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Sample records for human ocular surface

  1. Human antimicrobial peptides in ocular surface defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Imran; Said, Dalia G; Dua, Harminder S

    2017-06-03

    Sight depends on the passage of light through the transparent cornea and being focused on the fovea. Its exposed position renders it vulnerable to microbial infection. The cornea has developed a wide array of defense mechanisms against infection, of which endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key. AMPs are essentially small molecular weight cationic peptides with a wide range of activity against virus, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Some proteins such as RNases and S100As are also included in this group. Several AMPs act synergistically allowing low expression of multiple AMPs to act efficiently. AMPs also have a range of non-microbicidal functions and serve as signaling molecules, immunomodulators; show anti-tumour activity, and influence vascularization and wound healing. Different toll-like receptors (TLR) have been implicated in the preferential induction of specific AMPs. A range of bacteria, including mycobacteria tuberculosis, viruses including herpes virus, fungi and parasites including acanthamoeba, that cause ocular infections have been shown to induce specific AMPs via TLR activation. Non-TLR mediated induction of AMP expression can occur and several molecules such as L-isoleucine, sodium butyrate, vitamin D3, phenylbutyrate, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and etinostat have been identified in this regard. Given the rising microbe resistance to antibiotics, the slow rate of development of new antibiotics and the limited access to effective antibiotics by patients living in the developing world, an ideal solution would be to find AMPs that are effective singly or in combination with each other or other antimicrobial proteins to reduce, if possible eliminate reliance on antibiotics alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids at the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam

    2014-10-14

    Human meibomian lipids form the outermost lipid layer of the tear film and serve many important functions to maintain its integrity. Although not investigated earlier, these lipids may have antimicrobial properties that help in strengthening the innate host defense of tears at the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. Ocular pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus 31, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 19, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 20, and Serratia marcescens 35, were grown in the presence and absence of human meibomian lipids in an artificial tear solution at the physiological temperature. Viable counts were obtained to note the number of bacteria surviving the treatment with meibomian lipids. Bacterial cells were imaged using scanning electron microscopy to observe the damages caused by meibomian lipids. Viable count results showed that in the presence of meibomian lipids, growth of all bacteria was considerably lower. Scanning electron microscopy showed that meibomian lipids caused extensive cellular damage to bacteria as manifested in smaller size, loss of aggregation, abnormal phenotype, cellular distortion, damaged cell wall, and cell lysis. This is the first-ever report of the antimicrobial role of human meibomian lipids. These lipids possess antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are involved in the innate host defense of tears in protecting the ocular surface against microbial pathogens. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Cultured human ocular surface epithelium on therapeutic contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nick; Chui, Jeanie; Wakefield, Denis; Coroneo, Minas T

    2007-04-01

    This study was initiated after observation of some intriguing epithelial growth properties of contact lenses used as a bandage for patients after pterygium surgery. To determine the efficacy of culturing human ocular surface epithelial cells on therapeutic contact lenses in autologous serum with a view of using this system to transfer epithelial cells to patients with persistent corneal or limbal defects. Excess graft tissue resected from patients undergoing pterygium surgery (n = 3) consisting of limbal epithelium was placed on siloxane-hydrogel contact lenses (lotrafilcon A and balafilcon A). Limbal explants were cultured in media with 10% autologous serum. Morphology, proliferative capacity and cytokeratin profile were determined by phase contrast, light and electron microscopy, and immunohistochemical analysis. Lotrafilcon A contact lenses sustained proliferation and migration from limbal tissue. Cells became confluent after 10-14 days and consisted of 2-3 layers with a corneal phenotype (CK3(+)/CK12(+)/CK19(-)) and a propensity to proliferate (p63(+)). Electron microscopy showed microvilli on the apical surface with adhesive projections, indicating that these cells were stable and likely to survive for a long term. Growth was not observed from limbal explants cultured on balafilcon A contact lenses. A method for culturing human ocular surface epithelium on contact lenses that may facilitate expansion and transfer of autologous limbal epithelial cells while avoiding the risks associated with transplanting allogeneic tissue has been developed. This technique may be potentially useful for the treatment of patients with limbal stem cell deficiency.

  4. Recurrent ocular surface inflammation associated with human herpesvirus 6 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boto-de-los-Bueis, Ana; Romero Gómez, Maria P; del Hierro Zarzuelo, Almudena; Sanchez, Eugenia G; Mediero, Soraya; Noval, Susana

    2015-05-01

    To report a case of atypical herpes keratitis and bilateral conjunctivitis associated with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). An immunocompetent 34-year-old man was referred for herpetic epithelial keratitis in his left eye, which was non-responsive to topical acyclovir. Biomicroscopy revealed a central dendritic ulcer with a white stromal infiltrate beneath the ulcer. The corneal scraping multiplex polymerase chain reaction (CLART ENTHERPEX, Genomica, Spain) was positive for HHV-6 and negative for herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, and Epstein-Barr virus. An improvement of the keratitis and visual acuity was achieved with topical fluorometholone and systemic valacyclovir. One year later, the patient complained of redness of the eyes. A slit-lamp examination disclosed bilateral follicular conjunctivitis, and HHV-6 DNA was once again detected in a conjunctival scraping of both eyes. Human herpesvirus 6 may be another causative agent for corneal ulcers and conjunctivitis in isolation. Stromal necrosis is a rare manifestation of herpetic dendritic keratitis. In these cases, we should consider the presence of HHV-6 in the differential diagnosis, even in immunocompetent patients.

  5. Prostaglandin E receptor subtype EP3 expression in human conjunctival epithelium and its changes in various ocular surface disorders.

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    Mayumi Ueta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our earlier genome-wide association study on Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN, we found that in Japanese patients with these severe ocular surface complications there was an association with prostaglandin E receptor 3 (EP3 gene (PTGER3 polymorphisms. We also reported that EP3 is dominantly expressed in the ocular surface-, especially the conjunctival epithelium, and suggested that EP3 in the conjunctival epithelium may down-regulate ocular surface inflammation. In the current study we investigated the expression of EP3 protein in the conjunctiva of patients with various ocular surface diseases such as SJS/TEN, chemical eye burns, Mooren's ulcers, and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Conjunctival tissues were obtained from patients undergoing surgical reconstruction of the ocular surface due to SJS/TEN, chemical eye burns, and OCP, and from patients with Mooren's ulcers treated by resection of the inflammatory conjunctiva. The controls were nearly normal human conjunctival tissues acquired at surgery for conjunctivochalasis. We performed immunohistological analysis of the EP3 protein and evaluated the immunohistological staining of EP3 protein in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with ocular surface diseases. EP3 was expressed in the conjunctival epithelium of patients with chemical eye burns and Mooren's ulcer and in normal human conjunctival epithelium. However, it was markedly down-regulated in the conjunctival epithelium of SJS/TEN and OCP patients. CONCLUSIONS: We posit an association between the down-regulation of EP3 in conjunctival epithelium and the pathogenesis and pathology of SJS/TEN and OCP, and suggest a common mechanism(s in the pathology of these diseases. The examination of EP3 protein expression in conjunctival epithelium may aid in the differential diagnosis of various ocular surface diseases.

  6. Human Papilloma Virus Infection Does Not Predict Response to Interferon Therapy in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Garg, Nisha; Nanji, Afshan; Joag, Madhura; Nuovo, Gerard; Palioura, Sotiria; Wang, Gaofeng; Karp, Carol L

    2015-11-01

    To identify the frequency of human papilloma virus (HPV) in ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and to evaluate differences in clinical features and treatment response of tumors with positive versus negative HPV results. Retrospective case series. Twenty-seven patients with OSSN. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia specimens were analyzed for the presence of HPV. Clinical features and response to interferon were determined retrospectively and linked to the presence (versus absence) of HPV. Clinical characteristics of OSSN by HPV status. Twenty-one of 27 tumors (78%) demonstrated positive HPV results. The HPV genotypes identified included HPV-16 in 10 tumors (48%), HPV-31 in 5 tumors, HPV-33 in 1 tumor, HPV-35 in 2 tumors, HPV-51 in 2 tumors, and a novel HPV in 3 tumors (total of 23 tumors because 1 tumor had 3 identified genotypes). Tumors found in the superior limbus were more likely to show positive HPV results (48% vs. 0%; P=0.06, Fisher exact test). Tumors with positive HPV-16 results were larger (68 vs. 34 mm2; P=0.08, Mann-Whitney U test) and were more likely to have papillomatous morphologic features (50% vs. 12%; P=0.07, Fisher exact test) compared with tumors showing negative results for HPV-16. Human papilloma virus status was not found to be associated with response to interferon therapy (P=1.0, Fisher exact test). Metrics found to be associated with a nonfavorable response to interferon were male gender and tumors located in the superior conjunctivae. The presence of HPV in OSSN seems to be more common in lesions located in the nonexposed, superior limbus. Human papilloma virus presence does not seem to be required for a favorable response to interferon therapy. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression pattern of sonic hedgehog and effect of topical mitomycin C on its expression in human ocular surface neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Okada, Yuka; Ishikawa, Nobuyuki; Saika, Shizuya

    2008-01-01

    To examine if the cells of human ocular surface neoplasms express sonic hedgehog (Shh) and the effects of topical mitomycin C on its expression. Conjunctival tissues obtained from two normal subjects, two patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the ocular surface (conjunctiva), and one patient with ocular epithelial dysplasia were used in this study. Histological sections were processed for light microscopic immunohistochemical analysis for Shh. Faint immunoreactivity for Shh was detected in basal epithelial cells of limbus, bulbar, and palpebral conjunctival epithelial cells. On the other hand, squamous cell carcinoma cells markedly expressed Shh with positive staining for Patched 1(Ptc), the cell surface receptor of Shh. Similar marked expression of Shh was detected in the patient with ocular epithelial dysplasia, and this Shh expression was almost eliminated following topical mitomycin C treatment. A cell culture experiment was conducted to examine the effect of mitomycin C on Shh expression in a cultured squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Conjunctival epithelium constitutively expresses a low level of Shh, and its expression increases during malignant conversion of epithelial cells. Reduction of Shh expression might be involved in the therapeutic efficacy of topical mitomycin C for ocular surface epithelial neoplasms.

