WorldWideScience

Sample records for human operator workload

  1. Evaluation of operators' mental workload of human-system interface automation in the advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, Y.-T.; Yenn, T.-C.; Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Yang, C.-W.; Chiang, C.-C.

    2009-01-01

    It has been expected that the automation of certain tasks in a control room would help decrease operators' mental workload, enhance situation awareness, and improve the whole system performance. However, there have been too many automation-induced system failures that would warrant a fresh look on the influences of automation. Automation problems include the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills. This study evaluates operators' mental workload and system performance during a human-system interface (HSI) automation in an advanced nuclear power plant (NPP). The reactor shutdown task and alarm reset task simulations were conducted in this study to evaluate operators' mental workload and performance. The results of this study indicated that for ensuring safe operating in NPPs, the design of automation needs to be carefully implemented. Task characteristics and degrees of automation should be carefully evaluated while designing HSIs. The reactor shutdown tasks studied in this paper suggest that a high level of automation design for the long period and low workload would be sufficient. On the other hand, the degree of automation of alarm reset task does not show a significant difference to the operator's mental workload. In conclusion, the human-system interface automation in advanced NPPs is suggested to be more flexible and needs to be continually improved.

  2. Development of simulation-based evaluation system for iterative design of HMI to reduce human workload of operating crew in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu, Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2001-01-01

    Human workload is one of the key factors to reduce the human error during the operation in the commercialized nuclear power plants (NPP). In order to produce a high quality design of human machine interface (HMI), the evaluation and simulation method was developed to analyze operator's workload, where the model of operator crew was adopted on the basis of the model proposed by Reason. The workload such as length of the eye movement and moving length of the operators were visualized in the CRT image as well as the movie-file during the simulation. The developed computer code system was named simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID), which was a simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design in the domain of NPP. The SEAMAID simulates the interaction between the operating crew and HMI, thus supports to evaluate the HMI by using the simulation results. The case study was conducted to evaluate the conventional central control room design. As a consequence, the authors were confirmed that SEAMAID was a useful tool to improve HMI design evaluating the workload data among several iterative design. (author)

  3. Eye Tracking Metrics for Workload Estimation in Flight Deck Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kyle; Schnell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Flight decks of the future are being enhanced through improved avionics that adapt to both aircraft and operator state. Eye tracking allows for non-invasive analysis of pilot eye movements, from which a set of metrics can be derived to effectively and reliably characterize workload. This research identifies eye tracking metrics that correlate to aircraft automation conditions, and identifies the correlation of pilot workload to the same automation conditions. Saccade length was used as an indirect index of pilot workload: Pilots in the fully automated condition were observed to have on average, larger saccadic movements in contrast to the guidance and manual flight conditions. The data set itself also provides a general model of human eye movement behavior and so ostensibly visual attention distribution in the cockpit for approach to land tasks with various levels of automation, by means of the same metrics used for workload algorithm development.

  4. Predicting the Consequences of Workload Management Strategies with Human Performance Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Diane Kuhl; Samma, Charneta

    2011-01-01

    Human performance modelers at the US Army Research Laboratory have developed an approach for establishing Soldier high workload that can be used for analyses of proposed system designs. Their technique includes three key components. To implement the approach in an experiment, the researcher would create two experimental conditions: a baseline and a design alternative. Next they would identify a scenario in which the test participants perform all their representative concurrent interactions with the system. This scenario should include any events that would trigger a different set of goals for the human operators. They would collect workload values during both the control and alternative design condition to see if the alternative increased workload and decreased performance. They have successfully implemented this approach for military vehicle. designs using the human performance modeling tool, IMPRINT. Although ARL researches use IMPRINT to implement their approach, it can be applied to any workload analysis. Researchers using other modeling and simulations tools or conducting experiments or field tests can use the same approach.

  5. Operator Workload: Comprehensive Review and Evaluation of Operator Workload Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    E. A (1979), Measurement end scaing of workload In oornple performance. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine , 50, 376-381. Ctoow, S. L... Medicine , 53, 1087-1072. Harris, R. M., Glenn, F., laveocchia, H. P., & 7ak"d, A, (1986). Human Operndor Simulator. In W. Karwoski (Ed.), Trends in...McGiothlin, W. (1974). Effects of marihuana on auditory signal detection. Psychopharmacologia, 40, 137-145. Mulder, I. J. M., & Mulder, G. (1987

  6. Comparative analysis of methods for workload assessment of the main control room operators of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.; Petkov, G.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents benchmarking workload results obtained by a method for operator workload assessment – NASA Task Load Index, and a method for human error probability assessment - Performance Evaluation of Teamwork. Based on the archives of FSS-1000 training in the accident “Main Steam Line Tube Rupture at the WWER-1000 Containment” the capacities of the two methods for direct and indirect workload assessment are evaluated

  7. Workload Measurement in Human Autonomy Teaming: How and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Jay

    2016-01-01

    This is an invited talk on autonomy and workload for an AFRL Blue Sky workshop sponsored by the Florida Institute for Human Machine Studies. The presentation reviews various metrics of workload and how to move forward with measuring workload in a human-autonomy teaming environment.

  8. Empirical investigation of workloads of operators in advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea; Kim, Seunghwan

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares the workloads of operators in a computer-based control room of an advanced power reactor (APR 1400) nuclear power plant to investigate the effects from the changes in the interfaces in the control room. The cognitive-communicative-operative activity framework was employed to evaluate the workloads of the operator's roles during emergency operations. The related data were obtained by analyzing the tasks written in the procedures and observing the speech and behaviors of the reserved operators in a full-scope dynamic simulator for an APR 1400. The data were analyzed using an F-test and a Duncan test. It was found that the workloads of the shift supervisors (SSs) were larger than other operators and the operative activities of the SSs increased owing to the computer-based procedure. From these findings, methods to reduce the workloads of the SSs that arise from the computer-based procedure are discussed. (author)

  9. Issues for resolving adverse effects on the safety culture of human work underload and workload transitions in complex human-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, T.G.

    1996-01-01

    A workshop was conducted whose specific purpose was to build on earlier work of the US National Research Council, US federal government agencies, and the larger human factors community to: (1) clarify human factors issues pertaining to degraded safety performance in advanced human-machine systems(e.g., nuclear production, transportation, aerospace) due to human work underload and workload transition, and (2) develop strategies for resolving these issues. The workshop affirmed that: (1) work underload and workload transition are issues that will have to be addressed by designers of advanced human-machine systems, especially those relying on automation, if cost, performance, safety, and operator acceptability are to be optimized, (2) human machine allocation models, standards and guidelines which go beyond simple capability approaches will be needed to preclude or seriously diminish the work underload and workload transition problems, and (3) the 16 workload definition, measurement, situational awareness, and trust issues identified during the workshop, need resolution if these models, standards, and guidelines are to be achieved

  10. Psychophysical workload in the operating room: primary surgeon versus assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Annika; Fenger, Sebastian; Neubert, Sebastian; Weippert, Matthias; Kreuzfeld, Steffi; Stoll, Regina

    2015-07-01

    Working in the operating room is characterized by high demands and overall workload of the surgical team. Surgeons often report that they feel more stressed when operating as a primary surgeon than in the function as an assistant which has been confirmed in recent studies. In this study, intra-individual workload was assessed in both intraoperative functions using a multidimensional approach that combined objective and subjective measures in a realistic work setting. Surgeons' intraoperative psychophysiologic workload was assessed through a mobile health system. 25 surgeons agreed to take part in the 24-hour monitoring by giving their written informed consent. The mobile health system contained a sensor electronic module integrated in a chest belt and measuring physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), breathing rate (BR), and skin temperature. Subjective workload was assessed pre- and postoperatively using an electronic version of the NASA-TLX on a smartphone. The smartphone served as a communication unit and transferred objective and subjective measures to a communication server where data were stored and analyzed. Working as a primary surgeon did not result in higher workload. Neither NASA-TLX ratings nor physiological workload indicators were related to intraoperative function. In contrast, length of surgeries had a significant impact on intraoperative physical demands (p NASA-TLX sum score (p < 0.01; η(2) = 0.287). Intra-individual workload differences do not relate to intraoperative role of surgeons when length of surgery is considered as covariate. An intelligent operating management that considers the length of surgeries by implementing short breaks could contribute to the optimization of intraoperative workload and the preservation of surgeons' health, respectively. The value of mobile health systems for continuous psychophysiologic workload assessment was shown.

  11. The effect of a slack-pulling device in reducing operator physiological workload during log winching operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Raffaele; Aalmo, Giovanna Ottaviani; Magagnotti, Natascia

    2015-01-01

    The authors conducted a comparative test to determine whether the introduction of a hydraulic slack puller allowed reducing the physiological workload of operators assigned to log winching tasks. The tests were conducted in northern Italy, on the mountains near Como. The study involved five volunteer subjects, considered representatives of the regional logging workforce. Physiological workload was determined by measuring the operators' heart rate upon completion of specific tasks. The slack puller improved the efficiency of downhill winching, since it allowed a single operator to pull out the cable on his own, without requiring the assistance of a colleague. However, introduction of the slack puller did not result in any reductions of operator physiological workload. The main stressor when working on a steep slope is moving up and down the slope: pulling a cable is only a secondary stressor. Any measures targeting secondary stressors are unlikely to produce dramatic reductions of operator workload.

  12. Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system

  13. Mental workload measurement in operator control room using NASA-TLX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarindra, M.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Permana, A. I.

    2017-12-01

    The workload, encountered a combination of physical workload and mental workload, is a consequence of the activities for workers. Central control room is one department in the oil processing company, employees tasked with monitoring the processing unit for 24 hours nonstop with a combination of 3 shifts in 8 hours. NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) is one of the subjective mental workload measurement using six factors, namely the Mental demand (MD), Physical demand (PD), Temporal demand (TD), Performance (OP), Effort (EF), frustration levels (FR). Measurement of a subjective mental workload most widely used because it has a high degree of validity. Based on the calculation of the mental workload, there at 5 units (DTU, NPU, HTU, DIST and OPS) at the control chamber (94; 83.33; 94.67; 81, 33 and 94.67 respectively) that categorize as very high mental workload. The high level of mental workload on the operator in the Central Control Room is a requirement to have high accuracy, alertness and can make decisions quickly

  14. Mental workload in decision and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, T. B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the problems of defining and measuring the 'mental workload' of aircraft pilots and other human operators of complex dynamic systems. Of the alternative approaches the author indicates a clear preference for the use of subjective scaling. Some recent experiments from MIT and elsewhere are described which utilize subjective mental workload scales in conjunction with human decision and control tasks in the laboratory. Finally a new three-dimensional mental workload rating scale, under current development for use by IFR aircraft pilots, is presented.

  15. Mental workload measurement for emergency operating procedures in digital nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qin; Wang, Yang; Song, Fei; Li, Zhizhong; Dong, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Mental workload is a major consideration for the design of emergency operation procedures (EOPs) in nuclear power plants. Continuous and objective measures are desired. This paper compares seven mental workload measurement methods (pupil size, blink rate, blink duration, heart rate variability, parasympathetic/sympathetic ratio, total power and (Goals, Operations, Methods, and Section Rules)-(Keystroke Level Model) GOMS-KLM-based workload index) with regard to sensitivity, validity and intrusiveness. Eighteen participants performed two computerised EOPs of different complexity levels, and mental workload measures were collected during the experiment. The results show that the blink rate is sensitive to both the difference in the overall task complexity and changes in peak complexity within EOPs, that the error rate is sensitive to the level of arousal and correlate to the step error rate and that blink duration increases over the task period in both low and high complexity EOPs. Cardiac measures were able to distinguish tasks with different overall complexity. The intrusiveness of the physiological instruments is acceptable. Finally, the six physiological measures were integrated using group method of data handling to predict perceived overall mental workload. The study compared seven measures for evaluating the mental workload with emergency operation procedure in nuclear power plants. An experiment with simulated procedures was carried out, and the results show that eye response measures are useful for assessing temporal changes of workload whereas cardiac measures are useful for evaluating the overall workload.

  16. Development of an EEG-based workload measurement method in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Moon Kyoung; Lee, Seung Min; Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •A human operator’s workload in nuclear power plants(NPPs) usually has been evaluated by using subjective ratings. •Subjective rating techniques have several weaknesses such as dependence on the operator’s memory as well as bias. •We suggested an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based workload index for measuring the workload of human operators. •The suggested index was applied to evaluate the effects of operating support systems. -- Abstract: The environment of main control rooms of large scale process control systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs) has been changed from the conventional analog type to the digital type. In digitalized advanced main control rooms, human operators conduct highly cognitive work rather than physical work compared to the case of the original control rooms in NPPs. Various operating support systems (OSSs) have been developed to reduce an operator’s workload. Most representative techniques to evaluate the workload are based on subjective ratings. However, there are some limitations including the possibility of skewed results due to self-assessment of the workload and the impossibility of continuously measuring the workload due to freezing simulation for workload assessment. As opposed to subjective ratings techniques, physiological techniques can be used for objective and continuous measurements of a human operator’s mental status by sensing the physiological changes of the autonomic or central nervous system. In this study, electroencephalogram (EEG) was used to measure the operator’s mental workload because it had been proven to be sensitive to variations of mental workload in other studies, and it allows various types of analysis. Based on various research reviews on the characteristics of brainwaves, EEG-based Workload Index (EWI) was suggested and validated through experiments. As a result, EWI is concluded to be valid for measuring an operator’s mental workload and preferable to subjective techniques

  17. Operator’s cognitive, communicative and operative activities based workload measurement of advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced MMIS in the advanced MCR requires new roles and tasks of operators. • A new workload evaluation framework is needed for a new MMIS environment. • This work suggests a new workload measurement approach (COCOA) for an advanced MCR. • COCOA enables 3-dimensional measurement of cognition, communication and operation. • COCOA workload evaluation of the reference plant through simulation was performed. - Abstract: An advanced man–machine interface system (MMIS) with a computer-based procedure system and high-tech control/alarm system is installed in the advanced main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant. Accordingly, though the task of the operators has been changed a great deal, owing to a lack of appropriate guidelines on the role allocation or communication method of the operators, operators should follow the operating strategies of conventional MCR and the problem of an unbalanced workload for each operator can be raised. Thus, it is necessary to enhance the operation capability and improve the plant safety by developing guidelines on the role definition and communication of operators in an advanced MCR. To resolve this problem, however, a method for measuring the workload according to the work execution of the operators is needed, but an applicable method is not available. In this research, we propose a COgnitive, Communicative and Operational Activities measurement approach (COCOA) to measure and evaluate the workload of operators in an advanced MCR. This paper presents the taxonomy for additional operation activities of the operators to use the computerized procedures and soft control added to an advanced MCR, which enables an integrated measurement of the operator workload in various dimensions of cognition, communication, and operation. To check the applicability of COCOA, we evaluated the operator workload of an advanced MCR of a reference power plant through simulation training experiments. As a result, the amount

  18. Unsupervised classification of operator workload from brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze-Kraft, Matthias; Dähne, Sven; Gugler, Manfred; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Objective. In this study we aimed for the classification of operator workload as it is expected in many real-life workplace environments. We explored brain-signal based workload predictors that differ with respect to the level of label information required for training, including entirely unsupervised approaches. Approach. Subjects executed a task on a touch screen that required continuous effort of visual and motor processing with alternating difficulty. We first employed classical approaches for workload state classification that operate on the sensor space of EEG and compared those to the performance of three state-of-the-art spatial filtering methods: common spatial patterns (CSPs) analysis, which requires binary label information; source power co-modulation (SPoC) analysis, which uses the subjects’ error rate as a target function; and canonical SPoC (cSPoC) analysis, which solely makes use of cross-frequency power correlations induced by different states of workload and thus represents an unsupervised approach. Finally, we investigated the effects of fusing brain signals and peripheral physiological measures (PPMs) and examined the added value for improving classification performance. Main results. Mean classification accuracies of 94%, 92% and 82% were achieved with CSP, SPoC, cSPoC, respectively. These methods outperformed the approaches that did not use spatial filtering and they extracted physiologically plausible components. The performance of the unsupervised cSPoC is significantly increased by augmenting it with PPM features. Significance. Our analyses ensured that the signal sources used for classification were of cortical origin and not contaminated with artifacts. Our findings show that workload states can be successfully differentiated from brain signals, even when less and less information from the experimental paradigm is used, thus paving the way for real-world applications in which label information may be noisy or entirely unavailable.

  19. Workload Capacity: A Response Time-Based Measure of Automation Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    An experiment used the workload capacity measure C(t) to quantify the processing efficiency of human-automation teams and identify operators' automation usage strategies in a speeded decision task. Although response accuracy rates and related measures are often used to measure the influence of an automated decision aid on human performance, aids can also influence response speed. Mean response times (RTs), however, conflate the influence of the human operator and the automated aid on team performance and may mask changes in the operator's performance strategy under aided conditions. The present study used a measure of parallel processing efficiency, or workload capacity, derived from empirical RT distributions as a novel gauge of human-automation performance and automation dependence in a speeded task. Participants performed a speeded probabilistic decision task with and without the assistance of an automated aid. RT distributions were used to calculate two variants of a workload capacity measure, COR(t) and CAND(t). Capacity measures gave evidence that a diagnosis from the automated aid speeded human participants' responses, and that participants did not moderate their own decision times in anticipation of diagnoses from the aid. Workload capacity provides a sensitive and informative measure of human-automation performance and operators' automation dependence in speeded tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Development of Simulation-Based Evaluation System for Iterative Design of Human-Machine Interface in a Nuclear Power Plant - Application for Reducing Workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumizawa, Motoo; Kameda, Akiyuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Wu Wei; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu

    2003-01-01

    Development of simulation-based evaluation and analysis support system for man-machine interface design (SEAMAID) has been conducted in the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation to simulate the behavior of a few operators and the human-machine interface (HMI) in a commercialized pressurized water reactor plant. The workload is one of the key factors with respect to reducing the human error in the operation of nuclear power plants. In order to produce a high-quality design of HMI, the evaluation method was developed to simulate and analyze the operator's workload. Our method was adopted from the cognition model proposed by Reason. The workload such as the length of the visual point movement and the moving length of the operators was visualized in a monitor image during the simulation, and then recorded as a movie-file. As a consequence, the validation of SEAMAID was clarified

  1. Operations strategy for workload balancing of crews in an advanced main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2016-01-01

    The advanced main control room (advanced-MCR) is the one that allows for reactor operations based on digital instrumentation and control (I and C) technology. Thus, the operators of an advanced-MCR operate the plant through digital I and C interfaces, and for this purpose, an additional digital manipulation task for the operating equipment should be performed that cannot be observed in a conventional-MCR. As a prior study proposing the cognitive, communicative, and operational activity measurement approach (COCOA), COCOA enables an evaluation of the operator's workload in an advanced-MCR,which includes newly generated tasks for Man-Machine Interface System based secondary operation under a digital environment, which does not exist in a conventional-MCR. As a result of observations on the workload level by utilizing COCOA for a reference plant with an advanced-MCR when conducting an emergency operating procedure, it was observed that the workload of the shift supervisor is about two times greater than that of other operators. This is because operators therein stuck to the old guidelines customized to a conventional-MCR and failed to accomplish load balancing in consideration of the operation environment that an advanced-MCR provides. In this context, it would be imperative to develop and apply an operations strategy for an advanced-MCR operation. This study proposes an operations strategy in an attempt to make a balanced workload of operators in an advanced-MCR. (author)

  2. Investigation of relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Chang Hoon; Kim, Jong Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    In the main control room (MCR) of a nuclear power plant (NPP), there are lots of dynamic information sources for MCR operator's situation awareness. As the human-machine interface in MCR is advanced, operator's information acquisition, information gathering and decision-making is becoming an important part to maintain the effective and safe operation of NPPs. Diagnostic task in complex and huge systems like NPP is the most difficult and mental effort-demanding for operators. This research investigates the relation between operator's mental workload and information flow in accident diagnosis tasks. The amount of information flow is quantified, using information flow model and Conant's model, a kind of information theory. For the mental workload measure, eye blink rate, blink duration, fixation time, number of fixation, and gaze direction are measured during accident diagnosis tasks. Subjective methods such as NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Modified Cooper-Harper (MCH) method are also used in the experiment. It is shown that the operator's mental workload has significant relation to information flow of diagnosis task. It makes possible to predict the mental workload through the quantity of the information flow of a system.

  3. Mental workload associated with operating an agricultural sprayer: an empirical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, A K; Mann, D D

    2011-04-01

    Agricultural spraying involves two major tasks: guiding a sprayer in response to a GPS navigation device, and simultaneous monitoring of rear-attached booms under various illumination and terrain difficulty levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of illumination, task difficulty, and task level on the mental workload of an individual operating an agricultural sprayer in response to a commercial GPS lightbar, and to explore the sensitivity of the NASA-TLX and SSWAT subjective rating scales in discriminating the subjective experienced workload under various task, illumination, and difficulty levels. Mental workload was measured using performance measures (lateral root mean square error and reaction time), physiological measures (0.1 Hz power of HRV, latency of the P300 component of event-related potential, and eye-glance behavior), and two subjective rating scales (NASA-TLX and SSWAT). Sixteen male university students participated in this experiment, and a fixed-base high-fidelity agricultural tractor simulator was used to create a simulated spraying task. All performance measures, the P300 latency, and subjective rating scales showed a common trend that mental workload increased with the change in illumination from day to night, with task difficulty from low to high, and with task type from single to dual. The 0.1 Hz power of HRV contradicted the performance measures. Eye-glance data showed that under night illumination, participants spent more time looking at the lightbar for guidance information. A similar trend was observed with the change in task type from single to dual. Both subjective rating scales showed a common trend of increasing mental workload with the change in illumination, difficulty, and task levels. However, the SSWAT scale was more sensitive than the NASA-TLX scale. With the change in illumination, difficulty, and task levels, participants spent more mental resources to meet the increased task demand; hence, the

  4. Training improves laparoscopic tasks performance and decreases operator workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jesse S L; Lu, Jirong; Tan, Wee Boon; Lomanto, Davide

    2016-05-01

    It has been postulated that increased operator workload during task performance may increase fatigue and surgical errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a validated tool for self-assessment for workload. Our study aims to assess the relationship of workload and performance of novices in simulated laparoscopic tasks of different complexity levels before and after training. Forty-seven novices without prior laparoscopic experience were recruited in a trial to investigate whether training improves task performance as well as mental workload. The participants were tested on three standard tasks (ring transfer, precision cutting and intracorporeal suturing) in increasing complexity based on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. Following a period of training and rest, participants were tested again. Test scores were computed from time taken and time penalties for precision errors. Test scores and NASA-TLX scores were recorded pre- and post-training and analysed using paired t tests. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to analyse differences in NASA-TLX scores between the three tasks. NASA-TLX score was lowest with ring transfer and highest with intracorporeal suturing. This was statistically significant in both pre-training (p NASA-TLX scores mirror the changes in test scores for the three tasks. Workload scores decreased significantly after training for all three tasks (ring transfer = 2.93, p NASA-TLX score is an accurate reflection of the complexity of simulated laparoscopic tasks in the FLS curriculum. This also correlates with the relationship of test scores between the three tasks. Simulation training improves both performance score and workload score across the tasks.

  5. An Investigation of the Combined Effect of Stress, Fatigue and Workload on Human Performance: Position Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Jessica

    2005-01-01

    Stress, fatigue, and workload affect worker performance. NSF reported that 61% of respondents state losing concentration at work while 79% occasionally or frequently made errors as a result of being fatigued. Shift work, altered work schedules, long hours of continuous wakefulness, and sleep loss can create sleep and circadian disruptions that degrade waking fundions causing stress and fatigue. Review of the literature has proven void of information that links the combined effects of fatigue, stress, and workload to human performance. This paper will address which occupational factors within stress, fatigue, and workload were identified as occupational contributors to performance changes. The results of this research will be apglied to underlying models and algorithms that will help predict performance changes in control room operators.

  6. Combat surgical workload in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom: The definitive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Caryn A; Stockinger, Zsolt T; Gurney, Jennifer M

    2017-07-01

    Relatively few publications exist on surgical workload in the deployed military setting. This study analyzes US military combat surgical workload in Iraq and Afghanistan to gain a more thorough understanding of surgical training gaps and personnel requirements. A retrospective analysis of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry was performed for all Role 2 (R2) and Role 3 (R3) military treatment facilities from January 2001 to May 2016. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes were grouped into 18 categories based on functional surgical skill sets. The 189,167 surgical procedures identified were stratified by role of care, month, and year. Percentiles were calculated for the number of procedures for each skill set. A literature search was performed for publications documenting combat surgical workload during the same period. A total of 23,548 surgical procedures were performed at R2 facilities, while 165,619 surgical procedures were performed at R3 facilities. The most common surgical procedures performed overall were soft tissue (37.5%), orthopedic (13.84%), abdominal (13.01%), and vascular (6.53%). The least common surgical procedures performed overall were cardiac (0.23%), peripheral nervous system (0.53%), and spine (0.34%).Mean surgical workload at any point in time clearly underrepresented those units in highly kinetic areas, at times by an order of magnitude or more. The published literature always demonstrated workloads well in excess of the 50th percentile for the relevant time period. The published literature on combat surgical workload represents the high end of the spectrum of deployed surgical experience. These trends in surgical workload provide vital information that can be used to determine the manpower needs of future conflicts in ever-changing operational tempo environments. Our findings provide surgical types and surgical workload requirements that will be useful in surgical training and

  7. Assessment of operators' mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the operators' mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. The results suggested that when operators' mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions.

  8. Heart Rate Variability as a Measure of Airport Ramp-Traffic Controllers Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria Lee

    2016-01-01

    Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been reported to reflect the person's cognitive and emotional stress levels, and may offer an objective measure of human-operator's workload levels, which are recorded continuously and unobtrusively to the task performance. The present paper compares the HRV data collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation of airport ramp-traffic control operations with the controller participants' own verbal self-reporting ratings of their workload.

  9. State of science: mental workload in ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark S; Brookhuis, Karel A; Wickens, Christopher D; Hancock, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    Mental workload (MWL) is one of the most widely used concepts in ergonomics and human factors and represents a topic of increasing importance. Since modern technology in many working environments imposes ever more cognitive demands upon operators while physical demands diminish, understanding how MWL impinges on performance is increasingly critical. Yet, MWL is also one of the most nebulous concepts, with numerous definitions and dimensions associated with it. Moreover, MWL research has had a tendency to focus on complex, often safety-critical systems (e.g. transport, process control). Here we provide a general overview of the current state of affairs regarding the understanding, measurement and application of MWL in the design of complex systems over the last three decades. We conclude by discussing contemporary challenges for applied research, such as the interaction between cognitive workload and physical workload, and the quantification of workload 'redlines' which specify when operators are approaching or exceeding their performance tolerances.

  10. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  11. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun

    2013-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta power ratio is

  12. How the workload impacts on cognitive cooperation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciaraffa, Nicolina; Borghini, Gianluca; Arico, Pietro; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Toppi, Jlenia; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bezerianos, Anastatios; Thakor, Nitish V; Babiloni, Fabio

    2017-07-01

    Cooperation degradation can be seen as one of the main causes of human errors. Poor cooperation could arise from aberrant mental processes, such as mental overload, that negatively affect the user's performance. Using different levels of difficulty in a cooperative task, we combined behavioural, subjective and neurophysiological data with the aim to i) quantify the mental workload under which the crew was operating, ii) evaluate the degree of their cooperation, and iii) assess the impact of the workload demands on the cooperation levels. The combination of such data showed that high workload demand impacted significantly on the performance, workload perception, and degree of cooperation.

  13. Continuous measures of situation awareness and workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Skraaning, Gyrd jr.; Sverrbo, Mona; Dalen, Joergen; Grimstad, Tone; Andresen, Gisle

    1998-03-01

    This report presents methods for continuous measures for Situation Awareness and Workload. The objective has been to identify, develop and test the new measures, and compare them to instruments that require interruptions of scenarios. The new measures are: (1) the Visual Indicator of Situation Awareness (VISA); where Situation Awareness is scored from predefined areas of visual interest critical for solving scenarios. Visual monitoring of areas was recorded by eye-movement tracking. (2) Workload scores reflected by Extended Dwell Time (EDT) and the operator Activity Level. EDT was calculated from eye-movement data files, and the activity level was estimated from simulator logs. Using experimental data from the 1996 CASH NRC Alarm study and the 1997 Human Error Analysis Project/ Human-Centred Automation study, the new measurement techniques have been tested and evaluated on a preliminary basis. The results showed promising relationships between the new continuous measures of situation awareness and workload, and established instruments based upon scenario interruptions. (author)

  14. The effects of display and autopilot functions on pilot workload for Single Pilot Instrument Flight Rule (SPIFR) operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoh, Roger H.; Smith, James C.; Hinton, David A.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical and experimental research program was conducted to develop criteria for pilot interaction with advanced controls and displays in single pilot instrument flight rules (SPIFR) operations. The analytic phase reviewed fundamental considerations for pilot workload taking into account existing data, and using that data to develop a divided attention SPIFR pilot workload model. The pilot model was utilized to interpret the two experimental phases. The first experimental phase was a flight test program that evaluated pilot workload in the presence of current and near-term displays and autopilot functions. The second experiment was conducted on a King Air simulator, investigating the effects of co-pilot functions in the presence of very high SPIFR workload. The results indicate that the simplest displays tested were marginal for SPIFR operations. A moving map display aided the most in mental orientation, but had inherent deficiencies as a stand alone replacement for an HSI. Autopilot functions were highly effective for reducing pilot workload. The simulator tests showed that extremely high workload situations can be adequately handled when co-pilot functions are provided.

  15. The Relationship between Human Operators' Psycho-physiological Condition and Human Errors in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Arryum; Jang, Inseok; Kang, Hyungook; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) is substantially dependent on the performance of the human operators who operate the systems. In this environment, human errors caused by inappropriate performance of operator have been considered to be critical since it may lead serious problems in the safety-critical plants. In order to provide meaningful insights to prevent human errors and enhance the human performance, operators' physiological conditions such as stress and workload have been investigated. Physiological measurements were considered as reliable tools to assess the stress and workload. T. Q. Tran et al. and J. B. Brooking et al pointed out that operators' workload can be assessed using eye tracking, galvanic skin response, electroencephalograms (EEGs), heart rate, respiration and other measurements. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the human operators' tense level and knowledge level to the number of human errors. For this study, the experiments were conducted in the mimic of the main control rooms (MCR) in NPP. It utilized the compact nuclear simulator (CNS) which is modeled based on the three loop Pressurized Water Reactor, 993MWe, Kori unit 3 and 4 in Korea and the subjects were asked to follow the tasks described in the emergency operating procedures (EOP). During the simulation, three kinds of physiological measurement were utilized; Electrocardiogram (ECG), EEG and nose temperature. Also, subjects were divided into three groups based on their knowledge of the plant operation. The result shows that subjects who are tense make fewer errors. In addition, subjects who are in higher knowledge level tend to be tense and make fewer errors. For the ECG data, subjects who make fewer human errors tend to be located in higher tense level area of high SNS activity and low PSNS activity. The results of EEG data are also similar to ECG result. Beta power ratio of subjects who make fewer errors was higher. Since beta

  16. Workload modelling for data-intensive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lassnig, Mario

    This thesis presents a comprehensive study built upon the requirements of a global data-intensive system, built for the ATLAS Experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider. First, a scalable method is described to capture distributed data management operations in a non-intrusive way. These operations are collected into a globally synchronised sequence of events, the workload. A comparative analysis of this new data-intensive workload against existing computational workloads is conducted, leading to the discovery of the importance of descriptive attributes in the operations. Existing computational workload models only consider the arrival rates of operations, however, in data-intensive systems the correlations between attributes play a central role. Furthermore, the detrimental effect of rapid correlated arrivals, so called bursts, is assessed. A model is proposed that can learn burst behaviour from captured workload, and in turn forecast potential future bursts. To help with the creation of a full representative...

  17. Multi-scale entropy analysis of VR-based analog-digital system of the operator mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chunyi; Hung Tamin; Sun Tienlung; Yang Chihwei; Cheng Tsungchieh; Yang Lichen

    2011-01-01

    In the past, serious accidents of nuclear power plant usually had relation with the negligence, error handling and wrong decisions of operators. Therefore, to understand and be able to measure mental workload levels of operators are significant for safety issues in the nuclear power plant, especially when operators face emergency conditions. Therefore, this study is to determine the physiological indicators to measure the operator in the task of mental workload. This paper was to use electrocardiogram (ECG) measurements, to collect the RR-Interval data; heart rate variability (HRV) to analysis the complexity of the operator. After importing the data to calculate heart rate variability of complexity analysis, it can help us to understand the operator for the analog-digital platform adaptation. The virtual analog-digital nuclear plant control room is built using a 3D game development tool called Unity3D. (author)

  18. Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) Team in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Mental Workload and Performance Experiment (MWPE) team in the SL POCC) during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  19. Use of the RoboFlag synthetic task environment to investigate workload and stress responses in UAV operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guznov, Svyatoslav; Matthews, Gerald; Funke, Gregory; Dukes, Allen

    2011-09-01

    Use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is an increasingly important element of military missions. However, controlling UAVs may impose high stress and workload on the operator. This study evaluated the use of the RoboFlag simulated environment as a means for profiling multiple dimensions of stress and workload response to a task requiring control of multiple vehicles (robots). It tested the effects of two workload manipulations, environmental uncertainty (i.e., UAV's visual view area) and maneuverability, in 64 participants. The findings confirmed that the task produced substantial workload and elevated distress. Dissociations between the stress and performance effects of the manipulations confirmed the utility of a multivariate approach to assessment. Contrary to expectations, distress and some aspects of workload were highest in the low-uncertainty condition, suggesting that overload of information may be an issue for UAV interface designers. The strengths and limitations of RoboFlag as a methodology for investigating stress and workload responses are discussed.

  20. Multi-objective efficiency enhancement using workload spreading in an operational data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibi Khalaj, Ali; Scherer, Thomas; Siriwardana, Jayantha; Halgamuge, Saman K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of the heat-flow reduced order model (HFROM) for the IBM ZRL data center. • Verification of the developed HFROM with the experimentally verified CFD model. • Multi-objective efficiency enhancement of the HFROM using particle swarm optimization. • Improving the COP of the data center’s cooling system by about 17%. • Increasing the total allocated workload of the servers by about 10%. - Abstract: The cooling systems of rapidly growing Data Centers (DCs) consume a considerable amount of energy, which is one of the main concerns in designing and operating DCs. The main source of thermal inefficiency in a typical air-cooled DC is hot air recirculation from outlets of servers into their inlets, causing hot spots and leading to performance reduction of the cooling system. In this study, a thermally aware workload spreading method is proposed for reducing the hot spots while the total allocated server workload is increased. The core of this methodology lies in developing an appropriate thermal DC model for the optimization process. Given the fact that utilizing a high-fidelity thermal model of a DC is highly time consuming in the optimization process, a three dimensional reduced order model of a real DC is developed in this study. This model, whose boundary conditions are determined based on measurement data of an operational DC, is developed based on the potential flow theory updated with the Rankine vortex to account for buoyancy and air recirculation effects inside the DC. Before evaluating the proposed method, this model is verified with a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model simulated with the same boundary conditions. The efficient load spreading method is achieved by applying a multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) algorithm whose objectives are to minimize the hot spot occurrences and to maximize the total workload allocated to servers. In this case study, by applying the proposed method, the Coefficient of

  1. Effect of system workload on operating system reliability - A study on IBM 3081

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R. K.; Rossetti, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of operating system failures on an IBM 3081 running VM/SP. Three broad categories of software failures are found: error handling, program control or logic, and hardware related; it is found that more than 25 percent of software failures occur in the hardware/software interface. Measurements show that results on software reliability cannot be considered representative unless the system workload is taken into account. The overall CPU execution rate, although measured to be close to 100 percent most of the time, is not found to correlate strongly with the occurrence of failures. Possible reasons for the observed workload failure dependency, based on detailed investigations of the failure data, are discussed.

  2. A human factors framework and study of the effect of nursing workload on patient safety and employee quality of working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Richard J; Scanlon, Matthew C; Patel, Neal R; Kaushal, Rainu; Escoto, Kamisha Hamilton; Brown, Roger L; Alper, Samuel J; Arnold, Judi M; Shalaby, Theresa M; Murkowski, Kathleen; Karsh, Ben-Tzion

    2011-01-01

    Nursing workload is increasingly thought to contribute to both nurses' quality of working life and quality/safety of care. Prior studies lack a coherent model for conceptualising and measuring the effects of workload in healthcare. In contrast, we conceptualised a human factors model for workload specifying workload at three distinct levels of analysis and having multiple nurse and patient outcomes. To test this model, we analysed results from a cross-sectional survey of a volunteer sample of nurses in six units of two academic tertiary care paediatric hospitals. Workload measures were generally correlated with outcomes of interest. A multivariate structural model revealed that: the unit-level measure of staffing adequacy was significantly related to job dissatisfaction (path loading=0.31) and burnout (path loading=0.45); the task-level measure of mental workload related to interruptions, divided attention, and being rushed was associated with burnout (path loading=0.25) and medication error likelihood (path loading=1.04). Job-level workload was not uniquely and significantly associated with any outcomes. The human factors engineering model of nursing workload was supported by data from two paediatric hospitals. The findings provided a novel insight into specific ways that different types of workload could affect nurse and patient outcomes. These findings suggest further research and yield a number of human factors design suggestions.

  3. Automation-aided Task Loads Index based on the Automation Rate Reflecting the Effects on Human Operators in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seungmin; Seong, Poonghyun; Kim, Jonghyun

    2013-01-01

    Many researchers have found that a high automation rate does not guarantee high performance. Therefore, to reflect the effects of automation on human performance, a new estimation method of the automation rate that considers the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs) was suggested. These suggested measures express how much automation support human operators but it cannot express the change of human operators' workload, whether the human operators' workload is increased or decreased. Before considering automation rates, whether the adopted automation is good or bad might be estimated in advance. In this study, to estimate the appropriateness of automation according to the change of the human operators' task loads, automation-aided task loads index is suggested based on the concept of the suggested automation rate. To insure plant safety and efficiency on behalf of human operators, various automation systems have been installed in NPPs, and many works which were previously conducted by human operators can now be supported by computer-based operator aids. According to the characteristics of the automation types, the estimation method of the system automation and the cognitive automation rate were suggested. The proposed estimation method concentrates on the effects of introducing automation, so it directly express how much the automated system support human operators. Based on the suggested automation rates, the way to estimate how much the automated system can affect the human operators' cognitive task load is suggested in this study. When there is no automation, the calculated index is 1, and it means there is no change of human operators' task load

  4. Artificial Neural Network classification of operator workload with an assessment of time variation and noise-enhancement to increase performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander James Casson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Workload classification---the determination of whether a human operator is in a high or low workload state to allow their working environment to be optimized---is an emerging application of passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems. Practical systems must not only accurately detect the current workload state, but also have good temporal performance: requiring little time to set up and train the classifier, and ensuring that the reported performance level is consistent and predictable over time. This paper investigates the temporal performance of an Artificial Neural Network based classification system. For networks trained on little EEG data good classification accuracies (86% are achieved over very short time frames, but substantial decreases in accuracy are found as the time gap between the network training and the actual use is increased. Noise-enhanced processing, where artificially generated noise is deliberately added to the testing signals, is investigated as a potential technique to mitigate this degradation without requiring the network to be re-trained using more data. Small stochastic resonance effects are demonstrated whereby the classification process gets better in the presence of more noise. The effect is small and does not eliminate the need for re-training, but it is consistent, and this is the first demonstration of such effects for non-evoked/free-running EEG signals suitable for passive BCI.

  5. A safety-critical decision support system evaluation using situation awareness and workload measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naderpour, Mohsen; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan

    2016-01-01

    To ensure the safety of operations in safety-critical systems, it is necessary to maintain operators' situation awareness (SA) at a high level. A situation awareness support system (SASS) has therefore been developed to handle uncertain situations [1]. This paper aims to systematically evaluate the enhancement of SA in SASS by applying a multi-perspective approach. The approach consists of two SA metrics, SAGAT and SART, and one workload metric, NASA-TLX. The first two metrics are used for the direct objective and subjective measurement of SA, while the third is used to estimate operator workload. The approach is applied in a safety-critical environment called residue treater, located at a chemical plant in which a poor human-system interface reduced the operator's SA and caused one of the worst accidents in US history. A counterbalanced within-subjects experiment is performed using a virtual environment interface with and without the support of SASS. The results indicate that SASS improves operators' SA, and specifically has benefits for SA levels 2 and 3. In addition, it is concluded that SASS reduces operator workload, although further investigations in different environments with a larger number of participants have been suggested. - Highlights: • The suitability of a cognitive decision support system is investigated. • An evaluation approach considering situation awareness and workload measures is proposed. • A computerized system based on the proposed approach is implemented. • The implemented system is used in a safety-critical environment.

  6. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chih-Wei, E-mail: yangcw@iner.gov.tw [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546, Taiwan (China); Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study investigates procedure types' effects on operators' performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users' mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower 'field of view' provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the

  7. Cognitive and affective components of mental workload: Understanding the effects of each on human decision making behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors and ergonomics researchers have recognized for some time the increasing importance of understanding the role of the construct of mental workload in flight research. Current models of mental workload suggest that it is a multidimensional and complex construct, but one that has proved difficult to measure. Because of this difficulty, emphasis has usually been placed on using direct reports through subjective measures such as rating scales to assess levels of mental workload. The NASA Task Load Index (NASA/TLX, Hart and Staveland) has been shown to be a highly reliable and sensitive measure of perceived mental workload. But a problem with measures like TLX is that there is still considerable disagreement as to what it is about mental workload that these subjective measures are actually measuring. The empirical use of subjective workload measures has largely been to provide estimates of the cognitive components of the actual mental workload required for a task. However, my research suggests that these measures may, in fact have greater potential in accurately assessing the affective components of workload. That is, for example, TLX may be more likely to assess the positive and negative feelings associated with varying workload levels, which in turn may potentially influence the decision making behavior that directly bears on performance and safety issues. Pilots, for example, are often called upon to complete many complex tasks that are high in mental workload, stress, and frustration, and that have significant dynamic decision making components -- often ones that involve risk as well.

  8. Neurophysiologic monitoring of mental workload and fatigue during operation of a flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael E.; Gevins, Alan

    2005-05-01

    In one experiment, EEG recordings were made during a daytime session while 16 well-rested participants performed versions of a PC flight simulator task that were either low, moderate, or high in difficulty. In another experiment, the same subjects repeatedly performed high difficulty versions of the same task during an all night session with total sleep deprivation. Multivariate EEG metrics of cortical activation were derived for frontal brain regions essential for working memory and executive control processes that are presumably important for maintaining situational awareness, central brain regions essential for sensorimotor control, and posterior parietal and occipital regions essential for visuoperceptual processing. During the daytime session each of these regional measures displayed greater activation during the high difficulty task than during the low difficulty task, and degree of cortical activation was positively correlated with subjective workload ratings in these well-rested subjects. During the overnight session, cortical activation declined with time-on-task, and the degree of this decline over frontal regions was negatively correlated with subjective workload ratings. Since participants were already highly skilled in the task, such changes likely reflect fatigue-related diminishment of frontal executive capability rather than practice effects. These findings suggest that the success of efforts to gauge mental workload via proxy cortical activation measures in the context of adaptive automation systems will likely depend on use of user models that take both task demands and the operator"s state of alertness into account. Further methodological development of the measurement approach outlined here would be required to achieve a practical, effective objective means for monitoring transient changes in cognitive brain function during performance of complex real-world tasks.

  9. Evaluation of mental workload on digital maintenance systems in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, S. L.; Huang, F. H.; Lin, J. C.; Liang, G. F.; Yenn, T. C.; Hsu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate operators' mental workload dealing with digital maintenance systems in Nuclear Power Plants. First of all, according to the factors affected the mental workload, a questionnaire was designed to evaluate the mental workload of maintenance operators at the second Nuclear Power (NPP) in Taiwan. Then, sixteen maintenance engineers of the Second NPP participated in the questionnaire survey. The results indicated that the mental workload was lower in digital systems than that in analog systems. Finally, a mental workload model based on Neural Network technique was developed to predict the workload of maintenance operators in digital maintenance systems. (authors)

  10. Collaborative Operations for Personnel Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    framework of the NASA TLX will be used to discuss the implications of the Co-OPR system on workload. The NASA TLX is a subjective workload assessment tool...that allows users to perform subjective workload assessments on operator(s) working with various human- machine systems. NASA TLX is a multi...Bundy, A.), IOS Press. Tate, A. (2006) The Helpful Environment: distributed agents and services which cooperate, in "Cooperative Information Agents X

  11. Automation-aided Task Loads Index based on the Automation Rate Reflecting the Effects on Human Operators in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seungmin; Seong, Poonghyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Many researchers have found that a high automation rate does not guarantee high performance. Therefore, to reflect the effects of automation on human performance, a new estimation method of the automation rate that considers the effects of automation on human operators in nuclear power plants (NPPs) was suggested. These suggested measures express how much automation support human operators but it cannot express the change of human operators' workload, whether the human operators' workload is increased or decreased. Before considering automation rates, whether the adopted automation is good or bad might be estimated in advance. In this study, to estimate the appropriateness of automation according to the change of the human operators' task loads, automation-aided task loads index is suggested based on the concept of the suggested automation rate. To insure plant safety and efficiency on behalf of human operators, various automation systems have been installed in NPPs, and many works which were previously conducted by human operators can now be supported by computer-based operator aids. According to the characteristics of the automation types, the estimation method of the system automation and the cognitive automation rate were suggested. The proposed estimation method concentrates on the effects of introducing automation, so it directly express how much the automated system support human operators. Based on the suggested automation rates, the way to estimate how much the automated system can affect the human operators' cognitive task load is suggested in this study. When there is no automation, the calculated index is 1, and it means there is no change of human operators' task load.

  12. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  13. Tactical decision making for selective expansion of operating room resources incorporating financial criteria and uncertainty in subspecialties' future workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Ledolter, Johannes; Wachtel, Ruth E

    2005-05-01

    We considered the allocation of operating room (OR) time at facilities where the strategic decision had been made to increase the number of ORs. Allocation occurs in two stages: a long-term tactical stage followed by short-term operational stage. Tactical decisions, approximately 1 yr in advance, determine what specialized equipment and expertise will be needed. Tactical decisions are based on estimates of future OR workload for each subspecialty or surgeon. We show that groups of surgeons can be excluded from consideration at this tactical stage (e.g., surgeons who need intensive care beds or those with below average contribution margins per OR hour). Lower and upper limits are estimated for the future demand of OR time by the remaining surgeons. Thus, initial OR allocations can be accomplished with only partial information on future OR workload. Once the new ORs open, operational decision-making based on OR efficiency is used to fill the OR time and adjust staffing. Surgeons who were not allocated additional time at the tactical stage are provided increased OR time through operational adjustments based on their actual workload. In a case study from a tertiary hospital, future demand estimates were needed for only 15% of surgeons, illustrating the practicality of these methods for use in tactical OR allocation decisions.

  14. Estimation of Human Workload from the Auditory Steady-State Response Recorded via a Wearable Electroencephalography System during Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yokota

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Workload in the human brain can be a useful marker of internal brain state. However, due to technical limitations, previous workload studies have been unable to record brain activity via conventional electroencephalography (EEG and magnetoencephalography (MEG devices in mobile participants. In this study, we used a wearable EEG system to estimate workload while participants walked in a naturalistic environment. Specifically, we used the auditory steady-state response (ASSR which is an oscillatory brain activity evoked by repetitive auditory stimuli, as an estimation index of workload. Participants performed three types of N-back tasks, which were expected to command different workloads, while walking at a constant speed. We used a binaural 500 Hz pure tone with amplitude modulation at 40 Hz to evoke the ASSR. We found that the phase-locking index (PLI of ASSR activity was significantly correlated with the degree of task difficulty, even for EEG data from few electrodes. Thus, ASSR appears to be an effective indicator of workload during walking in an ecologically valid environment.

  15. Assessing mental workload and situation awareness in the evaluation of computerized procedures in the main control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chih-Wei; Yang, Li-Chen; Cheng, Tsung-Chieh; Jou, Yung-Tsan; Chiou, Shian-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study investigates procedure types’ effects on operators’ performance. ► The computer-based procedure is suggested to be implemented in the main control room. ► The computer-based procedure brings lowest mental workload. ► And it also generates fewer error of omission, and the highest situation awareness. ► The shift supervisor has the highest workload and the lowest situation awareness. - Abstract: Computerized procedure (CP) system has been developed in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I and C) system. The system may include normal operating procedures (OPs), abnormal operating procedures (AOPs), alarm response procedures (ARPs), surveillance test procedures (STPs) and/or emergency operating procedures (EOPs). While there are many ways to evaluate computerized procedures design, the user's mental workload and situation awareness (SA) are particularly important considerations in the supervisory control of safety-critical systems. Users’ mental workload and situation awareness may be influenced by human factor issues relating to computerized procedures, e.g., level of automation, dealing with (partially) unavailable I and C, switching to back-up system (e.g., paper-based procedures). Some of the positive impacts of CPs on operator performance include the following: tasks can be performed more quickly; overall workload can be reduced; cognitive workload can be minimized; fewer errors may be made in transitioning through or between procedures. However, various challenges have also been identified with CP systems. These should be addressed in the design and implementation of CPs where they are applicable. For example, narrower “field of view” provided by CP systems than with paper-based procedures could reduce crew communications and crewmember awareness of the status and progress through the procedure. Based on a human factors experiment in which each participant monitored and controlled multiple simulated

  16. Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores measured by NASA-TLX technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2006-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that a large portion of human performance related problems was attributed to the complexity of tasks. Therefore, managing the complexity of tasks is a prerequisite for safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs), because the consequence of a degraded human performance could be more severe than in other systems. From this concern, it is necessary to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks that are stipulated in procedures, because most tasks of NPPs have been specified in the form of procedures. For this reason, Park et al. developed a task complexity measure called TACOM. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the TACOM measure, subjective workload scores that were measured by the NASA-TLX technique were compared with the associated TACOM scores. To do this, 23 emergency tasks of the reference NPPs were selected, and then subjective workload scores for these emergency tasks were quantified by 18 operators who had a sufficient knowledge about emergency operations

  17. Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores measured by NASA-TLX technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    It is a well-known fact that a large portion of human performance related problems was attributed to the complexity of tasks. Therefore, managing the complexity of tasks is a prerequisite for safety-critical systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs), because the consequence of a degraded human performance could be more severe than in other systems. From this concern, it is necessary to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks that are stipulated in procedures, because most tasks of NPPs have been specified in the form of procedures. For this reason, Park et al. developed a task complexity measure called TACOM. In this study, in order to confirm the validity of the TACOM measure, subjective workload scores that were measured by the NASA-TLX technique were compared with the associated TACOM scores. To do this, 23 emergency tasks of the reference NPPs were selected, and then subjective workload scores for these emergency tasks were quantified by 18 operators who had a sufficient knowledge about emergency operations.

