserved under the same conditions for 1 year. The organ culture revealed that the PDL cells of cryopreserved tooth with a magnetic field could proliferate as much as a fresh tooth, although the cells did not appear in the cryopreserved tooth without a magnetic field. Histological examination and the transmission electron microscopic image of cryopreserved tooth with a magnetic field did not show any destruction of cryopreserved cells. In contrast, severe cell damage was seen in cells frozen without a magnetic field. These results indicated that a magnetic field programmed freezer is available for tooth cryopreservation.

  17. Conditioned media from differentiating craniofacial bone marrow stromal cells influence mineralization and proliferation in periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenyu; Feng, Yuan; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports have mainly focused on the behavioral responses of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in interaction with tibia bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, there is little study on the biologic features of hPDLSCs under the induction of maxilla BMSCs (M-BMSCs) at different phases of osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that M-BMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation acted on the proliferation, differentiation, and bone-forming capacity of hPDLSCs. In this paper, primary hPDLSCs and human M-BMSCs (hM-BMSCs) were expanded in vitro. After screening of surface markers for characterization, hPDLSCs were cocultured with different phases of differentiating hM-BMSCs. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were examined, and mineralization-associated markers such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 of hPDLSCs in coculture with uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs were evaluated. hPDLSCs in hM-BMSCs-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM) group showed a reduction in proliferation compared with untreated hPDLSCs, while osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 10 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-10ds) and osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 15 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds) enhance the proliferation of hPDLSCs. hM-BMSCs of separate differentiation stages temporarily inhibited osteogenesis of hPDLSCs in the early days. Upon extending time periods, uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs markedly enhanced osteogenesis of hPDLSCs to different degrees. The transplantation results showed hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds treatment promoted tissue regeneration to generate cementum/periodontal ligament-like structure characterized by hard-tissue formation. This research supported the notion that hM-BMSCs triggered osteogenesis of hPDLSCs suggesting important implications for periodontal engineering.

  18. The research of periodontal ligament stem cells%牙周膜干细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑛; 宋莉

    2011-01-01

    背景:从牙周膜组织中分离出的牙周膜干细胞被认为是牙周组织工程的首选种子细胞,有自我更新能力,能分化形成牙周的3种组织:牙槽骨、牙周膜和牙骨质.目的:就近年来牙周膜干细胞的分离、鉴定、相关细胞因子等方面进行简要综述.方法:由第一作者检索Pubmed 数据库(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed)、中国知网数据库(http://www.cnki.net/)2004-01/2010-09有关牙周膜干细胞分离、鉴定、相关细胞因子等方面的文献,英文检索词为"periodontal ligament stem cell",中文检索词为"牙周膜,干细胞".排除重复性研究,最终纳入35篇文献进行综述.结果与结论:牙周膜干细胞是一种很有潜力的牙周组织工程种子细胞,能构建组织工程牙周膜,促进牙周缺损的修复.随着研究的深入,影响牙周膜干细胞生物性能的因素逐渐被发现,但其研究还有待进一步完善.%BACKGROUND: Periodontal ligament stem cells isolated from periodontal ligament tissue is considered to be the preferred seed cells with self-renewal ability in periodontal tissue engineering and can differentiate to form three kinds of periodontal tissues: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and cementum. OBJECTIVE: To review the articles about isolation, identification, and relevant factors of periodontal ligament stem cells in recent years. METHODS: The first author searched PubMed databases and CKNI database (2004-01/2010-09) for articles regarding isolation, identification, and relevant factors of periodontal ligament stem cells using the keywords of “periodontal ligament stem cells” in English and “periodontal ligament, stem cells” in Chinese. Repetitive articles were excluded, and finally, 35 articles were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Periodontal ligament stem cells are a kind of potential seed cells for periodontal tissue engineering, which can reconstruct tissue-engineered periodontal ligament and improve the healing of

  19. Optimizing the reconstruction filter in cone-beam CT to improve periodontal ligament space visualization: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houno, Yuuki; Hishikawa, Toshimitsu; Gotoh, Ken-Ichi; Naitoh, Munetaka; Mitani, Akio; Noguchi, Toshihide; Ariji, Eiichiro; Kodera, Yoshie

    2017-09-01

    Evaluation of alveolar bone is important in the diagnosis of dental diseases. The periodontal ligament space is difficult to clearly depict in cone-beam computed tomography images because the reconstruction filter conditions during image processing cause image blurring, resulting in decreased spatial resolution. We examined different reconstruction filters to assess their ability to improve spatial resolution and allow for a clearer visualization of the periodontal ligament space. Cone-beam computed tomography projections of 2 skull phantoms were reconstructed using 6 reconstruction conditions and then compared using the Thurstone paired comparison method. Physical evaluations, including the modulation transfer function and the Wiener spectrum, as well as an assessment of space visibility, were undertaken using experimental phantoms. Image reconstruction using a modified Shepp-Logan filter resulted in better sensory, physical, and quantitative evaluations. The reconstruction conditions substantially improved the spatial resolution and visualization of the periodontal ligament space. The difference in sensitivity was obtained by altering the reconstruction filter. Modifying the characteristics of a reconstruction filter can generate significant improvement in assessments of the periodontal ligament space. A high-frequency enhancement filter improves the visualization of thin structures and will be useful when accurate assessment of the periodontal ligament space is necessary.

  20. Age estimation using the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament in lower third molars in a Portuguese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeira, Catarina-Dourado; Teixeira, Alexandra; Caldas, Inês-Morais; Afonso, Américo; Pérez-Mongiovi, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The mineralization of third molars has been used repeatedly as a method of forensic age estimation. However, this procedure is of little use beyond age 18, especially to determinate if an individual is older than 21 years of age; thus, the development of new approaches is essential. The visibility of the periodontal ligament has been suggested for this purpose. The aim of this work was to determine the usefulness of this methodology in a Portuguese population. Periodontal ligament visibility was assessed in the lower third molars, using a sample of 487 orthopantomograms, 228 of which belonging to females and 259 to males, from a Portuguese population aged 17 to 31 years. A classification of four stages based on the visual phenomenon of disappearance of the periodontal ligament of fully mineralized third molars was used. For each stage, median, variance, minimal and maximal age were assessed. The relationship between age and stage of periodontal ligament had a statistical significance for both sexes. In this population, stage 3 can be used to state that a male person is over 21 years-old; for females, another marker should be used. This technique can be useful for determining age over 21, particularly in males. Differences between studies are evident, suggesting that specific population standards should be used when applying this technique. Key words:Forensic sciences, forensic odontology, age estimation, third molar, periodontal ligament.

  1. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of hepatocyte growth factor gene to human dental pulp stem cells under good manufacturing practice improves their potential for periodontal regeneration in swine

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Periodontitis is one of the most widespread infectious diseases in humans. We previously promoted significant periodontal tissue regeneration in swine models with the transplantation of autologous periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and PDLSC sheet. We also promoted periodontal tissue regeneration in a rat model with a local injection of allogeneic bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the roles of the hepatocyte growth factor...

  2. 双层左旋聚乳酸静电纺织纳米纤维支架与人牙周膜细胞的生物相容性%Biocompatibility of double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold with human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文娟; 江浩顺; 黄南楠; 唐倩; 杨雨虹

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The morphological structure of nanofiber scaffold which fabricated by electrospinning technique is similar to the natural extracelular matrix, which provides a good microenvironment for cel growth and proliferation, and can also enhance cel adhesion, migration, proliferation and differentiation. OBJECTIVE: To observe the biocompatibility of double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold and human periodontal ligament cels. METHODS: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare double layers poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold. The toxicity of different concentrations of (100%, 75%, 50%, 25%) double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold extracts to human periodontal ligament cels was evaluated by MTT assay. The double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold was co-cultured with human periodontal ligament cels. The cel adhesive capacity in early stage was determined by MTT assay. The growth of cels on the scaffold was observed by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Different concentrations of double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold extracts did not create any toxicity to human periodontal ligament cels. After co-culture for 2, 6, 24 hours, human periodontal ligament cels were poorly adherent onto the double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold. After 7 days of co-culture, human periodontal ligament cels adhered wel on the loose surface of scaffold, maintained the original shape, stretched wel, and interconnected processes were observed; on the dense surface of the scaffold, multi-layer cels were observed. The cels showed fusiform or polygonal appearance and were connected together. These results demonstrate that the double-layer poly(L-lactic acid) electrospun nanofiber scaffold has good biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament cels.%背景:静电纺织制备的纳米纤维支架形态结构与天然细胞外基质

  3. Dynamic Mechanical and Nanofibrous Topological Combinatory Cues Designed for Periodontal Ligament Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joong-Hyun; Kang, Min Sil; Eltohamy, Mohamed; Kim, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Complete reconstruction of damaged periodontal pockets, particularly regeneration of periodontal ligament (PDL) has been a significant challenge in dentistry. Tissue engineering approach utilizing PDL stem cells and scaffolding matrices offers great opportunity to this, and applying physical and mechanical cues mimicking native tissue conditions are of special importance. Here we approach to regenerate periodontal tissues by engineering PDL cells supported on a nanofibrous scaffold under a mechanical-stressed condition. PDL stem cells isolated from rats were seeded on an electrospun polycaprolactone/gelatin directionally-oriented nanofiber membrane and dynamic mechanical stress was applied to the cell/nanofiber construct, providing nanotopological and mechanical combined cues. Cells recognized the nanofiber orientation, aligning in parallel, and the mechanical stress increased the cell alignment. Importantly, the cells cultured on the oriented nanofiber combined with the mechanical stress produced significantly stimulated PDL specific markers, including periostin and tenascin with simultaneous down-regulation of osteogenesis, demonstrating the roles of topological and mechanical cues in altering phenotypic change in PDL cells. Tissue compatibility of the tissue-engineered constructs was confirmed in rat subcutaneous sites. Furthermore, in vivo regeneration of PDL and alveolar bone tissues was examined under the rat premaxillary periodontal defect models. The cell/nanofiber constructs engineered under mechanical stress showed sound integration into tissue defects and the regenerated bone volume and area were significantly improved. This study provides an effective tissue engineering approach for periodontal regeneration-culturing PDL stem cells with combinatory cues of oriented nanotopology and dynamic mechanical stretch.

  4. Periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone in the oldest herbivorous tetrapods, and their evolutionary significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Reisz, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    Tooth implantation provides important phylogenetic and functional information about the dentitions of amniotes. Traditionally, only mammals and crocodilians have been considered truly thecodont, because their tooth roots are coated in layers of cementum for anchorage of the periodontal ligament, which is in turn attached to the bone lining the alveolus, the alveolar bone. The histological properties and developmental origins of these three periodontal tissues have been studied extensively in mammals and crocodilians, but the identities of the periodontal tissues in other amniotes remain poorly studied. Early work on dental histology of basal amniotes concluded that most possess a simplified tooth attachment in which the tooth root is ankylosed to a pedestal composed of "bone of attachment", which is in turn fused to the jaw. More recent studies have concluded that stereotypically thecodont tissues are also present in non-mammalian, non-crocodilian amniotes, but these studies were limited to crown groups or secondarily aquatic reptiles. As the sister group to Amniota, and the first tetrapods to exhibit dental occlusion, diadectids are the ideal candidates for studies of dental evolution among terrestrial vertebrates because they can be used to test hypotheses of development and homology in deep time. Our study of Permo-Carboniferous diadectid tetrapod teeth and dental tissues reveal the presence of two types of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, and therefore the earliest record of true thecodonty in a tetrapod. These discoveries in a stem amniote allow us to hypothesize that the ability to produce the tissues that characterize thecodonty in mammals and crocodilians is very ancient and plesiomorphic for Amniota. Consequently, all other forms of tooth implantation in crown amniotes are derived arrangements of one or more of these periodontal tissues and not simply ankylosis of teeth to the jaw by plesiomorphically retaining "bone of attachment", as

  5. Effect of Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts on the Differentiation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.%牙周膜成纤维细胞对外周血单个核细胞分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建明; 兰泽栋; 刘嵘

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨牙周膜成纤维细胞在破骨细胞形成过程中作用;观察破骨样细胞的生长过程.方法:本实验以含有1α,25(OH)2D3和地塞米松的培养基将牙周膜成纤维细胞、单个核细胞分别进行单独或直接共培养,每3d对TRAP阳性多核破骨细胞的数量及牙本质磨片的吸收陷窝数目和面积分别进行记录、计算.结果:不同时间段间的TRAP阳性单个核细胞与TRAP阳性多核细胞数目相比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);同时,不同组间的吸收陷窝数目和面积比较,差异具有显著性(P<0.001).牙周膜成纤维细胞明显增加了共培养组TRAP阳性多核细胞数量、吸收陷窝数目和面积.然而牙周膜成纤维细胞组与单个核细胞组之间的吸收陷窝数目与吸收陷窝面积差异无统计学意义.结论:末梢血单个核细胞需在牙周膜成纤维细胞存在的条件下,才能形成多核的破骨样细胞.%Objective: To investigate the effect of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) on the formation of osteoclast like cells(OLC) in vitro, and to probe the process of their growth. Methods: Human PDLF and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were co-cultured in the presence of 1α.25(OH)2D3 and dexamethasone for 30 days. Then the numbers of tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) positive multi-nucleate cells and resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits were recorded and accumulated every 3 days. Results: There was statistical significant difference in the numbers of TRAP positive multi-nucleate cells (P<0. 05) at different stages. So were the number of resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits (P<0. 001). And PDLF also significantly increased the number of OLC and resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits in PDLF-PBMC co-culture (P<0. 001). But no statistical significance had been found between PDLF culture and PBMC culture on the number of resorptive pits and the area of resorptive pits

  6. Periodontal ligament formation around different types of dental titanium implants. I. The self-tapping screw type implant system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, K; Karring, T; Gotfredsen, K

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a periodontal ligament can form around self-tapping, screw type titanium dental implants. Implants were inserted in contact with the periodontal ligament of root tips retained in the mandibular jaws of 7 monkeys. In each side of the mandible, 1 premolar......, a periodontal ligament can form on self-tapping, screw type titanium dental implants in areas where a void is present between the surrounding bone and the implant at the time of insertion....... and 2 molars were removed in such a manner that in approximately half the cases, the root tips were retained. Following healing, the experimental areas were examined on radiographs, and sites were selected for the insertion of the implants, so that every second implant would have a close contact...

  7. Chondrogenesis of periodontal ligament stem cells by transforming growth factor-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein-6 in a normal healthy impacted third molar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sunyoung Choi; Tae-Jun Cho; Soon-Keun Kwon; Gene Lee; Jaejin Cho

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal ligament-derived mesenchymal stem cell is regarded as a source of adult stem cells due to its multipotency. However, the proof of chondrogenic potential of the cells is scarce. Therefore, we investigated the chondrogenic differentiation capacity of periodontal ligament derived mesenchymal stem cells induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β3 and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-6. After isolation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from human periodontal ligament, the cells were cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) with 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS). A mechanical force initiated chondrogenic differentiation of the cells. For chondrogenic differentiation, 10 μg ·L-1 TGF-β3 or 100 μg ·L-1 BMP-6 and the combination treating group for synergistic effect of the growth factors. We analyzed the PDLSCs by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and chondrogenesis were evaluated by glycosaminoglycans assay, histology, immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis. PDLSCs showed mesenchymal stem cell properties proved by FACS analysis. Glycosaminoglycans contents were increased 217% by TGF-β3 and 220% by BMP-6. The synergetic effect of TGF-β3 and BMP-6 were shown up to 281% compared to control. The combination treatment increased Sox9, aggrecan and collagen II expression compared with not only controls, but also TGF-β3 or BMP-6 single treatment dramatically. The histological analysis also indicated the chondrogenic differentiation of PDLSCs in our conditions. The results of the present study demonstrate the potential of the dental stem cell as a valuable cell source for chondrogenesis, which may be applicable for regeneration of cartilage and bone fracture in the field of cell therapy.

  8. [Changes in the microvascular pattern of the periodontal ligament in an experimental tooth extrusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, K

    1989-08-01

    Forty eight adult cats were employed to investigate the serial changes of vascular patterns of the periodontal ligament on tooth extrusion. The right upper canines have been successively extruded (initial load 40 gr) with a open coil spring. The experimental periods were set on 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. On each experimental period, the microvascular casts of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone around the experimental tooth were prepared for the scanning electron microscopy, utilizing the acrylic plastic injection method (Taniguchi and Ohta, et al. 1952 and 1955). And the serial sections of the surrounding tissues of the experimental tooth were made. In order to elucidate the mode of the tooth movement, the load of applied force and the distance of extrusion were measured. Results obtained were as follows: 1. The experimental tooth was extruded rapidly during first two weeks. The speed reduced gradually afterwards. 2. The new vascularization was seen around the apex first, then widely spread in the periodontal ligament. And the remarkable trabecula-shaped bone formation were observed around the venous networks of the root apex after two week period. 3. The tissue reactions after the tooth extrusion delayed in comparison with the movement of the tooth. 4. Although the tissue reactions of the root apex of the extruded tooth were originally similar to the one in the transverse tooth movement, slight differences were found in timing of the tissue change and shape of the capillary network. The findings of the tissue change showed that the light force was indicated in extrusion of the tooth. And the range of action of the force applied should be limited in orthodontic clinic.

  9. Effect of Four Different Media on Periodontal Ligament Cells Viability of Dry- Stored Dog Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Fariborz Moazzami; Bahar Asheghi; Safoura Sahebi

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The maintenance of viable periodontal ligament cells is the most important issue in the long-term preservation of avulsed teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess aloe vera as a new storage media in maintaining the cell viability of dry-stored teeth in comparison with soy milk, Hank`s balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk. Materials and Method: Twenty one extracted dog premolar teeth were dried for 30 minutes and stored in soy milk, HBSS, milk, an...

  10. Pollical oblique ligament in humans and non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrewsbury, Marvin

    2003-04-01

    A morphological study of the oblique ligament in the thumb is presented. The ligament was consistently described in human specimens and compared with dissections of non-human primates from different species. The oblique ligament was found in some, but not all, specimens in each of the following species examined: chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, anubis baboon, hamadryas baboon, squirrel monkey, lemur and marmoset. A revised identity of the oblique ligament is proposed as a reinforced distal border of a fibro-osseous annular pollical flexor sheath and whose function is not independent of the flexor sheath. The constant presence and tendinous trait of the pollical oblique ligament in humans, when compared with non-human primates, supports the notion that the oblique ligament strengthens the pollical flexor sheath in humans for restraint of the flexor pollicis longus tendon during forceful precision pinching. A derivation of the pollical oblique ligament is considered as representing a vestigial radial limb of a flexor pollicis superficialis tendon in the thumb.

  11. Surface Chemistry of Nanoscale Mineralized Collagen Regulates Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Liu, Shuai; Cui, Sheng-Jie; Kou, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xue-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Mo; Sun, Yue; Wang, Gao-Nan; Liu, Yan; Zhou, Yan-Heng

    2016-06-29

    The interplay between stem cells and their extracellular microenvironment is of critical importance to the stem cell-based therapeutics in regenerative medicine. Mineralized collagen is the main component of bone extracellular matrix, but the effect of interfacial properties of mineralized collagen on subsequent cellular behaviors is unclear. This study examined the role of surface chemistry of nanoscale mineralized collagen on human periodontal ligament stem cell (hPDLSC) fate decisions. The intrafibrillarly mineralized collagen (IMC), fabricated by a biomimetic bottom-up approach, showed a bonelike hierarchy with nanohydroxyapatites (HAs) periodically embedded within fibrils. The infrared spectrum of the IMC showed the presence of phosphate, carbonate, amide I and II bands; and infrared mapping displayed uniform and higher spatial distribution of mineralization in the IMC. However, the distribution of the phosphate group differed far from that of the amide I group in the extrafibrillarly mineralized collagen (EMC), in which flowerlike HA clusters randomly depositing around the surface of the fibrils. Moreover, a large quantity of extrafibrillar HAs covered up the C═O stretch and N-H in-plane bend, resulting in substantial reduction of amide I and II bands. Cell experiments demonstrated that the hPDLSCs seeded on the IMC exhibited a highly branched, osteoblast-like polygonal shape with extended pseudopodia and thick stress fiber formation; while cells on the EMC displayed a spindle shape with less branch points and thin actin fibril formation. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of EMC was much lower than that of IMC. Interestingly, even without osteogenic induction, mRNA levels of major osteogenic differentiation genes were highly expressed in the IMC during cultivation time. These data suggest that the IMC with a similar nanotopography and surface chemistry to natural mineralized collagen directs hPDLSCs toward osteoblast differentiation, providing a promising

  12. Histological evaluation of the periodontal ligament from aged wistar rats supplemented with ascorbic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline N. Zanoni

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbic acid (AA is able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and is essential for collagen synthesis. In aging process oxidative stress is elevated. This study aims to investigate the effects of AA supplementation on the periodontal ligament (PL of rats during aging. Twenty five rats were used and divided into groups: J90 (90-day-old control, E345 (345-day-old control, E428 (428-day-old control, EA345 (345-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on and EA428 (428-day-old supplemented with AA from 90-day-old on. We analyzed the thickness, density of fibroblasts and blood vessels and collagen fibers types in the PL. In group J90 there was predominantly type III collagen fibers (87.64%. In animals supplemented with AA, the area filled by type I fibers (group EA345: 65.67%, group EA428: 52.23% was higher than type III fibers. PL in group EA428 was thicker than the one observed in group E428 (P < 0.05. During natural aging process, AA promoted the maturation of collagen fibers and enhanced angiogenesis in periodontal ligament. One can conclude that the supplementation with AA represented a beneficial factor for the development of PL in aged rats.

  13. Leptin Effects on the Regenerative Capacity of Human Periodontal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Nokhbehsaim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is increasing throughout the globe and characterized by excess adipose tissue, which represents a complex endocrine organ. Adipose tissue secrets bioactive molecules called adipokines, which act at endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine levels. Obesity has recently been shown to be associated with periodontitis, a disease characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium, and also with compromised periodontal healing. Although the underlying mechanisms for these associations are not clear yet, increased levels of proinflammatory adipokines, such as leptin, as found in obese individuals, might be a critical pathomechanistic link. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of leptin on the regenerative capacity of human periodontal ligament (PDL cells and also to study the local leptin production by these cells. Leptin caused a significant downregulation of growth (TGFβ1, and VEGFA and transcription (RUNX2 factors as well as matrix molecules (collagen, and periostin and inhibited SMAD signaling under regenerative conditions. Moreover, the local expression of leptin and its full-length receptor was significantly downregulated by inflammatory, microbial, and biomechanical signals. This study demonstrates that the hormone leptin negatively interferes with the regenerative capacity of PDL cells, suggesting leptin as a pathomechanistic link between obesity and compromised periodontal healing.

  14. Immunolocalization of FGF-2 and VEGF in rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Freitas Lima Salomão

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This article aimed at identifying the expression of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in the tension and pressure areas of rat periodontal ligament, in different periods of experimental orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: An orthodontic force of 0.5 N was applied to the upper right first molar of 18 male Wistar rats for periods of 3 (group I, 7 (group II and 14 days (group III. The counter-side first molar was used as a control. The animals were euthanized at the aforementioned time periods, and their maxillary bone was removed and fixed. After demineralization, the specimens were histologically processed and embedded in paraffin. FGF-2 and VEGF expressions were studied through immunohistochemistry and morphological analysis. RESULTS: The experimental side showed a higher expression of both FGF-2 and VEGF in all groups, when compared with the control side (P < 0.05. Statistically significant differences were also found between the tension and pressure areas in the experimental side. CONCLUSION: Both FGF-2 and VEGF are expressed in rat periodontal tissue. Additionally, these growth factors are upregulated when orthodontic forces are applied, thereby suggesting that they play an important role in changes that occur in periodontal tissue during orthodontic movement.

  15. Effects of Cyclic Tensile Stress on Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts Apoptosis%周期性张应力对牙周膜成纤维细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹崇英; 姚如永; 张广耘; 袁晓; 张月; 于江波; 郑如松; 陈正岗; 曹海萌; 仇静

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of cyclic stretch on Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts apoptosis and PI3k/Akt signaling pathway involved.Methods:In vitro culture -tensile stimulate models of HPDLFs were established by using a multi-passage load adding system.Cyclic stretch was applied on the fibroblasts in different groups for 1,6,12,and 24 h,respectively.The loading was set for 15% surface elongation,with frequency 1/6 Hz.Meanwhile,the blank normal control group and negative control group,0h+LY294002 was established by static group.The cell apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining.The expression of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA was detected by RT-PCR.Results:Hoechst 33258 staining showed that after treatment with loading,the cell took the typical appearance of apoptosis with chromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies.RT-PCR displayed that the rate of Bcl-2 / Bax mRNA expression decreased in loaded HPDLFs group compared with that in unloaded HPDLFs(P < 0.01).The rate decreased to the lowest level at 12h following loading,and then enhanced gradually.Compared with that in the loading group,the HPDLFs apoptosis increased at corresponding time points in the LY294002 group (P <0.05).Conclusion:The cyclic stretch can promote the apoptosis of HPDLFs in a time-dependent manner,then the HPDLFs apoptosis was inhibited PI3K/AKT signaling pathway may participate in the regulation of apoptosis of HPDLFs induced by cyclic stretch.%目的:在体外条件下,探讨周期张应力作用对人牙周膜成纤维细胞凋亡的影响及PI3k/AKt信号通路在细胞凋亡中的作用.方法:应用多通道细胞牵张应力加载系统,以HPDLFs(人牙周膜成纤维细胞)为对象构建细胞体外培养-力学刺激模型,对照组为0h,0h+LY294002,加力组1h,6h,12 h,12 h+LY294002,24 h,力值定为15%,频率为1/6HZ,即10循环/分钟.采用Hoechst33258染色检测细胞形态和凋亡情况,应用RT-PCR技术检测Bcl-2、Bax的表达情况.结果:Hoechst33258细

  16. Research progress on periodontal ligament stem cells%牙周膜干细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董正谋

    2012-01-01

    牙周组织工程是牙周病治疗研究的热点,牙周膜干细胞是其关键种子细胞之一.本文就牙周组织工程的相关研究和牙周膜干细胞的来源、分离与培养、细胞表型、生物学特性、功能影响因素和分子调控进行综述,并对其面临的挑战和前景作一讨论.%The periodontal tissue engineering has been a striking research on the treatment of periodontal disease, and the periodontal ligament stem cell is one of the key seed cells on the periodontal tissue engineering. In this study, a related research on periodontal tissue engineering, and the source, isolated and cultured, cell pheno-type, biological characteristics, influential factor of function, molecular regulation on the periodontal ligament stem cells would be reviewed, meanwhile the challenges and prospects on it would be discussed.

  17. Periodontal ligament stem cell niche and periodontal tissue regeneration%牙周膜干细胞巢与牙周组织再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙静

    2011-01-01

    牙周膜干细胞巢是牙周膜干细胞周围的微环境,由干细胞周围的支持细胞、黏附分子和基质组成,其在牙周组织的发育、牙周病的发生与发展以及牙周组织再生等方面具有重要的作用。本文将从影响巢结构稳定的因素及其在牙周组织再生中的作用等方面作一综述。%Periodontal ligament stem cell niche is the micro-environment surrounding of the periodontal stem cells, containing the supporting cells of stem cells, adhesion molecules and matrix composition. It is maybe more reasonable to make the periodontal stem cells and their niche to be a whole functional subject during physiologic and pathologic processes. We will review the factors that related to periodontal ligament stem cell niche especially in the process of periodontal tissue regeneration.

  18. A Biofilm Pocket Model to Evaluate Different Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment Modalities in Terms of Biofilm Removal and Reformation, Surface Alterations and Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias T Hägi

    Full Text Available There is a lack of suitable in vitro models to evaluate various treatment modalities intending to remove subgingival bacterial biofilm. Consequently, the aims of this in vitro-study were: a to establish a pocket model enabling mechanical removal of biofilm and b to evaluate repeated non-surgical periodontal treatment with respect to biofilm removal and reformation, surface alterations, tooth hard-substance-loss, and attachment of periodontal ligament (PDL fibroblasts.Standardized human dentin specimens were colonized by multi-species biofilms for 3.5 days and subsequently placed into artificially created pockets. Non-surgical periodontal treatment was performed as follows: a hand-instrumentation with curettes (CUR, b ultrasonication (US, c subgingival air-polishing using erythritol (EAP and d subgingival air-polishing using erythritol combined with chlorhexidine digluconate (EAP-CHX. The reduction and recolonization of bacterial counts, surface roughness (Ra and Rz, the caused tooth substance-loss (thickness as well as the attachment of PDL fibroblasts were evaluated and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA with Post-Hoc LSD.After 5 treatments, bacterial reduction in biofilms was highest when applying EAP-CHX (4 log10. The lowest reduction was found after CUR (2 log10. Additionally, substance-loss was the highest when using CUR (128±40 µm in comparison with US (14±12 µm, EAP (6±7 µm and EAP-CHX (11±10 µm. Surface was roughened when using CUR and US. Surfaces exposed to US and to EAP attracted the highest numbers of PDL fibroblasts.The established biofilm model simulating a periodontal pocket combined with interchangeable placements of test specimens with multi-species biofilms enables the evaluation of different non-surgical treatment modalities on biofilm removal and surface alterations. Compared to hand instrumentation the application of ultrasonication and of air-polishing with erythritol prevents from substance-loss and results

  19. The mechanical properties of the human hip capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John D; Glisson, Richard R; Guilak, Farshid; Vail, T Parker

    2002-01-01

    The human hip capsule is adapted to facilitate upright posture, joint stability, and ambulation, yet it routinely is excised in hip surgery without a full understanding of its mechanical contributions. The objective of this study was to provide information about the mechanical properties of the ligaments that form the hip capsule. Cadaver bone-ligament-bone specimens of the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and femoral arcuate ligaments were tested to failure in tension. The hip capsule was found to be an inhomogeneous structure and should be recognized as being composed of discrete constituent ligaments. The anterior ligaments, consisting of the 2 arms of the iliofemoral ligament, were much stronger than the posterior ischiofemoral ligament, withstanding greater force at failure and exhibiting greater stiffness. Knowledge of the anatomy and mechanical properties of the capsule may help the hip surgeon choose an appropriate surgical approach or repair strategy.

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-1/chitosan/collagen composite scaffold and the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells%复合胰岛素样生长因子1壳聚糖胶原支架与人牙周膜细胞的增殖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵博; 王永兰

    2014-01-01

    背景:胰岛素样生长因子1具有促进成纤维细胞有丝分裂的作用,同时具有促进牙周细胞生长、分化及合成细胞外基质的作用。  目的:观察负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架对于人牙周膜细胞增殖的作用。  方法:将人牙周膜细胞分别接种于负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架与普通胶原支架上,于接种的1 h、24 h及1周检测重组人转化生长因子β1的释放,于第1,7,28天检测两组细胞的黏附和增殖情况。结果与结论:负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架组第1,24小时和第1周的重组人转化生长因子β1释放率明显低于普通胶原支架组(P 0.05),负载胰岛素样生长因子1的壳聚糖胶原支架组接种第7,28天的细胞黏附和增殖情况优于普通胶原支架组(P OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of chitosan/colagen composite scaffold carrying insulin-like growth factor-1 on proliferation of human periodontal ligament cels. METHODS: The human periodontal ligament cels were seeded on chitosan/colagen composite scaffold carrying insulin-like growth factor-1 and ordinary colagen scaffold. The release of recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 was detected at 1, 24 hours and 1 week after culture; celladhesion and proliferation were detected at days 1, 7 and 28. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The release rate of recombinant human transforming growth factor-β1 in the composite scaffold was significantly lower than that in the ordinary colagen scaffold at 1, 24 hours and 1 week after cellseeding (P < 0.01). The celladhesion and proliferation showed no difference between two groups at day 1 after cellseeding, but became significantly higher in the composite scaffold than that in the ordinary colagen scaffold at days 7 and 28 (P < 0.01). These findings indicate that chitosan/colagen composite scaffold carrying insulin-like growth factor-1 can significantly promote

  1. Centipeda periodontii in human periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E.; Hawley, Charles E.; Whitaker, Eugene J.; Degener, John E.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    This study assessed the subgingival occurrence of the flagellated, Gram-negative, anaerobic rod Centipeda periodontii in chronic periodontitis and periodontal health/gingivitis with species-specific nucleic acid probes, and evaluated the in vitro resistance of subgingival isolates to therapeutic

  2. Centipeda periodontii in human periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E.; Hawley, Charles E.; Whitaker, Eugene J.; Degener, John E.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the subgingival occurrence of the flagellated, Gram-negative, anaerobic rod Centipeda periodontii in chronic periodontitis and periodontal health/gingivitis with species-specific nucleic acid probes, and evaluated the in vitro resistance of subgingival isolates to therapeutic lev

  3. Pulp response to the combined effects of cavity preparation and periodontal ligament injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, T J; Walton, R; Graham, G S; Houston, G; Snell, G

    1990-01-01

    Thirteen random-source dogs provided 54 experimental and 50 control teeth. Controls received either a periodontal ligament (PDL) injection only, or no injection, with deep cavities prepared and restored. Experimental teeth received both a PDL injection and the deep cavity preparation and were then restored with an IRM base and acid-etched composite. Teeth were surgically removed for observation periods of one and 18 weeks and prepared for histologic evaluation. Results indicated that, in this model system, there was little additive effect to the pulpal reaction due to the PDL injection. Controls that were prepared had essentially the same pulpal response as did the experimental teeth (PDL injection/preparation). In both experimental and control pulps, the effects were primarily related to the depth of the cavity preparation.

  4. Cell Attachment of Periodontal Ligament Cells on Commercially Pure Titanium at the Early Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彬; 曹颖光; 吴丽娟; 袁艳祥; 曾引萍

    2004-01-01

    Summary: In order to study the character of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) attaching on commercially pure titanium (cpTi) by morphology and metrology on the early stage (24 h), 1×105/ml PDLCs in 2 ml culture medium were seeded on cpTi discs fixed in 24-well culture plates. Morphology of cell attachment was observed by contrast phase microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and fluroscence microscopy. Cell adhesion was analyzed by MTT at 0.5, 1, 2, 4 h respectively. PDLCs could attach and spread on cpTi discs. SEM showed that PDLCs had pseudopod-like protuberance. PDLCs showed different attaching phases and reached saturation in cell number at 2 h. It was concluded that PDLCs had good biocompatibility with cpTi, and showed a regular and dynamic pattern in the process of attaching to cpTi.

  5. Experimentally determined mechanical properties of, and models for, the periodontal ligament: critical review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fill, Ted S; Carey, Jason P; Toogood, Roger W; Major, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. This review is intended to highlight and discuss discrepancies in the literature of the periodontal ligament's (PDL) mechanical properties and the various experimental approaches used to measure them. Methods. Searches were performed on biomechanical and orthodontic publications (in databases: Compendex, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Scopus). Results. The review revealed that significant variations exist, some on the order of six orders of magnitude, in the PDL's elastic constants and mechanical properties. Possible explanations may be attributable to different experimental approaches and assumptions. Conclusions. The discrepancies highlight the need for further research into PDL properties under various clinical and experimental loading conditions. Better understanding of the PDL's biomechanical behavior under physiologic and traumatic loading conditions might enhance the understanding of the PDL's biologic reaction in health and disease. Providing a greater insight into the response of the PDL would be instrumental to orthodontists and engineers for designing more predictable, and therefore more efficacious, orthodontic appliances.