  8. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ocular Surface Reconstruction: Recent Innovations

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    Madhavan HN

    2009-01-01

    protocol of LSCD patients. Autologous limbal transplantation Despite its success, its utility is limited. the requirement for a sizable limbal donation; up to 30-40% must be harvested from the contralateral donor eye and its harvest may theoretically harm the structural integrity, cause subclinical LSCD or cryptogenic changes in the donor eye. Ex vivo expansion and cultivation techniques for autologous limbal stem cells are being actively investigated. , the use of human AM for ocular surface regeneration (OSR and as a growth support substrate for ex vivo expansion of autologous corneal equivalent epithelial cells and their successful OSR in animal cornea model, as well as human, was reported. The conventional cultivation methods for corneal epithelial tissues for clinical transplantation applications involve utilization of xenobiotic materials such as fetal bovine serum (FBS and murine-derived feeder cells. FBS-free culture systems have been developed to reduce the risk of zoonotic infection, but these have the disadvantage of reduced efficacy for cell propagation. it must be emphasized that AMT is not a substitution for LSCT and AMT should not be performed when true LSCD exists because AM only provides a supportive matrix for the limbal stem cells to migrate, proliferate and restore the corneal surface. There are several disadvantages of AMT and LSCT technique. This delicate procedure requires technical skill for the preparation of AM with attached corneal epithelial cells and surgical dexterity to manipulate the AM onto the ocular surface.A rabbit model for transplantation of cultivated corneal limbal stem cells onto corneal stem cell deficient animals was developed & its results are very encouraging for similar studies in human corneal surface reconstruction. Our investigations indicated that Ex vivo cultivation of human corneal limbal stem cells (HCLSC occurred with ease in the thermoresponsive biodegradable gel - “Mebiol Gel”. The growth rate within Mebiol Gel

  10. Validation of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies on human ocular surface epithelium.

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    Bina Kulkarni

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate a panel of ten known endogenous control genes (ECG with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR, for identification of stably expressed endogenous control genes in the ocular surface (OS epithelial regions including cornea, limbus, limbal epithelial crypt and conjunctiva to normalise the quantitative reverse transcription PCR data of genes of interest expressed in above-mentioned regions. METHOD: The lasermicrodissected (LMD OS epithelial regions of cryosectioned corneoscleral buttons from the cadaver eyes were processed for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis to detect genes of interest with qPCR. Gene expression of 10 known ECG--glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, beta actin (ACTB, peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIA, TATA-box binding protein (TBP1, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT1, beta glucuronidase (GUSB, Eucaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (18S, phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M, ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0--was measured in the OS epithelial regions by qPCR method and the data collected was further analysed using geNorm software. RESULTS: The expression stability of ecgs in the os epithelial regions in increasing order as determined with genorm software is as follows: ACTB<18Socular surface including all the regions mentioned above, PPIA-RPLP0 pair was shown to be most stable. CONCLUSION: This study has identified stably expressed ECGs on the OS epithelial regions for effective qPCR results in genes of interest. The results from this study are broadly applicable to quantitative reverse transcription PCR studies on human OS epithelium and provide evidence for the use

  11. Identification of insulin in the tear film and insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor on the human ocular surface.

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    Rocha, Eduardo M; Cunha, Daniel A; Carneiro, Everardo M; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mário J A; Velloso, Lício A

    2002-04-01

    Insulin produces pleiotropic effects on sensitive tissues, including the ocular surface, through the tyrosine kinase insulin receptor. Cerebrospinal fluid and secreted fluids, such as milk and saliva, have been reported to contain insulin. In the present study, the presence of insulin was examined in tear film, and the expression of insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 receptor was examined in the human cornea and conjunctiva. Stimulated tear samples collected from 33 volunteers (17 men, 16 women), aged 23 to 51 years, who were fed or fasted for 12 hours, were assayed for total protein and insulin content by the biuret dye test and a radioimmunoassay, respectively. Frozen sections of human cornea (n = 4) and conjunctiva (n = 3) were incubated with anti-insulin receptor and anti-IGF-1 receptor antibodies and developed with a secondary antibody-peroxidase conjugate. Insulin was detected in all tear samples analyzed, the mean concentration being 0.404 +/- 0.129 ng/mL. There were no gender-related differences. In fed subjects, tears tended toward a higher insulin content than those in fasted individuals. There was no linear correlation between insulin and total protein content (mean, 4.61 +/- 0.79 mg/mL) in the tear film. Insulin and IGF-1 receptors were detected in the plasma membrane and cytoplasm of corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study represents the first demonstration of insulin in human tear film and the presence of insulin and IGF-1 receptor on the human ocular surface. These results suggest that the pancreatic hormone may play a metabolic and/or mitogenic role on the ocular surface.

  12. Ocular surface area and human eye blink frequency during VDU work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ocular surface area (OSA) and the eye blink frequency (BF) are affected by a high versus a low-monitor position during visual display unit (VDU) work with varying cognitive demands. In a balanced randomized (2 x 2) design ten healthy subjects...... (five males, five females) completed two different tasks on the VDU in a simulated office environment (23 degrees C and 30-35% relative humidity); an active task with demands on vision and hand-eye coordination, and a passive task. Two monitor positions were used: high (the monitors' upper edge...... at the same height as the subjects' eyes) and low (lowered by 25 degrees and perpendicular to gaze angle). Each task lasted 10 min. An OSA-proxy was measured from video recordings, and BF was sampled by electrooculography. The effect of lowering the gaze angle by 25 degrees decreased the OSA...

  13. The ocular surface chemical burns.

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    Eslani, Medi; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza; Movahedan, Asadolah; Djalilian, Ali R

    2014-01-01

    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients' needs.

  14. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

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    Medi Eslani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts with simple but vision saving steps and is continued with complicated surgical procedures later in the course of the disease. The goal of treatment is to restore the normal ocular surface anatomy and function. Limbal stem cell transplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and ultimately keratoprosthesis may be indicated depending on the patients’ needs.

  15. Towards a defined, serum- and feeder-free culture of stratified human oral mucosal epithelium for ocular surface reconstruction.

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    Ilmarinen, Tanja; Laine, Juhana; Juuti-Uusitalo, Kati; Numminen, Jura; Seppänen-Suuronen, Riitta; Uusitalo, Hannu; Skottman, Heli

    2013-12-01

    Ocular surface reconstruction with cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation technique is a viable treatment option for severe ocular surface injuries and diseases with limbal stem cell deficiency. Currently, this technique is based on utilization of xenogenic, allogenic or undefined components such as murine 3T3 feeders, serum and amniotic membrane. In this study, we aimed to find a more defined culture method to generate stratified human oral mucosal epithelium. In this study, we have examined the formation of stratified cell sheets from human oral mucosal epithelial cells under serum-free culture environment both in the absence and presence of fibroblast-conditioned culture medium and elevated epidermal growth factor (EGF) concentration. In all examined culture conditions, the cultivated oral epithelial cells formed a stratified tissue, which was positive for keratins K3/12, K4 and K13. The tissue-engineered oral epithelia also expressed proliferation and progenitor markers Ki67 and p63 in the basal layer of the cell sheets, suggesting that the epithelia still had regenerative capacity. The cultures presented expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin and high transepithelial electrical resistance values. In this culture method, we have been able to produce stratified cell sheets successfully without serum, conditioning of the medium or increased EGF concentration. We provide a novel protocol to produce tight multi-layered epithelium with proliferative potential, which can be easily adapted for cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  16. Interfacial phenomena and the ocular surface.

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    Yañez-Soto, Bernardo; Mannis, Mark J; Schwab, Ivan R; Li, Jennifer Y; Leonard, Brian C; Abbott, Nicholas L; Murphy, Christopher J

    2014-07-01

    Ocular surface disorders, such as dry eye disease, ocular rosacea, and allergic conjunctivitis, are a heterogeneous group of diseases that require an interdisciplinary approach to establish underlying causes and develop effective therapeutic strategies. These diverse disorders share a common thread in that they involve direct changes in ocular surface chemistry as well as the rheological properties of the tear film and topographical attributes of the cellular elements of the ocular surface. Knowledge of these properties is crucial to understand the formation and stability of the preocular tear film. The study of interfacial phenomena of the ocular surface flourished during the 1970s and 1980s, but after a series of lively debates in the literature concerning distinctions between the epithelial and the glandular origin of ocular surface disorders during the 1990s, research into this important topic has declined. In the meantime, new tools and techniques for the characterization and functionalization of biological surfaces have been developed. This review summarizes the available literature regarding the physicochemical attributes of the ocular surface, analyzes the role of interfacial phenomena in the pathobiology of ocular surface disease, identifies critical knowledge gaps concerning interfacial phenomena of the ocular surface, and discusses the opportunities for the exploitation of these phenomena to develop improved therapeutics for the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medicina regenerativa y superficie ocular Regenerative medicine and ocular surface

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    Taimi Cárdenas Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se ha producido un extraordinario avance en los conocimientos relacionados con diferentes ramas biomédicas, entre ellas, la biología celular. Esto ha dado un notable impulso a una nueva rama de la medicina denominada medicina regenerativa. Esta nueva disciplina médica se basa fundamentalmente en los nuevos conocimientos sobre las células madre y en su capacidad de convertirse en células de diferentes tejidos. Una de las estructuras que tiene más interés, desde el punto de vista de la medicina regenerativa, es la superficie ocular. Por esto, se ha logrado notables progresos en la reconstrucción de la superficie ocular mediante la aplicación de procederes regenerativos. Los cultivos de células del epitelio corneal humano están siendo utilizados en el tratamiento de la insuficiencia limbar. Esto permite disminuir la incidencia de opacidades tipo Haze tras queratectomía fotorrefractiva, acelerar la curación y evitar la aparición de leucomas en pacientes con defectos epiteliares persistentes e intentar disminuir la incidencia de opacidades corneales en pacientes sometidos a queratectomía fototerapéutica por diferentes distrofias corneales.In the last few years, an extraordinary advance has taken place in the knowledge about several biomedical branches as is the case of cellular biology, which has remarkably encouraged the development of a new medical branch called regenerative medicine. This medical discipline is fundamentally based on the new knowledge on the stem cells and their capacity to become cells for different tissues. One of the most interesting structures for the regenerative medicine is the ocular surface. In the last few years, significant advances have been achieved in the field of the ocular surface reconstruction with regenerative procedures. Some cell cultures of the human corneal epithelium are being used to treat limber insufficiency, to reduce the incidence of haze-type opacities after

  18. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia as the initial presenting sign of human immunodeficiency virus infection in 60 Asian Indian patients.