  18. How to Do More with Less: Handling an Increased Workload While Maintaining Human Capital Level

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doerr, Jr., James C; Glazman, Emily

    2008-01-01

    ...) and local situation with regard to "human capital." The DoD is particularly concerned with the issue of maintaining its knowledge base in the face of large numbers of workers retiring and with an ever-increasing and increasingly complex workload...

  19. Study on the identification of main drivers affecting the performance of human operators during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Ji Tae; Kim, Jaewhan; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance of human operator during LPSD operation is significantly important. • Human performance is affected by drivers such as procedure, training, and etc. • Main drivers during LPSD operation at domestic NPPs were suggested. • It is expected that it will be used for estimating human reliability during LPSD operation. - Abstract: In the past, many researchers believed that a reactor during low power and shutdown operation was sufficiently safe. This belief has been changed by the number of accidents during such types of operation, which is significantly high. Also, it was pointed out that one of the main differences between low power and shutdown operation and full power operation is the significance of human action because there are huge amounts of human actions due to extensive maintenance and testing while automatic control and safety functions may be disabled and procedures are insufficient or incomplete. This paper suggests the main drivers in performing human reliability analysis. For this study, we reviewed eight reports relating to human performance during low power and shutdown operation and applied a root cause analysis method for 53 human or human-related events at domestic nuclear power plants to derive the main drivers that affect the occurrence of those events. As a result, several main drivers were derived, such as procedures, training, experience of personnel, and workload/stress. It is expected that these main drivers will be used to perform human reliability analysis for low power and shutdown operation.

  20. WBDOC Weekly Workload Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Weekly reports of workloads processed in the Wilkes Barre Data Operation Center. Reports on quantities of work received, processed, pending and average processing...

  1. Development of emergency operator support system for next Japanese PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Sugino, K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of main control room improvement is to reduce operator workload and potential human errors by offering a better working environment where operators can maximize their abilities. Japanese PWR utilities and Mitsubishi have developed an operator support system entitled Emergency Operator Support System (EOSS). The system supports operators in incidental/accidental situations which may be worsened by human errors. In order to confirm the validity of the system, a proto type was built, and was evaluated by operator crews. The consequence showed good result of effectiveness in avoiding potential human errors and decreasing workload of operators. (authors)

  2. Avaliação da carga de trabalho dos operadores de uma empresa distribuidora de derivados de petróleo Evaluation of an oil distributor company operator's workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimara Ballardin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra o método adotado e os resultados obtidos em estudo realizado com operadores de uma distribuidora de derivados de petróleo da região Sul do Brasil. O objetivo era avaliar a carga de trabalho e os fatores que interferem nessa carga, do ponto de vista dos operadores. A metodologia aplicada incluiu entrevistas e dois questionários, um adaptado do NASA-TLX e um para levantamento dos fatores que interferem na carga de trabalho. Os resultados indicaram que a maioria dos operadores percebe que a carga de trabalho é alta. Entre os componentes da carga de trabalho, o desempenho é a que tem peso maior, enquanto os problemas relacionados a equipamentos e sistemas informatizados são os que mais influenciam nessa carga. Tendo em vista os resultados obtidos, é necessário aperfeiçoar os subsistemas, técnico e organizacional, da empresa para gerar melhorias na performance, saúde e satisfação dos operadores.The aim of this study was to evaluate workloads as perceived by the operators of an oil distribution company in Southern Brazil. Workload levels were measured by a questionnaire adapted from the NASA-TLX, and the factors that impact on the workload were identified by interviews and questionnaire. The results showed that the workload level is high, mainly due to technical constraints (such as equipment and computational problems. Performance is the component which most influences workload. According to the results, it is necessary to improve the technical and organizational subsystems of the oil distribution company in order to improve human performance as well as the health and safety of the operators.

  3. Semi-automated CCTV surveillance: the effects of system confidence, system accuracy and task complexity on operator vigilance, reliance and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadashi, N; Stedmon, A W; Pridmore, T P

    2013-09-01

    Recent advances in computer vision technology have lead to the development of various automatic surveillance systems, however their effectiveness is adversely affected by many factors and they are not completely reliable. This study investigated the potential of a semi-automated surveillance system to reduce CCTV operator workload in both detection and tracking activities. A further focus of interest was the degree of user reliance on the automated system. A simulated prototype was developed which mimicked an automated system that provided different levels of system confidence information. Dependent variable measures were taken for secondary task performance, reliance and subjective workload. When the automatic component of a semi-automatic CCTV surveillance system provided reliable system confidence information to operators, workload significantly decreased and spare mental capacity significantly increased. Providing feedback about system confidence and accuracy appears to be one important way of making the status of the automated component of the surveillance system more 'visible' to users and hence more effective to use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Updated Army Cook Staffing Model to Reflect Workloads Generated by Current Field Feeding Operations, Group Rations, and Kitchens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirejczyk, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    ...: the Unitized Group Ration-A (UGR-A) and the Unitized Group Ration-Heat/Serve (UGR-H/S). These fieldings were designed to increase the frequency and quality of group hot meals and reduce the cook workloads generated by field feeding operations...

  5. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Hsieh, Tsung-Ling; Lin, Shiau-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed

  6. Development of staffing evaluation principle for advanced main control room and the effect on situation awareness and mental workload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Section 4, Keelung Road, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Tsung-Ling, E-mail: bm1129@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Lungtan 32546, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shiau-Feng, E-mail: g9602411@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Road, Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • A staffing evaluation principle was developed for the advanced main control room. • The principle proposed to improve situation awareness and mental workload. • The principle has good validity that was examined by experimental design. - Abstract: Situation awareness and mental workload, both of which influence operator performance in the advanced main control room of a nuclear power plant, can be affected by staffing level. The key goal of staffing is to ensure the proper number of personnel to support plant operations and events. If the staffing level is not adaptive, the operators may have low situation awareness and an excessive mental workload, which lead to human error. Accordingly, this study developed a staffing evaluation principle based on CPM-GOMS modeling for operations in the advanced main control room. A within-subject experiment was designed to examine the validity of the staffing evaluation principle. The results indicated that the situation awareness, mental workload, and operating performance of the staffing level determined by the staffing evaluation principle was significantly better than that of the non-evaluated staffing level; thus, the validity of the staffing evaluation technique is acceptable. The implications of the findings of this study on managerial practice are discussed.

  7. Crew workload-management strategies - A critical factor in system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the philosophy and goals of the NASA/USAF Strategic Behavior/Workload Management Program. The philosophical foundation of the program is based on the assumption that an improved understanding of pilot strategies will clarify the complex and inconsistent relationships observed among objective task demands and measures of system performance and pilot workload. The goals are to: (1) develop operationally relevant figures of merit for performance, (2) quantify the effects of strategic behaviors on system performance and pilot workload, (3) identify evaluation criteria for workload measures, and (4) develop methods of improving pilots' abilities to manage workload extremes.

  8. Brain biomarkers based assessment of cognitive workload in pilots under various task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Rodolphe J; Rietschel, Jeremy C; Jaquess, Kyle J; Lo, Li-Chuan; Prevost, Michael; Miller, Matt W; Mohler, Jessica M; Oh, Hyuk; Tan, Ying Ying; Hatfield, Bradley D

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive workload is an important element of cognitive-motor performance such as that exhibited during the piloting of an aircraft. Namely, an increase in task demands on the pilot can elevate cognitive information processing and, thus, the risk of human error. As such, there is a need to develop methods that reliably assess mental workload in pilots within operational settings. The present study contributes to this research goal by identifying physiological and brain biomarkers of cognitive workload and attentional reserve during a simulated aircraft piloting task under three progressive levels of challenge. A newly developed experimental method was employed by which electroencephalography (EEG) was acquired via a dry (i.e., gel-free sensors) system using few scalp sites. Self-reported responses to surveys and piloting performance indicators were analyzed. The findings revealed that as the challenge (task demands) increased, the perceived mental load increased, attentional reserve was attenuated, and task performance decreased. Such an increase in task demands was also reflected by changes in heart rate variability (HRV), as well as in the amplitude of the P300 component of event-related potentials to auditory probes, and in the spectral power of specific EEG frequency bands. This work provides a first step towards a long-term goal to develop a composite system of biomarkers for real-time cognitive workload assessment and state assessment of pilots in operational settings.

  9. Physiological Indicators of Workload in a Remotely Piloted Aircraft Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    cognitive workload. That is, both cognitive underload and overload can negatively impact performance (Young & Stanton, 2002). One solution to...Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Toward preventing performance decrements associated with mental overload in remotely piloted aircraft (RPA...operations, the current research investigated the feasibility of using physiological measures to assess cognitive workload. Two RPA operators were

  10. The Management of Local Government Apparatus Resource Based on Job and Workload Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cahyasari, Erlita

    2016-01-01

    This Papers focus on Job analysis as the basis of human resource system. It is describe about the job and workload and also the obstacles that are perhaps to observe during the work, and to supply all of activities of human resource management in the organization. Workload analysis is a process to decide the sum of time required to finish a specific job. The result of job and workload analysis goals to determine the number of employees needed in correspond to some specific workload and respon...

  11. Effects of mental workload on physiological and subjective responses during traffic density monitoring: A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated operators' mental workload while monitoring traffic density in a city traffic control center. To determine the mental workload, physiological signals (ECG, EMG) were recorded and the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was administered for 16 operators. The results showed that the operators experienced a larger mental workload during high traffic density than during low traffic density. The traffic control center stressors caused changes in heart rate variability features and EMG amplitude, although the average workload score was significantly higher in HTD conditions than in LTD conditions. The findings indicated that increasing traffic congestion had a significant effect on HR, RMSSD, SDNN, LF/HF ratio, and EMG amplitude. The results suggested that when operators' workload increases, their mental fatigue and stress level increase and their mental health deteriorate. Therefore, it maybe necessary to implement an ergonomic program to manage mental health. Furthermore, by evaluating mental workload, the traffic control center director can organize the center's traffic congestion operators to sustain the appropriate mental workload and improve traffic control management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  12. An Experiment on the Impact of Communication Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun; Ha, Jun Su

    2015-01-01

    Korean government won a contract of nuclear power plants to UAE government in 2010 and nuclear power plants are now under construction in Barakah, UAE. However, with technology transfer and international cooperation, there needs to consider several potential problems due to the differences between two culture of the countries such as language, technical culture and expectation. It is unknown how potential problems can lead to an unsafe plant operation as well. We got to know language problem is the main issue from analyzing the OERs. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and they will operate the NPPs with other countries' operators and managers. Therefore they will have to use English when they communicate each other. The purpose of this paper is to confirm how much operators get stress and how much accuracy is declined when operators communicate together in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safety. As mental workload of human operator is increased, operators get more stress, then the probability of occurring human error may be increased. It will affect bad influence to nuclear power plants safety. There are many factors to make mental workload increased. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of the increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and they may work together with UAE operators. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To find the impact of how much English affects the operators' workload, we did two cases of experiments; one is experiment for diagnosis and the other is experiment for execution

  13. An Experiment on the Impact of Communication Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Lee, Chanyoung; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    Korean government won a contract of nuclear power plants to UAE government in 2010 and nuclear power plants are now under construction in Barakah, UAE. However, with technology transfer and international cooperation, there needs to consider several potential problems due to the differences between two culture of the countries such as language, technical culture and expectation. It is unknown how potential problems can lead to an unsafe plant operation as well. We got to know language problem is the main issue from analyzing the OERs. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and they will operate the NPPs with other countries' operators and managers. Therefore they will have to use English when they communicate each other. The purpose of this paper is to confirm how much operators get stress and how much accuracy is declined when operators communicate together in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safety. As mental workload of human operator is increased, operators get more stress, then the probability of occurring human error may be increased. It will affect bad influence to nuclear power plants safety. There are many factors to make mental workload increased. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of the increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and they may work together with UAE operators. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To find the impact of how much English affects the operators' workload, we did two cases of experiments; one is experiment for diagnosis and the other is experiment for execution.

  14. An Unobtrusive System to Measure, Assess, and Predict Cognitive Workload in Real-World Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bethany K.; Palmon, Noa; Elkin-Frankston, Seth; Irvin, Scott; Jenkins, Michael; Farry, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Across many careers, individuals face alternating periods of high and low attention and cognitive workload, which can result in impaired cognitive functioning and can be detrimental to job performance. For example, some professions (e.g., fire fighters, emergency medical personnel, doctors and nurses working in an emergency room, pilots) require long periods of low workload (boredom), followed by sudden, high-tempo operations during which they may be required to respond to an emergency and perform at peak cognitive levels. Conversely, other professions (e.g., air traffic controllers, market investors in financial industries, analysts) require long periods of high workload and multitasking during which the addition of just one more task results in cognitive overload resulting in mistakes. An unobtrusive system to measure, assess, and predict cognitive workload could warn individuals, their teammates, or their supervisors when steps should be taken to augment cognitive readiness. In this talk I will describe an approach to this problem that we have found to be successful across work domains including: (1) a suite of unobtrusive, field-ready neurophysiological, physiological, and behavioral sensors that are chosen to best suit the target environment; (2) custom algorithms and statistical techniques to process and time-align raw data originating from the sensor suite; (3) probabilistic and statistical models designed to interpret the data into the human state of interest (e.g., cognitive workload, attention, fatigue); (4) and machine-learning techniques to predict upcoming performance based on the current pattern of events, and (5) display of each piece of information depending on the needs of the target user who may or may not want to drill down into the functioning of the system to determine how conclusions about human state and performance are determined. I will then focus in on our experimental results from our custom functional near-infrared spectroscopy sensor

  15. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes eye movements

  16. Hysteresis in Mental Workload and Task Performance: The Influence of Demand Transitions and Task Prioritization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Reinier J; Sawyer, Ben D; van Egmond, René; de Ridder, Huib; Hancock, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    We examine how transitions in task demand are manifested in mental workload and performance in a dual-task setting. Hysteresis has been defined as the ongoing influence of demand levels prior to a demand transition. Authors of previous studies predominantly examined hysteretic effects in terms of performance. However, little is known about the temporal development of hysteresis in mental workload. A simulated driving task was combined with an auditory memory task. Participants were instructed to prioritize driving or to prioritize both tasks equally. Three experimental conditions with low, high, and low task demands were constructed by manipulating the frequency of lane changing. Multiple measures of subjective mental workload were taken during experimental conditions. Contrary to our prediction, no hysteretic effects were found after the high- to low-demand transition. However, a hysteretic effect in mental workload was found within the high-demand condition, which degraded toward the end of the high condition. Priority instructions were not reflected in performance. Online assessment of both performance and mental workload demonstrates the transient nature of hysteretic effects. An explanation for the observed hysteretic effect in mental workload is offered in terms of effort regulation. An informed arrival at the scene is important in safety operations, but peaks in mental workload should be avoided to prevent buildup of fatigue. Therefore, communication technologies should incorporate the historical profile of task demand. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  17. Analysis of a tool ergonomic working in air traffic control: perceptions of operators and contributions to workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlete Ana Motter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the perception of the operators and the role of the strips in the workload of air traffic controllers in light of the ergonomic analysis of work. It was developed during the data collection for the doctoral thesis defended in 2007 at the Post-graduate in Production Engineering at UFSC. Submitted to and approved by the Ethics Committee  in Research of the  Tuiuti University of Paraná. A number of 35 military operators of both sexes (80% male and 20% female participated, all belonging to the Brazilian Air Force, which carried out their functions in the Second Integrated Center of Air Defense and Air Traffic Control (CINDACTA II, located in Curitiba-PR. It was used the methodology of analysis of work ergonomics. The results made it possible to know the content of the prescribed electronic strip and the complexity of work in real activity, such as the manual entry of the strip and the AFIL flight plan. It was verified that the operators build operational strategies in terms of organization of the strips in order to facilitate their work. The conclusion is that in the work of air traffic controller there are several interacting variables, and when the content of the work required is different from what is established, the workload increases, which may endanger the health of workers as well as aircraft safety.

  18. Development of a Pilot Program for Human Factors Management in Operating Nuclear Power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Woon; Lee, Yong-Hee; Jang, Tong-Il; Kim, Dae-Ho

    2007-01-01

    The human factors of operating NPPs have been reviewed as a part of Periodic Safety Reviews (PSRs). This human factors PSR covers a wide range of human factors including control room man-machine interfaces (MMIs), procedures, working conditions, qualification, training, information requirements and workload. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has performed human factors PSRs from the first PSR for Kori 1. It was determined in 2005 that for a Continuous Operation of the Korean NPPs an enhanced PSR should be performed and issues raised from the PSRs should be resolved. From the results of the PSR for Kori 1, several safety enhancement issues related to human factors were raised. KAERI is working on a resolution of some of the human factors issues for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP). As a part of the resolution, we are developing a human factors management program (HFMP) for Kori 1. This paper introduces the status of our development of HFMP

  19. Evaluating Robot-Operator Job Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moses, Franklin L; Brooks, Peter S; Hofmann, M; Johnson, E; Laveson, J; Zaccaro, S

    2007-01-01

    .... Tests that do include performance of the human operator often rely on qualitative observations -- observer judgments and interviews about workload, situation awareness, cognitive issues, and so on...

  20. Effect of Tire Pressure to Physical Workload at Operating a Manual Wheelchair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booka, Masayuki; Yoneda, Ikuo; Hashizume, Tsutomu; Lee, Hokyoo; Oku, Hidehisa; Fujisawa, Shoichiro

    2015-01-01

    It is often experienced that low tire pressure of the wheelchair not only increases running resistance, but also reduces parking brake performance. In this study, the required driving forces for different tire pressures were experimentally measured and evaluated. It was indicated from the result that the wheelchair with proper tire pressure could be run with less workload of wheelchair-user. Then it was also indicated that the wheelchair with a lower tire pressure needed more workload of wheelchair-user even on hard level surface.

  1. Classification Systems for Individual Differences in Multiple-task Performance and Subjective Estimates of Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    Human factors practitioners often are concerned with mental workload in multiple-task situations. Investigations of these situations have demonstrated repeatedly that individuals differ in their subjective estimates of workload. These differences may be attributed in part to individual differences in definitions of workload. However, after allowing for differences in the definition of workload, there are still unexplained individual differences in workload ratings. The relation between individual differences in multiple-task performance, subjective estimates of workload, information processing abilities, and the Type A personality trait were examined.

  2. Investigation of relationship between mental workload and information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Chang Hoon

    2005-02-15

    The objective of this study is to investigate experimentally the relationship between an operator's mental workload and the information flow rate of accident diagnosis tasks and further to propose the information flow rate as an analytic method for measuring the mental workload. There are two types of mental workload in the advanced MCR of NPPs: the information processing workload, which is the processing that the human operator must actually perform in order to complete the diagnosis task, and emotional stress workload experienced by the operator. In this study, the focus is on the former. Three kinds of methods are used to measure the operator's workload: information flow rate, subjective methods, and physiological measures. Information flows for eight accident diagnosis tasks are modeled qualitatively using a stage model and are quantified using Conant's model. The eight accident cases are considered here are: Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA), Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR), Steam Line Break (SLB), Feedwater Line Break (FLB), Pressurizer (PZR) spray and heater failure, Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) trip, Main Steam Isolation Valve (MSIV) failure, and PZR spray failure. The information flow rate is obtained for each diagnosis task by imposing time limit restrictions for the tasks. Subjective methods require the operators to respond to questionnaires to rate their level of mental effort. NASA-TLX and MCH scale are selected as subjective methods. NASA-TLX is a subjective method used in the various fields including the aviation, automobile, and nuclear industries. It has a multi-dimensional rating technique and provides an overall workload score based on a weighted average on six subscales using pair-wise comparison tests. MCH, on the other hand, is one-dimensional and uses a 10- point rating technique. As with NASA-TLX, the higher the score is, the higher the subjective workload is. For the physiological measurements, an eye tracking system analyzes

  3. The psychometrics of mental workload: multiple measures are sensitive but divergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gerald; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren E; Barber, Daniel J; Abich, Julian

    2015-02-01

    A study was run to test the sensitivity of multiple workload indices to the differing cognitive demands of four military monitoring task scenarios and to investigate relationships between indices. Various psychophysiological indices of mental workload exhibit sensitivity to task factors. However, the psychometric properties of multiple indices, including the extent to which they intercorrelate, have not been adequately investigated. One hundred fifty participants performed in four task scenarios based on a simulation of unmanned ground vehicle operation. Scenarios required threat detection and/or change detection. Both single- and dual-task scenarios were used. Workload metrics for each scenario were derived from the electroencephalogram (EEG), electrocardiogram, transcranial Doppler sonography, functional near infrared, and eye tracking. Subjective workload was also assessed. Several metrics showed sensitivity to the differing demands of the four scenarios. Eye fixation duration and the Task Load Index metric derived from EEG were diagnostic of single-versus dual-task performance. Several other metrics differentiated the two single tasks but were less effective in differentiating single- from dual-task performance. Psychometric analyses confirmed the reliability of individual metrics but failed to identify any general workload factor. An analysis of difference scores between low- and high-workload conditions suggested an effort factor defined by heart rate variability and frontal cortex oxygenation. General workload is not well defined psychometrically, although various individual metrics may satisfy conventional criteria for workload assessment. Practitioners should exercise caution in using multiple metrics that may not correspond well, especially at the level of the individual operator.

  4. EEG correlates of task engagement and mental workload in vigilance, learning, and memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J; Lumicao, Michelle N; Yau, Alan; Davis, Gene; Zivkovic, Vladimir T; Olmstead, Richard E; Tremoulet, Patrice D; Craven, Patrick L

    2007-05-01

    The ability to continuously and unobtrusively monitor levels of task engagement and mental workload in an operational environment could be useful in identifying more accurate and efficient methods for humans to interact with technology. This information could also be used to optimize the design of safer, more efficient work environments that increase motivation and productivity. The present study explored the feasibility of monitoring electroencephalo-graphic (EEG) indices of engagement and workload acquired unobtrusively and quantified during performance of cognitive tests. EEG was acquired from 80 healthy participants with a wireless sensor headset (F3-F4,C3-C4,Cz-POz,F3-Cz,Fz-C3,Fz-POz) during tasks including: multi-level forward/backward-digit-span, grid-recall, trails, mental-addition, 20-min 3-Choice Vigilance, and image-learning and memory tests. EEG metrics for engagement and workload were calculated for each 1 -s of EEG. Across participants, engagement but not workload decreased over the 20-min vigilance test. Engagement and workload were significantly increased during the encoding period of verbal and image-learning and memory tests when compared with the recognition/ recall period. Workload but not engagement increased linearly as level of difficulty increased in forward and backward-digit-span, grid-recall, and mental-addition tests. EEG measures correlated with both subjective and objective performance metrics. These data in combination with previous studies suggest that EEG engagement reflects information-gathering, visual processing, and allocation of attention. EEG workload increases with increasing working memory load and during problem solving, integration of information, analytical reasoning, and may be more reflective of executive functions. Inspection of EEG on a second-by-second timescale revealed associations between workload and engagement levels when aligned with specific task events providing preliminary evidence that second

  5. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon

    2016-01-01

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems

  6. Mental Workload and Situational Awareness Evaluation of APR1400 Engineered Safety Features- Component Control Activation Systems using Augmented Reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murungi, Mwongeera; Jung, JaeCheon [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In the study, an Augmented Reality procedure guidance support system concept was designed and used as a tool for the measurement of mental workload and Situational awareness of an SRO (Senior Reactor Operator). The EOP was chosen as the scenario for testing because it is the one of the critical plant conditions that requires human intervention and it represents (one of the more) conservative approaches to the test scenarios that are possible. The system is expected to realize an improvement in the level of Situational Awareness and mental workload which have been demonstrated by previous studies to be directly linked with the system response to an emergency situation in the MCR. The planning and design of the project adhered to a Systems Engineering approach in order to provide an optimized framework for ensuring the successful implementation of the system design. Previous study and research into this topic has emphasized the importance of situational awareness in determining the human factor performance issues in the nuclear power plant Control Room operations. This paper broadly defined a technique that successfully used the operator’s mental workload (using NASATLX) and Situational Awareness (using SART) as quantifying measures to evaluate the performance of specific ESF-CCS functions based on human factors. These results show that an improvement of the SA/workload could lead to an improvement of the level of certainty that the emergency situation can be brought under control. It is expected that future development work in this area will yield an actualized Augmented Reality system that could incorporate MCR team control and possibly be implemented in the system validation of other I and C systems.

  7. Neutron beam irradiation study of workload dependence of SER in a microprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hong, Ted [STANFORD; Ackaret, Jerry [IBM; Sonny, Rao [IBM; Subhasish, Mitra [STANFORD; Pia, Sanda [IBM

    2009-01-01

    It is known that workloads are an important factor in soft error rates (SER), but it is proving difficult to find differentiating workloads for microprocessors. We have performed neutron beam irradiation studies of a commercial microprocessor under a wide variety of workload conditions from idle, performing no operations, to very busy workloads resembling real HPC, graphics, and business applications. There is evidence that the mean times to first indication of failure, MTFIF defined in Section II, may be different for some of the applications.

  8. Single-Pilot Workload Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Hackworth, Carla; Burian, Barbara; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Drechsler, Gena; Silverman, Evan; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Integrated glass cockpit systems place a heavy cognitive load on pilots (Burian Dismukes, 2007). Researchers from the NASA Ames Flight Cognition Lab and the FAA Flight Deck Human Factors Lab examined task and workload management by single pilots. This poster describes pilot performance regarding programming a reroute while at cruise and meeting a waypoint crossing restriction on the initial descent.

  9. Adaptive Automation Triggered by EEG-Based Mental Workload Index: A Passive Brain-Computer Interface Application in Realistic Air Traffic Control Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Pozzi, Simone; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Raïlane; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under - and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. The main issue on the use of AA is how to trigger the AA solutions without affecting the operative task. In this regard, passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems are a good candidate to activate automation, since they are able to gather information about the covert behavior (e.g., mental workload) of a subject by analyzing its neurophysiological signals (i.e., brain activity), and without interfering with the ongoing operational activity. We proposed a pBCI system able to trigger AA solutions integrated in a realistic Air Traffic Management (ATM) research simulator developed and hosted at ENAC (É cole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse, France). Twelve Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) students have been involved in the experiment and they have been asked to perform ATM scenarios with and without the support of the AA solutions. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload.

  10. Experiments on the Impact of language Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Taehoon; Seong, Poong Hyun; Ha, Jun Su

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, The Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was awarded a multi-billion dollar bid to construct the first nuclear power plant in Barakah, UAE. One must keep in mind however, that with technology transfer and international cooperation comes a host of potential problems arising from cultural differences such as language, everyday habitudes and workplace expectation. As of now, how problematic these potential issues may become is unknown. Of the aforementioned factors, communication is perhaps of foremost importance. We investigated UAE culture-related issues through analysis of operating experience reviews (OERs) and came to the conclusion that the language barrier needed utmost attention. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and will operate the NPPs with operators and managers of other nationalities as well. The purpose of this paper is firstly to confirm that operators are put under mental stress, and secondly to demonstrate the decline in accuracy when they must work in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safer. As the mental workload of human operator is increased, the probability of a human error occurring also increases. It will have a negative influence on the plant’s safety. There are many factors which can potentially increase mental workload. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and may work together with UAE operators. From these experiments we compared how performance of both Korean and UAE subjects were decreased when they use English. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To

  11. Workload assessment on foundry SME to enhance productivity using full time equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Amarria Dila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium SME aims to increase the production amount by producing wok as much as 300 Units. The problem is workload analysis of operator on the wok production line in the wok foundry SME as well as the production cycle-making cycle time and analyze the workload received by the operator when producing 300 woks using the full time equivalent (FTE method. This study aims to measure the workload of each division worker in the production process with a total of 13 workers observed. This study provides a work division recommendation based on the workload that has been carefully examined. This research involves percentage of workload effectiveness and the wages of workers. In lathe division have overload workload. While the printing division, melting inspection division, packaging and transportation division including normal workload category and the percentage of good work effectiveness. The result provides recommendations for the addition of 2 workers in each division that includes the category of overload of the lathe division with the number of initial workers as many as 13 workers to 15 workers. In the last stage perform a simulation by comparing the system of prefix work and proposal. The simulation results obtained with the initial work system to get an average of 223 woks / day. Meanwhile, for the proposed work system to get an average output of 291 woks.

  12. Experiments on the Impact of language Problems in the Multi-cultural Operation of NPPs' Emergency Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Seongkeun; Kim, Taehoon; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun Su [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-10-15

    In 2010, The Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) was awarded a multi-billion dollar bid to construct the first nuclear power plant in Barakah, UAE. One must keep in mind however, that with technology transfer and international cooperation comes a host of potential problems arising from cultural differences such as language, everyday habitudes and workplace expectation. As of now, how problematic these potential issues may become is unknown. Of the aforementioned factors, communication is perhaps of foremost importance. We investigated UAE culture-related issues through analysis of operating experience reviews (OERs) and came to the conclusion that the language barrier needed utmost attention. Korean nuclear power plant operators will work in UAE and will operate the NPPs with operators and managers of other nationalities as well. The purpose of this paper is firstly to confirm that operators are put under mental stress, and secondly to demonstrate the decline in accuracy when they must work in English. Reducing human error is quite important to make nuclear power plants safer. As the mental workload of human operator is increased, the probability of a human error occurring also increases. It will have a negative influence on the plant’s safety. There are many factors which can potentially increase mental workload. We focused on communication problem which is a key factor of increasing mental workload because many Korean operators will work in UAE nuclear power plants and may work together with UAE operators. From these experiments we compared how performance of both Korean and UAE subjects were decreased when they use English. We designed experimental methods to be able to check this problem qualitatively and quantitatively. We analyzed four factors to find the communication problems from the experiments which are accuracy, efficiency, NASA-TLX, and brain wave. Accuracy, efficiency, brain wave are quantitative factors, and NASA-TLX is qualitative factor. To

  13. Human Factors Considerations in Migration of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Operator Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tvaryanas, Anthony P

    2006-01-01

    ..., or both. There are potential advantages to control migration to include mitigating operator vigilance decrements and fatigue, facilitating operator task specialization, and optimizing workload during multi...

  14. MEASURING WORKLOAD OF ICU NURSES WITH A QUESTIONNAIRE SURVEY: THE NASA TASK LOAD INDEX (TLX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoonakker, Peter; Carayon, Pascale; Gurses, Ayse; Brown, Roger; McGuire, Kerry; Khunlertkit, Adjhaporn; Walker, James M

    2011-01-01

    High workload of nurses in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) has been identified as a major patient safety and worker stress problem. However, relative little attention has been dedicated to the measurement of workload in healthcare. The objectives of this study are to describe and examine several methods to measure workload of ICU nurses. We then focus on the measurement of ICU nurses' workload using a subjective rating instrument: the NASA TLX.We conducted secondary data analysis on data from two, multi-side, cross-sectional questionnaire studies to examine several instruments to measure ICU nurses' workload. The combined database contains the data from 757 ICU nurses in 8 hospitals and 21 ICUs.Results show that the different methods to measure workload of ICU nurses, such as patient-based and operator-based workload, are only moderately correlated, or not correlated at all. Results show further that among the operator-based instruments, the NASA TLX is the most reliable and valid questionnaire to measure workload and that NASA TLX can be used in a healthcare setting. Managers of hospitals and ICUs can benefit from the results of this research as it provides benchmark data on workload experienced by nurses in a variety of ICUs.

  15. Assessing physician job satisfaction and mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boultinghouse, Oscar W; Hammack, Glenn G; Vo, Alexander H; Dittmar, Mary Lynne

    2007-12-01

    Physician job satisfaction and mental workload were evaluated in a pilot study of five physicians engaged in a telemedicine practice at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston Electronic Health Network. Several previous studies have examined physician satisfaction with specific telemedicine applications; however, few have attempted to identify the underlying factors that contribute to physician satisfaction or lack thereof. One factor that has been found to affect well-being and functionality in the workplace-particularly with regard to human interaction with complex systems and tasks as seen in telemedicine-is mental workload. Workload is generally defined as the "cost" to a person for performing a complex task or tasks; however, prior to this study, it was unexplored as a variable that influences physician satisfaction. Two measures of job satisfaction were used: The Job Descriptive Index and the Job In General scales. Mental workload was evaluated by means of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index. The measures were administered by means of Web-based surveys and were given twice over a 6-month period. Nonparametric statistical analyses revealed that physician job satisfaction was generally high relative to that of the general population and other professionals. Mental workload scores associated with the practice of telemedicine in this environment are also high, and appeared stable over time. In addition, they are commensurate with scores found in individuals practicing tasks with elevated information-processing demands, such as quality control engineers and air traffic controllers. No relationship was found between the measures of job satisfaction and mental workload.

  16. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator`s physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs.

  17. A Human-Centered C2 Assessment of Model and Simulation Enhanced Planning Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    workload and to monitor workload across the duration of the event. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Task Load Index ( TLX ) (Hart and...Wednesday and Friday). The NASA- TLX is a subjective workload assessment measure that allows users to perform subjective workload assessments on...operator(s) working with various human-machine systems. A multidimensional rating procedure, NASA- TLX derives an overall workload score based on a

  18. The workload of fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    -reported occupational and health data. Questions covering the physical workload were related to seven different work situations and a score summing up the workload was developed for the analysis of the relative impact on different groups of fishermen. Results: Almost all fishermen (96.2%) were familiar to proper...... health. To address the specific areas of fishing with the highest workload, future investments in assistive devices to ease the demanding work and reduce the workload, should particularly address deckhands and less mechanized vessels....

  19. NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations: Science Operations Development for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) mission 16 in 2012 was to evaluate and compare the performance of a defined series of representative near-Earth asteroid (NEA) extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks under different conditions and combinations of work systems, constraints, and assumptions considered for future human NEA exploration missions. NEEMO 16 followed NASA's 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (D-RATS), the primary focus of which was understanding the implications of communication latency, crew size, and work system combinations with respect to scientific data quality, data management, crew workload, and crew/mission control interactions. The 1-g environment precluded meaningful evaluation of NEA EVA translation, worksite stabilization, sampling, or instrument deployment techniques. Thus, NEEMO missions were designed to provide an opportunity to perform a preliminary evaluation of these important factors for each of the conditions being considered. NEEMO 15 also took place in 2011 and provided a first look at many of the factors, but the mission was cut short due to a hurricane threat before all objectives were completed. ARES Directorate (KX) personnel consulted with JSC engineers to ensure that high-fidelity planetary science protocols were incorporated into NEEMO mission architectures. ARES has been collaborating with NEEMO mission planners since NEEMO 9 in 2006, successively building upon previous developments to refine science operations concepts within engineering constraints; it is expected to continue the collaboration as NASA's human exploration mission plans evolve.

  20. DDM Workload Emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vigne, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Lassnig, M; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2013-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from vario...

  1. DDM Workload Emulation

    CERN Document Server

    Vigne, R; The ATLAS collaboration; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from vario...

  2. A passive brain-computer interface application for the mental workload assessment on professional air traffic controllers during realistic air traffic control tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, P; Borghini, G; Di Flumeri, G; Colosimo, A; Pozzi, S; Babiloni, F

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, it has been a fast-growing concept in the neuroscience field. The passive brain-computer interface (p-BCI) systems allow to improve the human-machine interaction (HMI) in operational environments, by using the covert brain activity (eg, mental workload) of the operator. However, p-BCI technology could suffer from some practical issues when used outside the laboratories. In particular, one of the most important limitations is the necessity to recalibrate the p-BCI system each time before its use, to avoid a significant reduction of its reliability in the detection of the considered mental states. The objective of the proposed study was to provide an example of p-BCIs used to evaluate the users' mental workload in a real operational environment. For this purpose, through the facilities provided by the École Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse (France), the cerebral activity of 12 professional air traffic control officers (ATCOs) has been recorded while performing high realistic air traffic management scenarios. By the analysis of the ATCOs' brain activity (electroencephalographic signal-EEG) and the subjective workload perception (instantaneous self-assessment) provided by both the examined ATCOs and external air traffic control experts, it has been possible to estimate and evaluate the variation of the mental workload under which the controllers were operating. The results showed (i) a high significant correlation between the neurophysiological and the subjective workload assessment, and (ii) a high reliability over time (up to a month) of the proposed algorithm that was also able to maintain high discrimination accuracies by using a low number of EEG electrodes (~3 EEG channels). In conclusion, the proposed methodology demonstrated the suitability of p-BCI systems in operational environments and the advantages of the neurophysiological measures with respect to the subjective ones. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. EEG BASED COGNITIVE WORKLOAD CLASSIFICATION DURING NASA MATB-II MULTITASKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the best possible input EEG feature for classification of the workload while designing load balancing logic for an automated operator. The input features compared in this study consisted of spectral features of Electroencephalography, objective scoring and subjective scoring. Method utilizes to identify best EEG feature as an input in Neural Network Classifiers for workload classification, to identify channels which could provide classification with the highest accuracy and for identification of EEG feature which could give discrimination among workload level without adding any classifiers. The result had shown Engagement Index is the best feature for neural network classification.

  4. PanDA Beyond ATLAS: Workload Management for Data Intensive Science

    CERN Document Server

    Schovancova, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Maeno, T; Nilsson, P; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A; Vaniachine, A; Wenaus, T; Yu, D

    2013-01-01

    The PanDA Production ANd Distributed Analysis system has been developed by ATLAS to meet the experiment's requirements for a data-driven workload management system for production and distributed analysis processing capable of operating at LHC data processing scale. After 7 years of impressively successful PanDA operation in ATLAS there are also other experiments which can benefit from PanDA in the Big Data challenge, with several at various stages of evaluation and adoption. The new project "Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data" is extending PanDA to meet the needs of other data intensive scientific applications in HEP, astro-particle and astrophysics communities, bio-informatics and other fields as a general solution to large scale workload management. PanDA can utilize dedicated or opportunistic computing resources such as grids, clouds, and High Performance Computing facilities, and is being extended to leverage next generation intelligent networks in automated workflow mana...

  5. Quantifying the impact of cross coverage on physician's workload and performance in radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaly, Prithima R; Mazur, Lukasz M; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Zagar, Timothy; Chera, Bhishamjit S; Marks, Lawrence B

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the difference in workload and performance of radiation oncology physicians during radiation therapy treatment planning tasks under the conditions of "cross coverage" versus planning a patient with whom they were familiar. Eight physicians (3 experienced faculty physicians and 5 physician residents) performed 2 cases. The first case represented a "cross-coverage" scenario where the physicians had no prior information about the case to be planned. The second exposure represented a "regular-coverage" scenario where the physicians were familiar with the patient case to be planned. Each case involved 3 tasks to be completed systematically. Workload was assessed both subjectively (perceived) using National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), and objectively (physiological) throughout the task using eye data (via monitoring pupil size and blink rate). Performance of each task and the case was measured using completion time. Subjective willingness to approve or disapprove the generated plan was obtained after completion of the case only. Forty-eight perceived and 48 physiological workload assessments were obtained. Overall, results revealed a significant increase in perceived workload (high NASA-TLX score) and decrease in performance (longer completion time and reduced approval rate) during cross coverage. There were nonsignificant increases in pupil diameter and decreases in the blink rate during cross-coverage versus regular-coverage scenario. In both cross-coverage and regular-coverage scenarios the level of experience did not affect workload and performance. The cross-coverage scenario significantly increases perceived workload and degrades performance versus regular coverage. Hence, to improve patient safety, efforts must be made to develop policies, standard operating procedures, and usability improvements to electronic medical record and treatment planning systems for "easier" information processing to deal with

  6. EFFECTIVE INDICES FOR MONITORING MENTAL WORKLOAD WHILE PERFORMING MULTIPLE TASKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bin-Wei; Wang, Mao-Jiun J; Chen, Chi-Yuan; Chen, Fang

    2015-08-01

    This study identified several physiological indices that can accurately monitor mental workload while participants performed multiple tasks with the strategy of maintaining stable performance and maximizing accuracy. Thirty male participants completed three 10-min. simulated multitasks: MATB (Multi-Attribute Task Battery) with three workload levels. Twenty-five commonly used mental workload measures were collected, including heart rate, 12 HRV (heart rate variability), 10 EEG (electroencephalography) indices (α, β, θ, α/θ, θ/β from O1-O2 and F4-C4), and two subjective measures. Analyses of index sensitivity showed that two EEG indices, θ and α/θ (F4-C4), one time-domain HRV-SDNN (standard deviation of inter-beat intervals), and four frequency-domain HRV: VLF (very low frequency), LF (low frequency), %HF (percentage of high frequency), and LF/HF were sensitive to differentiate high workload. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) and LF/HF were most effective for monitoring high mental workload. LF/HF showed the highest correlations with other physiological indices. EEG α/θ (F4-C4) showed strong correlations with subjective measures across different mental workload levels. Operation strategy would affect the sensitivity of EEG α (F4-C4) and HF.

  7. Applying the Skill-Rule-Knowledge Framework to Understanding Operators’ Behaviors and Workload in Advanced Main Control Rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe; Shiang, Wei-Jung; Chuang, Chun-Yu; Liou, Jin-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Operator behaviors were analyzed according to Rasmussen's SRK classification. • Different job positions connote different abilities to perform the job successfully. • Rule-based behavior comprised the main behavior patterns of the operating crew. - Abstract: For the past years, a number of researches have focused on operators’ behaviors and workloads in advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in either the procedure-domain or knowledge-domain and in either workload-increased or workload-decreased conditions. Different job positions connote different responsibilities and abilities that are required to perform the job successfully. However, it may be inappropriate to apply a dichotomy in these issues. In this study, we clarified these controversial points through the analysis of the time, frequency, and workload of the behaviors based on Rasmussen's skill–rule–knowledge classification (SRK framework) according to the supervisor operator (SRO), reactor operator (RO), and assistant reactor operator (ARO). The results showed that, for the SRO, rule- and knowledge-based behaviors occurred more often than skill-based behavior in terms of time and frequency, and knowledge-based behavior was the main source of workload. For the RO, no significant differences were found among the three behavior types in terms of frequency and workload, but more time was spent on rule-based behaviors than on skill- and knowledge-based behaviors. The ARO spent more time performing skill-based behaviors than rule- and knowledge-based behaviors, but in terms of frequency and workload, rule-based behavior was the predominant type. Operators’ behaviors contribute to a plant's defense-in-depth approach to safety and serve a vital function in ensuring its safe operation. Research on behavioral taxonomies of advanced MCRs has many significant benefits in both scientific-theoretical and applied practical fields

  8. Applying the Skill-Rule-Knowledge Framework to Understanding Operators’ Behaviors and Workload in Advanced Main Control Rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiuhsiang Joe, E-mail: cjoelin@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Road, Section 4, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shiang, Wei-Jung, E-mail: wjs001@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chuang, Chun-Yu, E-mail: chunyu@iner.gov.tw [Department of Industrial Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung-Li 32023, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan 32546, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liou, Jin-Liang, E-mail: u683437@taipower.com.tw [Taiwan Power Company, 20F, 242, Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 3, Taipei 10016, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Operator behaviors were analyzed according to Rasmussen's SRK classification. • Different job positions connote different abilities to perform the job successfully. • Rule-based behavior comprised the main behavior patterns of the operating crew. - Abstract: For the past years, a number of researches have focused on operators’ behaviors and workloads in advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in either the procedure-domain or knowledge-domain and in either workload-increased or workload-decreased conditions. Different job positions connote different responsibilities and abilities that are required to perform the job successfully. However, it may be inappropriate to apply a dichotomy in these issues. In this study, we clarified these controversial points through the analysis of the time, frequency, and workload of the behaviors based on Rasmussen's skill–rule–knowledge classification (SRK framework) according to the supervisor operator (SRO), reactor operator (RO), and assistant reactor operator (ARO). The results showed that, for the SRO, rule- and knowledge-based behaviors occurred more often than skill-based behavior in terms of time and frequency, and knowledge-based behavior was the main source of workload. For the RO, no significant differences were found among the three behavior types in terms of frequency and workload, but more time was spent on rule-based behaviors than on skill- and knowledge-based behaviors. The ARO spent more time performing skill-based behaviors than rule- and knowledge-based behaviors, but in terms of frequency and workload, rule-based behavior was the predominant type. Operators’ behaviors contribute to a plant's defense-in-depth approach to safety and serve a vital function in ensuring its safe operation. Research on behavioral taxonomies of advanced MCRs has many significant benefits in both scientific-theoretical and applied practical fields.

  9. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 “Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  10. DDM Workload Emulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigne, R.; Schikuta, E.; Garonne, V.; Stewart, G.; Barisits, M.; Beermann, T.; Lassnig, M.; Serfon, C.; Goossens, L.; Nairz, A.; Atlas Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from various sources (e.g. analysing the central file catalogue logs). Finally a description of the implemented emulation framework, used for stress-testing Rucio, is given.

  11. DDM workload emulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigne, R; Schikuta, E; Garonne, V; Stewart, G; Barisits, M; Beermann, T; Lassnig, M; Serfon, C; Goossens, L; Nairz, A

    2014-01-01

    Rucio is the successor of the current Don Quijote 2 (DQ2) system for the distributed data management (DDM) system of the ATLAS experiment. The reasons for replacing DQ2 are manifold, but besides high maintenance costs and architectural limitations, scalability concerns are on top of the list. Current expectations are that the amount of data will be three to four times as it is today by the end of 2014. Further is the availability of more powerful computing resources pushing additional pressure on the DDM system as it increases the demands on data provisioning. Although DQ2 is capable of handling the current workload, it is already at its limits. To ensure that Rucio will be up to the expected workload, a way to emulate it is needed. To do so, first the current workload, observed in DQ2, must be understood in order to scale it up to future expectations. The paper discusses how selected core concepts are applied to the workload of the experiment and how knowledge about the current workload is derived from various sources (e.g. analysing the central file catalogue logs). Finally a description of the implemented emulation framework, used for stress-testing Rucio, is given.

  12. The effect of inclement weather on trauma orthopaedic workload.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, J P

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Climate change models predict increasing frequency of extreme weather. One of the challenges hospitals face is how to make sure they have adequate staffing at various times of the year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of this severe inclement weather on hospital admissions, operative workload and cost in the Irish setting. We hypothesised that there is a direct relationship between cold weather and workload in a regional orthopaedic trauma unit. METHODS: Trauma orthopaedic workload in a regional trauma unit was examined over 2 months between December 2009 and January 2010. This corresponded with a period of severe inclement weather. RESULTS: We identified a direct correlation between the drop in temperature and increase in workload, with a corresponding increase in demand on resources. CONCLUSIONS: Significant cost savings could be made if these injuries were prevented. While the information contained in this study is important in the context of resource planning and staffing of hospital trauma units, it also highlights the vulnerability of the Irish population to wintery weather.

  13. The development of human behavior analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Jae Chang.

    1997-07-01

    In this project, which is to study on man-machine interaction in Korean nuclear power plants, we developed SACOM (Simulation Analyzer with a Cognitive Operator Model), a tool for the assessment of task performance in the control rooms using software simulation, and also develop human error analysis and application techniques. SACOM was developed to assess operator's physical workload, workload in information navigation at VDU workstations, and cognitive workload in procedural tasks. We developed trip analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis system including a procedure based on man-machine interaction analysis and a classification system. We analyzed a total of 277 trips occurred from 1978 to 1994 to produce trip summary information, and for 79 cases induced by human errors time-lined man-machine interactions. The INSTEC, a database system of our analysis results, was developed. The MARSTEC, a multimedia authoring and representation system for trip information, was also developed, and techniques for human error detection in human factors experiments were established. (author). 121 refs., 38 tabs., 52 figs

  14. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  15. Time Based Workload Analysis Method for Safety-Related Operator Actions in Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Oh, Eung Se

    2016-01-01

    During the design basis event, the safety system performs safety functions to mitigate the event. The most of safety system is actuated by automatic system however, there are operator manual actions that are needed for the plant safety. These operator actions are classified as important human actions in human factors engineering design. The human factors engineering analysis and evaluation is needed for these important human actions to assure that operator successfully perform their tasks for plant safety and operational goals. The work load analysis is one of the required analysis for the important human actions.

  16. School Nurse Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as Google Scholar, PubMed, CINAHL, and Medline. Twenty-nine empirical studies and nine nonempirical articles were selected for inclusion. Themes that emerged consistent with school nurse practice include patient classification systems, environmental factors, assistive personnel, missed nursing care, and nurse satisfaction. School nursing is a public health discipline and population studies are an inherent research priority but may overlook workload variables at the clinical level. School nurses need a consistent method of population assessment, as well as evaluation of appropriate use of assistive personnel and school environment factors. Assessment of tasks not directly related to student care and professional development must also be considered in total workload.

  17. A unique approach to quantifying the changing workload and case mix in laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, P R; Gupta, V; Haray, P N

    2011-03-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery includes a range of operations with differing technical difficulty, and traditional parameters, such as conversion and complication rates, may not be sensitive enough to assess the complexity of these procedures. This study aims to define a reproducible and reliable tool for quantifying the total workload and the complexity of the case mix. This is a review of a single surgeon's 10-year experience. The intermediate equivalent value scoring system was used to code complexity of cases. To assess changes in the workload and case mix, the period has been divided into five phases. Three hundred and forty-nine laparoscopic operations were performed, of which there were 264 (75.6%) resections. The overall conversion rate was 17.8%, with progressive improvement over the phases. Complex major operation (CMO), as defined in the British United Provident Association (BUPA) schedule of procedures, accounted for 35% of the workload. In spite of similar numbers of cases in each phase, there was a steady increase in the workload score, correlating with the increasing complexity of the case mix. There was no significant difference in the conversion and complications rates between CMO and non-CMO. The paradoxical increase in the mean operating time with increasing experience corresponded to the progressive increase in the workload score, reflecting the increasing complexity of the case mix. This article establishes a reliable and reproducible tool for quantifying the total laparoscopic colorectal workload of an individual surgeon or of an entire department, while at the same time providing a measure of the complexity of the case mix. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. The workload analysis in welding workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, D.; Budiman, I.; Tryana Sembiring, M.; Sitorus, E.; Nasution, H.

    2018-03-01

    This research was conducted in welding workshop which produces doors, fences, canopies, etc., according to customer’s order. The symptoms of excessive workload were seen from the fact of employees complaint, requisition for additional employees, the lateness of completion time (there were 11 times of lateness from 28 orders, and 7 customers gave complaints). The top management of the workshop assumes that employees’ workload was still a tolerable limit. Therefore, it was required workload analysis to determine the number of employees required. The Workload was measured by using a physiological method and workload analysis. The result of this research can be utilized by the workshop for a better workload management.