  6. Biomaterials for promoting periodontal regeneration in human intrabony defects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, Anton; Nikolidakis, Dimitris; Nikou, George; Ivanovic, Aleksandar; Chapple, Iain L C; Stavropoulos, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Intrabony periodontal defects are a frequent complication of periodontitis and, if left untreated, may negatively affect long-term tooth prognosis. The optimal outcome of treatment in intrabony defects is considered to be the absence of bleeding on probing, the presence of shallow pockets associated with periodontal regeneration (i.e. formation of new root cementum with functionally orientated inserting periodontal ligament fibers connected to new alveolar bone) and no soft-tissue recession. A plethora of different surgical techniques, often including implantation of various types of bone graft and/or bone substitutes, root surface demineralization, guided tissue regeneration, growth and differentiation factors, enamel matrix proteins or various combinations thereof, have been employed to achieve periodontal regeneration. Despite positive observations in animal models and successful outcomes reported for many of the available regenerative techniques and materials in patients, including histologic reports, robust information on the degree to which reported clinical improvements reflect true periodontal regeneration does not exist. Thus, the aim of this review was to summarize, in a systematic manner, the available histologic evidence on the effect of reconstructive periodontal surgery using various types of biomaterials to enhance periodontal wound healing/regeneration in human intrabony defects. In addition, the inherent problems associated with performing human histologic studies and in interpreting the results, as well as certain ethical considerations, are discussed. The results of the present systematic review indicate that periodontal regeneration in human intrabony defects can be achieved to a variable extent using a range of methods and materials. Periodontal regeneration has been observed following the use of a variety of bone grafts and substitutes, guided tissue regeneration, biological factors and combinations thereof. Combination approaches appear to

  7. PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress response is involved in osteodifferentiation of human periodontal ligament cells under cyclic mechanical force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuang-Yan; Wei, Fu-Lan; Hu, Li-Hua; Wang, Chun-Ling

    2016-08-01

    To prevent excess accumulation of unfolded proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), eukaryotic cells have signaling pathways from the ER to the cytosol or nucleus. These processes are known as the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) response. Protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) is a major transducer of the ERS response and it directly phosphorylate α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α), resulting in translational attenuation. Phosphorylated eIF2α specifically promoted the translation of the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). ATF4 is a known important transcription factor which plays a pivotal role in osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Furthermore, ATF4 is a downstream target of PERK. Studies have shown that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signal pathway mediated by ERS was involved in osteoblastic differentiation of osteoblasts. We have known that orthodontic tooth movement is a process of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) osteodifferentiation and alveolar bone remodeling under mechanical force. However, the involvement of PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signal pathway mediated by ERS in osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under mechanical force has not been unclear. In our study, we applied the cyclic mechanical force at 10% elongation with 0.5Hz to mimic occlusal force, and explored whether PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway mediated by ERS involved in osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs under mechanical force. Firstly, cyclic mechanical force will induce ERS and intensify several osteoblast marker genes (ATF4, OCN, and BSP). Next, we found that PERK overexpression increased eIF2α phosphorylation and expression of ATF4, furthermore induced BSP, OCN expression, thus it will promote osteodifferentiation of hPDLCs; mechanical force could promote this effect. However, PERK(-/-) cells showed the opposite changes, which will inhibit osteodifferentiation of hPDLCs. Taken together, our study proved that PERK-eIF2α-ATF4 signaling pathway

  8. Stem Cells Derived from Tooth Periodontal Ligament Enhance Functional Angiogenesis by Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeasmin, Shamima; Ceccarelli, Jacob; Vigen, Marina; Carrion, Bita; Putnam, Andrew J.; Tarle, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In regenerative medicine approaches involving cell therapy, selection of the appropriate cell type is important in that the cells must directly (differentiation) or indirectly (trophic effects) participate in the regenerative response. Regardless of the mode of action of the cells, angiogenesis underlies the success of these approaches. Stem cells derived from tooth tissues, specifically the periodontal ligament of teeth (periodontal ligament stem cells [PDLSCs]), have recently been identified as a good source of multipotent cells for cell therapies. PDLSCs have demonstrated properties similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), yet, unlike MSCs, their vascular potential has not been previously demonstrated. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine if PDLSCs could modulate angiogenesis. In comparison to MSCs and stem cells derived from tooth pulp tissues (SHEDs), we first determined if PDLSCs released soluble proangiogenic factors with the capacity to induce vessel formation by endothelial cells (ECs). Next, the ability of PDLSCs to modulate angiogenesis was examined through their cotransplantation with ECs in subcutaneous sites of immunocompromised mice. Finally, the stability of the PDLSC-mediated vasculature was determined through evaluation of the maturity and functionality of the vessels formed following PDLSC transplantation. It was determined that PDLSCs produced appreciable levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor-2, and additionally, were able to initiate in vitro angiogenesis of ECs comparable to MSC- and SHED-mediated angiogenesis. In vivo cotransplantation of ECs with PDLSCs significantly (>50% increase) enhanced the number of blood vessels formed relative to transplantation of ECs alone. Finally, vessels formed following PDLSC cotransplantation were more mature and less permeable than those formed after transplantation of EC alone. These data demonstrate for the first time that PDLSCs have vascular potential

  9. The effect of Smads signal pathway on the osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament stem cells in simtulated microgravity%微重力环境下Smads信号通路对人牙周膜干细胞成骨向分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彦; 李石; 牛忠英; 包博; 石馨

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解Smads信号通路在模拟微重力条件下对人牙周膜细胞成骨向分化的影响.方法:自手术拔除的人牙周膜中培养获得牙周膜细胞,利用有限稀释法培养获得人牙周膜细胞(human periodontal ligament cells,hPDLCs).采用旋转细胞培养系统(rotary cell cuhure system,RCCS)建立模拟微重力环境将细胞分为对照组(正常重力组)、模拟微重力组,应用实时定量PCR检测Smads信号分子表达及加入Smads抑制剂后成骨标志物的表达,流式细胞仪检测磷酸化Smad表达.采用SPSS13.0软件包对数据进行统计学处理.结果:与对照组相比,模拟微重力组Smads 2、3、4 mRNA表达量显著增加,呈时间依赖性,在2h达到峰值,随后开始下降.Smads7在2h时开始上升,观测时间内未捕捉到其下降.流式细胞检测发现.p-Smads在30min时开始出现高表达(29 39%),2h时达到峰值,表达量为91.32%.加入Smads抑制剂后,p-Smads表达下降至5.3%,成骨标志物COL1、ALP、OCN表达显著下降(P<0.05).结论:模拟微重力环境下Smads信号通路参与了hPDLSCs成骨向分化.%PIPOSE: To investigate the effect of Smads signal pathway on the osteogenesis of human periodontal ligament sterr cells (hPDLSCs) in simulated micmgravity. METHODS: Human periodmtal ligament stem cells were isolated from the ligament of surgically extracted human teeth.Through limiting dilution assay, mono-clone of the cell was obtained, hPDLSCs were isolated from MesenPRO RS medium. Rotary cell culture system (RCCS) was enrolled to set simulated microgravity (SMG). Samples were set to control group (normal gravity group, NG) and simulated microgravity group (SMG). Real-lime PCR was used to detect the expression of Smads signals and the expression of markers of osteogenesis before and after SIS3, The amount of phosphated-Smad was assayed by flow cyfometry. Statistical analysis of the data was done by ANOVA with SPSS 13.0 software package. RESULTS: Compared with

  10. Regional material properties of the human hip joint capsule ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, J; Guilak, F; Glisson, R; Vail, T P

    2001-05-01

    The hip joint capsule functions to constrain translation between the femur and acetabulum while allowing rotational and planar movements. Despite the crucial role it plays in the pathogenesis of hip instability, little is known about its biomechanical properties. The goal of this study was to determine the regional material properties of the iliofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments of the capsule. Ten human cadaveric specimens of each ligament were tested to failure in tension. The stress at failure, strain at failure, strain energy density at failure, toe- and linear-region elastic moduli, and the Poisson's ratio were measured for each ligament. The strain to failure was greatest in the ischiofemoral ligament, while no significant difference was noted in failure stress by region or ligament. The Young's moduli of elasticity ranged from 76.1 to 285.8 MPa among the different ligaments, and were generally consistent with properties previously reported for the shoulder capsule. The elastic moduli and strain energy density at failure differed by region. No significant differences in Poisson's ratio were found by region or ligament. The average Poisson's ratio was approximately 1.4, consistent with anisotropic behavior of ligamentous tissues. Understanding the material properties of the hip capsule may help the orthopaedic surgeon better understand normal ligament function, and thereby choose a surgical approach or strategy of repair. Furthermore, knowledge of the normal mechanical function of the hip capsule ligaments could assist in the evaluation of the success of a repair.

  11. Comparative histology of mouse, rat, and human pelvic ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Orlicky, David J; Arnett, Jameson; Guess, Marsha K; Hurt, K Joseph; Connell, Kathleen A

    2016-11-01

    The uterosacral (USL) and cardinal ligaments (CL) provide support to the uterus and pelvic organs, and the round ligaments (RL) maintain their position in the pelvis. In women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the connective tissue, smooth muscle, vasculature, and innervation of the pelvic support structures are altered. Rodents are commonly used animal models for POP research. However, the pelvic ligaments have not been defined in these animals. In this study, we hypothesized that the gross anatomy and histological composition of pelvic ligaments in rodents and humans are similar. We performed an extensive literature search for anatomical and histological descriptions of the pelvic support ligaments in rodents. We also performed anatomical dissections of the pelvis to define anatomical landmarks in relation to the ligaments. In addition, we identified the histological components of the pelvic ligaments and performed quantitative analysis of the smooth muscle bundles and connective tissue of the USL and RL. The anatomy of the USL, CL, and RL and their anatomical landmarks are similar in mice, rats, and humans. All species contain the same cellular components and have similar histological architecture. However, the cervical portion of the mouse USL and RL contain more smooth muscle and less connective tissue compared with rat and human ligaments. The pelvic support structures of rats and mice are anatomically and histologically similar to those of humans. We propose that both mice and rats are appropriate, cost-effective models for directed studies in POP research.

  12. Immunolocalization of lubricin in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Rosalia; Loreto, Carla; Talic, Nabeel; Caltabiano, Rosario; Musumeci, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    Lubricin is a protein which contributes to the boundary lubrication, facilitating low friction levels at the interfacing surfaces of joints. In tendons and ligaments it facilitates the relative movement of collagen bundles. Its expression is affected by mechanical signals and cytokines. During application of orthodontic forces to teeth, there is a transduction of mechanical forces to the cells of the periodontal ligament (PDL), which triggers several biological reactions causing the synthesis of prostaglandins, cytokines and growth factors. The aim of the present study was to examine the immunolocalization of lubricin and to evaluate if it is time-dependently and differentially detected within the PDL following the application of orthodontic forces to create areas of compression and tension. This was achieved by placing elastic bands between the maxillary first and second molars of 16 male Sprague-Dawley rats (each weighing 120-200g) for 12 and 24h. The molar-bearing segments were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Binding of a monoclonal antibody was used to evaluate lubricin localization using an indirect streptavidin/biotin immunperoxidase technique. Lubricin, was constitutively expressed in the PDL of rat molars. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, lubricin was down-regulated, on both sides (compression and tension) of the PDL, in a time-dependent fashion, although to a different extent, being at any time more expressed on the tension side. Furthermore, in every sample, almost all PDL cells in the adjacent tooth cementum and alveolar bone, were more heavily immunolabeled by lubricin antibody, contrary to those located in the central portion of the PDL. Lubricin expression therefore seems related to PDL remodeling and tooth displacement following the application of an orthodontic force, and it appears that lubricin may play an important role during tooth movement.

  13. In vitro clonogenic capacity of periodontal ligament fibroblasts cultured with Emdogain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, Malka; Shaked, Ilanit

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of Emdogain (EMD) in preserving the size of the periodontal ligament progenitor pool (clonogenic capacity) and in promoting their proliferation. Periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) were obtained from explants of young permanent healthy tooth. After initial outgrowth (10 days to 2 weeks following explantation), the culture medium of experimental flasks was replaced with medium supplemented with 100 microg ml(-1) EMD, whereas the other served as controls and were fed with regular medium. Following 5 weeks, the cells were washed (3x), harvested (trypsin + EDTA), and evaluated for their viability. Viable cells from each group were inoculated into six 96-well plates at a concentration of one viable cell per two wells and were allowed to grow for 5 weeks. The percentage of cells with clonogenic capacity was determined as the number of colonies formed/number of cells seeded x 100 in the experimental and control groups. Three degrees of dish area coverage were utilized: up to 25%, between 25% and 75% and higher than 75%. This experiment was repeated four times from four different donors. A total of 2328 cells were evaluated, half of which, were cultured with EMD. The mean percentage of cells (from all donors) who exhibited any clonogenic capacity in the presence of EMD was comparable with that of cells cultured in the absence of EMD: 26.6 +/- 14.3% when compared with 34.6 +/- 20.6% respectively (P = 0.186). Similarly, the percentage of clones that proliferated to cover up to 25% of the well area was comparable in the two groups 7.5 +/- 8.6 for EMD-treated clones and 7.1 +/- 7.8 for untreated clones (P = 0.674). The percentage of clones that proliferated to cover 25% up to 75% of the well area was greater EMD-treated clones as compared with the untreated cells: 8.1 +/- 6.7% vs 3.8 +/- 3%. However this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.277). In contrast, the percentage of clones that covered

  14. Expression analysis of a-smooth muscle actin and tenascin-C in the periodontal ligament under orthodontic loading or in vitro culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xu; Ding Bai; L-Bruno Ruest; Jian Q Feng; Yong-Wen Guo; Ye Tian; Yan Jing; Yao He; Xiang-Long Han

    2015-01-01

    a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and tenascin-C are stress-induced phenotypic features of myofibroblasts. The expression levels of these two proteins closely correlate with the extracellular mechanical microenvironment. We investigated how the expression of a-SMA and tenascin-C was altered in the periodontal ligament (PDL) under orthodontic loading to indirectly reveal the intrinsic mechanical microenvironment in the PDL. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effects of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and mechanical tensile or compressive stress on myofibroblast differentiation from human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The hPDLCs under higher tensile or compressive stress significantly increased their levels of a-SMA and tenascin-C compared with those under lower tensile or compressive stress. A similar trend was observed in the tension and compression areas of the PDL under continuous light or heavy orthodontic load in rats. During the time-course analysis of expression, we observed that an increase in a-SMA levels was matched by an increase in tenascin-C levels in the PDL under orthodontic load in vivo. The time-dependent variation of a-SMA and tenascin-C expression in the PDL may indicate the time-dependent variation of intrinsic stress under constant extrinsic loading.

  15. Conditioned medium of periodontal ligament mesenchymal stem cells exert anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-activated mouse motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Trubiani, Oriana; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2016-11-15

    Conditioned medium derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects in preclinical models. Given the difficulty to harvest MSCs from bone marrow and adipose tissues, research has been focused to find alternative resources for MSCs, such as oral-derived tissues. Recently, we have demonstrated the protective effects of MSCs obtained from healthy human periodontal ligament tissue (hPDLSCs) in murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. In the present in vitro study, we have investigated the immunomodulatory and neuroprotective effects of conditioned medium obtained from hPDLSCs of Relapsing Remitting- Multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients on NSC34 mouse motoneurons stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were performed. Increased level of TLR4 and NFκB, and reduced level of IκB-α were observed in LPS-stimulated motoneurons, which were modulated by pre-conditioning with hPDLSC-conditioned medium. Inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-10), neuroprotective markers (Nestin, NFL 70, NGF, GAP43), and apoptotic markers (Bax, Bcl-2, p21) were modulated. Moreover, extracellular vesicles of hPDLSC-conditioned medium showed the presence of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-β. Our results demonstrate the immunosuppressive properties of hPDLSC-conditioned medium of RR-MS patients in motoneurons subjected to inflammation. Our findings warrant further preclinical and clinical studies to elucidate the autologous therapeutic efficacy of hPDLSC-conditioned medium in neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the simulated periodontal ligament on cast post-and-core removal using an ultrasonic device

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    Manoel Brito-Junior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of simulated periodontal ligament (SPDL on custom cast dowel and core removal by ultrasonic vibration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two human maxillary canines were included in resin cylinders with or without SPDL made from polyether impression material. In order to allow tensile testing, the roots included in resin cylinders with SPDL were fixed to cylinders with two stainless steel wires. Post-holes were prepared by standardizing the length at 8 mm and root canal impressions were made with self-cured resin acrylic. Cast dowel and core sets were fabricated and luted with Panavia F resin cement. Half of the samples were submitted to ultrasonic vibration before the tensile test. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (p<0.05. RESULTS: The ultrasonic vibration reduced the tensile strength of the samples directly included in resin cylinders. There was no difference between the values, whether or not ultrasonic vibration was used, when the PDL was simulated. However, the presence of SPDL affected the tensile strength values even when no ultrasonic vibration was applied. CONCLUSION: Simulation of PDL has an effect on both ultrasonic vibration and tensile testing.

  17. Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials: Synthesis and in vitro delivery of diclofenac and biocompatibility with periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña, José A. [Departamento de Química, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Gutiérrez, Sandra J., E-mail: s.gutierrez@javeriana.edu.co [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Villamil, Jean C. [Centro de investigaciones Odontológicas, Facultad de Odontología, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá (Colombia); Agudelo, Natalia A. [Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Pérez, León D., E-mail: ldperezp@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Macromoléculas, Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Carrera 45 No 26–85, edificio 451 of. 449, Bogotá D.C. Colombia (Colombia)

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report the synthesis of polycaprolactone (PCL) based hybrid materials containing hydrophilic domains composed of N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP), and γ-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS). The hybrid materials were obtained by RAFT copolymerization of N-vinylpyrrolidone and MPS using a pre-formed dixanthate-end-functionalized PCL as macro-chain transfer agent, followed by a post-reaction crosslinking step. The composition of the samples was determined by elemental and thermogravimetric analyses. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction indicated that the crystallinity of PCL decreases in the presence of the hydrophilic domains. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that the samples present an interconnected porous structure on the swelling. Compared to PCL, the hybrid materials presented low water contact angle values and higher elastic modulus. These materials showed controlled release of diclofenac, and biocompatibility with human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Policaprolactone/polyvinylpyrrolidone/siloxane hybrid materials • Moderated hydrophilic materials with high swelling resistance • Organic–inorganic hybrid materials were biocompatible.

  18. Determination of periodontal ligament cell viability in the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade and milks of varying fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkacz, O M; Carnes, D L; Walker, W A

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: 1) to determine if the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade could serve as a suitable temporary storage medium for maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability on avulsed teeth and 2) to determine if fat content is related to maintenance of cell viability when milk is used as the temporary storage medium. PDL cells were cultured from extracted human teeth then incubated over timed intervals from 15 to 210 min in the oral rehydration fluid Gatorade, milks of varying fat content, and saliva. Dulbeco's Modified Eagles Medium served as the positive control while tap water served as the negative control. Cell viability was determined using a colorimetric assay that used Cell Proliferation Reagent WST-1. Results using Gatorade yielded cell viability data similar to the negative control, tap water, indicating that this oral rehydration fluid was not suitable as a temporary storage medium for the avulsed tooth. However, the fat content of milk was found to have an effect on cell viability, suggesting that milks with lower fat content may be more appropriate for maintaining PDL cell viability than milks with higher fat content.

  19. Nrf2 Inhibits Periodontal Ligament Stem Cell Apoptosis under Excessive Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze novel mechanisms underlying Nrf2-mediated anti-apoptosis in periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs in the periodontitis oxidative microenvironment. We created an oxidative stress model with H2O2-treated PDLSCs. We used real-time PCR, Western blotting, TUNEL staining, fluorogenic assay and transfer genetics to confirm the degree of oxidative stress and apoptosis as well as the function of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. We demonstrated that with upregulated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA, the effect of oxidative stress was obvious under H2O2 treatment. Oxidative molecules were altered after the H2O2 exposure, whereby the signaling of Nrf2 was activated with an increase in its downstream effectors, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 and γ-glutamyl cysteine synthetase (γ-GCS. Additionally, the apoptosis levels gradually increased with oxidative stress by the upregulation of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos levels in addition to the downregulation of Bcl-2. However, there was no alterations in levels of caspase-8. The enhanced antioxidant effect could not mitigate the occurrence of apoptosis. Furthermore, Nrf2 overexpression effectively improved the anti-oxidative levels and increased cell proliferation. At the same time, overexpression effectively restrained TUNEL staining and decreased the molecular levels of caspase-9, caspase-3, Bax and c-Fos, but not that of caspase-8. In contrast, silencing the expression of Nrf2 levels had the opposite effect. Collectively, Nrf2 alleviates PDLSCs via its effects on regulating oxidative stress and anti-intrinsic apoptosis by the activation of oxidative enzymes.

  20. Attachment, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells on various guided tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, T; Wang, H L; Miyauchi, M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane materials, per se, on the periodontal tissue regeneration. Rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived cells were used to study the attachment, proliferation and differentiation, in vitro, on various GTR membranes. Five commercially available membranes bovine type I collagen (BioMend; BM), bovine type I atelocollagen (Tissue Guide; TG), polylactic acid (Epi-Guide; EG), co-polymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid (Resolute; RL) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene: e-PTFE (Gore Tex; GT)-were examined. A 3 x 3 mm section of the membrane was fixed to the bottom of a 35 x 10 mm style culture dish and plated with 2 ml of cell suspension at an initial density of 5 x 10(4) cells/ml in culture medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. For cell growth analysis, the specimens were fixed with 10% buffered formalin and stained with hematoxylin at 1.5 hours and 1, 3 and 5 days after cell seeding. The number of cells included in a unit area of 0.25 mm2 were counted under light microscopy. As a comparative scaffold of cell proliferation, a plastic cover for cell culture slip (Celldesk; CD) was used. For analysis of cell differentiation, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcification were histochemically revealed after 2-week cultivation. The initial number of PDL cells attached to the membrane at 1.5 hours after cell seeding was different among membranes. RL, TG and EG had the same level of attached cell numbers as that on CD, while the cell numbers on GT and BM were significantly lower than that on CD (p membranes examined. RL and BM demonstrated a significantly higher number of cells at 5 days than at 1.5 hours (p 0.1). EG had a similar number of cell attachments to that at 1.5 hours throughout the experimental period. There was almost no cell proliferation on GT. Cell clusters of ALP positive cells and foci of calcification were seen on all membranes except for

  1. Effect of propolis on survival of periodontal ligament cells: new storage media for avulsed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozan, Fatih; Polat, Zübeyde Akin; Er, Kürsat; Ozan, Ulkü; Değer, Orhan

    2007-05-01

    Propolis is a multifunctional material used by bees in the construction and maintenance of their hives. Propolis possesses several biologic activities such as anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, and tissue regenerative, among others. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of propolis to serve as a temporary storage medium for the maintenance of periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability of avulsed teeth. PDL cells were obtained from healthy third molars and cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 10% propolis solution, 20% propolis solution, long-shelf life light milk with lower fat content (milk), Hank's Balanced Salt Solution, tap water as the negative control, and DMEM as the positive control. Tissue culture plates were incubated with experimental media at 37 degrees C for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 hours. PDL cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by the Tukey test. The level of significance was 5% (ppropolis was a more effective storage medium than other groups. In conclusion, propolis can be recommended as a suitable transport medium for avulsed teeth.

  2. The biomechanical behaviour of the hyalinized periodontal ligament in dogs during experimental orthodontic tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsdóttir, S H; Giesen, E B W; Maltha, J C

    2012-10-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement, the mechanical behaviour of the extracellular matrix of the periodontal ligament (PDL) determines the cellular processes involved in turnover of the PDL and alveolar bone. This mechanical behaviour is the basis for finite element (FE) models and FE analyses. Five young adult male beagle dogs were used to test the null hypothesis that the mechanical behaviour of the PDL is identical in normal and hyalinized PDL. Therefore, tooth transposition was measured after standardized force application by super-elastic nickel titanium (NiTi) coil springs, exerting a constant force of 100 cN for 5 hours in both conditions. A rapid transposition during the first few seconds was found. However, it was significantly less for hyalinized than for non-hyalinized PDL. Subsequently, a short-lived creep movement was found for hyalinized PDL, while creep persisted at the non-hyalinized sides (analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparisons post hoc tests). The results showed substantial biomechanical differences between hyalinized and non-hyalinized PDL at different time points (Mann-Whitney). This indicates that FE models in the study of long-term orthodontic tooth movement, which are based solely on the characteristics of normal PDL should be reconsidered.

  3. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  4. Effect of Four Different Media on Periodontal Ligament Cells Viability of Dry- Stored Dog Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Asheghi, Bahar; Sahebi, Safoura

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: The maintenance of viable periodontal ligament cells is the most important issue in the long-term preservation of avulsed teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess aloe vera as a new storage media in maintaining the cell viability of dry-stored teeth in comparison with soy milk, Hank`s balanced salt solution (HBSS), and milk. Materials and Method: Twenty one extracted dog premolar teeth were dried for 30 minutes and stored in soy milk, HBSS, milk, and aloe vera extract (50%) for 45 minutes (n=6 for each). Furthermore, positive and two negative control groups (n=6), corresponding to 0 min, 30 min, and 2-hour drying times were also prepared respectively. The number of viable cells was counted following storage using Trypan blue exclusion. Data were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-HSD test. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in cell viability among aloe vera, soymilk, and HBSS- stored teeth; however, they were all superior to milk. Conclusion: Aloe vera extract can be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth. PMID:28280756

  5. Effect of Four Different Media on Periodontal Ligament Cells Viability of Dry- Stored Dog Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Moazzami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The maintenance of viable periodontal ligament cells is the most important issue in the long-term preservation of avulsed teeth. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess aloe vera as a new storage media in maintaining the cell viability of dry-stored teeth in comparison with soy milk, Hank`s balanced salt solution (HBSS, and milk. Materials and Method: Twenty one extracted dog premolar teeth were dried for 30 minutes and stored in soy milk, HBSS, milk, and aloe vera extract (50% for 45 minutes (n=6 for each. Furthermore, positive and two negative control groups (n=6, corresponding to 0 min, 30 min, and 2-hour drying times were also prepared respectively. The number of viable cells was counted following storage using Trypan blue exclusion. Data were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey-HSD test. Results: Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in cell viability among aloe vera, soymilk, and HBSS- stored teeth; however, they were all superior to milk. Conclusion: Aloe vera extract can be recommended as a suitable storage media for avulsed teeth.

  6. Transverse ligament of the knee in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Wojciech; Jakubowicz, Marian; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to trace the histological structure of the transverse ligament of the knee and its relation to the inferior lateral genicular artery. Investigations were carried out on 20 lower limbs (10 males, and 10 females) from the Department of Anatomy. It was found that close to the attachment of the transverse ligament to the menisci, bundles of fibres pass in vertical, oblique and horizontal directions, occupying a wide area on the anterior margin of the menisci. These fibres intermingle with bundles of the fibrocartilage of the menisci. In the area of the lateral attachment the inferior lateral genicular artery passes anteriorly to the transverse ligament, giving off numerous branches to the ligament. The medial part of the transverse ligament presents a thick rounded structure, surrounded by loose connective tissue. The fibres are arranged irregularly in bundles running horizontally on a tortuous course and with single spindle-like cells with darkly stained nuclei. The cells are not found at the ends of the ligament. Numerous blood vessels are observed between the bundles of fibres and on the periphery of the ligament.

  7. Effects of Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L; Chen, J; Cheng, L; Wang, X; Du, J; Wang, F; Peng, Z

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the influence of Enterococcus faecalis lipoteichoic acid (LTA) on the key bone resorption-regulating proteins, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL cells). Periodontal ligament cells were subjected to various concentrations of LTA. Cell viability was then determined by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, whilst the expression levels of RANKL and OPG were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. The effect of the inhibitors [IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-1/4, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (SB203580)] on LTA-stimulated RANKL/OPG activation was examined. Cell viability and RANKL/OPG ratio in PDL cells were also analysed by MTT assay and Western blotting. Data were analysed using one-way anova or t-test at a significance level of P = 0.05. Cell viability was reduced significantly in the LTA group in a dose-dependent fashion (P < 0.05). In addition, LTA was found to upregulate the protein expression of RANKL, OPG and their relative ratio in PDL cells (P < 0.05). The optimal concentration of LTA used in PDL cells was determined to be 10 μg mL(-1) . Following IRAK1/4 and p38MAPK inhibition, LTA-stimulated increases of RANKL/OPG ratio were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Enterococcus faecalis LTA could upregulate the expression of RANKL and OPG at different rates, suggesting a potential role for LTA in the bone resorption process of refractory apical periodontitis through the regulation of RANKL and OPG. In addition, IRAK1/4 and p38MAPK signalling involving RANKL/OPG may contribute to inflammatory responses from PDL cells. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Research progress on periodontal ligament stem cell%牙周膜干细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁少文(综述); 税艳青(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dental plaque biofilm. It is a disease of the periodontium characterized by irreversible loss of connective tissue attachment and supporting alveolae, which may result in tooth loss. The aim of therapy is to regenerate the destroyed connective tissue attachment and supporting alveolae. Mesenchymal stem cells obtained from periodontal ligament are multipotent cells. These cells proliferate and differentiate into different types of tissues. Thus, mesenchymal stem cells are valuable for periodontal regeneration and periodontal tissue engineering. This review provides an overview of periodontal ligament stem cells and discusses recent studies and research prospects.%牙周病是一种由菌斑微生物引起的慢性感染性疾病,可引起牙周支持组织的破坏和丧失,最终导致牙齿松动脱落。牙周病治疗的最终目标是修复和重建受损的牙周支持组织。从牙周膜中分离获取的间充质干细胞具有成体干细胞的特性及多重分化潜能,可以分化为骨组织和牙周支持组织等多种类型的组织,这对牙周组织修复再生和牙周组织工程具有重大意义,因而备受关注。本文就牙周膜干细胞、牙周膜干细胞的生物学特性、牙周膜干细胞的影响因素及其调控机制等研究进展作一综述。

  9. Spray-painted human fibronectin coating as an effective strategy to enhance graft ligamentization of a polyethylene terephthalate artificial ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Chen; Ge, Yunsheng; Chen, Shiyi

    2014-05-01

    To enhance graft ligamentization after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, human fibronectin (FN) was coated on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligaments by spray painting. The FN-coated PET ligaments were investigated in vitro using rat mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs cultured on FN-coated grafts resulted in similar cell densities and amounts of proliferating cells with control grafts without coating. The FN-coated group not only gave rise to MSC-derived collagen-like tissues but also enhanced the expression of collagen-I gene. Furthermore, rat ACL reconstruction models were used to evaluate the effect of the FN coating in vivo. The FN coating significantly promoted new ligament tissue regeneration into the graft fibers. In conclusion, sprayed FN coating had a positive effect to enhance graft ligamentization of PET artificial ligament.

  10. Construction of lentiviral RNAi vectors containing human smoothened gene and its inhibitory effect on proliferation and differentiation in human periodontal ligament stem cells%Smoothened慢病毒干扰载体的构建及其对人牙周膜干细胞增殖与分化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁; 常慧君; 李雨轩; 舒绍兵; 罗金英; 徐志玲; 汤玲; 杨彦春; 周继祥

    2013-01-01

    Objective To construct the lentiviral vector of human smoothened (SMO) gene which can down-regulate the SMO expression in human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs).Methods According to the human SMO gene,3 sequences were designed to build RNA interference lentiviral vector.All the 3 vectors were packaged in 293FT cells,and then transfected into the 293A cells.The interference efficiency was evaluated by quantitative PCR,and the optimal one were transfected into the PDLSCs.Western blotting were used to detect the interference effect of SMO gene and the effect on differentiation in PDLSCs.CCK-8 assay was used to test the effect of recombinant lentivirus on the proliferation of PDLSCs.Results Three SMO lentiviral RNAi vectors were constructed successfully and the lentiviral vector 1 was considered as the optimal one by quantitative PCR.The mRNA level of SMO was reduced by (28.5 ± 2.5) % by this vector.The protein expression of SMO was decreased by 80% in the PDLSCs after transfected by the lentivector vector 1 when compared with the cells without transfection.This transfection also resulted in a decreased cell proliferation (1.090 9 ± 0.199 2 vs 1.863 0 ± 0.206 2,P < 0.01) and a decreased expression of bone differentiation marker,RUNX2.Conclusion A lentiviral vector of SMO is successfully constructed,and SMO interference suppresses the proliferation in PDLSCs,and inhibits the differentiation of PDLSC to osteoblasts.%目的 体外构建及筛选人Smoothened(SMO)基因的慢病毒干扰载体,使用此载体下调人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem ceils,PDLSCs)中SMO基因表达并检测其对细胞增殖与分化的影响.方法 针对人SMO 基因设计3条干扰序列,构建RNA干扰慢病毒载体,在293FT细胞中包装病毒液并转染293A细胞,通过实时荧光定量PCR检测干扰效率,得到具有最佳干扰效率的病毒后,转染PDLSCs,用Western blot检测其对PDLSCs中SMO基因的干扰效果

  11. A comparative study on the biological characteristics of human periodontal ligament cells and orofacial bone marrow stromal cells%颌骨骨髓基质细胞与牙周膜细胞的生物学特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣; 房明; 刘敏杰; 董广英; 王新文; 刘玲侠; 王勤涛

    2012-01-01

    目的:比较颌骨骨髓基质细胞与牙周膜细胞的基本生物学特性.方法:分离颌骨来源骨髓基质细胞和牙周膜细胞,进行改良体外原代培养.倒置显微镜观察细胞生长及克隆形成情况;CCK-8检测细胞生长曲线;免疫荧光染色检测STR0-1表达;成脂诱导后检测脂滴形成,矿化诱导后检测碱性磷酸酶的变化并用RT-PCR检测7、14 d成骨相关基因OCN的表达水平.结果:两种细胞体外培养均呈成纤维样细胞外形,能克隆生长,均具有活跃的增殖能力;两种细胞STR0-1表达阳性;成脂诱导后可见脂滴形成;矿化诱导后骨髓基质细胞的碱性磷酸酶活性较强,而且OCN基因表达较早且较强.结论:颌骨来源骨髓基质细胞具有较强的增殖及成骨分化能力,具有干细胞特性,可能是有较大临床应用潜力的组织工程种子细胞.%AIM:To compare the biological characteristics of human orofacial bone marrow stromal cells and periodontal ligament cells in vitro. METHODS: Primary human orofacial bone marrow stromal cells and periodon-tal ligament cells (PDLCs) were isolated and cultured in vitro. Cell morphology, growth curve, colony formation ratio (CFR) , expression of STRO- 1 were analyzed by inverted contrast microscope, cck-8 and immunofluorescence staining. After osteogenic induction, alkaline phosphatase activity and the expression of osteocalcin (OCN) were tested by ELISA and RT-PCR. The adipogenic differentiation potential was identified by oil red 0 staining. RESULTS: Both BMSCs and PDLCs showed fibroblast-like morphology and clonal growth pattern. They proliferated and expanded rapidly in vitro. Both cells expressed the stem cell marker STRO-1. Alkaline phosphatase activity of BMSCs was higher than that of PDLCs on 7 and 14 days after osteogenic induction. BMSCs expressed OCN gene after 7 days of induction, while PDLCs didn' t express it. Lipid droplets were observed in both cells after adipogenic induction

  12. 复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂对人牙周膜细胞增殖的影响%Effects of compound ornidazole-pefloxacin mesylate sustained-release preparation on human periodontal ligament cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁; 刘鲁川; 董正谋; 刘娜; 安建平

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察不同浓度复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂对人牙周膜细胞(human periodontal ligament cells,HPDLC)生长及ki-67表达的影响.方法组织块法培养原代HPDLC,MTT法检测HPDLC在复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂的不同浓度(0、1.25、2.5、5、10、20 g/L)下的光密度值,检测细胞的相对增殖率;采用流式细胞仪检测细胞周期;免疫荧光法检测ki-67的阳性表达率.结果在1.25、2.5 g/L的浓度下对HPDLC的生长和ki-67的表达与对照组比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);而5、10 g/L浓度组的光密度值有所增大,细胞增殖指数提高,ki-67的阳性表达率也有所增加,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);高浓度药物20 g/L对HPDLC的生长有一定的抑制作用.结论 5、10 g/L的复方奥硝唑-甲磺酸培氟沙星缓释制剂对体外培养的HPDLC的生长增殖有一定促进作用.%Objective To study the effects of different concentrations of compound ornidazolepefloxacin mesylate sustained-release preparation on the proliferation of human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs) and the expression of ki-67. Methods Primary HPDLCs were isolated through tissue explant culture technique, and cultured in media containing different concentrations (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 g/L) of compound ornidazole-pefloxacin mesylate sustained-release preparation. MTr assay was then utilized to measure the OD values of HPDLCs to reflect the relative growth rates. Cell cycles were detected by flow cytometry. The positive expression rates of ki-67 were detected by immunofluorescence assay. Results In the 1.25 and 2.5 g/L groups, HPDLC proliferation and ki-67 expression showed no significant difference from the control group (P >0.05). In the 5 and 10 g/L groups, the OD values, cell proliferation indexes, and ki-67 positive expression rates increased significantly, with statistical differences from the control group ( P <0.05 ). In the 20 g

  13. Altered distribution of extracellular matrix proteins in the periodontal ligament of periostin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Chihiro; Hongo, Hiromi; Sasaki, Muneteru; Hasegawa, Tomoka; de Freitas, Paulo Henrique Luiz; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Suzuki, Reiko; Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Li, Minqi; Kudo, Akira; Iida, Junichiro; Amizuka, Norio

    2014-06-01

    Verifying whether periostin affects the distribution of type I collagen, fibronectin and tenascin C in the periodontal ligament (PDL) is important to contribute to a more thorough understanding of that protein's functions. In this study, we have histologically examined incisor PDL of mandibles in 20 week-old male wild-type and periostin-deficient (periostin-/-) mice, by means of type I collagen, fibronectin, tenascin C, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, matrix metallo-proteinase (MMP)-1 and F4/80-positive monocyte/macrophage immunostaining, transmission electron microscopy and quantitative analysis of cell proliferation. Wild-type PDL featured well-arranged layers of collagen bundles intertwined with PDL cells, whose longitudinal axis ran parallel to the collagen fibers. However, cells in the periostin-/- PDL were irregularly distributed among collagen fibrils, which were also haphazardly arranged. Type I collagen and fibronectin reactivity was seen throughout the wild-type PDL, while in the periostin-/- PDL, only focal, uneven staining for these proteins could be seen. Similarly, tenascin C staining was evenly distributed in the wild-type PDL, but hardly seen in the periostin-/- PDL. MMP-1 immunoreactivity was uniformly distributed in the wild-type PDL, but only dotted staining could be discerned in the periostin-/- PDL. F4/80-positive monocyte/macrophages were found midway between tooth- and bone-related regions in the wild-type PDL, a pattern that could not be observed in the periostin-/- PDL. In summary, periostin deficiency may not only cause PDL collagen fibril disorganization, but could also affect the distribution of other major extracellular matrix proteins such as fibronectin and tenascin C.