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    Kaliki, Swathi; Kamal, Saurabh; Fatima, Saba

    2016-11-08

    To study the importance of routine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) screening in patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and describe their clinical features and management. Retrospective study. Of 228 cases of OSSN screened for HIV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, 86 (38%) patients were HIV positive. Of these 86 patients, 60 (70%) were unaware of their HIV-positive status prior to HIV screening. These 60 (26%) patients with newly detected HIV-positive status were included in this study. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia was the sole presenting feature of HIV infection in these patients. Mean age at presentation was 41 years. Bilateral involvement occurred in 9 (15%) cases. The mean tumor basal diameter was 11 mm. Orbital involvement was noted in 6 (9%) cases, and intraocular tumor extension occurred in 1 (1%) case. Based on American Joint Committee Classification, T2 (n = 35, 51%) was most common. The primary treatment for OSSN included excision biopsy (n = 52, 75%), topical chemotherapy with Mitomycin-C (n = 5, 7%), extended enucleation (n = 4, 6%), and orbital exenteration (n = 8, 12%). Tumor recurrence occurred in 23% cases during a mean follow-up period of 9 months. On histopathology, invasive squamous cell carcinoma was more common (n = 38, 55%). OSSN was the presenting sign of underlying HIV infection in 26% cases, and 70% were unaware of their HIV-positive status prior to HIV screening. In this study, T2 tumor was most common, and 26% cases required extended enucleation/orbital exenteration to achieve complete tumor resection.

  19. The Ocular Surface Chemical Burns

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    Medi Eslani; Alireza Baradaran-Rafii; Asadolah Movahedan; Djalilian, Ali R.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular chemical burns are common and serious ocular emergencies that require immediate and intensive evaluation and care. The victims of such incidents are usually young, and therefore loss of vision and disfigurement could dramatically affect their lives. The clinical course can be divided into immediate, acute, early, and late reparative phases. The degree of limbal, corneal, and conjunctival involvement at the time of injury is critically associated with prognosis. The treatment starts wit...

  20. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye.

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    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A; Kolar, Grant R; Gleave, Martin E; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Wilson, Mark R; Fini, M Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

  1. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskar, Aditi; Mack, Wendy J.; Mauris, Jerome; Argüeso, Pablo; Heur, Martin; Nagel, Barbara A.; Kolar, Grant R.; Gleave, Martin E.; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Moradian-Oldak, Janet; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; Wilson, Mark R.; Fini, M. Elizabeth; Jeong, Shinwu

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye. PMID:26402857

  2. Human ocular Thelaziasis in Karnataka

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    Prabhakar S Krishnachary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thelaziasis is an Arthropod-born disease of the eye and adnexa caused by Thelazia callipaeda, a nematode parasite transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores and humans. Because of its distribution mainly confined to South Asian countries and Russia, it is commonly known as Oriental Eye worm. It is often under-reported and not been given its due clinical importance. We report first case of human Thelaziasis from Hassan District, Karnataka. Five creamy-white, translucent worms were removed from the conjunctival sac of a 74-year-old male patient. Based on morphological characters, the worms were identified as nematodes belonging to the genus Thelazia and speciation was confirmed by CDC, Atlanta as callipaeda. Rarity of the disease and its ability to cause both extra and intraocular manifestations leading to ocular morbidity is the reason for presenting this case. From the available data, this is the first case report from Karnataka, India.

  3. New Developments in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

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    Ayşe Yağcı

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia originates from conjunctiva epithelium and covers a broad spectrum of disease ranging from dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical features may vary from case to case. Traditional treatment of excision with no-touch technique combined with adjuvant therapies because of high recurrence rate. Main adjuvant treatments are cryotherapy and chemotherapy. In this review, clinical forms, differential diagnosis, American Joint Committee on Cancer classification and recent approaches to the management of ocular surface squamous dysplasia were described. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 8-14

  4. Effects of ozone exposure on the ocular surface.

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    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kang, Sang Won; Kim, Jae Hoon; Hwang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Tae-Im

    2013-10-01

    Changes in the ocular surface induced by ozone have received limited research attention. Here, we investigate the effects of ozone exposure on the integrity of the ocular surface, the production of inflammatory cytokines in tears, and changes in mucin-secreting cells in a mouse model. In addition, ozone-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory processes were evaluated in cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells. In vivo, ozone induced the breakdown of corneal epithelial integrity, decreased the number of mucin-secreting cells, and induced the production of inflammatory cytokines, without altering tear volume. In vitro, ozone exposure led to increases in NF-κB nuclear translocation, κB-dependent transcriptional activity, NF-κB inhibitor α (IκBα) proteolysis, and expression of phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα), but did not cause cytotoxicity or cellular apoptosis. In addition, ozone induced the expression of inflammatory cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and C-C chemokine receptors, but decreased the expression of mucins. Furthermore, inhibition of NF-κB with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate before exposure of cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells to ozone prevented changes in IκBα and p-IκBα levels in association with a decrease in the levels of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that ozone exposure interferes with ocular surface integrity and induces inflammation involving NF-κB-mediated processes at the level (and/or upstream) of IκBα. Understanding the role of ozone in the initiation of inflammatory processes on the animal ocular surface and in cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells can help elucidate the pathogenesis of ocular surface damage and suggest protective strategies for preserving a healthy ocular surface against ozone exposure. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  6. Management outcome of ocular surface conjunctival neoplasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN)are aspectrum of lesions that arise from the squamous epithelium of the conjunctiva and cornea. They form the most frequent indication for orbital exenteration in Korle-bu Teaching Hospital, Accra. Poor management of early lesions leads to high rates of tumour ...

  7. Platelet rich plasma in ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riestra, A C; Alonso-Herreros, J M; Merayo-Lloves, J

    2016-10-01

    The use of platelet-rich preparations has experienced a significant increase in recent years due to its role in tissue-repair and regeneration. The aim of this study is to examine the available evidence regarding the application of plasma rich in growth factors, and its variations, on the ocular surface. A review is also presented on the effects of platelet-derived growth factors, the implications of the preparation methods, and the existing literature on the safety and efficacy of these therapies in ocular surface diseases. Despite the widespread use of platelet preparations there is no consensus on the most appropriate preparation method, and growth factors concentration vary with different systems. These preparations have been used in the treatment of ocular surface diseases, such as dry eye or persistent epithelial defects, among others, with good safety and efficacy profiles, but further studies are needed to compare to the currently available alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Transforming ocular surface stem cell research into successful clinical practice

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    Virender S Sangwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It has only been a quarter of a century since the discovery of adult stem cells at the human corneo-scleral limbus. These limbal stem cells are responsible for generating a constant and unending supply of corneal epithelial cells throughout life, thus maintaining a stable and uniformly refractive corneal surface. Establishing this hitherto unknown association between ocular surface disease and limbal dysfunction helped usher in therapeutic approaches that successfully addressed blinding conditions such as ocular burns, which were previously considered incurable. Subsequent advances in ocular surface biology through basic science research have translated into innovations that have made the surgical technique of limbal stem cell transplantation simpler and more predictable. This review recapitulates the basic biology of the limbus and the rationale and principles of limbal stem cell transplantation in ocular surface disease. An evidence-based algorithm is presented, which is tailored to clinical considerations such as laterality of affliction, severity of limbal damage and concurrent need for other procedures. Additionally, novel findings in the form of factors influencing the survival and function of limbal stem cells after transplantation and the possibility of substituting limbal cells with epithelial stem cells of other lineages is also discussed. Finally this review focuses on the future directions in which both basic science and clinical research in this field is headed.

  9. Transforming ocular surface stem cell research into successful clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, Virender S; Jain, Rajat; Basu, Sayan; Bagadi, Anupam B; Sureka, Shraddha; Mariappan, Indumathi; MacNeil, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    It has only been a quarter of a century since the discovery of adult stem cells at the human corneo-scleral limbus. These limbal stem cells are responsible for generating a constant and unending supply of corneal epithelial cells throughout life, thus maintaining a stable and uniformly refractive corneal surface. Establishing this hitherto unknown association between ocular surface disease and limbal dysfunction helped usher in therapeutic approaches that successfully addressed blinding conditions such as ocular burns, which were previously considered incurable. Subsequent advances in ocular surface biology through basic science research have translated into innovations that have made the surgical technique of limbal stem cell transplantation simpler and more predictable. This review recapitulates the basic biology of the limbus and the rationale and principles of limbal stem cell transplantation in ocular surface disease. An evidence-based algorithm is presented, which is tailored to clinical considerations such as laterality of affliction, severity of limbal damage and concurrent need for other procedures. Additionally, novel findings in the form of factors influencing the survival and function of limbal stem cells after transplantation and the possibility of substituting limbal cells with epithelial stem cells of other lineages is also discussed. Finally this review focuses on the future directions in which both basic science and clinical research in this field is headed. PMID:24492499

  10. Ocular surface area and human eye blink frequency during VDU work: the effect of monitor position and task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed; Søgaard, Karen; Skotte, Jørgen; Wolkoff, Peder

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how the ocular surface area (OSA) and the eye blink frequency (BF) are affected by a high versus a low-monitor position during visual display unit (VDU) work with varying cognitive demands. In a balanced randomized (2 x 2) design ten healthy subjects (five males, five females) completed two different tasks on the VDU in a simulated office environment (23 degrees C and 30-35% relative humidity); an active task with demands on vision and hand-eye coordination, and a passive task. Two monitor positions were used: high (the monitors' upper edge at the same height as the subjects' eyes) and low (lowered by 25 degrees and perpendicular to gaze angle). Each task lasted 10 min. An OSA-proxy was measured from video recordings, and BF was sampled by electrooculography. The effect of lowering the gaze angle by 25 degrees decreased the OSA-proxy significantly (P < 0.01) during the active task, indicating that a low position of the monitor may be preferable even though the BF also decreased. Overall, the OSA-proxy was 6% higher during the active task compared to the passive while BF during the active task was 69% lower than during the passive task. The low BF during the active task was succeded by a burst with high BF after cessation of the active task, indicating a compensatory blinking process. This stresses that interchange of work tasks with different cognitive load is as important as the monitor position in the prevention of visual and musculoskeletal disorders.

  11. Buccal Epithelium in treating Ocular Surface Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas KR

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background - Ocular surface disorders due to limbal stem cell deficiency are an important cause of ocular morbidity and visual loss. Although autologous limbal stem cell transplants have helped in the management of unilateral disease, allografts in those with bilateral disease often fail due to immunological reasons. The use of autologous buccal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane has been described as a useful approach in the management of this condition. It is the purpose of this study to explore the feasibility of using a novel thermo-gelatin polymer (TGP as a substrate to culture these cells, and to characterize them using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Methods - Oral cheek mucosal biopsies were obtained from 5 adult patients undergoing Modified Osteo-Odonto Keratoprosthesis surgery. The specimens were transported to the laboratory in transport medium. The cells were released using enzymatic digestion and seeded in both convention culture medium and TGP. The resulting cellular growth was characterized using RNA extraction and RT-PCR. Results - Cells could be cultured from 4 of the 5 specimens. In one specimen, contamination occurred and this was discarded. In the other specimens, the cheek epithelial cells could be cultured in both the conventional culture medium and TGP, with equal ease. RT-PCR revealed the presence of K3, a marker for epithelial cells, and GAPDH indicating the presence of some adipose tissue as well. Conclusions - It is possible to culture autologous cheek mucosal epithelial cells using TGP, a synthetic scaffold, without the need for other biological substrates. Since the specimens are obtained from the oral cavity, stringent asepsis is required. Further studies are required for histopathological characterization of the cultured cells and to create a model for delivery onto the ocular surface of eyes with bilateral surface disease due to limbal stem cell deficiency.