  19. Clean Energy Use for Cloud Computing Federation Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahav Biran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud providers seek to maximize their market share. Traditionally, they deploy datacenters with sufficient capacity to accommodate their entire computing demand while maintaining geographical affinity to its customers. Achieving these goals by a single cloud provider is increasingly unrealistic from a cost of ownership perspective. Moreover, the carbon emissions from underutilized datacenters place an increasing demand on electricity and is a growing factor in the cost of cloud provider datacenters. Cloud-based systems may be classified into two categories: serving systems and analytical systems. We studied two primary workload types, on-demand video streaming as a serving system and MapReduce jobs as an analytical systems and suggested two unique energy mix usage for processing that workloads. The recognition that on-demand video streaming now constitutes the bulk portion of traffic to Internet consumers provides a path to mitigate rising energy demand. On-demand video is usually served through Content Delivery Networks (CDN, often scheduled in backend and edge datacenters. This publication describes a CDN deployment solution that utilizes green energy to supply on-demand streaming workload. A cross-cloud provider collaboration will allow cloud providers to both operate near their customers and reduce operational costs, primarily by lowering the datacenter deployments per provider ratio. Our approach optimizes cross-datacenters deployment. Specifically, we model an optimized CDN-edge instance allocation system that maximizes, under a set of realistic constraints, green energy utilization. The architecture of this cross-cloud coordinator service is based on Ubernetes, an open source container cluster manager that is a federation of Kubernetes clusters. It is shown how, under reasonable constraints, it can reduce the projected datacenter’s carbon emissions growth by 22% from the currently reported consumption. We also suggest operating

  20. Classifying human operator functional state based on electrophysiological and performance measures and fuzzy clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Di; Liu, Hua; Raisch, Jörg; Wang, Ru-Bin

    2013-12-01

    The human operator's ability to perform their tasks can fluctuate over time. Because the cognitive demands of the task can also vary it is possible that the capabilities of the operator are not sufficient to satisfy the job demands. This can lead to serious errors when the operator is overwhelmed by the task demands. Psychophysiological measures, such as heart rate and brain activity, can be used to monitor operator cognitive workload. In this paper, the most influential psychophysiological measures are extracted to characterize Operator Functional State (OFS) in automated tasks under a complex form of human-automation interaction. The fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm is used and tested for its OFS classification performance. The results obtained have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the FCM algorithm as well as the utility of the selected input features for OFS classification. Besides being able to cope with nonlinearity and fuzzy uncertainty in the psychophysiological data it can provide information about the relative importance of the input features as well as the confidence estimate of the classification results. The OFS pattern classification method developed can be incorporated into an adaptive aiding system in order to enhance the overall performance of a large class of safety-critical human-machine cooperative systems.

  1. Assessment of operators’ mental workload using physiological and subjective measures in cement, city traffic and power plant control centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Majid; Motamedzade, Majid; Heidarimoghadam, Rashid; Soltanian, Ali Reza; Miyake, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the operators’ mental workload (MW) of cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers using subjective and objective measures during system vital parameters monitoring. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015 at the cement, city traffic control and power plant control centers. Electrocardiography and electroencephalography data were recorded from forty males during performing their daily working in resting, low mental workload (LMW), high mental workload (HMW) and recovery conditions (each block 5 minutes). The NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) was used to evaluate the subjective workload of the operators. Results: The results showed that increasing MW had a significant effect on the operators subjective responses in two conditions ([1,53] = 216.303, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.803). Also,the Task-MW interaction effect on operators subjective responses was significant (F [3, 53] = 12.628,P < 0.001, η2 = 0.417). Analysis of repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that increasing mental demands had a significant effect on heart rate, low frequency/high frequency ratio, theta and alpha band activity. Conclusion: The results suggested that when operators’ mental demands especially in traffic control and power plant tasks increased, their mental fatigue and stress level increased and their mental health deteriorated. Therefore, it may be necessary to implement an ergonomic program or administrative control to manage mental probably health in these control centers. Furthermore, by evaluating MW, the control center director can organize the human resources for each MW condition to sustain the appropriate performance as well as improve system functions. PMID:27386425

  2. The Multi-Attribute Task Battery II (MATB-II) Software for Human Performance and Workload Research: A User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Espada, Yamira; Myer, Robert R.; Latorella, Kara A.; Comstock, James R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Task Battery (MAT Battery). is a computer-based task designed to evaluate operator performance and workload, has been redeveloped to operate in Windows XP Service Pack 3, Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating systems.MATB-II includes essentially the same tasks as the original MAT Battery, plus new configuration options including a graphical user interface for controlling modes of operation. MATB-II can be executed either in training or testing mode, as defined by the MATB-II configuration file. The configuration file also allows set up of the default timeouts for the tasks, the flow rates of the pumps and tank levels of the Resource Management (RESMAN) task. MATB-II comes with a default event file that an experimenter can modify and adapt

  3. The evaluation of operator reliability factors on power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, Itjeu; Supriatna, Piping; W, Suharyo; Santosa, Kussigit; Darlis; S, Bambang; Y, Sasongko

    1999-01-01

    The sophisticated technology system was not assured the reliability system itself because it has contained a part of human dependence affected successfully of reactor operation either how work smoothly and safe or failure ac cured and then accident appears promptly. The evaluation of operator reliability factor on ABWR power reactor has been carried out which consist of criterion skill and workload according to NUREG/CR-2254, NUREG/CR-4016 and NUREG-0835 the reactor operation reliability emphasize to the operator are synergic between skill and workload themselves. The employee's skill will affect to the type and level of their tasks. The operator's skill depend on education and experiences, position or responsibility of tasks, physical conditions (age uninvalid of physic/mental

  4. Viewing the workload of vigilance through the lenses of the NASA-TLX and the MRQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finomore, Victor S; Shaw, Tyler H; Warm, Joel S; Matthews, Gerald; Boles, David B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of a new index of perceived mental workload, the Multiple Resource Questionnaire (MRQ), with the standard measure of workload used in the study of vigilance, the NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX). The NASA-TLX has been used extensively to demonstrate that vigilance tasks impose a high level of workload on observers. However, this instrument does not specify the information-processing resources needed for task performance. The MRQ offers a tool to measure the workload associated with vigilance assignments in which such resources can be identified. Two experiments were performed in which factors known to influence task demand were varied. Included were the detection of stimulus presence or absence, detecting critical signals by means of successive-type (absolute judgment) and simultaneous-type (comparative judgment) discriminations, and operating under multitask vs. single-task conditions. The MRQ paralleled the NASA-TLX in showing that vigilance tasks generally induce high levels of workload and that workload scores are greater in detecting stimulus absence than presence and in making successive as compared to simultaneous-type discriminations. Additionally, the MRQ was more effective than the NASA-TLX in reflecting higher workload in the context of multitask than in single-task conditions. The resource profiles obtained with MRQ fit well with the nature of the vigilance tasks employed, testifying to the scale's content validity. The MRQ may be a meaningful addition to the NASA-TLX for measuring the workload of vigilance assignments. By uncovering knowledge representation associated with different tasks, the MRQ may aid in designing operational vigilance displays.

  5. Workforce Optimization for Bank Operation Centers: A Machine Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefik Ilkin Serengil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Online Banking Systems evolved and improved in recent years with the use of mobile and online technologies, performing money transfer transactions on these channels can be done without delay and human interaction, however commercial customers still tend to transfer money on bank branches due to several concerns. Bank Operation Centers serve to reduce the operational workload of branches. Centralized management also offers personalized service by appointed expert employees in these centers. Inherently, workload volume of money transfer transactions changes dramatically in hours. Therefore, work-force should be planned instantly or early to save labor force and increase operational efficiency. This paper introduces a hybrid multi stage approach for workforce planning in bank operation centers by the application of supervised and unsu-pervised learning algorithms. Expected workload would be predicted as supervised learning whereas employees are clus-tered into different skill groups as unsupervised learning to match transactions and proper employees. Finally, workforce optimization is analyzed for proposed approach on production data.

  6. Workload measurement: diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, Wayne [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    1993-06-01

    Departments of medical imaging, as with many other service departments in the health industry, are being asked to develop performance indicators. No longer are they assured that annual budget allocations will be forthcoming without justification or some output measurement indicators that will substantiate a claim for a reasonable share of resources. The human resource is the most valuable and the most expensive to any department. This paper provides a brief overview of the research and implementation of a radiographer workload measurement system that was commenced in the Brisbane North Health Region. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  7. THE WORKLOAD ANALYSIS OF EMPLOYEE BY USING NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION-TASK LOAD INDEX METHOD (NASA-TLX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Azemil

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of manufacturing and service institutions can not be separated from the role of human resources. Human resources have an important role in fulfilling vision and mission. University of A is one of the private educational institutions in East Java to achieve the goal must be managed properly that can be utilized optimally, this can be done by analyzing workload and performance or optimizing the number of employees. The purpose this research is measure workload and effect the employee’s performance. Measurement of workload is using National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX method, NASA-TLX method is rating multidimentional subjective mental workload  that divides the workload based on the average load of 6 dimensions, and the measurement of performance is using questionnaire with 5 scales by likert scale. The results showed that employees who have Medium workload is 8%, High workload is 84% and Very high workload is 8%. The result of the questionnaire showed the category of employee’s performance, simply performance is 24% and satisfactory performance is 76%. From the statistical test by using Chi Square method, it is known that the value = 5,9915 and = 2,2225, the result shows  < , then  is accepted and  is rejected. Thus, there is influence between the workload of employees and the employees’s performance.

  8. Aligning workload control theory and practice : lot splitting and operation overlapping issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Nuno O.; Land, Martin J.; Carmo-Silva, S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of lot splitting in the context of workload control (WLC). Past studies on WLC assumed that jobs released to the shop floor proceed through the different stages of processing without being split. However, in practice, large jobs are often split into smaller transfer

  9. Energy Dependent Divisible Load Theory for Wireless Sensor Network Workload Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wireless sensor network (WSN, consisting of a large number of microsensors with wireless communication abilities, has become an indispensable tool for use in monitoring and surveillance applications. Despite its advantages in deployment flexibility and fault tolerance, the WSN is vulnerable to failures due to the depletion of limited onboard battery energy. A major portion of energy consumption is caused by the transmission of sensed results to the master processor. The amount of energy used, in fact, is related to both the duration of sensing and data transmission. Hence, in order to extend the operation lifespan of the WSN, a proper allocation of sensing workload among the sensors is necessary. An assignment scheme is here formulated on the basis of the divisible load theory, namely, the energy dependent divisible load theory (EDDLT for sensing workload allocations. In particular, the amount of residual energies onboard sensors are considered while deciding the workload assigned to each sensor. Sensors with smaller amount of residual energy are assigned lighter workloads, thus, allowing for a reduced energy consumption and the sensor lifespan is extended. Simulation studies are conducted and results have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed workload allocation method.

  10. Shift manager workload assessment - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berntson, K.; Kozak, A.; Malcolm, J. S.

    2006-01-01

    In early 2003, Bruce Power restarted two of its previously laid up units in the Bruce A generating station, Units 3 and 4. However, due to challenges relating to the availability of personnel with active Shift Manager licenses, an alternate shift structure was proposed to ensure the safe operation of the station. This alternate structure resulted in a redistribution of responsibility, and a need to assess the resulting changes in workload. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited was contracted to perform a workload assessment based on the new shift structure, and to provide recommendations, if necessary, to ensure Shift Managers had sufficient resources available to perform their required duties. This paper discusses the performance of that assessment, and lessons learned as a result of the work performed during the Restart project. (authors)

  11. Survey of Workload and Job Satisfaction Relationship in a Productive Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maghsoudipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Promotion of workers’ health and safety is one of the main tasks of managers and planners. One of the important sciences that can assist managers to achieve this gool is ergonomics. This article presents results of workload and job satisfaction survey in a heavy metal components manufacturing company in Tehran, in 2010. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted by survey of all operational workers. Workload is survived by NASA-TLX questionnaire that contained six dimensions and job satisfaction evaluated by short version of Minnesota questionnaire . Results: Job satisfaction questionnaire ’s reliability which assessed by Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.91. In addition, data analysis results declare that the average job satisfaction scale was 65 and at medium level and workload with 85.11 as average scale was at the high level. Effort and physical loads were two dimensions which have high amount in the workload In addition, no statistical significant relation was observed between the total job satisfaction score and workload score. (p<0.05. While the performance dimension showed a positive relationshipwith job satisfaction, frustration demonstrated a negative relationship with job satisfaction. Conclusion: In order to improve the work conditions the administrative and technological controls should be implemented and actions need to be taken to modify workload dimensions specially, two dimensions with the high amount and dimensions that have relationship with job satisfaction.

  12. Measuring perceived mental workload in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie-Rose, Cynthia; Frey, Meredith; Ennis, Aristi; Zamary, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the mental workload, or psychological costs, associated with information processing tasks in children. We adapted the highly regarded NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) multidimensional workload scale (Hart & Staveland, 1988) to test its efficacy for use with elementary school children. We developed 2 types of tasks, each with 2 levels of demand, to draw differentially on resources from the separate subscales of workload. In Experiment 1, our participants were both typical and school-labeled gifted children recruited from 4th and 5th grades. Results revealed that task type elicited different workload profiles, and task demand directly affected the children's experience of workload. In general, gifted children experienced less workload than typical children. Objective response time and accuracy measures provide evidence for the criterion validity of the workload ratings. In Experiment 2, we applied the same method with 1st- and 2nd-grade children. Findings from Experiment 2 paralleled those of Experiment 1 and support the use of NASA-TLX with even the youngest elementary school children. These findings contribute to the fledgling field of educational ergonomics and attest to the innovative application of workload research. Such research may optimize instructional techniques and identify children at risk for experiencing overload.

  13. Proposal of adaptive human interface and study of interface evaluation method for plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, Hiroshi; Kubota, Ryuji.

    1994-01-01

    In this report, a new concept of human interface adaptive to plant operators' mental model, cognitive process and psychological state which change with time is proposed. It is composed of a function to determine information which should be indicated to operators based on the plant situation, a function to estimate operators' internal conditions, and a function to arrange the information amount, position, timing, form etc. based on their conditions. The method to evaluate the fitness of the interface by using the analysis results based on cognitive science, ergonomics, psychology and physiology is developed to achieve such an interface. Fundamental physiological experiments have been performed. Stress and workload can be identified by the ratio of the power average of the α wave fraction of a brain wave and be distinguished by the ratio of the standard deviation of the R-R interval in test and at rest, in the case of low stress such as mouse operation, calculation and walking. (author)

  14. Proposal of adaptive human interface and study of interface evaluation method for plant operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujita, Hiroshi [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Energy Research Lab.; Kubota, Ryuji

    1994-07-01

    In this report, a new concept of human interface adaptive to plant operators' mental model, cognitive process and psychological state which change with time is proposed. It is composed of a function to determine information which should be indicated to operators based on the plant situation, a function to estimate operators' internal conditions, and a function to arrange the information amount, position, timing, form etc. based on their conditions. The method to evaluate the fitness of the interface by using the analysis results based on cognitive science, ergonomics, psychology and physiology is developed to achieve such an interface. Fundamental physiological experiments have been performed. Stress and workload can be identified by the ratio of the power average of the [alpha] wave fraction of a brain wave and be distinguished by the ratio of the standard deviation of the R-R interval in test and at rest, in the case of low stress such as mouse operation, calculation and walking. (author).

  15. Measuring workload using a combination of electroencephalography and near infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, E.B.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2012-01-01

    The ability to continuously monitor workload in a real-world environment would have important implications for the offline design of human machine interfaces as well as the real-time online improvement of interaction between humans and machines. The present study explored the usefulness of combining

  16. Full Scale Evaluation of How Task-Based Overview Displays Impact Operator Workload and Situation Awareness When in Emergency Procedure Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielman, Zachary; Hill, Racheal; LeBlanc, Katya; Rice, Brandon; Bower, Gordon; Joe, Jeffrey; Powers, David

    2016-07-01

    Control room modernization is critical to extending the life of the 99 operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP) within the United States. However, due to the lack of evidence demonstrating the efficiency and effectiveness of recent candidate technologies, current NPP control rooms operate without the benefit of various newer technologies now available. As nuclear power plants begin to extend their licenses to continue operating for another 20 years, there is increased interest in modernizing the control room and supplementing the existing control boards with advanced technologies. As part of a series of studies investigating the benefits of advanced control room technologies, the researchers conducted an experimental study to observe the effect of Task-Based Overview Displays (TODs) on operator workload and situation awareness (SA) while completing typical operating scenarios. Researchers employed the Situation Awareness Rating Technique (SART) and the NASA Task Load Index (TLX) as construct measures.

  17. Higher mental workload is associated with poorer laparoscopic performance as measured by the NASA-TLX tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurko, Yuliya Y; Scerbo, Mark W; Prabhu, Ajita S; Acker, Christina E; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2010-10-01

    Increased workload during task performance may increase fatigue and facilitate errors. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a previously validated tool for workload self-assessment. We assessed the relationship of workload and performance during simulator training on a complex laparoscopic task. NASA-TLX workload data from three separate trials were analyzed. All participants were novices (n = 28), followed the same curriculum on the fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery suturing model, and were tested in the animal operating room (OR) on a Nissen fundoplication model after training. Performance and workload scores were recorded at baseline, after proficiency achievement, and during the test. Performance, NASA-TLX scores, and inadvertent injuries during the test were analyzed and compared. Workload scores declined during training and mirrored performance changes. NASA-TLX scores correlated significantly with performance scores (r = -0.5, P NASA-TLX questionnaire accurately reflects workload changes during simulator training and may identify individuals more likely to experience high workload and more prone to errors during skill transfer to the clinical environment.

  18. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: investigation in the field of aerospace activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélan, Claudine; Cascino, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non-instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual's perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work) environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual's overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty) and extraneous load (time pressure) in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control, and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e., work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators' alertness and job-performance.

  19. Development and human factors analysis of an augmented reality interface for multi-robot tele-operation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Lucas, Nathan P.; Ellis, R. Darin; Pandya, Abhilash

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a seamlessly controlled human multi-robot system comprised of ground and aerial robots of semiautonomous nature for source localization tasks. The system combines augmented reality interfaces capabilities with human supervisor's ability to control multiple robots. The role of this human multi-robot interface is to allow an operator to control groups of heterogeneous robots in real time in a collaborative manner. It used advanced path planning algorithms to ensure obstacles are avoided and that the operators are free for higher-level tasks. Each robot knows the environment and obstacles and can automatically generate a collision-free path to any user-selected target. It displayed sensor information from each individual robot directly on the robot in the video view. In addition, a sensor data fused AR view is displayed which helped the users pin point source information or help the operator with the goals of the mission. The paper studies a preliminary Human Factors evaluation of this system in which several interface conditions are tested for source detection tasks. Results show that the novel Augmented Reality multi-robot control (Point-and-Go and Path Planning) reduced mission completion times compared to the traditional joystick control for target detection missions. Usability tests and operator workload analysis are also investigated.

  20. Space operations and the human factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Adam R.

    1993-10-01

    Although space flight does not put the public at high risk, billions of dollars in hardware are destroyed and the space program halted when an accident occurs. Researchers are therefore applying human-factors techniques similar to those used in the aircraft industry, albeit at a greatly reduced level, to the spacecraft environment. The intent is to reduce the likelihood of catastrophic failure. To increase safety and efficiency, space human factors researchers have simulated spacecraft docking and extravehicular activity rescue. Engineers have also studied EVA suit mobility and aids. Other basic human-factors issues that have been applied to the space environment include antropometry, biomechanics, and ergonomics. Workstation design, workload, and task analysis currently receive much attention, as do habitability and other aspects of confined environments. Much work also focuses on individual payloads, as each presents its own complexities.

  1. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katya Cuadros Carlesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28 and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919 and rate of falls (r = 0.8770. The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload.

  2. Balancing nurses' workload in hospital wards: study protocol of developing a method to manage workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Oetelaar, W F J M; van Stel, H F; van Rhenen, W; Stellato, R K; Grolman, W

    2016-11-10

    Hospitals pursue different goals at the same time: excellent service to their patients, good quality care, operational excellence, retaining employees. This requires a good balance between patient needs and nursing staff. One way to ensure a proper fit between patient needs and nursing staff is to work with a workload management method. In our view, a nursing workload management method needs to have the following characteristics: easy to interpret; limited additional registration; applicable to different types of hospital wards; supported by nurses; covers all activities of nurses and suitable for prospective planning of nursing staff. At present, no such method is available. The research follows several steps to come to a workload management method for staff nurses. First, a list of patient characteristics relevant to care time will be composed by performing a Delphi study among staff nurses. Next, a time study of nurses' activities will be carried out. The 2 can be combined to estimate care time per patient group and estimate the time nurses spend on non-patient-related activities. These 2 estimates can be combined and compared with available nursing resources: this gives an estimate of nurses' workload. The research will take place in an academic hospital in the Netherlands. 6 surgical wards will be included, capacity 15-30 beds. The study protocol was submitted to the Medical Ethical Review Board of the University Medical Center (UMC) Utrecht and received a positive advice, protocol number 14-165/C. This method will be developed in close cooperation with staff nurses and ward management. The strong involvement of the end users will contribute to a broader support of the results. The method we will develop may also be useful for planning purposes; this is a strong advantage compared with existing methods, which tend to focus on retrospective analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  3. Self-report scales alone cannot capture mental workload : A reply to De Winter, Controversy in human factors constructs and the explosive use of the NASA TLX: A measurement perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waard, Dick; Lewis Evans, Ben

    Mental workload is an operational concept that can only be assessed indirectly. Self-reports such as the NASA-TLX however will never suffice to describe how a task was performed, and how heavily loaded operators were.

  4. Using theta and alpha band power to assess cognitive workload in multitasking environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Sébastien; Matton, Nadine; Paubel, Pierre-V; Raufaste, Éric; El-Yagoubi, Radouane

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive workload is of central importance in the fields of human factors and ergonomics. A reliable measurement of cognitive workload could allow for improvements in human machine interface designs and increase safety in several domains. At present, numerous studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cognitive workload, reporting the rise in cognitive workload to be associated with increases in theta band power and decreases in alpha band power. However, results have been inconsistent with some failing to reach the required level of significance. We hypothesized that the lack of consistency could be related to individual differences in task performance and/or to the small sample sizes in most EEG studies. In the present study we used EEG to assess the increase in cognitive workload occurring in a multitasking environment while taking into account differences in performance. Twenty participants completed a task commonly used in airline pilot recruitment, which included an increasing number of concurrent sub-tasks to be processed from one to four. Subjective ratings, performances scores, pupil size and EEG signals were recorded. Results showed that increases in EEG alpha and theta band power reflected increases in the involvement of cognitive resources for the completion of one to three subtasks in a multitasking environment. These values reached a ceiling when performances dropped. Consistent differences in levels of alpha and theta band power were associated to levels of task performance: highest performance was related to lowest band power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Physiologically-Based Artificial Neural Network Models to Detect Operator Workload in Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-13

    cognitive state using models or context-sensitive assessment tools, and augment the operator’s performance before performance decrements may occur. The...important to investigate multiple types of model configuations in order to determine if one 13 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for...managing multiple aircraft, potentially leading to performance decrements and mission failure. One solution to address excessive workload from

  6. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators

  7. Operational Strategy of CBPs for load balancing of Operators in Advanced Main Control Room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Yochan; Jung, Wondea [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    With the using of a computer-based control room in an APR1400 (Advanced Pressurized Reactor-1400), the operators' behaviors in the main control room had changed. However, though the working environment of operators has been changed a great deal, digitalized interfaces can also change the cognitive tasks or activities of operators. First, a shift supervisor (SS) can confirm/check the conduction of the procedures and the execution of actions of board operators (BOs) while confirming directly the operation variables without relying on the BOs. Second, all operators added to their work the use of a new CBP and Soft Controls, increasing their procedural workload. New operational control strategies of CBPs are necessary for load balancing of operator's task load in APR1400. In this paper, we compared the workloads of operators in an APR1400 who work with two different usages of the CBP. They are SS oriented usage and SS-BO collaborative usage. In this research, we evaluated the workloads of operators in an advanced main control room by the COCOA method. Two types of CBP usages were defined and the effects of these usages on the workloads were investigated. The obtained results showed that the workloads between operators in a control room can be balanced according to the CBP usages by assigning control authority to the operators.

  8. The development of human factors technologies -The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Hoh; Lee, Hyun Chul

    1995-07-01

    In this year, we studied the followings: 1) Development of operator mental workload evaluation techniques, 2) Development of a prototype for preliminary human factors experiment, 3) Suitability test of information display on a large scale display panel, 4) Development of guidelines for VDU-based control room design, 5) Development of integrated test facility (ITF). 6) Establishment of an eye tracking system, and we got the following results: 1) Mental workload evaluation techniques for MMI evaluation, 2) PROTOPEX (PROTOtype for preliminary human factors experiment) for preliminary human factors experiments, 3) Usage methods of APTEA (Analysis-Prototyping-Training-Experiment-Analysis) experiment design, 4) Design guidelines for human factors verification, 5) Detail design requirements and development plan of ITF, 6) Eye movement measurement system. 38 figs, 20 tabs, 54 refs. (Author)

  9. The impact of draught related to air velocity, air temperature and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Gehring, U

    2001-08-01

    This experimental study was designed to test the hypotheses that the effects of draught increase with higher air velocity, with lower air temperature, and with lower workload. Thirty healthy young males were exposed to horizontal draught during 55 min while they operated an arm ergometer in a standing posture. Air velocity, air temperature, and workload were varied in 3 steps each, between 11 and 23 degrees C, 0.1 and 0.3 m/s, and 104 to 156 W/m2, respectively. The 27 combinations were distributed over subjects in a fractional factorial 3(3)-design. The participants were clothed for thermal neutrality. Workload was measured at the end of the sessions by respirometry. Draught-induced annoyance was determined every 5 min, separately for 10 body sites. Corresponding skin temperature was also recorded. The hypotheses were verified for the influence of air velocity and air temperature. Regarding workload, local heat production is probably decisive, meaning that draft-induced local annoyance is inversely related to workload in active but independent from workload in non-active body areas. To improve the situation for the workers concerned it is suggested to apply protective gloves that cover an as great area of the forearms as possible and to limit airflows to mean velocities of less than 0.2 m/s (with turbulence intensities of 50%).

  10. Psychological workload and body weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gyntelberg, Finn; Heitmann, Berit L

    2004-01-01

    on the association between obesity and psychological workload. METHOD: We carried out a review of the associations between psychological workload and body weight in men and women. In total, 10 cross-sectional studies were identified. RESULTS: The review showed little evidence of a general association between...... adjustment for education. For women, there was no evidence of a consistent association. CONCLUSION: The reviewed articles were not supportive of any associations between psychological workload and either general or abdominal obesity. Future epidemiological studies in this field should be prospective......BACKGROUND: According to Karasek's Demand/Control Model, workload can be conceptualized as job strain, a combination of psychological job demands and control in the job. High job strain may result from high job demands combined with low job control. Aim To give an overview of the literature...

  11. Analysis of human-in-the-loop tele-operated maintenance inspection tasks using VR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boessenkool, H.; Abbink, D.A.; Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Steinbuch, M.; Baar, M.R. de; Wildenbeest, J.G.W.; Ronden, D.; Koning, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Execution of tele-operated inspection tasks for ITER maintenance was analyzed. ► Human factors experiments using Virtual Reality showed to be a valuable approach. ► A large variation in time performance and number of collisions was found. ► Results indicate significant room for improvement for teleoperated free space tasks. ► A promising solution is haptic shared control: assist operator with guiding forces. -- Abstract: One of the challenges in future fusion plants such as ITER is the remote maintenance of the plant. Foreseen human-in-the-loop tele-operation is characterized by limited visual and haptic feedback from the environment, which results in degraded task performance and increased operator workload. For improved tele-operated task performance it is required to get insight in the expected tasks and problems during maintenance at ITER. By means of an exploratory human factor experiment, this paper analyses problems and bottlenecks during the execution of foreseen tele-operated maintenance at ITER, identifying most promising areas of improvement. The focus of this paper is on free space (sub)tasks where contact with the environment needs to be avoided. A group of 5 subjects was asked to carry-out an ITER related free space task (visual inspection), using a six degree of freedom master device connected to a simulated hot cell environment. The results show large variation in time performance between subjects and an increasing number of collisions for more difficult tasks, indicating room for improvement for free space (sub)tasks. The results will be used in future research on the haptic guidance strategies in the ITER Remote Handling framework

  12. Analysis of human-in-the-loop tele-operated maintenance inspection tasks using VR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boessenkool, H., E-mail: h.boessenkool@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dynamics and Control Group, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Abbink, D.A. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Heemskerk, C.J.M. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Steinbuch, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dynamics and Control Group, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baar, M.R. de [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dynamics and Control Group, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Wildenbeest, J.G.W. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of 3mE, BioMechanical Engineering Department, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Ronden, D. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Koning, J.F. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology B.V., Jonckerweg 12, 2201 DZ Noordwijk (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Execution of tele-operated inspection tasks for ITER maintenance was analyzed. ► Human factors experiments using Virtual Reality showed to be a valuable approach. ► A large variation in time performance and number of collisions was found. ► Results indicate significant room for improvement for teleoperated free space tasks. ► A promising solution is haptic shared control: assist operator with guiding forces. -- Abstract: One of the challenges in future fusion plants such as ITER is the remote maintenance of the plant. Foreseen human-in-the-loop tele-operation is characterized by limited visual and haptic feedback from the environment, which results in degraded task performance and increased operator workload. For improved tele-operated task performance it is required to get insight in the expected tasks and problems during maintenance at ITER. By means of an exploratory human factor experiment, this paper analyses problems and bottlenecks during the execution of foreseen tele-operated maintenance at ITER, identifying most promising areas of improvement. The focus of this paper is on free space (sub)tasks where contact with the environment needs to be avoided. A group of 5 subjects was asked to carry-out an ITER related free space task (visual inspection), using a six degree of freedom master device connected to a simulated hot cell environment. The results show large variation in time performance between subjects and an increasing number of collisions for more difficult tasks, indicating room for improvement for free space (sub)tasks. The results will be used in future research on the haptic guidance strategies in the ITER Remote Handling framework.

  13. Sensitivity and diagnosticity of NASA-TLX and simplified SWAT to assess the mental workload associated with operating an agricultural sprayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit; Mann, Danny D

    2010-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were: a) to investigate three continuous variants of the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX) (standard NASA (CNASA), average NASA (C1NASA) and principal component NASA (PCNASA)) and five different variants of the simplified subjective workload assessment technique (SSWAT) (continuous standard SSWAT (CSSWAT), continuous average SSWAT (C1SSWAT), continuous principal component SSWAT (PCSSWAT), discrete event-based SSWAT (D1SSWAT) and discrete standard SSWAT (DSSWAT)) in terms of their sensitivity and diagnosticity to assess the mental workload associated with agricultural spraying; b) to compare and select the best variants of NASA-TLX and SSWAT for future mental workload research in the agricultural domain. A total of 16 male university students (mean 30.4 +/- 12.5 years) participated in this study. All the participants were trained to drive an agricultural spraying simulator. Sensitivity was assessed by the ability of the scales to report the maximum change in workload ratings due to the change in illumination and difficulty levels. In addition, the factor loading method was used to quantify sensitivity. The diagnosticity was assessed by the ability of the scale to diagnose the change in task levels from single to dual. Among all the variants of NASA-TLX and SSWAT, PCNASA and discrete variants of SSWAT showed the highest sensitivity and diagnosticity. Moreover, among all the variants of NASA and SSWAT, the discrete variants of SSWAT showed the highest sensitivity and diagnosticity but also high between-subject variability. The continuous variants of both scales had relatively low sensitivity and diagnosticity and also low between-subject variability. Hence, when selecting a scale for future mental workload research in the agricultural domain, a researcher should decide what to compromise: 1) between-subject variability or 2) sensitivity and diagnosticity. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The use of subjective workload scales is very popular in

  14. Cloudweaver: Adaptive and Data-Driven Workload Manager for Generic Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Syan

    Cloud computing denotes the latest trend in application development for parallel computing on massive data volumes. It relies on clouds of servers to handle tasks that used to be managed by an individual server. With cloud computing, software vendors can provide business intelligence and data analytic services for internet scale data sets. Many open source projects, such as Hadoop, offer various software components that are essential for building a cloud infrastructure. Current Hadoop (and many others) requires users to configure cloud infrastructures via programs and APIs and such configuration is fixed during the runtime. In this chapter, we propose a workload manager (WLM), called CloudWeaver, which provides automated configuration of a cloud infrastructure for runtime execution. The workload management is data-driven and can adapt to dynamic nature of operator throughput during different execution phases. CloudWeaver works for a single job and a workload consisting of multiple jobs running concurrently, which aims at maximum throughput using a minimum set of processors.

  15. Mental workload during n-back task-quantified in the prefrontal cortex using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herff, Christian; Heger, Dominic; Fortmann, Ole; Hennrich, Johannes; Putze, Felix; Schultz, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    When interacting with technical systems, users experience mental workload. Particularly in multitasking scenarios (e.g., interacting with the car navigation system while driving) it is desired to not distract the users from their primary task. For such purposes, human-machine interfaces (HCIs) are desirable which continuously monitor the users' workload and dynamically adapt the behavior of the interface to the measured workload. While memory tasks have been shown to elicit hemodynamic responses in the brain when averaging over multiple trials, a robust single trial classification is a crucial prerequisite for the purpose of dynamically adapting HCIs to the workload of its user. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in the processing of memory and the associated workload. In this study of 10 subjects, we used functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a non-invasive imaging modality, to sample workload activity in the PFC. The results show up to 78% accuracy for single-trial discrimination of three levels of workload from each other. We use an n-back task (n ∈ {1, 2, 3}) to induce different levels of workload, forcing subjects to continuously remember the last one, two, or three of rapidly changing items. Our experimental results show that measuring hemodynamic responses in the PFC with fNIRS, can be used to robustly quantify and classify mental workload. Single trial analysis is still a young field that suffers from a general lack of standards. To increase comparability of fNIRS methods and results, the data corpus for this study is made available online.

  16. Mental workload during n-back task - quantified in the prefrontal cortex using fNIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eHerff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When interacting with technical systems, users experience mental workload. Particularly in multitasking scenarios (e.g. interacting with the car navigation system while driving it is desired to not distract the users from their primary task. For such purposes, human-machine interfaces (HCIs are desirable which continuously monitor the users' workload and dynamically adapt the behavior of the interface to the measured workload. While memory tasks have been shown to illicit hemodynamic responses in the brain when averaging over multiple trials, a robust single trial classification is a crucial prerequisite for the purpose of dynamically adapting HCIs to the workload of its user.The prefrontal cortex (PFC plays an important role in the processing of memory and the associated workload. In this study of 10 subjects, we used functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS, a non-invasive imaging modality, to sample workload activity in the PFC. The results show up to 78% accuracy for single-trial discrimination of three levels of workload from each other. We use an n-back task (n ∈ {1, 2, 3} to induce different levels of workload, forcing subjects to continuously remember the last one, two or three of rapidly changing items.Our experimental results show that measuring hemodynamic responses in the PFC with fNIRS, can be used to robustly quantify and classify mental workload.Single trial analysis is still a young field that suffers from a general lack of standards. To increase comparability of fNIRS methods and results, the data corpus for this study is made available online.

  17. Use of EEG workload indices for diagnostic monitoring of vigilance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamzanova, Altyngul T; Kustubayeva, Almira M; Matthews, Gerald

    2014-09-01

    A study was run to test which of five electroencephalographic (EEG) indices was most diagnostic of loss of vigilance at two levels of workload. EEG indices of alertness include conventional spectral power measures as well as indices combining measures from multiple frequency bands, such as the Task Load Index (TLI) and the Engagement Index (El). However, it is unclear which indices are optimal for early detection of loss of vigilance. Ninety-two participants were assigned to one of two experimental conditions, cued (lower workload) and uncued (higher workload), and then performed a 40-min visual vigilance task. Performance on this task is believed to be limited by attentional resource availability. EEG was recorded continuously. Performance, subjective state, and workload were also assessed. The task showed a vigilance decrement in performance; cuing improved performance and reduced subjective workload. Lower-frequency alpha (8 to 10.9 Hz) and TLI were most sensitive to the task parameters. The magnitude of temporal change was larger for lower-frequency alpha. Surprisingly, higher TLI was associated with superior performance. Frontal theta and El were influenced by task workload only in the final period of work. Correlational data also suggested that the indices are distinct from one another. Lower-frequency alpha appears to be the optimal index for monitoring vigilance on the task used here, but further work is needed to test how diagnosticity of EEG indices varies with task demands. Lower-frequency alpha may be used to diagnose loss of operator alertness on tasks requiring vigilance.

  18. Pilot Workload and Speech Analysis: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rachel M.; Begault, Durand R.; Christopher, Bonny R.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has questioned the effectiveness of speech analysis to measure the stress, workload, truthfulness, or emotional state of a talker. The question remains regarding the utility of speech analysis for restricted vocabularies such as those used in aviation communications. A part-task experiment was conducted in which participants performed Air Traffic Control read-backs in different workload environments. Participant's subjective workload and the speech qualities of fundamental frequency (F0) and articulation rate were evaluated. A significant increase in subjective workload rating was found for high workload segments. F0 was found to be significantly higher during high workload while articulation rates were found to be significantly slower. No correlation was found to exist between subjective workload and F0 or articulation rate.

  19. Status and Evolution of ATLAS Workload Management System PanDA

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067365; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC uses a sophisticated workload management system, PanDA, to provide access for thousands of physicists to distributed computing resources of unprecedented scale. This system has proved to be robust and scalable during three years of LHC operations. We describe the design and performance of PanDA in ATLAS. The features which make PanDA successful in ATLAS could be applicable to other exabyte scale scientific projects. We describe plans to evolve PanDA towards a general workload management system for the new BigData initiative announced by the US government. Other planned future improvements to PanDA will also be described

  20. QUALITY OF NURSING DOCUMENTATION AND NURSE’S OBJECTIVE WORKLOAD BASED ON TIME AND MOTION STUDY (TMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Amelynda Prakosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of documentation can decrease because of bad admission filling of documentation. Workload is one of the factor that can influence admission filling of documentation. This study was aimed to analyze the correlation between nurse’s objective workload and the quality of nursing documentation in RSU Haji. Method. The design of this study was descriptive correlation with cross-sectional approach. The population on this study was the nurse that works in Marwah 3 and 4 inpatient care in RSU Haji Surabaya. The number of the sample was 14 respondents were selected by simple random sampling. The independent variable was nurse’s objective workload and the dependent variable was quality of nursing documentation. The data were analyzed by using regression logistic. Result. Nurse’s objective workload in RSU Haji was 72%. There was no correlational between nurse’s objective workload with the completeness of nursing documentation (P= 0,999, also nurse’s objective workload with accurate of nursing documentation (P= 0,999. Discussion. This study concluded that nurse’s objective workload was low and quality of nursing documentation was accurate enough and complete enough. Next researcher should provide precise operational so the factors that affected the quality of documentation can be reached and the workload of the nurses in RSU Haji become ideal. Keyword:  nurses, quality of nursing documentation, objective workload

  1. Driver behavior and workload in an on-road automated vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.C.J.; Mullakkal Babu, F.A.; Happee, R.

    2017-01-01

    Driver mental underload is an important concern in the operational safety of automated driving. In this study, workload was evaluated subjectively (NASA RTLX) and objectively (auditory detection-response task) on Dutch public highways (~150km) in a Tesla Model S comparing manual and supervised

  2. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. Method: quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. Results: 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. Conclusions: the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. PMID:28403334

  3. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jung, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  4. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Jung, W. [Integrated Safety Assessment Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., P.O.Box 105, Duckjin-Dong, Yusong-Ku, Taejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  5. Shift scheduling model considering workload and worker’s preference for security department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, A.; Yuniartha, D. R.; Purnama, I. L. I.; Dewi, LT

    2018-04-01

    Security department operates for 24 hours and applies shift scheduling to organize its workers as well as in hotel industry. This research has been conducted to develop shift scheduling model considering the workers physical workload using rating of perceived exertion (RPE) Borg’s Scale and workers’ preference to accommodate schedule flexibility. The mathematic model is developed in integer linear programming and results optimal solution for simple problem. Resulting shift schedule of the developed model has equally distribution shift allocation among workers to balance the physical workload and give flexibility for workers in working hours arrangement.

  6. Intelligent Agent Transparency in Human-Agent Teaming for Multi-UxV Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Joseph E; Rupp, Michael A; Chen, Jessie Y C; Barnes, Michael J; Barber, Daniel; Procci, Katelyn

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the effects of level of agent transparency on operator performance, trust, and workload in a context of human-agent teaming for multirobot management. Participants played the role of a heterogeneous unmanned vehicle (UxV) operator and were instructed to complete various missions by giving orders to UxVs through a computer interface. An intelligent agent (IA) assisted the participant by recommending two plans-a top recommendation and a secondary recommendation-for every mission. A within-subjects design with three levels of agent transparency was employed in the present experiment. There were eight missions in each of three experimental blocks, grouped by level of transparency. During each experimental block, the IA was incorrect three out of eight times due to external information (e.g., commander's intent and intelligence). Operator performance, trust, workload, and usability data were collected. Results indicate that operator performance, trust, and perceived usability increased as a function of transparency level. Subjective and objective workload data indicate that participants' workload did not increase as a function of transparency. Furthermore, response time did not increase as a function of transparency. Unlike previous research, which showed that increased transparency resulted in increased performance and trust calibration at the cost of greater workload and longer response time, our results support the benefits of transparency for performance effectiveness without additional costs. The current results will facilitate the implementation of IAs in military settings and will provide useful data to the design of heterogeneous UxV teams. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Identifying Dwarfs Workloads in Big Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Wanling; Luo, Chunjie; Zhan, Jianfeng; Ye, Hainan; He, Xiwen; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yuqing; Tian, Xinhui

    2015-01-01

    Big data benchmarking is particularly important and provides applicable yardsticks for evaluating booming big data systems. However, wide coverage and great complexity of big data computing impose big challenges on big data benchmarking. How can we construct a benchmark suite using a minimum set of units of computation to represent diversity of big data analytics workloads? Big data dwarfs are abstractions of extracting frequently appearing operations in big data computing. One dwarf represen...

  8. Workload Control with Continuous Release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan, B. S. Nguyen; Land, M. J.; Gaalman, G. J. C.

    2009-01-01

    Workload Control (WLC) is a production planning and control concept which is suitable for the needs of make-to-order job shops. Release decisions based on the workload norms form the core of the concept. This paper develops continuous time WLC release variants and investigates their due date

  9. Combining Quick-Turnaround and Batch Workloads at Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    NAS uses PBS Professional to schedule and manage the workload on Pleiades, an 11,000+ node 1B cluster. At this scale the user experience for quick-turnaround jobs can degrade, which led NAS initially to set up two separate PBS servers, each dedicated to a particular workload. Recently we have employed PBS hooks and scheduler modifications to merge these workloads together under one PBS server, delivering sub-1-minute start times for the quick-turnaround workload, and enabling dynamic management of the resources set aside for that workload.

  10. Workload composition of the organic horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahão, R F; Ribeiro, I A V; Tereso, M J A

    2012-01-01

    This project aimed the characterization of the physical workload of the organic horticulture by determining the frequency of exposure of operators to some activity categories. To do this, an adaptation of the PATH method (Posture, Activities, Tools and Handling) was done to be used in the context of agriculture work. The approach included an evaluation of physical effort demanded to perform the tasks in the work systems from an systematic sampling of work situations from a synchronized monitoring of the heart rate; a characterization of posture repertoire adopted by workers by adapting the OWAS method; an identification of pain body areas using the Corlett diagram; and a subjective evaluation of perceived effort using the RPE Borg scale. The results of the individual assessments were cross correlated and explained from an observation of the work activity. Postural demands were more significant than cardiovascular demands for the studied tasks, and correlated positively with the expressions of bodily discomfort. It is expected that, besides the knowledge obtained of the physical effort demanded by organic horticulture, this project will be useful for the development of new technologies directed to minimize the difficulties of the human work and to raise the work productivity.

  11. Mental workload during brain-computer interface training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Elizabeth A; Williams, Justin C; Vanderheiden, Gregg C; Radwin, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    It is not well understood how people perceive the difficulty of performing brain-computer interface (BCI) tasks, which specific aspects of mental workload contribute the most, and whether there is a difference in perceived workload between participants who are able-bodied and disabled. This study evaluated mental workload using the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), a multi-dimensional rating procedure with six subscales: Mental Demands, Physical Demands, Temporal Demands, Performance, Effort, and Frustration. Able-bodied and motor disabled participants completed the survey after performing EEG-based BCI Fitts' law target acquisition and phrase spelling tasks. The NASA-TLX scores were similar for able-bodied and disabled participants. For example, overall workload scores (range 0-100) for 1D horizontal tasks were 48.5 (SD = 17.7) and 46.6 (SD 10.3), respectively. The TLX can be used to inform the design of BCIs that will have greater usability by evaluating subjective workload between BCI tasks, participant groups, and control modalities. Mental workload of brain-computer interfaces (BCI) can be evaluated with the NASA Task Load Index (TLX). The TLX is an effective tool for comparing subjective workload between BCI tasks, participant groups (able-bodied and disabled), and control modalities. The data can inform the design of BCIs that will have greater usability.

  12. Upper limb muscular activity and perceived workload during laryngoscopy: comparison of Glidescope(R) and Macintosh laryngoscopy in manikin: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldiroli, D; Molteni, F; Sommariva, A; Frittoli, S; Guanziroli, E; Cortellazzi, P; Orena, E F

    2014-03-01

    The interaction between operators and their working environment during laryngoscopy is poorly understood. Numerous studies have focused on the forces applied to the patient's airway during laryngoscopy, but only a few authors have addressed operator muscle activity and workload. We tested whether different devices (Glidescope(®) and Macintosh) use different muscles and how these differences affect the perceived workload. Ten staff anaesthetists performed three intubations with each device on a manikin. Surface electromyography was recorded for eight single muscles of the left upper limb. The NASA Task Load Index (TLX) was administered after each experimental session to evaluate perceived workload. A consistent reduction in muscular activation occurred with Glidescope(®) compared with Macintosh for all muscles tested (mean effect size d=3.28), and significant differences for the upper trapezius (P=0.002), anterior deltoid (P=0.001), posterior deltoid (P=0.000), and brachioradialis (P=0.001) were observed. The overall NASA-TLX workload score was significantly lower for Glidescope(®) than for Macintosh (P=0.006), and the factors of physical demand (P=0.008) and effort (P=0.006) decreased significantly. Greater muscular activity and workload were observed with the Macintosh laryngoscope. Augmented vision and related postural adjustments related to using the Glidescope(®) may reduce activation of the operator's muscles and task workload.

  13. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and

  14. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young

    2012-01-01

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and management

  15. A Model of Student Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Student workload is a contributing factor to students deciding to withdraw from their study before completion of the course, at significant cost to students, institutions and society. The aim of this paper is to create a basic workload model for a group of undergraduate students studying business law units at Curtin University in Western…

  16. Utilizing functional near-infrared spectroscopy for prediction of cognitive workload in noisy work environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Ryan; Fendley, Mary; Dar, Irfaan A; Warren, Rik; Kashou, Nasser H

    2017-10-01

    Occupational noise frequently occurs in the work environment in military intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance operations. This impacts cognitive performance by acting as a stressor, potentially interfering with the analysts' decision-making process. We investigated the effects of different noise stimuli on analysts' performance and workload in anomaly detection by simulating a noisy work environment. We utilized functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to quantify oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration changes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as behavioral measures, which include eye tracking, reaction time, and accuracy rate. We hypothesized that noisy environments would have a negative effect on the participant in terms of anomaly detection performance due to the increase in workload, which would be reflected by an increase in PFC activity. We found that HbO for some of the channels analyzed were significantly different across noise types ([Formula: see text]). Our results also indicated that HbO activation for short-intermittent noise stimuli was greater in the PFC compared to long-intermittent noises. These approaches using fNIRS in conjunction with an understanding of the impact on human analysts in anomaly detection could potentially lead to better performance by optimizing work environments.

  17. Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Bussink, Frank J. L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan C.; Palmer, Michael T.; Palmer, Susan O.

    2008-01-01

    The Enhanced Oceanic Operations Human-In-The-Loop In-Trail Procedure (ITP) Validation Simulation Study investigated the viability of an ITP designed to enable oceanic flight level changes that would not otherwise be possible. Twelve commercial airline pilots with current oceanic experience flew a series of simulated scenarios involving either standard or ITP flight level change maneuvers and provided subjective workload ratings, assessments of ITP validity and acceptability, and objective performance measures associated with the appropriate selection, request, and execution of ITP flight level change maneuvers. In the majority of scenarios, subject pilots correctly assessed the traffic situation, selected an appropriate response (i.e., either a standard flight level change request, an ITP request, or no request), and executed their selected flight level change procedure, if any, without error. Workload ratings for ITP maneuvers were acceptable and not substantially higher than for standard flight level change maneuvers, and, for the majority of scenarios and subject pilots, subjective acceptability ratings and comments for ITP were generally high and positive. Qualitatively, the ITP was found to be valid and acceptable. However, the error rates for ITP maneuvers were higher than for standard flight level changes, and these errors may have design implications for both the ITP and the study's prototype traffic display. These errors and their implications are discussed.

  18. The gLite Workload Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, Cecchi; Fabio, Capannini; Alvise, Dorigo; Antonia, Ghiselli; Alessio, Gianelle; Francesco, Giacomini; Elisabetta, Molinari; Salvatore, Monforte; Alessandro, Maraschini; Luca, Petronzio

    2010-01-01

    The gLite Workload Management System represents a key entry point to high-end services available on a Grid. Being designed as part of the european Grid within the six years long EU-funded EGEE project, now at its third phase, the WMS is meant to provide reliable and efficient distribution and management of end-user requests. This service basically translates user requirements and preferences into specific operations and decisions - dictated by the general status of all other Grid services - while taking responsibility to bring requests to successful completion. The WMS has become a reference implementation of the 'early binding' approach to meta-scheduling as a neat, Grid-aware solution, able to optimise resource access and to satisfy requests for computation together with data. Several added value features are provided for job submission, different job types are supported from simple batch to a variety of compounds. In this paper we outline what has been achieved to provide adequate workload and management components, suitable to be deployed in a production-quality Grid, while covering the design and development of the gLite WMS and focusing on the most recently achieved results.