  14. The Effect of Propolis As A Biological Storage Media on Periodontal Ligament Cell Survival in An Avulsed Tooth: An In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Ahangari; Mandana Naseri; Fatemeh Dehghani; Zahra Yadegari; Samiye Alborzi; Zohreh Ahangari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank’s balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival for different time points. Materials and Methods: : In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and tw...

  15. 骨形成蛋白2基因转染的人牙周膜成纤维细胞的生物学特性%The Biological Characterization of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 Gene Transfected Human Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司晓辉; 刘正

    2001-01-01

    Objective To establish the human periodontal ligament fibroblasts(HPDLFs)that express BMP2 and observe their biologicl characterization. Methods A phagemid expression vector for BMP2 (pBK-B2) was transfected into HPDLFs by using LipofectAMINE. The BMP2 expression was determined by the immunohistochemical ABC method. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteocalcin (OC) production and capacity of mineralization were measured in the transfected cells. Results BMP2 protein was expressed in HPDLFs after gene transfection. The BMP2 gene transfected cells showed prominently elevated ALP activity, OC production and increase in mineralized nodules. Conclusion The results indicate that BMP2 is expressed in HPDLFs and is involved in inducing differ- entiation of HPDLFs into osteoblast-like cells.%目的建立表达骨形成蛋白2(BMPS)的人牙周膜成纤维细胞(HPDLFS)并观察其生物学特性。方法利用脂质体将BMP2噬菌粒表达载体pBK-B2转染至HPDLFs,免疫组化ABC法检测BMP2基因的表达,并检测转染细胞的碱性磷酸酶(ALP)活力、骨钙素(OC)含量和矿化能力。结果转染BMP2基因后,HPDLFs内有BMP2蛋白的表达,ALP活力、OC含量和矿化结节数量均显著增加。结论BMP2基因在HPDLFs中得到表达并促进其向成骨样细胞分化。

  16. Effects of oxymatrine on the proliferation and expression of tumor necrosis factor-αin human periodontal ligament cells treated with lipopolysaccharide%氧化苦参碱对内毒素作用的人牙周膜细胞增殖和分泌肿瘤坏死因子-α的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆书美

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察氧化苦参碱(OMT)对内毒素(LPS)作用下的人牙周膜细胞(HPDLC)增殖和分泌肿瘤坏死因子-α( TNF-α)的影响.方法 体外原代培养HPDLC,采用MTT法观察OMT对LPS作用的HPDLC增殖活性的影响,采用酶联免疫方法检测培养上清液中的TNF-α水平.结果100 μg/mL LPS可抑制HPDLC的增殖活性并刺激其分泌TNF-α,而在加入LPS同时分别给予1~25μg/mL OMT能在一定程度上恢复HPDLC的增殖活性并抑制LPS刺激的HPDLC TNF-α的分泌.结论 OMT对LPS作用的HPDLC具有保护作用.%Purpose To investigate the effects of oxymatrine ( OMT) on the proliferation and expression of tumor necrosis factor-α ( TNF-α) in human periodontal ligament cells ( HPDLC) treated with lipopolysaccharide(LPS). Methods HPDLC were primarily cultured in vitro. MTT colorimetric assay was performed to detect the cell proliferation. ELISA was applied to detect the level of TNF-α in the culture supernatant. Results The proliferation was remarkably inhibited by incubation of HPDLC with 100 μg/ mL LPS of E. coli, while the level of TNF-α was significantly increased. After adding different concentrations of OMT from 1 to 25 μg/mL, the proliferation was greatly improved and the production of TNF-α was decreased. Conclusion OMT may have protective effects on HPDLC treated with LPS.

  17. Application of stem cells derived from the periodontal ligament or gingival tissue sources for tendon tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Alireza; Xu, Xingtian; Chen, Chider; Ansari, Sahar; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Snead, Malcolm L; Shi, Songtao

    2014-03-01

    Tendon injuries are often associated with significant dysfunction and disability due to tendinous tissue's very limited self-repair capacity and propensity for scar formation. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material present an alternative therapeutic option for tendon repair/regeneration that may be advantageous compared to other current treatment modalities. The MSC delivery vehicle is the principal determinant for successful implementation of MSC-mediated regenerative therapies. In the current study, a co-delivery system based on TGF-β3-loaded RGD-coupled alginate microspheres was developed for encapsulating periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) or gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs). The capacity of encapsulated dental MSCs to differentiate into tendon tissue was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Encapsulated dental-derived MSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. Our results revealed that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, PDLSCs and GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to tendon regeneration (Scx, DCn, Tnmd, and Bgy) via qPCR measurement. In a corresponding in vivo animal model, ectopic neo-tendon regeneration was observed in subcutaneous transplanted MSC-alginate constructs, as confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical staining for protein markers specific for tendons. Interestingly, in our quantitative PCR and in vivo histomorphometric analyses, PDLSCs showed significantly greater capacity for tendon regeneration than GMSCs or hBMMSCs (P tissues can be considered as suitable stem cell sources for tendon engineering. PDLSCs and GMSCs encapsulated in TGF-β3-loaded RGD-modified alginate microspheres are promising candidates for tendon regeneration.

  18. Antibiotic Resistance in Human Chronic Periodontitis Microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E.; Degener, John E.; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) may yield multiple species of putative periodontal bacterial pathogens that vary in their antibiotic drug susceptibility. This study determines the occurrence of in vitro antibiotic resistance among selected subgingival periodontal pathogens in pa

  19. Acute changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local clearance of /sup 125/I from the periodontal ligament

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwall, B.; Berg, J.O.; Gazelius, B.; Edwall L.; Aars, H.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in intra-alveolar tooth position and local /sup 125/I clearance from the periodontal ligament (PDL) were monitored simultaneously in cats. Axial tooth movements, reflecting periodontal ligament volume changes, were measured with an ultrasonic transit time technique. Local blood flow changes in the PDL were studied indirectly by measuring the local clearance of /sup 125/I. Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic trunk caused an intrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant reduction of the /sup 125/I-clearance. Infusion of noradrenaline induced a similar respone. Stimulation of the inferior alveolar nerve during systemic treatment with phentolamine caused an extrusive movement of the tooth with a concomitant increase in the clearance of the tracer from the PDL. Intra-arterial infusion of the vasodilator substance P mimicked that response. Fization of the tooth to the jaw bone, thus preventing an intrusive movement, did not change the reductions in clearance seen on sympathetic stimulation, indicating that this blood flow reduction was not dependent on tooth movement. A qualitative relation between PDL blood flow (as measured by local /sup 125/I clearance) and PDL volume (as measured by tooth position) in shown. The two variables measured are suggested to reflect two aspects of blood flow in the PDL. 22 refs.

  20. Mechanical design, analysis, and laboratory testing of a dental implant with axial flexibility similar to natural tooth with periodontal ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pektaş, Ömer; Tönük, Ergin

    2014-11-01

    At the interface between the jawbone and the roots of natural teeth, a thin, elastic, shock-absorbing tissue, called the periodontal ligament, forms a cushion which provides certain flexibility under mechanical loading. The dental restorations supported by implants, however, involve comparatively rigid connections to the jawbone. This causes overloading of the implant while bearing functional loading together with neighboring natural teeth, which leads to high stresses within the implant system and in the jawbone. A dental implant, with resilient components in the upper structure (abutment) in order to mimic the mechanical behavior of the periodontal ligament in the axial direction, was designed, analyzed in silico, and produced for mechanical testing. The aims of the design were avoiding high levels of stress, loosening of the abutment connection screw, and soft tissue irritations. The finite element analysis of the designed implant revealed that the elastic abutment yielded a similar axial mobility with the natural tooth while keeping stress in the implant at safe levels. The in vitro mechanical testing of the prototype resulted in similar axial mobility predicted by the analysis and as that of a typical natural tooth. The abutment screw did not loosen under repeated loading and there was no static or fatigue failure.

  1. 糖基化终末产物对脂多糖介导下人牙周膜干细胞增殖和骨向分化能力的影响%Effect of advanced glycation end products on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human periodontal ligament stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 夏佳佳; 邓超; 伍燕; 刘琪; 金岩

    2011-01-01

    AIM : To investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products ( AGEs) on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of lipopolysaccharide ( LPS)-stimulated human periodontal ligament stem cells ( HPDLSCs).METHODS : The effects of LPS and AGEs on the proliferation of HPDLSCs were analyzed by MTT assay.The expressions of interleukin-6 ( IL-6 ) , alkaline phosphatase ( ALP) and Runt-related transcription factor-2 ( RUNX-2) mRNA of HPDLSCs which were stimulated by LPS ( 1O μg/mL) and AGEs (100 μg/mL) were detected by RT-PCR.RESULTS : MIT assay showed that LPS and AGEs inhibited the proliferation of HPDLSCs in a dose dependent manner.LPS stimulation significantly increased IL - 6 expression and inhibited ALP and RUNX-2 expression in HPDLSCs.Co -stimulation of HPDLSCs with LPS and ACEs markedly enhanced the effects of LPS on IL-6, ALP and RUNX -2 expression.CONCLUSION : LPS and ACEs inhibited the proliferation of HPDLSCs in a concentration-dependent manner.AGEs can enhance the stimulatory effects of LPS in up - regulating IL-6 expression and the inhibitory effects of LPS in down-regulating osteogenic factors expression.Our results suggest that diabetes may increase the degree of periodontal inflammation in patients with periodontitis.%目的:探讨糖基化终末产物(AGEs)对脂多糖(LPS)介导下的人牙周膜干细胞(HPDLSCs)增殖和骨向分化能力的影响.方法:HPDLSCs培养和鉴定;MTT法检测不同浓度LPS和AGEs对HPDLSCs增殖能力的影响;Real Time-PCR检测10μg/mL LPS和100μg/mL LAGE刺激HPDLSCs后白细胞介素-6(IL-6)、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和Runt-related transcription factor2(RUNX-2)mRNA的表达水平.结果:与正常组比较,10、100μg/mL LPS均抑制HPDLSCs的增殖,50、100、200 μg/mL AGEs均抑制HPDLSCs的增殖,100、200 μg/mL AGEs比50μg/mL AGEs抑制明显,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);在成骨诱导下10μg/mL LPS刺激HPDLSCs 6 d和10μg/mL LPS刺激HPDLSCs 3 d后再加10 μg/mL LPS/100μg/mL AGES共同刺激3

  2. Effects of cyclic-tension strain on the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8/13 mRNA in human periodontal ligament cells%循环张应力对牙周膜细胞基质金属蛋白酶-8和13表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑玉锋; 李雪; 韩光丽

    2011-01-01

    目的 以同一频率下不同力值、不同时间的循环张应力对人牙周膜细胞(HPDLC)中的基质金属蛋白酶(MMP)一8、13表达的影响,探讨生物力介导下牙周组织细胞外基质代谢调节的分子机制和牙周组织改建的分子生物学基础.方法 对培养在弹性硅胶膜6孔板上的HPDLC施加0.1Hz,硅胶膜形变率分别为6%、12%和18%的周期性循环张应力,分别在加载2、6、12h后检测HPDLC的MMP一8、13的表达.结果 体外培养的HPDLC的生长方向顺应力的方向改变,HPDLC表达MMP一8、13.MMP一8在加载6%、12%形变率循环张应力后,表达量随时间增加而明显增加;加载18%形变率组,各时间段的表达量都增加,但12h较6h表达水平低.MMP-13在6%形变率的循环张应力刺激下,表达量随时间增加而增加;在12%、18%形变率组,各时间段表达量都增加,12h较6h表达水平低,但差异没有统计学意义.结论 循环张应力可影响HPDLC中MMP一8、13的表达水平,MMP一8、13可能参与正畸力下牙周组织的改建.%Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of extracellular matrix (ECM)metabolism regulation and the molecular biological basis of periodontal tissue remodeling, by which MMP-8/13 expression in the condition of cyclic mechanical strain with the same frequency and different strength and time to human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLC). Methods HPDLC were cultured on flexible substrates and subjected to 6%, 12%, 18% elongation by strain unit at 0.1 Hz for 2, 6, 12h, expression and secretion of MMP-8/13 mRNA were determined after loading cyclic tension strain. Results After loading cyclic tension strain, the cell growth direction was changed to force direction, HPDLC expression of MMP-8 and MMP-13. After loading of 6% and 12% cyclic tensile strain, the expression of MMP-8 mRNA was increased significantly and it was raised with time increased, in 18% group with different time, the levels

  3. Autoregulation of insulin-like growth factor 2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 6 in periodontal ligament cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konermann, A.; Lossdorfer, S.; Jager, A.; Chen, Y.; Gotz, W.

    2013-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system plays an important role in tissue development and presumably also governs pathophysiology of the periodontal ligament (PDL). It has been the aim of this study to elucidate the specific expression pattern of IGF2 and IGFBP6 in PDL cells and to determine whe

  4. Effects of fixation and demineralization on the intensity of autoradiographic labelling over the periodontal ligament of the mouse incisor after administration of [3H]-proline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beertsen, W.; Tonino, G.J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of different histological procedures on the autoradiographic grain count over the periodontal ligament was studied quantitatively in autoradiographs made eight hours after administration of [3H]-proline. The lower jaws of 9 mice were fixed in Bouin's fixative, in 10 per cent formalin or i

  5. Co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells enhances osteogenic gene expression in de-differentiated fat cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansriratanawong, Kallapat; Tamaki, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Soh

    2014-10-01

    In recent decades, de-differentiated fat cells (DFAT cells) have emerged in regenerative medicine because of their trans-differentiation capability and the fact that their characteristics are similar to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Even so, there is no evidence to support the osteogenic induction using DFAT cells in periodontal regeneration and also the co-culture system. Consequently, this study sought to evaluate the DFAT cells co-culture with periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) in vitro in terms of gene expression by comparing runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2 (PPARγ2) genes. We isolated DFAT cells from mature adipocytes and compared proliferation with PDLSCs. After co-culture with PDLSCs, we analyzed transcriptional activity implying by DNA methylation in all adipogenic gene promoters using combined bisulfite restriction analysis. We compared gene expression in RUNX2 gene with the PPARγ2 gene using quantitative RT-PCR. After being sub-cultured, DFAT cells demonstrated morphology similar to fibroblast-like cells. At the same time, PDLSCs established all stem cell characteristics. Interestingly, the co-culture system attenuated proliferation while enhancing osteogenic gene expression in RUNX2 gene. Using the co-culture system, DFAT cells could trans-differentiate into osteogenic lineage enhancing, but conversely, their adipogenic characteristic diminished. Therefore, DFAT cells and the co-culture system might be a novel cell-based therapy for promoting osteogenic differentiation in periodontal regeneration.

  6. The cementogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells via the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway by Li+ ions released from bioactive scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pingping; Wu, Chengtie; Chang, Jiang; Xiao, Yin

    2012-09-01

    Lithium (Li) has been widely used as a long-term mood stabilizer in the treatment of bipolar and depressive disorders. Li(+) ions are thought to enhance the remyelination of peripheral nerves and also stimulate the proliferation of neural progenitor cells and retinoblastoma cells via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Until now there have been no studies reporting the biological effects of released Li(+) in bioactive scaffolds on cemetogenesis in periodontal tissue engineering applications. In this study, we incorporated parts of Li(+) ions into the mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) scaffolds and showed that this approach yielded scaffolds with a favourable composition, microstructure and mesopore properties for cell attachment, proliferation, and cementogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament-derived cells (hPDLCs). We went on to investigate the biological effects of Li(+) ions themselves on cell proliferation and cementogenic differentiation. The results showed that 5% Li(+) ions incorporated into MBG scaffolds enhanced the proliferation and cementogenic differentiation of hPDLCs on scaffolds, most likely via activation of Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway. Further study demonstrated that Li(+) ions by themselves significantly enhanced the proliferation, differentiation and cementogenic gene expression of PDLCs. Our results indicate that incorporation of Li(+) ions into bioactive scaffolds is a viable means of enhancing the Wnt canonical signalling pathway to stimulate cementogenic differentiation of PDLCs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. In vitro differentiation and attachment of human embryonic stem cells on periodontal tooth root surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inanç, Bülend; Elçin, A Eser; Elçin, Y Murat

    2009-11-01

    Periodontal tissue engineering based on cell replacement therapies is a promising field for improved regeneration of tooth supporting structures lost as a result of destructive periodontal diseases. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) could become adequate cell source for tissue engineering because of their unlimited proliferative potential and ability to differentiate to all somatic cell types. The aim of this study was to analyze the differentiation capacity of hESCs toward periodontal compartment cells and their relationship with tooth root surfaces in vitro. Periodontal ligament fibroblastic cell (PDLF) cultures were established and characterized; hESCs (HUES-9 line) were expanded in undifferentiated state and characterized for pluripotency morphologically and immunohistochemically. Extracted tooth root slices (RS) of 300 microm thickness, prepared with both periodontal and endodontic instrumentation, were used. Three different experimental groups were established: (i) undifferentiated hESC colonies cultured on and around the RS; (ii) undifferentiated hESC colonies cultured on and around RS with PDLF coculture, and (iii) undifferentiated hESC colonies cultured on and around RS with PDLF coculture in osteoinductive medium for 3 weeks. The fibrogenic and osteogenic marker expression was assessed with immunohistochemistry; histological staining and scanning electron microscopy were utilized to determine the relationship between differentiating hESCs and mineralized tooth root structures. Results demonstrate that hESC differentiation is influenced by tooth structures, PDLFs, and osteogenic medium, resulting with increased propensity toward mesenchymal lineage commitment, and formation of soft-hard tissue relationship in close contact areas. The proposed experimental system may facilitate further understanding in development of periodontal structures and contribute to realization of hESCs as a cell source in periodontal tissue engineering applications.

  8. [The use of Emdogain in periodontal and osseous regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, Anton; Rathe, Florian; Junker, Rüdiger; Becker, Jürgen; Schwarz, Frank; Arweiler, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i. e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in periodontal wound healing. Histological results from experiments in animals and from human case reports have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD based on the existing evidence.

  9. 釉基质蛋白对人牙周膜细胞群在牙骨质上附着与增殖的影响%Effects of enamel matrix protein on the attachment and proliferation of human periodontal ligament cell populations to root cementum chips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟永荣; 程燕飞; 高文峰; 黄雁红; 李杏; 章锦才

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究釉基质蛋白(emdogain,EMD)对体外培养的人牙周膜细胞群(human periodontal ligament cell populations,hPDLPs)在牙骨质片上附着、增殖的影响,为EMD联合hPDLPs应用于牙周组织缺损修复提供实验依据.方法 采用组织块法分离培养hPDLPs,制备人牙骨质片,实验组用含100 mg/mL EMD的培养液包被处理牙骨质片,对照组用不含EMD的培养液处理.分别于细胞接种牙骨质片上16 h(观察附着情况)和72 h(观察增殖情况),用噻唑蓝比色法检测牙骨质片上的细胞数;同时,用扫描电镜观察牙骨质片上的细胞数.结果 噻唑蓝比色法检测,实验组细胞附着数(t=-3.318,P=0.008)、增殖数(t=-6.499,P<0.001)明显多于对照组,两组之间差异有统计学意义.扫描电镜观察计数,实验组hPDLPs附着数(t=8.001,P<0.001)、增殖数(t=13.046,P<0.001)较对照组多,差异有统计学意义.结论 EMD可促进hPDLPs在牙骨质表面的附着和增殖,提示EMD和hPDLPs可联合应用修复牙周组织缺损.

  10. 小肠黏膜下层对牙周膜干细胞体外增殖、骨向分化的影响%Effects of small intestinal submucosa on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅; 荀文兴; 王江; 张晓梅; 李蓉

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察小肠黏膜下层(SIS)与人牙周膜干细胞(PDLSCs)的生物相容性及其作为支架材料对 PDLSCs 的骨向分化诱导作用。方法体外分离培养 PDLSCs,分别用四唑盐比色法(MTS)、茜素红染色法、碱性磷酸酶(ALP)和逆转录聚合酶链式反应(RT -PCR)方法观察 SIS 生物材料对 PDLSCs 增殖活性和骨向分化能力的影响。结果SIS 显著地刺激体外培养的PDLSCs 增殖,诱导了细胞的矿化和提高细胞 ALP 活性。RT -PCR 结果显示 SIS 诱导后细胞 mRNA 水平表达骨涎蛋白(BSP)和骨钙素(OCN)。结论体外培养条件下,SIS 与 PDLSCs 有良好的生物相容性,能够诱导 PDLSCs 骨向分化。%Objective To observe the adhesion and growth of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs)seeded on small in-testinal submucosa (SIS)in vitro and the osteogenic induction of SIS.Methods PDLSCs were successfully isolated and cultured. The compatibility of the biomaterial was evaluated by MTS assay.The osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs induced by SIS was meas-ured by using Alizarin red staining,the alkaline phosphatase (ALP)activity and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)assay.Results The proliferation of PDLSCs in SIS groups was obviously higher than that in the control groups.The higher lev-els of ALP activity,the larger mineralizing nods were also detected in the experiment groups.RT-PCR demonstrated mRNA expression of bone sialoprotein (BSP)and osteocalcin (OCN)in PDLSCs induced by SIS.Conclusions SIS possesses a good cellular compati-bility with PDLSCs.It can induce the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.

  11. Patterns of cytokeratin expression in monkey and human periodontium following regenerative and conventional periodontal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, A; Berakdar, M; Pahl, S; Windisch, P; Brecx, M; Reich, E; Donos, N

    2001-08-01

    The pattern of cytokeratin expression has been extensively described in the normal and inflamed periodontium. However, there is no information regarding the pattern of cytokeratin expression in the periodontium which has been reformed following regenerative periodontal surgery. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the pattern of cytokeratin expression in the reformed human and monkey periodontium following regenerative and conventional periodontal surgery. In 3 monkeys, acute fenestration-type and chronic intrabony defects were treated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR), enamel matrix proteins (EMD), or coronally repositioned flap surgery (control). After a healing period of 5 months, the animals were sacrificed and perfused with 10% buffered formalin for fixation. Specimens containing the defects and surrounding tissues were dissected free, decalcified in EDTA and embedded in paraffin. Histological sections were cut with the microtome set at 3 microm. The sections were alternatively stained either with hematoxylin and eosin, or immunohistochemically by using one of the broad range monoclonal antibodies 34betaE 12 (for cytokeratins 1, 5, 10 and 14) or KL 1 (for cytokeratins 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16 and 19), or one of the individual monoclonal antibodies LL025 (for cytokeratin 16), DC 10 (for cytokeratin 18), A53-B/A2 (for cytokeratin 19). Twelve patients, each displaying one deep intrabony defect scheduled for extraction due to advanced periodontitis or prosthetic reasons, were treated as described above. Following a healing period of 6 months, the teeth were extracted together with some of their surrounding soft and hard tissues. The histological and immunohistochemical processing of the human biopsies was identical to that described in monkeys. The results revealed that both the normal non-treated (original) monkey and human junctional epithelium stained strongly with all of the monoclonal antibodies used. The reformed junctional epithelium

  12. Treatment of Angle Class I Malocclusion with Severe Bimaxillary Protrusion using Miniscrew Implants and Periodontal Ligament Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion is common in Asian population. In this patient with procumbent upper and lower lips, excessive lip strain, proclined and protruded maxillary and mandibular incisors with vertical growth pattern, an acceptable treatment result, was achieved with 4-first-premolar extractions. This case report is presented with the aim, to describe the treatment approach for bimaxillary dentoalveolar protrusion using miniscrew implants for anchorage in upper arch and periodontal ligament distraction for canine retraction in lower arch and then retraction of incisors into the newly formed bone distal to lateral incisor. Treatment was completed in 18 months. The patient profile was improved, with reduction in lip procumbency, decrease in lip eversion and protrusion, and decrease mentalis strain. Dentally, the interincisal angulation improved significantly because both the maxillary and mandibular incisors were uprighted after space closer.

  13. Periodontal cell implantation contributes to the regeneration of the periodontium in an indirect way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Yan, X.; Jansen, J.A.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common human infectious disease. Regeneration of bone and soft tissue defects after periodontitis remains challenging, although the transplantation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells seems a liable strategy. However, little is known about the function of PDL cells after tr

  14. Periodontal cell implantation contributes to the regeneration of the periodontium in an indirect way

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Oortgiesen, D.A.; Yan, X.; Jansen, J.A.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is the most common human infectious disease. Regeneration of bone and soft tissue defects after periodontitis remains challenging, although the transplantation of periodontal ligament (PDL) cells seems a liable strategy. However, little is known about the function of PDL cells after tr

  15. Effectiveness and Safety of Computer-controlled Periodontal Ligament Injection System in Endodontic Access to the Mandibular Posterior Teeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Jing; Kuo Wan; Xiao-jun Wang; Lin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a computer-controlled periodontal ligament (PDL) injection system to the local soft tissues as the primary technique in endodontic access to mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis. Methods A total of 162 Chinese patients who had been diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in their mandibular posterior teeth without acute infection or inflammation in the periodontal tissues were enrolled in this clinical study. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the position of the involved tooth:the premolar group (PM, n=38), first molar group (FM, n=66), and second molar group (SM, n=58). All the patients received computer-controlled PDL injection with 4%articaine and 1∶100 000 epinephrine. Immediately after the injection, endodontic access was performed, and the degree of pain during the treatment was evaluated by the patients using Visual Analogue Scale for pain. The success rates were compared among the 3 groups. The responses of local soft tissues were evaluated 3-8 days and 3 weeks after the procedure. Results The overall success rate was 76.5%. There was a significant difference in success rates among the PM, FM, and SM groups (92.1%, 53.0%, 93.1%, respectively;χ2=34.3, P Conclusion The computer-controlled PDL injection system demonstrates both satisfactory anesthetic effects and safety in local soft tissues as primary anesthetic technique in endodontic access to the mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  16. Comparison of Periodontal Ligament Injection and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in Mandibular Primary Molars Pulpotomy: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghgoo, Roza; Taleghani, Ferial

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block is a common technique for anesthesia of the primary mandibular molars. A number of disadvantages have been shown to be associated with this technique. Periodontal ligament (PDL) injection could be considered as an alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of PDL injection in the anesthesia of primary molar pulpotomy with mandibular block. Methods: This study was performed using a sequential double-blind randomized trial design. 80 children aged 3-7 years old who required pulpotomy in symmetrical mandibular primary molars were selected. The teeth of these children were anesthetized with periodontal injection on one side of the mandible and block on the other. Pulpotomy was performed on each patient during the same appointment. Signs of discomfort, including hand and body tension and eye movement, the verbal complaint and crying (SEM scale), were evaluated by a dental assistant who was blinded to the treatment allocation of the patients. Finally, the data were analyzed using the exact Fisher test and Pearson Chi-squared exact test. Results: Success rate was 88/75 and 91/25 in the PDL injection and nerve block groups, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques (P = 0.250). Conclusion: Results showed that PDL injection can be used as an alternative to nerve block in pulpotomy of the mandibular primary molars. PMID:26028895

  17. Effectiveness and safety of computer-controlled periodontal ligament injection system in endodontic access to the mandibular posterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Quan; Wan, Kuo; Wang, Xiao-jun; Ma, Lin

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a computer-controlled periodontal ligament (PDL) injection system to the local soft tissues as the primary technique in endodontic access to mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis. A total of 162 Chinese patients who had been diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis in their mandibular posterior teeth without acute infection or inflammation in the periodontal tissues were enrolled in this clinical study. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the position of the involved tooth: the premolar group (PM, n=38), first molar group (FM, n=66), and second molar group (SM, n=58). All the patients received computer-controlled PDL injection with 4% articaine and 1:100 000 epinephrine. Immediately after the injection, endodontic access was performed, and the degree of pain during the treatment was evaluated by the patients using Visual Analogue Scale for pain. The success rates were compared among the 3 groups. The responses of local soft tissues were evaluated 3-8 days and 3 weeks after the procedure. The overall success rate was 76.5%. There was a significant difference in success rates among the PM, FM, and SM groups (92.1%, 53.0%, 93.1%, respectively; χ² = 34.3, Pcomputer-controlled PDL injection system demonstrates both satisfactory anesthetic effects and safety in local soft tissues as primary anesthetic technique in endodontic access to the mandibular posterior teeth in patients with irreversible pulpitis.

  18. 生长因子对牙周膜细胞的影响%Effects of growth factors on periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵寰

    2008-01-01

    The periodontal regeneration is based on the proliferation and mult-differentiation of periodontal ligament cells.Thus,to find a method of enhancing the differentiation of periodontal ligament cells has been a hot point in studying periodontal disease.Many bioactive factors have important effects on the periodontal regeneration. Growth factors as bioactive factors have promotion effects on migration,growth,proliferation,differentiation,and protein synthesis.%牙周疾病发牛后,牙周组织的再生要依靠牙周膜细胞的增殖和分化能力.因此,找到可促进牙周膜细胞分化的方法成为研究牙周疾病治疗途径的热点.许多生物活性因子对牙周组织的再生有重要影响.作为生物活性因子的生长因子对牙周膜细胞的迁移、生长、增殖、分化和蛋白合成有促进作用.

  19. Characteristics of the three ligaments of human spring ligament complex from a viewpoint of elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Yoshiyuki; Tohno, Setsuko; Taniguchi, Akira; Azuma, Cho; Minami, Takeshi; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2012-06-01

    To elucidate characteristics of the three ligaments constituting the spring ligament complex from a viewpoint of elements, the authors investigated age-related changes of elements, relationships among their elements, relationships among ligaments in the elements, and gender differences in the three ligaments of the spring ligament complex, the superomedial calcaneonavicular (SMCN), inferoplantar longitudinal calcaneonavicular (ICN), and third or medioplantar oblique calcaneonavicular (TCN) ligaments. After ordinary dissection at Nara Medical University was finished, the SMCN, ICN, and TCN ligaments of the spring ligament complex were removed from the subjects. The subjects consisted of 10 men and 12 women, ranging in age from 62 to 99 years (average age = 80.5 ± 9.7 years). After incineration with nitric acid and perchloric acid, the element contents were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. It was found that although the Ca and P content hardly changed in the SMCN ligament with aging, the Ca and P content in the ICN ligament increased to about three and five times higher in the 80s in comparison with the 60s, respectively, whereas in the TCN ligament, it increased about 40% and 90% higher in the 80s compared with the 60s, respectively. Regarding the relationships among elements, significant direct correlations were found among the contents of Ca, P, and Mg in all the three ligaments of the spring ligament complex. This finding was in agreement with the previous finding obtained with the three ligaments of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior longitudinal ligament, and ligamentum capitis femoris. Whether there were significant correlations among the three ligaments of the spring ligament complex with regard to the Ca, P, S, Mg, Zn, and Fe contents was examined using Pearson's correlation. It was found that there were significant direct correlations between the SMCN and TCN ligaments in all the Ca, P, Mg, and Zn contents and

  20. Elastic Properties of the Annular Ligament of the Human Stapes—AFM Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kwacz, Monika; Rymuza, Zygmunt; Michałowski, Marcin; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Elastic properties of the human stapes annular ligament were determined in the physiological range of the ligament deflection using atomic force microscopy and temporal bone specimens. The annular ligament stiffness was determined based on the experimental load-deflection curves. The elastic modulus (Young’s modulus) for a simplified geometry was calculated using the Kirchhoff–Love theory for thin plates. The results obtained in this study showed that the annular ligament is a linear elastic ...

  1. Keratinocyte growth factor mRNA expression in periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, S; Wandall, H H; Grøn, B

    1997-01-01

    Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF mRNA is expres......Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a fibroblast growth factor which mediates epithelial growth and differentiation. KGF is expressed in subepithelial fibroblasts, but generally not in fibroblasts of deep connective tissue, such as fascia and ligaments. Here we demonstrate that KGF m...

  2. Periodontal ligament stem cell differentiation and proliferation in periodontal tissue regeneration%牙周膜干细胞分化、增殖特性与牙周组织再生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱凌兰; 许生敏

    2015-01-01

    背景:牙周膜干细胞是牙周组织再生工程中理想的种子细胞之一,有关牙周膜干细胞的来源、生物学特性及影响因素等研究成为热点问题。目的:就近年来牙周膜干细胞的研究现状、生物学特性、功能影响因素及其在再生医学中的应用等研究进展作一综述,并对其应用前景及目前存在的问题进行讨论,为相关体内研究提供理论和实验依据。方法:由第一作者在PubMed和万方数据库检索2002至2015年有关牙周膜干细胞分化、增殖特性的相关英文和中文文献。中文检索词为“牙周膜干细胞,牙周组织,增殖,分化”,英文检索词为“periodontal ligament stem cel,periodontal tissue,proliferation, differentiation”,最终纳入47篇文献。结果与结论:牙周膜干细胞具有成纤维、成脂、成骨、成牙骨质分化的能力,细胞生长因子对牙周膜干细胞的增殖分化起重要作用,成纤维细胞生长因子、血管内皮生长因子和胰岛素样生长因子均可促进牙周膜干细胞增殖。干细胞载体生物膜材料的应用也能有效引导牙周组织再生,牙周膜干细胞的分离培养及其影响因素等还有待进一步完善,将干细胞与生物膜材料、生长因子联合应用达到理想的牙周组织功能性再生是今后的研究重点。%BACKGROUND:Periodontal ligament stem cels are one of the ideal seed cels in periodontal tissue regeneration. Sources, biological characteristics and influential factors of periodontal ligament stem cels have been an issue of concern. OBJECTIVE:To review the biological characteristics and functional factors of periodontal ligament stem cels as wel as relevant research status and progress in regenerative medicine, and to discuss the relevant application prospect and existing problems, thereby providing theoretical and experimental basis. METHODS:PubMed and Wanfang databases were searched by the first

  3. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vania López Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.