  12. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  13. Cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in children with ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejpal, Kunjal; Ali, Mohammed Hasnat; Maddileti, Savitri; Basu, Sayan; Ramappa, Muralidhar; Kekunnaya, Ramesh; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-06-01

    Although several reports are available on the use of conventional and cultured limbal epithelium using various substrates in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), the patient populations studied have been largely adults. Thus, to our knowledge, the outcomes of this procedure exclusively in a pediatric population have not been reported previously. To report the outcomes of autologous ex vivo cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET) in pediatric patients with LSCD after ocular burns. A retrospective, interventional case series of patients treated at the L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India. Children up to 15 years with LSCD secondary to chemical or thermal injury who underwent CLET from April 1, 2001, through June 31, 2010, with a follow-up of at least 1 year, were included in the study. After a limbal biopsy specimen obtained from a healthy area of the limbus, the limbal epithelial cells were cultured on a denuded human amniotic membrane substrate using a xeno-free explant culture technique. A monolayer of cultivated epithelial cells along with the amniotic membrane was transplanted on the patient's affected eye after pannus excision. In cases of failure, the same procedure was repeated. Ocular surface stability and visual improvement were the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Success was defined as a stable corneal epithelium without conjunctivalization. Eyes with conjunctivalization and persistent epithelial defects were classified as failures. Of the 107 eyes of 107 patients included in this study, 73 eyes (68.2%) underwent 1 and 34 eyes (31.8%) underwent 2 autologous CLET procedures. At a mean follow-up of 3.4 years, 50 eyes (46.7%) achieved completely epithelialized, avascular, and stable ocular surfaces. At the final visit, 58 eyes (54.2%) had improvement in visual acuity of 0.2 or more logMAR units. Autologous CLET was successful in restoring the ocular surface and improving vision in almost half of the

  14. Tear Osmolarity and Ocular Surface Parameters as Diagnostic Markers of Ocular Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Kyung-Sun; Yoo, Young-Sik; Hwang, Kyu-Yeon; Mok, Jee-Won; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of tear osmolarity and several ocular surface parameters in screening for ocular surface alterations in ocular graft-vs-host disease (GVHD) patients. Case-control study. Sixty-three patients with ocular GVHD and 74 healthy participants were screened for ocular surface changes using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), tear osmolarity, Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT), and fluorescein corneal staining. The severity of ocular GVHD was diagnosed according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) grading system. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity and cutoff values were determined for each ocular parameter using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) analysis. Significance was defined at P tear osmolarity, corneal staining score, and OSDI score gradually increased as the severity of ocular GVHD increased, and Schirmer value gradually decreased as the GVHD grade increased in severity. The Schirmer test showed greatest diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for ocular GVHD (92.1% sensitivity, 85.7% specificity, cutoff = 9 mm), followed by the TBUT (87.3% sensitivity, 75.0% specificity, cutoff = 6 s), tear osmolarity (98.4% sensitivity, 60.7% specificity, cutoff = 311 mOsm/L), corneal staining score (66.7% sensitivity, 82.1% specificity, cutoff = 2), and OSDI score (77.8% sensitivity, 66.1% specificity, cutoff = 20.8). Multiple diagnostic modalities should be used to detect ocular surface changes in GVHD patients. The severity of ocular GVHD can be effectively monitored using tear osmolarity; however, additional studies are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ocular surface inflammation impairs structure and function of meibomian gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizoguchi, Shin; Iwanishi, Hiroki; Arita, Reiko; Shirai, Kumi; Sumioka, Takayoshi; Kokado, Masahide; Jester, James V; Saika, Shizuya

    2017-10-01

    Dysfunction of the meibomian glands alters secreted meibum quantitatively and qualitatively that can lead to damage to the ocular surface epithelium. In response to an unstable tear film cause by meibomian gland dysfunction, ocular surface epithelium is damaged and expresses inflammatory cytokines leading to secondary ocular inflammation. In turn, inflammatory disorders of the palpebral conjunctiva and lid margin may affect the structure and function of meibomian gland. The disorders include allergic conjunctivitis, long-term usage of contact lenses, dermatological diseases that affect conjunctival homeostasis, Stevens-Johnson's syndrome or chemical burning of the ocular surface and lid margin. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. [Late complications after chemical burns of the ocular surface. Surgical strategies for ocular surface reconstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, B; Cursiefen, C

    2011-10-01

    Severe chemical burns of the ocular surface frequently result in long-standing and ongoing disorders of the conjunctiva and the cornea including conjunctival scarring with shortening of the fornix, cicatricial entropion, complications caused by trichiasis and scarring or chronic ulceration of the cornea. Advanced destruction of limbal stem cells leads to limbal stem cell deficiency with conjunctivalization of the cornea. Surgical therapy aims at the correction of malpositioning of the lids, the reconstruction of the conjunctiva and the fornix utilizing applicable tissue grafts and the reestablishment of a stable, avascular and transparent corneal epithelium by e.g. transplantation of epithelial stem cells. Progressive corneal ulcerations unresponsive to medical therapy can be treated by amniotic membrane transplantation, corneal transplantation or by conjunctival covering depending on the extent of damaged tissue. The surgical therapy of patients after severe chemical burns of the ocular surface is generally performed in specialized centers and occasionally requires a multidisciplinary approach.

  17. Ocular surface reconstruction with a tissue-engineered nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheet for the treatment of severe ocular surface diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Nakamura, Takahiro; Yasuda, Makoto; Hata, Yuiko; Okura, Shoki; Iwamoto, Miyu; Nagata, Maho; Fullwood, Nigel J; Koizumi, Noriko; Hisa, Yasuo; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Severe ocular surface diseases (OSDs) with severe dry eye can be devastating and are currently some of the most challenging eye disorders to treat. To investigate the feasibility of using an autologous tissue-engineered cultivated nasal mucosal epithelial cell sheet (CNMES) for ocular surface reconstruction, we developed a novel technique for the culture of nasal mucosal epithelial cells expanded ex vivo from biopsy-derived human nasal mucosal tissues. After the protocol, the CNMESs had 4-5 layers of stratified, well-differentiated cells, and we successfully generated cultured epithelial sheets, including numerous goblet cells. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of keratins 3, 4, and 13; mucins 1, 16, and 5AC; cell junction and basement membrane assembly proteins; and stem/progenitor cell marker p75 in the CNMESs. We then transplanted the CNMESs onto the ocular surfaces of rabbits and confirmed the survival of this tissue, including the goblet cells, up to 2 weeks. The present report describes an attempt to overcome the problems of treating severe OSDs with the most severe dry eye by treating them using tissue-engineered CNMESs to supply functional goblet cells and to stabilize and reconstruct the ocular surface. The present study is a first step toward assessing the use of tissue-engineered goblet-cell transplantation of nonocular surface origin for ocular surface reconstruction. ©AlphaMed Press.

  18. Does topical voriconazole trigger dysplastic changes on the ocular surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Melis; Egrilmez, Sait; Yilmaz, Suzan Guven; Polat, Suleyha Hilmioglu; Gunduz, Omur Ucakhan

    2015-02-01

    Systemic voriconazole treatment was reported to cause photosensitivity and related cutaneous malignancies. The aim of this report is to demonstrate a graft-related Candida endophthalmitis case that developed ocular surface dysplastic changes after receiving topical 1% voriconazole treatment. Full ocular examination, photography, and in vivo confocal microscopy examination (Rostock Cornea Module/HRT II, Heidelberg, Germany) were performed. A 73-year-old male with graft-related Candida endophthalmitis that was on topical 1% voriconazole for 4 months developed a whitish gelatinous lesion on the cornea originating from the nasal limbus. In vivo confocal microscopy examination revealed mild dysplastic changes in the cornea epithelium. Topical voriconazole might trigger neoplastic changes on the ocular surface as reported with systemic use in other sun-exposed parts of the body. Further studies are needed to relate topical use of voriconazole with ocular surface dysplasia.

  19. Effect of TGF-β on ocular surface epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Maria Jesús; Calder, Virginia; Corrales, Rosa M; García-Vázquez, Carmen; Narayanan, Srihari; Herreras, José M; Stern, Michael E; Calonge, Margarita; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia

    2013-02-01

    A role for transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in the pathogenesis of some ocular surface diseases has been proposed. We determined if secretion of TGF-β and expression of TGF-β receptors RI, RII, and RIII by human ocular surface epithelial cells were modified under inflammatory conditions. We also determined how these cells responded to TGF-β. A human corneal epithelial (HCE) cell line and a conjunctival epithelial cell line (IOBA-NHC) were exposed to TGF-β1 and -β2 and to proinflammatory cytokines. TGF-β receptor mRNAs were analyzed by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in both cell lines, and in conjunctival, limbal, and corneal epithelial cells from post-mortem human specimens. Expression of TGF-β receptors and pSMAD2/SMAD2 were determined by Western blot and immunofluorescence assays. Secretion of TGF-β isoforms, cytokine/chemokine, and metalloproteinases (MMPs) were analyzed in cell supernatants by immunobead-based assays. Secretory leukocyte proteinase inhibitor (SLPI) secretion was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TGF-β isoform and receptor gene expression was determined by RT-PCR in conjunctival epithelium of dry eye (DE) patients and healthy subjects. Our results showed that TGF-β RI expression was down-regulated with IL-4 exposure, whereas TGF-β RII and TGF-β2 were upregulated by TNF-α in HCE cells. TGF-β RIII receptor expression was upregulated in IOBA-NHC cells by TNF-α and IFN-γ. SMAD2 phosphorylation occurred in HCE and IOBA-NHC cells after TGF-β treatment. TGF-β significantly up- and down-regulated secretion of several cytokines/chemokines by both cell lines and MMP by HCE cells. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 were upregulated and TGF-β RIII mRNA was down-regulated in DE conjunctival epithelium. These results show that TGF-β plays an important role in directing local inflammatory responses in ocular surface epithelial cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Categorical evaluation of the ocular irritancy of cosmetic and consumer products by human ocular instillation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Kanengiser, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of ocular irritation potential is an important part of safety testing for cosmetic and consumer products. The purpose of this investigation was to examine ocular irritancy levels elicited in humans by various categories of a specific class of cosmetic and consumer products that have a potential to enter the eye inadvertently during use. Test materials assessed belonged to one of seven categories, which included liquid makeup, shampoo, baby wash, mascara, eye makeup remover, powder eye shadow, and facial cleanser. These test materials were evaluated by human ocular instillation, followed by examinations, for which subjective perceptions of irritation were recorded, and component areas of ocular tissues were individually examined for inflammation and for the area and density of fluorescein staining patterns at 30 seconds and at 5, 15, 60, and 120 minutes post-instillation. Subjective and objective ocular irritation scores of 410 eyes were analyzed by product classification. Average score levels were determined for subjective responses, inflammation, and fluorescein staining patterns. This investigation determined that irritation levels of the evaluated test materials varied markedly with respect to product category, type of ocular irritation, and ocular tissue, demonstrating that these factors are important considerations for the prediction of the ocular irritancy of a test material.