  19. Relationship between workload and mind-wandering in simulated driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Mental workload and mind-wandering are highly related to driving safety. This study investigated the relationship between mental workload and mind-wandering while driving. Participants (N = 40 were asked to perform a car following task in driving simulator, and report whether they had experienced mind-wandering upon hearing a tone. After driving, participants reported their workload using the NASA-Task Load Index (TLX. Results revealed an interaction between workload and mind-wandering in two different perspectives. First, there was a negative correlation between workload and mind-wandering (r = -0.459, p < 0.01 for different individuals. Second, from temporal perspective workload and mind-wandering frequency increased significantly over task time and were positively correlated. Together, these findings contribute to understanding the roles of workload and mind-wandering in driving.

  20. Measuring workload in collaborative contexts: trait versus state perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helton, William S; Funke, Gregory J; Knott, Benjamin A

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, we explored the state versus trait aspects of measures of task and team workload in a disaster simulation. There is often a need to assess workload in both individual and collaborative settings. Researchers in this field often use the NASATask Load Index (NASA-TLX) as a global measure of workload by aggregating the NASA-TLX's component items. Using this practice, one may overlook the distinction between traits and states. Fifteen dyadic teams (11 inexperienced, 4 experienced) completed five sessions of a tsunami disaster simulator. After every session, individuals completed a modified version of the NASA-TLX that included team workload measures.We then examined the workload items by using a between-subjects and within-subjects perspective. Between-subjects and within-subjects correlations among the items indicated the workload items are more independent within subjects (as states) than between subjects (as traits). Correlations between the workload items and simulation performance were also different at the trait and state levels. Workload may behave differently at trait (between-subjects) and state (within-subjects) levels. Researchers interested in workload measurement as a state should take a within-subjects perspective in their analyses.

  1. Workload-Aware Indexing of Continuously Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    structures can easily become performance bottlenecks. We address the need for indexing that is adaptive to the workload characteristics, called workload-aware, in order to cover the space in between maintaining an accurate index, and having no index at all. Our proposal, QU-Trade, extends R-tree type...... indexing and achieves workload-awareness by controlling the underlying index’s filtering quality. QU-Trade safely drops index updates, increasing the overlap in the index when the workload is update-intensive, and it restores the filtering capabilities of the index when the workload becomes query......-intensive. This is done in a non-uniform way in space so that the quality of the index remains high in frequently queried regions, while it deteriorates in frequently updated regions. The adaptation occurs online, without the need for a learning phase. We apply QU-Trade to the R-tree and the TPR-tree, and we offer...

  2. Workload based order acceptance in job shop environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebben, Mark; Hans, Elias W.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.; Olde Weghuis, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In practice, order acceptance and production planning are often functionally separated. As a result, order acceptance decisions are made without considering the actual workload in the production system, or by only regarding the aggregate workload. We investigate the importance of a good workload

  3. Characterization and Architectural Implications of Big Data Workloads

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Jianfeng; Jia, Zhen; Han, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Big data areas are expanding in a fast way in terms of increasing workloads and runtime systems, and this situation imposes a serious challenge to workload characterization, which is the foundation of innovative system and architecture design. The previous major efforts on big data benchmarking either propose a comprehensive but a large amount of workloads, or only select a few workloads according to so-called popularity, which may lead to partial or even biased observations. In this paper, o...

  4. Mental workload and motor performance dynamics during practice of reaching movements under various levels of task difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuggi, Isabelle M; Oh, Hyuk; Shewokis, Patricia A; Gentili, Rodolphe J

    2017-09-30

    The assessment of mental workload can inform attentional resource allocation during task performance that is essential for understanding the underlying principles of human cognitive-motor behavior. While many studies have focused on mental workload in relation to human performance, a modest body of work has examined it in a motor practice/learning context without considering individual variability. Thus, this work aimed to examine mental workload by employing the NASA TLX as well as the changes in motor performance resulting from the practice of a novel reaching task. Two groups of participants practiced a reaching task at a high and low nominal difficulty during which a group-level analysis assessed the mental workload, motor performance and motor improvement dynamics. A secondary cluster analysis was also conducted to identify specific individual patterns of cognitive-motor responses. Overall, both group- and cluster-level analyses revealed that: (i) all participants improved their performance throughout motor practice, and (ii) an increase in mental workload was associated with a reduction of the quality of motor performance along with a slower rate of motor improvement. The results are discussed in the context of the optimal challenge point framework and in particular it is proposed that under the experimental conditions employed here, functional task difficulty: (i) would possibly depend on an individuals' information processing capabilities, and (ii) could be indexed by the level of mental workload which, when excessively heightened can decrease the quality of performance and more generally result in delayed motor improvements. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An experimental approach to estimation of human information processing capacity for diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Tae

    2006-02-15

    The objectives of this research are 1) to determine the human's information processing capacity and 2) to describe the relationship between the information processing capacity and human factors. This research centers on the relationship, as experimentally determined, between an operator's mental workload and information flow during accident diagnosis tasks at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The relationship between the information flow rate and operator's mental workload is investigated experimentally. According to this relationship, the operator's information processing capacity can be established. Once the information processing capacity of a main control room (MCR) operator in a NPP is known, it is possible to apply it 1) to predict the operator's performance, 2) to design diagnosis tasks, and 3) to design human-machine interface. In advanced MCR, an operator's mental activity is more important than his or her physical activity. The mental workload is the portion of the operator's limited capacity that is actually required to perform a particular task. A high mental workload may cause an operator to make a mistake and consequently affect that the safe operation of NPPs. Thus, to predict an operator's performance is very important for the nuclear safety. The information processing capacity is the operator's ability to manage the amount of bits per second when an operator is diagnosing tasks or accidents. We can estimate the information processing capacity using the relationship between the information flow rate and human performance. That is, if the operator's performance decreases rapidly as the information flow rate (bit/sec) is increased, it is possible to determine the operator's information processing capacity. A diagnosis task is one of the most complex and mentally demanding tasks as well as a crucial part in maintaining the safe operation of NPPs. Diagnosis tasks refer to the overall tasks of finding the

  6. An experimental approach to estimation of human information processing capacity for diagnosis tasks in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Tae

    2006-02-01

    The objectives of this research are 1) to determine the human's information processing capacity and 2) to describe the relationship between the information processing capacity and human factors. This research centers on the relationship, as experimentally determined, between an operator's mental workload and information flow during accident diagnosis tasks at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The relationship between the information flow rate and operator's mental workload is investigated experimentally. According to this relationship, the operator's information processing capacity can be established. Once the information processing capacity of a main control room (MCR) operator in a NPP is known, it is possible to apply it 1) to predict the operator's performance, 2) to design diagnosis tasks, and 3) to design human-machine interface. In advanced MCR, an operator's mental activity is more important than his or her physical activity. The mental workload is the portion of the operator's limited capacity that is actually required to perform a particular task. A high mental workload may cause an operator to make a mistake and consequently affect that the safe operation of NPPs. Thus, to predict an operator's performance is very important for the nuclear safety. The information processing capacity is the operator's ability to manage the amount of bits per second when an operator is diagnosing tasks or accidents. We can estimate the information processing capacity using the relationship between the information flow rate and human performance. That is, if the operator's performance decreases rapidly as the information flow rate (bit/sec) is increased, it is possible to determine the operator's information processing capacity. A diagnosis task is one of the most complex and mentally demanding tasks as well as a crucial part in maintaining the safe operation of NPPs. Diagnosis tasks refer to the overall tasks of finding the root of cause of the faults or accidents. In this

  7. Parallel main-memory indexing for moving-object query and update workloads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidlauskas, Darius; Saltenis, Simonas; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2012-01-01

    of supporting the location-related query and update workloads generated by very large populations of such moving objects. This paper presents a main-memory indexing technique that aims to support such workloads. The technique, called PGrid, uses a grid structure that is capable of exploiting the parallelism...... offered by modern processors. Unlike earlier proposals that maintain separate structures for updates and queries, PGrid allows both long-running queries and rapid updates to operate on a single data structure and thus offers up-to-date query results. Because PGrid does not rely on creating snapshots...... on the same current data-store state, PGrid outperforms snapshot-based techniques in terms of both query freshness and CPU cycle-wise efficiency....

  8. THE REAL NEED OF NURSES BASED ON WORKLOAD INDICATOR STAFF NEED (WISN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Ade Kusuma Ernawati

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nurses are health workers in hospitals that provide nursing care to patients for 24 hours. Workload of nurses was high due to insufficient numbers of nurses. It will have an impact on the decrease in work productivity that may affect nurses care for patients. To get the human resources necessary to suit the needs of nursing manpower planning to increase the competitiveness of hospitals in the era of globalization. The research objective was to analyze the real needs of nurses on staff workload indicators need (WISN. Method: The study design was observational analytic. Analysis of workload using the method of approach to time and motion study. Sample were 24 nurses who met the inclusion criteria. Analysis of the needs of staff nurses using the workload indicators need (WISN. Result: The results obtained based on the calculation of nurses with WISN method needs of nurses in the medical-surgical nurses as many as 54 people. Objective workload of nurses in the room medical surgery general state hospital of Bali is the average 82.61%, including height. The total time required to complete the productive activities of more than 80%. Discussion: Conclusion of this study show the number of nurses in the medical-surgical general hospital bali is still lacking as many as 30 people. It is suggest to the hospital management to increase gradually the number of nurses in the medical room.

  9. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    which are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. As a result of reviewing eight literatures and performing event report analysis, four main drivers were derived, including procedure, experience level, workload/stress, and training. Since there was less attention paid to the risks during LPSD operations, there have been insufficient human performance data. In this aspect, even though there is a limitation due to insufficient data from operating experience, it is believed that this research may be a reasonable starting point in the study of main drivers in the development of comprehensive HRA methods for LPSD operation.

  10. Derivation of main drivers affecting the possibility of human errors during low power and shutdown operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun; Kim, Jae Whan

    2016-01-01

    are commonly called as performance shaping factors (PSFs) are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. As a result of reviewing eight literatures and performing event report analysis, four main drivers were derived, including procedure, experience level, workload/stress, and training. Since there was less attention paid to the risks during LPSD operations, there have been insufficient human performance data. In this aspect, even though there is a limitation due to insufficient data from operating experience, it is believed that this research may be a reasonable starting point in the study of main drivers in the development of comprehensive HRA methods for LPSD operation

  11. Does daily nurse staffing match ward workload variability? Three hospitals' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Uri; Bukchin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    . The real challenge will be to develop planning systems and implement corrective interventions such as dynamic and flexible daily staffing, which will face difficulties and barriers. The paper fulfils the need for workforce utilization evaluation. A simple method using available data for daily staffing appropriateness evaluation, which is easy to implement and operate, is presented. The statistical process control method enables intra-ward evaluation, while standardization by converting crude into relative measures enables inter-ward analysis. The staffing indicator definitions enable performance evaluation. This original study uses statistical process control to develop simple standardization methods and applies straightforward statistical tools. This method is not limited to crude measures, rather it uses weighted workload measures such as nursing acuity or weighted nurse level (i.e. grade/band).

  12. Managing Teacher Workload: Work-Life Balance and Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubb, Sara; Earley, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This book is divided into three sections. In the First Section, entitled "Wellbeing and Workload", the authors examine teacher workload and how teachers spend their time. Chapter 1 focuses on what the causes and effects of excessive workload are, especially in relation to wellbeing, stress and, crucially, recruitment and retention?…

  13. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  14. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (P... and untrained, respectively. PGC-1alpha mRNA expression was increased (Pelevated (3.1+/-0.7 mM) and PGC-1alpha mRNA content was less (P

  15. Monday Morning Workload Reports (FY15 - 17)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Monday Morning Workload Report (MMWR) displays a snapshot of the Veterans Benefits Administration’s (VBA) workload as of a specified date, typically the previous...

  16. [Nursing workloads and working conditions: integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoeller, Roseli; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Neis, Márcia Binder; Gelbcke, Francine Lima; de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires

    2011-06-01

    This study reviews theoretical production concerning workloads and working conditions for nurses. For that, an integrative review was carried out using scientific articles, theses and dissertations indexed in two Brazilian databases, Virtual Health Care Library (Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde) and Digital Database of Dissertations (Banco Digital de Teses), over the last ten years. From 132 identified studies, 27 were selected. Results indicate workloads as responsible for professional weariness, affecting the occurrence of work accidents and health problems. In order to adequate workloads studies indicate some strategies, such as having an adequate numbers of employees, continuing education, and better working conditions. The challenge is to continue research that reveal more precisely the relationships between workloads, working conditions, and health of the nursing team.

  17. A basic experimental study on mental workload for human cognitive work at man-machine interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Shimoda, Hiroshi; Wakamori, Osamu; Nagai, Yoshinori

    1995-01-01

    The nature and measurement methods of mental workload (MWL) for human cognitive activity at man-machine interface (MMI) were firstly discussed from the viewpoint of human information process model. Then, a model VDT experiment which simplifies the actual human-computer-interaction situation at MMI, was conducted for several subjects, where two subjects participated in experiment series and tried to solve the same cognitive task in competition. Adopted experimental parameters were (i)different kinds of cognitive task, and (ii)cycle time of information display, to see the influence on MWL characteristics from psycho-physiological viewpoint. A special processing unit for eye camera was developed and used for measuring subjects' eye movement characteristics. Concerning data analysis, total number of display presentation until problem solving (ie., total information needed for problem solving) was assumed as anchoring objective measure for MWL, and the investigations were conducted from two aspects; (i)global interpretation on MWL characteristics seen in the subjects' behavior from viewpoint of human information process model, and (ii)applicability of MWL by means of biocybernetic method. As regards to applicability of biocybernetic method, the nature of MWL characteristics was first divided into two aspects : (i)efficiency of visual information acquisition, and (ii)difficulty of inner cognitive process to solve problem, both in time pressure situation. Then, the data analysis results for eye movement characteristics were correlated to (i), while for heart rate characteristics, (ii). (author)

  18. Impact of automation: Measurement of performance, workload and behaviour in a complex control environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfe, Nora; Sharples, Sarah; Wilson, John R

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to compare three levels of automation in rail signalling; a high level in which an automated agent set routes for trains using timetable information, a medium level in which trains were routed along pre-defined paths, and a low level where the operator (signaller) was responsible for the movement of all trains. These levels are described in terms of a Rail Automation Model based on previous automation theory (Parasuraman et al., 2000). Performance, subjective workload, and signaller activity were measured for each level of automation running under both normal operating conditions and abnormal, or disrupted, conditions. The results indicate that perceived workload, during both normal and disrupted phases of the experiment, decreased as the level of automation increased and performance was most consistent (i.e. showed the least variation between participants) with the highest level of automation. The results give a strong case in favour of automation, particularly in terms of demonstrating the potential for automation to reduce workload, but also suggest much benefit can achieved from a mid-level of automation potentially at a lower cost and complexity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategic workload management and decision biases in aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raby, Mireille; Wickens, Christopher D.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty pilots flew three simulated landing approaches under conditions of low, medium, and high workload. Workload conditions were created by varying time pressure and external communications requirements. Our interest was in how the pilots strategically managed or adapted to the increasing workload. We independently assessed the pilot's ranking of the priority of different discrete tasks during the approach and landing. Pilots were found to sacrifice some aspects of primary flight control as workload increased. For discrete tasks, increasing workload increased the amount of time in performing the high priority tasks, decreased the time in performing those of lowest priority, and did not affect duration of performance episodes or optimality of scheduling of tasks of any priority level. Individual differences analysis revealed that high-performing subjects scheduled discrete tasks earlier in the flight and shifted more often between different activities.

  20. impact of workload induced stress on the professional effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    aids, evaluation of students, learning motivation, classroom management, supervision of co-curricular activities and ... of workload. KEYWORDS; Stress, Workload, Professional effectiveness, Teachers, Cross River State .... determining the relationship between workload ..... adapted to cope with the stress that could have.

  1. Development and validation of a multilevel model for predicting workload under routine and nonroutine conditions in an air traffic management center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Andrew; Hannah, Sam; Sanderson, Penelope; Bolland, Scott; Mooij, Martijn; Murphy, Sean

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model capable of predicting variability in the mental workload experienced by frontline operators under routine and nonroutine conditions. Excess workload is a risk that needs to be managed in safety-critical industries. Predictive models are needed to manage this risk effectively yet are difficult to develop. Much of the difficulty stems from the fact that workload prediction is a multilevel problem. A multilevel workload model was developed in Study I with data collected from an en route air traffic management center. Dynamic density metrics were used to predict variability in workload within and between work units while controlling for variability among raters.The model was cross-validated in Studies 2 and 3 with the use of a high-fidelity simulator. Reported workload generally remained within the bounds of the 90% prediction interval in Studies 2 and 3. Workload crossed the upper bound of the prediction interval only under nonroutine conditions. Qualitative analyses suggest that nonroutine events caused workload to cross the upper bound of the prediction interval because the controllers could not manage their workload strategically. The model performed well under both routine and nonroutine conditions and over different patterns of workload variation. Workload prediction models can be used to support both strategic and tactical workload management. Strategic uses include the analysis of historical and projected workflows and the assessment of staffing needs.Tactical uses include the dynamic reallocation of resources to meet changes in demand.

  2. Multi-Attribute Task Battery - Applications in pilot workload and strategic behavior research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnegard, Ruth J.; Comstock, J. R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Multi-Attribute Task (MAT) Battery provides a benchmark set of tasks for use in a wide range of lab studies of operator performance and workload. The battery incorporates tasks analogous to activities that aircraft crewmembers perform in flight, while providing a high degree of experimenter control, performance data on each subtask, and freedom to nonpilot test subjects. Features not found in existing computer based tasks include an auditory communication task (to simulate Air Traffic Control communication), a resource management task permitting many avenues or strategies of maintaining target performance, a scheduling window which gives the operator information about future task demands, and the option of manual or automated control of tasks. Performance data are generated for each subtask. In addition, the task battery may be paused and onscreen workload rating scales presented to the subject. The MAT Battery requires a desktop computer with color graphics. The communication task requires a serial link to a second desktop computer with a voice synthesizer or digitizer card.

  3. School Nurse Workload: A Scoping Review of Acute Care, Community Health, and Mental Health Nursing Workload Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endsley, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to survey the most recent (5 years) acute care, community health, and mental health nursing workload literature to understand themes and research avenues that may be applicable to school nursing workload research. The search for empirical and nonempirical literature was conducted using search engines such as…

  4. The smartphone and the driver's cognitive workload: A comparison of Apple, Google, and Microsoft's intelligent personal assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, David L; Cooper, Joel M; Turrill, Jonna; Coleman, James R; Hopman, Rachel J

    2017-06-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the impact of voice-based interactions using 3 different intelligent personal assistants (Apple's Siri , Google's Google Now for Android phones, and Microsoft's Cortana ) on the cognitive workload of the driver. In 2 experiments using an instrumented vehicle on suburban roadways, we measured the cognitive workload of drivers when they used the voice-based features of each smartphone to place a call, select music, or send text messages. Cognitive workload was derived from primary task performance through video analysis, secondary-task performance using the Detection Response Task (DRT), and subjective mental workload. We found that workload was significantly higher than that measured in the single-task drive. There were also systematic differences between the smartphones: The Google system placed lower cognitive demands on the driver than the Apple and Microsoft systems, which did not differ. Video analysis revealed that the difference in mental workload between the smartphones was associated with the number of system errors, the time to complete an action, and the complexity and intuitiveness of the devices. Finally, surprisingly high levels of cognitive workload were observed when drivers were interacting with the devices: "on-task" workload measures did not systematically differ from that associated with a mentally demanding Operation Span (OSPAN) task. The analysis also found residual costs associated using each of the smartphones that took a significant time to dissipate. The data suggest that caution is warranted in the use of smartphone voice-based technology in the vehicle because of the high levels of cognitive workload associated with these interactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A self-analysis of the NASA-TLX workload measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jan M; Bruneau, Daniel P J

    2007-04-01

    Computer use and, more specifically, the administration of tests and materials online continue to proliferate. A number of subjective, self-report workload measures exist, but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is probably the most well known and used. The aim of this paper is to consider the workload costs associated with the computer-based and paper versions of the NASA-TLX measure. It was found that there is a significant difference between the workload scores for the two media, with the computer version of the NASA-TLX incurring more workload. This has implications for the practical use of the NASA-TLX as well as for other computer-based workload measures.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT WORK-LOADING APPLIED TO THE WORKERS THAT WORK PRODUCING OF SHIRT TO THE SEAM FAULT RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder YÜCEL

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Human efficiency is of big importance in the clothing industry. So as to provide high quality and productivity stabilized work –loading must be given to the workers that work in the cloth production lines. In addition to it, the kind of work must be paid attention in the studies to be done on stabilized work-loading. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of different work-loading to the seam fault rates. For this purpose, four different work-loading had been applied to the workers and determined seam faults on the clothes had been recorded. As a result of this study, seam fault rates in the different work-loading had been evaluated.

  7. Front-line ordering clinicians: matching workforce to workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldston, Evan S; Zaoutis, Lisa B; Hicks, Patricia J; Kolb, Susan; Sladek, Erin; Geiger, Debra; Agosto, Paula M; Boswinkel, Jan P; Bell, Louis M

    2014-07-01

    Matching workforce to workload is particularly important in healthcare delivery, where an excess of workload for the available workforce may negatively impact processes and outcomes of patient care and resident learning. Hospitals currently lack a means to measure and match dynamic workload and workforce factors. This article describes our work to develop and obtain consensus for use of an objective tool to dynamically match the front-line ordering clinician (FLOC) workforce to clinical workload in a variety of inpatient settings. We undertook development of a tool to represent hospital workload and workforce based on literature reviews, discussions with clinical leadership, and repeated validation sessions. We met with physicians and nurses from every clinical care area of our large, urban children's hospital at least twice. We successfully created a tool in a matrix format that is objective and flexible and can be applied to a variety of settings. We presented the tool in 14 hospital divisions and received widespread acceptance among physician, nursing, and administrative leadership. The hospital uses the tool to identify gaps in FLOC coverage and guide staffing decisions. Hospitals can better match workload to workforce if they can define and measure these elements. The Care Model Matrix is a flexible, objective tool that quantifies the multidimensional aspects of workload and workforce. The tool, which uses multiple variables that are easily modifiable, can be adapted to a variety of settings. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  8. A comparison of policies on nurse faculty workload in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Peggy A

    2013-01-01

    This article describes nurse faculty workload policies from across the nation in order to assess current practice. There is a well-documented shortage of nursing faculty leading to an increase in workload demands. Increases in faculty workload results in difficulties with work-life balance and dissatisfaction threatening to make nursing education less attractive to young faculty. In order to begin an examination of faculty workload in nursing, existing workloads must be known. Faculty workload data were solicited from nursing programs nationwide and analyzed to determine the current workloads. The most common faculty teaching workload reported overall for nursing is 12 credit hours per semester; however, some variations exist. Consideration should be given to the multiple components of the faculty workload. Research is needed to address the most effective and efficient workload allocation for nursing faculty.

  9. Impact of 3D vision on mental workload and laparoscopic performance in inexperienced subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gómez, E; Carrasco-Valiente, J; Valero-Rosa, J; Campos-Hernández, J P; Anglada-Curado, F J; Carazo-Carazo, J L; Font-Ugalde, P; Requena-Tapia, M J

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effect of vision in three dimensions (3D) versus two dimensions (2D) on mental workload and laparoscopic performance during simulation-based training. A prospective, randomized crossover study on inexperienced students in operative laparoscopy was conducted. Forty-six candidates executed five standardized exercises on a pelvitrainer with both vision systems (3D and 2D). Laparoscopy performance was assessed using the total time (in seconds) and the number of failed attempts. For workload assessment, the validated NASA-TLX questionnaire was administered. 3D vision improves the performance reducing the time (3D = 1006.08 ± 315.94 vs. 2D = 1309.17 ± 300.28; P NASA-TLX results, less mental workload is experienced with the use of 3D (P < .001). However, 3D vision was associated with greater visual impairment (P < .01) and headaches (P < .05). The incorporation of 3D systems in laparoscopic training programs would facilitate the acquisition of laparoscopic skills, because they reduce mental workload and improve the performance on inexperienced surgeons. However, some undesirable effects such as visual discomfort or headache are identified initially. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Robust Models for Operator Workload Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    piloted aircraft (RPA) simultaneously, a vast improvement in resource utilization compared to existing operations that require several operators per...into distinct cognitive channels (visual, auditory, spatial, etc.) based on our ability to multitask effectively as long as no one channel is

  11. Assessing Clinical Trial-Associated Workload in Community-Based Research Programs Using the ASCO Clinical Trial Workload Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marjorie J; Hurley, Patricia; Woo, Kaitlin M; Szczepanek, Connie; Stewart, Teresa; Robert, Nicholas; Lyss, Alan; Gönen, Mithat; Lilenbaum, Rogerio

    2016-05-01

    Clinical research program managers are regularly faced with the quandary of determining how much of a workload research staff members can manage while they balance clinical practice and still achieve clinical trial accrual goals, maintain data quality and protocol compliance, and stay within budget. A tool was developed to measure clinical trial-associated workload, to apply objective metrics toward documentation of work, and to provide clearer insight to better meet clinical research program challenges and aid in balancing staff workloads. A project was conducted to assess the feasibility and utility of using this tool in diverse research settings. Community-based research programs were recruited to collect and enter clinical trial-associated monthly workload data into a web-based tool for 6 consecutive months. Descriptive statistics were computed for self-reported program characteristics and workload data, including staff acuity scores and number of patient encounters. Fifty-one research programs that represented 30 states participated. Median staff acuity scores were highest for staff with patients enrolled in studies and receiving treatment, relative to staff with patients in follow-up status. Treatment trials typically resulted in higher median staff acuity, relative to cancer control, observational/registry, and prevention trials. Industry trials exhibited higher median staff acuity scores than trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health/National Cancer Institute, academic institutions, or others. The results from this project demonstrate that trial-specific acuity measurement is a better measure of workload than simply counting the number of patients. The tool was shown to be feasible and useable in diverse community-based research settings. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  12. Evaluation of Mental Workload among ICU Ward's Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Mazloumi, Adel; Kazemi, Zeinab; Zeraati, Hojat

    2015-01-01

    High level of workload has been identified among stressors of nurses in intensive care units (ICUs). The present study investigated nursing workload and identified its influencing perfor-mance obstacles in ICUs. This cross-sectional study was conducted, in 2013, on 81 nurses working in ICUs in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran. NASA-TLX was applied for assessment of workload. Moreover, ICUs Performance Obstacles Questionnaire was used to identify performance obstacles associated with ICU nursing. Physical demand (mean=84.17) was perceived as the most important dimensions of workload by nurses. The most critical performance obstacles affecting workload included: difficulty in finding a place to sit down, hectic workplace, disorganized workplace, poor-conditioned equipment, waiting for using a piece of equipment, spending much time seeking for supplies in the central stock, poor quality of medical materials, delay in getting medications, unpredicted problems, disorganized central stock, outpatient surgery, spending much time dealing with family needs, late, inadequate, and useless help from nurse assistants, and ineffective morning rounds (P-value<0.05). Various performance obstacles are correlated with nurses' workload, affirms the significance of nursing work system characteristics. Interventions are recommended based on the results of this study in the work settings of nurses in ICUs.

  13. Workforce Optimization for Bank Operation Centers: A Machine Learning Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sefik Ilkin Serengil; Alper Ozpinar

    2017-01-01

    Online Banking Systems evolved and improved in recent years with the use of mobile and online technologies, performing money transfer transactions on these channels can be done without delay and human interaction, however commercial customers still tend to transfer money on bank branches due to several concerns. Bank Operation Centers serve to reduce the operational workload of branches. Centralized management also offers personalized service by appointed expert employees in these centers. In...

  14. Activity-based differentiation of pathologists' workload in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, G A; Oudejans, J J; Koevoets, J J M; Meijer, C J L M

    2009-06-01

    Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a model for measuring the pathologists' workload that can take into account the changes mentioned above. The diagnostic process was analyzed and broken up into separate activities. The time needed to perform these activities was measured. Based on linear regression analysis, for each activity, the time needed was calculated as a function of the number of slides or blocks involved. The total pathologists' time required for a range of specimens was calculated based on standard protocols and validated by comparing to actually measured workload. Cutting up, microscopic procedures and dictating turned out to be highly correlated to number of blocks and/or slides per specimen. Calculated workload per type of specimen was significantly correlated to the actually measured workload. Modeling pathologists' workload based on formulas that calculate workload per type of specimen as a function of the number of blocks and slides provides a basis for a comprehensive, yet flexible, activity-based costing system for pathology.

  15. UNIX-based operating systems robustness evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Ming

    1996-01-01

    Robust operating systems are required for reliable computing. Techniques for robustness evaluation of operating systems not only enhance the understanding of the reliability of computer systems, but also provide valuable feed- back to system designers. This thesis presents results from robustness evaluation experiments on five UNIX-based operating systems, which include Digital Equipment's OSF/l, Hewlett Packard's HP-UX, Sun Microsystems' Solaris and SunOS, and Silicon Graphics' IRIX. Three sets of experiments were performed. The methodology for evaluation tested (1) the exception handling mechanism, (2) system resource management, and (3) system capacity under high workload stress. An exception generator was used to evaluate the exception handling mechanism of the operating systems. Results included exit status of the exception generator and the system state. Resource management techniques used by individual operating systems were tested using programs designed to usurp system resources such as physical memory and process slots. Finally, the workload stress testing evaluated the effect of the workload on system performance by running a synthetic workload and recording the response time of local and remote user requests. Moderate to severe performance degradations were observed on the systems under stress.

  16. Workload Characterization of CFD Applications Using Partial Differential Equation Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Abdul; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Workload characterization is used for modeling and evaluating of computing systems at different levels of detail. We present workload characterization for a class of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) applications that solve Partial Differential Equations (PDEs). This workload characterization focuses on three high performance computing platforms: SGI Origin2000, EBM SP-2, a cluster of Intel Pentium Pro bases PCs. We execute extensive measurement-based experiments on these platforms to gather statistics of system resource usage, which results in workload characterization. Our workload characterization approach yields a coarse-grain resource utilization behavior that is being applied for performance modeling and evaluation of distributed high performance metacomputing systems. In addition, this study enhances our understanding of interactions between PDE solver workloads and high performance computing platforms and is useful for tuning these applications.

  17. Automated Air Traffic Control Operations with Weather and Time-Constraints: A First Look at (Simulated) Far-Term Control Room Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Martin, Lynne H.; Mercer, Joey S.; Cabrall, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss results from a recent high fidelity simulation of air traffic control operations with automated separation assurance in the presence of weather and time-constraints. We report findings from a human-in-the-loop study conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory (AOL) at the NASA Ames Research Center. During four afternoons in early 2010, fifteen active and recently retired air traffic controllers and supervisors controlled high levels of traffic in a highly automated environment during three-hour long scenarios, For each scenario, twelve air traffic controllers operated eight sector positions in two air traffic control areas and were supervised by three front line managers, Controllers worked one-hour shifts, were relieved by other controllers, took a 3D-minute break, and worked another one-hour shift. On average, twice today's traffic density was simulated with more than 2200 aircraft per traffic scenario. The scenarios were designed to create peaks and valleys in traffic density, growing and decaying convective weather areas, and expose controllers to heavy and light metering conditions. This design enabled an initial look at a broad spectrum of workload, challenge, boredom, and fatigue in an otherwise uncharted territory of future operations. In this paper we report human/system integration aspects, safety and efficiency results as well as airspace throughput, workload, and operational acceptability. We conclude that, with further refinements. air traffic control operations with ground-based automated separation assurance can be an effective and acceptable means to routinely provide very high traffic throughput in the en route airspace.

  18. Development of an objective mental workload assessment tool based on Rasmussen's skill–rule–knowledge framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuang Chunyu; Lin Chiuhsiang Joe; Shiang Weijung; Hsieh Tsungling; Lioud Jinliang

    2016-01-01

    It is important to monitor operators' mental workload during the operation phase. Physiological measurement approaches could record the operator's mental data continuously, and might be less interruptive on the work activities. However, these methods often require the attachment of physical sensors, which are not unobtrusive in the physical sense. Furthermore, the individual difference makes calibrating to each individual tedious and requires trained persons to use. Often high noise-to-signal ratio data are hard to analyze. Due to these factors, physiological workload measurements are hardly widely applied in practical fields. In this study, an objective, non-intrusive and performance-based mental workload predictive model was proposed with high validity (R 2 = 0.51), which can be applied during the operation phrase. This model, developed based on the Rasmussen's skill–rule–knowledge framework, is comprised of two novel cognitive indices, the attention required index and uncertainty index. It can be used as the basis for establishing an early online warning system automatically. Furthermore, this model also predicts the types of error-prone tasks. This kind of information is expected to provide managers and supervisors with opportunities to intervene and improve tasks before error occurred. Finally, the predictive model proposed in this paper requires more practical application in fields to be completed. (author)

  19. Work-Based Social Interactions, Perceived Stress, and Workload Incongruence as Antecedents of Athletic Trainer Burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFreese, J D; Mihalik, Jason P

    2016-01-01

    Burnout is an important psychological health concern for working professionals. Understanding how psychological stress and markers of workload contribute to athletic trainers' (ATs') perceptions of burnout is highly valuable. Both positive (social support) and negative social interactions should be considered when examining relationships among markers of ATs' health and wellbeing. To examine the potential effects of social interactions on the relationships between (1) burnout and perceived stress and (2) burnout and workload incongruence in ATs. Cross-sectional study. Participating ATs completed a computer-based survey during the fall sports season. Responding participants were ATs randomly sampled from the National Athletic Trainers' Association membership (N = 154; men = 78, women = 76; age = 36.8 ± 9.5 years). Participants completed self-report assessments (Perceived Stress Scale, Social Support Questionnaire, Positive and Negative Social Exchanges, Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Survey) via a secure e-mail link. Workload incongruence was calculated by subtracting anticipated work hours from actual current work hours (6.0 ± 9.6 hours). We used hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine hypothesized relationships among study variables. Social interactions did not affect the relationships between burnout and perceived stress or workload incongruence at the global or dimensional level. However, perceived stress (β = .47, P stress perceptions and social support drive the dimensional AT burnout experience, whereas workload incongruence (emotional exhaustion) and negative social interactions (depersonalization) were linked to specific burnout dimensions. Social interactions and markers of stress and workload should be considered when seeking to understand ATs' experiences with burnout and to design workplace interventions.

  20. Online EEG-Based Workload Adaptation of an Arithmetic Learning Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Carina; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Bogdan, Martin; Gerjets, Peter; Spüler, Martin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a closed-loop EEG-based learning environment, that adapts instructional learning material online, to improve learning success in students during arithmetic learning. The amount of cognitive workload during learning is crucial for successful learning and should be held in the optimal range for each learner. Based on EEG data from 10 subjects, we created a prediction model that estimates the learner's workload to obtain an unobtrusive workload measure. Furthermore, we developed an interactive learning environment that uses the prediction model to estimate the learner's workload online based on the EEG data and adapt the difficulty of the learning material to keep the learner's workload in an optimal range. The EEG-based learning environment was used by 13 subjects to learn arithmetic addition in the octal number system, leading to a significant learning effect. The results suggest that it is feasible to use EEG as an unobtrusive measure of cognitive workload to adapt the learning content. Further it demonstrates that a promptly workload prediction is possible using a generalized prediction model without the need for a user-specific calibration.

  1. Academic context and perceived mental workload of psychology students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The excessive workload of university students is an academic stressor. Consequently, it is necessary to evaluate and control the workload in education. This research applies the NASA-TLX scale, as a measure of the workload. The objectives of this study were: (a) to measure the workload levels of a sample of 367 psychology students, (b) to group students according to their positive or negative perception of academic context (AC) and c) to analyze the effects of AC on workload. To assess the perceived AC, we used an ad hoc questionnaire designed according to Demand-Control-Social Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models. Using cluster analysis, participants were classified into two groups (positive versus negative context). The differences between groups show that a positive AC improves performance (p student autonomy and result satisfaction were relevant dimensions of the AC (p < .001 in all cases).

  2. Rework the workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Linda; Krueger, Janelle; Lusk, Ruth

    2002-03-01

    Kindred Healthcare, Inc., the nation's largest full-service network of long-term acute care hospitals, initiated a 3-year strategic plan to re-evaluate its workload management system. Here, follow the project's most important and difficult phase--designing and implementing the patient classification system.

  3. Approaches to Learning at Work: Investigating Work Motivation, Perceived Workload, and Choice Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyndt, Eva; Raes, Elisabeth; Dochy, Filip; Janssens, Els

    2013-01-01

    Learning and development are taking up a central role in the human resource policies of organizations because of their crucial contribution to the competitiveness of those organizations. The present study investigates the relationship of work motivation, perceived workload, and choice independence with employees' approaches to learning at work.…

  4. Mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narmin Hassanzadeh-Rangi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Driving crash is one of major concerns in all countries. Mental workload reflects the level of attention resources required to meet both objec­tive and subjective performance criteria, which may be affected by task demand, external support, and past experience. Mental workload has been commonly cited as a major cause of workplace and transportation accidents. The objective of this study was assessment of mental workload and its relation with fatigue among urban bus drivers in Tehran, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, the NASA-TLX workload scale and the Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were completed by 194 professional bus drivers. Descriptive statistics as well as correlation and regression analysis were performed for data processing. Results: The total mental workload had highest correlation with the physical demand(r=0.73, p<0.001, the mental demand (r=0.68, p<0.001 and the time pressure (r=0.58, p<0.001. The total fatigue perceived by bus driver had highest correlation with the frustration level (r=0.42, p<0.001, the time pressure (r=0.24, p<0.001 and the mental workload (r=0.21, p<0.001. Conclusion: Mental workload, physical workload and time pressure are important determinants of the total mental workload and fatigue perceived by urban bus drivers. A comprehensive intervention program, include work turnover, trip and work-rest scheduling as well as smoking cessation, was recommended to improve mental workload and fatigue. 

  5. An approach to evaluate task allocation between operators and automation with respect to safety of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macwan, A.; Wei, Z.G.; Wieringa, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Even though the use of automation is increasing in complex systems, its effect on safety cannot be systematically analyzed using current techniques. Of particular interest is task allocation between operators and automation. In evaluating its effect on safety, a quantitative definition of degree of automation (doA) is used. The definition of doA accounts for the effect of task on safety, irrespective of whether the task is carried out by operator or automation. Also included is the indirect effect due to the change in workload perceived by the operator. This workload is translated into stress which affects operator performance, expressed as human error probability, and subsequently, safety. The approach can be useful for evaluation of existing task allocation schemes as well as in making decisions about task allocation between operators and automation. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig

  6. Single Pilot Workload Management During Cruise in Entry Level Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burian, Barbara K.; Pruchnicki, Shawn; Christopher, Bonny; Silverman, Evan; Hackworth, Carla; Rogers, Jason; Williams, Kevin; Drechsler, Gena; Runnels, Barry; Mead, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Advanced technologies and automation are important facilitators of single pilot operations, but they also contribute to the workload management challenges faced by the pilot. We examined task completion, workload management, and automation use in an entry level jet (ELJ) flown by single pilots. Thirteen certificated Cessna Citation Mustang (C510-S) pilots flew an instrument flight rules (IFR) experimental flight in a Cessna Citation Mustang simulator. At one point participants had to descend to meet a crossing restriction prior to a waypoint and prepare for an instrument approach into an un-towered field while facilitating communication from a lost pilot who was flying too low for ATC to hear. Four participants experienced some sort of difficulty with regard to meeting the crossing restriction and almost half (n=6) had problems associated with the instrument approach. Additional errors were also observed including eight participants landing at the airport with an incorrect altimeter setting.

  7. Effect of time span and task load on pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two sets of simulations designed to examine how a pilot's mental workload is affected by continuous manual-control activity versus discrete mental tasks that included the length of time between receiving an assignment and executing it are described. The first experiment evaluated two types of measures: objective performance indicators and subjective ratings. Subjective ratings for the two missions were different, but the objective performance measures were similar. In the second experiments, workload levels were increased and a second performance measure was taken. Mental workload had no influence on either performance-based workload measure. Subjective ratings discriminated among the scenarios and correlated with performance measures for high-workload flights. The number of mental tasks performed did not influence error rates, although high manual workloads did increase errors.

  8. File-System Workload on a Scientific Multiprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotz, David; Nieuwejaar, Nils

    1995-01-01

    Many scientific applications have intense computational and I/O requirements. Although multiprocessors have permitted astounding increases in computational performance, the formidable I/O needs of these applications cannot be met by current multiprocessors a their I/O subsystems. To prevent I/O subsystems from forever bottlenecking multiprocessors and limiting the range of feasible applications, new I/O subsystems must be designed. The successful design of computer systems (both hardware and software) depends on a thorough understanding of their intended use. A system designer optimizes the policies and mechanisms for the cases expected to most common in the user's workload. In the case of multiprocessor file systems, however, designers have been forced to build file systems based only on speculation about how they would be used, extrapolating from file-system characterizations of general-purpose workloads on uniprocessor and distributed systems or scientific workloads on vector supercomputers (see sidebar on related work). To help these system designers, in June 1993 we began the Charisma Project, so named because the project sought to characterize 1/0 in scientific multiprocessor applications from a variety of production parallel computing platforms and sites. The Charisma project is unique in recording individual read and write requests-in live, multiprogramming, parallel workloads (rather than from selected or nonparallel applications). In this article, we present the first results from the project: a characterization of the file-system workload an iPSC/860 multiprocessor running production, parallel scientific applications at NASA's Ames Research Center.

  9. Individual differences and subjective workload assessment - Comparing pilots to nonpilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Pandit, Parimal

    1987-01-01

    Results by two groups of subjects, pilots and nonpilots, for two subjective workload assessment techniques (the SWAT and NASA-TLX tests) intended to evaluate individual differences in the perception and reporting of subjective workload are compared with results obtained for several traditional personality tests. The personality tests were found to discriminate between the groups while the workload tests did not. It is concluded that although the workload tests may provide useful information with respect to the interaction between tasks and personality, they are not effective as pure tests of individual differences.

  10. Evaluating stereoscopic displays: both efficiency measures and perceived workload sensitive to manipulations in binocular disparity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beurden, Maurice H. P. H.; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A.; de Kort, Yvonne A. W.

    2011-03-01

    Stereoscopic displays are known to offer a number of key advantages in visualizing complex 3D structures or datasets. The large majority of studies that focus on evaluating stereoscopic displays for professional applications use completion time and/or the percentage of correct answers to measure potential performance advantages. However, completion time and accuracy may not fully reflect all the benefits of stereoscopic displays. In this paper, we argue that perceived workload is an additional valuable indicator reflecting the extent to which users can benefit from using stereoscopic displays. We performed an experiment in which participants were asked to perform a visual path-tracing task within a convoluted 3D wireframe structure, varying in level of complexity of the visualised structure and level of disparity of the visualisation. The results showed that an optimal performance (completion time, accuracy and workload), depend both on task difficulty and disparity level. Stereoscopic disparity revealed a faster and more accurate task performance, whereas we observed a trend that performance on difficult tasks stands to benefit more from higher levels of disparity than performance on easy tasks. Perceived workload (as measured using the NASA-TLX) showed a similar response pattern, providing evidence that perceived workload is sensitive to variations in disparity as well as task difficulty. This suggests that perceived workload could be a useful concept, in addition to standard performance indicators, in characterising and measuring human performance advantages when using stereoscopic displays.

  11. A Workload-Adaptive and Reconfigurable Bus Architecture for Multicore Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Akram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interconnection networks for multicore processors are traditionally designed to serve a diversity of workloads. However, different workloads or even different execution phases of the same workload may benefit from different interconnect configurations. In this paper, we first motivate the need for workload-adaptive interconnection networks. Subsequently, we describe an interconnection network framework based on reconfigurable switches for use in medium-scale (up to 32 cores shared memory multicore processors. Our cost-effective reconfigurable interconnection network is implemented on a traditional shared bus interconnect with snoopy-based coherence, and it enables improved multicore performance. The proposed interconnect architecture distributes the cores of the processor into clusters with reconfigurable logic between clusters to support workload-adaptive policies for inter-cluster communication. Our interconnection scheme is complemented by interconnect-aware scheduling and additional interconnect optimizations which help boost the performance of multiprogramming and multithreaded workloads. We provide experimental results that show that the overall throughput of multiprogramming workloads (consisting of two and four programs can be improved by up to 60% with our configurable bus architecture. Similar gains can be achieved also for multithreaded applications as shown by further experiments. Finally, we present the performance sensitivity of the proposed interconnect architecture on shared memory bandwidth availability.

  12. Quantitative assessment of workload and stressors in clinical radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D; Jones, Ellen L; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B

    2012-08-01

    Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045). Workload level and sources of stressors vary

  13. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Lukasz M.; Mosaly, Prithima R.; Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley; Xu, Jing; Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  14. Quantitative Assessment of Workload and Stressors in Clinical Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur, Lukasz M., E-mail: lukasz_mazur@ncsu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Mosaly, Prithima R. [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Jackson, Marianne; Chang, Sha X.; Burkhardt, Katharin Deschesne; Adams, Robert D.; Jones, Ellen L.; Hoyle, Lesley [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Xu, Jing [Industrial Extension Service, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States); Rockwell, John; Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Workload level and sources of stressors have been implicated as sources of error in multiple settings. We assessed workload levels and sources of stressors among radiation oncology professionals. Furthermore, we explored the potential association between workload and the frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods and Materials: Data collection was aimed at various tasks performed by 21 study participants from different radiation oncology professional subgroups (simulation therapists, radiation therapists, physicists, dosimetrists, and physicians). Workload was assessed using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task-Load Index (NASA TLX). Sources of stressors were quantified using observational methods and segregated using a standard taxonomy. Comparisons between professional subgroups and tasks were made using analysis of variance ANOVA, multivariate ANOVA, and Duncan test. An association between workload levels (NASA TLX) and the frequency of radiotherapy incidents (WHO incidents) was explored (Pearson correlation test). Results: A total of 173 workload assessments were obtained. Overall, simulation therapists had relatively low workloads (NASA TLX range, 30-36), and physicists had relatively high workloads (NASA TLX range, 51-63). NASA TLX scores for physicians, radiation therapists, and dosimetrists ranged from 40-52. There was marked intertask/professional subgroup variation (P<.0001). Mental demand (P<.001), physical demand (P=.001), and effort (P=.006) significantly differed among professional subgroups. Typically, there were 3-5 stressors per cycle of analyzed tasks with the following distribution: interruptions (41.4%), time factors (17%), technical factors (13.6%), teamwork issues (11.6%), patient factors (9.0%), and environmental factors (7.4%). A positive association between workload and frequency of reported radiotherapy incidents by the WHO was found (r = 0.87, P value=.045

  15. Computational Human Performance Modeling For Alarm System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of new technologies like adaptive automation systems and advanced alarms processing and presentation techniques in nuclear power plants is already having an impact on the safety and effectiveness of plant operations and also the role of the control room operator. This impact is expected to escalate dramatically as more and more nuclear power utilities embark on upgrade projects in order to extend the lifetime of their plants. One of the most visible impacts in control rooms will be the need to replace aging alarm systems. Because most of these alarm systems use obsolete technologies, the methods, techniques and tools that were used to design the previous generation of alarm system designs are no longer effective and need to be updated. The same applies to the need to analyze and redefine operators’ alarm handling tasks. In the past, methods for analyzing human tasks and workload have relied on crude, paper-based methods that often lacked traceability. New approaches are needed to allow analysts to model and represent the new concepts of alarm operation and human-system interaction. State-of-the-art task simulation tools are now available that offer a cost-effective and efficient method for examining the effect of operator performance in different conditions and operational scenarios. A discrete event simulation system was used by human factors researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory to develop a generic alarm handling model to examine the effect of operator performance with simulated modern alarm system. It allowed analysts to evaluate alarm generation patterns as well as critical task times and human workload predicted by the system.

  16. CHROMagar Orientation Medium Reduces Urine Culture Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Kanchana; Karlowsky, James A.; Adam, Heather; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Rendina, Assunta; Pang, Paulette; Murray, Brenda-Lee

    2013-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories continually strive to streamline and improve their urine culture algorithms because of the high volumes of urine specimens they receive and the modest numbers of those specimens that are ultimately considered clinically significant. In the current study, we quantitatively measured the impact of the introduction of CHROMagar Orientation (CO) medium into routine use in two hospital laboratories and compared it to conventional culture on blood and MacConkey agars. Based on data extracted from our Laboratory Information System from 2006 to 2011, the use of CO medium resulted in a 28% reduction in workload for additional procedures such as Gram stains, subcultures, identification panels, agglutination tests, and biochemical tests. The average number of workload units (one workload unit equals 1 min of hands-on labor) per urine specimen was significantly reduced (P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5326 to 1.047) from 2.67 in 2006 (preimplementation of CO medium) to 1.88 in 2011 (postimplementation of CO medium). We conclude that the use of CO medium streamlined the urine culture process and increased bench throughput by reducing both workload and turnaround time in our laboratories. PMID:23363839

  17. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Lasota Andrzej; Hankiewicz Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs) which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS) with sampling. The results indicated that posture code ...

  18. An exact approach for relating recovering surgical patient workload to the master surgical schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; van Lent, Wineke A.M.; van Lent, W.A.M.; van Harten, Wim H.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2009-01-01

    No other department influences the workload of a hospital more than the Department of Surgery and in particular, the activities in the operating room. These activities are governed by the master surgical schedule (MSS), which states which patient types receive surgery on which day. In this paper we

  19. An exact approach for relating recovering surgical patient workload to the master surgical schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanberkel, P.T.; Boucherie, Richardus J.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; van Lent, W.A.M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    No other department influences the workload of a hospital more than the Department of Surgery and in particular, the activities in the operating room. These activities are governed by the master surgical schedule (MSS), which states which patient types receive surgery on which day. In this paper, we

  20. Workload Characterization of a Leadership Class Storage Cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Dillow, David A [ORNL; Zhang, Zhe [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the scientific workloads of the world s fastest HPC (High Performance Computing) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). Spider provides an aggregate bandwidth of over 240 GB/s with over 10 petabytes of RAID 6 formatted capacity. OLCFs flagship petascale simulation platform, Jaguar, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the storage system observed over a period of 6 months. From this study we develop synthesized workloads and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution.

  1. Using Psychophysiological Sensors to Assess Mental Workload During Web Browsing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Molina, Angel; Retamal, Cristian; Lira, Hernan

    2018-02-03

    Knowledge of the mental workload induced by a Web page is essential for improving users' browsing experience. However, continuously assessing the mental workload during a browsing task is challenging. To address this issue, this paper leverages the correlation between stimuli and physiological responses, which are measured with high-frequency, non-invasive psychophysiological sensors during very short span windows. An experiment was conducted to identify levels of mental workload through the analysis of pupil dilation measured by an eye-tracking sensor. In addition, a method was developed to classify mental workload by appropriately combining different signals (electrodermal activity (EDA), electrocardiogram, photoplethysmo-graphy (PPG), electroencephalogram (EEG), temperature and pupil dilation) obtained with non-invasive psychophysiological sensors. The results show that the Web browsing task involves four levels of mental workload. Also, by combining all the sensors, the efficiency of the classification reaches 93.7%.