  4. Neural network analysis of the information content in population responses from human periodontal receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edin, Benoni B.; Trulsson, Mats

    1992-07-01

    Understanding of the information processing in some sensory systems is hampered for several reasons. First, some of these systems may depend on several receptor types with different characteristics, and the crucial features of natural stimuli encoded by the receptors are rarely known with certainty. Second, the functional output of sensory processing is often not well defined. The human tooth is endowed with several types of sensory receptors. Among these, the mechanoreceptors located in the periodontal ligaments have been implicated in force encoding during chewing and biting. Individual receptors cannot, however, code unambiguously either the direction or the magnitude of the applied forces. Neuronal responses recorded in single human nerve fibers from periodontal receptors were fed to multi-layered feed-forward networks. The networks were trained with error back-propagation to identify specific features of the force stimuli that evoked the receptor responses. It was demonstrated that population responses in periodontal receptors contain information about both the point of attack and the direction of applied forces. It is concluded that networks may provide a powerful tool to investigate the information content in responses from biological receptor populations. As such, specific hypotheses with respect to information processing may be tested using neural networks also in sensory systems less well understood than, for instance, the visual system.

  5. Evaluation of Qualitative Changes in Simulated Periodontal Ligament and Alveolar Bone Using a Noncontact Electromagnetic Vibration Device with a Laser Displacement Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Makoto; Yamaoka, Masaru; Yasukawa, Takuya; Ibi, Haruna; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating periodontal tissue condition is an important diagnostic parameter in periodontal disease. Noncontact electromagnetic vibration device (NEVD) was previously developed to monitor this condition using mechanical parameters. However, this system requires accelerometer on the target tooth. This study assessed application of laser displacement sensor (LDS) to NEVD without accelerometer using experimental tooth models. Tooth models consisted of cylindrical rod, a tissue conditioner, and polyurethane or polyurethane foam to simulate tooth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone, respectively. Tissue conditioner was prepared by mixing various volumes of liquid with powder. Mechanical parameters (resonant frequency, elastic modulus, and coefficient of viscosity) were assessed using NEVD with the following methods: Group A, measurement with accelerometer; Group B, measurement with LDS in the presence of accelerometer; and Group C, measurement with LDS in the absence of accelerometer. Mechanical parameters significantly decreased with increasing liquid volume. Significant differences were also observed between the polyurethane and polyurethane foam models. Meanwhile, no statistically significant differences were observed between Groups A and B; however, most mechanical parameters in Group C were significantly larger and more distinguishable than those of Groups A and B. LDS could measure mechanical parameters more accurately and clearly distinguished the different periodontal ligament and alveolar bone conditions.

  6. The osteogenetic rate in alveolar bone remodeling induced by distraction osteogenesis of the periodontal ligament

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuang; FENG Pei-xun; GUO Xiong; ZHOU Hong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe osteogenetic rate of alveolar bone on the tension side in orthodontic tooth movement through distraction osteogenesis of the periodental ligament quantificationally. Methods:The experiment was carried in 6 dogs. The left side of jaws of each one was set as test or control side, and the other side was control or test side. On the control side, the first premorlar was moved by traditional method on the test side. A self-made distraction device was used on the test side. The newly formed alveolar bone on the tension side of moved tooth was labeled by serial tetracycline fluorochrome. Sections were observed by fluorescence microscope and pictured. Newly formed bone was measured by computer image analysis. Results: The quantity of newly formed bone was significantly different between the two methods. Newly formed bone in rapid tooth movement by distraction osteogenesis of the periodental ligament was more than that in traditional method. Conclusion: The distraction through periodental ligament could induce more rapid bone formation and excite higher osteogenetic activity than traditional method.

  7. rhBMP2作用下人牙周膜成纤维细胞中OCIF、ODF的表达研究%Study of the expression variety of OCIF and ODF in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts with rhBMP2 reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉玲玲; 鲍庆江; 李昂; 饶国州; 周洪

    2011-01-01

    Objective By RT-PCR to investigating the effects of rhBMPs in different concentration on the expression of OCIF,ODF in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. To clarify the molecular mechanism of BMPs' regulation to the HPDLfs, which contribute to the bone rebuilding. Methods The 6th generation well-grown primary culture fibrocyte from HPDLfs were used in the experiment. The cells were subjected to different doses of rhBMP2 (25ng/ml,50ng/ml and 100ng/ml) for 1,3,5,7 days in this experiment. mRNA expression of OCIFsODF were determined by semiquantitative RT-PCR approach, electrophoresis tape brightness was analyzed by graphical analysis software Image Pro Plus5.0. Results The expression varieties between cbfart and OCIF in different concentration were compared. At primary stage, their expression varieties were concordance and presented positive correlation. But the variety correlation between cbfort and OCIF was no more definitude after OCIF reaching peak value with the action time prolonging. Conclusion Based on the varieties of expression between OCIF and ODFjt showed that the formation of osteclasts was restrained intensively by HPDLfs at primary stage with the action of rhBMP2. With the action time prolonging.the restraining effect was changed into the activation effect.%目的:本研究通过反转录聚合酶链反应来测定不同浓度的重组人骨形成蛋白2(rhBMP2)对人牙周膜成纤维细胞中OCIF、0DFmRNA在不同作用时间点表达的影响,了解rhBMP2对骨改建相关基因的调控方式。方法:原代培养人牙周膜成纤维细胞,取生长良好的第六代细胞,分别用25ng/ml、50 ng/ml及100 ng/ml的rhBMP2作用于细胞,于作用1、3、5、7天后收集细胞。反转录聚合酶链反应检测各组细胞四个时间作用点OCIF、ODF mRNA含量,PCR产物1%琼脂糖凝胶电泳后,采用Image Pro Plus5.0图像分析软件对电泳胶带亮度进行分析。结果:在rhBMP2作用初期,由于OCIF m

  8. The effects of H.pylori on the proliferation and cell cycle distribution of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts%幽门螺杆菌对人牙周膜成纤维细胞的增殖和细胞周期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹; 阎璐; 任吉芳

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) on the cell proliferation and cell cycle distribution of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (hPDLFs). METHODS: hPDLFs (hPDLFlOO) and H. Pylori NCTC11637 were cultured in vitro. H. Pylori at the density ( cfu/mL) of 1× 108, 2 × 107, 4 × 106 and 8 × 105 cfu/mL were cocultured with PDLFs for 6h, 12 h and 24 h respectively , the proliferation of hPDLFs was examined by MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution was observed by flow cytometry. RESULTS: OD value of hPDLFlOO cells decreased with the increace of H. Pylori density and the increace of coculture time (p < 0. 05 ) . H. Pylori changed the cell cycle distribution of hPDLFlOO cells by increace of GoG1 -phase cell number and decreace of S and G2M—phase cell number(P<0.05). CONCLUTION: H. Pylori may inhibit the mitosis and proliferation of PDLFs.%目的:观察幽门螺杆菌(H.pylori对人牙周膜成纤维细胞(PDLFs)的增殖和细胞周期的影响.方法:体外分别培养PDLFs细胞株(hPDLF100)和H.pylori)国际标准产毒株NCTC11637,将不同浓度(1 ×108、2×107、4×106、8×105cfu/mL)H.pylori分别与PDLFs共同培养,采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色法(Methyl thiazolyl tetraxolium,MTT)和流式细胞术(Flow cytometry,FCM),观察不同浓度H.pylori对PDLFs的生长增殖和细胞周期的影响.结果:各浓度H.pylori作用于PDLFs 6、12、24 h后,与对照组相比,OD值均明显减小(P<0.05),说明不同浓度的H.pylori均能抑制PDLFs的生长;并且随着H.pylori浓度的增加,OD值逐渐减小;相同浓度时,时间越长,OD值也逐渐减小.H.pylori作用于PDLFs 12 h后,随着H.pylori浓度的增加,细胞周期中GoG1期比例逐渐增高,而S期和G2M期的比例则呈下降趋势(P<0.05).结论:H.pylori能抑制PDLFs的增殖并阻遏其分裂和DNA合成.

  9. 离心作用下人牙周膜细胞内诱导型一氧化氮合酶和胱硫醚分解酶的表达%Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase in cultured human periodontal ligament cells following centrifugal force stimulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖崇珊; 华咏梅; 冯欣华

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究在离心力作用下人牙周膜细胞内的诱导型一氧化氮合酶(inducible nitric oxide synthase,iNOS)和硫化氢合酶胱硫醚分解酶(cystat hionine-γ-lyase,CSE)的表达变化.方法 采用组织块-酶消化联合法培养人牙周膜细胞,对细胞施加离心力(167 g),SABC法染色及胞浆透光度检测iNOS和CSE在10、30、60、90、120和240 min不同加力时间点的表达变化.结果 正常人牙周膜细胞内几乎无iNOS和CSE表达;加力10 min,iNOS和CSE有表达(P<0.01);之后两种酶表达逐渐加强,加力60 min,iNOS和CSE表达达到高峰(P<0.01);之后逐渐减弱,加力240min,iNOS和CSE恢复到基础水平.结论 离心力可诱导人牙周膜细胞内iNOS和CSE的表达短暂性升高,提示一氧化氮(N())和硫化氢(H2S)可能参与了牙周组织改建中的力学信号转导过程.%Objective This study was to examine the changes of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) synthase,cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) in cultured Human periodontal ligament fibrohlasts (HPDLFs)in response to centrifugal force stimulation. Methods Cultured HPDLFs with the method of tissue-enzymatic digestion were stimulated mechanically by centrifugal force (167 g) for 10,30,60,90,120 and 240 min,respectively.The expression of iNOSand CSE were analyzed by Streptavidin-biotin complex (SABC) immunocytochemistry combined with cytoplasmic light transmission measurement.Results The basal levels of iNOS and CSE in the HPDLFs were very low.Application of centrifugal force for 10 min resulted in a rapid increase in the iNOS and CSE expression (P<0.01).The expression levels gradually increased to a peak 60 min after applying force (P<0.01),then declined to the basal level at 240 min of sustained force.Conclusions Centrifugal force induced the expression of HPDLFs iNOS and CSE in the same pattern within a narrow time frame,suggesting iNOS and CSE may play an essential role in periodontium remodeling.

  10. Human Periodontal Ligament Cells Cultured on Lattice-like and Non-woven Electrospun Poly(L-lactide) Nanofiber Scaffolds in vitro%牙周膜细胞在网格型与无纺型聚乳酸纳米纤维支架材料上体外培养的研究比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 梅芳; 蔡晴; 徐青青; 邓旭亮; 杨小平

    2009-01-01

    研究对比牙周膜细胞在无纺型和网格型聚乳酸纳米纤维膜上的生长行为,探讨支架结构对细胞生长的影响.采用静电纺丝技术,用金属平板或金属网分别接收,得到无纺型和网格型聚乳酸纳米纤维膜;通过SEM观察两种支架形貌差异,并测试比较它们的力学性能.通过MTT测试和SEM观察,比较无纺型和网格型纳米纤维膜对细胞生长的影响.实验结果:网格型膜的纤维直径平均为500~600 nm;无纺型膜的纤维直径大于网格型膜,平均直径约为700 nm,但网格型膜的拉伸断裂应变略大.牙周细胞与支架联合培养的MTT结果显示,与在聚苯乙烯(TCPS) 培养板上的培养比较,两种纳米纤维膜都显示出促进细胞增殖的效果,其中网格膜的促进效果比无纺膜更加明显.SEM观察的结果显示,细胞无法进入无纺型膜内部生长,而网格型膜中由疏松纤维堆积形成的大孔结构则非常有利于细胞进入支架内部,细胞在后者上生长良好.因此,网格型纳米纤维支架是一种优于纤维为完全无纺排布的支架,更适用于组织工程研究.%The goal of this study is to investigate the growth behavior of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) seeded on the poly (L-lactide) (PLLA) nanofibrous matrix. The lattice-like PLLA scaffold was prepared by electrospinning with a metal mesh as collector, while the non-woven PLLA scaffold was collected by a metal plate. The mechanical property of both scaffolds was tested by INSTRO-1121 universal materials test machine followed GB13022-91. The cell compatibility of the electrospun scaffolds was evaluated by MTT-extract assay. The adhesion and proliferation of the cells were examined with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean diameter of the fibers in lattice-like PLLA scaffolds was 500~600 nm, larger than the fibers in non-woven PLLA scaffolds whose diameter was around 700 nm, but the two PLLA scaffolds exhibited similar mechanical

  11. Bone morphogenetic proteins-ERK5 signaling pathway mediates osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells%BMPs-ERK5信号通路调控人牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋琳; 周鹏飞; 王佳; 张燕

    2016-01-01

    目的 比较骨形态发生蛋白(bone morphogenetic proteins,BMP)2、7、9对人牙周膜干细胞(human periodontal ligament stem cells,hPDLSCs)成骨分化的诱导作用,探讨BMPs-ERK5信号通路在成骨分化中的作用.方法 首先采用组织块酶消化法分离培养原代hPDLSCs并鉴定,利用腺病毒载体介导的GFP、BMP2、BMP7和BMP9(Ad-GFP、Ad-BMP2、Ad-BMP7、Ad-BMP9)分别感染hPDLSCs,通过早期成骨分化指标碱性磷酸酶活性定性和定量检测、茜素红染色检测晚期成骨分化指标钙盐结节沉积情况、qRT-PCR检测细胞成骨分化相关基因骨钙蛋白和骨桥蛋白mRNA表达,比较发现BMP9对细胞成骨分化的作用最强;采用Ad-BMP9感染hPDLSCs 24 h后,检测BMP9作用PDLSCs后对ERK5磷酸化水平的影响和ERK5信号通路特异性抑制剂BIX02189预处理后BMP9-ERK5通路对hPDLSCs成骨分化的影响.结果 ①分离培养的hPDLSCs为成纤维细胞样,呈漩涡状生长,抗波形蛋白表达阳性,抗角蛋白表达阴性,具有间充质属性和克隆形成能力.②BMP2、BMP7和BMP9均有促进细胞成骨分化作用,其中3组的碱性磷酸酶定量结果和成骨分化相关基因相对表达量与GFP组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),且BMP9效力最强.③Western blot检测显示BMP9增强p-ERK5的表达.而抑制剂BIX02189呈剂量依赖性地抑制p-ERK5的表达.BIX02189预处理细胞后、感染Ad-BMP9的结果显示,BMP9对细胞的促成骨作用较未处理组明显降低,其中BMP9组的碱性磷酸酶定量分析结果与成骨分化相关基因相对表达量与BIX02189处理组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 BMP9具有较强的促hPDLSCs成骨分化作用,ERK5信号转导途径在BMP9诱导hPDLSCs成骨分化过程中发挥了正向调节作用.

  12. The stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells by the ionic products from Ca7Si2P2O16 bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinghong; Wu, Chengtie; Xiao, Yin

    2012-07-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal tissue engineering is to produce predictable regeneration of alveolar bone, root cementum, and periodontal ligament, which are lost as a result of periodontal diseases. To achieve this goal, it is of great importance to develop novel bioactive materials which could stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic/cementogenic gene expression of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) for periodontal regeneration. In this study, we synthesized novel Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) ceramic powders for the first time by the sol-gel method and investigated the biological performance of PDLCs after exposure to different concentrations of Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) extracts. The original extracts were prepared at 200 mg ml(-1) and further diluted with serum-free cell culture medium to obtain a series of diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)). Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Ca deposition, and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression (ALP, Col I, Runx2 and CEMP1) were assayed for PDLCs on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the ionic products from Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders significantly stimulated the proliferation, ALP activity, Ca deposition and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression of PDLCs. In addition, it was found that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders had excellent apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids. This study demonstrated that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders with such a specific composition possess the ability to stimulate the PDLC proliferation and osteoblast/cemenoblast-like cell differentiation, indicating that they are a promising bioactive material for periodontal tissue regeneration application.

  13. Fabrication of Core-Shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA Electrospun Scaffold for Gene Delivery to Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue engineering is the most promising technology for enhancing bone regeneration. Scaffolds loaded with osteogenic factors improve the therapeutic effect. In this study, the bioactive PEI (polyethylenimine/pBMP2- (bone morphogenetic protein-2 plasmid- PLGA (poly(D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid core-shell scaffolds were prepared using coaxial electrospinning for a controlled gene delivery to hPDLSCs (human periodontal ligament stem cells. The pBMP2 was encapsulated in the PEI phase as a core and PLGA was employed to control pBMP2 release as a shell. First, the scaffold characterization and mechanical properties were evaluated. Then the gene release behavior was analyzed. Our results showed that pBMP2 was released at high levels in the first few days, with a continuous release behavior in the next 28 days. At the same time, PEI/pBMP2 showed high transfection efficiency. Moreover, the core-shell electrospun scaffold showed BMP2 expression for a much longer time (more than 28 days compared with the single axial electrospun scaffold, as evaluated by qRT-PCR and western blot after culturing with hPDLSCs. These results suggested that the core-shell PEI/pBMP2-PLGA scaffold fabricated by coaxial electrospinning had a good gene release behavior and showed a prolonged expression time with a high transfection efficiency.

  14. The application of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) in regenerative periodontal therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, Anton; Schwarz, Frank; Becker, Jurgen; Brecx, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Regenerative periodontal therapy aims at reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures such as new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Findings from basic research indicate that enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) has a key role in periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. This review aims to present an overview of evidence-based clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD.

  15. Spiramycin resistance in human periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Dujardin, Sebastien; Sautter, Jacqueline D; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    Purpose: The occurrence of in vitro resistance to therapeutic concentrations of spiramycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole was determined for putative periodontal pathogens isolated in the United States. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque specimens from 37 consecutive adults with untreated

  16. Spiramycin resistance in human periodontitis microbiota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, Thomas E; Dujardin, Sebastien; Sautter, Jacqueline D; Degener, John E; van Winkelhoff, Arie J

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The occurrence of in vitro resistance to therapeutic concentrations of spiramycin, amoxicillin, and metronidazole was determined for putative periodontal pathogens isolated in the United States. Materials and methods: Subgingival plaque specimens from 37 consecutive adults with untreated se

  17. Differential Expression of Osteo-Modulatory Molecules in Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells in Response to Modified Titanium Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Yeon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed differential gene expression of signaling molecules involved in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs subjected to different titanium (Ti surface types. PDLSCs were cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS, and four types of Ti discs (PT, SLA, hydrophilic PT (pmodPT, and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA with no osteoinductive factor and then osteogenic activity, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, mRNA expression of runt-related gene 2, osterix, FOSB, FRA1, and protein levels of osteopontin and collagen type IA, were examined. The highest osteogenic activity appeared in PDLSCs cultured on SLA, compared with the TCPS and other Ti surfaces. The role of surface properties in affecting signaling molecules to modulate PDLSC behavior was determined by examining the regulation of Wnt pathways. mRNA expression of the canonical Wnt signaling molecules, Wnt3a and β-catenin, was higher on SLA and modSLA than on smooth surfaces, but gene expression of the calcium-dependent Wnt signaling molecules Wnt5a, calmodulin, and NFATc1 was increased significantly on PT and pmodPT. Moreover, integrin α2/β1, sonic hedgehog, and Notch signaling molecules were affected differently by each surface modification. In conclusion, surface roughness and hydrophilicity can affect differential Wnt pathways and signaling molecules, targeting the osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs.

  18. Stress Induced in Periodontal Ligament under Orthodontic Loading (Part II): A Comparison of Linear Versus Non-Linear Fem Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, M; Deoli, Shilpi; Raghuveer, H P; Rani, M S; Hegde, Chatura; Vedavathi, B

    2015-09-01

    Simulation of periodontal ligament (PDL) using non-linear finite element method (FEM) analysis gives better insight into understanding of the biology of tooth movement. The stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusion and lingual root torque using non-linear properties. A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using Solidworks modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated for intrusive and lingual root torque movements by 3D FEM using ANSYS software. These stresses were compared with linear and non-linear analyses. For intrusive and lingual root torque movements, distribution of stress over the PDL was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, but was exceeding the force system given by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement with linear properties. When same force load was applied in non-linear analysis, stresses were more compared to linear analysis and were beyond the optimal stress range as proposed by Lee for both intrusive and lingual root torque. To get the same stress as linear analysis, iterations were done using non-linear properties and the force level was reduced. This shows that the force level required for non-linear analysis is lesser than that of linear analysis.

  19. Stress Induced in the Periodontal Ligament under Orthodontic Loading (Part I): A Finite Element Method Study Using Linear Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, M; Deoli, Shilpi; Raghuveer, H P; Rani, M S; Hegde, Chatura; Vedavathi, B

    2015-08-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement is a complex procedure that occurs due to various biomechanical changes in the periodontium. Optimal orthodontic forces yield maximum tooth movement whereas if the forces fall beyond the optimal threshold it can cause deleterious effects. Among various types of tooth movements intrusion and lingual root torque are associated with causing root resoprtion, especially with the incisors. Therefore in this study, the stress patterns in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were evaluated with intrusion and lingual root torque using finite element method (FEM). A three-dimensional (3D) FEM model of the maxillary incisors was generated using SOLIDWORKS modeling software. Stresses in the PDL were evaluated with intrusive and lingual root torque movements by a 3D FEM using ANSYS software using linear stress analysis. It was observed that with the application of intrusive load compressive stresses were distributed at the apex whereas tensile stress was seen at the cervical margin. With the application of lingual root torque maximum compressive stress was distributed at the apex and tensile stress was distributed throughout the PDL. For intrusive and lingual root torque movements stress values over the PDL was within the range of optimal stress value as proposed by Lee, with a given force system by Proffit as optimum forces for orthodontic tooth movement using linear properties.

  20. Participación de MT1-MMP en la Remodelación del Ligamento Periodontal Durante la Movilización Dentaria Role of MT1-MMP in the Remodeling of the Periodontal Ligament During Tooth Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rey Droghetti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La movilización dentaria involucra una serie de cambios en los tejidos de soporte caracterizados por la activa remodelación de estos. La MT1-MMP o MMP-14 es una potente enzima proteolítica capaz de degradar colágeno tipo I, la principal molécula estructural del ligamento periodontal. La migración dentaria requiere de la degradación controlada del colágeno constituyente del ligamento periodontal. Sin embargo, no existen evidencias de la participación de MT1-MMP en la remodelación del tejido periodontal durante este proceso. En el presente estudio hemos analizado la expresión de MT1 -MMP y del marcador de actividad osteoclástica Fosfatasa Acida Tartrato Resistente (TRAP en un modelo de migración dentaria en ratas. La migración dentaria fue activada mediante la inserción de una banda separadora entre los incisivos superiores. La expresión y distribución de TRAP y MT1-MMP fue evaluada a través de citoquímica e inmunohistoquímica a los días 1, 3, 5 y 7. La producción de TRAP fue identificada principalmente en osteoclastos ubicados en la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal. La producción de MT1-MMP fue observada en fibroblastos de la zona de compresión del ligamento periodontal y osteoclastos ubicados en esta misma región. Nuestros resultados permiten proponer que tanto MT1 -MMP como TRAP participan en la remodelación de los tejidos de soporte periodontal durante la migración dentaria.Tooth movement involves a series of changes of the supporting periodontal tissues characterized by the active connective tissue remodeling. MT1-MMP or MMP-14 belongs to the family of matrix metalloproteinases that are able to degrade type I collagen, the main molecule involved in periodontal attachment. Tooth migration requires the controlled degradation of periodontal ligament collagen fibers. However, evidences linking MT1 -MMP expression with periodontal tissue remodeling are lacking. In the present study, we have evaluated the

  1. Enamel matrix protein derivatives: role in periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathva VJ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Vandana J RathvaDepartment of Periodontics, KM Shah Dental College and Hospital, Sumandeep University, Gujarat, IndiaAbstract: The role of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of lost periodontal structures, ie, new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. The outcome of basic research has pointed to the important role of enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD in periodontal wound healing. Histologic results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of this paper is to review the existing literature on EMD.Keywords: enamel matrix protein derivative, Emdogain®, periodontal regeneration

  2. Generation and periodontal differentiation of human gingival fibroblasts-derived integration-free induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Xiaohui [Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, 22 South Avenue Zhong-Guan-Cun, Beijing 100081 (China); Peking University Stem Cell Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yang [Peking University Stem Cell Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Jingwen [Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, 22 South Avenue Zhong-Guan-Cun, Beijing 100081 (China); Li, Peng [Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong, 34 Hospital Road, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yinan [Peking University Stem Cell Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wen, Jinhua, E-mail: jhwen@bjmu.edu.cn [Peking University Stem Cell Research Center and Department of Cell Biology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, 38 Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Luan, Qingxian, E-mail: kqluanqx@126.com [Department of Periodontology, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Peking University, 22 South Avenue Zhong-Guan-Cun, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-05-06

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been recognized as a promising cell source for periodontal tissue regeneration. However, the conventional virus-based reprogramming approach is associated with a high risk of genetic mutation and limits their therapeutic utility. Here, we successfully generated iPSCs from readily accessible human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs) through an integration-free and feeder-free approach via delivery of reprogramming factors of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, L-myc, Lin28 and TP53 shRNA with episomal plasmid vectors. The iPSCs presented similar morphology and proliferation characteristics as embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and expressed pluripotent markers including Oct4, Tra181, Nanog and SSEA-4. Additionally, these cells maintained a normal karyotype and showed decreased CpG methylation ratio in the promoter regions of Oct4 and Nanog. In vivo teratoma formation assay revealed the development of tissues representative of three germ layers, confirming the acquisition of pluripotency. Furthermore, treatment of the iPSCs in vitro with enamel matrix derivative (EMD) or growth/differentiation factor-5 (GDF-5) significantly up-regulated the expression of periodontal tissue markers associated with bone, periodontal ligament and cementum respectively. Taken together, our data demonstrate that hGFs are a valuable cell source for generating integration-free iPSCs, which could be sequentially induced toward periodontal cells under the treatment of EMD and GDF-5. - Highlights: • Integration-free iPSCs are successfully generated from hGFs via an episomal approach. • EMD promotes differentiation of the hGFs-derived iPSCs toward periodontal cells. • GDF-5 promotes differentiation of the hGFs-derived iPSCs toward periodontal cells. • hGFs-derived iPSCs could be a promising cell source for periodontal regeneration.

  3. Radio sterilized human ligaments and their clinical application;Ligamentos humanos radioesterilizados y su aplicacion clinica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M. L. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Diaz M, I.; Hernandez R, G., E-mail: daniel.luna@inin.gob.m [Centro Estatal de Trasplantes del Estado de Mexico, Pablo Sidar No. 602, Col. Universidad, 50130 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The ligaments are human tissues that are used in the transplantation area. A ligament is an anatomical structure in band form, composed by resistant fibers that connect the tissues that unite the bones with the articulations. In an articulation, the ligaments allow and facilitate the movement inside the natural anatomical directions, while it restricts those movements that are anatomically abnormal, impeding lesions that could arise of this type of movements. The kneecap ligament is a very important tissue in the knee mobility and of walking in the human beings. This ligament can injure it because of automobile accidents, for sport lesions or illnesses, and in many cases the only form of recovering the knee movement is carried out a transplant with the purpose of replacing the damage ligament by allo gen kneecap ligament processed in specialized Tissue Banks where the tissue is sterilized with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co at very low temperatures, obtaining high quality ligaments for clinical application in injured patients. The kneecap ligaments are processed in the Tissue Banks with a segment of kneecap bone, a segment of tibial bone, the contained ligament between both bones and in some cases a fraction of the quadriceps tendon. In this work is given a description of the selection method of the tissue that includes the donor's serologic control, the kneecap ligament processing in the Radio Sterilized Tissues Bank, its sterilization with gamma radiation of {sup 60}Co, also it is indicated like the clinical application of the allo gen ligament was realized in a hasty patient and whose previous crossed ligament was injured. Finally the results are presented from the tissue obtaining until the clinical application of it is, and in this case is observed a favorable initial evolution of the transplantation patient. (Author)

  4. Effect of periodontal dressings on human gingiva fibroblasts in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eber, R.M.; Shuler, C.F.; Buchanan, W.; Beck, F.M.; Horton, J.E. (Ohio State Univ. College of Dentistry, Columbus (USA))

    1989-08-01

    In vitro cytotoxicity studies of periodontal dressings have not generally produced a result consistent with in vivo observations. These prior in vitro studies have not used human intraoral cell lines. We tested the effects of two eugenol containing and two non-eugenol periodontal dressings on cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) (ATCC No. 1292). Replicate HGF cultures grown in microtiter plates were exposed to stock, 1:4 and 1:16 dilutions of extracts made from each of the four periodontal dressings. The HGF cultures were pulse labelled with tritiated thymidine (3HTdR) after 24, 48, and 72 hours. Incorporations of the labelled thymidine were measured using liquid scintillation counting and expressed as counts per minute. The results showed that undiluted extracts from all four periodontal dressings totally inhibited 3HTdR uptake (P less than 0.05). The 1:4 dilution of eugenol dressings inhibited 3HTdR uptake significantly more than non-eugenol dressings (P less than 0.05). Interestingly, at 72 hours the 1:16 dilution of the non-eugenol dressings caused significantly increased 3HTdR uptake which was not observed with the eugenol dressings. The present results suggest that the use of a human fibroblastic cell line for testing the effects of periodontal dressings may provide information about the relative biological effects of these dressings. Using this cell line, we have found that eugenol dressings inhibit fibroblast proliferation to a greater extent than non-eugenol dressings.

  5. Comparative periodontal status of human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: A significant proportion of the HIV-positive patients 61 (55.5%) and the HIV-negative controls 53 (48.7%) had shallow ... Department of Preventive Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences,. College of ... CD4 + T‑cell count did not appear to be a risk factor ..... Periodontal status of HIV‑seropositive and AIDS patients.

  6. Distribution pattern of versican, link protein and hyaluronic acid in the rat periodontal ligament during experimental tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, R; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K; Yamauchi, M

    2002-02-01

    The ability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) to rapidly remodel is the basis of orthodontic tooth movement. During the tooth movement, matrix proteoglycans (PGs) may play important roles in spatial, mechanical and biological aspects for the maintenance and repair of the PDL. The aim of this study was to characterize the distribution of a large hyaluronic acid (HA)-binding proteoglycan, versican, link protein (LP) and HA in the rat molar PDL during experimental tooth movement by histochemical and immunohistochemical methods. Experimental tooth movement was performed according to Waldo's method. Histologically, regressive changes, such as decrease of fibroblasts and collagen fibers and exudative change of edema were observed in the compressive side and progressive changes, such as proliferation of fibroblasts and collagen fibers, in the strain side one day after treatment. By 3 days after tooth movement, regressive or progressive changes were not observed in either side. Using monoclonal antibodies specific to versican core protein or LP, the positive immunoreactivity for both molecules was constantly observed throughout the PDL. After the experimental force was applied to the tooth, however, the immunostainings of versican and LP became significantly intense only in the compressive side but decreased in the strain side. The intensity in the compressive side was strongest one day after the force was applied and gradually diminished thereafter. HA of both sides did not change during experimental tooth movement. Since HA is present in the PDL, large amounts of versican and LP expressed in the compressive side may create large hydrated aggregates via their association with HA that dissipates the compressive force applied to this tissue.

  7. Periodontal ligament influence on the stress distribution in a removable partial denture supported by implant: a finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Archangelo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The non-homogenous aspect of periodontal ligament (PDL has been examined using finite element analysis (FEA to better simulate PDL behavior. The aim of this study was to assess, by 2-D FEA, the influence of non-homogenous PDL on the stress distribution when the free-end saddle removable partial denture (RPD is partially supported by an osseointegrated implant. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six finite element (FE models of a partially edentulous mandible were created to represent two types of PDL (non-homogenous and homogenous and two types of RPD (conventional RPD, supported by tooth and fibromucosa; and modified RPD, supported by tooth and implant [10.00x3.75 mm]. Two additional Fe models without RPD were used as control models. The non-homogenous PDL was modeled using beam elements to simulate the crest, horizontal, oblique and apical fibers. The load (50 N was applied in each cusp simultaneously. Regarding boundary conditions the border of alveolar ridge was fixed along the x axis. The FE software (Ansys 10.0 was used to compute the stress fields, and the von Mises stress criterion (svM was applied to analyze the results. RESULTS: The peak of svM in non-homogenous PDL was higher than that for the homogenous condition. The benefits of implants were enhanced for the non-homogenous PDL condition, with drastic svM reduction on the posterior half of the alveolar ridge. The implant did not reduce the stress on the support tooth for both PDL conditions. Conclusion: The PDL modeled in the non-homogeneous form increased the benefits of the osseointegrated implant in comparison with the homogeneous condition. Using the non-homogenous PDL, the presence of osseointegrated implant did not reduce the stress on the supporting tooth.

  8. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Salehi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the Problem: The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method: Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results: In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion: From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth.

  9. Evaluating Stress Distribution Pattern in Periodontal Ligament of Maxillary Incisors during Intrusion Assessed by the Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Parisa; Gerami, Alayar; Najafi, Amirhosein; Torkan, Sepideh

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem The use of miniscrews has expedited the true maxillary incisor intrusion and has minimized untoward side effects such as labial tipping. Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament of maxillary incisors when addressed to different models of intrusion mechanics using miniscrews by employing finite element methods. The degree of relative and absolute intrusion of maxillary incisors in different conditions was also evaluated. Materials and Method Finite element model of maxillary central incisor to first premolar was generated by assembling images obtained from a three-dimensional model of maxillary dentition. Four different conditions of intrusion mechanics were simulated with different placement sites of miniscrews as well as different points of force application. In each model, 25-g force was applied to maxillary incisors via miniscrews. Results In all four models, increased stress values were identified in the apical region of lateral incisor. Proclination of maxillary incisors was also reported in all the four models. The minimum absolute intrusion was observed when the miniscrew was placed between the lateral incisor and canine and the force was applied at right angles to the archwire, which is very common in clinical practice. Conclusion From the results yield by this study, it seems that the apical region of lateral incisor is the most susceptible region to root resorption during anterior intrusion. When the minimum flaring of maxillary incisors is required in clinical situations, it is suggested to place the miniscrew halfway between the roots of lateral incisor and canine with the force applied to the archwire between central and lateral incisor. In order to achieve maximum absolute intrusion, it is advised to place miniscrew between the roots of central and lateral incisors with the force applied at a right angle to the archwire between these two teeth. PMID:26636119

  10. Engineering the periodontal ligament in hyaluronan-gelatin-type I collagen constructs: upregulation of apoptosis and alterations in gene expression by cyclic compressive strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saminathan, Aarthi; Sriram, Gopu; Vinoth, Jayasaleen Kumar; Cao, Tong; Meikle, Murray C

    2015-02-01

    To engineer constructs of the periodontal ligament (PDL), human PDL cells were incorporated into a matrix of hyaluronan, gelatin, and type I collagen (COLI) in sample holders (13×1 mm) of six-well Biopress culture plates. The loading dynamics of the PDL were mimicked by applying a cyclic compressive strain of 33.4 kPa (340.6 gm/cm(2)) to the constructs for 1.0 s every 60 s, for 6, 12, and 24 h in a Flexercell FX-4000C Strain Unit. Compression significantly increased the number of nonviable cells and increased the expression of several apoptosis-related genes, including initiator and executioner caspases. Of the 15 extracellular matrix genes screened, most were upregulated at some point after 6-12 h deformation, but all were downregulated at 24 h, except for MMPs1-3 and CTGF. In culture supernatants, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) protein levels were upregulated at 24 h; receptor activator of nuclear kappa factor B (RANKL), osteoprotegerin (OPG) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) were unchanged; and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) not detected. The low modulus of elasticity of the constructs was a disadvantage-future mechanobiology studies and tissue engineering applications will require constructs with much higher stiffness. Since the major structural protein of the PDL is COLI, a more rational approach would be to permeabilize preformed COLI scaffolds with PDL-populated matrices.

  11. Sequential process in brain-derived neurotrophic factor-induced functional periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Akihiro; Takeda, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Kajiya, Mikihito; Matsuda, Shinji; Kittaka, Mizuho; Shiba, Hideki; Kurihara, Hidemi

    2016-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes periodontal tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to establish an essential component of a rational approach for the clinical application of BDNF in periodontal regenerative therapy. Here, we assessed the sequence of early events in BDNF-induced periodontal tissue regeneration, especially from the aspect of cementum regeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor was applied into experimental periodontal defects in Beagle dogs. The localization of cells positive for neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, osteopontin, integrin αVβ3, and integrin α2β1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The effects of BDNF on adhesion of cultured human periodontal ligament cells was examined by an in vitro study. The results suggest that BDNF could induce rapid cementum regeneration by stimulating adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells in the early regenerative phase, resulting in enhancement of periodontal tissue regeneration.