  1. Oral alcohol administration disturbs tear film and ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Jung Ha; Nam, Woo Ho; Yi, Kayoung; Choi, Dong Gyu; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang; Shin, Young Joo

    2012-05-01

    To investigate whether ethanol administration disturbs the tear film and ocular surface. Case-control study. Twenty healthy male subjects were recruited. Ethanol was administered to 10 subjects and another 10 subjects served as controls. Twenty healthy male subjects with no ocular disease were recruited. Ethanol (0.75 g/kg) was administered orally at 8 pm for 2 hours to 10 subjects. The tear film and ocular surface were evaluated at 6 pm before drinking, at midnight, and immediately (6 am) and 2 hours (8 am) after waking the next morning. Tear osmolarity, ethanol concentration in tears and serum, Schirmer's test results, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal punctuate erosion, and corneal sensitivity were measured. Ethanol was detected in tears and serum at midnight, but it was not detected the next morning. The mean tear osmolarity level increased in the alcohol group at midnight compared with that in the control group (Ptears. Ethanol in tears induced tear hyperosmolarity and shortened TBUT and triggered the development of ocular surface diseases. Similar changes could exacerbate signs and symptoms in patients with ocular surface disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of diabetes mellitus on the ocular surface: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Stuti L; Braatvedt, Geoffrey D; Patel, Dipika V

    2016-05-01

    Although diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide, ocular surface complications are still largely believed to be uncommon. Although these complications are not often sight threatening, the general well-being of patients and the cost of their health care can be respectively compromised and added by them. Over the last decade, an association of ocular surface complications (in particular reduced corneal sub-basal nerve density and corneal sensitivity) with peripheral neuropathy has emerged, which could help recognize the development of peripheral complications at an earlier stage and also provide research opportunities for examining new treatment modalities of diabetic neuropathies. The ocular surface complications of diabetes mellitus and their association with peripheral neuropathy are reviewed by this report. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Diagnosis and Medical Management of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Ahmed, Ibrahim O; Palioura, Sotiria; Galor, Anat; Karp, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    Topical chemotherapy has gained popularity among clinicians for the treatment of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). The principal topical chemotherapy agents used in the management of OSSN are interferon-α2b, 5-fluorouracil, and mitomycin C. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (HR-OCT) is a non-invasive technique that can differentiate OSSN from other ocular surface lesions. This review highlights the current regimens and diagnostic modalities used in managing OSSN. A review of the literature was performed using the keywords "conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia", "ocular surface squamous neoplasia", "optical coherence tomography", "interferon-α2b", "5-fluorouracil" and "mitomycin C". Topical chemotherapy for OSSN can be used as primary therapy, for chemoreduction prior to surgical excision, and postoperatively to prevent tumor recurrence. It has the advantage of treating microscopic disease as well as large tumors. HR-OCT provides an "optical biopsy" that can assist in diagnosis and guide management of OSSN lesions.

  4. Tissue-engineered epithelium transplantation for severe ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing; Pi, Yuli; Dong, Ying; Zhu, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of tissue-engineered epithelium transplantation for severe ocular surface burns. This was a retrospective observational case series. From October 2005 to May 2011, 19 eyes of 19 patients with grade IV to VI ocular surface burns (Dua Classification) were treated by autologous transplantation of corneal stem cells cultivated on a fibrin gel membrane, with a mean follow-up of 16.2 months (range 12-36 months). Postoperative corneal surface stability, visual acuity (VA), corneal opacity, and neovascularization were evaluated. No corneal perforations occurred and the entire corneal surface was free from epithelial defects in all eyes. At the final follow-up visit, VA in 17 eyes was improved after surgery, with 6 eyes achieving a VA of 20/100 or better. Corneal vascularization was significantly reduced in 17 (89.5%) eyes. Corneal opacity was also improved in 12 (63.2%) eyes. All donor eyes remained healthy. Tissue-engineered epithelium transplantation can promote rapid reepithelialization of the ocular surface, inhibit corneal neovascularization, and improve vision for patients with severe ocular surface burns.

  5. The prevalence of ocular surface complaints in Brazilian patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vital Paulino Costa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of ocular surface complaints in Brazilian patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who used topical intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering regimens. METHODS: In this multicenter, noninterventional, single-visit study, adults with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with an IOP-lowering regimen were administered the 12-item ocular surface disease index (OSDI questionnaire. Each response was scored on a 5-point scale, with 0 indicating symptom present none of the time and 4 indicating symptom present all of the time. The average of the 12 item responses for each patient was transformed to a scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores representing worse disabilities. OSDI results then were categorized as absence of OSD (scores of 0-12, mild OSD (scores of 13-22, moderate OSD (scores of 23-32, or severe OSD (scores of 33100. RESULTS: The 173 enrolled patients had a mean age of 61.2 years, were women in 65.3% of cases, and had glaucoma in 89.0% of cases and ocular hypertension in 11.0% of cases. OSDI scores for 158 patients using 1 IOP-lowering therapy indicated no OSD in 37.3% of patients (59/158, mild OSD in 20.9% (33/158, moderate OSD in 17.1% (27/158, and severe OSD in 24.7% (39/158. For the 120 patients using 1 IOP-lowering medication and having a known duration of diagnosis of glaucoma or ocular hypertension, mean OSDI scores were numerically higher (worse for the 39 patients with a diagnosis ≥6 years long (score 25 [± 20], indicating moderate OSD than for the 81 patients with a diagnosis lasting <6 years (score 22 [± 20], indicating mild OSD; however, no significant differences in OSDI scores by duration of diagnosis were evident in means (P=0.49, distributions (P≥0.26, or correlation (P=0.77. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of Brazilian patients treated with 1 IOP-lowering therapy had some ocular surface complaints.

  6. Bilateral Alterations in Corneal Nerves, Dendritic Cells and Tear Cytokine Levels in Ocular Surface Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hamrah, Pedram; Shimazaki, Jun

    2017-01-01

    This review summarizes recent literature regarding corneal imaging in human subjects using in vivo confocal microscopy and corneal immune cells, nerves, and tear cytokine levels in ocular surface diseases as well as corneal immune privilege. The significance of interactions between corneal immune cells and nerves in health, neurotrophic keratopathy, and infectious keratitis are discussed. Furthermore, bilateral alterations of immune cells and nerves in clinically unilateral corneal diseases and the link to changes of tear cytokines or neuropeptide levels in contralateral eyes are described. Recent studies reported increased density and morphologic changes of corneal dendritic cells in ocular surface disease that correlated with a decrease in sub-basal nerve corneal nerves, suggesting potential interactions between the immune and nervous systems in the cornea. Although the relevance of tear cytokines is poorly understood, tear cytokines might have an important role in the pathogenesis of ocular surface diseases. In humans and experimental animal models, alterations in immune cells, cytokines and immunomodulatory neuropeptide levels in contralateral eyes might mediate the incidence of bilateral infectious keratitis and loss of immune privilege of the cornea in bilateral corneal transplantation or neurotrophic keratopathy cases. The discovery of bilateral alterations of immune cells and nerves in ocular surface diseases is considered the missing link between the immune and nervous systems in the cornea, and demonstrates how studies of animal models and human patients aid our understanding of human corneal disease phenomena. PMID:27617877

  7. Role of high resolution optical coherence tomography in diagnosing ocular surface squamous neoplasia with coexisting ocular surface diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Marwan; Joag, Madhura; Galor, Anat; Amescua, Guillermo; Nanji, Afshan; Wang, Jianhua; Perez, Victor L; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L

    2017-10-01

    Coexistence of an ocular surface disease can mask the typical features of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). The purpose of this study was to evaluate high resolution optical coherence tomography (HR-OCT) as an adjunct in the detection and differentiation of OSSN within coexisting ocular surface pathologies. Retrospective study of 16 patients with ocular surface disease and lesions suspicious for OSSN that were evaluated with HR-OCT. HR-OCT images of the lesions were taken to look for evidence of OSSN. Biopsies were performed in all cases, and the HR-OCT findings were compared to the histological results. Of the 16 patients with OSSN and a coexisting ocular surface disease, 12 were found to have OSSN by HR-OCT and all were subsequently confirmed by biopsy. Two patients had OSSN with rosacea, one with pingueculum, two within pterygia, one with Salzmann' nodular degeneration, six with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD)/scarring. In all 12 cases HR-OCT images revealed classical findings of hyper-reflective, thickened epithelium and an abrupt transition from normal to abnormal epithelium. OSSN was ruled out by HR-OCT in four cases (2 Salzmann's, 1 mucous membrane pemphigoid, and 1 LSCD). Negative findings were confirmed by biopsy. HR-OCT was used to follow resolution of the OSSN in positive cases, and it detected recurrence in 1 case. While histopathology is the gold standard in the diagnosis of OSSN, HR-OCT can be used to noninvasively detect the presence of OSSN in patients with coexisting ocular conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An uncommon case of noninvasive ocular surface squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) is relatively rare with an incidence of 0.13–1.9/100,000 population. OSSN includes dysplastic lesions involving the squamous epithelium of the conjunctiva or cornea. Epibulbar squamous cell carcinoma and epithelioma have been noted commonly, but cases in which the tumor ...

  9. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodi, Andrea; Giacomelli, Giovanni; Corvi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320). The ocular surface temperature (OST) of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272). OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P > 0.05). Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:25436140

  10. Ocular Surface Temperature in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sodi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study is to investigate the ocular thermographic profiles in age-related macular degeneration (AMD eyes and age-matched controls to detect possible hemodynamic abnormalities, which could be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Methods. 32 eyes with early AMD, 37 eyes with atrophic AMD, 30 eyes affected by untreated neovascular AMD, and 43 eyes with fibrotic AMD were included. The control group consisted of 44 healthy eyes. Exclusion criteria were represented by any other ocular diseases other than AMD, tear film abnormalities, systemic cardiovascular abnormalities, diabetes mellitus, and a body temperature higher than 37.5°C. A total of 186 eyes without pupil dilation were investigated by infrared thermography (FLIR A320. The ocular surface temperature (OST of three ocular points was calculated by means of an image processing technique from the infrared images. Two-sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analyses. Results. ANOVA analyses showed no significant differences among AMD groups (P value >0.272. OST in AMD patients was significantly lower than in controls (P>0.05. Conclusions. Considering the possible relationship between ocular blood flow and OST, these findings might support the central role of ischemia in the pathogenesis of AMD.