  2. A computerized multidimensional measurement of mental workload via handwriting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Gil; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this study was to test the effect of mental workload on handwriting behavior and to identify characteristics of low versus high mental workload in handwriting. We hypothesized differences between handwriting under three different load conditions and tried to establish a profile that integrated these indicators. Fifty-six participants wrote three numerical progressions of varying difficulty on a digitizer attached to a computer so that we could evaluate their handwriting behavior. Differences were found in temporal, spatial, and angular velocity handwriting measures, but no significant differences were found for pressure measures. Using data reduction, we identified three clusters of handwriting, two of which differentiated well according to the three mental workload conditions. We concluded that handwriting behavior is affected by mental workload and that each measure provides distinct information, so that they present a comprehensive indicator of mental workload.

  3. Situation awareness and workload in complex tactical environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides an example of a method to get insight into workload changes over time, executed tasks and situation awareness (SA) in complex task environments. The method is applied to measure the workload of a helicopter crew. The method has three components: 1) task analysis, 2) video

  4. Neural mechanisms underlying catastrophic failure in human-machine interaction during aerial navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saproo, Sameer; Shih, Victor; Jangraw, David C.; Sajda, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Objective. We investigated the neural correlates of workload buildup in a fine visuomotor task called the boundary avoidance task (BAT). The BAT has been known to induce naturally occurring failures of human-machine coupling in high performance aircraft that can potentially lead to a crash—these failures are termed pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). Approach. We recorded EEG and pupillometry data from human subjects engaged in a flight BAT simulated within a virtual 3D environment. Main results. We find that workload buildup in a BAT can be successfully decoded from oscillatory features in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Information in delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma spectral bands of the EEG all contribute to successful decoding, however gamma band activity with a lateralized somatosensory topography has the highest contribution, while theta band activity with a fronto-central topography has the most robust contribution in terms of real-world usability. We show that the output of the spectral decoder can be used to predict PIO susceptibility. We also find that workload buildup in the task induces pupil dilation, the magnitude of which is significantly correlated with the magnitude of the decoded EEG signals. These results suggest that PIOs may result from the dysregulation of cortical networks such as the locus coeruleus (LC)—anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) circuit. Significance. Our findings may generalize to similar control failures in other cases of tight man-machine coupling where gains and latencies in the control system must be inferred and compensated for by the human operators. A closed-loop intervention using neurophysiological decoding of workload buildup that targets the LC-ACC circuit may positively impact operator performance in such situations.

  5. Academic workload management towards learning, components of academic work

    OpenAIRE

    Ocvirk, Aleksandra; Trunk Širca, Nada

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with attributing time value to academic workload from the point of view of an HEI, management of teaching and an individual. We have conducted a qualitative study aimed at analysing documents on academic workload in terms of its definition, and at analysing the attribution of time value to components of academic work in relation to the proportion of workload devoted to teaching in the sense of ensuring quality and effectiveness of learning, and in relation to financial implic...

  6. The Impact of Heavy Perceived Nurse Workloads on Patient and Nurse Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura MacPhee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between seven workload factors and patient and nurse outcomes. (1 Background: Health systems researchers are beginning to address nurses’ workload demands at different unit, job and task levels; and the types of administrative interventions needed for specific workload demands. (2 Methods: This was a cross-sectional correlational study of 472 acute care nurses from British Columbia, Canada. The workload factors included nurse reports of unit-level RN staffing levels and patient acuity and patient dependency; job-level nurse perceptions of heavy workloads, nursing tasks left undone and compromised standards; and task-level interruptions to work flow. Patient outcomes were nurse-reported frequencies of medication errors, patient falls and urinary tract infections; and nurse outcomes were emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. (3 Results: Job-level perceptions of heavy workloads and task-level interruptions had significant direct effects on patient and nurse outcomes. Tasks left undone mediated the relationships between heavy workloads and nurse and patient outcomes; and between interruptions and nurse and patient outcomes. Compromised professional nursing standards mediated the relationships between heavy workloads and nurse outcomes; and between interruptions and nurse outcomes. (4 Conclusion: Administrators should work collaboratively with nurses to identify work environment strategies that ameliorate workload demands at different levels.

  7. Human Error Assessmentin Minefield Cleaning Operation Using Human Event Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hajiakbari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Human error is one of the main causes of accidents. Due to the unreliability of the human element and the high-risk nature of demining operations, this study aimed to assess and manage human errors likely to occur in such operations. Methods: This study was performed at a demining site in war zones located in the West of Iran. After acquiring an initial familiarity with the operations, methods, and tools of clearing minefields, job task related to clearing landmines were specified. Next, these tasks were studied using HTA and related possible errors were assessed using ATHEANA. Results: de-mining task was composed of four main operations, including primary detection, technical identification, investigation, and neutralization. There were found four main reasons for accidents occurring in such operations; walking on the mines, leaving mines with no action, error in neutralizing operation and environmental explosion. The possibility of human error in mine clearance operations was calculated as 0.010. Conclusion: The main causes of human error in de-mining operations can be attributed to various factors such as poor weather and operating conditions like outdoor work, inappropriate personal protective equipment, personality characteristics, insufficient accuracy in the work, and insufficient time available. To reduce the probability of human error in de-mining operations, the aforementioned factors should be managed properly.

  8. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  9. Effects of digital human-machine interface characteristics on human error in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Zhang Li; Dai Licao; Huang Weigang

    2011-01-01

    In order to identify the effects of digital human-machine interface characteristics on human error in nuclear power plants, the new characteristics of digital human-machine interface are identified by comparing with the traditional analog control systems in the aspects of the information display, user interface interaction and management, control systems, alarm systems and procedures system, and the negative effects of digital human-machine interface characteristics on human error are identified by field research and interviewing with operators such as increased cognitive load and workload, mode confusion, loss of situation awareness. As to the adverse effects related above, the corresponding prevention and control measures of human errors are provided to support the prevention and minimization of human errors and the optimization of human-machine interface design. (authors)

  10. Training and testing ERP-BCIs under different mental workload conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yufeng; Wang, Peiyuan; Chen, Yuqian; Gu, Bin; Qi, Hongzhi; Zhou, Peng; Ming, Dong

    2016-02-01

    Objective. As one of the most popular and extensively studied paradigms of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), event-related potential-based BCIs (ERP-BCIs) are usually built and tested in ideal laboratory settings in most existing studies, with subjects concentrating on stimuli and intentionally avoiding possible distractors. This study is aimed at examining the effect of simultaneous mental activities on ERP-BCIs by manipulating various levels of mental workload during the training and/or testing of an ERP-BCI. Approach. Mental workload was manipulated during the training or testing of a row-column P300-speller to investigate how and to what extent the spelling performance and the ERPs evoked by the oddball stimuli are affected by simultaneous mental workload. Main results. Responses of certain ERP components, temporal-occipital N200 and the late reorienting negativity evoked by the oddball stimuli and the classifiability of ERP features between targets and non-targets decreased with the increase of mental workload encountered by the subject. However, the effect of mental workload on the performance of ERP-BCI was not always negative but depended on the conditions where the ERP-BCI was built and applied. The performance of ERP-BCI built under an ideal lab setting without any irrelevant mental activities declined with the increasing mental workload of the testing data. However, the performance was significantly improved when an ERP-BCI was built under an appropriate mental workload level, compared to that built under speller-only conditions. Significance. The adverse effect of concurrent mental activities may present a challenge for ERP-BCIs trained in ideal lab settings but which are to be used in daily work, especially when users are performing demanding mental processing. On the other hand, the positive effects of the mental workload of the training data suggest that introducing appropriate mental workload during training ERP-BCIs is of potential benefit to the

  11. Nursing workloads in family health: implications for universal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Machado, Rosani Ramos; Soratto, Jacks; Scherer, Magda dos Anjos; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Resque; Trindade, Letícia Lima

    2016-01-01

    to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.

  12. [Effects of mental workload on work ability in primary and secondary school teachers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the change pattern of primary and secondary school teachers' work ability with the changes in their mental workload. A total of 901 primary and secondary school teachers were selected by random cluster sampling, and then their mental workload and work ability were assessed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) and Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaires, whose reliability and validity had been tested. The effects of their mental workload on the work ability were analyzed. Primary and secondary school teachers' work ability reached the highest level at a certain level of mental workload (55.73work ability had a positive correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability increased or maintained stable with the increasing mental workload. Moreover, the percentage of teachers with good work ability increased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability decreased. But when their mental workload was higher than the level, their work ability had a negative correlation with the mental workload. Their work ability significantly decreased with the increasing mental workload (P work ability decreased, while that of teachers with moderate work ability increased (P work ability. Moderate mental workload (55.73∼64.10) will benefit the maintaining and stabilization of their work ability.

  13. Integration of computerized operation support systems on a nuclear power plant environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Oliveira, Mauro V., E-mail: gdjaime@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br [Instituto Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Sistemas Complexos. Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Automation of certain tasks in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room is expected to result in reduced operators' mental workload, which may induce other benefits such as enhanced situation awareness and improved system performance. The final goal should be higher level of operational safety. Thus, recent works are increasingly assessing automation. The LABIHS compact NPP simulator, though, still operates under strictly manual printed hard-copy procedures, despite of the fact that the simulator incorporates several advancements in design of digitalized Human-Interfaces (HSIs). This work presents the development, implementation and integration of selected components to achieve increased level of computerized/automated operation of the LABIHS compact NPP simulator. Specifically, we discuss three components: (I) Automatic Plant Mode Detection, (II) Automatic Alarm Filtering, and (III) Computerized Procedures. Each one of these components has to be carefully designed/integrated so that one can avoid the undesired effects of some known implementations of automated systems on NPP, such as the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills, which could lead to automation-induced system failures. (author)

  14. Integration of computerized operation support systems on a nuclear power plant environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2015-01-01

    Automation of certain tasks in a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) control room is expected to result in reduced operators' mental workload, which may induce other benefits such as enhanced situation awareness and improved system performance. The final goal should be higher level of operational safety. Thus, recent works are increasingly assessing automation. The LABIHS compact NPP simulator, though, still operates under strictly manual printed hard-copy procedures, despite of the fact that the simulator incorporates several advancements in design of digitalized Human-Interfaces (HSIs). This work presents the development, implementation and integration of selected components to achieve increased level of computerized/automated operation of the LABIHS compact NPP simulator. Specifically, we discuss three components: (I) Automatic Plant Mode Detection, (II) Automatic Alarm Filtering, and (III) Computerized Procedures. Each one of these components has to be carefully designed/integrated so that one can avoid the undesired effects of some known implementations of automated systems on NPP, such as the reduction in the operator's system awareness, an increase in monitoring workload, and the degradation in manual skills, which could lead to automation-induced system failures. (author)

  15. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended.

  16. DIRAC optimized workload management

    CERN Document Server

    Paterson, S K

    2008-01-01

    The LHCb DIRAC Workload and Data Management System employs advanced optimization techniques in order to dynamically allocate resources. The paradigms realized by DIRAC, such as late binding through the Pilot Agent approach, have proven to be highly successful. For example, this has allowed the principles of workload management to be applied not only at the time of user job submission to the Grid but also to optimize the use of computing resources once jobs have been acquired. Along with the central application of job priorities, DIRAC minimizes the system response time for high priority tasks. This paper will describe the recent developments to support Monte Carlo simulation, data processing and distributed user analysis in a consistent way across disparate compute resources including individual PCs, local batch systems, and the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid. The Grid environment is inherently unpredictable and whilst short-term studies have proven to deliver high job efficiencies, the system performance over ...

  17. Comparing the operators' behavior in conducting emergency operating procedures with the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea

    2003-01-01

    Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries. However, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human errors that are originated from non-compliance of procedures. According to related studies, several important factors for non-compliance behavior have been identified, and one if them is the complexity of procedures. This means that comparing the change of the operators' behavior with the complexity of procedures may be meaningful for investigating plausible reasons for the operators' non-compliance behavior. In this study, emergency training records were collected using a full scope simulator in order to obtain data related to the operators' non-compliance behavior. And then, collected data are compared with the complexity of procedural steps. As the result, two remarkable relationships are found, which indicate that the operators' behavior could be reasonably characterized by the complexity of procedural steps. Thus, these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason of non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human errors

  18. Human Error Probability Assessment During Maintenance Activities of Marine Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabiul Islam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintenance operations on-board ships are highly demanding. Maintenance operations are intensive activities requiring high man–machine interactions in challenging and evolving conditions. The evolving conditions are weather conditions, workplace temperature, ship motion, noise and vibration, and workload and stress. For example, extreme weather condition affects seafarers' performance, increasing the chances of error, and, consequently, can cause injuries or fatalities to personnel. An effective human error probability model is required to better manage maintenance on-board ships. The developed model would assist in developing and maintaining effective risk management protocols. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a human error probability model considering various internal and external factors affecting seafarers' performance. Methods: The human error probability model is developed using probability theory applied to Bayesian network. The model is tested using the data received through the developed questionnaire survey of >200 experienced seafarers with >5 years of experience. The model developed in this study is used to find out the reliability of human performance on particular maintenance activities. Results: The developed methodology is tested on the maintenance of marine engine's cooling water pump for engine department and anchor windlass for deck department. In the considered case studies, human error probabilities are estimated in various scenarios and the results are compared between the scenarios and the different seafarer categories. The results of the case studies for both departments are also compared. Conclusion: The developed model is effective in assessing human error probabilities. These probabilities would get dynamically updated as and when new information is available on changes in either internal (i.e., training, experience, and fatigue or external (i.e., environmental and operational conditions

  19. Operator-centered control of a semi-autonomous industrial robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spelt, P.F.; Jones, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents work done by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Remotec, Inc., to develop a new operator-centered control system for Remotec's Andros telerobot. Andros robots are presently used by numerous electric utilities, the armed forces, and numerous law enforcement agencies to perform tasks which are hazardous for human operators. This project has automated task components and enhanced the video graphics display of the robot's position in the environment to significantly reduce operator workload. The procedure of automating a telerobot requires the addition of computer power to the robot, along with a variety of sensors and encoders to provide information about the robots performance in and relationship to its environment The resulting vehicle serves as a platform for research on strategies to integrate automated tasks with those performed by a human operator. The addition of these capabilities will greatly enhance the safety and efficiency of performance in hazardous environments

  20. Relationship between workload and low back pain in assembly line workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Kalantari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work pressure and excessive workload can jeopardize and impair the people’s health. One of these impairments is musculoskeletal disorders. Among these disorders, low back pain is the most common and most costly problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between workload and prevalence of low back pain in assembly line workers of a car manufacturing factory. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 workers working in the assembly line of a factory. Data collection tools included three questionnaires: demographic questionnaire, NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ. Data were analyzed by descriptive and inferential (T-test and One-way ANOVA statistics. Results: Of the workers, 72.5% were female. The average total workload was 71.42% and the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in low back was 43.37%. The results of the analysis of relationship between workload and the prevalence of low back pain showed a significant relationship between physical/ mental workload and the incidence of low back pain (P<0.05. Conclusion: The more is the workload on the person, the greater is the risk of low back pain. Measures such as increasing the number of workers to distribute the workload, slowing the work pace, having work-rest periods for workers, improving psychological conditions of work, etc. can be useful in this regard.

  1. Quantifying the Workload of Subject Bibliographers in Collection Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of the role of subject bibliographers in collection development activities focuses on an approach developed at Virginia Polytechnic and State Institute to provide a formula for estimating the collection development workload of subject bibliographers. Workload standards and matrix models of organizational structures are discussed, and…

  2. Ergonomic Work Station Design to Improve Workload Quality and Productivity of the Craffsmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widana, IK; Wayan Sumetri, Ni; Ketut Sutapa, I.

    2018-01-01

    This study is a research on ergonomics field, especially for ergonomics work station. This research begins with direct observation on the work process of carving craft. In addition to the aspect of occupational health, the stages of the process are also subject matter in the effort to solve the research problem. In accordance with the master plan of research of Bali State Polytechnic, problem solving will be focused on human aspect and utilization of appropriate technology, so that will get the work process ENASEP (effective, convenient, safe, healthy, efficient and productive) Technical easy to work, economical, ergonomic, energy saving, environmentally friendly and in accordance with the trend of the era. The method to be used in this research is experimental with the same subject design. Involves 9 samples who perform activities on conditions before and after treatment. Data on environmental conditions were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Data on work productivity and workload were tested with two pair sample t-test at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that by utilizing ergonomic work stations, occupational health indicators such as workload showed better signs, indicated by decreased the workload. In addition to occupational health, productivity indicators also increased significantly.

  3. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia as a measure of cognitive workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Eric R; Moss, Jason D; Rosopa, Patrick J; Salley, James N; Walker, Alexander D

    2012-01-01

    The current standard for measuring cognitive workload is the NASA Task-load Index (TLX) questionnaire. Although this measure has a high degree of reliability, diagnosticity, and sensitivity, a reliable physiological measure of cognitive workload could provide a non-invasive, objective measure of workload that could be tracked in real or near real-time without interrupting the task. This study investigated changes in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during seven different sub-sections of a proposed selection test for Navy aviation and compared them to changes reported on the NASA-TLX. 201 healthy participants performed the seven tasks of the Navy's Performance Based Measure. RSA was measured during each task and the NASA-TLX was administered after each task. Multi-level modeling revealed that RSA significantly predicted NASA-TLX scores. A moderate within-subject correlation was also found between RSA and NASA TLX scores. The findings support the potential development of RSA as a real-time measure of cognitive workload. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Workload and job satisfaction among general practitioners: a review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.; Hutten, J.B.F.

    1991-01-01

    The workload of general practitioners (GPs) is an important issue in health care systems with capitation payment for GPs services. This article reviews the literature on determinants and consequences of workload and job satisfaction of GPs. Determinants of workload are located on the demand side

  5. Remuneration, workload, and allocation of time in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.J. van den; Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners (GPs) can cope with workload by, among others, spending more hours in patient care or by spending less time per patient. The way GPs are paid might affect the way they cope with workload. From an economical point of view, capitation payment is an incentive to

  6. Workload demand in police officers during mountain bike patrols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, T.; Ribbink, A.; Heneweer, H.; Moolenaar, H.; Wittink, H.

    2009-01-01

    To the authors' knowledge this is the first paper that has used the training impulse (TRIMP) 'methodology' to calculate workload demand. It is believed that this is a promising method to calculate workload in a range of professions in order to understand the relationship between work demands and

  7. All Things Being Equal: Observing Australian Individual Academic Workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobele, Angela; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Kopanidis, Foula; Steel, Marion

    2010-01-01

    The achievement of greater gender equity within Australian universities is a significant issue for both the quality and the strength of Australian higher education. This paper contributes to our knowledge of academic workloads, observing individual workloads in business faculties. A multiple case study method was employed to observe individual…

  8. Human-centred automation: an explorative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Miberg, Ann Britt

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the programme activity on human-centred automation at the HRP is to develop knowledge (in the form of models and theories) and tools (in the form of techniques and simulators) to support design of automation that ensures effective human performance and comprehension. This report presents the work done on both the analytical and experimental side of this project. The analytical work has surveyed common definitions of automation and traditional design principles. A general finding is that human-centred automation usually is defined in terms of what it is not. This is partly due to a lack of adequate models and of human-automation interaction. Another result is a clarification of the consequences of automation, in particular with regard to situation awareness and workload. The experimental work has taken place as an explorative experiment in HAMMLAB in collaboration with IPSN (France). The purpose of this experiment was to increase the understanding of how automation influences operator performance in NPP control rooms. Two different types of automation (extensive and limited) were considered in scenarios having two different degrees of complexity (high and low), and involving diagnostic and procedural tasks. Six licensed NPP crews from the NPP at Loviisa, Finland, participated in the experiment. The dependent variables applied were plant performance, operator performance, self-rated crew performance, situation awareness, workload, and operator trust in the automation. The results from the diagnostic scenarios indicated that operators' judgement of crew efficiency was related to their level of trust in the automation, and further that operators trusted automation least and rated crew performance lowest in situations where crew performance was efficient and vice versa. The results from procedural scenarios indicated that extensive automation efficiently supported operators' performance, and further that operator' judgement of crew performance efficiency

  9. Modest associations between self-reported physical workload and neck trouble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jonas Winkel; Hartvigsen, Jan; Lings, Svend

    2013-01-01

    -based, cross-sectional questionnaire study using 3,208 monozygotic (MZ) and same-sexed dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 19-70. Twin pairs discordant for self-reported NT during the past year ("Any NT") were included. Self-reported physical workload in four categories was used as exposure ("sitting," "sitting......OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between self-reported physical workload and neck trouble (NT) in twins. Additionally, to explore whether the relationship between physical workload and NT is influenced by genetic factors. METHODS: A twin control study was performed within a population...... and walking," "light physical," and "heavy physical" work). Paired analyses including conditional logistic regression were made for all participants and for each sex, and MZ and DZ pairs separately. RESULTS: No marked associations between physical workload and NT were seen. A moderate risk elevation in "heavy...

  10. Approximate entropy: a new evaluation approach of mental workload under multitask conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Li, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Dong, Yuanzhe; Jiang, Ying

    2014-04-01

    There are numerous instruments and an abundance of complex information in the traditional cockpit display-control system, and pilots require a long time to familiarize themselves with the cockpit interface. This can cause accidents when they cope with emergency events, suggesting that it is necessary to evaluate pilot cognitive workload. In order to establish a simplified method to evaluate cognitive workload under a multitask condition. We designed a series of experiments involving different instrument panels and collected electroencephalograms (EEG) from 10 healthy volunteers. The data were classified and analyzed with an approximate entropy (ApEn) signal processing. ApEn increased with increasing experiment difficulty, suggesting that it can be used to evaluate cognitive workload. Our results demonstrate that ApEn can be used as an evaluation criteria of cognitive workload and has good specificity and sensitivity. Moreover, we determined an empirical formula to assess the cognitive workload interval, which can simplify cognitive workload evaluation under multitask conditions.

  11. Subjective workload and individual differences in information processing abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damos, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes several experiments examining the source of individual differences in the experience of mental workload. Three sources of such differences were examined: information processing abilities, timesharing abilities, and personality traits/behavior patterns. On the whole, there was little evidence that individual differences in information processing abilities or timesharing abilities are related to perceived differences in mental workload. However, individuals with strong Type A coronary prone behavior patterns differed in both single- and multiple-task performance from individuals who showed little evidence of such a pattern. Additionally, individuals with a strong Type A pattern showed some dissociation between objective performance and the experience of mental workload.

  12. Nursing Personnel Planning for Rural Hospitals in Burdwan District, West Bengal, India, Using Workload Indicators of Staffing Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Rabindra Nath; Dasgupta, Samir; Bhattacharyya, Krishna Das; Misra, Raghu Nath; Roy, Sima; Saha, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lack of appropriate human resources planning is an important factor in the inefficient use of the public health facilities. Workforce projections can be improved by using objective methods of staffing needs based on the workload and actual work undertaken by workers, a guideline developed by Peter J. Shipp in collaboration with WHO—Workload Indicators of Staffing Need (WISN). A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the nursing stuff requirement for the rural hospitals and provide a quantitative description of imbalances, if there is any, in the allocation at the district level during 2011. The average WISN turns out to be 0.35 for entire district, which means only 35% of the required nurses is available or 65% understaffed. So, there is an urgent need for more allocations and deployment of staff so that workload can be tackled and evenly distributed among all nursing personnel. PMID:25895199

  13. Investigation on the relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among nursing staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Mahmoudifar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: High prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders owing to the work is one of the popular discomforts between nursing staff. High level of workload is considered as a serious problem and identified as a stressor in the nursing. This study intends to recognize the relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload in nursing personnel reside at southern part of West Azerbaijan province Iran in 2017. Materials and Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, 100 nurses working in West Azerbaijan hospitals have been randomly selected. Nordic and National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index workload questionnaires have been simultaneously utilized as data collection tools. Data analysis has also carried out using SPSS, variance analysis tests, multiple linear regression, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Results suggest that the most frequent complaints of musculoskeletal problems are associated to the back area. Investigation on sextet scales of mental workload indicates that each of the six scales of workload was at the high-risk level and the average of total workload was 72.45 ± 19.45 which confirms a high-risk level. Pearson's correlation coefficient also indicates mental workload elements have a significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results suggest there is a relationship between musculoskeletal disorders and mental workload and the majority of personnel had mental workload with high-risk level. The best way of management planning to mitigate the risk of musculoskeletal disorders arising of mental workload is, therefore, managing-controlling approach such as staff training, job rotation, and time management.

  14. Human errors in NPP operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng Jufang

    1993-01-01

    Based on the operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs), the importance of studying human performance problems is described. Statistical analysis on the significance or frequency of various root-causes and error-modes from a large number of human-error-related events demonstrate that the defects in operation/maintenance procedures, working place factors, communication and training practices are primary root-causes, while omission, transposition, quantitative mistake are the most frequent among the error-modes. Recommendations about domestic research on human performance problem in NPPs are suggested

  15. Psychosocial and Physical Workload of Hotel’s Shift Worker In Yogyakarta Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Luciana Triani; Yuniartha, Deny Ratna; Purnama, Ign. Luddy Indra

    2014-01-01

    Shift works are common in hospitality industries, such as hotel industries. Shift work can cause many human problems for worker, e.g. circadian rhythms, fatigue, health effects, individual factors, social and family factors, etc. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the psychosocial and physical workload on employees working as hotel’s shift worker in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ) which covers 18 aspects of psychosocial workloa...

  16. Nursing workload for cancer patients under palliative care

    OpenAIRE

    Fuly, Patrícia dos Santos Claro; Pires, Livia Márcia Vidal; Souza, Claudia Quinto Santos de; Oliveira, Beatriz Guitton Renaud Baptista de; Padilha, Katia Grillo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To verify the nursing workload required by cancer patients undergoing palliative care and possible associations between the demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients and the nursing workload. METHOD This is a quantitative, cross-sectional, prospective study developed in the Connective Bone Tissue (TOC) clinics of Unit II of the Brazilian National Cancer Institute José Alencar Gomes da Silva with patients undergoing palliative care. RESULTS Analysis of 197 ...

  17. A multidisciplinary approach of workload assessment in real-job situations: Investigation in the field of aerospace activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine eMélan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution presents two field studies combining tools and methods from cognitive psychology and from occupational psychology in order to perform a thorough investigation of workload in employees. Cognitive load theory proposes to distinguish different load categories of working memory, in a context of instruction. Intrinsic load is inherent to the task, extraneous load refers to components of a learning environment that may be modified to reduce total load, and germane load enables schemas construction and thus efficient learning. We showed previously that this theoretical framework may be successfully extended to working memory tasks in non instructional designs. Other theoretical models, issued from the field of occupational psychology, account for an individual’s perception of work demands or requirements in the context of different psychosocial features of the (work environment. Combining these approaches is difficult as workload assessment by job-perception questionnaires explore an individual’s overall job-perception over a large time-period, whereas cognitive load investigations in working memory tasks are typically performed within short time-periods. We proposed an original methodology enabling investigation of workload and load factors in a comparable time-frame. We report two field studies investigating workload on different shift-phases and between work-shifts, with two custom-made tools. The first one enabled workload assessment by manipulating intrinsic load (task difficulty and extraneous load (time pressure in a working-memory task. The second tool was a questionnaire based on the theoretical concepts of work-demands, control and psychosocial support. Two additional dimensions suspected to contribute to job-perception, i.e. work-family conflicts and availability of human and technical resources were also explored. Results of workload assessments were discussed in light of operators’ alertness and job-performance.

  18. Development of NPP control room operators's mental workload measurement system using bioelectric signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Dong Ha

    1996-09-01

    This study developed mentalload measurement system based on the relations between mentalload and physiological responses of the human operators. The measurement system was composed of the telemetry system for EEG, EOG, ECG and respiration pattern of the subjects, A/D converter, the physiological signal processing programs (compiled by the Labview). The signal processing programs transformed the physiological signal into the scores indicating mentalload status of the subjects and recorded the mentalload scores in the form of the table of a database. The acqknowledge and the labview programs additionally transformed the mentalload score database and the operator behavior database so that both database were consolidated into one. 94 figs., 57 refs. (Author)

  19. Human-Robot Interaction in High Vulnerability Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Brian F.

    2016-01-01

    Future NASA missions will require successful integration of the human with highly complex systems. Highly complex systems are likely to involve humans, automation, and some level of robotic assistance. The complex environments will require successful integration of the human with automation, with robots, and with human-automation-robot teams to accomplish mission critical goals. Many challenges exist for the human performing in these types of operational environments with these kinds of systems. Systems must be designed to optimally integrate various levels of inputs and outputs based on the roles and responsibilities of the human, the automation, and the robots; from direct manual control, shared human-robotic control, or no active human control (i.e. human supervisory control). It is assumed that the human will remain involved at some level. Technologies that vary based on contextual demands and on operator characteristics (workload, situation awareness) will be needed when the human integrates into these systems. Predictive models that estimate the impact of the technologies on the system performance and the on the human operator are also needed to meet the challenges associated with such future complex human-automation-robot systems in extreme environments.

  20. Human Factors in Training - Space Flight Resource Management Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, Vicky; Connell, Erin; Barshi, Immanuel; Arsintescu, L.

    2009-01-01

    Accidents and incidents show that high workload-induced stress and poor teamwork skills lead to performance decrements and errors. Research on teamwork shows that effective teams are able to adapt to stressful situations, and to reduce workload by using successful strategies for communication and decision making, and through dynamic redistribution of tasks among team members. Furthermore, superior teams are able to recognize signs and symptoms of workload-induced stress early, and to adapt their coordination and communication strategies to the high workload, or stress conditions. Mission Control Center (MCC) teams often face demanding situations in which they must operate as an effective team to solve problems with crew and vehicle during onorbit operations. To be successful as a team, flight controllers (FCers) must learn effective teamwork strategies. Such strategies are the focus of Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM) training. SFRM training in MOD has been structured to include some classroom presentations of basic concepts and case studies, with the assumption that skill development happens in mission simulation. Integrated mission simulations do provide excellent opportunities for FCers to practice teamwork, but also require extensive technical knowledge of vehicle systems, mission operations, and crew actions. Such technical knowledge requires lengthy training. When SFRM training is relegated to integrated simulations, FCers can only practice SFRM after they have already mastered the technical knowledge necessary for these simulations. Given the centrality of teamwork to the success of MCC, holding SFRM training till late in the flow is inefficient. But to be able to train SFRM earlier in the flow, the training cannot rely on extensive mission-specific technical knowledge. Hence, the need for a generic SFRM training framework that would allow FCers to develop basic teamwork skills which are mission relevant, but without the required mission knowledge

  1. Assessment of physical workload in boiler operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; Braga, Camila Soares; Campos, Julio César Costa; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Minette, Luciano José; Sensato, Guilherme Luciano; Moraes, Angelo Casali de; Silva, Emília Pio da

    2012-01-01

    The use of boiler wood-fired is fairly common equipment utilized in steam generation for energy production in small industries. The boiler activities are considered dangerous and heavy, mainly due to risks of explosions and the lack of mechanization of the process. This study assessed the burden of physical labor that operators of boilers are subjected during the workday. Assessment of these conditions was carried out through quantitative and qualitative measurements. A heart rate monitor, a wet-bulb globe thermometer (WBGT), a tape-measure and a digital infrared camera were the instruments used to collect the quantitative data. The Nordic Questionnaire and the Painful Areas Diagram were used to relate the health problems of the boiler operator with activity. With study, was concluded that the boiler activity may cause pains in the body of intensity different, muscle fatigue and diseases due to excessive weight and the exposure to heat. The research contributed to improve the boiler operator's workplace and working conditions.

  2. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Masood; Raza, Syed Muhammad; Alam, Shams Nadeem; Manzar, S

    2009-01-01

    To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E) and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females) were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9%) were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1%) calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0%) patients. Total 73 (16.0%) calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7%) patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5%) patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1%) patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8%) patients. Total 104 (22.8%) emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7%) patients. Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  3. Cognitive Workload and Psychophysiological Parameters During Multitask Activity in Helicopter Pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetan, Sophie; Dousset, Erick; Marqueste, Tanguy; Bringoux, Lionel; Bourdin, Christophe; Vercher, Jean-Louis; Besson, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Helicopter pilots are involved in a complex multitask activity, implying overuse of cognitive resources, which may result in piloting task impairment or in decision-making failure. Studies usually investigate this phenomenon in well-controlled, poorly ecological situations by focusing on the correlation between physiological values and either cognitive workload or emotional state. This study aimed at jointly exploring workload induced by a realistic simulated helicopter flight mission and emotional state, as well as physiological markers. The experiment took place in the helicopter full flight dynamic simulator. Six participants had to fly on two missions. Workload level, skin conductance, RMS-EMG, and emotional state were assessed. Joint analysis of psychological and physiological parameters associated with workload estimation revealed particular dynamics in each of three profiles. 1) Expert pilots showed a slight increase of measured physiological parameters associated with the increase in difficulty level. Workload estimates never reached the highest level and the emotional state for this profile only referred to positive emotions with low emotional intensity. 2) Non-Expert pilots showed increasing physiological values as the perceived workload increased. However, their emotional state referred to either positive or negative emotions, with a greater variability in emotional intensity. 3) Intermediate pilots were similar to Expert pilots regarding emotional states and similar to Non-Expert pilots regarding physiological patterns. Overall, high interindividual variability of these results highlight the complex link between physiological and psychological parameters with workload, and question whether physiology alone could predict a pilot's inability to make the right decision at the right time.

  4. A Virtual Machine Migration Strategy Based on Time Series Workload Prediction Using Cloud Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aimed at resolving the issues of the imbalance of resources and workloads at data centers and the overhead together with the high cost of virtual machine (VM migrations, this paper proposes a new VM migration strategy which is based on the cloud model time series workload prediction algorithm. By setting the upper and lower workload bounds for host machines, forecasting the tendency of their subsequent workloads by creating a workload time series using the cloud model, and stipulating a general VM migration criterion workload-aware migration (WAM, the proposed strategy selects a source host machine, a destination host machine, and a VM on the source host machine carrying out the task of the VM migration. Experimental results and analyses show, through comparison with other peer research works, that the proposed method can effectively avoid VM migrations caused by momentary peak workload values, significantly lower the number of VM migrations, and dynamically reach and maintain a resource and workload balance for virtual machines promoting an improved utilization of resources in the entire data center.

  5. A decision support system for identifying abnormal operating procedures in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Min-Han; Hwang, Sheue-Ling; Liu, Kang-Hong; Liang, Sheau-Farn Max; Chuang, Chang-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A decision support system has been constructed and verified. ► The operator's decision-making time was decreased by about 25%. ► The accuracy was increased by about 18%. ► The system prevents overlooking important information. ► Fewer erroneous solutions were implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. - Abstract: In order to prevent safety hazards that can result from inappropriate decisions made by the operators of a nuclear power plant (NPP), this study was undertaken to develop a decision support system to reduce the complexity of the decision-making process by aiding operators’ cognitive activities, integrating unusual symptoms, and identifying the most suitable abnormal operating procedure (AOP) for operators. The study was conducted from the perspective of human factors engineering in order to compare the process that operators originally used to select an AOP with a process that included a support system for AOP identification. The results of the study indicated that the existence of a support system reduces errors by quickly suggesting likely AOPs. With such a support system in place, there were clear improvements in human performance, i.e., decision-making time decreased by about 25%, and the accuracy of the operators’ decisions, judged by the successful resolution of specific problems, increased by about 18%. In addition, there were fewer erroneous solutions implemented, and the mental workload was reduced. Hence, the decision support system is proposed as a training tool in identifying AOPs in the main control room (MCR).

  6. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M.M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Sluiter, J.K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  7. The associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoer, I.; Ruitenburg, M. M.; Botje, D.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to explore associations between psychosocial workload and mental health complaints in different age groups. A questionnaire was sent to 2021 employees of a Dutch railway company. Six aspects of psychosocial workload (work pressure, mental workload, emotional

  8. The Use of the Dynamic Solution Space to Assess Air Traffic Controller Workload

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Engelbronner, J.G.; Mulder, M.; Van Paassen, M.M.; De Stigter, S.; Huisman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Air traffic capacity is mainly bound by air traffic controller workload. In order to effectively find solutions for this problem, off-line pre-experimental workload assessment methods are desirable. In order to better understand the workload associated with air traffic control, previous research

  9. Nursing workload in a trauma intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Loppi Goulart

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Severely injured patients with multiple and conflicting injuries present themselves to nursing professionals at critical care units faced with care management challenges. The goal of the present study is to evaluate nursing workload and verify the correlation between workload and the APACHE II severity index. It is a descriptive study, conducted in the Trauma Intensive Care Unit of a teaching hospital. We used the Nursing Activities Score and APACHE II as instruments. The sample comprised 32 patients, of which most were male, young adults, presenting polytrauma, coming from the Reference Emergency Unit, in surgical treatment, and discharged from the ICU. The average obtained on the Nursing Activities Score instrument was 72% during hospitalization periods. The data displayed moderate correlation between workload and patient severity. In other words, the higher the score, the higher the patient’s mortality risk. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.22922.

  10. Human-Robot Interaction Directed Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis, Jennifer; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko

    2011-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) is about understanding and shaping the interactions between humans and robots (Goodrich & Schultz, 2007). It is important to evaluate how the design of interfaces and command modalities affect the human s ability to perform tasks accurately, efficiently, and effectively (Crandall, Goodrich, Olsen Jr., & Nielsen, 2005) It is also critical to evaluate the effects of human-robot interfaces and command modalities on operator mental workload (Sheridan, 1992) and situation awareness (Endsley, Bolt , & Jones, 2003). By understanding the effects of interface design on human performance, workload, and situation awareness, interfaces can be developed that support the human in performing tasks with minimal errors and with appropriate interaction time and effort. Thus, the results of research on human-robot interfaces have direct implications for design. Because the factors associated with interfaces and command modalities in HRI are too numerous to address in 3 years of research, the proposed research concentrates on three manageable areas applicable to National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) robot systems. These topic areas emerged from the Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 work that included extensive literature reviews and observations of NASA systems. The three topic areas are: 1) video overlays, 2) camera views, and 3) command modalities. Each area is described in detail below, along with relevance to existing NASA human-robot systems. In addition to studies in these three topic areas, a workshop is proposed for FY12. The workshop will bring together experts in human-robot interaction and robotics to discuss the state of the practice as applicable to research in space robotics. Studies proposed in the area of video overlays consider two factors in the implementation of augmented reality (AR) for operator displays during teleoperation. The first of these factors is the type of navigational guidance provided by AR symbology. In the proposed

  11. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark

    2016-01-01

    workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...... of measurements throughout the day showed significant positive relations (p ABP and 0.30 ± 0.04 mmHg (95 % CI 0.22-0.38 mmHg) in diastolic ABP. Correlations between...

  12. [Distribution and main influential factors of mental workload of middle school teachers in Nanchang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuanmei; Li, Weijuan; Ren, Qingfeng; Ren, Xiaohui; Wang, Zhiming; Wang, Mianzhen; Lan, Yajia

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the distribution and main influential factors of mental workload of middle school teachers in Nanchang City. A total of 504 middle school teachers were sampled by random cluster sampling from middle schools in Nanchang City, and the mental workload level was assessed with National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) which was verified in reliability and validity. The mental workload scores of middle school teachers in Nanchang was approximately normal distribution. The mental workload level of middle school teachers aged 31 -35 years old was the highest. For those no more than 35 years old, there was positive correlation between mental workload and age (r = 0.146, P teachers with lower educational level seemed to have a higher mental workload (P teacher worked per day, the higher the mental workload was. Working hours per day was the most influential factor on mental workload in all influential factors (P teachers was closely related to age, educational level and work hours per day. Working hours per day was the important risk factor of mental workload. Reducing working hours per day, especially reducing it to be no more than 8 hours per day, may be a significant and useful approach alleviating mental workload of middle school teachers in Nanchang City.

  13. The performance of workload control concepts in job shops : Improving the release method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Land, MJ; Gaalman, GJC

    1998-01-01

    A specific class of production control concepts for jobs shops is based on the principles of workload control. Practitioners emphasise the importance of workload control. However, order release methods that reduce the workload on the shop floor show poor due date performance in job shop simulations.

  14. Workloads in Australian emergency departments a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyneham, Joy; Cloughessy, Liz; Martin, Valmai

    2008-07-01

    This study aimed to identify the current workload of clinical nurses, managers and educators in Australian Emergency Departments according to the classification of the department Additionally the relationship of experienced to inexperienced clinical staff was examined. A descriptive research method utilising a survey distributed to 394 Australian Emergency departments with a 21% response rate. Nursing workloads were calculated and a ratio of nurse to patient was established. The ratios included nurse to patient, management and educators to clinical staff. Additionally the percentage of junior to senior clinical staff was also calculated. Across all categories of emergency departments the mean nurse:patient ratios were 1:15 (am shift), 1:7 (pm shift) and 1:4 (night shift). During this period an average of 17.1% of attendances were admitted to hospital. There were 27 staff members for each manager and 23.3 clinical staff for each educator. The percentage of junior staff rostered ranged from 10% to 38%. Emergency nurses cannot work under such pressure as it may compromise the care given to patients and consequently have a negative effect on the nurse personally. However, emergency nurses are dynamically adjusting to the workload. Such conditions as described in this study could give rise to burnout and attrition of experienced emergency nurses as they cannot resolve the conflict between workload and providing quality nursing care.

  15. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai; Shae, Zon Yin; Zhang, Xiangliang; Jamjoom, Hani T.; Fong, Liana

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies

  16. Designing workload analysis questionnaire to evaluate needs of employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astuti, Rahmaniyah Dwi; Navi, Muhammad Abdu Haq

    2018-02-01

    Incompatibility between workload with work capacity is one of main problem to make optimal result. In case at the office, there are constraints to determine workload because of non-repetitive works. Employees do work based on the targets set in a working period. At the end of the period is usually performed an evaluation of employees performance to evaluate needs of employees. The aims of this study to design a workload questionnaire tools to evaluate the efficiency level of position as indicator to determine needs of employees based on the Indonesian State Employment Agency Regulation on workload analysis. This research is applied to State-Owned Enterprise PT. X by determining 3 positions as a pilot project. Position A is held by 2 employees, position B is held by 7 employees, and position C is held by 6 employees. From the calculation result, position A has an efficiency level of 1,33 or "very good", position B has an efficiency level of 1.71 or "enough", and position C has an efficiency level of 1.03 or "very good". The application of this tools giving suggestion the needs of employees of position A is 3 people, position B is 5 people, and position C is 6 people. The difference between the number of employees and the calculation result is then analyzed by interviewing the employees to get more data about personal perception. It can be concluded that this workload evaluation tools can be used as an alternative solution to evaluate needs of employees in office.

  17. Nursing Workload and the Changing Health Care Environment: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care environment have impacted nursing workload, quality of care, and patient safety. Traditional nursing workload measures do not guarantee efficiency, nor do they adequately capture the complexity of nursing workload. Review of the literature indicates nurses perceive the quality of their work has diminished. Research has…

  18. Understanding the effect of workload on automation use for younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E; Rogers, Wendy A; Fisk, Arthur D

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults' performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training.

  19. NASA TLX: software for assessing subjective mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Alex; Chintamani, Keshav K; Pandya, Abhilash K; Ellis, R Darin

    2009-02-01

    The NASA Task Load Index (TLX) is a popular technique for measuring subjective mental workload. It relies on a multidimensional construct to derive an overall workload score based on a weighted average of ratings on six subscales: mental demand, physical demand, temporal demand, performance, effort, and frustration level. A program for implementing a computerized version of the NASA TLX is described. The software version assists in simplifying collection, postprocessing, and storage of raw data. The program collects raw data from the subject and calculates the weighted (or unweighted) workload score, which is output to a text file. The program can also be tailored to a specific experiment using a simple input text file, if desired. The program was designed in Visual Studio 2005 and is capable of running on a Pocket PC with Windows CE or on a PC with Windows 2000 or higher. The NASA TLX program is available for free download.

  20. Advancing satellite operations with intelligent graphical monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Peter M.; Shirah, Gregory W.; Luczak, Edward C.

    1993-01-01

    For nearly twenty-five years, spacecraft missions have been operated in essentially the same manner: human operators monitor displays filled with alphanumeric text watching for limit violations or other indicators that signal a problem. The task is performed predominately by humans. Only in recent years have graphical user interfaces and expert systems been accepted within the control center environment to help reduce operator workloads. Unfortunately, the development of these systems is often time consuming and costly. At the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), a new domain specific expert system development tool called the Generic Spacecraft Analyst Assistant (GenSAA) has been developed. Through the use of a highly graphical user interface and point-and-click operation, GenSAA facilitates the rapid, 'programming-free' construction of intelligent graphical monitoring systems to serve as real-time, fault-isolation assistants for spacecraft analysts. Although specifically developed to support real-time satellite monitoring, GenSAA can support the development of intelligent graphical monitoring systems in a variety of space and commercial applications.

  1. Mental Workload and Its Determinants among Nurses in One Hospital in Kermanshah City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bakhshi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Mental workload is one of the factors influencing the behavior, performance and efficiency of nurses in the workplace. There are diverse factors that can affect mental workload level. present study performed with the aim of Surveying Mental Workload and its Determinants among Nursing in one of hospital in Kermanshah City Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 203 nurses from 5 wards of infants, emergency, surgery, internal and ICU were selected randomly and surveyed. Data collection tools were demographics and NASA-TLX questionnaires. The statistical data analysis conducted using Independent sample  t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient using software SPSS 19. Results: The mean and standard deviation of overall  mental workload estimated as 69.73±15.26. Among  aspects of mental workload,  the aspect of  effort with an average score of 70.96 was the highest and the aspect of frustration and disappointment with average of 44.93 was the lowest one. There were significant relationship between physical aspect of workload with age, type of shift working, number of shifts, type of employment, between temporal aspect of workload with BMI, type of employment and work experience, and between effort aspect with BMI (p-value≤0/05. Conclusion: Due to the different amount of mental workload in studied hospital wards, relocation of nurses between wards can improve situation and increase the number of nurses can lead to decrease mental workload.

  2. The effect of spiked boots on logger safety, productivity and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, P; Parker, R

    1994-04-01

    Analysis of 1657 lost-time logging accidents in the New Zealand logging industry (1985-1991) indicates that 17.5% were as a result of slips, trips and falls and a total of 2870 days were lost. Most (56%) of these slipping, tripping and falling accidents occurred in the felling and delimbing phase of the logging operation, where 37% of the workforce are employed. In an attempt to reduce the number of slipping injuries to loggers employed in felling and delimbing, a study of the effectiveness of spike-soled (caulk) boots was undertaken. Four loggers were intensively observed at work, by continuous time-study methods, while wearing their conventional rubber-soled boots and then spike-soled boots. The number of slips, work methods used, physiological workload and productivity were compared for loggers wearing the two footwear types. Results indicated that spike-soled boots were associated with a significant reduction in the frequency of slips and had no adverse effect on work methods, physiological workload or productivity. Spike-soled boots are now being promoted for use by loggers in New Zealand as a simple method to reduce slipping, tripping and falling accidents.

  3. On-call emergency workload of a general surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawaid Masood

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To examine the on-call emergency workload of a general surgical team at a tertiary care teaching hospital to guide planning and provision of better surgical services. Patients and Methods: During six months period from August to January 2007; all emergency calls attended by general surgical team of Surgical Unit II in Accident and Emergency department (A and E and in other units of Civil, Hospital Karachi, Pakistan were prospectively recorded. Data recorded includes timing of call, diagnosis, operation performed and outcome apart from demography. Results: Total 456 patients (326 males and 130 females were attended by on-call general surgery team during 30 emergency days. Most of the calls, 191 (41.9% were received from 8 am to 5 pm. 224 (49.1% calls were of abdominal pain, with acute appendicitis being the most common specific pathology in 41 (9.0% patients. Total 73 (16.0% calls were received for trauma. Total 131 (28.7% patients were admitted in the surgical unit for urgent operation or observation while 212 (46.5% patients were discharged from A and E. 92 (20.1% patients were referred to other units with medical referral accounts for 45 (9.8% patients. Total 104 (22.8% emergency surgeries were done and the most common procedure performed was appendicectomy in 34 (32.7% patients. Conclusion: Major workload of on-call surgical emergency team is dealing with the acute conditions of abdomen. However, significant proportion of patients are suffering from other conditions including trauma that require a holistic approach to care and a wide range of skills and experience. These results have important implications in future healthcare planning and for the better training of general surgical residents.

  4. Power Optimization of Multimode Mobile Embedded Systems with Workload-Delay Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoeseok Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to take the relationship between delay and workload into account in the power optimization of microprocessors in mobile embedded systems. Since the components outside a device continuously change their values or properties, the workload to be handled by the systems becomes dynamic and variable. This variable workload is formulated as a staircase function of the delay taken at the previous iteration in this paper and applied to the power optimization of DVFS (dynamic voltage-frequency scaling. In doing so, a graph representation of all possible workload/mode changes during the lifetime of a device, Workload Transition Graph (WTG, is proposed. Then, the power optimization problem is transformed into finding a cycle (closed walk in WTG which minimizes the average power consumption over it. Out of the obtained optimal cycle of WTG, one can derive the optimal power management policy of the target device. It is shown that the proposed policy is valid for both continuous and discrete DVFS models. The effectiveness of the proposed power optimization policy is demonstrated with the simulation results of synthetic and real-life examples.

  5. Absolute magnitude estimation and relative judgement approaches to subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidulich, Michael A.; Tsang, Pamela S.

    1987-01-01

    Two rating scale techniques employing an absolute magnitude estimation method, were compared to a relative judgment method for assessing subjective workload. One of the absolute estimation techniques used was an unidimensional overall workload scale and the other was the multidimensional NASA-Task Load Index technique. Thomas Saaty's Analytic Hierarchy Process was the unidimensional relative judgment method used. These techniques were used to assess the subjective workload of various single- and dual-tracking conditions. The validity of the techniques was defined as their ability to detect the same phenomena observed in the tracking performance. Reliability was assessed by calculating test-retest correlations. Within the context of the experiment, the Saaty Analytic Hierarchy Process was found to be superior in validity and reliability. These findings suggest that the relative judgment method would be an effective addition to the currently available subjective workload assessment techniques.