  12. Comparison of Coconut Water and Jordanian Propolis on Survival of Bench-dried Periodontal Ligament Cells: An in vitro Cell Culture Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haj Ali, Sanaa Najeh; Al-Jundi, Suhad; Mhaidat, Nizar

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to assess and compare the efficacy of Jordanian propolis and full concentration mature coconut water in their ability to preserve periodontal ligament (PDL) cell viability after exposure of PDL cells to up to 120 minutes dry storage. PDL cells were obtained from sound permanent first molars which were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagles Medium (DMEM). Cultures were subjected to 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes dry storage times then incubated with 100% mature coconut water, Jordanian propolis and DMEM for 45 minutes at room temperature (18-26°C). Untreated cells served as controls at each dry storage time tested. PDL cell viability was assessed by MTT assay. Statistical analysis of data was accomplished by using one-way analysis of variance complemented by Tukey test and the level of significance was 5% ( p cells was found from soaking in all tested media. On the other hand, soaking in mature coconut water only resulted in higher percentages of viable cells at >60 minutes dry storage. However, this improvement was not significant (p > 0.05). Avulsed teeth which have been left dry for 45 minutes may benefit from soaking for 45 minutes in mature coconut water. How to cite this article: Al-Haj Ali SN, Al-Jundi S, Mhaidat N. Comparison of Coconut Water and Jordanian Propolis on Survival of Bench-dried Periodontal Ligament Cells: An in vitro Cell Culture Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):161-165.

  13. [Periodontitis and tissue regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2005-08-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a destructive disease that affects the supporting structures of the teeth including periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone. If left untreated, patients may lose multiple teeth and extensive prosthetic treatment will be required. In order to re-engineer lost tooth-supporting tissues, various therapeutic modalities have been used clinically. Periodontal regeneration procedures including guided tissue regeneration have achieved substantial effects. However, there are several issues to be solved. They are highly technique-sensitive, applicable to limited cases which are susceptible to treatment, and supposed to have relatively low predictability. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new approaches to improve the predictability and effectiveness of regenerative therapies for periodontal tissues. Recently, the concept of tissue engineering has been introduced to restore lost tissues more effectively where the biological process of healing is mimicked. To achieve this, integration of three key elements is required: progenitor/stem cells, growth factors and the extracellular matrix scaffold. Although it has been shown that implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells into periodontal osseous defects induced regeneration of cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone in dogs, further extensive preclinical studies are required. On the other hand, application of growth factors, particularly basic fibroblast growth factor in the treatment of human periodontitis, is promising and is now in clinical trial. Furthermore, the rate of release of growth factor from the scaffold also can profoundly affect the results of tissue engineering strategies and the development of new materials is expected. In addition, as tissue regenerative potential is negatively regulated by aging, the effects of aging have to be clarified to gain complete regeneration.

  14. Bone morphogenetic proteins: Periodontal regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam M Rao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Periodontitis is an infectious inflammatory disease that results in attachment loss and bone loss. Regeneration of the periodontal tissues entails de novo formation of cementum, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. Several different approaches are currently being explored to achieve complete, reliable, and reproducible regeneration of periodontal tissues. The therapeutic management of new bone formation is one of the key issues in successful periodontal regeneration. Bone morphogenetic proteins form a unique group of proteins within the transforming growth factor superfamily of genes and have a vital role in the regulation in the bone induction and maintenance. The activity of bone morphogenetic proteins was first identified in the 1960s, but the proteins responsible for bone induction were unknown until the purification and cloning of human bone morphogenetic proteins in the 1980s, because of their osteoinductive potential. Bone morphogenetic proteins have gained a lot of interest as therapeutic agents for treating periodontal defects. A systematic search for data related to the use of bone morphogenetic proteins for the regeneration of periodontal defects was performed to recognize studies on animals and human (PUBMED, MEDLINE, COCHRANE, and Google search. All the studies included showed noticeable regeneration of periodontal tissues with the use of BMP.

  15. SPARC and the N-propeptide of collagen I influence fibroblast proliferation and collagen assembly in the periodontal ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta-eSilva, Jessica; Hepfer, Glenn; Yao, Hai; Bradshaw, Amy Dodd

    2017-01-01

    The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a fibrous connective tissue that anchors tooth cementum into alveolar bone. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a collagen-binding matricellular protein known to influence collagen fiber assembly in the PDL. In contrast, functional properties of the N-propeptide of collagen I, encoded in exon 2 of the COL1A1 gene, are poorly understood. In this study, the PDL of collagen I exon 2-deleted (wt/ko), SPARC-null (ko/wt), and double transgenic (ko/ko) mice were evaluated in terms of cellularity, collagen area, fiber morphology, and extraction force and compared to WT (wt/wt) mice. Picro sirius red staining indicated a decrease in total PDL collagen content in each of the transgenic mice compared to WT at 1 and 3 month age points. At 12 months, only SPARC-null (ko/wt) and double-null PDL demonstrated less total collagen versus WT. Likewise, an increase in thin PDL collagen fibers was observed at 1 and 3 months in each transgenic, with increases only in SPARC-null and double-null mice at 12 months. The force required for tooth extraction was significantly reduced in SPARC-null versus exon 2-deleted and WT mice, whereas double-null mice demonstrated further decreases in force required for tooth extraction. The number of proliferating fibroblasts and number and size of epithelial rests of Malassez were increased in each transgenic versus WT with double-null PDL exhibiting highest levels of proliferation and rests of Malassez at 1 month of age. Consistent with increases in PDL collagen in exon-2 deleted mice, with age, numbers of rests decreased at 12 months in this genotype. These results demonstrate for the first time a functional role of the N-propeptide in regulating collagen fiber assembly and cell behavior and suggest that SPARC and the N-propeptide of collagen I have distinct activities in regulating collagen fiber assembly and fibroblast function. PMID:28245286

  16. Ibandronate promotes osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells by regulating the expression of microRNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Qiang [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhao, Zhi-Ning [Clinical Laboratory, 451 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xi' an 710054 (China); Cheng, Jing-Tao [Department of Special Dentistry, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Zhang, Bin [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Xu, Jie [Department of Periodontology, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Huang, Fei; Zhao, Rui-Ni [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China); Chen, Yong-Jin, E-mail: cyj1229@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of General Dentistry and Emergency, College of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710032 (China)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Ibandronate significantly promote the proliferation of PDLSC cells. {yields} Ibandronate enhanced the expression of ALP, COL-1, OPG, OCN, Runx2. {yields} The expression of a class of miRNAs, e.g., miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly modified in PDLSC cells cultured with ibandronate. {yields} Ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation-related genes via miRNAs in PDLSCs. {yields} Ibandronate can suppress the activity of osteoclast while promoting the proliferation of osteoblast by regulating the expression of microRNAs. -- Abstract: Bisphosphonates (BPs) have a profound effect on bone resorption and are widely used to treat osteoclast-mediated bone diseases. They suppress bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of mature osteoclasts and/or the formation of new osteoclasts. Osteoblasts may be an alternative target for BPs. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) exhibit osteoblast-like features and are capable of differentiating into osteoblasts or cementoblasts. This study aimed to determine the effects of ibandronate, a nitrogen-containing BP, on the proliferation and the differentiation of PDLSCs and to identify the microRNAs (miRNAs) that mediate these effects. The PDLSCs were treated with ibandronate, and cell proliferation was measured using the MTT (3-dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The expression of genes and miRNAs involved in osteoblastic differentiation was assayed using quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Ibandronate promoted the proliferation of PDLSCs and enhanced the expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), type I collagen (COL-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), osteocalcin (OCN), and Runx2. The expression of miRNAs, including miR-18a, miR-133a, miR-141 and miR-19a, was significantly altered in the PDLSCs cultured with ibandronate. In PDLSCs, ibandronate regulates the expression of diverse bone formation

  17. Autologous periodontal ligament stem cells combined with composites repair periodontal bone defects in miniature pigs%小型猪自体牙周膜干细胞与复合材料修复牙周骨缺损**★

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斯惠; 钟良军; 张鹏涛; 张远; 张源明; 马路平; 徐艳

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have proved that autologous periodontal ligament stem cel s combined with scaffold materials can achieve better effect on the repair of periodontal bone defects. OBJECTIVE:To observe the effect of miniature pig autologous periodontal ligament stem cel s combined with hydroxyapatite bioceramic composites in the repair of category Ⅱ periodontal bone defects. METHODS:Six Guizhou miniature pigs were included, and were used to establish the miniature pig models of upper and lower jaw category Ⅱ periodontal bone defects. The bone defects were located between the third premolar and fourth premolar, and the near root of fourth premolar was exposed. The defects in the experimental group were repaired with periodontal ligament stem cel s obtained from the autologous maxil ary and mandibular canine and combined with hydroxyapatite bioceramic;the defects in the control group were repaired with hydroxyapatite bioceramic simplely;and the model group did not repaired. The defects in each group were covered with oral biofilm. At 12 weeks after modeling, the defect periodontal tissues were obtained from each group, and then the osteogenesis healing of the periodontal bone tissue was observed through clinical observation, heal spiral CT scanning, three-dimensional reconstruction and hematoxylin-eosin staining. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Clinical observation showed that healing of periodontal defects in the experimental group was the best. Head spiral CT scanning showed that there was no significant difference of bone mineral density between bone defect area and surrounding normal alveolar bone, and the defects in the control group and the model group were stil clear visible in the incomplete healing state. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that the defect area in the experimental group was fil ed with newborn alveolar bone completely, and the normal calcified bone structure was established;in the control group, the defect area was fil ed with newborn alveolar bone

  18. Synergistic Effects of a Calcium Phosphate/Fibronectin Coating on the Adhesion of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Onto Decellularized Dental Root Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Park, So-Yon; Kim, Tae-Wan; Jung, Jae-Suk; Lee, Jong-Bin; Kim, Chang-Sung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance the attachment of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) onto the decellularized dental root surface using surface coating with fibronectin and/or calcium phosphate (CaP) and to evaluate the activity of PDLSCs attached to a coated dental root surface following tooth replantation. PDLSCs were isolated from five dogs, and the other dental roots were used as a scaffold for carrying PDLSCs and then assigned to one of four groups according to whether their surface was coated with CaP, fibronectin, CaP/fibronectin, or left uncoated (control). Fibronectin increased the adhesion of PDLSCs onto dental root surfaces compared to both the control and CaP-coated groups, and simultaneous surface coating with CaP and fibronectin significantly accelerated and increased PDLSC adhesion compared to the fibronectin-only group. On in vivo tooth replantation, functionally oriented periodontal new attachment was observed on the CaP/fibronectin-coated dental roots to which autologous PDLSCs had adhered, while in the control condition, dental root replantation was associated only with root resorption and ankylosis along the entire root length. CaP and fibronectin synergistically enhanced the attachment of PDLSCs onto dental root surfaces, and autologous PDLSCs could produce de novo periodontal new attachment in an experimental in vivo model.

  19. Expression of matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein mRNA in human periodontal ligament cell osteogenic differentiation%细胞外基质磷酸化糖蛋白mRNA在人牙周韧带细胞成骨分化过程中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉萍; 韦曦; 凌均棨; 刘路

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the mineralization capacity of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLC) by determining the mRNA expressions of alkaline phesphatase (ALP), osteocalein (OCN) and matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) and to explore the potential of MEPE as a differentiation marker for PDLC, and its possible function in PDLC osteogenic differentiation. Methods PDLC were digested and cultured by a solution containing collagenase type Ⅰ and dispase. PDLC were preceded to osteogenic induction for 7, 14 and 21 days respectively, and the cells before induction served as controls.Mineralization nodules and the expression of OCN in PDLC were investigated by alizarin red and immunohistochemistry respectively. The expressions of ALP, OCN and MEPE mRNA were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the differences of mRNA expression levels among cell samples collected at different time points. Results The mRNA expressions of ALP, OCN and MEPE in PDLC before induction were 72, 1.1 and 534 respectively, but increased time-dependently in the induction cultures. The mRNA expressions of ALP, OCN and MEPE were 78,9.56 and 629.6 on day 7;290, 133 and 638.3 on day 14;1108, 925 and 2261.1 on day 21 respectively. The relative mRNA levels of OCN,ALP on day 14 and 21, MEPE on day 21 were significantly higher than control group (P < 0.05 ). Conclusions PDLC showed analogously temporal expression of ALP, OCN and MEPE mRNA while differentiating into cementoblast/osteoblast-like cells in vitro. MEPE may play a regulatory role in PDLC osteogenie differentiation, and may be a potential osteogenic differentiation marker along with ALP and OCN.%目的 检测人牙周韧带细胞(periodontal ligament stem cell,PDLC)诱导矿化过程中碱性磷酸酶(alkaline phosphatase,ALP)、骨钙素(osteocalcin,OCN)和细胞外基质磷酸化糖蛋白(matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein,MEPE)mRNA的表达,探讨MEPE能否作

  20. Elastic properties of Thiel-embalmed human ankle tendon and ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiaochun; Kemp, Sandy; Corner, George; Eisma, Roos; Huang, Zhihong

    2015-10-01

    Thiel embalming is recommended as an alternative to formalin-based embalming because it preserves tissue elasticity, color, and flexibility in the long term, with low infection and toxicity risk. The degree to which Thiel embalming preserves elasticity has so far been assessed mainly by subjective scoring, with little quantitative verification. The aim of this study is to quantify the effect of Thiel embalming on the elastic properties of human ankle tendons and ligament. Biomechanical tensile tests were carried out on six Thiel-embalmed samples each of the peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, and calcaneal tendons, and the calcaneofibular ligament, with strain rates of 0.25%s(-1), 2%s(-1), and 8%s(-1). The stress-strain relationship was calculated from the force-extension response with cross-sectional area and gauge length. Young's modulus was determined from the stress-strain curve. The results showed that the tendon and ligament elasticity were lower after Thiel embalming than the literature values for fresh nonembalmed tendons and ligament. The biomechanical tensile test showed that the measured elasticity of Thiel-embalmed tendons and ligaments increased with the strain rate. The Thiel embalming method is useful for preserving human ankle tendons and ligaments for anatomy and surgery teaching and research, but users need to be aware of its softening effects. The method retains the mechanical strain rate effect on tendons and ligament. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A three-dimensional cell culture model to study the mechano-biological behavior in periodontal ligament regeneration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, which can eventually result in tooth loss. A three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture model was developed that may serve to grow a 3D construct that not only transplants into defective periodontal sites, but also allows to exa

  2. A three-dimensional cell culture model to study the mechano-biological behavior in periodontal ligament regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, D.A.W.; Yu, N.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.; Yang, F.; Walboomers, X.F.; Jansen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontitis is a disease affecting the supporting structures of the teeth, which can eventually result in tooth loss. A three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture model was developed that may serve to grow a 3D construct that not only transplants into defective periodontal sites, but also allows to exa

  3. Synchrotron radiation analysis of possible correlations between metal status in human cementum and periodontal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.R.; Naftel, S.J.; Nelson, A.J.; Edwards, M.; Mithoowani, H.; Stakiw, J. (UWO); (Saskatchewan)

    2010-03-16

    Periodontitis is a serious disease that affects up to 50% of an adult population. It is a chronic condition involving inflammation of the periodontal ligament and associated tissues leading to eventual tooth loss. Some evidence suggests that trace metals, especially zinc and copper, may be involved in the onset and severity of periodontitis. Thus we have used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence imaging on cross sections of diseased and healthy teeth using a microbeam to explore the distribution of trace metals in cementum and adhering plaque. The comparison between diseased and healthy teeth indicates that there are elevated levels of zinc, copper and nickel in diseased teeth as opposed to healthy teeth. This preliminary correlation between elevated levels of trace metals in the cementum and plaque of diseased teeth suggests that metals may play a role in the progress of periodontitis.

  4. Comparative transcriptional analysis of three human ligaments with distinct biomechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda-Diez, Carlos I; Canga-Villegas, Ana; Cerezal, Luis; Plaza, Santiago; Hurlé, Juan M; García-Porrero, Juan A; Montero, Juan A

    2013-12-01

    One major aim of regenerative medicine targeting the musculoskeletal system is to provide complementary and/or alternative therapeutic approaches to current surgical therapies, often involving the removal and prosthetic substitution of damaged tissues such as ligaments. For these approaches to be successful, detailed information regarding the cellular and molecular composition of different musculoskeletal tissues is required. Ligaments have often been considered homogeneous tissues with common biomechanical properties. However, advances in tissue engineering research have highlighted the functional relevance of the organisational and compositional differences between ligament types, especially in those with higher risks of injury. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the relative expression levels of a subset of key genes (including extracellular matrix components, transcription factors and growth factors) that confer functional identity to ligaments. We compared the transcriptomes of three representative human ligaments subjected to different biomechanical demands: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); the ligamentum teres of the hip (LT); and the iliofemoral ligament (IL). We revealed significant differences in the expression of type I collagen, elastin, fibromodulin, biglycan, transforming growth factor β1, transforming growth interacting factor 1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and transforming growth factor β-induced gene between the IL and the other two ligaments. Thus, considerable molecular heterogeneity can exist between anatomically distinct ligaments with differing biomechanical demands. However, the LT and ACL were found to show remarkable molecular homology, suggesting common functional properties. This finding provides experimental support for the proposed role of the LT as a hip joint stabiliser in humans.

  5. Comparative transcriptional analysis of three human ligaments with distinct biomechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorda-Diez, Carlos I; Canga-Villegas, Ana; Cerezal, Luis; Plaza, Santiago; Hurlé, Juan M; García-Porrero, Juan A; Montero, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    One major aim of regenerative medicine targeting the musculoskeletal system is to provide complementary and/or alternative therapeutic approaches to current surgical therapies, often involving the removal and prosthetic substitution of damaged tissues such as ligaments. For these approaches to be successful, detailed information regarding the cellular and molecular composition of different musculoskeletal tissues is required. Ligaments have often been considered homogeneous tissues with common biomechanical properties. However, advances in tissue engineering research have highlighted the functional relevance of the organisational and compositional differences between ligament types, especially in those with higher risks of injury. The aim of this study was to provide information concerning the relative expression levels of a subset of key genes (including extracellular matrix components, transcription factors and growth factors) that confer functional identity to ligaments. We compared the transcriptomes of three representative human ligaments subjected to different biomechanical demands: the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); the ligamentum teres of the hip (LT); and the iliofemoral ligament (IL). We revealed significant differences in the expression of type I collagen, elastin, fibromodulin, biglycan, transforming growth factor β1, transforming growth interacting factor 1, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha and transforming growth factor β-induced gene between the IL and the other two ligaments. Thus, considerable molecular heterogeneity can exist between anatomically distinct ligaments with differing biomechanical demands. However, the LT and ACL were found to show remarkable molecular homology, suggesting common functional properties. This finding provides experimental support for the proposed role of the LT as a hip joint stabiliser in humans. PMID:24128114

  6. Effect of microRNA-17 on osteogenic differentiation of advanced glycation end products-stimulated human perio-dontal ligament stem cells%微小RNA-17在糖基化终末产物刺激下人牙周膜干细胞骨向分化过程中的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓超; 伍燕; 杨琨; 崔晓霞; 刘琪; 金岩

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to detect microRNA-17(mir-17) expression on the osteogenic differentiation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-stimulated hunman periodontal ligament stem cells (HPDLSCs) and to analyze the influence of these cells on this process. Methods HPDLSCs were isolated using limited dilution technique. After osteogenic differentiation occurred, different time points of mir-17 expression in the experimental groups were detected by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The mir-17 overexpression and inhibition were evaluated using cell transfection technique. Differences in gene expressions were detected by real time PCR; differences in protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot. Results The mir-17 expression was reduced after osteogenic differentiation occurred at 3, 7, and 14 d compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The expression levels of bone sialoprotein(BSP), Runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx-2) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the experimental groups were lower than those in the mimic control group when mir-17 expression increased. In addition, the protein expression levels of Runx-2 in the experimental groups were lower than those in the control group. The expression levels of BSP, Runx-2 and ALP in the experimental groups were higher than those in the inhibitor control group when mir-17 expression decreased. Likewise, the protein expression levels of Runx-2 in the expe-rimental groups were higher than those in the control group. Conclusion AGEs inhibit the osteogenic differentiation of HPDLSCs by affecting mir-17 expression.%目的:检测微小RNA-17(mir-17)在糖基化终末产物(AGEs)刺激下人牙周膜干细胞(HPDLSCs)骨向分化过程中的表达,并分析其对该过程的影响。方法体外组织块法和有限稀释法克隆化培养HPDLSCs。实时定量聚合酶链反应(real time PCR)检测实验组细胞在骨向分化过程中不同时间点mir-17的表达;采

  7. 牙周膜干细胞生物学研究新进展%Advances In biological research of periodontal ligament stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺慧霞; 刘洪臣

    2010-01-01

    牙周膜干细胞(periodontal ligament stem cell,PDLSC)是在干细胞理论和技术发展较为成熟的基础上提出的.PDLSCs具有分化形成牙槽骨、牙骨质和牙周膜的潜能,在牙周生理、病理和牙周病再生治疗中发挥极其重要的作用.对PDLSCs生物学的研究是解读这一系列事件的钥匙.本文就PDLSCs生物学作用、来源、组织学定位、分离和鉴定等方面研究的最新进展做一综述.

  8. Regeneration of dentin-pulp complex with cementum and periodontal ligament formation using dental bud cells in gelatin-chondroitin-hyaluronan tri-copolymer scaffold in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Huang, An-Ting; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lin, Feng-Huei; Chen, San-Tai; Chen, Rung-Shu; Chou, Cheng-Hung; Lin, Hsin-Chi; Chiang, Han; Chen, Min-Huey

    2008-09-15

    The purpose of this study is to use a tissue engineering approach for tooth regeneration. The swine dental bud cells (DBCs) were isolated from the developing mandibular teeth, expanded in vitro, and cultured onto cylinder scaffold gelatin-chrondroitin-hyaluronan-tri-copolymer (GCHT). After culturing in vitro, the DBCs/GCHT scaffold was autografted back into the original alveolar socket. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining combined with immunohistochemical staining were applied for identification of regenerated tooth structure. After 36-week post-transplantation, tooth-like structures, including well-organized dentin-pulp complex, cementum, and periodontal ligament, were evident in situ in two of six experimental animals. The size of the tooth structure (1 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm(3) and 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm(3) size) appeared to be dictated by the size of the GCHT scaffold (1 x 1 x 1.5 cm(3)). The third swine was demonstrated with irregular dentin-bony like calcified tissue about 1 cm in diameter without organized tooth or periodontal ligament formation. The other three swine in the experimental group showed normal bone formation and no tooth regeneration in the transplantation sites. The successful rate of tooth regeneration from DBCs/GCHT scaffolds' was about 33.3%. In the control group, three swine's molar teeth buds were removed without DBCs/GCHT implantation, the other three swine received GCHT scaffold implants without DBCs. After evaluation, no regenerated tooth was found in the transplantation site of the control group. The current results using DBSs/GCHT scaffold autotransplantation suggest a technical breakthrough for tooth regeneration.

  9. P2X7受体对牙周膜干细胞成骨分化的作用%Role of P2X7 receptor in osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙亚男; 魏建敏; 孙薇; 武俊杰; 吴礼安

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Ion channels related to the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cels have been studied. OBJECTIVE:To preliminarily investigate the effect of P2X7 receptor on the osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cels. METHODS:Human periodontal ligament stem cels were isolated and divided into four groups, cultured in 100 nmol/L adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium, osteogenic medium, 100 nmol/L adenosine triphosphate, and normal culture medium (control group), respectively. After induction for 7 and 14 days, osteogenic effect was detected by alizarin red staining, and expressions of OCN, Runx2 and P2X7 receptor at mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot assay, respectively. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Under alizarin red staining, the osteogenic effect of periodontal ligament stem cels was better in the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium than the osteogenic medium group at 7 days, but it was better in the osteogenic medium group than the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium at 14 days (P < 0.05). Results from qRT-PCR showed that, in the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium, the mRNA expression of Runx2 and OCN reached peak at 7 days, but decreased significantly at 14 days (P < 0.05). The expression of P2X7 receptor mRNA in the group of adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium was significantly higher than that in the adenosine triphosphate group at 7 days (P < 0.05), but significantly lower than that in the adenosine triphosphate group at 14 days (P < 0.05). There was no expression of P2X7 receptor mRNA in the osteogenic medium group and control group. Western blot assay showed that at 7 days, the expression of P2X7 receptor peaked in the adenosine triphosphate+osteogenic medium group at 7 days, which was significantly higher than that in the adenosine triphosphate group, and there was a low expression of P2X7 receptor in the osteogenic medium group and no

  10. Elastic Properties of the Annular Ligament of the Human Stapes--AFM Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwacz, Monika; Rymuza, Zygmunt; Michałowski, Marcin; Wysocki, Jarosław

    2015-08-01

    Elastic properties of the human stapes annular ligament were determined in the physiological range of the ligament deflection using atomic force microscopy and temporal bone specimens. The annular ligament stiffness was determined based on the experimental load-deflection curves. The elastic modulus (Young's modulus) for a simplified geometry was calculated using the Kirchhoff-Love theory for thin plates. The results obtained in this study showed that the annular ligament is a linear elastic material up to deflections of about 100 nm, with a stiffness of about 120 N/m and a calculated elastic modulus of about 1.1 MPa. These parameters can be used in numerical and physical models of the middle and/or inner ear.

  11. The effect of propolis as a biological storage media on periodontal ligament cell survival in an avulsed tooth: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahangari, Zohreh; Alborzi, Samiye; Yadegari, Zahra; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Ahangari, Leila; Naseri, Mandana

    2013-01-01

    Both the length of extra-alveolar time and type of storage media are significant factors that can affect the long-term prognosis of replanted teeth. This study aims to compare propolis 50%, propolis 10%, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), milk and egg white on periodontal ligament (PDL) cell survival for different time points. : In this in vitro experimental study, we divided 60 extracted teeth without any periodontal diseases into five experimental and two control groups that consisted each experimental group with 10 and each control group with 5 teeth. The storage times were one and three hours for each media. The controls corresponded to 0-minute (positive) and 12-hour (negative) dry time. Rinsing in the experimental media, the teeth were treated with dispase and collagenase for one hour. Cell viability was determined by using trypan blue exclusion. Statistical analysis of the data was accomplished by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) complemented by the Tukey's HSD post-hoc. Within one hour, there was no significant difference between the two propolis groups, however these two groups had significantly more viable PDL cells compared to the other experimental media (ppropolis 10% was significantly better than egg white, whereas both propolis 10% and 50% were significantly better than milk (ppropolis could be recommended as a suitable biological storage media for avulsed teeth.

  12. Emdogain in regenerative periodontal therapy. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculean, Anton; Windisch, Péter; Döri, Ferenc; Keglevich, Tibor; Molnár, Balint; Gera, István

    2007-10-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the periodontal wound healing. Histological results from animal and human studies have shown that treatment with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. Moreover, clinical studies have indicated that treatment with EMD positively influences periodontal wound healing in humans. The goal of the current overview is to present, based on the existing evidence, the clinical indications for regenerative therapy with EMD. Surgical periodontal treatment of deep intrabony defects with EMD promotes periodontal regeneration. The application of EMD in the context of non-surgical periodontal therapy has failed to result in periodontal regeneration. Surgical periodontal therapy of deep intrabony defects with EMD may lead to significantly higher improvements of the clinical parameters than open flap debridement alone. The results obtained following treatment with EMD are comparable to those following treatment with GTR and can be maintained over a longer period. Treatment of intrabony defects with a combination of EMD + GTR does not seem to additionally improve the results compared to treatment with EMD alone or GTR alone. The combination of EMD and some types of bone grafts/bone substitutes may result in certain improvements in the soft and hard tissue parameters compared to treatment with EMD alone. Treatment of recession-type defects with coronally repositioned flaps and EMD may promote formation of cementum, periodontal ligament and bone, and may significantly increase the width of the keratinized tissue. Application of EMD seems to provide better long-term results than coronally repositioned flaps alone. Application of EMD may enhance periodontal regeneration in mandibular Class II

  13. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karuppanan P Sasikumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodontics. In the near term, these advances are likely to be applied to periodontal surgery; ultimately, they may facilitate approaches to regenerating whole lost periodontal structures.

  14. 牙周膜干细胞膜片构建的生物性牙根生物学活性研究%Biological activity of biological roots constructed by periodontal ligament stem cell sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐雪鹏; 李适廷; 王崇; 管付岩

    2016-01-01

    Objective To co-culture the identified human periodontal ligament stem cell membranes (hPDLSC) respectively with pretreated dentin matrix (TDM) and hydroxyapatite /tricalcium (HA-TCP) , and evaluate the effects of different scaffolds on stem cell differentiation. Methods Monolayer periodontal ligament stem cell membrane was incubated with two different scaffold materials for 1 week, and implanted into osteoporosis rats. Using scanning electron microscopy and histological section, the microsture changes were dynamically observed. Results A lot of mineral deposition and fibrous tissue were formed in the dentin matrix (TDM) group and there was some irregular fibrous tissue regeneration in the HA-TCP group without obvious mineral material generation. Conclusions hPDLSC/TDM composite is more suitable for the stem cells to fully develope their own biological characteristics. It can be more suitable for hPDLSC to differentiate into periodontium in suitable microenvironment.%目的:将经过鉴定的人牙周膜干细胞(hPDLSC)膜片分别与支架材料预处理牙本质片(TDM)和羟基磷灰石/磷酸三钙(HA- TCP)进行体外共培养,评价不同支架对干细胞分化的影响。方法将单层牙周膜干细胞膜片与2种不同支架材料TDM和HA- TCP分别共培养1周,植入裸鼠皮下,通过扫描电镜和组织学动态观察复合体显微结构变化。结果细胞膜片与TDM边界处结合更为紧密;边界大量矿物沉积和纤维样组织生成;而在HA- TCP组只有单一的走形相对规则的纤维组织生成,未有明显矿化沉积生成。结论复合的hPDLSC/TDM组更适合具有生物学特点的干细胞发挥其特性,在合适的微环境下使hPDLSC向成牙周组织方向定向分化。

  15. IL-1β在犬牙根吸收组织的表达及其对人牙周膜细胞MMP-1、TIMP-1表达的影响%Expression of interleukin- 1β in the periodontal tissues of dog during root resorption and the expression of MMP- 1, TIMP- 1 in human periodontal ligament cells stimulated by interleukin- 1β

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斯; 曹军; 李臻; 赵洁; 何康

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relevance of interleukin-1 (3( IL-1 (3 ) to orthodontic root resorption. Methods: Animal models of root resorption were established in dogs. Semi- quantitative detection by PCR was used to measure the expression of IL-1 (3 mRNA in the periodontal tissues with root resorption and the normal tissues of dogs. The cultured human periodental ligment cells( hPDLCs ) were exposed to IL-1 (3 at 0.01, 0. 1, 1, 10( experimental groups ) and 0 ng/ml( control group ) for 6, 12 and 24 h respectively, PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to detect MMP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in the cells. Results: Stronger expression of IL-1 (3 was found in orthodontic root resorption tissues of the dogs than in the normal tissues. The suitable dosage of IL-1(3 increased MMP-1 ex-pression( P <0. 05 ) and inhibited TIMP-1 expression( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion: IL-1(3 participate in tissue reaction in the process of root resorption by regulating MMP-1 and TIMP-1 expression in hPDLCs.%目的:探讨白细胞介素1(IL- 1β) 与正畸牙根吸收的关系.方法:建立犬牙根吸收的动物模型,应用PCR半定量检测IL- 1β mRNA在根吸收组织与正常根周组织之间表达的差异性.体外培养人牙周膜细胞(hPDLCs),设立IL- 1β工作浓度梯度:0.01、0.1、1、10 ng/ml,0 ng/ml为空白对照组,时间梯度:6、12、24 h,分别运用PCR 和免疫细胞荧光化学方法检测IL- 1β作用下,hPDLCs中MMP- 1、TIMP- 1表达的变化.结果:犬牙根吸收组织较正常根周组织的IL- 1β表达增强.适当剂量的IL- 1β可刺激MMP- 1的表达增高(P<0.05),抑制TIMP- 1的表达(P<0.05).结论:IL- 1β参与牙根吸收过程中的组织反应,其对hPDLCs中MMP- 1表达的促进作用和对TIMP- 1表达的抑制作用可能是牙根吸收发生的机制之一.

  16. Effect of cannabinoid receptor CB2 on mechanical tensile strain-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells%大麻素受体CB2在机械牵张力介导的人牙周膜细胞成骨分化中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱红; 赵亚; 胡静; 闫英剑

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究大麻素Ⅱ型受体(cannabinoid receptor Ⅱ,CB2)在机械牵张力介导的人牙周膜细胞中的表达以及成骨分化中的作用.方法:体外培养人牙周膜细胞,构建细胞-机械牵张力加载模型,施加不同大小的机械牵张力,采用Real-time PCR和细胞免疫荧光化学技术检测CB2在人牙周膜细胞中mRNA和蛋白的表达.周碱性磷酸酶(ALP)试剂盒检测机械牵张力介导的细胞ALP活性.结果:对人牙周膜细胞施加不同大小的机械牵张力24h,CB2 mRNA的表达随机械牵张力的力值增大而显著性增加(P<0.05),在18%拉伸应变率作用下表达量最高(P<0.05),此时CB2蛋白的表达显著增加.加入CB2激动剂HU-308后,施加18%拉伸应变率的机械牵张力作用于人牙周膜细胞24h,ALP活性显著性增加(P<0.05).结论:CB2在人牙周膜细胞中的表达与机械牵张力的力值具有相关性.在机械牵张力作用下,大麻素受体CB2与其配体结合能够促进人牙周膜细胞的成骨分化,从而在正畸牙槽骨改建中发挥重要作用.%Objective To investigate the expression and effect of cannabinoid receptor CB2 on mechanical tensile strain-stimulated osteogenic differentiation of human periodonta! ligament cells (HPDLCs). Methods HPDLCs were cultured in vitro and the cells were stretched by mechanical tensile strain of different magnitudes.Real-time PCR and immunofluorescence assay were used to examine CB2 expression from mRNA to protein levels following mechanical tensile strain, respectively. The activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in HPDLCs was further studied. Results There was a magnitude-dependent increase in CB2 mRNA expression following mechanical tensile strain for 24h (P<0.05), with the highest level at 18% elongation. CB2 protein expression was also found to enhance at 18% elongation for 24h. After addition of CB2 agonist HU-308, the activity of ALP was up-regulated at 18% elongation for 24h (P<0.05). Conclusion CB2

  17. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory and Osteogenic Abilities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Cell-to-Cell Adhesion to Periodontal Ligament-Derived Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keita; Sawada, Shunsuke; Takizawa, Naoki; Yaegashi, Takashi; Ishisaki, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are involved in anti-inflammatory events and tissue repair; these functions are activated by their migration or homing to inflammatory tissues in response to various chemokines. However, the mechanism by which MSCs interact with other cell types in inflammatory tissue remains unclear. We investigated the role of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL-Fs) in regulating the anti-inflammatory and osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived- (BM-) MSCs. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-)1 was significantly enhanced by stimulation of PDL-Fs with inflammatory cytokines. MCP-1 induced the migratory ability of BM-MSCs but not PDL-Fs. Expression levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines were increased and decreased, respectively, by direct-contact coculture between MSCs and PDL-Fs. In addition, the direct-contact coculture enhanced the expression of MSC markers that play important roles in the self-renewal and maintenance of multipotency of MSCs, which in turn induced the osteogenic ability of the cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces the migration and homing of BM-MSCs into the PDL inflammatory tissue. The subsequent adherence of MSCs to PDL-Fs plays an immunomodulatory role to terminate inflammation during wound healing and upregulates the expression stem cell markers to enhance the stemness of MSCs, thereby facilitating bone formation in damaged PDL tissue. PMID:28167967

  18. Effects of the. cap alpha. -adrenoceptor antagonists phentolamine, phenoxybenzamine, and Idazoxan on sympathetic blood flow control in the periodontal ligament of the cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwall, B.; Gazelius, B.