  11. Evaluation of Ocular Surface Disease in Patients with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Priya M.; Ramulu, Pradeep Y.; Friedman, David S.; Utine, Canan A.; Akpek, Esen K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the subjective and objective measures of ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants Sixty-four glaucoma subjects with bilateral visual field (VF) loss and 59 glaucoma suspects with normal VFs. Methods Consecutive patients were recruited prospectively from the Wilmer Eye Institute Glaucoma Clinic. Main Outcome Measures Tear film breakup time (TBUT), corneal staining score (0–15), and Schirmer’s test results were included as objective metrics, whereas the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire was administered to assess symptoms. Total OSDI score, vision-related subscore (derived from questions about vision and task performance), and discomfort-related subscore (derived from questions about ocular surface discomfort) were calculated for each subject. Results Seventy-five percent (48/64) of glaucoma subjects and 41% (24/59) of glaucoma suspects were receiving topical medications. The corneal staining grade was greater in glaucoma subjects than in glaucoma suspects (6.4 vs. 4.1; P0.20 for both). Multivariate regression models showed that topical glaucoma therapy burden was associated with a significantly higher total corneal staining grade (β, +0.9 for each additional glaucoma drop; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5–1.3; P0.20 for both). Glaucoma subjects had significantly higher total OSDI scores than glaucoma suspects (16.7 vs. 7.9; Pglaucoma group (11.1 vs. 3.3; Pglaucoma therapy burden was not associated with higher total OSDI score or vision- or discomfort-related subscore (P>0.20 for all). Conclusions Glaucoma is associated with significant ocular surface disease, and topical glaucoma therapy burden seems predictive of corneal staining severity. However, OSDI is a poor metric for capturing ocular surface disease in glaucoma because symptoms seem to be related largely to VF loss. PMID:23714318

  12. AMNIOTIC MEMBRANE TRANSPLANTATION IN OCULAR SURFACE DISORDERS – A CASE SERIES

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    Umesh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cornea, conjunctiva and the limbus comprise the tissues at the ocular surface. All of them are covered by stratified, squamous, non-keratinising epithelium and a stable tear film. The ocular surface health is ensured by intimate relationship between ocular surface epithelia and the preocular tear film. It is essential to establish accurate diagnosis for appropriate management of complex ocular surface disorders. Management has improved with introduction of the limbal stem cell concept and amniotic membrane transplantation.

  13. Local synthesis of sex hormones: are there consequences for the ocular surface and dry eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Emma J; Stapleton, Fiona; Wolffsohn, James S; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2017-12-01

    Sex hormones are associated with the physiology and pathophysiology of almost all organs in the body, as well as most diseases. Interest in the associations between sex hormones and ocular tissues has increased in recent years. Androgens may have a positive effect on dry eye, whereas the effects of oestrogen on ocular conditions remain unclear. Intracrinology, the local synthesis and metabolism of hormones that is unique to humans, is of relevance to the eye and may help to explain why studies of the relationship between oestrogens and dry eye signs and symptoms are inconclusive. Knowledge of the pathways of hormone formation and metabolism is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of ocular disease including dry eye. This review examines the mechanisms of steroidal sex hormone biosynthesis and reviews the significance of locally produced sex hormones, with a focus on ocular surface tissues. Much of the current literature is based on animal studies, which may not be transferable to humans due to the absence of intracrine production in animals. A large proportion of the human studies investigate systemic hormone levels rather than local levels. There is subsequently a need for additional studies to provide a better understanding of the local production of sex hormones within the human eye and ocular surface and to clarify the relationships between ocular levels of sex hormones and conditions including dry eye. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Observation of Influence of Cataract Surgery on the Ocular Surface.

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    Yuli Park

    Full Text Available To evaluate meibomian gland function, changes of lacrimal tears and ocular surface parameters and tear inflammatory mediators following cataract surgery.48 eyes of 34 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification were involved and divided into 2 groups with those who had preexisting dry-eye before cataract surgery and those who did not. Ocular symptom score, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT, corneal sensitivity threshold, corneal staining, inflammatory cytokine activities, lid margin abnormalities, meibum expressibility, meibum quality and meibomian gland imaging were evaluated preoperatively, at 1 day, 1 and 2 months postoperatively.Ocular symptom scores were worse at 1 and 2 months postoperatively but, TBUT, corneal staining score and corneal sensitivity threshold showed gradual improvements at 1 month and 2 months postoperatively (p<0.05, respectively. Interestingly there were statistically significant improvements in TBUT, corneal staining score and corneal sensitivity threshold at 1 month postoperatively when topical eye drops were used compared to the period without topical therapy which is the months 2 postoperatively. There were statistically significant decreases in IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TNF-α and IFN-γ concentrations at 1 and 2 months postoperatively. Lid margin abnormalities, meibum quality and expressibility scores increased significantly (p < 0.05, respectively at postoperative period. Compared with the no dry eye group, dry eye group revealed significantly higher ocular symptom scores, lower TBUT, higher lid margin abnormalities, meibum quality and expressibility scores after cataract surgery. There were significant correlations between IL-6 and parameters of dry eye, and between MGD parameters and ocular symptom scores.Our study revealed that meibomian gland function is influenced after cataract surgery accompanying structural changes and these were correlated with increased ocular symptom scores

  15. Cornea Society nomenclature for ocular surface rehabilitative procedures.

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    Daya, Sheraz M; Chan, Clara C; Holland, Edward J

    2011-10-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been tremendous development in ocular surface rehabilitation and, through better understanding and improvements in analytic and culture techniques, a variety of new procedures have been developed. Differing techniques have been used internationally and often similar terminology is used when procedures could be considered to be quite different or vice versa. To communicate clearly and to compare techniques and outcomes, it was determined that an agreed international nomenclature was necessary. A subcommittee was established by The Cornea Society. An initial steering group of international experts with special interest in ocular surface was assembled and established broad principles for the nomenclature based on a previous nomenclature. The nomenclature for procedures was based on several parameters, including a) anatomic source of tissue transplanted, for example conjunctival, keratolimbal or mucosal, b) whether the source was autologous or allogeneic (cadaveric or living related), and c) cell culture techniques. For example, an expanded cell culture of cadaveric limbal tissue was named ex-vivo cultivated cadaveric limbal allograft (EvC-LAL). Agreed nomenclature for transplantation procedures used in ocular surface rehabilitation has been developed, and use of this common terminology should help communication among those involved in this field.

  16. Correlation between acute conjunctivitis and Asian dust on ocular surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Ryota; Hayashi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Kazue; Kato, Hitoshi; Kurata, Yoshinori; Fuchino, Yuki; Nakamichi, Toshifumi; Migita, Hironori; Yano, Hiroko; Sakata, Tetsuya; Uchio, Eiichi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Asian dust particles (ADP) in patients suffering from conjunctivitis and its correlation with clinical scores for conjunctivitis. Forty-five patients from the Fukuoka area who were newly diagnosed acute conjunctivitis were selected. The degrees of inflammatory reaction, itchy sensation, hyperemia, eye discharge, and foreign body sensation were clinically recorded and scored. Eyes were washed with physiological solution. Solid particles collected from the washing solution were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Of the 45 samples, 44 were positive for the elements silicon (Si) and aluminum (Al), which are components of ambient Asian dust. Higher conjunctivitis scores were found in the subgroup in which the Asian dust/whole particle ratio was greater than average. This is the first apparent report on the correlation between amount of ADP exposure at the ocular surface and severity of ocular symptoms.

  17. Serum levels of vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface after bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paula Nogueira de Araújo BRANDÃO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, but the surgery increases the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A deficiency. In human metabolism, vitamin A plays a role in vision. OBJECTIVE To evaluate serum vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. METHODS A cross-sectional and analytical study was conduced with 28 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for at least 6 months. Ophthalmologic evaluation was done through color vision test, contrast sensitivity test, ocular surface tests and confocal microscopy, as well as vitamin A serum measurement. RESULTS Vertical sleeve gastrectomy was performed in seven (25.0% patients and Roux -en-Y gastric by-pass in 21 (75.0%. Mean serum vitamin A level was 1.7±0.5 µmoL/L. Most patients (60.7% had symptoms of dry eye. Five (17.9% patients had contrast sensitivity impairment and 18 (64.3% color vision changes. In the group of patients undergoing Roux -en-Y gastric by-pass , mean vitamin A levels were 1.8±0.6 µmoL/L, whereas they were 1.7±0.5 µmoL/L in patients submitted to the restrictive technique vertical sleeve gastrectomy . The analysis of the influence of serum levels of vitamin A in the visual function and ocular surface was performed by Pearson correlation test and there was no significant correlation between any of the variables and vitamin A. CONCLUSION There was no influence of the bariatric surgery technique used on serum vitamin A levels, on the visual function or on the ocular surface. Moreover, there was no correlation between serum levels of vitamin A and the visual function or the ocular surface changes.

  18. Serum levels of vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Luana Paula Nogueira de Araújo; Vilar, Lucio; Cavalcanti, Bernardo Menelau; Brandão, Pedro Henrique Amorim; Arantes, Tiago Eugênio Faria E; Campos, Josemberg Marins

    2017-01-01

    - Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment for severe obesity, but the surgery increases the risk of developing nutritional deficiencies, such as vitamin A deficiency. In human metabolism, vitamin A plays a role in vision. - To evaluate serum vitamin A, visual function and ocular surface of patients undergoing bariatric surgery. - A cross-sectional and analytical study was conduced with 28 patients undergoing bariatric surgery for at least 6 months. Ophthalmologic evaluation was done through color vision test, contrast sensitivity test, ocular surface tests and confocal microscopy, as well as vitamin A serum measurement. - Vertical sleeve gastrectomy was performed in seven (25.0%) patients and Roux -en-Y gastric by-pass in 21 (75.0%). Mean serum vitamin A level was 1.7±0.5 µmoL/L. Most patients (60.7%) had symptoms of dry eye. Five (17.9%) patients had contrast sensitivity impairment and 18 (64.3%) color vision changes. In the group of patients undergoing Roux -en-Y gastric by-pass , mean vitamin A levels were 1.8±0.6 µmoL/L, whereas they were 1.7±0.5 µmoL/L in patients submitted to the restrictive technique vertical sleeve gastrectomy . The analysis of the influence of serum levels of vitamin A in the visual function and ocular surface was performed by Pearson correlation test and there was no significant correlation between any of the variables and vitamin A. - There was no influence of the bariatric surgery technique used on serum vitamin A levels, on the visual function or on the ocular surface. Moreover, there was no correlation between serum levels of vitamin A and the visual function or the ocular surface changes.