  6. The acute:chonic workload ratio in relation to injury risk in professional soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Shane; Owen, Adam; Newton, Matt; Mendes, Bruno; Collins, Kieran D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between combined sRPE measures and injury risk in elite professional soccer. Observational cohort study. Forty-eight professional soccer players (mean±SD age of 25.3±3.1 yr) from two elite European teams were involved within a one season study. Players completed a test of intermittent-aerobic capacity (Yo-YoIR1) to assess player's injury risk in relation to intermittent aerobic capacity. Weekly workload measures and time loss injuries were recorded during the entire period. Rolling weekly sums and week-to-week changes in workload were measured, allowing for the calculation of the acute:chronic workload ratio, which was calculated by dividing the acute (1-weekly) and chronic (4-weekly) workloads. All derived workload measures were modelled against injury data using logistic regression. Odds ratios (OR) were reported against a reference group. Players who exerted pre-season 1-weekly loads of ≥1500 to ≤2120AU were at significantly higher risk of injury compared to the reference group of ≤1500AU (OR=1.95, p=0.006). Players with increased intermittent-aerobic capacity were better able to tolerate increased 1-weekly absolute changes in training load than players with lower fitness levels (OR=4.52, p=0.011). Players who exerted in-season acute:chronic workload ratios of >1.00 to soccer players. A higher intermittent-aerobic capacity appears to offer greater injury protection when players are exposed to rapid changes in workload in elite soccer players. Moderate workloads, coupled with moderate-low to moderate-high acute:chronic workload ratios, appear to be protective for professional soccer players. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Workload and cortisol levels in helicopter combat pilots during simulated flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Mas

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Cortisol levels in saliva and workload are the usual in stress situations, and change inversely: workload increases at the end of the task, whereas the cortisol levels decrease after the simulated flight. The somatic anxiety decreases as the task is done. In contrast, when the pilots are faced with new and demanding tasks, even if they fly this type of helicopter in different conditions, the workload increases toward the end of the task. From an applied point of view, these findings should impact the tactical, physical and mental training of such pilots.

  8. Level of Workload and Its Relationship with Job Burnout among Administrative Staff

    OpenAIRE

    MANSOUR ZIAEI; HAMED YARMOHAMMADI; MEISAM MORADI; MOHAMMAD KHANDAN

    2015-01-01

    Burnout syndrome is a response to prolonged occupational stress. Workload is one of the organizational risk factors of burnout. With regards to the topic, there are no data on administrative employees’ burnout and workload in Iran. This study seeks to determine the levels of job burnout and their relationships with workload among administrative members of staff. Two hundred and forty two administrative staff from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences [Iran] volunteered to participate in t...

  9. Workload Classification & Software Energy Measurement for Efficient Scheduling on Private Cloud Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, James W.; Sommerville, Ian

    2011-01-01

    At present there are a number of barriers to creating an energy efficient workload scheduler for a Private Cloud based data center. Firstly, the relationship between different workloads and power consumption must be investigated. Secondly, current hardware-based solutions to providing energy usage statistics are unsuitable in warehouse scale data centers where low cost and scalability are desirable properties. In this paper we discuss the effect of different workloads on server power consumpt...

  10. ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE-EVENT SIMULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION...in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-16-M-166 ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION...UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENV-MS-16-M-166 ANALYSIS OF INPATIENT HOSPITAL STAFF MENTAL WORKLOAD BY MEANS OF DISCRETE -EVENT SIMULATION Erich W

  11. Understanding the Effect of Workload on Automation Use for Younger and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sara E.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study examined how individuals, younger and older, interacted with an imperfect automated system. The impact of workload on performance and automation use was also investigated. Background Automation is used in situations characterized by varying levels of workload. As automated systems spread to domains such as transportation and the home, a diverse population of users will interact with automation. Research is needed to understand how different segments of the population use automation. Method Workload was systematically manipulated to create three levels (low, moderate, high) in a dual-task scenario in which participants interacted with a 70% reliable automated aid. Two experiments were conducted to assess automation use for younger and older adults. Results Both younger and older adults relied on the automation more than they complied with it. Among younger adults, high workload led to poorer performance and higher compliance, even when that compliance was detrimental. Older adults’ performance was negatively affected by workload, but their compliance and reliance were unaffected. Conclusion Younger and older adults were both able to use and double-check an imperfect automated system. Workload affected how younger adults complied with automation, particularly with regard to detecting automation false alarms. Older adults tended to comply and rely at fairly high rates overall, and this did not change with increased workload. Application Training programs for imperfect automated systems should vary workload and provide feedback about error types, and strategies for identifying errors. The ability to identify automation errors varies across individuals, thereby necessitating training. PMID:22235529

  12. Impact of Conflict Avoidance Responsibility Allocation on Pilot Workload in a Distributed Air Traffic Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligda, Sarah V.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Vu, Kim-Phuong; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter W.

    2010-01-01

    Pilot workload was examined during simulated flights requiring flight deck-based merging and spacing while avoiding weather. Pilots used flight deck tools to avoid convective weather and space behind a lead aircraft during an arrival into Louisville International airport. Three conflict avoidance management concepts were studied: pilot, controller or automation primarily responsible. A modified Air Traffic Workload Input Technique (ATWIT) metric showed highest workload during the approach phase of flight and lowest during the en-route phase of flight (before deviating for weather). In general, the modified ATWIT was shown to be a valid and reliable workload measure, providing more detailed information than post-run subjective workload metrics. The trend across multiple workload metrics revealed lowest workload when pilots had both conflict alerting and responsibility of the three concepts, while all objective and subjective measures showed highest workload when pilots had no conflict alerting or responsibility. This suggests that pilot workload was not tied primarily to responsibility for resolving conflicts, but to gaining and/or maintaining situation awareness when conflict alerting is unavailable.

  13. Integration of Panda Workload Management System with supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, K.; Jha, S.; Klimentov, A.; Maeno, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Nilsson, P.; Novikov, A.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Poyda, A.; Read, K. F.; Ryabinkin, E.; Teslyuk, A.; Velikhov, V.; Wells, J. C.; Wenaus, T.

    2016-09-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 250000 cores with a peak performance of 0.3+ petaFLOPS, next LHC data taking runs will require more resources than Grid computing can possibly provide. To alleviate these challenges, LHC experiments are engaged in an ambitious program to expand the current computing model to include additional resources such as the opportunistic use of supercomputers. We will describe a project aimed at integration of PanDA WMS with supercomputers in United States, Europe and Russia (in particular with Titan supercomputer at Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF), Supercomputer at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute", IT4 in Ostrava, and others). The current approach utilizes a modified PanDA pilot framework for job submission to the supercomputers batch queues and local data management, with light-weight MPI wrappers to run singlethreaded workloads in parallel on Titan's multi-core worker nodes. This implementation was tested with a variety of Monte-Carlo workloads

  14. Subjective and objective quantification of physician's workload and performance during radiation therapy planning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Mosaly, Prithima R; Hoyle, Lesley M; Jones, Ellen L; Marks, Lawrence B

    2013-01-01

    To quantify, and compare, workload for several common physician-based treatment planning tasks using objective and subjective measures of workload. To assess the relationship between workload and performance to define workload levels where performance could be expected to decline. Nine physicians performed the same 3 tasks on each of 2 cases ("easy" vs "hard"). Workload was assessed objectively throughout the tasks (via monitoring of pupil size and blink rate), and subjectively at the end of each case (via National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index; NASA-TLX). NASA-TLX assesses the 6 dimensions (mental, physical, and temporal demands, frustration, effort, and performance); scores > or ≈ 50 are associated with reduced performance in other industries. Performance was measured using participants' stated willingness to approve the treatment plan. Differences in subjective and objective workload between cases, tasks, and experience were assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The correlation between subjective and objective workload measures were assessed via the Pearson correlation test. The relationships between workload and performance measures were assessed using the t test. Eighteen case-wise and 54 task-wise assessments were obtained. Subjective NASA-TLX scores (P .1), were significantly lower for the easy vs hard case. Most correlations between the subjective and objective measures were not significant, except between average blink rate and NASA-TLX scores (r = -0.34, P = .02), for task-wise assessments. Performance appeared to decline at NASA-TLX scores of ≥55. The NASA-TLX may provide a reasonable method to quantify subjective workload for broad activities, and objective physiologic eye-based measures may be useful to monitor workload for more granular tasks within activities. The subjective and objective measures, as herein quantified, do not necessarily track each other, and more work is needed to assess their utilities. From a

  15. Development of NPP control room operators`s mental workload measurement system using bioelectric signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Bong Sik; Oh, In Seok; Lee, Hyun Cheol; Cha, Kyung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Ha [Suwon Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-09-01

    This study developed mentalload measurement system based on the relations between mentalload and physiological responses of the human operators. The measurement system was composed of the telemetry system for EEG, EOG, ECG and respiration pattern of the subjects, A/D converter, the physiological signal processing programs (compiled by the Labview). The signal processing programs transformed the physiological signal into the scores indicating mentalload status of the subjects and recorded the mentalload scores in the form of the table of a database. The acqknowledge and the labview programs additionally transformed the mentalload score database and the operator behavior database so that both database were consolidated into one. 94 figs., 57 refs. (Author).

  16. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-13

    Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Margaret A. Bowers...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release. The Effects of Workload Transitions in a Multitasking Environment Margaret A. Bowers1,2, James C...well as performance in a complex multitasking environment. The results of the NASA TLX and shortened DSSQ did not provide support for the position

  17. Catastrophe models for cognitive workload and fatigue in N-back tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastello, Stephen J; Reiter, Katherine; Malon, Matthew; Timm, Paul; Shircel, Anton; Shaline, James

    2015-04-01

    N-back tasks place a heavy load on working memory, and thus make good candidates for studying cognitive workload and fatigue (CWLF). This study extended previous work on CWLF which separated the two phenomena with two cusp catastrophe models. Participants were 113 undergraduates who completed 2-back and 3-back tasks with both auditory and visual stimuli simultaneously. Task data were complemented by several measures hypothesized to be related to cognitive elasticity and compensatory abilities and the NASA TLX ratings of subjective workload. The adjusted R2 was .980 for the workload model, which indicated a highly accurate prediction with six bifurcation (elasticity versus rigidity) effects: algebra flexibility, TLX performance, effort, and frustration; and psychosocial measures of inflexibility and monitoring. There were also two cognitive load effects (asymmetry): 2 vs. 3-back and TLX temporal demands. The adjusted R2 was .454 for the fatigue model, which contained two bifurcation variables indicating the amount of work done, and algebra flexibility as the compensatory ability variable. Both cusp models were stronger than the next best linear alternative model. The study makes an important step forward by uncovering an apparently complete model for workload, finding the role of subjective workload in the context of performance dynamics, and finding CWLF dynamics in yet another type of memory-intensive task. The results were also consistent with the developing notion that performance deficits induced by workload and deficits induced by fatigue result from the impact of the task on the workspace and executive functions of working memory respectively.

  18. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert; Rice, Brandon Charles; Bower, Gordon Ross; Spielman, Zachary Alexander; Hill, Rachael Ann; LeBlanc, Katya Lee

    2015-01-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator's eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  19. The Use Of Computational Human Performance Modeling As Task Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacuqes Hugo; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    During a review of the Advanced Test Reactor safety basis at the Idaho National Laboratory, human factors engineers identified ergonomic and human reliability risks involving the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during manual fuel movement and inspection in the canal. There were clear indications that these risks increased the probability of human error and possible severe physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, a detailed study was conducted to determine the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element. Due to practical and safety constraints, the task network analysis technique was employed to study the work procedures at the canal. Discrete-event simulation software was used to model the entire procedure as well as the salient physical attributes of the task environment, such as distances walked, the effect of dropped tools, the effect of hazardous body postures, and physical exertion due to strenuous tool handling. The model also allowed analysis of the effect of cognitive processes such as visual perception demands, auditory information and verbal communication. The model made it possible to obtain reliable predictions of operator performance and workload estimates. It was also found that operator workload as well as the probability of human error in the fuel inspection and transfer task were influenced by the concurrent nature of certain phases of the task and the associated demand on cognitive and physical resources. More importantly, it was possible to determine with reasonable accuracy the stages as well as physical locations in the fuel handling task where operators would be most at risk of losing their balance and falling into the canal. The model also provided sufficient information for a human reliability analysis that indicated that the postulated fuel exposure accident was less than credible.

  20. Scaling Deep Learning Workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-07-03

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, CaffeNet, AlexNet and GoogleNet topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor optimized for each architecture. GPUs provide the highest overall raw performance. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and KNL can be competitive when considering performance/watt. Furthermore, NVLink is critical to GPU scaling.

  1. Nonparametric estimation of the stationary M/G/1 workload distribution function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is demonstrated how a nonparametric estimator of the stationary workload distribution function of the M/G/1-queue can be obtained by systematic sampling the workload process. Weak convergence results and bootstrap methods for empirical distribution functions for stationary associ...

  2. Performance of different radiotherapy workload models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbera, Lisa; Jackson, Lynda D.; Schulze, Karleen; Groome, Patti A.; Foroudi, Farshad; Delaney, Geoff P.; Mackillop, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of different radiotherapy workload models using a prospectively collected dataset of patient and treatment information from a single center. Methods and Materials: Information about all individual radiotherapy treatments was collected for 2 weeks from the three linear accelerators (linacs) in our department. This information included diagnosis code, treatment site, treatment unit, treatment time, fields per fraction, technique, beam type, blocks, wedges, junctions, port films, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status. We evaluated the accuracy and precision of the original and revised basic treatment equivalent (BTE) model, the simple and complex Addenbrooke models, the equivalent simple treatment visit (ESTV) model, fields per hour, and two local standards of workload measurement. Results: Data were collected for 2 weeks in June 2001. During this time, 151 patients were treated with 857 fractions. The revised BTE model performed better than the other models with a mean vertical bar observed - predicted vertical bar of 2.62 (2.44-2.80). It estimated 88.0% of treatment times within 5 min, which is similar to the previously reported accuracy of the model. Conclusion: The revised BTE model had similar accuracy and precision for data collected in our center as it did for the original dataset and performed the best of the models assessed. This model would have uses for patient scheduling, and describing workloads and case complexity

  3. The influence of anaesthetists' experience on workload, performance and visual attention during simulated critical incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Christian M; Schneider, Erich; Kohlbecher, Stefan; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Heuser, Fabian; Wagner, Klaus J; Kochs, Eberhard F; Schneider, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Development of accurate Situation Awareness (SA) depends on experience and may be impaired during excessive workload. In order to gain adequate SA for decision making and performance, anaesthetists need to distribute visual attention effectively. Therefore, we hypothesized that in more experienced anaesthetists performance is better and increase of physiological workload is less during critical incidents. Additionally, we investigated the relation between physiological workload indicators and distribution of visual attention. In fifteen anaesthetists, the increase of pupil size and heart rate was assessed in course of a simulated critical incident. Simulator log files were used for performance assessment. An eye-tracking device (EyeSeeCam) provided data about the anaesthetists' distribution of visual attention. Performance was assessed as time until definitive treatment. T tests and multivariate generalized linear models (MANOVA) were used for retrospective statistical analysis. Mean pupil diameter increase was 8.1% (SD ± 4.3) in the less experienced and 15.8% (±10.4) in the more experienced subjects (p = 0.191). Mean heart rate increase was 10.2% (±6.7) and 10.5% (±8.3, p = 0.956), respectively. Performance did not depend on experience. Pupil diameter and heart rate increases were associated with a shift of visual attention from monitoring towards manual tasks (not significant). For the first time, the following four variables were assessed simultaneously: physiological workload indicators, performance, experience, and distribution of visual attention between "monitoring" and "manual" tasks. However, we were unable to detect significant interactions between these variables. This experimental model could prove valuable in the investigation of gaining and maintaining SA in the operation theatre.

  4. Improved lower extremity pedaling mechanics in individuals with stroke under maximal workloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Susan M; Rosenfeldt, Anson B; Bazyk, Andrew S; Koop, Mandy Miller; Ozinga, Sarah; Alberts, Jay L

    2018-05-01

    Background Individuals with stroke present with motor control deficits resulting in the abnormal activation and timing of agonist and antagonist muscles and inefficient movement patterns. The analysis of pedaling biomechanics provides a window into understanding motor control deficits, which vary as a function of workload. Understanding the relationship between workload and motor control is critical when considering exercise prescription during stroke rehabilitation. Objectives To characterize pedaling kinematics and motor control processes under conditions in which workload was systematically increased to an eventual patient-specific maximum. Methods A cohort study was conducted in which 18 individuals with chronic stroke underwent a maximal exertion cardiopulmonary exercise test on a stationary cycle ergometer, during which pedaling torque was continuously recorded. Measures of force production, pedaling symmetry, and pedaling smoothness were obtained. Results Mean Torque increased significantly (p pedaling action, improved from 0.37(0.29) to 0.29(0.35) during downstroke (p = 0.007), and worsened during the upstroke: -0.37(0.38) to -0.62(0.46) (p pedaling improved significantly from initial to terminal workloads (p pedaling kinematics at terminal workloads indicate that individuals with stroke demonstrate improved motor control with respect to the timing, sequencing, and activation of hemiparetic lower extremity musculature compared to lower workloads. Therapeutic prescription involving higher resistance may be necessary to sufficiently engage and activate the paretic lower extremity.

  5. Workload, Exposure to Noise, and Risk of Musculoskeletal Disorders: A Case Study of Motor-Manual Tree Feeling and Processing in Poplar Clear Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cheţa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor-manual tree felling and processing (MMTFP is among the most used options in timber harvesting operations and it is formally known to be a heavy job exposing the workers to safety hazards and harmful factors. Nevertheless, both workload and exposure depend on many operational, organizational, and worker-related parameters. Few studies have evaluated the ergonomics of such operations and fewer have been carried out using an integrated approach able to collect and interpret data for more than one ergonomic parameter. This study evaluated the ergonomic conditions of task-based MMTFP operations in flatland poplar forests by the means of workload, exposure to noise, and risk of musculoskeletal disorders. A fully-automatic approach was used to collect and pair the heart rate and noise exposure data that was complemented by video recording to collect postural data. Workload experienced by the worker was evaluated in terms of heart rate reserve (%HRR, indicating a heavy load during the productive time (%HRR = 46%; exposure to noise was calculated at the task and study level, exceeding (LAeq = 97.15 dB(A; LEX,8h = 96.18 dB(A the acceptable limits; and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders was evaluated using the concepts and procedures of the Ovako Working Posture Analysis System, indicating a high postural risk index (PRI = 275, which can cause musculoskeletal disorders (MSD. For more conclusive results, the research should be extended to cover the relevant variability factors.

  6. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. From trees to forest: relational complexity network and workload of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Yang, Jiazhong; Wu, Changxu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a relational complexity (RC) network framework based on RC metric and network theory to model controllers' workload in conflict detection and resolution. We suggest that, at the sector level, air traffic showing a centralised network pattern can provide cognitive benefits in visual search and resolution decision which will in turn result in lower workload. We found that the network centralisation index can account for more variance in predicting perceived workload and task completion time in both a static conflict detection task (Study 1) and a dynamic one (Study 2) in addition to other aircraft-level and pair-level factors. This finding suggests that linear combination of aircraft-level or dyad-level information may not be adequate and the global-pattern-based index is necessary. Theoretical and practical implications of using this framework to improve future workload modelling and management are discussed. We propose a RC network framework to model the workload of air traffic controllers. The effect of network centralisation was examined in both a static conflict detection task and a dynamic one. Network centralisation was predictive of perceived workload and task completion time over and above other control variables.

  8. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, Juan Jesús; Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A; Del Cerro, Jaime; Barrientos, Antonio

    2017-07-27

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  9. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Tapia, Elena; Martín-Barrio, Andrés; Olivares-Méndez, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation. PMID:28749407

  10. Multi-Robot Interfaces and Operator Situational Awareness: Study of the Impact of Immersion and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Jesús Roldán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-robot missions are a challenge for operators in terms of workload and situational awareness. These operators have to receive data from the robots, extract information, understand the situation properly, make decisions, generate the adequate commands, and send them to the robots. The consequences of excessive workload and lack of awareness can vary from inefficiencies to accidents. This work focuses on the study of future operator interfaces of multi-robot systems, taking into account relevant issues such as multimodal interactions, immersive devices, predictive capabilities and adaptive displays. Specifically, four interfaces have been designed and developed: a conventional, a predictive conventional, a virtual reality and a predictive virtual reality interface. The four interfaces have been validated by the performance of twenty-four operators that supervised eight multi-robot missions of fire surveillance and extinguishing. The results of the workload and situational awareness tests show that virtual reality improves the situational awareness without increasing the workload of operators, whereas the effects of predictive components are not significant and depend on their implementation.

  11. Air Force Human Systems Integration (HSI) in Test and Evaluation (T&E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    hours with less than 3% errors. NASA TLX Workload assessment of five crews executing mission scenario number one (1). Piece validation using...Guard’s Distributed Training Operations Center (DTOC) to validate simulation. Measures to include: • NASA TLX Workload assessment • Eye tracking...at io n B om be r KSA: Sustainable Crew Workload Does the long- duration bomber system support operation by a two-person crew? Number of Crew

  12. The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

  13. Development of the CarMen-Q Questionnaire for mental workload assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Valdehita, Susana; López-Núñez, María I; López-Higes, Ramón; Díaz-Ramiro, Eva M

    2017-11-01

    Mental workload has emerged as one of the most important occupational risk factors present in most psychological and physical diseases caused by work. In view of the lack of specific tools to assess mental workload, the objective of this research was to assess the construct validity and reliability of a new questionnaire for mental workload assessment (CarMen-Q). The sample was composed of 884 workers from several professional sectors, between 18 and 65 years old, 53.4% men and 46.6% women. To evaluate the validity based on relationships with other measures, the NASA-TLX scale was also administered. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an internal structure made up of four dimensions: cognitive, temporal and emotional demands and performance requirement. The results show satisfactory evidence of validity based on relationships with NASA-TLX and good reliability. The questionnaire has good psychometric properties and can be an easy, brief, useful tool for mental workload diagnosis and prevention.

  14. Proceedings from Specialists Meeting on human performance in operational events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference on human performance in operational events is composed of 34 papers, grouped in 11 sessions. After an invited contribution on the human factor in the nuclear industry, the sessions are: session 1 (Operational events: Human performance in operational events - how to improve it?, Human performance research strategies for human performance, The development of a model of control room operator cognition), session 2 (Operational response: A study of the recovery from 120 events, Empirical study of the influence of organizational and procedural characteristics on team performance in the emergency situation using plant simulators, Cognitive skills and nuclear power plant operational decision making), session 3 (PSA for Probabilistic Safety Analysis: A sensitivity study of human errors in optimizing surveillance test interval (STI) and allowed outage time (AOT) of standby safety system, Analysis of Parks nuclear power plant personnel activity during safety related event sequences, An EDF project to update the Probabilistic Human Reliability Assessment PHRA methodology), session 4 (modelling with ATHEANA: Atheana, a technique for human error analysis, an overview of its methodological basis, Common elements on operational events across technologies, Results of nuclear power plant application of new technique for human error analysis), session 5 (Regulatory practice: US.NRC Research and analysis activities concerning human reliability assessment and human performance evaluation, Introduction of simulator-based examinations and its effects on the nuclear industry, Regulatory monitoring of human performance in PWR operation in France), session 6 (Simulation: Human performance in Bavarian nuclear power plant as a preventive element, Human performance event database, Crew situation awareness, diagnoses and performance in simulated nuclear power plant process disturbances), session 7 (Operator aids: Development of a plant navigation system, Operation system

  15. The impact of automation on workload and dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, K Lynette; Barlow, Dave; Bithell, Anne; Hiom, Sarah; Lord, Sue; Pollard, Mike; Roberts, Dave; Way, Cheryl; Whittlesea, Cate

    2013-04-01

    To determine the effect of installing an original-pack automated dispensing system (ADS) on dispensary workload and prevented dispensing incidents in a hospital pharmacy. Data on dispensary workload and prevented dispensing incidents, defined as dispensing errors detected and reported before medication had left the pharmacy, were collected over 6 weeks at a National Health Service hospital in Wales before and after the installation of an ADS. Workload was measured by non-participant observation using the event recording technique. Prevented dispensing incidents were self-reported by pharmacy staff on standardised forms. Median workloads (measured as items dispensed/person/hour) were compared using Mann-Whitney U tests and rate of prevented dispensing incidents were compared using Chi-square test. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine the association between workload and prevented dispensing incidents. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Median dispensary workload was significantly lower pre-automation (9.20 items/person/h) compared to post-automation (13.17 items/person/h, P automation (0.28%) than pre-automation (0.64%, P automation (ρ = 0.23, P automation improves dispensing efficiency and reduces the rate of prevented dispensing incidents. It is proposed that prevented dispensing incidents frequently occurred during periods of high workload due to involuntary automaticity. Prevented dispensing incidents occurring after a busy period were attributed to staff experiencing fatigue after-effects. © 2012 The Authors. IJPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Human reliability analysis of control room operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)

  17. Operator role definition and human-system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses operator role definition and human-system integration from a perspective of systems engineering and allocation of functions. Current and traditional allocation of tasks/functions can no longer by applied to systems that are significantly more sophisticated and dynamic than current system designs. For such advanced and automated designs, explicit attention must be given to the role of the operator in order to facilitate efficient system performance. Furthermore, such systems will include intelligent automated systems which will support the cognitive activities of the operator. If such systems share responsibility and control with the human operator, these computer-based assistants/associates should be viewed as intelligent team members. As such, factors such as trust, intentions, and expectancies, among team members must be considered by the systems designer. Such design considerations are discussed in this paper. This paper also discusses the area of dynamic allocation of functions, and the need for models of the human operator in support of machine forecast of human performance. The Integrated Reactor Operator/System (INTEROPS) model is discussed as an example of a cognitive model capable of functioning beyond a rule-based behavioral structure

  18. Operational forecasting of human-biometeorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaros, T. M.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Matzarakis, A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the development of an operational forecasting service focusing on human-biometeorological conditions. The service is based on the coupling of numerical weather prediction models with an advanced human-biometeorological model. Human thermal perception and stress forecasts are issued on a daily basis for Greece, in both point and gridded format. A user-friendly presentation approach is adopted for communicating the forecasts to the public via the worldwide web. The development of the presented service highlights the feasibility of replacing standard meteorological parameters and/or indices used in operational weather forecasting activities for assessing the thermal environment. This is of particular significance for providing effective, human-biometeorology-oriented, warnings for both heat waves and cold outbreaks.

  19. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  20. The mental workload analysis of safety workers in an Indonesian oil mining industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The responsibilities of occupational health and safety workers are very hard to ensure other workers is safety. The responsibility make the workers of occupational health and safety has some affecting to their job. Some effect can cause over the mental workload. This research aims to determine the score of mental workload from three professions in occupational health and safety, i.e. safetyman contractor, safetyman field and safetyman officer. Six indicators in the NASA-TLX method, i.e. mental demand (MD, physical demand (PD, temporal demand (TD, performance (OP, effort (EF and frustration level (FR are used to determine the worker’s mental workload. The result shows mental demand (MD is the most dominant indicators affecting the mental workload between safetyman contractor, safetyman field and safety officer. The highest mental workload score among safety workers is on the safetyman field with WWL score at 62,38, because among the three types safety workers, the highest MD is on the safetyman field due to the responsibility.

  1. Workload assessment of surgeons: correlation between NASA TLX and blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Jiang, Xianta; Tien, Geoffrey; Meneghetti, Adam; Panton, O Neely M; Atkins, M Stella

    2012-10-01

    Blinks are known as an indicator of visual attention and mental stress. In this study, surgeons' mental workload was evaluated utilizing a paper assessment instrument (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index, NASA TLX) and by examining their eye blinks. Correlation between these two assessments was reported. Surgeons' eye motions were video-recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker while the surgeons performed a laparoscopic procedure on a virtual reality trainer. Blink frequency and duration were computed using computer vision technology. The level of workload experienced during the procedure was reported by surgeons using the NASA TLX. A total of 42 valid videos were recorded from 23 surgeons. After blinks were computed, videos were divided into two groups based on the blink frequency: infrequent group (≤ 6 blinks/min) and frequent group (more than 6 blinks/min). Surgical performance (measured by task time and trajectories of tool tips) was not significantly different between these two groups, but NASA TLX scores were significantly different. Surgeons who blinked infrequently reported a higher level of frustration (46 vs. 34, P = 0.047) and higher overall level of workload (57 vs. 47, P = 0.045) than those who blinked more frequently. The correlation coefficients (Pearson test) between NASA TLX and the blink frequency and duration were -0.17 and 0.446. Reduction of blink frequency and shorter blink duration matched the increasing level of mental workload reported by surgeons. The value of using eye-tracking technology for assessment of surgeon mental workload was shown.

  2. Utility of an airframe referenced spatial auditory display for general aviation operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M. Hassan; Wigdahl, Alan J.; Ranaudo, Richard J.

    2009-05-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) completed flight testing with an airframe-referenced localized audio cueing display. The purpose was to assess its affect on pilot performance, workload, and situational awareness in two scenarios simulating single-pilot general aviation operations under instrument meteorological conditions. Each scenario consisted of 12 test procedures conducted under simulated instrument meteorological conditions, half with the cue off, and half with the cue on. Simulated aircraft malfunctions were strategically inserted at critical times during each test procedure. Ten pilots participated in the study; half flew a moderate workload scenario consisting of point to point navigation and holding pattern operations and half flew a high workload scenario consisting of non precision approaches and missed approach procedures. Flight data consisted of aircraft and navigation state parameters, NASA Task Load Index (TLX) assessments, and post-flight questionnaires. With localized cues there was slightly better pilot technical performance, a reduction in workload, and a perceived improvement in situational awareness. Results indicate that an airframe-referenced auditory display has utility and pilot acceptance in general aviation operations.

  3. Curriculum Change Management and Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Aishah

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which Saudi teachers have responded or are responding to the challenges posed by a new curriculum. It also deals with issues relating to workload demands which affect teachers' performance when they apply a new curriculum in a Saudi Arabian secondary school. In addition, problems such as scheduling and sharing space…

  4. Subjective evaluation of physical and mental workload interactions across different muscle groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and mental demands, and their interactions, have been shown to increase biomechanical loading and physiological reactivity as well as impair task performance. Because these interactions have shown to be muscle-dependent, the aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of the NASA Task Load Index (NASA TLX) and Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) to evaluate physical and mental workload during muscle-specific tasks. Twenty-four participants performed upper extremity and low back exertions at three physical workload levels in the absence and presence of a mental stressor. Outcome measures included RPE and NASA TLX (six sub-scales) ratings. The findings indicate that while both RPEs and NASA TLX ratings were sensitive to muscle-specific changes in physical demand, only an additional mental stressor and its interaction with either physical demand or muscle groups influenced the effort sub-scale and overall workload scores of the NASA TLX. While additional investigations in actual work settings are warranted, the NASA TLX shows promise in evaluating perceived workload that is sensitive not only to physical and mental demands but also sensitive in determining workload for tasks that employ different muscle groups.

  5. Relationship between mental workload and musculoskeletal disorders among Alzahra Hospital nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Ehsanollah; Taheri, Mohamad Reza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a serious problem among the nursing staff. Mental workload is the major cause of MSDs among nursing staff. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental workload dimensions and their association with MSDs among nurses of Alzahra Hospital, affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 247 randomly selected nurses who worked in the Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran in the summer of 2013. The Persian version of National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) (measuring mental load) specialized questionnaire and Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) was used for data collection. Data were collected and analyzed by Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman correlation coefficient tests in SPSS 20. Results: Pearson and Spearman correlation tests showed a significant association between the nurses’ MSDs and the dimensions of workload frustration, total workload, temporal demand, effort, and physical demand (r = 0.304, 0.277, 0.277, 0.216, and 0.211, respectively). However, there was no significant association between the nurses’ MSDs and the dimensions of workload performance and mental demand (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The nurses’ frustration had a direct correlation with MSDs. This shows that stress is an inseparable component in hospital workplace. Thus, reduction of stress in nursing workplace should be one of the main priorities of hospital managers. PMID:25709683

  6. Relations between mental workload and decision-making in an organizational setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soria-Oliver

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asbtract Background The complexity of current organizations implies a potential overload for workers. For this reason, it is of interest to study the effects that mental workload has on the performance of complex tasks in professional settings. Objective The objective of this study is to empirically analyze the relation between the quality of decision-making, on the one hand, and the expected and real mental workload, on the other. Methods The study uses an ex post facto prospective design with a sample of 176 professionals from a higher education organization. Expected mental workload (Pre-Task WL and real mental workload (Post-Task WL were measured with the unweighted NASA-Task Load Index (NASA-TLX questionnaire; difference between real WL and expected WL (Differential WL was also calculated; quality of decision-making was measured by means of the Decision-Making Questionnaire. Results General quality of decision-making and Pre-Task WL relation is compatible with an inverted U pattern, with slight variations depending on the specific dimension of decision-making that is considered. There were no verifiable relations between Post-Task WL and decision-making. The subjects whose expected WL matched the real WL showed worse quality in decision-making than subjects with high or low Differential WL. Conclusions The relations between mental workload and decision-making reveal a complex pattern, with evidence of nonlinear relations.

  7. GP views on strategies to cope with increasing workload: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Rebecca Fr; Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    The existence of a crisis in primary care in the UK is in little doubt. GP morale and job satisfaction are low, and workload is increasing. In this challenging context, finding ways for GPs to manage that workload is imperative. To explore what existing or potential strategies are described by GPs for dealing with their workload, and their views on the relative merits of each. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews with GPs working within NHS England. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Of those who responded to advertisements, a maximum-variation sample was selected and interviewed until data saturation was reached. Data were analysed thematically. Responses were received from 171 GPs, and, from these, 34 were included in the study. Four main themes emerged for workload management: patient-level, GP-level, practice-level, and systems-level strategies. A need for patients to take greater responsibility for self-management was clear, but many felt that GPs should not be responsible for this education. Increased delegation of tasks was felt to be key to managing workload, with innovative use of allied healthcare professionals and extended roles for non-clinical staff suggested. Telephone triage was a commonly used tool for managing workload, although not all participants found this helpful. This in-depth qualitative study demonstrates an encouraging resilience among GPs. They are proactively trying to manage workload, often using innovative local strategies. GPs do not feel that they can do this alone, however, and called repeatedly for increased recruitment and more investment in primary care. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  8. Independent Coactors May Improve Performance and Lower Workload: Viewing Vigilance Under Social Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claypoole, Victoria L; Szalma, James L

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of an independent coactor on vigilance task performance. It was hypothesized that the presence of an independent coactor would improve performance in terms of the proportion of false alarms while also increasing perceived workload and stress. Vigilance, or the ability to maintain attention for extended periods, is of great interest to human factors psychologists. Substantial work has focused on improving vigilance task performance, typically through motivational interventions. Of interest to vigilance researchers is the application of social facilitation as a means of enhancing vigilance. Social facilitation seeks to explain how social presence may improve performance. A total of 100 participants completed a 24-min vigil either alone or in the presence of an independent (confederate) coactor. Participants completed measures of perceived workload and stress. The results indicated that performance (i.e., proportion of false alarms) was improved for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor. Interestingly, perceived workload was actually lower for those who completed the vigil in the presence of an independent coactor, although perceived stress was not affected by the manipulation. Authors of future research should extend these findings to other forms of social facilitation and examine vigilance task performance in social contexts in order to determine the utility of social presence for improving vigilance. The use of coactors may be an avenue for organizations to consider utilizing to improve performance because of its relative cost-effectiveness and easy implementation.

  9. Patient Safety Incidents and Nursing Workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesi, Katya Cuadros; Padilha, Kátia Grillo; Toffoletto, Maria Cecília; Henriquez-Roldán, Carlos; Juan, Monica Andrea Canales

    2017-04-06

    to identify the relationship between the workload of the nursing team and the occurrence of patient safety incidents linked to nursing care in a public hospital in Chile. quantitative, analytical, cross-sectional research through review of medical records. The estimation of workload in Intensive Care Units (ICUs) was performed using the Therapeutic Interventions Scoring System (TISS-28) and for the other services, we used the nurse/patient and nursing assistant/patient ratios. Descriptive univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. For the multivariate analysis we used principal component analysis and Pearson correlation. 879 post-discharge clinical records and the workload of 85 nurses and 157 nursing assistants were analyzed. The overall incident rate was 71.1%. It was found a high positive correlation between variables workload (r = 0.9611 to r = 0.9919) and rate of falls (r = 0.8770). The medication error rates, mechanical containment incidents and self-removal of invasive devices were not correlated with the workload. the workload was high in all units except the intermediate care unit. Only the rate of falls was associated with the workload. identificar a relação entre a carga de trabalho da equipe de enfermagem e a ocorrência de incidentes de segurança dos pacientes ligados aos cuidados de enfermagem de um hospital público no Chile. pesquisa transversal analítica quantitativa através de revisão de prontuários médicos. A estimativa da carga de trabalho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) foi realizada utilizando o Índice de Intervenções Terapêuticas-TISS-28 e para os outros serviços, foram utilizados os cocientes enfermeira/paciente e auxiliar de enfermagem/ paciente. Foram feitas análises univariada descritiva e multivariada. Para a análise multivariada utilizou-se análise de componentes principais e correlação de Pearson. foram analisados 879 prontuáriosclínicos de pós-alta e a carga de trabalho de 85 enfermeiros e 157

  10. Patient Workload Profile: National Naval Medical Center (NNMC), Bethesda, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    AD-A09a 729 WESTEC SERVICES NC SAN DIEGOCA0S / PATIENT WORKLOAD PROFILE: NATIONAL NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER NNMC),- ETC(U) JUN 80 W T RASMUSSEN, H W...provides site workload data for the National Naval Medical Center (NNMC) within the following functional support areas: Patient Appointment...on managing medical and patient data, thereby offering the health care provider and administrator more powerful capabilities in dealing with and

  11. Linking the Pilot Structural Model and Pilot Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelder, Edward; Hess, Ronald; Aponso, Bimal; Godfroy-Cooper, Martine

    2018-01-01

    Behavioral models are developed that closely reproduced pulsive control response of two pilots using markedly different control techniques while conducting a tracking task. An intriguing find was that the pilots appeared to: 1) produce a continuous, internally-generated stick signal that they integrated in time; 2) integrate the actual stick position; and 3) compare the two integrations to either issue or cease a pulse command. This suggests that the pilots utilized kinesthetic feedback in order to sense and integrate stick position, supporting the hypothesis that pilots can access and employ the proprioceptive inner feedback loop proposed by Hess's pilot Structural Model. A Pilot Cost Index was developed, whose elements include estimated workload, performance, and the degree to which the pilot employs kinesthetic feedback. Preliminary results suggest that a pilot's operating point (parameter values) may be based on control style and index minimization.

  12. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  13. Understanding I/O workload characteristics of a Peta-scale storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Gunasekaran, Raghul [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Understanding workload characteristics is critical for optimizing and improving the performance of current systems and software, and architecting new storage systems based on observed workload patterns. In this paper, we characterize the I/O workloads of scientific applications of one of the world s fastest high performance computing (HPC) storage cluster, Spider, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). OLCF flagship petascale simulation platform, Titan, and other large HPC clusters, in total over 250 thousands compute cores, depend on Spider for their I/O needs. We characterize the system utilization, the demands of reads and writes, idle time, storage space utilization, and the distribution of read requests to write requests for the Peta-scale Storage Systems. From this study, we develop synthesized workloads, and we show that the read and write I/O bandwidth usage as well as the inter-arrival time of requests can be modeled as a Pareto distribution. We also study the I/O load imbalance problems using I/O performance data collected from the Spider storage system.

  14. Modeling human reliability analysis using MIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, R. L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper documents current efforts to infuse human reliability analysis (HRA) into human performance simulation. The Idaho National Laboratory is teamed with NASA Ames Research Center to bridge the SPAR-H HRA method with NASA's Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) for use in simulating and modeling the human contribution to risk in nuclear power plant control room operations. It is anticipated that the union of MIDAS and SPAR-H will pave the path for cost-effective, timely, and valid simulated control room operators for studying current and next generation control room configurations. This paper highlights considerations for creating the dynamic HRA framework necessary for simulation, including event dependency and granularity. This paper also highlights how the SPAR-H performance shaping factors can be modeled in MIDAS across static, dynamic, and initiator conditions common to control room scenarios. This paper concludes with a discussion of the relationship of the workload factors currently in MIDAS and the performance shaping factors in SPAR-H. (authors)

  15. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medrano Llamas, Ramón; Harald Barreiro Megino, Fernando; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Kamil Denis, Marek; Cinquilli, Mattia

    2014-06-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  16. Commissioning the CERN IT Agile Infrastructure with experiment workloads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas, Ramón Medrano; Megino, Fernando Harald Barreiro; Cinquilli, Mattia; Kucharczyk, Katarzyna; Denis, Marek Kamil

    2014-01-01

    In order to ease the management of their infrastructure, most of the WLCG sites are adopting cloud based strategies. In the case of CERN, the Tier 0 of the WLCG, is completely restructuring the resource and configuration management of their computing center under the codename Agile Infrastructure. Its goal is to manage 15,000 Virtual Machines by means of an OpenStack middleware in order to unify all the resources in CERN's two datacenters: the one placed in Meyrin and the new on in Wigner, Hungary. During the commissioning of this infrastructure, CERN IT is offering an attractive amount of computing resources to the experiments (800 cores for ATLAS and CMS) through a private cloud interface. ATLAS and CMS have joined forces to exploit them by running stress tests and simulation workloads since November 2012. This work will describe the experience of the first deployments of the current experiment workloads on the CERN private cloud testbed. The paper is organized as follows: the first section will explain the integration of the experiment workload management systems (WMS) with the cloud resources. The second section will revisit the performance and stress testing performed with HammerCloud in order to evaluate and compare the suitability for the experiment workloads. The third section will go deeper into the dynamic provisioning techniques, such as the use of the cloud APIs directly by the WMS. The paper finishes with a review of the conclusions and the challenges ahead.

  17. Workload management in the EMI project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreetto, Paolo; Bertocco, Sara; Dorigo, Alvise; Frizziero, Eric; Gianelle, Alessio; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Zangrando, Luigi; Capannini, Fabio; Cecchi, Marco; Mezzadri, Massimo; Prelz, Francesco; Rebatto, David; Monforte, Salvatore; Kretsis, Aristotelis

    2012-01-01

    The EU-funded project EMI, now at its second year, aims at providing a unified, high quality middleware distribution for e-Science communities. Several aspects about workload management over diverse distributed computing environments are being challenged by the EMI roadmap: enabling seamless access to both HTC and HPC computing services, implementing a commonly agreed framework for the execution of parallel computations and supporting interoperability models between Grids and Clouds. Besides, a rigourous requirements collection process, involving the WLCG and various NGIs across Europe, assures that the EMI stack is always committed to serving actual needs. With this background, the gLite Workload Management System (WMS), the meta-scheduler service delivered by EMI, is augmenting its functionality and scheduling models according to the aforementioned project roadmap and the numerous requirements collected over the first project year. This paper is about present and future work of the EMI WMS, reporting on design changes, implementation choices and longterm vision.

  18. Severity and workload of nursing with patients seeking admission to an intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meire Cristina Novelli e Castro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To identify the severity and workload of nursing with adult patients seeking admission to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative, exploratory and prospective approach was performed, developed in a hospital in the state of São Paulo. Demographic data on patients were collected, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score III (SAPS III was applied to assess the severity of patients and the Nursing Activities Score (NAS was used to evaluate nursing workload, between July and August 2014. Results: The overall mean score of the SAPS III was 30.52 ± 18.39 and that of the NAS was 58.18 ± 22.29. The group of patients admitted to the ICU showed higher severity and higher workload of nursing compared to non-admitted patients. Non-admitted patients had an NAS of 53.85. Conclusion: The nursing workload in patients who were not admitted to the ICU was also high. The evaluation of workload in other contexts where patients are seriously ill is important. The workload assessment in other contexts where severely ill patients are found is evident.

  19. Cardiovascular responses to plyometric exercise are affected by workload in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Mahdavi, Seyed Amir; Nasiri, Seyed Omid Mirfalah

    2014-01-01

    With regard to blood pressure responses to plyometric exercise and decreasing blood pressure after exercise (post-exercise hypotension), the influence of different workloads of plyometric exercise on blood pressure is not clear. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a low, moderate and high workload of plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR) and rate-pressure product (RPP) responses in athletes. TEN MALE ATHLETES (AGE: 22.6 ±0.5 years; height: 178.2 ±3.3 cm; and body mass: 75.2 ±2.8 kg) underwent PE protocols involving 5 × 10 reps (Low Workload - LW), 10 × 10 reps (Moderate Workload - MW), and 15 × 10 reps (High Workload - HW) depth jump exercise from a 50-cm box in 3 non-consecutive days. After each exercise session, SBP, DBP and HR were measured every 10 min for a period of 70 min. No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP and DBP when the protocols (LW, MW and HW) were compared. The MW and HW protocols showed greater increases in HR compared with LW. Also the HW indicated greater increases than LW in RPP at post-exercise (p plyometric exercise, HW condition indicated greater increases in HR and RPP and strength and conditioning professionals and athletes must keep in their mind that HW of plyometric exercise induces greater cardiovascular responses.

  20. Scaling deep learning workloads: NVIDIA DGX-1/Pascal and Intel Knights Landing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawande, Nitin A.; Landwehr, Joshua B.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Tallent, Nathan R.; Vishnu, Abhinav; Kerbyson, Darren J.

    2017-08-24

    Deep Learning (DL) algorithms have become ubiquitous in data analytics. As a result, major computing vendors --- including NVIDIA, Intel, AMD, and IBM --- have architectural road-maps influenced by DL workloads. Furthermore, several vendors have recently advertised new computing products as accelerating large DL workloads. Unfortunately, it is difficult for data scientists to quantify the potential of these different products. This paper provides a performance and power analysis of important DL workloads on two major parallel architectures: NVIDIA DGX-1 (eight Pascal P100 GPUs interconnected with NVLink) and Intel Knights Landing (KNL) CPUs interconnected with Intel Omni-Path or Cray Aries. Our evaluation consists of a cross section of convolutional neural net workloads: CifarNet, AlexNet, GoogLeNet, and ResNet50 topologies using the Cifar10 and ImageNet datasets. The workloads are vendor-optimized for each architecture. Our analysis indicates that although GPUs provide the highest overall performance, the gap can close for some convolutional networks; and the KNL can be competitive in performance/watt. We find that NVLink facilitates scaling efficiency on GPUs. However, its importance is heavily dependent on neural network architecture. Furthermore, for weak-scaling --- sometimes encouraged by restricted GPU memory --- NVLink is less important.

  1. Association of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, M; Møller, A; Nilsson, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine individual as well as joint associations of physical workload and leisure time physical activity with incident mobility limitations in initially well-functioning middle-aged workers. METHODS: This study is based on 6-year follow-up data of the Danish Longitudinal Study...... on Work, Unemployment and Health. Physical workload was reported at baseline and categorised as light, moderate or heavy. Baseline leisure time physical activity level was categorised as sedentary or active following the current recommendations on physical activity. Incidence of mobility limitations...... with higher workload regardless of level of leisure time physical activity, although the risks tended to be higher among those with sedentary leisure time compared with their active counterparts. All in all, the risk for onset of mobility limitations was highest among those with heavy workload combined...

  2. Dynamic workload balancing of parallel applications with user-level scheduling on the Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Korkhov, Vladimir V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests a hybrid resource management approach for efficient parallel distributed computing on the Grid. It operates on both application and system levels, combining user-level job scheduling with dynamic workload balancing algorithm that automatically adapts a parallel application to the heterogeneous resources, based on the actual resource parameters and estimated requirements of the application. The hybrid environment and the algorithm for automated load balancing are described, the influence of resource heterogeneity level is measured, and the speedup achieved with this technique is demonstrated for different types of applications and resources.

  3. Effects of workload on teachers' functioning: A moderated mediation model including sleeping problems and overcommitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghebaert, Tiphaine; Gillet, Nicolas; Beltou, Nicolas; Tellier, Fanny; Fouquereau, Evelyne

    2018-06-14

    This study investigated the mediating role of sleeping problems in the relationship between workload and outcomes (emotional exhaustion, presenteeism, job satisfaction, and performance), and overcommitment was examined as a moderator in the relationship between workload and sleeping problems. We conducted an empirical study using a sample of 884 teachers. Consistent with our predictions, results revealed that the positive indirect effects of workload on emotional exhaustion and presenteeism, and the negative indirect effects of workload on job satisfaction and performance, through sleeping problems, were only significant among overcommitted teachers. Workload and overcommitment were also directly related to all four outcomes, precisely, they both positively related to emotional exhaustion and presenteeism and negatively related to job satisfaction and performance. Theoretical contributions and perspectives and implications for practice are discussed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. A Model of Human Variability in Viable Ship Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-21

    education and organization level and percentage of recruited team members also contribute to teamwork schema agreement; similarity in gender and age...standard in operational command centers and other workplace environments. Over time or due to the situation, workload levels may exceed some critical...Increased workload may also reveal inequities in the distribution of workload; depending on team members’ roles and responsibilities, some individuals may be

  5. Investigating workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Train driving is a high responsibility job in railway industry. Train drivers need different cognitive functions such as vigilance, object detection, memory, planning, decision-making. High level of fatigue is one of the caused factor of accidents among train drivers. Numerous factors can impact train drivers’ fatigue but high level of workload is a key factor. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate workload and its relationship with fatigue among train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway Company. .Material and Method: This descriptive analytical study was done among 100 train drivers in Keshesh section of Iranian Railway industry. They were selected by simple random sampling. The NASA-TLX workload scale and Samn-Perelli fatigue scale were respectively used to investigate workload and fatigue. Data were analyzed by Paired t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient. . Result: According to the NASA-TLX results, effort and mental workload with the mean score of 74/22 and 73/31 were respectively the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. No significant relationship was observed between workload and level of fatigue before departure and half an hour before reaching the destination station (P>0.05. However, the relationship between of workload and level of fatigue half an hour before the end of shift (on the way back to the origin station was statistically significant (P=0.048 among the sample population. . Conclusion: Effort and mental workload were the most important attributes of workload among train drivers. By focusing on these two variables and adopting fatigue management programs, fatigue and workload can be controlled and the efficiency of the whole system can be enhanced accordingly.

  6. Reducing feedback requirements of workload control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrich, Peter; Land, Martin; van der Zee, Durk; Gaalman, Gerard

    2004-01-01

    The workload control concept is known as a robust shop floor control concept. It is especially suited for the dynamic environment of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) within the make-to-order sector. Before orders are released to the shop floor, they are collected in an ‘order pool’. To

  7. A reliability-based maintenance technicians' workloads optimisation model with stochastic consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighravwe, D. E.; Oke, S. A.; Adebiyi, K. A.