    1988-01-01

    Blood flow changes in the periodontal ligament (PDL) were measured indirectly by monitoring the local clearance of /sup 125/I/sup -/ during electric sympathetic nerve stimulation or close intra-arterial infusions of either noradrenaline (NA) or adrenaline (ADR) before and after administration of phentolamine (PA), phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) or Idazoxan (RX). At the doses used in the present study, PA was the only antagonist that significantly reduced the blood flow decrease seen on activation of sympathetic fibers, although PBZ also reduced this response. Idazoxan, however, did not induce the consistent effect on blood flow decreases seen on sympathetic activation. All three ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor antagonists almost abolished the effects of exogenously administered NA and ADR. The results suggest the presence of functional post-junctional adrenoceptors of both the ..cap alpha.. 1 and ..cap alpha.. 2 subtypes in the sympathetic regulation of the blood flow in the PDL of the cat. A component of the response elicited by electrical sympathetic stimulation appeared to be resistant to ..cap alpha..-adrenoceptor blockade. Administration of guanethidine (which inhibits further release of NA and neuropeptide Y) after PA abolished this residual sympathetic response. 32 refs.

  19. Finite element analysis of equine incisor teeth. Part 2: investigation of stresses and strain energy densities in the periodontal ligament and surrounding bone during tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrock, P; Lüpke, M; Seifert, H; Staszyk, C

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the hypothetical contribution of biomechanical loading to the onset of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) and to elucidate the physiological age-related positional changes of the equine incisors. Based on high resolution micro-computed tomography (μCT) datasets, 3-dimensional models of entire incisor arcades and the canine teeth were constructed representing a young and an old incisor dentition. Special attention was paid to constructing an anatomically correct model of the periodontal ligament (PDL). Using previously determined Young's moduli for the equine incisor PDL, finite element (FE) analysis was performed. Resulting strains, stresses and strain energy densities (SEDs), as well as the resulting regions of tension and compression within the PDL and the surrounding bone were investigated during occlusion. The results showed a distinct distribution pattern of high stresses and corresponding SEDs in the PDL and bone. Due to the tooth movement, peaks of SEDs were obtained in the PDL as well as in the bone on the labial and palatal/lingual sides of the alveolar crest. At the root, highest SEDs were detected in the PDL on the palatal/lingual side slightly occlusal of the root tip. This distribution pattern of high SEDs within the PDL coincides with the position of initial resorptive lesions in EOTRH affected teeth. The position of high SEDs in the bone can explain the typical age-related alteration of shape and angulation of equine incisors.

  20. A comparison of the postnatal development of muscle-spindle and periodontal-ligament neurons in the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Tetsuhiro; Yasuda, Kouichi; Ishihama, Kohji; Yamada, Hidefumi; Okayama, Masaki; Hasumi-Nakayama, Yoko; Furusawa, Kiyofumi

    2010-04-05

    The trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) is known to include primary afferent neurons of jaw muscle spindles (MS neurons) and periodontal ligament receptors (PL neurons). The aim of this study was to clarify the postnatal development of Vmes neurons by comparing MS neurons with PL neurons using horseradish peroxidase labeling. We measured somal diameter and somal shape of MS and PL neurons in rats from postnatal day (P)7 to P70. No significant changes were seen between postnatal day P7 and P70 in somal diameter or somal shape of MS neurons. Conversely, PL neurons showed a larger somal diameter at P7 than at P14, and in terms of somal profile, multipolar neurons comprised 0% at P7, but 4.8% at P14 and 16.9% at P70. These findings suggest that PL neurons develop with the eruption of teeth, taking into account the fact that tooth eruption occurs from around P14 in rats. Conversely, the lack of postnatal changes in MS neurons is due to the fact that these neurons have been active since the embryonic period, as swallowing starts in utero.

  1. Dental age estimation: periodontal ligament visibility (PLV)-pattern recognition of a conclusive mandibular maturity marker related to the lower left third molar at the 18-year threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Victoria S; McDonald, Fraser; Andiappan, Manoharan; Roberts, Graham

    2016-11-03

    The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of periodontal ligament visibility (PLV) at the 18-year threshold. This mandibular maturity marker is graded into four separate age related stages, PLV-A, PLV-B, PLV-C, and PLV-D. These are discernible on a dental panoramic tomograph (DPT). The sample comprised a total of 2000 DPTs evenly divided into half yearly age bands from 16.00 to 25.99 years with 50 females and 50 males in each age band. It was found that PLV-A and PLV-B had minimum values below the 18-year threshold. PLV-C and PLV-D in females had minimum values of 18.08 and 18.58 years, respectively. In males, the minimum values for PLV-C was 18.10 years and PLV-D was 18.67 years. It was concluded that the presence of PLV-C or PLV-D indicates that a subject is over 18 years with a very high level of probability.

  2. Enhancement of Anti-Inflammatory and Osteogenic Abilities of Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Cell-to-Cell Adhesion to Periodontal Ligament-Derived Fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Suzuki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are involved in anti-inflammatory events and tissue repair; these functions are activated by their migration or homing to inflammatory tissues in response to various chemokines. However, the mechanism by which MSCs interact with other cell types in inflammatory tissue remains unclear. We investigated the role of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDL-Fs in regulating the anti-inflammatory and osteogenic abilities of bone marrow-derived- (BM- MSCs. The expression of monocyte chemotactic protein- (MCP-1 was significantly enhanced by stimulation of PDL-Fs with inflammatory cytokines. MCP-1 induced the migratory ability of BM-MSCs but not PDL-Fs. Expression levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines were increased and decreased, respectively, by direct-contact coculture between MSCs and PDL-Fs. In addition, the direct-contact coculture enhanced the expression of MSC markers that play important roles in the self-renewal and maintenance of multipotency of MSCs, which in turn induced the osteogenic ability of the cells. These results suggest that MCP-1 induces the migration and homing of BM-MSCs into the PDL inflammatory tissue. The subsequent adherence of MSCs to PDL-Fs plays an immunomodulatory role to terminate inflammation during wound healing and upregulates the expression stem cell markers to enhance the stemness of MSCs, thereby facilitating bone formation in damaged PDL tissue.

  3. Effects of basic fibroblast growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor on the proliferation,migration and adhesion of human periodontal ligament stem cells in vitro%碱性成纤维细胞生长因子和血管内皮生长因子对人牙周膜干细胞体外增殖、迁移和黏附的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张戎; 张勉; 李成华; 王鹏程; 陈芳; 王勤涛

    2013-01-01

    )显著高于VEGF组(62±4)(P<0.05).光镜下观察示FGF-2组细胞在材料表面形态好于未加FGF-2组.结论 FGF-2和VEGF均可呈时间依赖性促进PDLSC增殖,二者联合应用有一定协同作用;FGF-2促PDLSC黏附能力较VEGF强;VEGF可促进细胞向创伤部位迁移.%Objective To evaluate the effects of basic fibroblast growth factor(FGF-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on the proliferation,migration,and adhesion of human periodontal ligament stem cells(PDLSC) in vitro.Methods Human PDLSC were cultured in vitro using tissue culture method.The cells were cultured and incubated with various concentrations of FGF-2 and VEGF [A:α-MEM with 2% fetal bovine serum(FBS) (control 1) ; B:A supplemented with 20 μg/L FGF-2 ; C:A supplemented with 10 μg/L VEGF;D:A supplemented with 20 μg/L FGF-2 and 10 μg/L VEGF; E:α-MEM with 10% FBS(control 2) ; F:E supplemented with 20 μg/L FGF-2 ; G:E supplemented with 10 μg/L VEGF; H:E supplemented with 20 μg/L FGF-2 and 10 μg/L VEGF].Soluble tetrazolium salts assay was used to evaluate the proliferative capacity on the 1st,3rd,5th and 7th d.Then the groups were changed according to result of the proliferation assay (control:α-MEM with 2% FBS; FGF-2 group:control supplemented with 20 μg/L FGF-2 ; VEGF:control supplemented with 10 μg/L VEGF ; Combination group:control supplemented with 20 μg/L FGF-2 and 10 μg/L VEGF).The cell cycle,migration and adhesion capacities were evaluated using flow cytometer,soluble tetrazolium salts assay,cell adhesion assay and scratch woundhealing motility assay.Results In 2% volume fraction serum containing medium,FGF-2 and VEGF did not stimulate the cell proliferation.However,in 10% serum condition,in groups treated with FGF-2 for 3,5 or 7 d,the A value was (1.22 ± 0.17,2.15 ± 0.19,2.72 ± 0.11) respectively,which were significantly higher than that in the control group (0.76 ± 0.16,1.25 ± 0.06,1.64 ±.0.09) (P < 0.01) while lower than that in

  4. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

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    Manjunath Mundoor Dayakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  5. Bromelain: A potential strategy for the adjuvant treatment of periodontitis

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    Felipe Rodolfo Pereira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bromelain, a mixture of proteases derived from different parts of pineapple, has been described to have therapeutic benefits in a diversity of inflammatory diseases. Such effects are associated to its proteolytic activity. As one of the most common and multifactorial diseases, periodontitis is a bacterial infection that results from the damage to the integrity of the tissues around the tooth, which includes gingiva, periodontal ligament, and alveolar bone. In periodontitis, the recruitment of defense cells occurs, which releases several pro-inflammatory cytokines. At elevated levels, they can potentiate the alveolar bone loss. Studies have been conducted trying to alleviate the damage to the periodontium, however, the regeneration of the periodontal tissues is still limited. The Hypotheses: Based on previous studies showing that bromelain can act by decreasing the periodontal microorganism growth by proteolytically cleaving important cell surface molecules in leucocytes, by reducing neutrophils migration to periodontal sites, by downregulating the inflammation mediator levels, and by decreasing alveolar bone loss in the periodontitis. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: In a first moment, to evaluate this hypothesis, could be used two animal models: the ligature or bacteria inoculation induced periodontitis. If studies using animal models show encouraging results, appropriate clinical trials should be designed to evaluate the effect of bromelain as a complementary treatment for periodontal disease in humans, during the active phase or after the healing phase of mechanical therapy could be tested; to conduct a placebo-controlled study where health and periodontitis patients could be used.

  6. Modificações no periodonto de ratos diabéticos após a movimentação ortodôntica Periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Sabino Vila Real

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as modificações do ligamento periodontal de incisivos de ratos diabéticos submetidos a forças ortodônticas. MÉTODOS: vinte ratos machos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus com 105 dias de idade foram empregados. Os ratos foram divididos em quatro grupos: C - animais normoglicêmicos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; CAO - animais normoglicêmicos submetidos à movimentação dentária; D - animais diabéticos não submetidos à movimentação dentária; DAO - animais diabéticos submetidos à movimentação dentária. Os animais permaneceram com o dispositivo de movimentação dentária por 5 dias. Foram avaliados o número de vasos sangüíneos e a espessura do ligamento periodontal nos terços cervical, médio e apical dos cortes histológicos. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: no lado de tensão, a movimentação dentária nos animais do grupo CAO resultou em um ligamento periodontal mais espesso (17,64% no terço apical, 39,28% no terço médio e 51,35% na região cervical, quando comparado ao grupo C (p 0,05. Ainda no lado de tensão, foram observadas lacunas de reabsorção nos animais dos grupos CAO, D e DAO. O lado de pressão não foi examinado nesta fase do estudo.AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the periodontal ligament changes after induced dental movement of the upper incisor in diabetic rats. METHODS: Twenty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus with 105 days of age were used. The rats were divided in four groups: C - normoglicemic animals not submitted to dental movement; CAO - normoglicemic animals submitted to dental movement; D - diabetic animals not submitted the dental movement; DAO - diabetic animals submitted to dental movement. The animals had remained with dental movement devices during 5 days. The number of sanguine vessels and the thickness of the periodontal ligament were evaluated at cervical, medium and apical histological cut regions. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At

  7. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

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    Nivia Gontán Quintana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was conducted. The Russell Periodontal Index and the Simplified Oral Hygiene Index were used. Patients were classified taking into account clinical and immunological categories. Statistical processing was performed through SPSS program version 15.0 and Chi-square tests were applied.Results: a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease was observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Correlation with the oral hygiene of the patients studied was found. CD4 count showed no statistical significance in periodontal disease severity. All patients classified as A2 suffer from some stage of periodontal disease, which was the most affected clinical category in spite of presenting mild immunodeficiency.Conclusions: there is a high prevalence of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Cienfuegos and it is correlated with patient’s oral hygiene.

  8. Microstructure Variations in the Soft-Hard Tissue Junction of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Lee, Peter V S; Ackland, David C; Broom, Neil D; Thambyah, Ashvin

    2017-09-01

    The role of the sub-bundles in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been defined, such that the anterior-medial bundle directly resists anterior tibial translation while the posterior lateral bundle is involved in rotational stability. With regards to this biomechanical function, much of the previous work on bundle-specific morphology has been carried out on the macroscale, with much less attention given to the micro-to-ultrastructural scalar levels. This is especially true of the enthesis and its microstructure, a biomechanically significant region that has been largely neglected in the published literature dealing with ACL sub-bundle anatomy. In this study, the human ACL tibial enthesis was investigated at multiple scalar levels using differential interference contrast and scanning electron microscopies with the aim of determining whether the sub-bundle ligament structure, and its known macroscale function, is consistent with its micro-architecture at the ligament-bone junction. The investigation found that different ligament insertion morphologies exist between the two bundles, where the AM bundle has more intense interdigitation with the bone matrix than that of the PL bundle. The results suggest that such structure-function relationships, especially across scalar-levels, provide new insight into the significance of the sub-bundle anatomy of the ACL. Anat Rec, 300:1547-1559, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients Diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/AIDS in Cienfuegos

    OpenAIRE

    Nivia Gontán Quintana; Alain Soto Ugalde; Elena Idaisy Otero Salabarría

    2013-01-01

    Background: human immunodeficiency virus increases patients´ susceptibility to infections. Consequently, a high incidence of periodontal diseases is observed among them. It is often associated with other lesions of the oral mucous. Objective: to determine the evolution of chronic inflammatory periodontal disease in patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS.Methods: a case series study involving HIV-positive patients who attended the Stomatology consultation in Cienfuegos was c...

  10. Prevalence of β-lactamase-producing bacteria in human periodontitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rams, T E; Degener, J E; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Beta-lactam antibiotics prescribed in periodontal therapy are vulnerable to degradation by bacterial β-lactamases. This study evaluated the occurrence of β-lactamase-positive subgingival bacteria in chronic periodontitis subjects of USA origin, and assessed their in vitro r

  11. Application of CBCT to evaluate autogenous tooth transplantation of periodontal ligament%应用锥形束CT评价自体牙移植后牙周膜愈合情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄珊; 郑之峻

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of cone beam computed tomography in evaluation of periodontal ligament healing observation of autogenous tooth transplantation, and compare with the traditional X periapical films. Methods 20 patients with autotransplantation during Orthodontic treatment was selected, A total of 21 teeth,and the dentition has been basically aligning and leveling. Application of CBCT to formulate operation scheme of tooth transplantation before operation, after operation on transplantation broker orthodontic fixed, 2 weeks after applying orthodontic force properly, CBCT taken 8 weeks after operation, healing and to investigate the root, periodontal healing statistics. Results CBCT showed the periodontal healing in 9 cases, 10 teeth with tooth, periodontal healing ratio of 48%,While X periapical films shown periodontal healing in 5 cases, 5 teeth with tooth, periodontal healing ratio of 24%. Conclusion Compared with traditional X compared with splinters, CBCT on autotransplantation teeth after root whether periodontal ligament healing judgment more accurate and objective.%目的:用CBCT观察自体牙移植术后发生牙周膜愈合的情况,并且与传统的X根尖片进行对比观察。方法选择2010年3月至2013年3月贵阳市口腔医院收治的经CBCT术前分析评估确定行自体牙移植的20例患者,共21颗牙,牙列已基本排齐整平,应用CBCT对移植牙进行术前手术方案的制定,术后对移植牙行正畸固定,2周后施加适当的正畸力,术后8周摄CBCT,观察牙根愈合情况,并对牙周膜愈合进行统计。结果20例患者的21颗自体牙,CBCT示牙周膜愈合9例共10颗自体牙,牙周膜愈合比例为48%,而X根尖片示牙周膜愈合5例共5颗自体牙,牙周膜愈合比例为24%。结论与传统的X跟尖片相比,CBCT对自体牙移植后牙根是否发生牙周膜愈合情况的判断更加客观和准确。

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shuji; Shimizu, Yasuhiro; Hosomichi, Jun; Kuma, Yoichiro; Maeda, Hideyuki; Nagai, Hisashi; Usumi-Fujita, Risa; Kaneko, Sawa; Shibutani, Naoki; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi; Ono, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD) in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis) in the mandibular first molar (M1) region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in periodontal ligament (PDL) tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model. PMID:27695422

  13. Increased Osteogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells on Polydopamine Film Occurs via Activation of Integrin and PI3K Signaling Pathways

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    Jeong Seok Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA is known to be an effective bioadhesive and bioactive material for controlling stem cell fate, which is important in stem cell-based regenerative medicine; however, the effect of PDA on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the osteoinductive effect of PDA on PDLSCs and examined how this phenomenon is encouraged. Methods: Osteogenic induction of PDLSCs was established by culturing cells on PDA film or on an uncoated polystyrene surface as a control. Osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs was assessed by measurement of intracellular calcium levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity as well as by evaluation of protein expression of osteocalcin (OCN, osterix (OSX, and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2. Results: The PDLSCs cultured on PDA film showed higher osteogenic activity than those on the control surface. Moreover, PDLSCs on PDA film expressed increased levels of the integrin adhesion receptors integrin α5 and β1 compared to control cells. Expression of one isoform of the intracellular signaling protein phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K, p110γ, was increased in PDLSCs on PDA film in a PDA dose-dependent manner. This signaling protein was found to interact with integrin β1, demonstrating integrin-linked PI3K activation in response to PDA. Finally, the blockage of PI3K reduced the PDA-induced osteogenic activity of PDLSCs. Conclusion: our findings suggest that the bioadhesive PDA stimulates osteogenic differentiation of PDLSCs via activation of the integrin α5/β1 and PI3K signaling pathways.

  14. Intermittent Hypoxia Influences Alveolar Bone Proper Microstructure via Hypoxia-Inducible Factor and VEGF Expression in Periodontal Ligaments of Growing Rats

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    Shuji Oishi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH recapitulates morphological changes in the maxillofacial bones in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Recently, we found that IH increased bone mineral density (BMD in the inter-radicular alveolar bone (reflecting enhanced osteogenesis in the mandibular first molar (M1 region in the growing rats, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we focused on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF pathway to assess the effect of IH by testing the null hypothesis of no significant differences in the mRNA-expression levels of relevant factors associated with the HIF pathway, between control rats and growing rats with IH. To test the null hypothesis, we investigated how IH enhances mandibular osteogenesis in the alveolar bone proper with respect to HIF-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in periodontal ligament (PDL tissues. Seven-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to IH for 3 weeks. The microstructure and BMD in the alveolar bone proper of the distal root of the mandibular M1 were evaluated using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. Expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA in PDL tissues were measured, whereas osteogenesis was evaluated by measuring mRNA levels for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2. The null hypothesis was rejected: we found an increase in the expression of all of these markers after IH exposure. The results provided the first indication that IH enhanced osteogenesis of the mandibular M1 region in association with PDL angiogenesis during growth via HIF-1α in an animal model.

  15. Tumor necrosis factor- α infliximab inhibits osteoclast formation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells but does not affect periodontal ligament fibroblast-mediated osteoclast formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, T.J.; Yousovich, J.; Schoenmaker, T.; Scheres, N.; Everts, V.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is elevated in inflamed periodontal tissues and may contribute to periodontitis progression. TNF-α stimulates formation and activity of osteoclasts, the cells that are recruited in periodontitis, that cause alveo

  16. Light and electron microscopic study of the medial collateral ligament epiligament tissue in human knees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Georgi P; Iliev, Alexandar; Kotov, Georgi; Kinov, Plamen; Slavchev, Svetoslav; Landzhov, Boycho

    2017-05-18

    To examine the normal morphology of the epiligament tissue of the knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) in humans. Several samples of the mid-substance of the MCL of the knee joint from 7 fresh human cadavers (3 females and 4 males) were taken. Examination of the epiligament tissue was conducted by light microscopy and photomicrography on semi-thin sections of formalin fixed paraffin-embedded blocks that were routinely stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Mallory stain and Van Gieson's stain. Electron microscopy of the epiligament tissue was performed on ultra-thin sections incubated in 1% osmium tetroxide and contrasted with 2.5% uranyl acetate, lead nitrate, and sodium citrate. The current light microscopic study demonstrated that the epiligament of the MCL consisted of fibroblasts, fibrocytes, adipocytes, neuro-vascular bundles and numerous multidirectional collagen fibers. In contrast, the ligament body was poorly vascularised, composed of hypo-cellular fascicles which were formed of longitudinal groups of collagen fibers. Moreover, most of the vessels of the epiligament-ligament complex were situated in the epiligament tissue. The electron microscopic study revealed fibroblasts with various shapes in the epiligament substance. All of them had the ultrastructural characteristics of active cells with large nuclei, well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, multiple ribosomes, poorly developed Golgi apparatus, elliptical mitochondria and oval lysosomes. The electron microscopy also confirmed the presence of adipocytes, mast cells, myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers and chaotically oriented collagen fibers. Significant differences exist between the normal structure of the ligament and the epiligament whose morphology and function is to be studied further.

  17. [Detection of human papillomavirus in gingival fluid of Venezuelan HIV patients with periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, Laura; Correnti, María; Veitía, Dayahindira; Perrone, Marianella

    2011-09-01

    Evidence suggests that viruses may be involved in the activation of periodontal disease, allowing the overgrowth of periodontal pathogens. The purpose of the present study was to detect the presence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in HIV+ Venezuelan patients with periodontal disease. We evaluated GCF samples from 20 HIV+ patients with periodontal disease from the Infectious Disease Center, Faculty of Dentistry, Central University of Venezuela, and were clinically examined to establish their periodontal conditions, 13 under HAART (antiretroviral therapy) and 7 without HAART. Seven seronegative patients with chronic periodontitis and 7 seronegative patients, without periodontal disease were included. DNA extraction was performed, the consensus primers MY09 and MY11 for the HPV L1 region were used for PCR amplification. Genotipification was made for the 6, 11, 16, 18, 31 and 45 genotypes. HPV were detected in 46% of HIV+ patients under therapy. The CD4 cell counts in the IIPV+ patients were not significantly different from the HPV-group. The viral load in the HPV+ group was significantly higher (200,470 +/- 324,244 copy/mL) than in the HPV-patients (10,246 +/- 23,805 copy/mL). Genotypes 6 and 11 were observed in the HPV positive samples, of which 4/6 (66.6%) presented coinfection with both types. No significant differences in the periodontal conditions were observed between patients with IIPV-HIV infection related to patients with only HIV. HPV was detected only in the gingival crevicular fluid of HIV+ patients under HAART independently of the periodontal conditions.

  18. 糖基化终产物受体在大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞中的表达%Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end-product in rat periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓天政; 吕晶; 冯岩; 李冬霞; 刘冰; 逄键梁; 柯杰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) produced by human periodontal ligament fibroblasts ( PDL) cultured in vitro. Methods To collect rat periodontal ligament firbroblast induced by 50, 100, 200 mg/L advanced glycation end products-bovine serum albumin ( AGE-BSA) 200 mg/L BSA and blank control in DMEM in vitro, which were group A, B, C, D, E respectively. Detect mRNA of RAGE using RT-PCR and protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Results Immunohistochemistry showed the protein expression ofRAGE in group A, B, C, and the expression level elevated with the increase of AGE-BSA concentration. Group D and E did not express RAGE protein. RT-PCR proved the gene of RAGE expresses in group A, B, C. Group D expressed a little, group E did not express. Conclusion RAGE can be produced by PDL cultured in vitro induced by AGE-BSA.%目的 研究体外培养大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞在糖基化终产物诱导下糖基化终产物受体( receptor for advanced glycation end-product,RAGE)的表达情况.方法 收集第三代体外培养的大鼠牙周膜成纤维细胞,在含有终浓度为50、100、200 mg/L的糖基化牛血清白蛋白、200 ms/L的牛血清白蛋白以及不含上述蛋白成分培养基内孵育48h,分别设为A组、B组、C组、D组、E组.免疫组织化学法、反转录-聚合酶链反应(reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction,RT-PCR)检测细胞内RAGE蛋白及mRNA表达.结果 免疫组织化学结果显示A、B、C组中牙周膜成纤维细胞内RAGE蛋白表达均为阳性,且随浓度增高,表达强度略有增强,而D及E组无表达;RT-PCR检测发现A、B、C组RAGE mRNA均表达且表达强度随浓度增高而增强,D组有少量表达,E组不表达.结论 体外培养的牙周膜成纤维细胞在糖基化终产物诱导下能够表达RAGE.

  19. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

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    Nourelahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and risk of cancer in the oral cavity and some related factors. Evidence Acquisition Evidence suggests that oral cavity cancer is significantly more prevalent in patients with periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene or more missing teeth. Clinically, gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC usually appears as an exophytic mass with a granular, papillary or verrucous surface or presents as an ulcerative lesion. Some reported cases of GSCC mimicking periodontal disease include gingival enlargement with no bone invasion, dentoalveolar abscess, erosive erythematosus lesion with keratotic papules, root exposure and tooth mobility, verrucous leukoplakia, verruciform xanthoma and development of hyperplastic granulation tissue after tooth extraction. Greater burden of oral flora that produce carcinogenic metabolites, human papilloma virus (HPV and other viruses that are residents of periodontal pocket, increased amount of inflammatory mediators and markers and some periodontal pathogens affecting cell cycle leading to mutation and dysplasia are considered as the rational for the relationship between malignant lesions of oral cavity and periodontal disease. Results Cancer of the oral cavity and periodontal disease are related from different aspects. Periodontal disease and tooth loss are considered as independent risk factors for cancer. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can also mimic periodontal disease leading to misdiagnosis and delayed commencement of appropriate

  20. Influence of root embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance tests Influência do material de inclusão e da simulação do ligamento periodontal nos ensaios de resistência à fratura

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    Carlos José Soares

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the embedment material and periodontal ligament simulation on fracture resistance of bovine teeth. Eighty bovine incisor teeth were randomized into 8 groups (n = 10, embedded in acrylic or polystyrene resin using 4 types of periodontal ligament simulation: 1 - absence of the ligament; 2 - polyether impression material; 3 - polysulfide impression material; 4 - polyurethane elastomeric material. The specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 24 hours. Specimens were submitted to tangential load on the palatal surface at 0.5 mm/minute crosshead speed until fracture. The fracture modes were analyzed as follows: 1 - coronal fracture; 2 - cemento-enamel junction fracture; 3 - partial root fracture; 4 - total root fracture. Statistical analyses by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were applied (p O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência do material de inclusão e da simulação de ligamento periodontal na resistência à fratura de dentes bovinos. Oitenta incisivos bovinos foram divididos em 8 grupos (n = 10 e, então, incluídos em cilindros com dois materiais, resina acrílica ou resina de poliestireno, usando-se quatro tipos de simulação do ligamento periodontal: 1 - ausência do ligamento; 2 - material de moldagem à base de poliéter; 3 - material de moldagem à base de polissulfeto; e 4 - material elastomérico à base de poliuretano. As amostras foram armazenadas em 100% de umidade a 37°C por 24 horas e então submetidas a carregamento tangencial na superfície palatina com velocidade de 0,5 mm/minuto até a fratura. Os padrões de fratura foram analisados de acordo com: 1 - fraturas coronais; 2 - fratura da junção esmalte-cemento; 3 - fratura parcial da raiz; 4 - fratura radicular total. A análise estatística empregou análise de variância fatorial e teste de Tukey (p < 0,05. Os resultados mostram que o método de inclusão e a simulação do ligamento periodontal

  1. Distal ligament in human glans: a comparative study of penile architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Geng-Long; Lin, Chung-Wu; Hsieh, Cheng-Hsing; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Chen, Shyh-Chyan; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Ling, Pei-Ying; Huang, Hsiu-Mei; Wang, Chii-Jye; Tseng, Guo-Fang

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the anatomic distal ligament of the human glans penis and associated clinical implications, we compared the structures of the glans penis and corpora cavernosa in dogs, rats, and humans. From May 2001 to March 2003, gross dissection, microscopic examinations, and stains for elastic fibers and collagen subtypes were made in the penises of 11 adult human male cadavers, 7 dogs, and 5 rats. A distal ligament in the human glans penis replaces the os penis that is present in dogs or rats, also termed the baculum, but retains collagen types I and III as common structural and interlocking components, respectively. The intercavernosal septum is complete, and intracavernosal pillars (ICPs) are abundant in dogs, absent in rats, and moderately developed in humans. A tunica with numerous elastic fibers exists to fulfill the requirements of erectile function in humans but not in dogs or rats, since it is essential for establishing tissue strength to serve as a buttress. We may conclude that in dogs and rats, the strong os penis is designed for ready intromission and is associated with a pair of well-developed nonelastic corpora to serve as a buttress for the os penis. These structures are necessary for the rigorous coitus observed in dogs. The less compliant corpus cavernosum is suitable for the flipping action observed in a mating male rat. These specific anatomic designs may provide explanations for the individual requirements for the specific physiologic functions that differ from species to species. Although there is no os in the human glans, a strong equivalent distal ligament is arranged centrally and acts as a supporting trunk for the glans penis. Without this important structure, the glans could be too weak to bear the buckling pressure generated during coitus and too limber to serve as a patent passage for ejaculation, and it could be too difficult to transmit the intracavernosal pressure surge along the entire penis during ejaculation. Given the common

  2. Quasi-linear viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscenti, G; De Maria, C; Sebastiani, E; Tei, M; Placella, G; Speziali, A; Vozzi, G; Cerulli, G

    2015-12-16

    The evaluation of viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament is fundamental to understand its physiological function and contribution as stabilizer for the selection of the methods of repair and reconstruction and for the development of scaffolds with adequate mechanical properties. In this work, 12 human specimens were tested to evaluate the time- and history-dependent non linear viscoelastic properties of human medial patello-femoral ligament using the quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) theory formulated by Fung et al. (1972) and modified by Abramowitch and Woo (2004). The five constant of the QLV theory, used to describe the instantaneous elastic response and the reduced relaxation function on stress relaxation experiments, were successfully evaluated. It was found that the constant A was 1.21±0.96MPa and the dimensionless constant B was 26.03±4.16. The magnitude of viscous response, the constant C, was 0.11±0.02 and the initial and late relaxation time constants τ1 and τ2 were 6.32±1.76s and 903.47±504.73s respectively. The total stress relaxation was 32.7±4.7%. To validate our results, the obtained constants were used to evaluate peak stresses from a cyclic stress relaxation test on three different specimens. The theoretically predicted values fit the experimental ones demonstrating that the QLV theory could be used to evaluate the viscoelastic properties of the human medial patello-femoral ligament.

  3. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might

  4. Estrogen enhances the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Ling-Ling; Xu, Wen-Huan; Feng, Lin; Liu, Yi; Cai, Dong-Qing; Wen, Ning; Zheng, Wen-Jie

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of estrogen on the bone regeneration potential of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) derived from osteoporotic rats and seeded on a collagen-based composite scaffold [nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen/poly(L-lactide) (nHAC/PLA)]. For this purpose, 48 healthy 3‑month-old Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into 2 groups as follows: the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and sham‑operated rats. The PDLSCs were isolated at 3 months after surgery (by which time postmenopausal osteoporosis had developed). The effects of estrogen on the characteristics of these cells seeded in a culture plate and of the cells seeded on nHAC/PLA were then investigated. The PDLSC + nHAC/PLA constructs were implanted subcutaneously into the backs of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 12 weeks in order to examine the role of estrogen in the bone formation ability of PDLSCs derived from osteoporotic rats. The results from methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay revealed that the proliferation of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly higher than that of the cells derived from the rats in the sham-operated group at the stage of logarithmic growth. The staining intensity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the mineralization of the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group was significantly weaker than that of the cells from the rats in the sham-operated group. When the PDLSCs were seeded on nHAC/PLA, ALP activity, osteocalcin (OCN) secretion, mineral formation and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, estrogen receptor (ER)α and ERβ in the cells derived from the rats in the OVX group were markedly decreased. Treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2) significantly weakened the proliferative ability of the cells derived from the OVX group rats, and enhanced their osteogenic differentiation ability and the mRNA expression levels of ALP, OCN, ERα and ERβ. When the constructs were implanted

  5. Effect of diode low-level lasers on fibroblasts derived from human periodontal tissue: a systematic review of in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chong; McGrath, Colman; Jin, Lijian; Zhang, Chengfei; Yang, Yanqi

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to systematically assess the parameter-specific effects of the diode low-level laser on human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) and human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs). An extensive search was performed in major electronic databases including PubMed (1997), EMBASE (1947) and Web of Science (1956) and supplemented by hand search of reference lists and relevant laser journals for cell culture studies investigating the effect of diode low-level lasers on HGFs and HPDLFs published from January 1995 to December 2015. A total of 21 studies were included after screening 324 independent records, amongst which eight targeted HPDLFs and 13 focussed on HGFs. The diode low-level laser showed positive effects on promoting fibroblast proliferation and osteogenic differentiation and modulating cellular inflammation via changes in gene expression and the release of growth factors, bone-remodelling markers or inflammatory mediators in a parameter-dependent manner. Repeated irradiations with wavelengths in the red and near-infrared range and at an energy density below 16 J/cm(2) elicited favourable responses. However, considerable variations and weaknesses in the study designs and laser protocols limited the interstudy comparison and clinical transition. Current evidence showed that diode low-level lasers with adequate parameters stimulated the proliferation and modulated the inflammation of fibroblasts derived from human periodontal tissue. However, further in vitro studies with better designs and more appropriate study models and laser parameters are anticipated to provide sound evidence for clinical studies and practice.

  6. The application of bone morphogenetic proteins to periodontal and peri-implant tissue regeneration: A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Karuppanan P Sasikumar; Sugumari Elavarasu; Jayaprakash S Gadagi

    2012-01-01

    Progress in understanding the role of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) in craniofacial and tooth development and the demonstration of stem cells in periodontal ligament have set the stage for periodontal regenerative therapy and tissue engineering. Furthermore, recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration of recombinant human BMPs for accelerating bone fusion in slow-healing fractures indicates that this protein family may prove useful in designing regenerative treatments in periodon...