  19. Corneal Expression of SLURP-1 by Age, Sex, Genetic Strain, and Ocular Surface Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamynathan, Sudha; Delp, Emili E; Harvey, Stephen A K; Loughner, Chelsea L; Raju, Leela; Swamynathan, Shivalingappa K

    2015-12-01

    Although secreted Ly6/urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor-related protein-1 (Slurp1) transcript is highly abundant in the mouse cornea, corresponding protein expression remains uncharacterized. Also, SLURP1 was undetected in previous tear proteomics studies, resulting in ambiguity about its baseline levels. Here, we examine mouse corneal Slurp1 expression in different sexes, age groups, strains, and health conditions, and quantify SLURP1 in human tears from healthy or inflamed ocular surfaces. Expression of Slurp1 in embryonic day-13 (E13), E16, postnatal day-1 (PN1), PN10, PN20, and PN70 Balb/C, FVBN, C57Bl/6, and DBA/2J mouse corneas, Klf4Δ/ΔCE corneas with corneal epithelial-specific ablation of Klf4, migrating cells in wild-type corneal epithelial wound edge, and in corneas exposed to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) poly(I:C), zymosan-A, or Pam3Csk4 was examined by QPCR, immunoblots, and immunofluorescent staining. Human SLURP1 levels were quantified by ELISA in tears from 34 men and women aged 18 to 80 years. Expression of Slurp1, comparable in different strains and sexes, was low in E13, E16, PN1, and PN10 mouse corneas, and increased rapidly after eyelid opening in a Klf4-dependent manner. We found Slurp1 was downregulated in corneas exposed to PAMPs, and in migrating cells at the wound edge. Human SLURP1 expression, comparable in different sexes and age groups, was significantly decreased in tears from inflamed ocular surfaces (0.34%) than those from healthy individuals (0.77%). These data describe the influence of age, sex, genetic background, and ocular surface health on mouse corneal expression of Slurp1, establish the baseline for human tear SLURP1 expression, and identify SLURP1 as a useful diagnostic and/or therapeutic target for inflammatory ocular surface disorders.

  20. Topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in mild lagophthalmos

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    Itakura M

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mariko Itakura,1 Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Tomoyuki Kashima,2 Hideo Akiyama,2 Shoji Kishi21Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, JapanAbstract: Administration of topical rebamipide improves the ocular surface in dry eye. We consecutively studied seven eyes in seven cases (three males and four females with mild lagophthalmos (three cases after eyelid surgery, two cases of incomplete facial nerve palsy, and two cases of senile ectropion during the treatment of corneal disorders with rebamipide eye drops four times daily for 2 weeks. The fluorescein corneal staining (FCS score, tear film break-up time (TBUT, Schirmer's test, and decimal visual acuity were examined. Ocular symptoms were examined and scored by questioning each patient before and after administration of the drug. In all seven eyes, inferior corneal erosion decreased or disappeared within 2 weeks after administration of topical rebamipide. The FCS score was significantly improved (P < 0.05. The TBUT was significantly extended from 2.9 ± 0.5 seconds to 5.2 ± 0.4 seconds (P < 0.05. The scores of ocular symptoms, such as eye pain, dryness, blurred vision, and foreign body sensations, were significantly improved (P < 0.05.Topical rebamipide was effective for corneal disorders in mild lagophthalmos. This drug may provide a novel approach to treat lagophthalmos.Keywords: dry eye, ectropion, eyelid surgery, facial nerve palsy, lagophthalmos, rebamipide

  1. Tear osmolarity and ocular surface parameters in patients with psoriasis

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    Goktug Demirci

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity, tear film function, and ocular surface changes in patients with psoriasis. Methods: At a single center, 30 eyes of 30 patients with psoriasis (group 1 and 30 eyes of 30 healthy individuals (group 2 were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT test, scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using a modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity measurement. Results: Tear osmolarity values, OSDI, and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 (309.8 ± 9.4 mOsm, 38.9 ± 1.1, and 0.7 ± 1.1, respectively than in group 2 (292.7 ± 7.7 mOsm, 4.2 ± 0.3, and 0.1 ± 0.3, respectively; p<0.01 for all. TBUT was significantly lower in group 1 (8.7 ± 3.6 s than in group 2 (18.1 ± 2.8 s; p<0.001. No significant differences were detected in Schirmer I test values between the groups (16.2 ± 2.5 mm in group 1 and 16.6 ± 2.3 mm in group 2; p=0.629. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that psoriasis may influence tear osmolarity and tear film function. Patients with psoriasis showed tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.

  2. Ocular-surface temperature modification by cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccare, Giuseppe; Fresina, Michela; Agnifili, Luca; Versura, Piera

    2016-07-01

    To analyze ocular-surface temperature changes after microincision cataract surgery and to correlate them with surgical, clinical, and laboratory parameters. Ophthalmology Unit, Saint Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna, Italy. Prospective case series. Patients affected by monolateral senile cataract were examined preoperatively and 7 days and 28 days postoperatively. Infrared thermography was used to measure the temperature soon after eye opening, the temperature after 10 seconds of sustained eye opening, and the difference between these 2 values in the central cornea, nasal limbus, and temporal limbus. The Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), Schirmer test, vital staining, tear breakup time (TBUT), conjunctival scraping cytology, exudated tear-serum albumin, and laser flare-cell meter examinations were performed. The study comprised 26 patients (10 men, 16 women). The temperature changed significantly after surgery. The temperature soon after eye opening showed cooling in the central cornea and nasal limbus and heating in the temporal limbus. The temperature after 10 seconds of sustained eye opening minus the temperature soon after eye opening increased in all regions. The temperature after 10 seconds of sustained eye opening minus the temperature soon after eye opening in the central cornea was inversely related to the OSDI and directly related to TBUT. The temperature soon after eye opening increased in the temporal limbus and was directly related to inflammatory indices. The ocular-surface temperature changed after cataract surgery depending on the region analyzed. The cooling in the central cornea could be related to the increased tear-film instability. The heating in the temporal limbus could be related to postoperative inflammation. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transcription, Translation, and Function of Lubricin, a Boundary Lubricant, at the Ocular Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Tannin A.; Sullivan, David A.; Knop, Erich; Richards, Stephen M.; Knop, Nadja; Liu, Shaohui; Sahin, Afsun; Darabad, Raheleh Rahimi; Morrison, Sheila; Kam, Wendy R.; Sullivan, Benjamin D.

    2013-01-01

    Importance Lubricin may be an important barrier to the development of corneal and conjunctival epitheliopathies that may occur in dry eye disease and contact lens wear. Objective To test the hypotheses that lubricin (ie, proteoglycan 4 [PRG4]), a boundary lubricant, is produced by ocular surface epithelia and acts to protect the cornea and conjunctiva against significant shear forces generated during an eyelid blink and that lubricin deficiency increases shear stress on the ocular surface and promotes corneal damage. Design, Setting, and Participants Human, porcine, and mouse tissues and cells were processed for molecular biological, immunohistochemical, and tribological studies, and wild-type and PRG4 knockout mice were evaluated for corneal damage. Results Our findings demonstrate that lubricin is transcribed and translated by corneal and conjunctival epithelial cells. Lubricin messenger RNA is also present in lacrimal and meibomian glands, as well as in a number of other tissues. Absence of lubricin in PRG4 knockout mice is associated with a significant increase in corneal fluorescein staining. Our studies also show that lubricin functions as an effective friction-lowering boundary lubricant at the human cornea-eyelid interface. This effect is specific and cannot be duplicated by the use of hyaluronate or bovine serum albumin solutions. Conclusions and Relevance Our results show that lubricin is transcribed, translated, and expressed by ocular surface epithelia. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that lubricin presence significantly reduces friction between the cornea and conjunctiva and that lubricin deficiency may play a role in promoting corneal damage. PMID:23599181

  4. Preoperative brush and impression cytology in ocular surface squamous neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Canan; Yağmur, Meltem; Ersöz, T Reha; Yalaz, Müslime

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative cytologic diagnoses of ocular surface squamous neoplasms were evaluated and compared with histologic diagnoses. Impression cytology (Millipore filter paper) and brush cytology were applied to 32 patients who had conjunctival neoplasms. Papanicolaou-stained cytologic preparations and hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections were examined by light microscopy. The brush technique was used on 27 patients; impression cytology was applied in 5 cases. Cytologic and histologic diagnoses were concordant in 26 cases. Squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in 18 and dysplasia in 4 cases. Squamous metaplasia and normal-appearing conjunctival epithelial cells were diagnosed cytologically in four cases; of those histologic diagnoses, one was pterygium and three, conjunctival nevus. Four cases revealed discrepancies between the cytologic and histologic preparations. There was one false positive result, and one case was subconjunctival invasion of basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid. Impression and brush cytology are fast, cost-effective, reliable and noninvasive diagnostic tools for ocular surface squamous neoplasms. However, the brush technique has several advantages over impression cytology.

  5. Evaluation of ocular surface temperature in patients with pterygium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Johannes; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Klein, Julian Phillip; Bertelmann, Eckart; Pleyer, Uwe; Klamann, Matthias K J

    2014-04-01

    To investigate ocular surface temperature in eyes with pterygium and dry eye disease. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients with pterygium (group 1), 18 eyes of 18 patients diagnosed with dry eye disease (group 2), and 22 eyes of 22 healthy subjects with no signs of dry eye (group 3), were included in this prospective study. Schirmer's test I and II, and tear film break up time (BUT) were evaluated. Infrared thermal imaging (Tomey TG 1000, Tomey Corp, Nagoya, Japan) was used to study the temperature of the ocular surface. All measurements were performed by one examiner only. No significant difference in temperature course over ten seconds of eye opening was present between groups 1 and 2 (p=0.551). However, a significant difference was present between groups 1 and 3 (p=0.001) and between groups 2 and 3 (p=0.003). Comparing group 1 and group 2, statistically significant differences in Schirmer's test I (psurface temperature occurred in eyes with pterygium and dry eye disease. Thermography, in addition to other investigations, might be used to objectively identify dry eye symptoms in patients with pterygium. In addition to cosmetic appearance, increasing astigmatism, and expanding growth towards the center of the cornea, this new supplementary data may help to determine the proper time for intervention.