    2016-06-01

    The growing interest in technicians' workloads research is probably associated with the recent surge in competition. This was prompted by unprecedented technological development that triggers changes in customer tastes and preferences for industrial goods. In a quest for business improvement, this worldwide intense competition in industries has stimulated theories and practical frameworks that seek to optimise performance in workplaces. In line with this drive, the present paper proposes an optimisation model which considers technicians' reliability that complements factory information obtained. The information used emerged from technicians' productivity and earned-values using the concept of multi-objective modelling approach. Since technicians are expected to carry out routine and stochastic maintenance work, we consider these workloads as constraints. The influence of training, fatigue and experiential knowledge of technicians on workload management was considered. These workloads were combined with maintenance policy in optimising reliability, productivity and earned-values using the goal programming approach. Practical datasets were utilised in studying the applicability of the proposed model in practice. It was observed that our model was able to generate information that practicing maintenance engineers can apply in making more informed decisions on technicians' management.

  8. Role of Academic Managers in Workload and Performance Management of Academic Staff: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    This small-scale case study focused on academic managers to explore the ways in which they control the workload of academic staff and the extent to which they use the workload model in performance management of academic staff. The links that exist between the workload and performance management were explored to confirm or refute the conceptual…

  9. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  10. Medical Resident Workload at a Multidisciplinary Hospital in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sadeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical resident workload has been shown to be associated with learning efficiency and patient satisfaction. However, there is limited evidence about it in developing countries. This study aimed to evaluate the medical resident workload in a multidisciplinary teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran.Methods: All medical residents at Shariati Hospital, a teaching hospital affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Science, who were working between November and December 2011 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. A self–reported questionnaire was used to gather information about their duty hours (including daily activities and shifts and financial issues.Results:135 (52.5% out of 257 residents responded to the questionnaire. 72 (53.3% residents were in surgical departments and 63 (46.7% were in non-surgical departments. Mean duty hours per month were significantly higher in surgical (350.8 ±76.7 than non-surgical (300.6±74.2 departments (p=0.001. Three cardiology (a non-surgical group residents (5.7% and 30 residents (41% in surgical groups (p<0.001 declared a number of “on-calls in the hospital” more than the approved number in the curriculum. The majority of residents (97.8% declared that their salary was not sufficient to manage their lives and they needed other financial resources. Conclusion: Medical residents at teaching hospitals in Iran suffer from high workloads and low income. There is a need to reduce medical resident workload and increase salary to improve worklife balance and finances.

  11. The Influence of Nursing Faculty Workloads on Faculty Retention: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing faculty workloads have come to the forefront of discussion in nursing education. The National League of Nursing (NLN) has made nursing faculty workloads a high priority in nursing education. Included in the priorities are areas of creating reform through innovations in nursing education, evaluating reform through evaluation research, and…

  12. Modeling Operations Costs for Human Exploration Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Operations and support (O&S) costs for human spaceflight have not received the same attention in the cost estimating community as have development costs. This is unfortunate as O&S costs typically comprise a majority of life-cycle costs (LCC) in such programs as the International Space Station (ISS) and the now-cancelled Constellation Program. Recognizing this, the Constellation Program and NASA HQs supported the development of an O&S cost model specifically for human spaceflight. This model, known as the Exploration Architectures Operations Cost Model (ExAOCM), provided the operations cost estimates for a variety of alternative human missions to the moon, Mars, and Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) in architectural studies. ExAOCM is philosophically based on the DoD Architecture Framework (DoDAF) concepts of operational nodes, systems, operational functions, and milestones. This paper presents some of the historical background surrounding the development of the model, and discusses the underlying structure, its unusual user interface, and lastly, previous examples of its use in the aforementioned architectural studies.

  13. The development of human factors experimental evaluation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Bong Shick; Oh, In Suk; Cha, Kyung Ho; Lee, Hyun Chul; Park, Geun Ok; Cheon, Se Woo; Suh, Sang Moon

    1997-07-01

    New human factors issues, such as evaluation of information navigation, the consideration of operator characteristics, and operator performance assessment, related to the HMI design based on VDUs are being risen. Thus, in order to solve these human factors issues, this project aims to establish the experimental technologies including the techniques for experimental design, experimental measurement, data collection and analysis, and to develop ITF (Integrated Test Facility) suitable for the experiment of HMI design evaluation. For the establish of the experimental data analysis and evaluation methodologies, we developed as the following: (1) a paradigm for human factors experimentation including experimental designs, procedures, and data analysis. (2) the methods for the assessment of operator`s mental workload (3) DAEXESS (data analysis and experiment evaluation supporting system). Also, we have established a experiment execution technologies through the preliminary experiments, such as the suitability evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of information display on a LSDP, the evaluation of computerized operation procedure and an experiment of advanced alarm system (ADIOS). Finally, we developed the ITF including human machine simulator, telemetry system, an eye tracking system, an audio/video data measurement system, and three dimensional micro behaviour analysis system. (author). 81 refs., 68 tabs., 73 figs.

  14. Cognitive Workload and Psychophysiological Parameters During Multitask Activity in Helicopter Pilots

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetan , Sophie; Dousset , Erick; Marqueste , Tanguy; Bringoux , Lionel; Bourdin , Christophe; Vercher , Jean-Louis; Besson , Patricia

    2015-01-01

    International audience; BACKGROUND: Helicopter pilots are involved in a complex multitask activity, implying overuse of cognitive resources, which may result in piloting task impairment or in decision-making failure. Studies usually investigate this phenomenon in well-controlled, poorly ecological situations by focusing on the correlation between physiological values and either cognitive workload or emotional state. This study aimed at jointly exploring workload induced by a realistic simulat...

  15. Workload Management Strategies for Online Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, Tena B.; Wilkinson, Kelly; Hemby, K. Virginia; McCannon, Melinda; Wiedmaier, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    With increased use of online education, both students and instructors are adapting to the online environment. Online educators must adjust to the change in responsibilities required to teach online, as it is quite intensive during the designing, teaching, and revising stages. The purpose of this study is to examine and update workload management…

  16. The impact of crosstalk on three-dimensional laparoscopic performance and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Grove, Philip M; Watson, Marcus O; Stevenson, Andrew R L

    2017-10-01

    This is the first study to explore the effects of crosstalk from 3D laparoscopic displays on technical performance and workload. We studied crosstalk at magnitudes that may have been tolerated during laparoscopic surgery. Participants were 36 voluntary doctors. To minimize floor effects, participants completed their surgery rotations, and a laparoscopic suturing course for surgical trainees. We used a counterbalanced, within-subjects design in which participants were randomly assigned to complete laparoscopic tasks in one of six unique testing sequences. In a simulation laboratory, participants were randomly assigned to complete laparoscopic 'navigation in space' and suturing tasks in three viewing conditions: 2D, 3D without ghosting and 3D with ghosting. Participants calibrated their exposure to crosstalk as the maximum level of ghosting that they could tolerate without discomfort. The Randot® Stereotest was used to verify stereoacuity. The study performance metric was time to completion. The NASA TLX was used to measure workload. Normal threshold stereoacuity (40-20 second of arc) was verified in all participants. Comparing optimal 3D with 2D viewing conditions, mean performance times were 2.8 and 1.6 times faster in laparoscopic navigation in space and suturing tasks respectively (p< .001). Comparing optimal 3D with suboptimal 3D viewing conditions, mean performance times were 2.9 times faster in both tasks (p< .001). Mean workload in 2D was 1.5 and 1.3 times greater than in optimal 3D viewing, for navigation in space and suturing tasks respectively (p< .001). Mean workload associated with suboptimal 3D was 1.3 times greater than optimal 3D in both laparoscopic tasks (p< .001). There was no significant relationship between the magnitude of ghosting score, laparoscopic performance and workload. Our findings highlight the advantages of 3D displays when used optimally, and their shortcomings when used sub-optimally, on both laparoscopic performance and workload.

  17. EEG Estimates of Cognitive Workload and Engagement Predict Math Problem Solving Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Carole R.; Galan, Federico Cirett

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the authors focused on the use of electroencephalography (EEG) data about cognitive workload and sustained attention to predict math problem solving outcomes. EEG data were recorded as students solved a series of easy and difficult math problems. Sequences of attention and cognitive workload estimates derived from the EEG…

  18. Workload and Marital Satisfaction over Time: Testing Lagged Spillover and Crossover Effects during the Newlywed Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavner, Justin A; Clark, Malissa A

    2017-08-01

    Although many studies have found that higher workloads covary with lower levels of marital satisfaction, the question of whether workloads may also predict changes in marital satisfaction over time has been overlooked. To address this question, we investigated the lagged association between own and partner workload and marital satisfaction using eight waves of data collected every 6 months over the first four years of marriage from 172 heterosexual couples. Significant crossover, but not spillover, effects were found, indicating that partners of individuals with higher workloads at one time point experience greater declines in marital satisfaction by the following time point compared to the partners of individuals with lower workloads. These effects were not moderated by gender or parental status. These findings suggest that higher partner workloads can prove deleterious for relationship functioning over time and call for increased attention to the long-term effects of spillover and crossover from work to marital functioning.

  19. Toward a tactile language for human-robot interaction: two studies of tacton learning and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Daniel J; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren E; Matthews, Gerald

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility for robot-to-human communication of a tactile language using a lexicon of standardized tactons (tactile icons) within a sentence. Improvements in autonomous systems technology and a growing demand within military operations are spurring interest in communication via vibrotactile displays. Tactile communication may become an important element of human-robot interaction (HRI), but it requires the development of messaging capabilities approaching the communication power of the speech and visual signals used in the military. In Experiment 1 (N = 38), we trained participants to identify sets of directional, dynamic, and static tactons and tested performance and workload following training. In Experiment 2 (N = 76), we introduced an extended training procedure and tested participants' ability to correctly identify two-tacton phrases. We also investigated the impact of multitasking on performance and workload. Individual difference factors were assessed. Experiment 1 showed that participants found dynamic and static tactons difficult to learn, but the enhanced training procedure in Experiment 2 produced competency in performance for all tacton categories. Participants in the latter study also performed well on two-tacton phrases and when multitasking. However, some deficits in performance and elevation of workload were observed. Spatial ability predicted some aspects of performance in both studies. Participants may be trained to identify both single tactons and tacton phrases, demonstrating the feasibility of developing a tactile language for HRI. Tactile communication may be incorporated into multi-modal communication systems for HRI. It also has potential for human-human communication in challenging environments. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  20. Bitwise dimensional co-clustering for analytical workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Baumann (Stephan); P.A. Boncz (Peter); K.-U. Sattler

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractAnalytical workloads in data warehouses often include heavy joins where queries involve multiple fact tables in addition to the typical star-patterns, dimensional grouping and selections. In this paper we propose a new processing and storage framework called Bitwise Dimensional

  1. A Closed-Loop Model of Operator Visual Attention, Situation Awareness, and Performance Across Automation Mode Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Duda, Kevin R; Sheridan, Thomas B; Oman, Charles M

    2017-03-01

    This article describes a closed-loop, integrated human-vehicle model designed to help understand the underlying cognitive processes that influenced changes in subject visual attention, mental workload, and situation awareness across control mode transitions in a simulated human-in-the-loop lunar landing experiment. Control mode transitions from autopilot to manual flight may cause total attentional demands to exceed operator capacity. Attentional resources must be reallocated and reprioritized, which can increase the average uncertainty in the operator's estimates of low-priority system states. We define this increase in uncertainty as a reduction in situation awareness. We present a model built upon the optimal control model for state estimation, the crossover model for manual control, and the SEEV (salience, effort, expectancy, value) model for visual attention. We modify the SEEV attention executive to direct visual attention based, in part, on the uncertainty in the operator's estimates of system states. The model was validated using the simulated lunar landing experimental data, demonstrating an average difference in the percentage of attention ≤3.6% for all simulator instruments. The model's predictions of mental workload and situation awareness, measured by task performance and system state uncertainty, also mimicked the experimental data. Our model supports the hypothesis that visual attention is influenced by the uncertainty in system state estimates. Conceptualizing situation awareness around the metric of system state uncertainty is a valuable way for system designers to understand and predict how reallocations in the operator's visual attention during control mode transitions can produce reallocations in situation awareness of certain states.

  2. How to reduce workload--augmented reality to ease the work of air traffic controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Thomas; König, Christina; Bruder, Ralph; Bergner, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    In the future the air traffic will rise--the workload of the controllers will do the same. In the BMWi research project, one of the tasks is, how to ensure safe air traffic, and a reasonable workload for the air traffic controllers. In this project it was the goal to find ways how to reduce the workload (and stress) for the controllers to allow safe air traffic, esp. at huge hub-airports by implementing augmented reality visualization and interaction.

  3. Physical workload and thoughts of retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiö-Mäkelä, Merja; Hirvonen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees' opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%); and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.

  4. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  5. The Human-Robot Interaction Operating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Terrence; Kunz, Clayton; Hiatt, Laura M.; Bugajska, Magda

    2006-01-01

    In order for humans and robots to work effectively together, they need to be able to converse about abilities, goals and achievements. Thus, we are developing an interaction infrastructure called the "Human-Robot Interaction Operating System" (HRI/OS). The HRI/OS provides a structured software framework for building human-robot teams, supports a variety of user interfaces, enables humans and robots to engage in task-oriented dialogue, and facilitates integration of robots through an extensible API.

  6. A reba-based analysis of packers workload: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Lasota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the elements of a logistics system is the subsystem of production, which is a system composed of physical elements such as machinery, tools and (most importantly people. In addition, system-dependent human operators are particularly prone to problems related to discomfort, which can affect production quality and increase training costs and absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the workload and risk of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD's in the process of order fulfillment for the position of packer and to conduct an analysis of risk factors. Methods: The Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA evaluation method was used. Activities related to the fulfillment of an order were assessed for three workstations. Results: Five postures qualified for action category (AC 2, seven postures for AC 3 and one posture for AC 4. The main factors affecting the risk of a negative assessment of posture were keeping the back bent and twisted, keeping the arms raised above the trunk, working in a standing position and the weight of packaged carton. Conclusions: Packers working on research positions face a high level of exposure to the risk of MSD's, therefore corrective actions should be carried out as soon as possible. Ergonomic intervention should be linked to redesigning workstations and methods of working. After making changes to the research workstations, re-evaluation using the REBA method is recommended to verify the effectiveness of the changes.

  7. Laparoendoscopic single site (LESS) in vivo suturing using a magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) camera in a porcine model: impact on ergonomics and workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Gang; Han, Woong Kyu; Faddegon, Stephen; Tan, Yung Khan; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Olweny, Ephrem O; Scott, Daniel J; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the ergonomics and workload of the surgeon during single-site suturing while using the magnetic anchoring and guidance system (MAGS) camera vs a conventional laparoscope. Seven urologic surgeons were enrolled and divided into an expert group (n=2) and a novice group (n=5) according to their laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) experience. Each surgeon performed 2 conventional LESS and 2 MAGS camera-assisted LESS vesicostomy closures in a porcine model. A Likert scale (scoring 1-5) questionnaire assessing workload, ergonomics, technical difficulty, visualization, and needle handling, as well as a validated National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) questionnaire were used to evaluate the tasks and workloads. MAGS LESS suturing was universally favored by expert and novice surgeons compared with conventional LESS in workload (3.4 vs 4.2), ergonomics (3.4 vs 4.4), technical challenge (3.3 vs 4.3), visualization (2.4 vs 3.3), and needle handling (3.1 vs 3.9 respectively; PNASA-TLX assessments found MAGS LESS suturing significantly decreased the workload in physical demand (P=.004), temporal demand (P=.017), and effort (P=.006). External instrument clashing was significantly reduced in MAGS LESS suturing (P<.001). The total operative time of MAGS LESS suturing was comparable to that of conventional LESS (P=.89). MAGS camera technology significantly decreased surgeon workload and improved ergonomics. Nevertheless, LESS suturing and knot tying remains a challenging task that requires training, regardless of which camera is used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bitwise dimensional co-clustering for analytical workloads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumann, Stephan; Boncz, Peter; Sattler, Kai Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Analytical workloads in data warehouses often include heavy joins where queries involve multiple fact tables in addition to the typical star-patterns, dimensional grouping and selections. In this paper we propose a new processing and storage framework called bitwise dimensional co-clustering (BDCC)

  9. Dynamic workload peak detection for slack management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milutinovic, A.; Goossens, Kees; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Kuper, Jan; Kuper, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an analytical study on dynamism and possibilities on slack exploitation by dynamic power management is presented. We introduce a specific workload decomposition method for work required for (streaming) application processing data tokens (e.g. video frames) with work behaviour patterns

  10. Mental workload and cognitive task automaticity: an evaluation of subjective and time estimation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Wickens, C D

    1994-11-01

    The evaluation of mental workload is becoming increasingly important in system design and analysis. The present study examined the structure and assessment of mental workload in performing decision and monitoring tasks by focusing on two mental workload measurements: subjective assessment and time estimation. The task required the assignment of a series of incoming customers to the shortest of three parallel service lines displayed on a computer monitor. The subject was either in charge of the customer assignment (manual mode) or was monitoring an automated system performing the same task (automatic mode). In both cases, the subjects were required to detect the non-optimal assignments that they or the computer had made. Time pressure was manipulated by the experimenter to create fast and slow conditions. The results revealed a multi-dimensional structure of mental workload and a multi-step process of subjective workload assessment. The results also indicated that subjective workload was more influenced by the subject's participatory mode than by the factor of task speed. The time estimation intervals produced while performing the decision and monitoring tasks had significantly greater length and larger variability than those produced while either performing no other tasks or performing a well practised customer assignment task. This result seemed to indicate that time estimation was sensitive to the presence of perceptual/cognitive demands, but not to response related activities to which behavioural automaticity has developed.

  11. Assuring human operator alertness at night in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore-Ede, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    The human body is not designed for peak alertness and performance at night, nor is it well-equipped to cope with the frequent day-night inversions required by rotating shift work schedules. As a result, the human operator can become the weak link in a complex technological operation such as a nuclear power plant. The high degree of dependence on human operator vigilance, decision-making ability and performance that is required in nuclear power plant operations can conflict with the human sleepiness and error-proneness which naturally occur during the night shift or after extended periods without adequate sleep. An opportunity to address these problems has come from a series of major research advances in basic circadian physiology

  12. Driving with varying secondary task levels: mental workload, behavioural effects, and task prioritization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Nina; van Arem, Bart; van der Horst, Richard; Brookhuis, Karel; Alkim, T.P.; Arentze, T.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Driver Assistance (ADA) Systems may provide a solution for safety-critical traffic situations. But these systems are new additions into the vehicle that might increase drivers’ mental workload. How do drivers behave in situations with high mental workload, and do they actively prioritize

  13. The evaluation of team lifting on physical work demands and workload in ironworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Visser, Steven; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Faber, Gert; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2012-01-01

    Lifting and carrying heavy loads occur frequently among ironworkers and result in high prevalence and incidence rates of low back complaints, injuries and work-disability. From a health perspective, little information is available on the effect of team lifting on work demands and workload. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the effects of team lifting of maximally 50 kg by two ironworkers (T50) with team lifting of maximally 100 kg by four ironworkers (T100). This study combined a field and laboratory study with the following outcome measures: duration and frequency of tasks and activities, energetic workload, perceived discomfort and maximal compression forces (Fc peak) on the low back. The physical work demands and workload of an individual iron worker during manual handling of rebar materials of 100 kg with four workers did not differ from the manual handling of rebar materials of 50 kg with two workers, with the exception of low back discomfort and Fc peak. The biomechanical workload of the low back exceeded for both T50 and T100 the NIOSH threshold limit of 3400N. Therefore, mechanical transport or other effective design solutions should be considered to reduce the biomechanical workload of the low back and the accompanying health risks among iron workers.

  14. Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Heffelaar, Tobias; Zimmerman, Patrick H.; Oostenveld, Robert

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies indicate that both electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power (in particular the alpha and theta band) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (in particular the P300) can be used as a measure of mental work or memory load. We compare their ability to estimate workload level in a well-controlled task. In addition, we combine both types of measures in a single classification model to examine whether this results in higher classification accuracy than either one alone. Participants watched a sequence of visually presented letters and indicated whether or not the current letter was the same as the one (n instances) before. Workload was varied by varying n. We developed different classification models using ERP features, frequency power features or a combination (fusion). Training and testing of the models simulated an online workload estimation situation. All our ERP, power and fusion models provide classification accuracies between 80% and 90% when distinguishing between the highest and the lowest workload condition after 2 min. For 32 out of 35 participants, classification was significantly higher than chance level after 2.5 s (or one letter) as estimated by the fusion model. Differences between the models are rather small, though the fusion model performs better than the other models when only short data segments are available for estimating workload.

  15. Workload differences across command levels and emergency response organizations during a major joint training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytz, Erik G; Rybing, Jonas; Jonson, Carl-Oscar

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an initial test using a validated workload measurement method, the NASA Task Load Index (TLX), as an indicator of joint emergency exercise effectiveness. Prior research on emergency exercises indicates that exercises must be challenging, ie, result in high workload, to be effective. However, this is often problematic with some participants being underloaded and some overloaded. The NASA TLX was used to test for differences in workload between commanders and subordinates and among three different emergency response organizations during a joint emergency exercise. Questionnaire-based evaluation with professional emergency responders. The study was performed in conjunction with a large-scale interorganizational joint emergency exercise in Sweden. A total of 20 participants from the rescue services, 12 from the emergency medical services, and 12 from the police participated in the study (N=44). Ten participants had a command-level role during the exercise and the remaining 34 were subordinates. The main outcome measures were the workload subscales of the NASA TLX: mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, performance, effort, and frustration. The results showed that the organizations experienced different levels of workload, that the commanders experienced a higher workload than the subordinates, and that two out of three organizations fell below the twenty-fifth percentile of average workload scores compiled from 237 prior studies. The results support the notion that the NASA TLX could be a useful complementary tool to evaluate exercise designs and outcomes. This should be further explored and verified in additional studies.

  16. Workload and associated factors: a study in maritime port in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the effect of the mental, physical, temporal, performance, total effort and frustration demands in the overall workload, and in the same way analyze the global burden of port labor and associated factors that contribute most to their decrease or increase. Method: a cross-sectional, quantitative study, developed with 232 dock workers. For data collection, a structured questionnaire with descriptive, occupational, smoking and illicit drug use variables was applied, as well as variables on the load on the tasks undertaken at work, based on the questionnaire NASA Task Load Index. For data analysis, we used the analysis of the Poisson regression model. Results: the demands physical demand and total effort showed greater effect on the overall workload, indicating high overall load on port work (134 employees - 58.8%. The following remained associated statistically with high levels of workload: age (p = 0.044, to be employee of the wharfage (p = 0.006, work only at night (p = 0.025, smoking (p = 0.037 and use of illegal drugs (p = 0.029. Conclusion: the workload in this type of activity was high, and the professional category and work shift the factors that contributed to the increase, while the age proved to be a factor associated with a decrease.

  17. General surgery workloads and practice patterns in the United States, 2007 to 2009: a 10-year update from the American Board of Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, R James; Jones, Andrew; Biester, Thomas W; Cogbill, Thomas H; Borman, Karen R; Rhodes, Robert S

    2011-09-01

    To assess changes in general surgery workloads and practice patterns in the past decade. Nearly 80% of graduating general surgery residents pursue additional training in a surgical subspecialty. This has resulted in a shortage of general surgeons, especially in rural areas. The purpose of this study is to characterize the workloads and practice patterns of general surgeons versus certified surgical subspecialists and to compare these data with those from a previous decade. The surgical operative logs of 4968 individuals recertifying in surgery 2007 to 2009 were reviewed. Data from 3362 (68%) certified only in Surgery (GS) were compared with 1606 (32%) with additional American Board of Medical Specialties certificates (GS+). Data from GS surgeons were also compared with data from GS surgeons recertifying 1995 to 1997. Independent variables were compared using factorial ANOVA. GS surgeons performed a mean of 533 ± 365 procedures annually. Women GS performed far more breast operations and fewer abdomen, alimentary tract and laparoscopic procedures compared to men GS (P surgery procedures. GS practice patterns are heterogeneous; gender, age, and practice setting significantly affect operative caseloads. A substantial portion of general surgery procedures currently are performed by GS+ surgeons, whereas GS surgeons continue to perform considerable numbers of specialty operations. Reduced general surgery operative experience in GS+ residencies may negatively impact access to general surgical care. Similarly, narrowing GS residency operative experience may impair specialty operation access.

  18. Fuzzy-TLX: using fuzzy integrals for evaluating human mental workload with NASA-Task Load indeX in laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzé-Amady, Marc; Raufaste, Eric; Prade, Henri; Meyer, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess mental workload in which various load sources must be integrated to derive reliable workload estimates. We report a new algorithm for computing weights from qualitative fuzzy integrals and apply it to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration -Task Load indeX (NASA-TLX) subscales in order to replace the standard pair-wise weighting technique (PWT). In this paper, two empirical studies were reported: (1) In a laboratory experiment, age- and task-related variables were investigated in 53 male volunteers and (2) In a field study, task- and job-related variables were studied on aircrews during 48 commercial flights. The results found in this study were as follows: (i) in the experimental setting, fuzzy estimates were highly correlated with classical (using PWT) estimates; (ii) in real work conditions, replacing PWT by automated fuzzy treatments simplified the NASA-TLX completion; (iii) the algorithm for computing fuzzy estimates provides a new classification procedure sensitive to various variables of work environments and (iv) subjective and objective measures can be used for the fuzzy aggregation of NASA-TLX subscales. NASA-TLX, a classical tool for mental workload assessment, is based on a weighted sum of ratings from six subscales. A new algorithm, which impacts on input data collection and computes weights and indexes from qualitative fuzzy integrals, is evaluated through laboratory and field studies. Pros and cons are discussed.

  19. Study on workloads of human care worker with the introduction of IT system - the characteristics of work loads by observational research and the suggestions for KAIZEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Toru; Matsuda, Fumiko; Takeuchi, Yuriko; Motegi, Nobuyuki; Ikegami, Thor; Sakai, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristic of workloads on human care worker with the introduction of IT system, and suggested the support measures for KAIZEN in Japan. The investigation method is workflow line and hearing with a focus on work observation. The objects were 8 human care workers of the acute hospital that introduced an electronic system. By the introduction of the electronic chart, the nurse station sojourn time decreased, sickroom sojourn time increased, and time about direct nursing care to a patient increased. In addition, access to patient information became easy, and the offer of the health care service based on correct information came to be possible in real time. By The point of workflow line, it was effect that moving lengths decreased in order to install the electronic chart in patients' rooms. Though, it was a problem that it hasn't formed where to place the instruments such as sphygmomanometer, clinical thermometer and others.

  20. Analysis and modeling of social influence in high performance computing workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Zheng, Shuai

    2011-01-01

    Social influence among users (e.g., collaboration on a project) creates bursty behavior in the underlying high performance computing (HPC) workloads. Using representative HPC and cluster workload logs, this paper identifies, analyzes, and quantifies the level of social influence across HPC users. We show the existence of a social graph that is characterized by a pattern of dominant users and followers. This pattern also follows a power-law distribution, which is consistent with those observed in mainstream social networks. Given its potential impact on HPC workloads prediction and scheduling, we propose a fast-converging, computationally-efficient online learning algorithm for identifying social groups. Extensive evaluation shows that our online algorithm can (1) quickly identify the social relationships by using a small portion of incoming jobs and (2) can efficiently track group evolution over time. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF OPERATIONAL CONCEPTS FOR ADVANCED SMRs: THE ROLE OF COGNITIVE SYSTEMS ENGINEERING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David Gertman

    2014-04-01

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) will use advanced digital instrumentation and control systems, and make greater use of automation. These advances not only pose technical and operational challenges, but will inevitably have an effect on the operating and maintenance (O&M) cost of new plants. However, there is much uncertainty about the impact of AdvSMR designs on operational and human factors considerations, such as workload, situation awareness, human reliability, staffing levels, and the appropriate allocation of functions between the crew and various automated plant systems. Existing human factors and systems engineering design standards and methodologies are not current in terms of human interaction requirements for dynamic automated systems and are no longer suitable for the analysis of evolving operational concepts. New models and guidance for operational concepts for complex socio-technical systems need to adopt a state-of-the-art approach such as Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE) that gives due consideration to the role of personnel. This approach we report on helps to identify and evaluate human challenges related to non-traditional concepts of operations. A framework - defining operational strategies was developed based on the operational analysis of Argonne National Laboratory’s Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), a small (20MWe) sodium-cooled reactor that was successfully operated for thirty years. Insights from the application of the systematic application of the methodology and its utility are reviewed and arguments for the formal adoption of CSE as a value-added part of the Systems Engineering process are presented.

  2. Identification of Success Criteria for Automated Function Using Feed and Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2013-01-01

    Since NPP has lots of functions and systems, operated procedure is much complicated and the chance of human error to operate the safety systems is quite high. In the case of large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) and station black out (SBO), the dependency of operator is very low. However, when many mitigation systems are still available, operators have several choices to mitigate the accident and the human error can be increased more. To reduce the operator's workload and perform the operation accurate after the accident, automated function for safe cooldown based on the feed and bleed (F and B) operation was suggested. The automated function can predict whether the plant will be safe after the automated function is initiated, and perform the safety functions automatically. To expect the success of cooldown, success criteria should be identified. To perform the operation accurately after the accident, the automated function for safe cooldown based on the F and B operation is suggested. To expect the success of cooldown, sequence of RCS situation when heat removal by secondary system fails is identified. Based on the sequence of RCS situation, four levels of necessity of F and B operation are classified. To obtain the boundary of levels, the TH analysis will be performed

  3. Operational Assessment of Controller Complexity, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In today's operations, acceptable levels of controller workload are maintained by assigning sector capacities based on simple aircraft count and a capacity threshold...

  4. The operators' non-compliance behavior to conduct emergency operating procedures--comparing with the work experience and the complexity of procedural steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinkyun; Jung, Wondea

    2003-01-01

    Many kinds of procedures have been used to reduce the operators' workload throughout various industries, such as in the aviation, the chemical and the nuclear industry. It is remarkable that, however, significant portion of accidents or incidents was caused by procedure related human error due to non-compliance of procedures. In this study, to investigate the operators' non-compliance behavior, emergency-training records were collected using a full scope simulator. And three types of the operators' behavior (such as strict adherence, skipping redundant actions and modifying action sequences) observed from collected emergency training records were compared with both their work experience and the complexity of procedural steps. As the results, three remarkable relationships are obtained. They are: (1) the operators who have an intermediate work experience seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps, (2) the operators seem to frequently adopt non-compliance behavior to conduct the procedural steps that have an intermediate procedural complexity, and (3) the senior reactor operators seem to accommodate their non-compliance behavior based on the complexity of procedural steps. Therefore, it is expected that these relationships can be used as meaningful clues not only to scrutinize the reason for non-compliance behavior but also to suggest appropriate remedies for the reduction of non-compliance behavior that can result in procedure related human error

  5. Exploring relationships of human-automation interaction consequences on pilots: uncovering subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durso, Francis T; Stearman, Eric J; Morrow, Daniel G; Mosier, Kathleen L; Fischer, Ute; Pop, Vlad L; Feigh, Karen M

    2015-05-01

    We attempted to understand the latent structure underlying the systems pilots use to operate in situations involving human-automation interaction (HAI). HAI is an important characteristic of many modern work situations. Of course, the cognitive subsystems are not immediately apparent by observing a functioning system, but correlations between variables may reveal important relations. The current report examined pilot judgments of 11 HAI dimensions (e.g., Workload, Task Management, Stress/Nervousness, Monitoring Automation, and Cross-Checking Automation) across 48 scenarios that required airline pilots to interact with automation on the flight deck. We found three major clusters of the dimensions identifying subsystems on the flight deck: a workload subsystem, a management subsystem, and an awareness subsystem. Relationships characterized by simple correlations cohered in ways that suggested underlying subsystems consistent with those that had previously been theorized. Understanding the relationship among dimensions affecting HAI is an important aspect in determining how a new piece of automation designed to affect one dimension will affect other dimensions as well. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Contingency Management with Human Autonomy Teaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Robert J.; Lachter, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Automation is playing an increasingly important role in many operations. It is often cheaper faster and more precise than human operators. However, automation is not perfect. There are many situations in which a human operator must step in. We refer to these instances as contingencies and the act of stepping in contingency management. Here we propose coupling Human Autonomy Teaming (HAT) with contingency management. We describe two aspects to HAT, bi-directional communication, and working agreements (or plays). Bi-directional communication like Crew Resource Management in traditional aviation, allows all parties to contribute to a decision. Working agreements specify roles and responsibilities. Importantly working agreements allow for the possibility of roles and responsibilities changing depending on environmental factors (e.g., situations the automation was not designed for, workload, risk, or trust). This allows for the automation to "automatically" become more autonomous as it becomes more trusted and/or it is updated to deal with a more complete set of possible situations. We present a concrete example using a prototype contingency management station one might find in a future airline operations center. Automation proposes reroutes for aircraft that encounter bad weather or are forced to divert for environmental or systems reasons. If specific conditions are met, these recommendations may be autonomously datalinked to the affected aircraft.

  7. Evaluation of Workload and its Impact on Satisfaction Among Pharmacy Academicians in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Srikanth, Akshaya B; Patel, Isha; Nagappa, Anantha Naik; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload. A cross-sectional study was conducted for a period of 2 months among pharmacy academicians in Karnataka state of Southern India. Convenience sampling was used to select a sample and was contacted via email and/or social networking sites. Questionnaire designed by thorough review literature was used as a tool to collect data on workload (teaching, research, extracurricular services) and satisfaction. Of 214 participants, 95 returned the filled questionnaire giving the response rate of 44.39%. Private sector academicians had more load of teaching (p=0.046) and they appeared to be less involved in research activities (p=0.046) as compared to public sector academicians. More than half of the respondents (57.9%) were satisfied with their workload with Assistant Professors were least satisfied as compared to Professors (p=0.01). Overall, private sector academicians are more burdened by teaching load and also are less satisfied of their workload. Revision of private universities policies may aid in addressing this issue.

  8. Enhancing the effectiveness of human-robot teaming with a closed-loop system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Grace; Reinerman-Jones, Lauren; Matthews, Gerald; Szalma, James; Jentsch, Florian; Hancock, Peter

    2018-02-01

    With technological developments in robotics and their increasing deployment, human-robot teams are set to be a mainstay in the future. To develop robots that possess teaming capabilities, such as being able to communicate implicitly, the present study implemented a closed-loop system. This system enabled the robot to provide adaptive aid without the need for explicit commands from the human teammate, through the use of multiple physiological workload measures. Such measures of workload vary in sensitivity and there is large inter-individual variability in physiological responses to imposed taskload. Workload models enacted via closed-loop system should accommodate such individual variability. The present research investigated the effects of the adaptive robot aid vs. imposed aid on performance and workload. Results showed that adaptive robot aid driven by an individualized workload model for physiological response resulted in greater improvements in performance compared to aid that was simply imposed by the system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  10. Acquisition of Human Operation Characteristics for Kite-based Tethered Flying Robot using Human Operation Data

    OpenAIRE

    Todoroki, Chiaki; Takahashi, Yasutake; Nakamura, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows human skill acquisition systems to control the kite-based tethered flying robot. The kite-based tethered flying robot has been proposed as a flying observation system with long-term activity capability[1]. It is a relatively new system and aimed to complement other information gathering systems using a balloon or an air vehicle. This paper shows some approaches of human operation characteristics acquisition based on fuzzy learning controller, knearest neighbor algorithm, and ...

  11. Operations of human resources engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Δημητρέλη, Αλεξάνδρα

    2017-01-01

    This current study, attempts to shed light on the relationship between HR Operations and employee engagement by testing the relationship empirically. More specifically, it looks at how employee engagement could be embedded into day-to-day human resources operations. Employee engagement is a topic that is repeatedly being discussed in most of the HR forums, articles and journals in the recent past. Employers recognize that truly engage and motivate employee’s produce impressive levels of in...

  12. Multiplexing Low and High QoS Workloads in Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verboven, Sam; Vanmechelen, Kurt; Broeckhove, Jan

    Virtualization technology has introduced new ways for managing IT infrastructure. The flexible deployment of applications through self-contained virtual machine images has removed the barriers for multiplexing, suspending and migrating applications with their entire execution environment, allowing for a more efficient use of the infrastructure. These developments have given rise to an important challenge regarding the optimal scheduling of virtual machine workloads. In this paper, we specifically address the VM scheduling problem in which workloads that require guaranteed levels of CPU performance are mixed with workloads that do not require such guarantees. We introduce a framework to analyze this scheduling problem and evaluate to what extent such mixed service delivery is beneficial for a provider of virtualized IT infrastructure. Traditionally providers offer IT resources under a guaranteed and fixed performance profile, which can lead to underutilization. The findings of our simulation study show that through proper tuning of a limited set of parameters, the proposed scheduling algorithm allows for a significant increase in utilization without sacrificing on performance dependability.

  13. Analysis of Mental Workload in Online Shopping: Are Augmented and Virtual Reality Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shi, Changxiu; You, Xuqun; Zong, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males' mental workloads were significantly higher than females'. For males, high-value products' mental workload was significantly higher than that of low-value products. In the VR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference was reduced under audio-visual conditions. In the AR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference increased under audio-visual conditions. This study provided a psychological study of online shopping with AR and VR technology with applications in the future. Based on the perspective of embodied cognition, AR online shopping may be potential focus of research and market application. For the future design of online shopping platforms and the updating of user experience, this study provides a reference.

  14. Analysis of Mental Workload in Online Shopping: Are Augmented and Virtual Reality Consistent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaojun; Shi, Changxiu; You, Xuqun; Zong, Chenming

    2017-01-01

    A market research company (Nielsen) reported that consumers in the Asia-Pacific region have become the most active group in online shopping. Focusing on augmented reality (AR), which is one of three major techniques used to change the method of shopping in the future, this study used a mixed design to discuss the influences of the method of online shopping, user gender, cognitive style, product value, and sensory channel on mental workload in virtual reality (VR) and AR situations. The results showed that males’ mental workloads were significantly higher than females’. For males, high-value products’ mental workload was significantly higher than that of low-value products. In the VR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference was reduced under audio–visual conditions. In the AR situation, the visual mental workload of field-independent and field-dependent consumers showed a significant difference, but the difference increased under audio–visual conditions. This study provided a psychological study of online shopping with AR and VR technology with applications in the future. Based on the perspective of embodied cognition, AR online shopping may be potential focus of research and market application. For the future design of online shopping platforms and the updating of user experience, this study provides a reference. PMID:28184207

  15. Simulation-based computation of the workload correlation function in a Levy-driven queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Glynn; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we consider a single-server queue with Levy input, and in particular its workload process (Q_t), focusing on its correlation structure. With the correlation function defined as r(t) := Cov(Q_0, Q_t)/Var Q_0 (assuming the workload process is in stationarity at time 0), we

  16. Postural Control in Workplace Safety: Role of Occupational Footwear and Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Chander

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining postural stability is crucial, especially in hazardous occupational environments. The purpose of the study was to assess the role of three occupational footwear (low top shoe (LT; tactical work boot (TB and steel-toed work boot (WB on postural stability when exposed to an occupational workload (4-h involving standing/walking using the sensory organization test (SOT equilibrium (EQ scores and comparing current results with previously published postural sway variables from the same study. Fourteen male adults were tested on three separate days wearing a randomized occupational footwear, at the beginning (pre and every 30 min of the 4-h workload until 240th min. SOT EQ scores were analyzed using a 3 × 9 repeated measures analysis of variance at an alpha level of 0.05. Significant differences between footwear was found in eyes open (p = 0.03 and eyes closed (p = 0.001 conditions. Pairwise comparisons revealed that LT had significantly lower postural stability compared to TB and WB. No other significant differences were found between footwear and over time. Significant differences between footwear can be attributed to design characteristics of footwear. Lack of significant differences over time suggests that, even though the average EQ scores decreased during the workload implying less postural stability, SOT EQ scores alone may not be sufficient to detect postural stability changes over the 4-h workload.

  17. A Framework for Human Performance Criteria for Advanced Reactor Operational Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques V Hugo; David I Gertman; Jeffrey C Joe

    2014-08-01

    This report supports the determination of new Operational Concept models needed in support of the operational design of new reactors. The objective of this research is to establish the technical bases for human performance and human performance criteria frameworks, models, and guidance for operational concepts for advanced reactor designs. The report includes a discussion of operating principles for advanced reactors, the human performance issues and requirements for human performance based upon work domain analysis and current regulatory requirements, and a description of general human performance criteria. The major findings and key observations to date are that there is some operating experience that informs operational concepts for baseline designs for SFR and HGTRs, with the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as a best-case predecessor design. This report summarizes the theoretical and operational foundations for the development of a framework and model for human performance criteria that will influence the development of future Operational Concepts. The report also highlights issues associated with advanced reactor design and clarifies and codifies the identified aspects of technology and operating scenarios.

  18. Evaluation of Mental Workload among ICU Ward's Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Various performance obstacles are correlated with nurses' workload, affirms the signifi­cance of nursing work system characteristics. Interventions are recommended based on the results of this study in the work settings of nurses in ICUs.

  19. Evaluation of the Display of Cognitive State Feedback to Drive Adaptive Task Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneich, Michael C; Passinger, Břetislav; Hamblin, Christopher; Keinrath, Claudia; Vašek, Jiři; Whitlow, Stephen D; Beekhuyzen, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive system intended to address workload imbalances between pilots in future flight decks. Team performance can be maximized when task demands are balanced within crew capabilities and resources. Good communication skills enable teams to adapt to changes in workload, and include the balancing of workload between team members This work addresses human factors priorities in the aviation domain with the goal to develop concepts that balance operator workload, support future operator roles and responsibilities, and support new task requirements, while allowing operators to focus on the most safety critical tasks. A traditional closed-loop adaptive system includes the decision logic to turn automated adaptations on and off. This work takes a novel approach of replacing the decision logic, normally performed by the automation, with human decisions. The Crew Workload Manager (CWLM) was developed to objectively display the workload between pilots and recommend task sharing; it is then the pilots who "close the loop" by deciding how to best mitigate unbalanced workload. The workload was manipulated by the Shared Aviation Task Battery (SAT-B), which was developed to provide opportunities for pilots to mitigate imbalances in workload between crew members. Participants were put in situations of high and low workload (i.e., workload was manipulated as opposed to being measured), the workload was then displayed to pilots, and pilots were allowed to decide how to mitigate the situation. An evaluation was performed that utilized the SAT-B to manipulate workload and create workload imbalances. Overall, the CWLM reduced the time spent in unbalanced workload and improved the crew coordination in task sharing while not negatively impacting concurrent task performance. Balancing workload has the potential to improve crew resource management and task performance over time, and reduce errors and fatigue. Paired with a real-time workload measurement system, the

  20. A study on dynamic evaluation methods for human-machine interfaces in advanced control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Kyun

    1998-02-01

    Extensive efforts have been performed to reveal factors that largely affect to the safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs). Among them, human factors were known as a dominant cause of a severe accident, such as Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Thus a lot of efforts to resolve human factors related problems have been spent, and one of these efforts is an advanced control room (ACR) design to enhance human performance and the safety of NPPs. There are two important trends in the design of ACRs. The first one is increasing automation level, and the second one is the development of computer based compact workstations for control room operations including intelligent operator aid systems. However, several problems have been reported when another factors are not properly incorporated into the design of ACRs. Among them, one of the most important factors that significantly affect to operator performance is the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs). Thus, HMI evaluation should be emphasized to ensure appropriateness of HMI designs and the safety of NPPs. In general, two kinds of evaluations have been frequently used to assess appropriateness of the proposed HMI design. The one is the static evaluation and the other is the dynamic evaluation. Here, the static evaluation is the one based on guidelines that are extracted from various researches on HMI designs. And the dynamic evaluation generally attempts to evaluate and predict human performance through a model that can describe cognitive behaviors of human or interactions between HMIs and human. However, the static evaluation seems to be inappropriate because it can't properly capture context of task environment that strongly affects to human performance. In addition, in case of dynamic evaluations, development of a model that can sufficiently describe interactions or cognitive behaviors of human operators is very arduous and laborious. To overcome these problems, dynamic evaluation methods that can

  1. Determining Nurse Aide Staffing Requirements to Provide Care Based on Resident Workload: A Discrete Event Simulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, John F; Schroyer, L Dale; Saraf, Avantika A; Simmons, Sandra F

    2016-11-01

    Nursing aides provide most of the labor-intensive activities of daily living (ADL) care to nursing home (NH) residents. Currently, most NHs do not determine nurse aide staffing requirements based on the time to provide ADL care for their unique resident population. The lack of an objective method to determine nurse aide staffing requirements suggests that many NHs could be understaffed in their capacity to provide consistent ADL care to all residents in need. Discrete event simulation (DES) mathematically models key work parameters (eg, time to provide an episode of care and available staff) to predict the ability of the work setting to provide care over time and offers an objective method to determine nurse aide staffing needs in NHs. This study had 2 primary objectives: (1) to describe the relationship between ADL workload and the level of nurse aide staffing reported by NHs; and, (2) to use a DES model to determine the relationship between ADL workload and nurse aide staffing necessary for consistent, timely ADL care. Minimum Data Set data related to the level of dependency on staff for ADL care for residents in over 13,500 NHs nationwide were converted into 7 workload categories that captured 98% of all residents. In addition, data related to the time to provide care for the ADLs within each workload category was used to calculate a workload score for each facility. The correlation between workload and reported nurse aide staffing levels was calculated to determine the association between staffing reported by NHs and workload. Simulations to project staffing requirements necessary to provide ADL care were then conducted for 65 different workload scenarios, which included 13 different nurse aide staffing levels (ranging from 1.6 to 4.0 total hours per resident day) and 5 different workload percentiles (ranging from the 5th to the 95th percentile). The purpose of the simulation model was to determine the staffing necessary to provide care within each workload

  2. Human factors in nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive effort is being devoted to developing a comprehensive human factor program that encompasses establishment of a data base for human error prediction using past operation experience in commercial nuclear power plants. Some of the main results of such an effort are reported including data retrieval and classification systems which have been developed to assist in estimation of operator error rates. Also, statistical methods are developed to relate operator error data to reactor type, age, and specific technical design features. Results reported in this paper are based on an analysis of LER's covering a six-year period for LWR's. Developments presently include a computer data management program, statistical model, and detailed error taxonomy

  3. Validation of the NASA-TLX Score in Ongoing Assessment of Mental Workload During a Laparoscopic Learning Curve in Bariatric Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rabelo, Juan Francisco; Navarro-Rodriguez, Elena; Di-Stasi, Leandro Luigi; Diaz-Jimenez, Nelida; Cabrera-Bermon, Juan; Diaz-Iglesias, Carlos; Gomez-Alvarez, Manuel; Briceño-Delgado, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Fatigue and mental workload are directly associated with high-complexity tasks. In general, difficult tasks produce a higher mental workload, leaving little opportunity to deal with new/unexpected events and increasing the likelihood of performance errors. The laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) learning curve is considered to be one of the most difficult to complete in laparoscopic surgery. We wished to validate the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) in LRYGB and identify factors that could provoke a higher mental workload for surgeons during the learning curve. A single surgeon was enrolled to undertake 70 consecutive LRYGB procedures with two internal surgeons mentoring the first 35 cases. Patients were consecutive and ranked from case 35 to case 105 according to the date of the surgical procedure ("case rank"). Self-ratings of satisfaction, performance, and fatigue were measured at the end of surgery using a validated NASA-TLX questionnaire. The procedure was recorded for later viewing by two external evaluators. General data for patients and surgical variables were collected prospectively. A moderate correlation between the NASA-TLX score, BMI, operative time, and volumes of blood drainage was observed. There was no correlation between the NASA-TLX score and duration of hospital stay or time of drain removal. BMI ≥50 kg/m(2), male sex, inexperienced first assistant, and type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified as independent predictive factors of a higher NASA-TLX score. The NASA-TLX is a valid tool to gauge mental workload in LRYGB.

  4. An Investigation of the Workload and Job Satisfaction of North Carolina's Special Education Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Jennifer Brown

    2013-01-01

    Keywords: special education directors, workload, job satisfaction, special education administration. The purpose of this mixed methods research study was to investigate employee characteristics, workload, and job satisfaction of special education directors employed by local education agencies in North Carolina (N = 115). This study illuminates the…

  5. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football—differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-01-01

    Aims (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Methods Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2–9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14–35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R2). Results The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18–24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R2=0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R2=0.76–0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98–2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Conclusions Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. PMID:27789430

  6. Effects of work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakouri, Mahmoud; Ikuma, Laura H; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Punniaraj, Karthy; Ishak, Sherif

    2014-10-01

    This paper investigates the effect of changing work zone configurations and traffic density on performance variables and subjective workload. Data regarding travel time, average speed, maximum percent braking force and location of lane changes were collected by using a full size driving simulator. The NASA-TLX was used to measure self-reported workload ratings during the driving task. Conventional lane merge (CLM) and joint lane merge (JLM) were modeled in a driving simulator, and thirty participants (seven female and 23 male), navigated through the two configurations with two levels of traffic density. The mean maximum braking forces was 34% lower in the JLM configuration, and drivers going through the JLM configuration remained in the closed lane longer. However, no significant differences in speed were found between the two merge configurations. The analysis of self-reported workload ratings show that participants reported 15.3% lower total workload when driving through the JLM. In conclusion, the implemented changes in the JLM make it a more favorable merge configuration in both high and low traffic densities in terms of optimizing traffic flow by increasing the time and distance cars use both lanes, and in terms of improving safety due to lower braking forces and lower reported workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Subjective health complaints and self-rated health: are expectancies more important than socioeconomic status and workload?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ree, Eline; Odeen, Magnus; Eriksen, Hege R; Indahl, Aage; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Hetland, Jørn; Harris, Anette

    2014-06-01

    The associations between socioeconomic status (SES), physical and psychosocial workload and health are well documented. According to The Cognitive Activation Theory of Stress (CATS), learned response outcome expectancies (coping, helplessness, and hopelessness) are also important contributors to health. This is in part as independent factors for health, but coping may also function as a buffer against the impact different demands have on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative effect of SES (as measured by level of education), physical workload, and response outcome expectancies on subjective health complaints (SHC) and self-rated health, and if response outcome expectancies mediate the effects of education and physical workload on SHC and self-rated health. A survey was carried out among 1,746 Norwegian municipal employees (mean age 44.2, 81 % females). Structural Equation Models with SHC and self-rated health as outcomes were conducted. Education, physical workload, and response outcome expectancies, were the independent 28 variables in the model. Helplessness/hopelessness had a stronger direct effect on self-rated health and SHC than education and physical workload, for both men and women. Helplessness/hopelessness fully mediated the effect of physical workload on SHC for men (0.121), and mediated 30 % of a total effect of 0.247 for women. For women, education had a small but significant indirect effect through helplessness/hopelessness on self-rated health (0.040) and SHC (-0.040), but no direct effects were found. For men, there was no effect of education on SHC, and only a direct effect on self-rated health (0.134). The results indicated that helplessness/hopelessness is more important for SHC and health than well-established measures on SES such as years of education and perceived physical workload in this sample. Helplessness/hopelessness seems to function as a mechanism between physical workload and health.