  7. Regenerative effect of hOPG gene-modified autologous PDLs in combination with cell transplantation on periodontal defection in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Su; Tang, Kunqi; Chen, Bin; Yan, Fuhua

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the ability of human osteoprotegerin gene-modified autologous periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) in combination with cell transplantation to promote periodontal regeneration in beagle dogs. Adenovirus Ad5-hOPG-EGFP-transfected PDLCs and BME-10X collagen membranes were fabricated and used for periodontal repair. Buccal periodontal defects (mesiodistal width × depth: 5 × 5 mm) were created on the second, third, and fourth mandibular premolars in six normal beagle dogs, and the defects were histologically and histomorphometrically assessed for periodontal regeneration in the following four groups: (1) hOPG-PDLCs + BME-10X, (2) mock-PDLCs + BME-10X, (3) PDLCs + BME-10X, and (4) BME-10X. The radiographic and histological results suggested that hOPG-PDLCs significantly promoted periodontal defect repair. This study demonstrates the potential of hOPG-modified PDLCs for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  8. Tissue specific characteristics of cells isolated from human and rat tendons and ligaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scutt A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tendon and ligament injuries are common and costly in terms of surgery and rehabilitation. This might be improved by using tissue engineered constructs to accelerate the repair process; a method used successfully for skin wound healing and cartilage repair. Progress in this field has however been limited; possibly due to an over-simplistic choice of donor cell. For tissue engineering purposes it is often assumed that all tendon and ligament cells are similar despite their differing roles and biomechanics. To clarify this, we have characterised cells from various tendons and ligaments of human and rat origin in terms of proliferation, response to dexamethasone and cell surface marker expression. Methods Cells isolated from tendons by collagenase digestion were plated out in DMEM containing 10% fetal calf serum, penicillin/streptomycin and ultraglutamine. Cell number and collagen accumulation were by determined methylene blue and Sirius red staining respectively. Expression of cell surface markers was established by flow cytometry. Results In the CFU-f assay, human PT-derived cells produced more and bigger colonies suggesting the presence of more progenitor cells with a higher proliferative capacity. Dexamethasone had no effect on colony number in ACL or PT cells but 10 nM dexamethasone increased colony size in ACL cultures whereas higher concentrations decreased colony size in both ACL and PT cultures. In secondary subcultures, dexamethasone had no significant effect on PT cultures whereas a stimulation was seen at low concentrations in the ACL cultures and an inhibition at higher concentrations. Collagen accumulation was inhibited with increasing doses in both ACL and PT cultures. This differential response was also seen in rat-derived cells with similar differences being seen between Achilles, Patellar and tail tendon cells. Cell surface marker expression was also source dependent; CD90 was expressed at higher levels by PT

  9. Expression of interleukin-6 stimulated by mechanical pressure in human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and the effect of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase inhibitor%机械压力诱导人牙周膜成纤维细胞表达白细胞介素6与p38丝裂原激活蛋白激酶阻断剂的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党平; 施生根; 宋应亮; 汤楚华; 聂敏媛; 史亮

    2006-01-01

    .54),(48.74±0.79)ng/L,P<0.05].结论:p38丝裂原激活蛋白是机械压力诱导人牙周膜成纤维细胞产生白细胞介素6的重要环节.%BACKGROUND: Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) is the crucial cells in maintaining the configuration and function of periodontium. Adverse stress may cause HPLF to synthesize more inflammatory agents, which may cause the damage of periodontium.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of p38 MAPK of HPLF in the expres sion of inflammatory cytokine of interleukin-6 (IL-6) subjected to mechanical pressure, and explore the mechanism of the occlusal trauma to periodontium.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled trial.SETTING: Pathological Laboratory of the Fourth Military Medical Univer sity of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: The HPLF were obtained from the middle part of 1/3 pe riodontium of 12 to 16-year-old youth whose 20 healthy permanent premo lar teeth should be extracted for orthodontic need. Main reagents and ap paratus: IL-6 enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) kit (Staff Room of Immunology of the Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA); ELISA apparatus (Huadong Electronic Tube Factory); p38 MAPK specific inhibitor of SB203580 (produced by Biochemical Company, ob tained as a present from Professor Jiang, Staff Room of Pathophysiology, Southern Medical University).METHODS: The cells were primarily cultured till the 4-5 passages, and randomly divided into four groups: ①pressure-loading control group: the cell s were not subjected to pressure-loading and without pretreatment; ② pressure-loading group: the cells were subjected to continuous pressure-load ing (200 kPa) but without pretreatment; ③ pretreatment control group: the supernatant were added with 10 g/L dimathyl sulfoxide (DMSO, SB203580 solvent) at 1 hour before pressure-loading, the method and time of pressure loading were the same as those in the pressure-loading group; ④ pretreated group: the cells were pretreated with 1 μmol/L SB203580 (a specific

  10. Deformation and stress distribution of the human foot after plantar ligaments release: a cadaveric study and finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Yang, Yunfeng; Yu, Guangrong; Niu, Wenxin; Wang, Yubin

    2011-03-01

    The majority of foot deformities are related to arch collapse or instability, especially the longitudinal arch. Although the relationship between the plantar fascia and arch height has been previously investigated, the stress distribution remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the role of the plantar ligaments in foot arch biomechanics. We constructed a geometrical detailed three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) model of the human foot and ankle from computer tomography images. The model comprised the majority of joints in the foot as well as bone segments, major ligaments, and plantar soft tissue. Release of the plantar fascia and other ligaments was simulated to evaluate the corresponding biomechanical effects on load distribution of the bony and ligamentous structures. These intrinsic ligaments of the foot arch were sectioned to simulate different pathologic situations of injury to the plantar ligaments, and to explore bone segment displacement and stress distribution. The validity of the 3-D FE model was verified by comparing results with experimentally measured data via the displacement and von Mise stress of each bone segment. Plantar fascia release decreased arch height, but did not cause total collapse of the foot arch. The longitudinal foot arch was lost when all the four major plantar ligaments were sectioned simultaneously. Plantar fascia release was compromised by increased strain applied to the plantar ligaments and intensified stress in the midfoot and metatarsal bones. Load redistribution among the centralized metatarsal bones and focal stress relief at the calcaneal insertion were predicted. The 3-D FE model indicated that plantar fascia release may provide relief of focal stress and associated heel pain. However, these operative procedures may pose a risk to arch stability and clinically may produce dorsolateral midfoot pain. The initial strategy for treating plantar fasciitis should be non-operative.

  11. Anabolic steroids affect human periodontal health and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusca, María Isabel; Verdugo, Fernando; Amighini, Celeste; Albaina, Olatz; Moragues, María D

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate periodontal microbiological differences between systemically healthy nonsmoker males taking anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) and non-AAS users and to find associations between disease severity and AAS use. Ninety-two men practicing bodybuilding were included in the study. They were divided into AAS users and a matched control nonuser group and subgrouped based on their most severe periodontal condition. Pooled subgingival samples from each individual were cultured to evaluate specific periodontopathogen infection. AAS users had significantly higher prevalence of severe periodontitis. AAS users had greater gingival inflammation and clinical attachment loss of ≥ 3 mm than nonusers (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; p = 0.09; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.8-6.4). AAS users were 4.9 times more likely to be infected with Prevotella intermedia than AAS nonusers (OR = 4.9; p = 0.003; 95 % CI 1.6-14.7). The OR of presenting subgingival Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans was 8.2 times higher in AAS users (OR = 8.2; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 0.9-70.8). AAS users were 5.6 times more likely to present subgingival Candida spp. than nonusers (OR = 5.6; p = 0.02; 95 % CI 1.1-27.1). AAS users were 14.8 times more likely to present subgingival Candida parapsilosis than nonusers (OR = 14.8; p < 0.0001; 95 % CI 3.1-69.2). The likelihood of AAS users presenting subgingival Candida tropicalis was 4.3 times higher than nonusers (OR = 4.3; p = 0.03; 95 % CI 1.1-16.9). A. actinomycetemcomitans was mostly isolated in individuals with severe periodontitis and was associated with subgingival Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, and Candida spp. AAS use may increase the risk for severe periodontitis and may cause a subgingival selection of certain Candida species. Specific periodontopathogens, such as Candida dubliniensis and Candida albicans, seem to be negatively affected by AAS use. The higher risk for disease progression in AAS users may be explained by the

  12. The preliminary research of miR-210 promoting human periodontal ligament stem cells the differentiation of angiogenesis%miR-210 促进人牙周膜干细胞血管向分化作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古月; 王银龙

    2015-01-01

    目的 构建miR-210 的慢病毒载体 ( Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase) ,转染人牙周膜干细胞 ( hPDLSCs)后,检测成血管因子低氧诱导因子-1α ( HIF-1α)及血管内皮生长因子( VEGF)在 hPDLSCs 的表达. 方法 分离培养hPDLSCs,并根据人miR-210 基因(NC_000011. 9)序列行引物设计及序列片段的 PCR 扩增,将目的基因 PCR 产物连接到载体pLVX-EGFP-3FLAG-EF1-Luc上. 将目的基因 PCR 产物和目的载体用 EcoR Ⅰ和 Xba Ⅰ分别进行酶切,对质粒进行鉴定. 采用LR重组系统构建慢病毒载体Lenti-miR-210-Lucif-erase ( Lenti-LacZ-Luciferase为对照组). 转染 hPDLSCs后,通过qPCR和免疫组化法检测HIF-1α及VEGF 的表达. 结果 通过对构建质粒克隆进行测序及酶切,证实Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase构建成功. Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase 转染 hP-DLSCs,0、1、4、7、14 d 后行 qPCR 检测,结果表明第 4 天HIF-1α 和 VEGF 明显过表达,且持续到第14天. 免疫组化结果显示,miR-210 转染 hPDLSCs 后,抗 HIF-1α和抗 VEGF染色呈阳性,对照组呈阴性. 结论 成功构建了慢病毒载体Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase,并且 miR-210 具有促进 hPDLSCs血管向分化的作用.%Objective To construct the lentiviral vector Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase, and to detect angiogenic factors HIF-1α and VEGF expression in hPDLSCs transduced by Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase. Methods hPDLSCs were iso-lated and cultured, and according to human miR-210 gene sequence(NC_000011. 9), its primer was designed and amplified through PCR. The PCR products of the target gene were connected to the vector pLVX-EGFP-3FLAG-EF1-Luc. To identify the plasmid, target gene PCR product and the purpose vector were digested by EcoRⅠand XbaⅠ. Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase ( the control group was Lenti-LacZ-Luciferase) was constructed using the LR re-combination system. After hPDLSCs was transduced by Lenti-miR-210-Luciferase, the analysis of HIF-1α and VEGF expression was done with qPCR and the immunohistochemistry

  13. Cytotoxicity of chlorhexidine-hydrogen peroxide combination in different concentrations on cultured human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Mirhadi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: H 2 O 2 affected the cytotoxicity of CHX in a variable concentration-dependent manner. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that 2% CHX alone and in combination with either 1 or 3% H 2 O 2 are significantly more toxic than 0.2% CHX alone and in combination with 1 and 3% H 2 O 2 . Therefore, to benefit from the synergistic antimicrobial effect between CHX and H 2 O 2 , with a minimal cytotoxicity, it is recommended to use 0.2% concentration of CHX combined with 3% H 2 O 2 .

  14. Periodontal regeneration in swine after cell injection and cell sheet transplantation of human dental pulp stem cells following good manufacturing practice

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Periodontitis, one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in humans, results in the destruction of tooth-supporting tissues. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of cell injection and cell sheet transplantation on periodontal regeneration in a swine model. Methods In the present study, human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were transplanted into a swine model for periodontal regeneration. Twelve miniature pigs were used to generate periodontitis with bone d...

  15. Surface modification of nano-silica on the ligament advanced reinforcement system for accelerated bone formation: primary human osteoblasts testing in vitro and animal testing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Wang, Shiwen; Jiang, Jia; Sun, Jiashu; Li, Yuzhuo; Huang, Deyong; Long, Yun-Ze; Zheng, Wenfu; Chen, Shiyi; Jiang, Xingyu

    2015-05-07

    The Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) has been considered as a promising graft for ligament reconstruction. To improve its biocompatibility and effectiveness on new bone formation, we modified the surface of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ligament with nanoscale silica using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and silica polymerization. The modified ligament is tested by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Human osteoblast testing in vitro exhibits an ∼21% higher value in cell viability for silica-modified grafts compared with original grafts. Animal testing in vivo shows that there is new formed bone in the case of a nanoscale silica-coated ligament. These results demonstrate that our approach for nanoscale silica surface modification on LARS could be potentially applied for ligament reconstruction.

  16. Molecular-level evaluation of selected periodontal pathogens from subgingival regions in canines and humans with periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Izabela; Bartoszcze-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Matuszewski, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Dogs commonly serve as a model for various human conditions, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the anaerobic bacteria that colonize the subgingival areas in dogs and humans by using rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based tests and to compare the results obtained in each species. Bacterial microflora evaluations, both quantitative and qualitative, were performed by applying ready-made tests on twelve dogs and twelve humans. Five samples were collected from each subject's deepest gingival pockets and joined to form a collective sample. The results of the study revealed interspecies similarities in the prevalences of Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Red complex bacteria comprised the largest portion of the studied bacterial complexes in all study groups, with P. gingivalis being the most commonly isolated bacterium. The results show similarities in the prevalence of bacterial microflora in dogs and humans. Microbiological analysis of gingival pockets by using rapid real-time PCR-based tests in clinical practice, both veterinary and human, can facilitate the choice of appropriate pharmacological treatment and can provide a basis for subsequent verification of the treatment's effectiveness. PMID:27297417

  17. Abses Periodontal

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abses periodontal adalah suatu inflamasi purulen yang terlokalisir pada jaringan periodonsium. Abses periodontal ini dapat diklasifikasikan berdasarkan lokasi abses (abses gingiva, abses periodontal dan abses perikoronal), berdasarkan jalannya lesi (abses periodontal akut dan abses periodontal kronis) dan berdasarkan jumlah abses (abses periodontal tunggal dan abses periodontal kronis). Abses periodontal merupakan kasus darurat penyakit periodontal ketiga yang paling sering ...

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Enfermedad periodontal inflamatoria crónica en pacientes infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iralys Benítez Guzmán

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease is related with multiple risk factors. Those patients with human immunodeficiency virus have higher risk of presenting this disease and it is usually more serious in these cases. Objective: To describe the prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV. Methods: Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study including patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province. The occurrence of the disease was determined after the Periodontics Cuban Standards, and oral hygiene was assessed through the simplified oral hygiene index. Other variables were measured, such as smoking habits, T CD4+ lymphocyte counting and virus load. The independent association of each risk factor with the disease was determined through a logistic regression model. Results: The 56, 5 % of the 154 patients presented Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease; 60 (39.0% gingivitis and 27 (17,5% periodontitis. Gingivitis was associated with poor oral hygiene (OR: 3,71 and periodontitis with smoking habit (OR: 5,20. The severe forms of periodontitis occurred mainly in patients with lymphocyte counting lower than 500 cells/mm3 . Conclusions: The prevalence of Chronic Inflammatory Periodontal Disease in patients with HIV in Sancti Spiritus province is linked to known risk factors such as smoking habits and oral hygiene.Fundamento: La enfermedad periodontal inflamatoria crónica es un trastorno relacionado con diversidad de factores de riesgo. Los pacientes infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana tienen mayor riesgo para padecerla y en ellos muchas veces se agrava.  Objetivo: Describir la prevalencia de la enfermedad periodontal inflamatoria crónica en pacientes infectados con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana. Métodos: Estudio observacional

  19. Advanced tissue engineering in periodontal Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Ali Banihashemrad

    2014-01-01

    The old wishes of people were to regenerate lost tissues of periodontium that this fact is achieved by gen and cell therapy .Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammation around the tooth by microbes that causes destruction of supporting structure of tissue of tooth such as alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament. For treatment of periodontal diseases we can use the biomaterials which help to regenerate the periodontal tissues like; autogenous bone grafts, allograft, guided tissue re...

  20. Estimation of periodontal ligament’s equivalent mechanical parameters for finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zeyang; Jiang, Feifei; Chen, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Young’s modulus (E) and Poisson’s ratio (v) of the periodontal ligament are needed in a finite element analysis for investigating the biomechanical behavior of a tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex. However, large discrepancies in E (0.01–1,750 MPa) and v (0.28–0.49) were reported previously. The objective of this study was to narrow the ranges and to provide equivalent E and v pairs suitable for finite element modeling of a tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex by using a reported crown load-displacement relationship as the criterion. Methods A 3-dimensional finite element model of a 3-tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex, consisting of a maxillary central incisor with 2 adjacent teeth, from a cone-beam computed tomography scan was created. The dimensions, constraints, and loading condition were kept similar to those reported in the human study. With the load applied to the crown, both v and E were adjusted independently, and the corresponding crown displacements were calculated. The resulting load-displacement curves were compared with those reported in the human study. The mean absolute displacement difference method was used to find the best fit. The E and v pairs that generated the minimum mean absolute displacement difference were identified. Results The finite element model with 1 of the 3 E and v pairs (v = 0.35, E = 0.87 MPa; v = 0.4, E = 0.71 MPa; and v = 0.45, E = 0.47 MPa) simulated the tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex well. The mean absolute displacement differences were 0.0135, 0.0138, and 0.0138 mm, respectively; these are less than 8% of 0.175 mm, which was the crown displacement of the tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex under the load of 500 cN. Conclusions The E and v values close to the 3 pairs might be used for finite element modeling of the tooth, periodontal ligament, and bone complex. PMID:23561409

  1. 牙周膜相关蛋白1在大鼠牙周组织及牙周膜细胞中表达的研究%Expression of periodontal ligament-associated protein-1 in normal periodontal tissues and cells in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盼盼; 李纾; 杨丕山; 孙静; 侯超

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究牙周膜相关蛋白1(periodontal ligament-associated protein-1,PLAP-1)在正常牙周组织及牙周膜细胞中的分布和表达,为进一步研究PLAP-1在牙周组织中的作用奠定基础.方法 用免疫组织化学、免疫细胞化学和反转录-聚合酶链反应(RT-PCR)技术,对5只正常成年雄性SD大鼠磨牙牙周组织中PLAP-1的组织分布和牙周膜细胞mRNA的表达进行分析.结果 免疫组织化学结果表明,PLAP-1在牙周组织中强阳性表达于牙周膜,而在牙骨质、牙槽骨、牙龈中未见表达.免疫细胞化学结果显示,PLAP-1染色阳性细胞中着色定位于胞质中,胞核染色阴性.RT-PCR电泳结果显示350 bp处出现一条目的 条带,与PLAP-1 mRNA表达的预期结果相同,表明牙周膜细胞在mRNA水平表达PLAP-1.结论 在大鼠正常牙周组织中,PLAP-1在基因及蛋白水平均呈高表达且主要定位于牙周膜细胞中,PLAP-1是否参与调节胶原纤维的网络形成、牙周组织动态平衡等与牙周膜细胞密切相关的各种生理功能还有待进一步深入研究.%Objective To examine the expression of periodontal ligament-associated protein-1(PLAP-1) in the periodontal tissues and periodontal ligament cells(PDLC). Methods The PLAP-1 expression in normal periodontal tissue was examined by immunohistochemistry. The protein expression and mRNA transcription of PLAP-1 in PDLC were investigated by immunocytochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results PLAP-1 was expressed in periodontium but not in cementum, alveolar bone and gingival tissues. PLAP-1 expression was observed in cell plasma, but not in nuclei. There was a 350 bp electrophoresis band representing PLAP-1 mRNA.Conclusions PLAP-1 may play a role in physiology of periodontal tissues and cells in normal adult rats.

  2. Role of antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis: A review of clinical trials in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Annapurna; Baiju, C. S.; Ahuja, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    Background: It is well-recognized fact that periodontal diseases are caused by multifactorial etiologies, in which microorganisms play an important role. An essential component of therapy is to eliminate or manage these pathogens. This has been traditionally accomplished through mechanical means by scaling and root planning which is ineffective in some of the aggressive periodontal diseases. These aggressive diseases involve particular groups of microorganisms which are not eliminated by mechanical means; and they require anti-infective therapy, which includes local and systemic antimicrobials. This approach of therapy is of interest to periodontist due to the aforementioned shortcomings of conventional methods. Materials and Methods: A manual and electronic search was made for human studies up to March 2011 that presented clinical and microbiological data for the efficacy of a systemic antibiotics in generalized aggressive periodontitis along with scaling and root planning. A systematic approach was followed by two independent reviewers and included eligibility criteria for study inclusion, quality assessment, and determination of outcome measures, data extraction, data synthesis, and drawing of conclusion. Results: Only three randomized controlled human trials qualified, and they concluded that both scaling and root planing (SRP) mono-therapy and SRP with antibiotics proves beneficial in improving clinical and microbiological parameters in aggressive periodontitis. Better results were seen in SRP with antibiotic groups as compared with SRP alone. Conclusion: Because of the insufficient quantity and heterogenecity of studies, no adequate evidence could be gathered to use the beneficial effects of these antibiotics along with SRP in aggressive periodontitis compared with SRP alone. PMID:23162322

  3. Global metabolomic analysis of human saliva and plasma from healthy and diabetic subjects, with and without periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Virginia M; Kennedy, Adam D; Panagakos, Fotinos; Devizio, William; Trivedi, Harsh M; Jönsson, Thomas; Guo, Lining; Cervi, Shannon; Scannapieco, Frank A

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are bi-directionally associated. Identification of a molecular signature for periodontitis using unbiased metabolic profiling could allow identification of biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study identified plasma and salivary metabolic products associated with periodontitis and/or diabetes in order to discover biomarkers that may differentiate or demonstrate an interaction of these diseases. Saliva and plasma samples were analyzed from 161 diabetic and non-diabetic human subjects with a healthy periodontium, gingivitis and periodontitis. Metabolite profiling was performed using Metabolon's platform technology. A total of 772 metabolites were found in plasma and 475 in saliva. Diabetics had significantly higher levels of glucose and α-hydroxybutyrate, the established markers of diabetes, for all periodontal groups of subjects. Comparison of healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis saliva samples within the non-diabetic group confirmed findings from previous studies that included increased levels of markers of cellular energetic stress, increased purine degradation and glutathione metabolism through increased levels of oxidized glutathione and cysteine-glutathione disulfide, markers of oxidative stress, including increased purine degradation metabolites (e.g. guanosine and inosine), increased amino acid levels suggesting protein degradation, and increased ω-3 (docosapentaenoate) and ω-6 fatty acid (linoleate and arachidonate) signatures. Differences in saliva between diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts showed altered signatures of carbohydrate, lipid and oxidative stress exist in the diabetic samples. Global untargeted metabolic profiling of human saliva in diabetics replicated the metabolite signature of periodontal disease progression in non-diabetic patients and revealed unique metabolic signatures associated

  4. Global metabolomic analysis of human saliva and plasma from healthy and diabetic subjects, with and without periodontal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia M Barnes

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus are bi-directionally associated. Identification of a molecular signature for periodontitis using unbiased metabolic profiling could allow identification of biomarkers to assist in the diagnosis and monitoring of both diabetes and periodontal disease. This cross-sectional study identified plasma and salivary metabolic products associated with periodontitis and/or diabetes in order to discover biomarkers that may differentiate or demonstrate an interaction of these diseases. Saliva and plasma samples were analyzed from 161 diabetic and non-diabetic human subjects with a healthy periodontium, gingivitis and periodontitis. Metabolite profiling was performed using Metabolon's platform technology. A total of 772 metabolites were found in plasma and 475 in saliva. Diabetics had significantly higher levels of glucose and α-hydroxybutyrate, the established markers of diabetes, for all periodontal groups of subjects. Comparison of healthy, gingivitis and periodontitis saliva samples within the non-diabetic group confirmed findings from previous studies that included increased levels of markers of cellular energetic stress, increased purine degradation and glutathione metabolism through increased levels of oxidized glutathione and cysteine-glutathione disulfide, markers of oxidative stress, including increased purine degradation metabolites (e.g. guanosine and inosine, increased amino acid levels suggesting protein degradation, and increased ω-3 (docosapentaenoate and ω-6 fatty acid (linoleate and arachidonate signatures. Differences in saliva between diabetic and non-diabetic cohorts showed altered signatures of carbohydrate, lipid and oxidative stress exist in the diabetic samples. Global untargeted metabolic profiling of human saliva in diabetics replicated the metabolite signature of periodontal disease progression in non-diabetic patients and revealed unique metabolic

  5. Prevalence of human papilloma virus in marginal periodontium and its association with periodontitis: A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Anila Jacob; Presanthila Janam; Janki Mohan Babu Vijayamma

    2014-01-01

    Context: Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. Aims: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16) in marginal periodon...

  6. Greater severity and extent of periodontal breakdown in 136 south Indian human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients than in normal controls: A comparative study using community periodontal index of treatment needs

    OpenAIRE

    Ranganathan K; Magesh K; Kumarasamy N; Solomon Suniti; Viswanathan R; Johnson Newell

    2007-01-01

    Apart from the more or less distinctive forms of periodontal disease associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome there remains considerable uncertainty as to whether or not conventional destructive periodontitis is exacerbated in HIV positive individuals. This is especially so in developing countries, from which few studies have been reported. The present study compared the severity and extent of periodontal breakdown in 136 HIV positive individuals f...

  7. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Preshaw, P. M.; Alba, A. L.; Herrera, D.; Jepsen, S.; Konstantinidis, A.; Makrilakis, K.; Taylor, R

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). It is highly prevalent (severe periodontitis affects 10–15% of adults) and has multiple negative impacts on quality of life. Epidemiological data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear r...

  8. Periodontitis and diabetes: a two-way relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Preshaw, P. M.; Alba, A. L.; Herrera, D.; Jepsen, S.; Konstantinidis, A.; K. Makrilakis; Taylor, R.

    2011-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease characterised by destruction of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). It is highly prevalent (severe periodontitis affects 10?15% of adults) and has multiple negative impacts on quality of life. Epidemiological data confirm that diabetes is a major risk factor for periodontitis; susceptibility to periodontitis is increased by approximately threefold in people with diabetes. There is a clear r...

  9. Development of the Human Biceps Brachii Tendon and Coracoglenoid Ligament (7th-12th Week of Development).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cuadra-Blanco, Crótida; Arráez-Aybar, Luis A; Murillo-González, Jorge A; Herrera-Lara, Manuel E; Mérida-Velasco, Juan A; Mérida-Velasco, José R

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify the development of the long head of the biceps brachii tendon (LHBT) and to verify the existence and development of the coracoglenoid ligament. Histological preparations of 22 human embryos (7-8 weeks of development) and 43 human fetuses (9-12 weeks of development) were studied bilaterally using a conventional optical microscope. The articular interzone gives rise to the LHBT, glenoid labrum, and articular capsule. During the fetal period, it was observed that in 50 cases (58%), the LHBT originated from both the glenoid labrum and the scapula, while in 36 cases (42%), it originated only from the glenoid labrum. The coracoglenoid ligament, first described by Sappey in 1867, is a constant structure that originates at the base of the coracoid process and projects toward the glenoid labrum zone, which is related to the origin of the LHBT. The coracoglenoid ligament was more easily identifiable in the 36 cases in which the LHBT originated only from the glenoid labrum. We suggest that the coracoglenoid ligament is a constant anatomical structure, is not derived from the articular interzone unlike the LHBT, and contributes to the fixation of the glenoid labrum in the scapula in cases in which the LHBT originated only from the glenoid labrum. We postulate that, when the LHBT is fixed only at the glenoid labrum, alterations in the coracoglenoid ligament could lead to a less sufficient attachment of the glenoid labrum to the scapula which could predispose to a superior labral lesion. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Organized spirochetal behavior in human subgingival plaques - A virulence factor in periodontal infections?

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    The organization and behavior of spirochetes in human subgingival plaques was studied with phase-contrast microscopy. Wet-mounts of non-dispersed subgingival microbial specimens from deep pockets of 10 persons with untreated adult periodontitis revealed “brush formations” with outer coatings of closely-massed spirochetes exhibiting synchronized motility. Monolayers of closely-packed spirochetes co-aggregated with “brush formation” monofilaments were obtained by using mineral oil as a mounting...

  11. Chronic stress accelerates ligature-induced periodontitis by suppressing glucocorticoid receptor-α signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan; Zhao, Lisheng

    2016-03-25

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease. Recent studies have shown that chronic stress (CS) might modulate periodontal disease, but there are few models of CS-induced periodontitis, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study established a rat model of periodontitis associated with CS induced by nylon thread ligatures. The severity of periodontitis was evaluated in this model by radiographic and pathological examination. The inflammatory reaction indicated by the elevated serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and glucocorticoid receptor-α (GR-α) expressions were detected by reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Open-field tests and serum corticosterone were used to evaluate CS. The results showed that CS induced behavioral changes and increased corticosterone levels of the animals with periodontitis. CS stimulation markedly increased alveolar bone loss, periodontal pocket depth and the number of plaques. It also enhanced the inflammatory reaction. These results suggest that CS accelerated the ligature-induced pathological changes associated with periodontitis. Further analysis of the mechanisms involved showed that GR-α expression was significantly downregulated in periodontal tissues of the animals undergoing CS. Blocking GR-α signaling in lipopolysaccharide and corticosteroid-treated human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells in vitro significantly upregulated the expression of p-Akt (protein kinase B) and TLR4, promoted nuclear factor-κB activity and increased levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. This research suggests that CS might accelerate the pathological progression of periodontitis by a GR-α signaling-mediated inflammatory response and that this may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in patients with CS.

  12. Regional differences within the human supraspinous and interspinous ligaments: a sheet plastination study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gillian M; Zhang, Ming

    2002-08-01

    The extent to which neighboring muscles and the fascia contribute to the formation of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments is not clear from the literature. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the midline attachments of tendons and the posterior layer of thoracolumbar fascia in order to determine their respective contributions to the formation of these ligaments throughout the thoracolumbar spine. Study of the dense connective tissue organization in the posterior ligamentous system was carried out on two cadavers serially sectioned into thin (2.5-mm) epoxy resin plastinated slices. Additional observations were taken from a gross anatomical study of the midline anatomy in two adult cadavers. The results show that the spinal attachments of trapezius, rhomboideus major and splenius cervicis combine with the deep fascia to form the supraspinous ligament in the upper thoracic spine. The posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia makes a major contribution to the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments in the lower thoracic spine. In addition to the posterior layer of thoracolumbar fascia, longissimus thoracis and multifidus combine to form the lumbar supraspinous and interspinous ligaments. Their spinal attachments produce a system of dense connective tissue with marked regional variation in fiber orientation and arrangement. The findings support the description of the supraspinous and interspinous ligaments as structures formed by both muscle tendons and aponeuroses along the length of the thoracic and lumbar spine, with regional differences in their connective tissue architecture.

  13. Association between human herpes virus and aggressive periodontitis: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdullah Alzahrani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: to elucidate the association between HHVs [Human Herpes Viruses–human cytomegalovirus (HCMV, Epstein–Barr virus (EBV and herpes simplex virus (HSV] and risk of aggressive periodontitis (AgP and advanced periodontitis (AP. Materials and methods: the addressed focused question was: “Is there an association between HHVs and AgP and do HHVs implicate in the pathogenesis of AgP and AP?” Electronic search of the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, and Google-Scholar databases was combined with hand searching of articles published from 1970 up to and including March 2016 using relevant MeSH terms. Review papers, in-vitro and experimental studies, case reports, commentaries, interviews, updates and duplicate publications were excluded. Results: twelve studies were included. Three studies reported elevated percentage of HSV1 carriage in AgP patients whereas two studies reported comparable percentage levels of HSV1 among AgP patients and periodontally healthy patients. Seven studies reported significantly higher percentage levels of HCMV in AgP patients as compared to healthy controls whereas four studies showed comparable levels of HCMV among AgP and healthy controls. Six studies reported higher EBV carriage in AgP patients than healthy controls whereas five studies showed comparable EBV percentage levels among AgP and periodontally healthy patients. Conclusion: overall, human herpes virus (HSV, CMV and EBV levels are increased and are found to be associated with AgP and AP as compared to healthy individuals. However a possible involvement of HHVs in the pathogenesis of AgP warrants further investigation.

  14. Lubricin distribution in the torn human anterior cruciate ligament and meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dafang; Cheriyan, Thomas; Martin, Scott D; Gomoll, Andreas H; Schmid, Thomas M; Spector, Myron

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to: (1) determine the distribution of lubricin in the human torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscus; (2) determine the distribution of lubricin in the human intact ACL and meniscus; (3) and identify potential cellular sources of lubricin in these tissues. Ten torn ACLs and six torn menisci were obtained from surgeries; for comparison, 11 intact ACLs and 13 intact menisci were obtained from total knee replacements. Samples were formalin fixed and processed for immunohistochemical staining with a monoclonal antibody for lubricin. In torn ACLs and menisci, lubricin was generally found as a discrete layer covering the torn surface. No surface lubricin staining was found on the transected edges produced during excision. Lubricin was also found on the native surfaces of intact ACLs and menisci. In all tissues, lubricin was found in the matrix and intracellularly. The surface layer of lubricin coating torn edges of ACLs and menisci may interfere with the integrative healing process needed for repair.

  15. Periodontal regeneration: a challenge for the tissue engineer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, F J; Ghuman, M; Talal, A

    2010-12-01

    Periodontitis affects around 15 per cent of human adult populations. While periodontal treatment aimed at removing the bacterial cause of the disease is generally very successful, the ability predictably to regenerate the damaged tissues remains a major unmet objective for new treatment strategies. Existing treatments include the use of space-maintaining barrier membranes (guided tissue regeneration), use of graft materials, and application of bioactive molecules to induce regeneration, but their overall effects are relatively modest and restricted in application. The periodontal ligament is rich in mesenchymal stem cells, and the understanding of the signalling molecules that may regulate their differentation has increased enormously in recent years. Applying these principles for the development of new tissue engineering strategies for periodontal regeneration will require further work to determine the efficacy of current experimental preclinical treatments, including pharmacological application of growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) or Wnts, use of autologous stem cell reimplantation strategies, and development of improved biomaterial scaffolds. This article describes the background to this problem, addresses the current status of periodontal regeneration, including the background biology, and discusses the potential for some of these experimental therapies to achieve the goal of clinically predictable periodontal regeneration.

  16. Chronic stress enhances progression of periodontitis via α1-adrenergic signaling: a potential target for periodontal disease therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huaixiu; Xu, Minguang; Wang, Feng; Liu, Shisen; Gu, Jing; Lin, Songshan

    2014-10-17

    This study assessed the roles of chronic stress (CS) in the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and explored the underlying mechanisms of periodontitis. Using an animal model of periodontitis and CS, the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the protein levels of the α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR) and β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) were assessed. Furthermore, human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPDLFs) were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic the process of inflammation. The proliferation of the HPDLFs and the expression of α1-AR and β2-AR were assessed. The inflammatory-related cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were detected after pretreatment with the α1/β2-AR blockers phentolamine/propranolol, both in vitro and in vivo. Results show that periodontitis under CS conditions enhanced the expression of TH, α1-AR and β2-AR. Phentolamine significantly reduced the inflammatory cytokine levels. Furthermore, we observed a marked decrease in HPDLF proliferation and the increased expression of α1-ARfollowing LPS pretreatment. Pretreatment with phentolamine dramatically ameliorated LPS-inhibited cell proliferation. In addition, the blocking of α1-ARsignaling also hindered the upregulation of the inflammatory-related cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. These results suggest that CS can significantly enhance the pathological progression of periodontitis by an α1-adrenergic signaling-mediated inflammatory response. We have identified a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of periodontal disease, particularly in those patients suffering from concurrent CS.

  17. [The use of Emdogain in periodontal and osseous regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Rathe, F.; Junker, R.; Becker, J.; Schwarz, F.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i. e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of an enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in per

  18. Emdogain in regenerative periodontal therapy. A review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Windisch, P.; Dori, F.; Keglevich, T.; Molnar, B.; Gera, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of regenerative periodontal therapy is the reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures (i.e. the new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone). Results from basic research have pointed to the important role of the enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) in the

  19. Additive Biomanufacturing : An Advanced Approach for Periodontal Tissue Regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carter, Sarah-Sophia D; Vaquette, Cedryck; Ivanovski, Saso; Hutmacher, Dietmar W; Malda, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is defined as a chronic inflammatory condition, characterized by destruction of the periodontium, composed of hard (i.e. alveolar bone and cementum) and soft tissues (i.e. gingiva and periodontal ligament) surrounding and supporting the teeth. In severe cases, reduced periodontal suppo

  20. Future dentistry: cell therapy meets tooth and periodontal repair and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catón, Javier; Bostanci, Nagihan; Remboutsika, Eumorphia; De Bari, Cosimo; Mitsiadis, Thimios A

    2011-05-01

    Cell-based tissue repair of the tooth and - tooth-supporting - periodontal ligament (PDL) is a new attractive approach that complements traditional restorative or surgical techniques for replacement of injured or pathologically damaged tissues. In such therapeutic approaches, stem cells and/or progenitor cells are manipulated in vitro and administered to patients as living and dynamic biological agents. In this review, we discuss the clonogenic potential of human dental and periodontal tissues such as the dental pulp and the PDL and their potential for tooth and periodontal repair and/or regeneration. We propose novel therapeutic approaches using stem cells or progenitor cells, which are targeted to regenerate the lost dental or periodontal tissue.

  1. PLAP-1: A novel molecule regulating homeostasis of periodontal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Yamada

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal ligament (PDL plays crucial roles in maintaining the homeostasis of tooth and tooth-supporting tissue, periodontium. In attempt to understand the molecular and genetic basis of PDL functions, we investigated the expression profile of active genes in human periodontal ligament obtained by collecting sequences with 3′-directed cDNA library, which faithfully represents composition of the mRNA population. We succeeded to obtain a total of 1752 cDNA sequences by sequencing randomly selected clones and a total of 1318 different species was identified as gene signatures (GS by their sequence identity. The resulting expression profile showed that collagen types I and III were the most abundant genes and osteogenesis-relating genes, such as osteonectin and periostin were highly expressed. In the gene expression profile of human PDL, we found a novel gene which was highly expressed in PDL, but not in other tissue-cDNA libraries. We cloned a full-length cDNA of the gene and identified that it codes a novel protein, which is a new member of class I of small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan (SLRP family. We designated it periodontal ligament associated protein-1 (PLAP-1. PLAP-1 mRNA expression was confirmed in in vitro-maintained PDL cells and was enhanced during the course of the cytodifferentiation of the PDL cells into mineralized tissue-forming cells such as osteoblasts and cementoblasts. In situ mRNA hybridization analysis using mouse periodontium revealed that PLAP-1 was expressed only in PDL tissues. Over-expression of PLAP-1 in PDL-derived clone cells interfered with both naturally and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2-induced mineralization of the PDL cells. On the other hand, knockdown of PLAP-1 transcript levels by RNA interference enhanced BMP-2-induced differentiation of PDL cells. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation assays showed a direct interaction between PLAP-1 and BMP-2 in vitro. These results suggest that PLAP-1 plays a

  2. The application of an enamel matrix protein derivative (Emdogain) in regenerative periodontal therapy: a review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sculean, A.; Schwarz, F.; Becker, J.; Brecx, M.

    2007-01-01

    Regenerative periodontal therapy aims at reconstitution of the lost periodontal structures such as new formation of root cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Findings from basic research indicate that enamel matrix protein derivative (EMD) has a key role in periodontal wound healing. Hi

  3. Autologous Stem Cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) Using PDLSCs Directly From an Extracted Tooth···An Insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, K L; Desai, Rajendra; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2015-11-01

    Periodontal regeneration represents the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The current regenerative techniques have limited success rates especially in advanced periodontal defects. Currently the research is focused on novel cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration to overcome the limitations of existing treatment. The human clinical trial on stem cells based periodontal regeneration is promising. The plethora of animal studies provide sound evidence to support the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be used for periodontal regeneration. The direct application of autologous periodontal stem cells in treatment of intrabony defects is attempted for the first time in periodontal literature. Stem cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) using direct PDLSCs has overcome the limitations and concerns of ex- vivo stem cell culture methods like high cost, technique sensitivity, loss of stemness during cell passage, genetic manipulation and tumorigenic potential. Clinical feasibility, success and cost effectiveness over currently available techniques are encouraging. The clinical utility of this novel idea is recommended.

  4. Autologous Stem Cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) Using PDLSCs Directly From an Extracted Tooth···An Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandana, KL; Desai, Rajendra; Dalvi, Priyanka Jairaj

    2015-01-01

    Periodontal regeneration represents the ultimate goal of periodontal therapy. The current regenerative techniques have limited success rates especially in advanced periodontal defects. Currently the research is focused on novel cell-based approaches for periodontal regeneration to overcome the limitations of existing treatment. The human clinical trial on stem cells based periodontal regeneration is promising. The plethora of animal studies provide sound evidence to support the belief that periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) can be used for periodontal regeneration. The direct application of autologous periodontal stem cells in treatment of intrabony defects is attempted for the first time in periodontal literature. Stem cell Application in Periodontal Regeneration Technique (SAI-PRT) using direct PDLSCs has overcome the limitations and concerns of ex- vivo stem cell culture methods like high cost, technique sensitivity, loss of stemness during cell passage, genetic manipulation and tumorigenic potential. Clinical feasibility, success and cost effectiveness over currently available techniques are encouraging. The clinical utility of this novel idea is recommended. PMID:26634072

  5. Passive immunization against dental caries and periodontal disease: development of recombinant and human monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiko, Y

    2000-01-01

    and periodontal diseases are summarized, and the biotechnological approaches for developing recombinant and human-type antibodies are introduced. Furthermore, our own attempts to construct single-chain variable fragments (ScFv) and human-type antibodies capable of neutralizing virulence factors are discussed.

  6. Ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickel, Steven Z; Gupta, Salil

    2006-05-01

    Volar ligament reconstruction is an effective technique for treating symptomatic laxity of the CMC joint of the thumb. The laxity may bea manifestation of generalized ligament laxity,post-traumatic, or metabolic (Ehler-Danlos). There construction reduces the shear forces on the joint that contribute to the development and persistence of inflammation. Although there have been only a few reports of the results of volar ligament reconstruction, the use of the procedure to treat Stage I and Stage II disease gives good to excellent results consistently. More advanced stages of disease are best treated by trapeziectomy, with or without ligament reconstruction.

  7. Ossified pterygo-spinous ligament: incidence and clinico-anatomical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Yadav

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of skulls has attracted the attention of anatomists since ages and sporadic attempts have been made to study skulls from time-to-time. Talking about the pterygoid processes of sphenoid bone, the irregular posterior border of lateral pterygoid plate usually presents, towards its upper part, a pterygo-spinous process, from which the pterygo-spinous ligament extends backwards and laterally to the spine of sphenoid. This ligament sometimes gets ossified as pterygo-spinous bar and a foramen is then formed named pterygo-spinous foramen, for the passage of muscular branches of mandibular nerve. The present study was undertaken to observe the incidence and status of pterygo-spinous bony bridge and foramen, its variations and clinical relevance in the adult human skulls of North India. For this purpose, 50 skulls were observed, pterygo-spinous bars were found to be present in 7 skulls, out of which completely ossified pterygo-spinous bony bridges were present in 2 skulls while 5 skulls had incompletely ossified pterygo-spinous ligaments. Such variations are of clinical significance for radiologists, neurologists, maxillo-facial and dental surgeons and anaesthetists, too. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 847-851

  8. Screening for arthrofibrosis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: analysis of association with human leukocyte antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutek, Michael; Elsner, Holger-A; Slateva, Kalina; Mayr, Hermann-O; Weig, Thomas-G; van Griensven, Martijn; Krettek, Christian; Bosch, Ulrich

    2004-05-01

    Arthrofibrosis represents a severe complication of trauma and reconstructive joint surgery because of generalized connective tissue proliferation resulting in painful joint stiffness. It often appears stereotypical in terms of its clinical and pathologic features, comprising excess deposition of extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen type I, III, and VI and proliferation of fibroblasts. However, trauma and surgery around joints does not always lead to fibrosis, suggesting a genetic predisposition. For a number of autoimmune diseases, strong associations have been described. The objective of the study was to investigate whether an association of HLA (human leukocyte antigen) with primary arthrofibrosis exists. Retrospective cohort study. Seventeen patients with primary arthrofibrosis after autologous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction were identified and clinically reviewed. Blood samples were taken, and DNA was isolated by column extraction method. DNA samples were typed for the loci HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1. Results were compared with the frequencies of allelic groups as determined for the caucasoid population. HLA-Cw*07 was significantly less often found in the patient group than in the general population (P =.022). The opposite effect was seen for Cw*08, which was found in 17.6% of the patient group but only in 3.8% of the reference group (P =.045). A significant difference was also seen for DQB1*06, because 23.5% of the patients but 48.6% of the reference group possessed an allelic variant of this group (P =.048). However, according to the relatively small number of patients, a statistical bias cannot be excluded. A possible link may exist between arthrofibrosis and HLA-Cw*07- and DQB1*06-negative as well as Cw*08-positive individuals. Further investigation is necesessary to confirm or vitiate the possible association. Level IV.

  9. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues.

  10. Human Amnion Membrane: Potential Applications in Oral and Periodontal Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Ranjana; Bajaj, Aashima; Gundappa, Mohan

    2017-01-01

    Human amniotic membrane (HAM) is derived from the fetal membranes which consist of the inner amniotic membrane made of single layer of amnion cells fixed to collagen-rich mesenchyme attached to chorion. HAM has low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties and their cells can be isolated without the sacrifice of human embryos. Amniotic membrane has biological properties which are important for the experimental and clinical applications in managing patients of various medical specialties. Abundant, natural and wonderful biomembrane not only protects the foetus but also has various clinical applications in the field of dermatology, ophthalmology, ENT surgery, orthopedics and dental surgery. As it is discarded post-partum it may be useful for regenerative medicine and cell therapy to treat damaged or diseased tissues. PMID:28316944

  11. Diabetes and periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Kalyani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this review is to update the reader with practical knowledge concerning the relationship between diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases. Exclusive data is available on the association between these two chronic diseases till date. Articles published on this relationship often provide the knowledge of definitions of diabetes mellitus and periodontal diseases, prevalence, extent, severity of periodontal disease, complications of diabetes along with the possible underlying mechanisms. The authors reviewed human epidemiological studies, cross-sectional observations and longitudinal cohort, case control that evaluated variables exclusively over the past 30 years and the predominant findings from the "certain" articles are summarized in this review. This review clarifies certain queries such as 1 Do periodontal diseases have an effect on the metabolic control of diabetes? 2 Does diabetes act as a risk factor of periodontitis? 3 What are the possible underlying mechanisms relating the connection between these two chronic diseases? 4 What is the effect of periodontal intervention on metabolic control of diabetes? After a thorough survey of literature, it was observed that diabetes acts as a risk factor in development of periodontitis as periodontitis is significantly aggravated in patients suffering from diabetes having long term hyperglycemia. Different mechanisms underlying the association between the accelerated periodontal disease and diabetes are emerging but still more work is required. Major efforts are required to elucidate the impact of periodontal diseases on diabetes. At the same time, patients are needed to be made aware of regular periodontal maintenance schedule and oral hygiene.

  12. 儿童恒牙全脱出牙周组织预后的回顾性研究%Retrospective study about periodontal ligament healing of replanted permanent teeth in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洁; 赵玉鸣; 秦满

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the prognosis about periodontal ligament healing of replanted perma-nent teeth in children and to examine the associated factors.Methods: The sample consisted of 49 children with 61 avulsed permanent teeth, whose injuries had been managed in the period from 2000 to 2012.The clinical data of replanted teeth were collected, and the follow-up period was no less than 12 months .The factors were analyzed in relation to postoperative outcomes, classified as functional periodon-tal healing ( FH ) , infection-related ( inflammatory ) resorption ( IRR ) and replacement resorption ( RR) .Results:The functional healing rate was 23.0%, while replacement resorption rate was 72.1%. The replacement resorption ( ankylosis ) was usually observed earlier by clinical examination than by radiographic examination.86.0% (40/47) resorptive processes were diagnosed within the first year. Physiological storages, such as milk, saline and saliva were significantly better to periodontal ligament healing than nonphysiological storages, such as tap water and sterilizing solutions ( chloramine and alco-hol) .Functional healing was found significantly more frequent in canines and premolars.Conclusion:The factor significantly affecting periodontal ligament healing is storage medium.Replacement resorption is the most common type of root resorption.The replacement resorption diagnosis must combine the radio-graphic examination with the clinical examination.It is better to follow up more than 1 year after tooth re-plantation.%目的:对儿童恒牙全脱出后再植的病例进行回顾性研究,观察再植牙的牙周组织预后类型和各类根吸收出现的时间,分析影响再植牙牙周组织预后的可能因素。方法:对2000年至2012年在北京大学口腔医院就诊的儿童恒牙全脱出系统病历进行回顾性研究,要求观察期大于12个月,记录再植牙的预后和各类牙根吸收出现的时间,分析影响再植牙预后的相

  13. Metaproteomics of saliva identifies human protein markers specific for individuals with periodontitis and dental caries compared to orally healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Jersie-Christensen, Rosa R; Lyon, David

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The composition of the salivary microbiota has been reported to differentiate between patients with periodontitis, dental caries and orally healthy individuals. To identify characteristics of diseased and healthy saliva we thus wanted to compare saliva metaproteomes from patients...... with periodontitis and dental caries to healthy individuals. METHODS: Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 10 patients with periodontitis, 10 patients with dental caries and 10 orally healthy individuals. The proteins in the saliva samples were subjected to denaturing buffer and digested enzymatically...... spectrometer operated in data-dependent acquisition mode. RESULTS: We identified a total of 35,664 unique peptides from 4,161 different proteins, of which 1,946 and 2,090 were of bacterial and human origin, respectively. The human protein profiles displayed significant overexpression of the complement system...

  14. Prevalence of human papilloma virus in marginal periodontium and its association with periodontitis: A cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anila Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial pathogens in dental plaque are necessary for the development of periodontitis but this etiology alone does not explain all its clinicopathologic features. Researchers have proven the role of certain viruses like herpes virus in periodontal disease which implies that other viral agents like human papilloma virus may also be involved. Aims: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the proportion of patients with human papilloma virus (HPV-16 in marginal periodontium by analyzing DNA from the gingival tissue sample and to understand its association with periodontitis. Settings and Design: 102 systemically healthy patients between the age group of 15 and 70 years reporting to the Department of Periodontology who required surgical intervention (flap surgery for patients with periodontitis and crown lengthening for healthy patients with internal bevel gingivectomy were selected. Materials and Methods: After scaling and root planning, gingival tissue was collected during the respective surgical procedure. DNA was isolated and amplified using specific primers for HPV-16 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The amplified products were checked by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: No HPV DNA was detected in the 102 samples analyzed. Conclusion: Marginal periodontium does not contain HPV in this study population and hence there was no association between HPV and periodontitis.

  15. Anesthetic effect on mandibular permanent molar by periodontal ligament injection using single tooth anesthetic delivery system%牙周韧带注射对下颌磨牙牙髓麻醉效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨勤; 杨素真; 张国金; 郑晖

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the anesthetic effect on mandibular permanent molar by periodontal ligament (PDL) injection using single tooth anesthetic (STA) delivery system. Methods 120 mandibular permanent molars diagnosised as deep caries, chronic pulpitis and acute pulpitis were randomly divided into two groups. Using STA system, 60 teeth received PDL injection by standard technique, 60 teeth received PDL injection by improved technique. After anesthetic injection, cavity filling treatment or root canal therapy was performed. Anesthetic effectiveness according to pain sense during treatment period was recorded. Results The anesthetic effect rate on mandibular permanet molars was 92.5%. In deep caries group, the anesthetic effect rate was 100. 0%. In chronic pulpitis group, the anesthetic effective rate was 90%. In acute pulpitis group, the anesthetic effect rate was 85% injected by standard technique and 90% injected by improved technique respectively. There was no significant statistic difference between standard and improved technique (χ2 = 9.445, P = 0.49 ). Conclusion It is a satisfied approach to use either standard or improved technique in PDL injection with STA system in mandibular permanent molar anesthesia.%目的 观察单颗牙麻醉(single tooth anesthesia,STA)系统对下颌磨牙进行牙周韧带(periodontal ligament,PDL)注射后的牙髓麻醉效果.方法 120颗患牙分为深龋、慢性牙髓炎、急性牙髓炎3组,每组各40颗.每组再按照随机原则平均分为2个亚组,分别采用STA系统标准法和改良法麻醉,其中标准法注射点为舌侧PDL,改良法注射点为颊侧PDL.观察记录患者治疗中的疼痛反应,评价牙髓麻醉效果.结果 STA系统对下颌磨牙进行PDL注射后牙髓麻醉的总有效率为92.5%.深龋组标准法和改良法的牙髓麻醉有效率均为100%;慢性牙髓炎组标准法和改良法的牙髓麻醉有效率均为90%;急性牙髓炎组标准法的牙髓麻醉有效率为85

  16. 牙槽间隔减阻术后快速移动尖牙的临床初探%Rapid canine distalization through distraction of the periodontal ligament after reducing interseptal bone resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马文盛; 董福生; 任贵云; 冯立晓; 侯彦

    2008-01-01

    目的 评价牙槽间隔减阻术后快速移动尖牙的临床疗效,探讨该牙齿移动方式的可行性.方法 选择11例减数正畸患者,共20颗尖牙,在拔除第一前磨牙的同时行尖牙远中牙槽间隔减阻术,将螺旋扩大器改为牵张器,术后即刻粘固.术后第3天加力,每日3次,每次0.1 mm快速远中移动尖牙.牵张前、牵张结束时取模型,拍摄曲面断层X线片和尖牙根尖片,牵张前、牵张结束时和牵张结束后3个月检测尖牙牙髓电活力.结果 20颗尖牙于(25.6±4.7)d内向远中移动(5.56±1.32)mm(3.53±8.29mm),并有12.20°的远中倾斜和18.53°的旋转.支抗牙前移(0.76±0.75)mm.中切牙近中接触点舌向移动(0.67±0.55)mm.尖牙的快速移动未造成明显的牙根吸收和牙髓活力变化.结论 牙槽间隔减阻术后牵张牙周膜是一种快速移动牙齿的方式.%Objective To investigate the effect of rapid canine distulization through distraction of the periodontal ligament after reducing interseptal bone resistance. Methods Twenty canines in 11 patients who needed lirst premolar extractions were involved. A tooth-borne, custom-made distractor was bonded right after the first premolar extraction and the interseptal bone resistance reduction. Three days post-operatively,the distractor was activated 0.1 mm three times a day. Orthodontic models, panoramic radiographs,periapical radiographs, electrical vitality test were assessed pre- and post distraction procedure and 3 months after the completion of the procedure. Results The distraction procedure was completed in 18 to 35 days [mean (25.6 ± 4.7) days], with the distal displacement of the canines ranging from 3.53 to 8.29 nun[mean (5.56 ± 1.32) mm]. The canines showed a mean of 12. 20° distal tipping and 18.53° rotation. The anchorage teeth showed an average of (0.76 ± 0.75)mm mesial movement. The mesial contact point of incisors showed a mean of (0.67 ± 0.55) mm lingua] movement. There was no significant

  17. Regeneração periodontal em cães Periodontal regeneration in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Correna Carlo Reis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A doença periodontal pode ser definida como a condição inflamatória dos tecidos de suporte do dente em resposta ao acúmulo do biofilme. A consequencia é a formação de graves defeitos ósseos, devido à perda dos tecidos periodontais, levando, em última instância, à perda dos dentes, predisposição a fraturas de mandíbula e formação de comunicações oronasais. O principal tratamento é a prevenção, incluindo a escovação dentária diária e a profilaxia periodontal, procedimento realizado pelo médico veterinário para remoção do biofilme e cálculo dentário acumulados. A recuperação dos tecidos perdidos, ou seja, a regeneração periodontal, é um processo mais complexo, pois envolve a formação de três tecidos intimamente ligados: osso alveolar, ligamento periodontal e cemento. Assim, diversos materiais e técnicas foram e são constantemente desenvolvidos, incluindo membranas para regeneração tecidual guiada e a aplicação de enxertos e biomateriais, amplamente estudados na odontologia humana e já disponíveis para aplicação na rotina clínica veterinária. Adicionalmente, novas possibilidades surgem com a associação dessas técnicas a fatores de crescimento e células-tronco e o desenvolvimento das membranas multifuncionais.Periodontal disease can be defined as the inflammatory condition of the tooth-supportive tissues as a response to biofilm accumulation. The consequence is the formation of severe bone defects due to the loss of periodontal tissues that ultimately lead to tooth loss, predispose to mandible fractures and formation of oronasal communications. The main treatment is prevention, including daily tooth brushing and periodontal prophylaxis, a procedure done by veterinaries to remove retained biofilm and calculus. Recovering lost tissues, i.e. periodontal regeneration, is a more complex process involving the formation of three tissues highly connected: alveolar bone, periodontal ligament and

  18. The human periodontal membrane: focusing on the spatial interrelation between the epithelial layer of Malassez, fibers, and innervation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Inger; Nolting, Dorrit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to map the spatial interrelation of fibers, peripheral nerves, and epithelial layer of Malassez in human periodontal membrane in areas close to the root surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Four healthy permanent teeth extracted from four patients during...

  19. Assessment of the radiographic visibility of the periodontal ligament in the lower third molars for the purpose of forensic age estimation in living individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olze, Andreas; Solheim, Tore; Schulz, Ronald; Kupfer, Michael; Pfeiffer, Heidi; Schmeling, Andreas

    2010-09-01

    The main criterion for dental age estimation in living individuals is the mineralisation of third molars. However, the mineralisation of third molars can be completed before the forensically relevant age of 18 years has been attained. In a material of 1,198 orthopantomograms from 629 females and 569 males aged between 15 and 40 years, the radiographic visibility of the periodontal membrane of fully mineralised third molars was assessed according to stages 0, 1, 2 and 3. Stage 0 first appeared at the age of 17.2 years in females and at the age of 17.6 years in males. Stage 1 was first achieved by females between 18.9 and 20.0 years and by males between 20.1 and 20.2 years. The earliest appearance of stage 2 was between 22.5 and 23.1 years in females and at 22.3 years in males. The occurrence of stage 3 was first found between 24.6 and 25.2 years in females and between 25.4 and 26.2 years in males. If stage 1 is determined, it is, therefore, possible to prove that an individual has already attained the legally relevant age of 18 years. For stages 2 and 3, it can be stated beyond reasonable doubt that a person is over 21 years of age.

  20. Regeneration of periodontal tissues: guided tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Cristina C; Cochran, David L

    2010-01-01

    The concept that only fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament or undifferentiated mesenchymal cells have the potential to re-create the original periodontal attachment has been long recognized. Based on this concept, guided tissue regeneration has been applied with variable success to regenerate periodontal defects. Quantitative analysis of clinical outcomes after guided tissue regeneration suggests that this therapy is a successful and predictable procedure to treat narrow intrabony defects and class II mandibular furcations, but offers limited benefits in the treatment of other types of periodontal defects.

  1. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Nourelahi; Roshannia; Kameli; Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodonta...

  2. Periodontal disease: modulation of the inflammatory cascade by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculley, D V

    2014-06-01

    Periodontal disease, including gingivitis and periodontitis, is caused by the interaction between pathogenic bacteria and the host immune system. The ensuing oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade result in the destruction of gingival tissue, alveolar bone and periodontal ligament. This article reviews the underlying mechanisms and host-bacteria interactions responsible for periodontal disease and evidence that nutritional supplementation with fish oil may provide a protective effect. Historical investigations of diet and disease have highlighted an inverse relationship between ingestion of fish oil, which is high in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the incidence of typical inflammatory diseases such as arthritis and coronary heart disease. Ingestion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, results in their incorporation into membrane phospholipids, which can alter eicosanoid production after stimulation during the immune response. These eicosanoids promote a reduction in chronic inflammation, which has led to the proposal that fish oil is a possible modulator of inflammation and may reduce the severity of periodontal diseases. Tentative animal and human studies have provided an indication of this effect. Further human investigation is needed to establish the protective effects of fish oil in relation to periodontal disease.

  3. 硝苯地平对静态拉伸下牙周膜细胞MMP-1及MMP-8的表达影响%Effects of Nifedipine and Mechanical Strain on the Expression of MMP-1 and MMP-8 of Periodontal Ligament Fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭; 张苗苗; 刘鹤婷

    2009-01-01

    目的:研究静态机械拉伸作用下,硝苯地平对人牙周膜成纤维细胞(human periodontal ligament fibroblasts, HPLFs)中基质金属蛋白酶(matrix metalloproteinase) MMP-1及MMP-8的调节作用.方法:体外培养HPLFs,按弹性形变将细胞随机分为4组(0%、8%、12%、16%),每组再按硝苯地平(nifedipine, NIF)药物浓度随机分为4个亚组(0 μm、10 μm、30 μm、50 μm).用机械力装置使细胞持续静态拉伸12 h后,免疫组化检测硝苯地平对HPLFs胞浆中MMP-1和MMP-8的表达所产生的影响.结果:弹性形变0%时,各浓度硝苯地平对MMP-1和MMP-8表达均无明显影响(P>0.001);形变8%、12%、16%,硝苯地平0 μm时,二者表达随形变增大而增强;加入硝苯地平后,随药物浓度的升高,二者表达逐渐减弱(P<0.001).结论:硝苯地平可以抑制静态机械拉伸诱导的HPLFs中MMP-1和MMP-8的表达.

  4. 鼠根端乳头条件培养基诱导下的牙周膜细胞膜片与牙本质管和煅烧骨间的牙周膜再生%Periodontal ligament regeneration using apical tooth germ cell-conditioned medium induced periodontal ligamerit cells sheet between dental tube and ceramic biologic bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁慧影; 刘宏伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用鼠根端乳头条件培养基(APTG-CM)与牙周膜细胞(PDLCs)建立间接共培养体系,探讨牙周组织再生的研究.方法 胶原酶联合组织块法获得人PDLCs,用波形蛋白和角蛋白鉴定PDLCs的来源.APTG-CM诱导PDLCs 28d,通过免疫细胞化学法检测PDLCs中骨钙素(OCN)、Ⅰ型胶原(COL Ⅰ)、骨涎蛋白(BSP)的表达;观察细胞外部形态.体外构建牙本质管与牙周膜细胞膜片和煅烧骨(CBB)颗粒移植体,植入裸鼠皮下8周,观察牙周组织再生情况.结果 体内实验结果显示:经过APTG-CM诱导后,PDLCs在牙本质和CBB表面均有牙骨样基质形成,且在CBB表面有纤维组织的黏附和垂直嵌入.对比而言,PDLCs的生长在CBB的表面要好于在牙本质管.而对照组无纤维的垂直嵌入.结论 经过APTG-CM孵育的PDLCs有向成牙骨质细胞谱系转化的功能,APTG-CM有利于牙周组织再生.%Objective The purpose of this study was to establish an indirect co-culture system of rat apical tooth germ-conditioned medium (APTG-CM) and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Methods PDLCs were isolated and cultured through the method of enzyme-digestion. Vimentin and cytokeratin(CK) were used to demonstrate the ceils'mesenchymal derivation. Co-culture system of APTG-CM and PDLCs for 28 days, osteocalcin(OCN), collagen type Ⅰ(COL I ) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) were detected in PDLCs by immunocytochemistry. Morphological changes were observed by inverted microscope. With building a transplant by dental tube, periodontal ligament cell sheet and ceramic biologic bone (CBB) in vitro, then, the combinations of dental tube and PDLCs incubated by APTG-CM were implanted subcutaneously into athymic mice for 8 weeks. Results This study demonstrated that cellular cementum-like tissue formed along the dentin surface and CBB, with fibrous tissue adjacent or inserted into CBB in vivo. PDLCs were grown better in the CBB than in dentin tubes. And the vertical fibers can't embed

  5. Microanatomy on blood supply system in human knee cruciate ligament%人膝关节交叉韧带血供的显微解剖学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何正; 张祚勇; 赵晓东; 张勇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the configuration of the blood supply system in human knee cruciate ligament. Methods Twelve cruciate ligaments derived from the knee joints of 6 healthy adult cadavers were observed under naked eyes, and then dissected and observed under a microscope. Three groups of anterior cruciate ligaments and posterior cruciate ligaments, randomly selected from the twelve cruciate ligaments, were observed through histotomy and HE staining. Results Blood vessels were found throughout the human knee cruciate ligaments, and the calibers of the blood vessels varied between 0.03 ±0.01 mm and 0.09 ±0.02 mm in different segments. Blood vessels and adipose tissues were abundantly found in the bands between the anterior cruciate ligaments and posterior cruciate ligaments, and the surface blood vessel calibers were not larger than 0.18 ± 0.04 mm. Conclusiorn The human knee cruciate ligaments possess enough blood vessels to show promise in self repair.%目的 探讨人类膝关节交叉韧带血供系统的具体形态.方法 对12侧交叉韧带健康成人尸体膝关节进行肉眼和手术显微镜下解剖、组织学断层切片观察.结果 交叉韧带全段均可见血管纵行交错分布,血管口径呈节段性变化,血管口径(0.03±0.01)~(0.09±0.02)mm.交叉韧带间束中存在大量的血管及脂肪组织,其表面血管口径最大为(0.18±0.04)mm.结论 交叉韧带本身拥有足够充分的血供来源,存在自我修复的可能.

  6. Biomechanical Evaluation of Human Allograft Compression in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Breck; Yasen, Sam; Amis, Andrew; Wilson, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A common problem encountered during ACL reconstruction is asymmetry of proximal-distal graft diameter leading to tunnel upsizing and potential graft-tunnel mismatch. Human allografts are often oedematous, compounding this issue in the context of multi-ligament reconstructions. Tunnel upsizing reduces bone stock, increases the complexity of multi-bundle surgery and may compromise graft-osseous integration if cortical suspensory fixation is used. Graft compression provides uniform size, allowing easy passage into a smaller tunnel, potentially improving the ‘press-fit’ graft-osseous interaction whilst preserving bone stock. To our knowledge, no biomechanical evaluation of this increasing popular technique has been reported. Hypotheses: Graft compression would not cause any significant changes in the biomechanical properties of human allograft tendon that would be detrimental to the function of an ACL reconstruction. Compressed Bioclense® allograft will increase in size when soaked in Ringer’s solution at 36° improving the ‘press-fit’ within the bone socket, decreasing micro-motion at the graft-osseous interface following ACL reconstruction. Method: In-vitro laboratory study. Sixteen samples of Bioclense® treated peroneus longus allograft were quadrupled into GraftLink constructs randomly divided into control and compressed groups. Cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined using alginate moulds and specimens immersed, under tension, in Ringer’s solution at 36.5°. CSA was measured at 8 hours. A further 32 samples were randomised and evaluated under cyclic loading of 70N-220N (1020 cycles) followed by test to failure. A further 30 samples were quadrupled into GraftLink constructs and mounted within porcine femurs using suspensory fixation. High resolution videometer recorded motion at the graft-osseous interface under the same cyclic loading protocol. An independent samples t-test was used to compare changes in CSA whilst a one-way ANOVA was

  7. Constitutive modeling of the human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) under uniaxial loading using viscoelastic prony series and hyperelastic five parameter Mooney-Rivlin model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Mondal, Debabrata; Motalab, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    In this present study, the stress-strain behavior of the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is studied under uniaxial loads applied with various strain rates. Tensile testing of the human ACL samples requires state of the art test facilities. Furthermore, difficulty in finding human ligament for testing purpose results in very limited archival data. Nominal Stress vs. deformation gradient plots for different strain rates, as found in literature, is used to model the material behavior either as a hyperelastic or as a viscoelastic material. The well-known five parameter Mooney-Rivlin constitutivemodel for hyperelastic material and the Prony Series model for viscoelastic material are used and the objective of the analyses comprises of determining the model constants and their variation-trend with strain rates for the Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) material using the non-linear curve fitting tool. The relationship between the model constants and strain rate, using the Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model, has been obtained. The variation of the values of each coefficient with strain rates, obtained using Hyperelastic Mooney-Rivlin model are then plotted and variation of the values with strain rates are obtained for all the model constants. These plots are again fitted using the software package MATLAB and a power law relationship between the model constants and strain rates is obtained for each constant. The obtained material model for Human Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) material can be implemented in any commercial finite element software package for stress analysis.

  8. Dietary antioxidants for chronic periodontitis prevention and its treatment: a review on current evidences from animal and human studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Varela-López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Given the relationship between chronic periodontitis and high levels of oxidative stress, this review aims to clarify what role can played the dietary intake of different antioxidants in maintaining a healthy periodontium and in reducing chronic periodontitis risk, as well as possible use of dietary therapies based on them for this disease treatment. Methods: The database of the National Library of Medicine, Washington, DC (MEDLINE PubMed was used and all the studies in animals and humans are on the subject of interest in English writing online available from inception of the database until May 2015 were collected. Results: Antioxidants analyzed in this regard include vitamin C, vitamin A, carotenoids and some polyphenols, and coenzyme Q; as well as minerals iron, copper and zinc that are constituents of antioxidant enzymes. Still, there is a paucity of studies with few human studies, mostly observational. Among the various antioxidants, vitamin E and polyphenols seem to have more evidence for its beneficial effect, but in general the studies are insufficient to rule out or establish what antioxidants are useful and which are not. Conclusions: Overall, the data presented indicate that dietary antioxidants are beneficial for periodontal health, at least under certain circumstances. However more studies are needed to establish the relationship between chronic periodontitis and each specific antioxidant and to design useful dietary interventions for this disease management.

  9. Freeze gelated porous membranes for periodontal tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Saad B; Delaine-Smith, Robin M; Fey, Tobias; Rawlinson, Andrew; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2015-09-01

    Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membranes have been used for the management of destructive forms of periodontal disease as a means of aiding regeneration of lost supporting tissues, including the alveolar bone, cementum, gingiva and periodontal ligaments (PDL). Currently available GTR membranes are either non-biodegradable, requiring a second surgery for removal, or biodegradable. The mechanical and biofunctional limitations of currently available membranes result in a limited and unpredictable treatment outcome in terms of periodontal tissue regeneration. In this study, porous membranes of chitosan (CH) were fabricated with or without hydroxyapatite (HA) using the simple technique of freeze gelation (FG) via two different solvents systems, acetic acid (ACa) or ascorbic acid (ASa). The aim was to prepare porous membranes to be used for GTR to improve periodontal regeneration. FG membranes were characterized for ultra-structural morphology, physiochemical properties, water uptake, degradation, mechanical properties, and biocompatibility with mature and progenitor osteogenic cells. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of hydroxyapatite and its interaction with chitosan. μCT analysis showed membranes had 85-77% porosity. Mechanical properties and degradation rate were affected by solvent type and the presence of hydroxyapatite. Culture of human osteosarcoma cells (MG63) and human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitors (hES-MPs) showed that all membranes supported cell proliferation and long term matrix deposition was supported by HA incorporated membranes. These CH and HA composite membranes show their potential use for GTR applications in periodontal lesions and in addition FG membranes could be further tuned to achieve characteristics desirable of a GTR membrane for periodontal regeneration.

  10. Development, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of novel injectable smart gels of azithromycin for chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, M P; Kumar, T M Pramod; Avinash, B S; Kumar, G Sheela

    2013-04-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory condition affecting teeth resulting in progressive destruction of periodontal ligaments, resorption of alveolar bone and loss of teeth. Treatment of periodontitis includes surgical and non surgical management. Systemic antibiotics are also used for the treatment of periodontitis. The aim of this research was to formulate smart gel system of azithromycin (AZT) and to evaluate in vitro and in vivo for non-surgical treatment of chronic periodontitis. Azithromycin dihydrate, used systemically in the treatment of periodontitis, was formulated into smart gels using biodegradable, thermosensitive polymer Pluronic® F-127 (PF-127) and Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC) as copolymer. The prepared smart gels were evaluated for sterility, content uniformity, gelation temperature and time, syringeability, rheological behavior, in vitro diffusion and in vivo efficacy in human patients. The prepared smart gels were clear and transparent, sterile, thermoresponsive and injectable. Viscosity of gels increased with increase in concentration of polymer/co-polymer and also with temperature. They gelled in short response time below the body temperature. In vitro release studies showed controlled drug release which was influenced significantly by the properties and concentration of PF-127 and HEC. In vivo efficacy studies showed a significant improvement (p chronic periodontitis since it reduces the dose and side effects, bypasses the usual surgical procedures and improves patient compliance.

  11. Increased Eotaxin and MCP-1 Levels in Serum from Individuals with Periodontitis and in Human Gingival Fibroblasts Exposed to Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulniute, Rima; Palmqvist, Py; Majster, Mirjam; Holm, Cecilia Koskinen; Zwicker, Stephanie; Clark, Reuben; Önell, Sebastian; Johansson, Ingegerd; Lerner, Ulf H.; Lundberg, Pernilla

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of tooth supporting tissues resulting in periodontal tissue destruction, which may ultimately lead to tooth loss. The disease is characterized by continuous leukocyte infiltration, likely mediated by local chemokine production but the pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated. There are no reliable serologic biomarkers for the diagnosis of periodontitis, which is today based solely on the degree of local tissue destruction, and there is no available biological treatment tool. Prompted by the increasing interest in periodontitis and systemic inflammatory mediators we mapped serum cytokine and chemokine levels from periodontitis subjects and healthy controls. We used multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeling and identified monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and eotaxin as clearly associated with periodontitis along with C-reactive protein (CRP), years of smoking and age, whereas the number of remaining teeth was associated with being healthy. Moreover, body mass index correlated significantly with serum MCP-1 and CRP, but not with eotaxin. We detected higher MCP-1 protein levels in inflamed gingival connective tissue comp