  8. Research on operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding in human-centered plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Masayoshi; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Mitomo, N.

    2004-01-01

    As a human-centered plant, advanced nuclear power plant needs appropriate role sharing between human and mobile intelligent agents. Human-machine cooperation for plant operation and maintenance activities is also required with an advanced interface. Plant's maintenance is programmed using mobile robots working under the radiation environments instead of human beings. Operation and maintenance support system adaptive to human recognition and understanding should be developed to establish adequate human and machine interface so as to induce human capabilities to the full and enable human to take responsibility for plan's operation. Plant's operation and maintenance can be cooperative activities between human and intelligent automonous agents having surveillance and control functions. Infrastructure of multi-agent simulation system for the support system has been investigated and developed based on work plans derived from the scheduler. (T. Tanaka)

  9. Detection of Operator Performance Breakdown as an Automation Triggering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyo-Sang; Lee, Paul U.; Landry, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Performance breakdown (PB) has been anecdotally described as a state where the human operator "loses control of context" and "cannot maintain required task performance." Preventing such a decline in performance is critical to assure the safety and reliability of human-integrated systems, and therefore PB could be useful as a point at which automation can be applied to support human performance. However, PB has never been scientifically defined or empirically demonstrated. Moreover, there is no validated objective way of detecting such a state or the transition to that state. The purpose of this work is: 1) to empirically demonstrate a PB state, and 2) to develop an objective way of detecting such a state. This paper defines PB and proposes an objective method for its detection. A human-in-the-loop study was conducted: 1) to demonstrate PB by increasing workload until the subject reported being in a state of PB, and 2) to identify possible parameters of a detection method for objectively identifying the subjectively-reported PB point, and 3) to determine if the parameters are idiosyncratic to an individual/context or are more generally applicable. In the experiment, fifteen participants were asked to manage three concurrent tasks (one primary and two secondary) for 18 minutes. The difficulty of the primary task was manipulated over time to induce PB while the difficulty of the secondary tasks remained static. The participants' task performance data was collected. Three hypotheses were constructed: 1) increasing workload will induce subjectively-identified PB, 2) there exists criteria that identifies the threshold parameters that best matches the subjectively-identified PB point, and 3) the criteria for choosing the threshold parameters is consistent across individuals. The results show that increasing workload can induce subjectively-identified PB, although it might not be generalizable-only 12 out of 15 participants declared PB. The PB detection method based on

  10. Analysis of the workload of bank tellers of a Brazilian public institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serikawa, Simoni S; Albieri, Ana Carolina S; Bonugli, Gustavo P; Greghi, Marina F

    2012-01-01

    During the last decades there have been many changes in the banking sector organization. It has been also observed the mutual growing of musculoskeletal and mental disorders. This study investigated the workload of bank tellers at a Brazilian public institution. It was performed the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). Three employees participated in this study. During the analysis process, three research instruments were applied: Inventory of Work and Risk of Illness, Yoshitake Fatigue Questionnaire and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire, beyond the realization of footage recordings and the self-confrontation. The results indicated the existence of an excess of workload on the evaluated workstations, mainly in relation to mental order constraints, that overlaps the physical aspects. Thereby it was found that the employees tend to adopt strategies trying to reduce the impacts of the excess of workload, in order to regulate it.

  11. Evolutionary Multiobjective Query Workload Optimization of Cloud Data Warehouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokeroglu, Tansel; Sert, Seyyit Alper; Cinar, Muhammet Serkan

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of Cloud databases, query optimizers need to find paretooptimal solutions in terms of response time and monetary cost. Our novel approach minimizes both objectives by deploying alternative virtual resources and query plans making use of the virtual resource elasticity of the Cloud. We propose an exact multiobjective branch-and-bound and a robust multiobjective genetic algorithm for the optimization of distributed data warehouse query workloads on the Cloud. In order to investigate the effectiveness of our approach, we incorporate the devised algorithms into a prototype system. Finally, through several experiments that we have conducted with different workloads and virtual resource configurations, we conclude remarkable findings of alternative deployments as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the multiobjective algorithms we propose. PMID:24892048

  12. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in toto, simulate the general character of operator performance.

  13. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in total, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  14. Modelling the basic error tendencies of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reason, James

    1988-01-01

    The paper outlines the primary structural features of human cognition: a limited, serial workspace interacting with a parallel distributed knowledge base. It is argued that the essential computational features of human cognition - to be captured by an adequate operator model - reside in the mechanisms by which stored knowledge structures are selected and brought into play. Two such computational 'primitives' are identified: similarity-matching and frequency-gambling. These two retrieval heuristics, it is argued, shape both the overall character of human performance (i.e. its heavy reliance on pattern-matching) and its basic error tendencies ('strong-but-wrong' responses, confirmation, similarity and frequency biases, and cognitive 'lock-up'). The various features of human cognition are integrated with a dynamic operator model capable of being represented in software form. This computer model, when run repeatedly with a variety of problem configurations, should produce a distribution of behaviours which, in toto, simulate the general character of operator performance. (author)

  15. Exploring Individual Differences in Workload Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    recall their workload accurately. However, it has been shown that the bias shown in subjective ratings can actually provide insight into significant...or subconsciously and embark on load shedding, postponing a task to permit another decision action to be completed in a required timeframe (Smith...or slow heart rate or unique physiological measure will not add unnecessary bias to the data. Individual baseline measures are typically taken at the

  16. Assessment of mental workload and academic motivation in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Kumru Didem; Can, Gulin Feryal; Erdem, Saban Remzi; Muderrisoglu, Ibrahim Haldun

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the level of correlation and direction of linearity between academic motivation and subjective workload. The study was conducted at Baskent University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, from December 2013 to February 2014, and comprised Phase 5 Phase 6 medical students. Subjective workload level was determined by using National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index scale that was adapted to Turkish. Academic motivation values were obtained with the help of Academic Motivation Scale university form. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 105 subjects, 65(62%) students were in Phase 5 and 40(38%) were in Phase 6. Of the Phase 5 students, 18(27.7%) were boys and 47(72.3%) were girls, while of the Phase 6 students, 16(40%) were boys and 24(60%) were girls. There were significant differences in Phase 5 and Phase 6 students for mental effort (p=0.00) and physical effort (p=0.00). The highest correlation in Phase 5 was between mental effort and intrinsic motivation (r=0.343). For Phase 6, highest correlation was between effort and amotivation (r= -0.375). Subjective workload affected academic motivation in medical students.

  17. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieman, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.) [de

  18. Creating an effort tracking tool to improve therapeutic cancer clinical trials workload management and budgeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Pam; Bebee, Patty; Beekman, Linda; Browning, David; Innes, Mathew; Kain, Jeannie; Royce-Westcott, Theresa; Waldinger, Marcy

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying data management and regulatory workload for clinical research is a difficult task that would benefit from a robust tool to assess and allocate effort. As in most clinical research environments, The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center (UMCCC) Clinical Trials Office (CTO) struggled to effectively allocate data management and regulatory time with frequently inaccurate estimates of how much time was required to complete the specific tasks performed by each role. In a dynamic clinical research environment in which volume and intensity of work ebbs and flows, determining requisite effort to meet study objectives was challenging. In addition, a data-driven understanding of how much staff time was required to complete a clinical trial was desired to ensure accurate trial budget development and effective cost recovery. Accordingly, the UMCCC CTO developed and implemented a Web-based effort-tracking application with the goal of determining the true costs of data management and regulatory staff effort in clinical trials. This tool was developed, implemented, and refined over a 3-year period. This article describes the process improvement and subsequent leveling of workload within data management and regulatory that enhanced the efficiency of UMCCC's clinical trials operation.

  19. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity ρ. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of ρ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotoic properties of these estimators....

  20. Nonparametric inference from the M/G/1 workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Bøgsted; Pitts, Susan M.

    Consider an M/G/1 queue with unknown service-time distribution and unknown traffic intensity $\\rho$. Given systematically sampled observations of the workload, we construct estimators of $\\rho$ and of the service-time distribution function, and we study asymptotic properties of these estimators....

  1. Quantification of crew workload imposed by communications-related tasks in commercial transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, W. H.; Crabtree, M. S.; Simons, J. C.; Gomer, F. E.; Eckel, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    Information theoretic analysis and subjective paired-comparison and task ranking techniques were employed in order to scale the workload of 20 communications-related tasks frequently performed by the captain and first officer of transport category aircraft. Tasks were drawn from taped conversations between aircraft and air traffic controllers (ATC). Twenty crewmembers performed subjective message comparisons and task rankings on the basis of workload. Information theoretic results indicated a broad range of task difficulty levels, and substantial differences between captain and first officer workload levels. Preliminary subjective data tended to corroborate these results. A hybrid scale reflecting the results of both the analytical and the subjective techniques is currently being developed. The findings will be used to select representative sets of communications for use in high fidelity simulation.

  2. Measurement and analysis of workload effects on fault latency in real-time systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Michael H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the need to address fault latency in highly reliable real-time control computer systems. It is noted that the effectiveness of all known recovery mechanisms is greatly reduced in the presence of multiple latent faults. The presence of multiple latent faults increases the possibility of multiple errors, which could result in coverage failure. The authors present experimental evidence indicating that the duration of fault latency is dependent on workload. A synthetic workload generator is used to vary the workload, and a hardware fault injector is applied to inject transient faults of varying durations. This method makes it possible to derive the distribution of fault latency duration. Experimental results obtained from the fault-tolerant multiprocessor at the NASA Airlab are presented and discussed.

  3. Change-management. From commercial power operation to post power operation and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasinger, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Transition from power generation to decommissioning challenges utilities. Power generation is mainly characterized by a stable working environment and constant workload, decommissioning and dismantling, however, by transformation and change. Also, changing requirements for the workforce's skills challenge the organization and its senior management. Ensuring effective and efficient performance, while maintaining motivation of staff, requires adjustment of management processes as well as of operational organization and human resources management. AREVA has more than 20 years of experience in decommissioning of own nuclear fuel cycle plants in France, as well as of other large plants and power reactors in Germany, the United Kingdom and the US. Therefore, the group has developed and successfully implemented integrated change management processes. The implementation of well-established and proven methods, developed by the productive industry and adjusted to the nuclear regulatory requirements, significantly improves the performance and efficiency of means and methods in use. The AREVA Performance Improvement Process defines concrete approaches to identify and improve potential deficits of productivity in six main areas (decommissioning scenarios and stra-tegies, waste treatment and logistics, operations management, supply chain, regulatory monitoring and controls as well as dismantling operation). Nuclear plant and facility owners around the world benefit from AREVA experts well experienced in execution of large and complex decommissioning projects.

  4. Measuring Human Performance in Simulated Nuclear Power Plant Control Rooms Using Eye Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovesdi, Casey Robert [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rice, Brandon Charles [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bower, Gordon Ross [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Spielman, Zachary Alexander [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, Rachael Ann [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); LeBlanc, Katya Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Control room modernization will be an important part of life extension for the existing light water reactor fleet. As part of modernization efforts, personnel will need to gain a full understanding of how control room technologies affect performance of human operators. Recent advances in technology enables the use of eye tracking technology to continuously measure an operator’s eye movement, which correlates with a variety of human performance constructs such as situation awareness and workload. This report describes eye tracking metrics in the context of how they will be used in nuclear power plant control room simulator studies.

  5. Human-Automation Allocations for Current Robotic Space Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Jessica J.; Chang, Mai L.; Beard, Bettina L.; Kim, Yun Kyung; Karasinski, John A.

    2018-01-01

    Within the Human Research Program, one risk delineates the uncertainty surrounding crew working with automation and robotics in spaceflight. The Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is concerned with the detrimental effects on crew performance due to ineffective user interfaces, system designs and/or functional task allocation, potentially compromising mission success and safety. Risk arises because we have limited experience with complex automation and robotics. One key gap within HARI, is the gap related to functional allocation. The gap states: We need to evaluate, develop, and validate methods and guidelines for identifying human-automation/robot task information needs, function allocation, and team composition for future long duration, long distance space missions. Allocations determine the human-system performance as it identifies the functions and performance levels required by the automation/robotic system, and in turn, what work the crew is expected to perform and the necessary human performance requirements. Allocations must take into account each of the human, automation, and robotic systems capabilities and limitations. Some functions may be intuitively assigned to the human versus the robot, but to optimize efficiency and effectiveness, purposeful role assignments will be required. The role of automation and robotics will significantly change in future exploration missions, particularly as crew becomes more autonomous from ground controllers. Thus, we must understand the suitability of existing function allocation methods within NASA as well as the existing allocations established by the few robotic systems that are operational in spaceflight. In order to evaluate future methods of robotic allocations, we must first benchmark the allocations and allocation methods that have been used. We will present 1) documentation of human-automation-robotic allocations in existing, operational spaceflight systems; and 2) To

  6. Is This Work Sustainable? Teacher Turnover and Perceptions of Workload in Charter Management Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A. Chris

    2016-01-01

    An unsustainable workload is considered the primary cause of teacher turnover at Charter Management Organizations (CMOs), yet most reports provide anecdotal evidence to support this claim. This study uses 2010-2011 survey data from one large CMO and finds that teachers' perceptions of workload are significantly associated with decisions to leave…

  7. Control room human engineering influences on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlayson, F.C.

    1977-01-01

    Three general groups of factors influence operator performance in fulfilling their responsibilities in the control room: (1) control room and control system design, informational data displays (operator inputs) as well as control board design (for operator output); (2) operator characteristics, including those skills, mental, physical, and emotional qualities which are functions of operator selection, training, and motivation; (3) job performance guides, the prescribed operating procedures for normal and emergency operations. This paper presents some of the major results of an evaluation of the effect of human engineering on operator performance in the control room. Primary attention is given to discussion of control room and control system design influence on the operator. Brief observations on the influences of operator characteristics and job performance guides (operating procedures) on performance in the control room are also given. Under the objectives of the study, special emphasis was placed on the evaluation of the control room-operator relationships for severe emergency conditions in the power plant. Consequently, this presentation is restricted largely to material related to emergency conditions in the control room, though it is recognized that human engineering of control systems is of equal (or greater) importance for many other aspects of plant operation

  8. A systematic review of the effect of different models of after-hours primary medical care services on clinical outcome, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Ruth; Day, Susan; Dunt, David

    2003-06-01

    The organization of after-hours primary medical care services is changing in many countries. Increasing demand, economic considerations and changes in doctors' attitudes are fueling these changes. Information for policy makers in this field is needed. However, a comprehensive review of the international literature that compares the effects of one model of after-hours care with another is lacking. The aim of this study was to carry out a systematic review of the international literature to determine what evidence exists about the effect of different models of out-of-hours primary medical care service on outcome. Original studies and systematic reviews written since 1976 on the subject of 'after-hours primary medical care services' were identified. Databases searched were Medline/Premedline, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, Current Contents, Cochrane Reviews, DARE, EBM Reviews and EconLit. For each paper where the optimal design would have been an interventional study, the 'level' of evidence was assessed as described in the National Health and Medical Research Council Handbook. 'Comparative' studies (levels I, II, III and IV pre-/post-test studies) were included in this review. Six main models of after-hours primary care services (not mutually exclusive) were identified: practice-based services, deputizing services, emergency departments, co-operatives, primary care centres, and telephone triage and advice services. Outcomes were divided into the following categories: clinical outcomes, medical workload, and patient and GP satisfaction. The results indicate that the introduction of a telephone triage and advice service for after-hours primary medical care may reduce the immediate medical workload. Deputizing services increase immediate medical workload because of the low use of telephone advice and the high home visiting rate. Co-operatives, which use telephone triage and primary care centres and have a low home visiting rate, reduce immediate medical workload. There is little

  9. Optimized Assistive Human-Robot Interaction Using Reinforcement Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modares, Hamidreza; Ranatunga, Isura; Lewis, Frank L; Popa, Dan O

    2016-03-01

    An intelligent human-robot interaction (HRI) system with adjustable robot behavior is presented. The proposed HRI system assists the human operator to perform a given task with minimum workload demands and optimizes the overall human-robot system performance. Motivated by human factor studies, the presented control structure consists of two control loops. First, a robot-specific neuro-adaptive controller is designed in the inner loop to make the unknown nonlinear robot behave like a prescribed robot impedance model as perceived by a human operator. In contrast to existing neural network and adaptive impedance-based control methods, no information of the task performance or the prescribed robot impedance model parameters is required in the inner loop. Then, a task-specific outer-loop controller is designed to find the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model to adjust the robot's dynamics to the operator skills and minimize the tracking error. The outer loop includes the human operator, the robot, and the task performance details. The problem of finding the optimal parameters of the prescribed robot impedance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) problem which minimizes the human effort and optimizes the closed-loop behavior of the HRI system for a given task. To obviate the requirement of the knowledge of the human model, integral reinforcement learning is used to solve the given LQR problem. Simulation results on an x - y table and a robot arm, and experimental implementation results on a PR2 robot confirm the suitability of the proposed method.

  10. Development and validation of a surgical workload measure: the surgery task load index (SURG-TLX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark R; Poolton, Jamie M; Malhotra, Neha; Ngo, Karen; Bright, Elizabeth; Masters, Rich S W

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a multidimensional, surgery-specific workload measure (the SURG-TLX), and to determine its utility in providing diagnostic information about the impact of various sources of stress on the perceived demands of trained surgical operators. As a wide range of stressors have been identified for surgeons in the operating room, the current approach of considering stress as a unidimensional construct may not only limit the degree to which underlying mechanisms may be understood but also the degree to which training interventions may be successfully matched to particular sources of stress. The dimensions of the SURG-TLX were based on two current multidimensional workload measures and developed via focus group discussion. The six dimensions were defined as mental demands, physical demands, temporal demands, task complexity, situational stress, and distractions. Thirty novices were trained on the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) peg transfer task and then completed the task under various conditions designed to manipulate the degree and source of stress experienced: task novelty, physical fatigue, time pressure, evaluation apprehension, multitasking, and distraction. The results were supportive of the discriminant sensitivity of the SURG-TLX to different sources of stress. The sub-factors loaded on the relevant stressors as hypothesized, although the evaluation pressure manipulation was not strong enough to cause a significant rise in situational stress. The present study provides support for the validity of the SURG-TLX instrument and also highlights the importance of considering how different stressors may load surgeons. Implications for categorizing the difficulty of certain procedures, the implementation of new technology in the operating room (man-machine interface issues), and the targeting of stress training strategies to the sources of demand are discussed. Modifications to the scale to enhance

  11. Integration Of PanDA Workload Management System With Supercomputers

    CERN Document Server

    Klimentov, Alexei; The ATLAS collaboration; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Nilsson, Paul; Oleynik, Danila; Panitkin, Sergey; Read, Kenneth; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Wenaus, Torre

    2015-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS, one of the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences, is at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, the ATLAS experiment is relying on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Management System for managing the workflow for all data processing on over 140 data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. While PanDA currently uses more than 100,000 co...

  12. Simulation-based computation of the workload correlation function in a Lévy-driven queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Glynn; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper we consider a single-server queue with Levy input, and in particular its workload process (Q_t), focusing on its correlation structure. With the correlation function defined as r(t) := Cov(Q_0,Q_t)/Var(Q_0) (assuming the workload process is in stationarity at time 0), we

  13. Ergonomics design and operator training as contributors to human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, A.R.G.; Madden, V.J.; Umbers, I.G.; Williams, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear reactors depends not only on good physical safety engineering but on the human operators as well. The Central Electricity Generating Board's approach to human reliability includes the following aspects: ergonomics design (task analysis and the development of man-machine interfaces), analysis of human reliability, operational feedback, staff training and assessment, maintenance management, research programmes and management. This paper describes how these combine to achieve the highest practicable level of human reliability, not only for the Sizewell-B pressurized water reactor, but also for the Board's gas-cooled reactors. Examples are used to illustrate the topics considered. (UK)

  14. INTEGRATED ROBOT-HUMAN CONTROL IN MINING OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Danko

    2005-04-01

    This report contains a detailed description of the work conducted in the first year of the project on Integrated Robot-Human Control in Mining Operations at University of Nevada, Reno. This project combines human operator control with robotic control concepts to create a hybrid control architecture, in which the strengths of each control method are combined to increase machine efficiency and reduce operator fatigue. The kinematics reconfiguration type differential control of the excavator implemented with a variety of ''software machine kinematics'' is the key feature of the project. This software re-configured excavator is more desirable to execute a given digging task. The human operator retains the master control of the main motion parameters, while the computer coordinates the repetitive movement patterns of the machine links. These repetitive movements may be selected from a pre-defined family of trajectories with different transformations. The operator can make adjustments to this pattern in real time, as needed, to accommodate rapidly-changing environmental conditions. A Bobcat{reg_sign} 435 excavator was retrofitted with electro-hydraulic control valve elements. The modular electronic control was tested and the basic valve characteristics were measured for each valve at the Robotics Laboratory at UNR. Position sensors were added to the individual joint control actuators, and the sensors were calibrated. An electronic central control system consisting of a portable computer, converters and electronic driver components was interfaced to the electro-hydraulic valves and position sensors. The machine is operational with or without the computer control system depending on whether the computer interface is on or off. In preparation for emulated mining tasks tests, typical, repetitive tool trajectories during surface mining operations were recorded at the Newmont Mining Corporation's ''Lone Tree'' mine in Nevada.

  15. Training loads and injury risk in Australian football-differing acute: chronic workload ratios influence match injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, David L; Blanch, Peter; Ong, Kok-Leong; Crossley, Kay M; Crow, Justin; Morris, Meg E

    2017-08-01

    (1) To investigate whether a daily acute:chronic workload ratio informs injury risk in Australian football players; (2) to identify which combination of workload variable, acute and chronic time window best explains injury likelihood. Workload and injury data were collected from 53 athletes over 2 seasons in a professional Australian football club. Acute:chronic workload ratios were calculated daily for each athlete, and modelled against non-contact injury likelihood using a quadratic relationship. 6 workload variables, 8 acute time windows (2-9 days) and 7 chronic time windows (14-35 days) were considered (336 combinations). Each parameter combination was compared for injury likelihood fit (using R 2 ). The ratio of moderate speed running workload (18-24 km/h) in the previous 3 days (acute time window) compared with the previous 21 days (chronic time window) best explained the injury likelihood in matches (R 2 =0.79) and in the immediate 2 or 5 days following matches (R 2 =0.76-0.82). The 3:21 acute:chronic workload ratio discriminated between high-risk and low-risk athletes (relative risk=1.98-2.43). Using the previous 6 days to calculate the acute workload time window yielded similar results. The choice of acute time window significantly influenced model performance and appeared to reflect the competition and training schedule. Daily workload ratios can inform injury risk in Australian football. Clinicians and conditioning coaches should consider the sport-specific schedule of competition and training when choosing acute and chronic time windows. For Australian football, the ratio of moderate speed running in a 3-day or 6-day acute time window and a 21-day chronic time window best explained injury risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Simple grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... grain mill boosts production and eases women's workload. 11 janvier 2013. Image ... It aims to increase the production, improve the processing, develop new ... farmer societies, women's self-help groups, and the food-processing industry.

  17. Workload and the trajectory of marital satisfaction in newlyweds: job satisfaction, gender, and parental status as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, Elianne F; Kluwer, Esther S; Karney, Benjamin R

    2011-06-01

    Stress, on average, is bad for relationships. Yet stress at work is not always associated with negative relationship outcomes. The premise of the current study was that associations between workload and trajectories of marital satisfaction depend on circumstances that may constrain or facilitate partners' ability to negotiate their multiple roles. We hypothesized that the covariance between changes in workload and marital satisfaction over time should be moderated by (a) the extent to which spouses like their work, (b) their parental status, and (c) their gender. Analyses drawing upon eight waves of data on workload, work satisfaction, and marital satisfaction from 169 newlywed couples assessed over four years confirmed these predictions. Specifically, across couples, demands at work covaried positively with marital satisfaction for spouses who were more satisfied with their jobs. For nonparent couples, increases in husbands' workload covaried with increases in marital satisfaction for both spouses. For parent couples, however, increases in husbands' workload covaried with declines in marital satisfaction for both spouses. Unexpectedly, for parent couples, increases in wives' workload corresponded with increased marital satisfaction. Finally, consistent with predictions, wives were more affected by their husbands' workload than vice versa. Thus, tension between work and marriage is not inevitable, instead depending on circumstances that facilitate or impair performance in multiple roles. Couples, employers, and practitioners should recognize the role that external circumstances play in determining how work and marital life interact. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  18. Impact of adding additional providers to resident workload and the resident experience on a medical consultation rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Michele; Linson, Eric; Suneja, Manish; Kuperman, Ethan F

    2017-02-22

    Excellence in Graduate Medical Education requires the right clinical environment with an appropriate workload where residents have enough patients to gain proficiency in medicine with optimal time for reflection. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has focused more on work hours rather than workload; however, high resident workload has been associated with lower resident participation in education and fatigue-related errors. Recognizing the potential risks associated with high resident workload and being mindful of the costs of reducing resident workload, we sought to reduce residents' workload by adding an advanced practice provider (APP) to the surgical comanagement service (SCM) and study its effect on resident satisfaction and perceived educational value of the rotation. In Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 and 2015, an additional faculty member was added to the SCM rotation. In FY 2014, the faculty member was a staff physician, and in FY 2015, the faculty member was an APP.. Resident workload was assessed using billing data. We measured residents' perceptions of the rotation using an anonymous electronic survey tool. We compared FY2014-2015 data to the baseline FY2013. The number of patients seen per resident per day decreased from 8.0(SD 3.3) in FY2013 to 5.0(SD 1.9) in FY2014 (p value of the rotation (40.0%, 72.2%, 72.6% in FY2013, 2014, 2015 respectively, p perceived educational value and clinical experience of a medical consultation rotation.

  19. A distinct role of the queen in coordinated workload and soil distribution in eusocial naked mole-rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kutsukake

    Full Text Available We investigated how group members achieve collective decision-making, by considering individual intrinsic behavioural rules and behavioural mechanisms for maintaining social integration. Using a simulated burrow environment, we investigated the behavioural rules of coordinated workload for soil distribution in a eusocial mammal, the naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber. We tested two predictions regarding a distinct role of the queen, a socially dominant individual in the caste system: the presence of a queen would increase the workload of other caste individuals, and the cues by a queen would affect the soil distribution. In experiment 1, we placed four individuals of various castes from the same colony into an experimental burrow. Workers exhibited the highest frequency of workload compared to other castes. The presence of a queen activated the workload by other individuals. Individuals showed a consistent workload in a particular direction so as to bias the soil distribution. These results suggest that individuals have a consensus on soil distribution and that the queen plays a distinct role. In experiment 2, we placed the odour of a queen in one of four cells and observed its effect on other individuals' workload and soil distribution. Relative to other cells, individuals frequently dug in the queen cell so the amount of soil in the queen cell decreased. These results suggest that queen odour is an important cue in coordinated workload and soil distribution in this species.

  20. A bio-inspired approach for the reduction of left ventricular workload.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niema M Pahlevan

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated the existence of optimization criteria in the design and development of mammalians cardiovascular systems. Similarities in mammalian arterial wave reflection suggest there are certain design criteria for the optimization of arterial wave dynamics. Inspired by these natural optimization criteria, we investigated the feasibility of optimizing the aortic waves by modifying wave reflection sites. A hydraulic model that has physical and dynamical properties similar to a human aorta and left ventricle was used for a series of in-vitro experiments. The results indicate that placing an artificial reflection site (a ring at a specific location along the aorta may create a constructive wave dynamic that could reduce LV pulsatile workload. This simple bio-inspired approach may have important implications for the future of treatment strategies for diseased aorta.

  1. 14th Biennial conference on reactor operating experience plant operations: The human element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the papers presented in the following areas of interest: enhancing operator performance; structured approaches to maintenance standards and reliability-centered maintenance; human issues in plant operations and management; test, research, and training reactor utilization; methods and applications of root-cause analysis; emergency operating procedure enhancement programs; test, research, and training reactor upgrades; valve maintenance and diagnostics; recent operating experiences; and current maintenance issues

  2. Effects of electronic emergency-department whiteboards on clinicians' time distribution and mental workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Whiteboards are a central tool at emergency departments. We investigate how the substitution of electronic for dry-erase whiteboards affects emergency department clinicians’ mental workload and distribution of their time. With the electronic whiteboard, physicians and nurses spend more...... of their time in the work areas where other clinicians are present and whiteboard information is permanently displayed, and less in the patient rooms. Main reasons for these changes appear to be that the electronic whiteboard facilitates better timeouts and handovers. Physicians and nurses are, however......, in the patient rooms for longer periods at a time, suggesting a more focused patient contact. The physicians’ mental workload has increased during timeouts, whereas the nurses’ mental workload has decreased at the start of shifts when they form an overview of the emergency department. Finally, the secretaries...

  3. Simulation-based computation of the workload correlation function in a Lévy-driven queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, P.W.; Mandjes, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a single-server queue with Lévy input, and, in particular, its workload process (Qt)t≥0, focusing on its correlation structure. With the correlation function defined as r(t):= cov(Q0, Qt) / varQ0 (assuming that the workload process is in stationarity at time 0), we first

  4. Pilot workload evaluated with subjective and physiological measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.A.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to validate different measures for mental workload. Ten aspirant fighter jet pilots flew several scenarios in a flight simulator. The scenarios were divided into segments with different levels of task load. During the flight, heart rate, respiration and blood pressure

  5. Emotional exhaustion and workload predict clinician-rated and objective patient safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welp, Annalena; Meier, Laurenz L.; Manser, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of clinician burnout, demographic, and organizational characteristics in predicting subjective and objective indicators of patient safety. Background: Maintaining clinician health and ensuring safe patient care are important goals for hospitals. While these goals are not independent from each other, the interplay between clinician psychological health, demographic and organizational variables, and objective patient safety indicators is poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Method: Participants were 1425 physicians and nurses working in intensive care. Regression analysis (multilevel) was used to investigate the effect of burnout as an indicator of psychological health, demographic (e.g., professional role and experience) and organizational (e.g., workload, predictability) characteristics on standardized mortality ratios, length of stay and clinician-rated patient safety. Results: Clinician-rated patient safety was associated with burnout, trainee status, and professional role. Mortality was predicted by emotional exhaustion. Length of stay was predicted by workload. Contrary to our expectations, burnout did not predict length of stay, and workload and predictability did not predict standardized mortality ratios. Conclusion: At least in the short-term, clinicians seem to be able to maintain safety despite high workload and low predictability. Nevertheless, burnout poses a safety risk. Subjectively, burnt-out clinicians rated safety lower, and objectively, units with high emotional exhaustion had higher standardized mortality ratios. In summary, our results indicate that clinician psychological health and patient safety could be managed simultaneously. Further research needs to establish causal relationships between these variables and support to the development of managerial guidelines to ensure clinicians’ psychological health and patients’ safety. PMID:25657627

  6. Emotional Exhaustion and Workload Predict Clinician-Rated and Objective Patient Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalena eWelp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the role of clinician burnout, demographic and organizational characteristics in predicting subjective and objective indicators of patient safety. Background: Maintaining clinician health and ensuring safe patient care are important goals for hospitals. While these goals are not independent from each other, the interplay between clinician psychological health, demographic and organizational variables and objective patient safety indicators is poorly understood. The present study addresses this gap. Method: Participants were 1425 physicians and nurses working in intensive care. (Multilevel regression analysis was used to investigate the effect of burnout as an indicator of psychological health, demographic (e.g., professional role and experience and organizational (e.g., workload, predictability characteristics on standardized mortality ratios, length of stay and clinician-rated patient safety. Results: Clinician-rated patient safety were associated with burnout, trainee status, and professional role. Mortality was predicted by emotional exhaustion. Length of stay was predicted by workload. Contrary to our expectations, burnout did not predict length of stay, and workload and predictability did not predict standardized mortality ratios.Conclusion: At least in the short-term, clinicians seem to be able to maintain safety despite high workload and low predictability. Nevertheless, burnout poses a safety risk. Subjectively, burnt-out clinicians rated safety lower, and objectively, units with high emotional exhaustion had higher standardized mortality ratios. In summary, our results indicate that clinician psychological health and patient safety could be managed simultaneously. Further research needs to establish causal relationships between these variables or and support the development of managerial guidelines to ensure clinicians’ psychological health and patients’ safety.

  7. Results of a 10-year survey of workload for 10 treatment vaults at a high-throughput comprehensive cancer center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ziad H; Jeong, Jeho; Quinn, Brian; Mechalakos, James; St Germain, Jean; Dauer, Lawrence T

    2017-05-01

    The workload for shielding purposes of modern linear accelerators (linacs) consists of primary and scatter radiation which depends on the dose delivered to isocenter (cGy) and leakage radiation which depends on the monitor units (MUs). In this study, we report on the workload for 10 treatment vaults in terms of dose to isocenter (cGy), monitor units delivered (MUs), number of treatment sessions (Txs), as well as, use factors (U) and modulation factors (CI) for different treatment techniques. The survey was performed for the years between 2006 and 2015 and included 16 treatment machines which represent different generations of Varian linear accelerators (6EX, 600C, 2100C, 2100EX, and TrueBeam) operating at different electron and x-ray energies (6, 9, 12, 16 and 20 MeV electrons and, 6 and 15 MV x-rays). An institutional review board (IRB) approval was acquired to perform this study. Data regarding patient workload, dose to isocenter, number of monitor units delivered, beam energies, gantry angles, and treatment techniques were exported from an ARIA treatment management system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, Ca.) into Excel spreadsheets and data analysis was performed in Matlab. The average (± std-dev) number of treatment sessions, dose to isocenter, and number of monitor units delivered per week per machine in 2006 was 119 ± 39 Txs, (300 ± 116) × 10 2 cGys, and (78 ± 28) × 10 3 MUs respectively. In contrast, the workload in 2015 was 112 ± 40 Txs, (337 ± 124) × 10 2 cGys, and (111 ± 46) × 10 3 MUs. 60% of the workload (cGy) was delivered using 6 MV and 30% using 15 MV while the remaining 10% was delivered using electron beams. The modulation factors (MU/cGy) for IMRT and VMAT were 5.0 (± 3.4) and 4.6 (± 1.6) respectively. Use factors using 90° gantry angle intervals were equally distributed (~0.25) but varied considerably among different treatment techniques. The workload, in terms of dose to isocenter (cGy) and subsequently monitor units (MUs), has

  8. Reducing Concurrency Bottlenecks in Parallel I/O Workloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, Adam C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bent, John M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wingate, Meghan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    To enable high performance parallel checkpointing we introduced the Parallel Log Structured File System (PLFS). PLFS is middleware interposed on the file system stack to transform concurrent writing of one application file into many non-concurrently written component files. The promising effectiveness of PLFS makes it important to examine its performance for workloads other than checkpoint capture, notably the different ways that state snapshots may be later read, to make the case for using PLFS in the Exascale I/O stack. Reading a PLFS file involved reading each of its component files. In this paper we identify performance limitations on broader workloads in an early version of PLFS, specifically the need to build and distribute an index for the overall file, and the pressure on the underlying parallel file system's metadata server, and show how PLFS's decomposed components architecture can be exploited to alleviate bottlenecks in the underlying parallel file system.

  9. Short-term cardiovascular measures for driver support: Increasing sensitivity for detecting changes in mental workload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuiver, Arjan; Brookhuis, Karel A; de Waard, Dick; Mulder, Ben

    2014-02-05

    With on-going increases in traffic density and the availability of more and more in-vehicle technology, driver overload is a growing concern. To reduce the burden of workload on the driver, it is essential that support systems that become available are able to use estimations of drivers' workload. In this paper a short-term cardiovascular approach to assess drivers' mental workload is described using data collected in a driving simulator study. The effects of short lasting increases in task demand (40s) on heart rate and blood pressure and derived variability measures are applied as indicators of mental effort. Fifteen drivers participated in 6 sessions of 1.5h in a driving simulator study. Two traffic density levels (7.5minute segments) were compared in which short-segments (40s) of fog were used to induce additional workload demands. Higher traffic density was reflected in increased systolic blood pressure and decreased blood pressure variability. Heart rate variability and blood pressure variability measures decreased during driving in fog in the low traffic condition, indicating increased effort investment during fog in this condition. The results show that the described short-term measures can be applied to give an indication of cardiovascular reactivity as a function workload. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Forecasting Workload for Defense Logistics Agency Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Distribution workload ...........................18 Monthly DD Sales for the four primary supply chains ( Avn , Land, Maritime, Ind HW) plotted to...average AVN Aviation BSM Business Systems Modernization CIT consumable items transfer C&E Construction and Equipment C&T Clothing...992081.437 See Figure 2 below for the graphical output of the linear regression. Monthly DD Sales for the four primary supply chains ( Avn , Land

  11. Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Most occupational tasks involve some level of mental/cognitive processing in addition to physical work; however, the etiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to these demands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the interactive effects of physical and mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent work. Twelve participants, balanced by gender, performed intermittent static shoulder abductions to exhaustion at 15, 35, and 55% of individual maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), in the absence (control) and presence (concurrent) of a mental arithmetic task. Changes in muscular capacity were determined using endurance time, strength decline, electromyographic (EMG) fatigue indicators, muscle oxygenation, and heart rate measures. Muscular recovery was quantified through changes in strength and physiological responses. Mental workload was associated with shorter endurance times, specifically at 35% MVC, and greater strength decline. EMG and oxygenation measures showed similar changes during fatigue manifestation during concurrent conditions compared to the control, despite shorter endurance times. Moreover, decreased heart rate variability during concurrent demand conditions indicated increased mental stress. Although strength recovery was not influenced by mental workload, a slower heart rate recovery was observed after concurrent demand conditions. The findings from this study provide fundamental evidence that physical capacity (fatigability and recovery) is adversely affected by mental workload. Thus, it is critical to determine or evaluate occupational demands based on modified muscular capacity (due to mental workload) to reduce risk of WMSD development.

  12. Survey of Methods to Assess Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    thesis study which had to do with the effect of binaural beats upon performan:.e (2) found out there was a subjectively experienced quality of beats ...were forced to conclude that the neuralmechanism by which binaural beats influenced performance is not open to correct subjective evaluation. In terms of...methods for developing indicies of pilot workload, FAA Report (FAA-AN-77- 15), July 1977. 2. ,’ R. E. The effect of binaural beats on performance, J

  13. Operations management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandli, A. E.; Eckelkamp, R. E.; Kelly, C. M.; Mccandless, W.; Rue, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of an operations management system is to provide an orderly and efficient method to operate and maintain aerospace vehicles. Concepts are described for an operations management system and the key technologies are highlighted which will be required if this capability is brought to fruition. Without this automation and decision aiding capability, the growing complexity of avionics will result in an unmanageable workload for the operator, ultimately threatening mission success or survivability of the aircraft or space system. The key technologies include expert system application to operational tasks such as replanning, equipment diagnostics and checkout, global system management, and advanced man machine interfaces. The economical development of operations management systems, which are largely software, will require advancements in other technological areas such as software engineering and computer hardware.

  14. The NASA Task Load Index as a measure of overall workload among neonatal, paediatric and adult intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Mara, Constance A; Carle, Adam C; Gurses, Ayse P

    2018-02-12

    The NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) is a subjective workload assessment scale developed for use in aviation and increasingly applied to healthcare. The scale purports to measure overall workload as a single variable calculated by summing responses to six items. Since no data address the validity of this scoring approach in health care, we evaluated the single factor structure of the NASA-TLX as a measure of overall workload among intenisive care nurses. Confirmatory factor analysis of data from two studies of nurse workload in neonatal, paediatric, and adult intensive care units. Study 1 data were obtained from 136 nurses in one neonatal intensive care unit. Study 2 data were collected from 300 nurses in 17 adult, paediatric and neonatal units. Nurses rated their workload using the NASA-TLX's paper version. A single factor model testing whether all six items measured a single overall workload variable fit least well (RMSEA = 0.14; CFI = 0.91; TLI = 0.85). A second model that specified two items as outcomes of overall workload had acceptable fit (RMSEA = 0.08; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.95) while a third model of four items fit best (RMSEA = 0.06; CFI > 0.99; TLI = 0.99). A summed score from four of six NASA-TLX items appears to most reliably measure a single overall workload variable among intensive care nurses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TideWatch: Fingerprinting the cyclicality of big data workloads

    KAUST Repository

    Williams, Daniel W.

    2014-04-01

    Intrinsic to \\'big data\\' processing workloads (e.g., iterative MapReduce, Pregel, etc.) are cyclical resource utilization patterns that are highly synchronized across different resource types as well as the workers in a cluster. In Infrastructure as a Service settings, cloud providers do not exploit this characteristic to better manage VMs because they view VMs as \\'black boxes.\\' We present TideWatch, a system that automatically identifies cyclicality and similarity in running VMs. TideWatch predicts period lengths of most VMs in Hadoop workloads within 9% of actual iteration boundaries and successfully classifies up to 95% of running VMs as participating in the appropriate Hadoop cluster. Furthermore, we show how TideWatch can be used to improve the timing of VM migrations, reducing both migration time and network impact by over 50% when compared to a random approach. © 2014 IEEE.

  16. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  17. Reliability over time of EEG-based mental workload evaluation during Air Traffic Management (ATM) tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arico, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Graziani, Ilenia; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Geraud; Benhacene, Railene; Terenzi, Michela; Pozzi, Simone; Babiloni, Fabio

    2015-08-01

    Machine-learning approaches for mental workload (MW) estimation by using the user brain activity went through a rapid expansion in the last decades. In fact, these techniques allow now to measure the MW with a high time resolution (e.g. few seconds). Despite such advancements, one of the outstanding problems of these techniques regards their ability to maintain a high reliability over time (e.g. high accuracy of classification even across consecutive days) without performing any recalibration procedure. Such characteristic will be highly desirable in real world applications, in which human operators could use such approach without undergo a daily training of the device. In this work, we reported that if a simple classifier is calibrated by using a low number of brain spectral features, between those ones strictly related to the MW (i.e. Frontal and Occipital Theta and Parietal Alpha rhythms), those features will make the classifier performance stable over time. In other words, the discrimination accuracy achieved by the classifier will not degrade significantly across different days (i.e. until one week). The methodology has been tested on twelve Air Traffic Controls (ATCOs) trainees while performing different Air Traffic Management (ATM) scenarios under three different difficulty levels.

  18. Identification of human operator performance models utilizing time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, F. M.; Shinners, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The results of an effort performed by Sperry Systems Management Division for AMRL in applying time series analysis as a tool for modeling the human operator are presented. This technique is utilized for determining the variation of the human transfer function under various levels of stress. The human operator's model is determined based on actual input and output data from a tracking experiment.

  19. Benchmarking transaction and analytical processing systems the creation of a mixed workload benchmark and its application

    CERN Document Server

    Bog, Anja

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces a new benchmark for hybrid database systems, gauging the effect of adding OLAP to an OLTP workload and analyzing the impact of commonly used optimizations in historically separate OLTP and OLAP domains in mixed-workload scenarios.

  20. The CMS workload management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinquilli, M. [CERN; Evans, D. [Fermilab; Foulkes, S. [Fermilab; Hufnagel, D. [Fermilab; Mascheroni, M. [CERN; Norman, M. [UC, San Diego; Maxa, Z. [Caltech; Melo, A. [Vanderbilt U.; Metson, S. [Bristol U.; Riahi, H. [INFN, Perugia; Ryu, S. [Fermilab; Spiga, D. [CERN; Vaandering, E. [Fermilab; Wakefield, Stuart [Imperial Coll., London; Wilkinson, R. [Caltech

    2012-01-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager), a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  1. The CMS workload management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinquilli, M; Mascheroni, M; Spiga, D; Evans, D; Foulkes, S; Hufnagel, D; Ryu, S; Vaandering, E; Norman, M; Maxa, Z; Wilkinson, R; Melo, A; Metson, S; Riahi, H; Wakefield, S

    2012-01-01

    CMS has started the process of rolling out a new workload management system. This system is currently used for reprocessing and Monte Carlo production with tests under way using it for user analysis. It was decided to combine, as much as possible, the production/processing, analysis and T0 codebases so as to reduce duplicated functionality and make best use of limited developer and testing resources. This system now includes central request submission and management (Request Manager); a task queue for parcelling up and distributing work (WorkQueue) and agents which process requests by interfacing with disparate batch and storage resources (WMAgent).

  2. A Multi-Methods Approach to HRA and Human Performance Modeling: A Field Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; David I Gertman

    2012-06-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a research reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory is primarily designed and used to test materials to be used in other, larger-scale and prototype reactors. The reactor offers various specialized systems and allows certain experiments to be run at their own temperature and pressure. The ATR Canal temporarily stores completed experiments and used fuel. It also has facilities to conduct underwater operations such as experiment examination or removal. In reviewing the ATR safety basis, a number of concerns were identified involving the ATR canal. A brief study identified ergonomic issues involving the manual handling of fuel elements in the canal that may increase the probability of human error and possible unwanted acute physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, that refined the previous HRA scoping analysis by determining the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during fuel movement and inspection was conducted. The HRA analysis employed the SPAR-H method and was supplemented by information gained from a detailed analysis of the fuel inspection and transfer tasks. This latter analysis included ergonomics, work cycles, task duration, and workload imposed by tool and workplace characteristics, personal protective clothing, and operational practices that have the potential to increase physical and mental workload. Part of this analysis consisted of NASA-TLX analyses, combined with operational sequence analysis, computational human performance analysis (CHPA), and 3D graphical modeling to determine task failures and precursors to such failures that have safety implications. Experience in applying multiple analysis techniques in support of HRA methods is discussed.

  3. A Multi-Methods Approach to HRA and Human Performance Modeling: A Field Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugo, Jacques; Gertman, David I.

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a research reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory is primarily designed and used to test materials to be used in other, larger-scale and prototype reactors. The reactor offers various specialized systems and allows certain experiments to be run at their own temperature and pressure. The ATR Canal temporarily stores completed experiments and used fuel. It also has facilities to conduct underwater operations such as experiment examination or removal. In reviewing the ATR safety basis, a number of concerns were identified involving the ATR canal. A brief study identified ergonomic issues involving the manual handling of fuel elements in the canal that may increase the probability of human error and possible unwanted acute physical outcomes to the operator. In response to this concern, that refined the previous HRA scoping analysis by determining the probability of the inadvertent exposure of a fuel element to the air during fuel movement and inspection was conducted. The HRA analysis employed the SPAR-H method and was supplemented by information gained from a detailed analysis of the fuel inspection and transfer tasks. This latter analysis included ergonomics, work cycles, task duration, and workload imposed by tool and workplace characteristics, personal protective clothing, and operational practices that have the potential to increase physical and mental workload. Part of this analysis consisted of NASA-TLX analyses, combined with operational sequence analysis, computational human performance analysis (CHPA), and 3D graphical modeling to determine task failures and precursors to such failures that have safety implications. Experience in applying multiple analysis techniques in support of HRA methods is discussed.

  4. Developing operator capacity estimates for supervisory control of autonomous vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M L; Guerlain, Stephanie

    2007-02-01

    This study examined operators' capacity to successfully reallocate highly autonomous in-flight missiles to time-sensitive targets while performing secondary tasks of varying complexity. Regardless of the level of autonomy for unmanned systems, humans will be necessarily involved in the mission planning, higher level operation, and contingency interventions, otherwise known as human supervisory control. As a result, more research is needed that addresses the impact of dynamic decision support systems that support rapid planning and replanning in time-pressured scenarios, particularly on operator workload. A dual screen simulation that allows a single operator the ability to monitor and control 8, 12, or 16 missiles through high level replanning was tested on 42 U.S. Navy personnel. The most significant finding was that when attempting to control 16 missiles, participants' performance on three separate objective performance metrics and their situation awareness were significantly degraded. These results mirror studies of air traffic control that demonstrate a similar decline in performance for controllers managing 17 aircraft as compared with those managing only 10 to 11 aircraft. Moreover, the results suggest that a 70% utilization (percentage busy time) score is a valid threshold for predicting significant performance decay and could be a generalizable metric that can aid in manning predictions. This research is relevant to human supervisory control of networked military and commercial unmanned vehicles in the air, on the ground, and on and under the water.

  5. Physician workload in primary care: what is the optimal size of practices? A cross-sectional study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, M.J.P.; Hombergh, P. van den; Akkermans, R.P.; Doremalen, J.H.M. van; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of practice size and scope of services on average physician workload in primary care practices in The Netherlands, and to examine the associations between average physician workload, average assistant volume and organisational practice characteristics. METHODS:

  6. The Impacts of Different Types of Workload Allocation Models on Academic Satisfaction and Working Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardi, Iris

    2009-01-01

    Increasing demands on academic work have resulted in many academics working long hours and expressing dissatisfaction with their working life. These concerns have led to a number of faculties and universities adopting workload allocation models to improve satisfaction and better manage workloads. This paper reports on a study which examined the…

  7. Human factor in the operation of the Dukovany nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostiha, Frantisek; Pleskac, Frantisek

    2009-01-01

    The human factor, i.e. the action of man within complex technical systems, has been in the focus of the Dukovany NPP management constantly. The paper gives an overview of the plant strategy regarding human factor issues, such as training, human factor prevention methods and practices to improve the resistance of the system to human error, the use of information systems, and operational feedback from the role of the human factor and influence of the operators on the initiation, development and resulting level of severity of operational events. The method of monitoring and assessment of the quality of human performance at the Dukovany plant on an ongoing basis aimed at a constant improvement is highlighted. (orig.)

  8. Recent trends in workload, input costs, and expenditures in the Air Force Medical Service Direct Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Anthony S; Moilanen, Dale A; Fonseca, Vincent P; Chao, Susan Y

    2002-04-01

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between two types of trends in the Air Force Medical Service Direct Care System (AFMS/DCS): trends in expenditures, total and by categories; and trends in medical workload, defined as the sum of inpatient admissions and outpatient clinic visits. Expenditure and medical workload data were extracted from the Medical Expense and Performance Reporting System Executive Query System. Medical inflation data were obtained from the Bureau of Labor Statistics Producer Price Index series. Between fiscal years 1995 and 1999, the AFMS/DCS experienced a 21.2% decrease in medical workload, but total (n