  6. Ocular surface frostbite secondary to ethyl chloride spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nelson A; Ascaso, Francisco J

    2012-03-01

    Ethyl chloride (EC) is a fast-acting vapo-coolant spray that provides rapid, transient, local analgesia for minor invasive procedures. Although the application of EC has decreased, it can be used as a cryoanalgesic agent in minor surgical procedures. Despite the widespread use of EC as a local anesthetic, there are few reported cases of serious adverse side effects. We report a 67-year old otherwise healthy man who underwent excision of a papilloma on his superior right eyelid by a general practitioner at a primary care center. The lesion was removed by curettage after slight freezing with EC spray. This chemical agent was applied without the adequate eye protection, and eight hours later the patient presented an acute frost injury of ocular surface. Urgent treatment included copious irrigation of the affected eye, especially the conjunctival fornices, corticosteroid (prednisone) and antibiotic (neomycin) ointment. A week later, the eyelid lesion and keratoconjunctivitis had resolved but evidence of early cicatrization involving the inferior conjucntival fornix and symblepharon formation were present. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an acute burn of the ocular surface following EC spray exposure. EC should be avoided for short-term local anesthesia in the periocular region to prevent this serious complication.

  7. Analysis of ocular surface area for comfortable VDT workstation layout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotoyama, M; Jonai, H; Saito, S; Villanueva, M B

    1996-06-01

    This paper proposes a comfortable visual display terminal (VDT) workstation layout based on an analysis of ocular surface area (OSA). A large OSA induces eye irritation and eye fatigue because the eye surface is highly sensitive to various stimuli. The authors considered that OSA must be one of the useful indices of visual ergonomics and applied it to evaluate VDT workstation layout. Each subject was asked to perform a word processing task using four different VDT workstation layouts. It was found that the main factor affecting OSA was not cathode ray tube (CRT) height itself but the distance between the CRT and keyboard. Thus the following workstation layout is recommended to realize comfortable VDT operation: (1) the desk height should be adjusted to the user's height; and (2) the CRT display should be set closer to the keyboard to provide a smaller OSA.

  8. How Ocular Surface Disease Impacts the Glaucoma Treatment Outcome

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    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment goals for glaucoma are lowering the intraocular pressure and preservation of vision. Topical hypotensive drops are the standard form of therapy which is often associated with some symptoms of toxicity, ocular inflammation, allergy, or ocular surface disease (OSD. OSD is a common comorbidity in glaucoma patients, and its prevalence with glaucoma increases with age. Use of topical treatment could additionally increase symptoms of OSD mostly due to preservatives added to multidose medication bottles used to reduce the risk of microbial contamination. This toxicity has been particularly associated with BAK, the most commonly used preservative which damages conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells and significantly aggravates OSD symptoms. OSD adversely affects patients’ quality of life causing discomfort and problems with vision which in turn may result in noncompliance, lack of adherence, and eventually visual impairment. In the management of glaucoma patients OSD symptoms should not be overlooked. If they are present, topical glaucoma treatment should be adapted by decreasing the amount of drops instilled daily, using BAK-free or preservative-free medication and lubricants if necessary. Awareness of the presence and importance of OSD will in turn improve patients' adherence and compliance and thus ultimately the preservation of long-term vision.

  9. Membrana amniótica como alternativa de tratamiento en superficie ocular Amniotic membrane as a therapeutic option for the ocular surface

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    Keyly Fernández García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica con el objetivo de conocer la utilidad de la membrana amniótica como alternativa de tratamiento en la superficie ocular. Son abordados tópicos como las diferentes formas de obtención, preparación y conservación de la misma, sus mecanismos de acción y aplicaciones. Se consultó una bibliografía que abarca un periodo de varios años para conocer los resultados publicados sobre el trasplante de membrana amniótica humana en la superficie ocular.A literature review was made to learn about the usefulness of the amniotic membrane as a therapeutic option for the ocular surface. The different ways for obtaining, preparing, and conserving this membrane, its mechanism of action and its applications were also addressed. Literature covering several years was reviewed in order to be acquainted with the published results of the human amniotic membrane transplantation on the ocular surface.

  10. Diagnosis of ocular surface lesions using ultra-high-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Mohamed Abou; Karp, Carol L; Canto, Ana Paula; Hodson, Kelly; Oellers, Patrick; Kao, Andrew A; Bielory, Brett; Matthews, Jared; Dubovy, Sander R; Perez, Victor L; Wang, Jianhua

    2013-05-01

    To assess the use of ultra-high-resolution (UHR) optical coherence tomography (OCT) in the diagnosis of ocular surface lesions. Prospective, noncomparative, interventional case series. Fifty-four eyes of 53 consecutive patients with biopsy-proven ocular surface lesions: 8 primary acquired melanosis lesions, 5 amelanotic melanoma lesions, 2 nevi, 19 ocular surface squamous neoplasia lesions, 1 histiocytosis lesion, 6 conjunctival lymphoma lesions, 2 conjunctival amyloidosis lesions, and 11 pterygia lesions. Ultra-high-resolution OCT imaging of the ocular surface lesions. Clinical course and photographs, UHR OCT image, and histopathologic findings. Ultra-high-resolution OCT images of all examined ocular surface lesions showed close correlation with the obtained histopathologic specimens. When clinical differential diagnosis of ocular surface lesions was broad, UHR OCT images provided optical signs indicating a more specific diagnosis and management. In cases of amelanotic melanoma, conjunctival amyloidosis, and primary histiocytosis and in 1 case of ocular surface squamous neoplasia, UHR OCT was instrumental in guiding the diagnosis. In those cases, UHR OCT suggested that the presumed clinical diagnosis was incorrect and favored a diagnosis that later was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Correlations between UHR OCT and histopathologic findings confirm that UHR OCT is an adjunctive diagnostic method that can provide a noninvasive means to help guide diagnosis and management of ocular surface lesions. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Lesions Using Ultra-High Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shousha, Mohamed Abou; Karp, Carol L.; Canto, Ana Paula; Hodson, Kelly; Oellers, Patrick; Kao, Andrew A.; Bielory, Brett; Matthews, Jared; Dubovy, Sander R.; Perez, Victor L.; Wang, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the use of ultra high resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) in the diagnosis of ocular surface lesions. Design Prospective, non-comparative, interventional case series. Participants Fifty four eyes of 53 consecutive patients with biopsy proven ocular surface lesions; 8 primary acquired melanosis, 5 amelanotic melanoma, 2 nevi, 19 ocular surface squamous neoplasia, 1 histiocytosis, 6 conjunctival lymphoma, 2 conjunctival amyloidosis, and 11 pterygia. Intervention UHR-OCT imaging of the ocular surface lesions. Main Outcome Measures Clinical course and photographs, UHR-OCT image and histopathological findings. Results UHR-OCT images of all examined ocular surface lesions showed close correlation with the obtained histopathological specimens. When clinical differential diagnosis of ocular surface lesions was broad, UHR-OCT images provided optical signs that guided towards a more specific diagnosis and management. In cases of amelanotic melanoma, conjunctival amyloidosis, and primary histiocytosis and in one case of ocular surface squamous neoplasia, UHR-OCT was instrumental in guiding the diagnosis. In those cases, UHR-OCT suggested that the presumed clinical diagnosis was incorrect and favored a diagnosis which was later confirmed by histopathological examination. Conclusions Correlations between UHR-OCT and histopathology confirm that UHR-OCT is an adjunctive diagnostic modality that can provide a non-invasive means to help and guide diagnosis and management of ocular surface lesions. PMID:23347984

  12. Anterior Segment Imaging in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have transformed the way ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is diagnosed and monitored. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM has been reported to be useful primarily in the assessment of intraocular invasion and metastasis. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM shows enlarged and irregular nuclei with hyperreflective cells in OSSN lesions and this has been found to correlate with histopathology findings. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT demonstrates thickened hyperreflective epithelium with an abrupt transition between abnormal and normal epithelium in OSSN lesions and this has also been shown to mimic histopathology findings. Although there are limitations to each of these imaging modalities, they can be useful adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of OSSN and could greatly assist the clinician in the management of OSSN patients. Nevertheless, anterior segment imaging has not replaced histopathology’s role as the gold standard in confirming diagnosis.

  13. Long term treatment with sodium hyaluronate-containing artificial tears reduces ocular surface damage in patients with dry eye

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aragona, Pasquale; Papa, Vincenzo; Micali, Antonio; Santocono, Marcello; Milazzo, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    ... abnormalities of the ocular surface. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of sodium hyaluronate-containing eye drops on the ocular surface of patients with dry eye during long term treatment...

  14. Membrana amniótica nas cirurgias reconstrutivas da superfície ocular nas ceratoconjuntivites cicatriciais Amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction in cicatricial keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alvaro Pereira Gomes

    1999-10-01

    based on the ability to improve epithelial healing and to decrease inflammatory, angiogenic and cicatricial processes. The purpose of this study was to report the surgical outcome of human amniotic membrane use for surface reconstruction in ocular cicatricial diseases. Methods: Amniotic membrane was obtained at the time of cesarean section and was preserved at -80ºC in glycerol and cornea culture media at a ratio of 1:1. Eleven eyes of 10 patients underwent amniotic membrane transplantation, associated (8 eyes or not (3 eyes with corneal limbal graft. Ocular surface reconstruction was performed after chemical burns (6 eyes, trauma (1 eye and Stevens-Johnson's syndrome (SJS (4 eyes. Results: Mean follow-up time was 5.22 months (range, 2-13 months. One case of SSJ developed early postoperative infection and was excluded from the analysis. Successful ocular surface reconstruction was achieved in 8 eyes (80%. Surgical failure was observed in 2 cases of SJS who presented corneal melting at the time of surgery (20%. Conclusions: This study suggests that amniotic membrane transplantation is an effective alternative for surface reconstruction in stable ocular cicatricial diseases. Larger studies with longer follow-up are necessary to further analyse this procedure.

  15. Prolonged exposure to loteprednol etabonate in human tear fluid and rabbit ocular tissues following topical ocular administration of Lotemax gel, 0.5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowski, Shellise; Lowe, Ezra; Siou-Mermet, Raphaele; Ong, Tuyen; Richardson, Mary

    2014-02-01

    A new gel formulation containing loteprednol etabonate (LE), a C-20 ester corticosteroid used to treat ocular inflammation, was developed to provide increased retention on the ocular surface for improved drug delivery to intraocular tissues. This investigation evaluated concentrations of LE in tear fluid following topical instillation of LE gel to humans and the ocular and systemic pharmacokinetics of LE following administration to rabbits. LE ophthalmic gel 0.5% was administered as a single topical dose to human volunteers (n=12) and Dutch Belted rabbits (n=40). In the human study, tear sampling was performed at 6, 9, 12, and 24 h after instillation. In the rabbit study, tears and ocular tissues were collected from 5 min through 24 h postdose. Serial blood samples were collected from one cohort of rabbits for plasma analysis. Concentrations of LE were determined by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. In humans, LE was detected in tears at all the time points assessed with mean concentrations of 114 μg/g at 6 h declining to 2.41 μg/g at 24 h postdose. In rabbits, LE was detected in all ocular tissues within 5 min after dosing. Maximum concentrations of LE were achieved within 0.5 h and were highest in tear fluid (1560 μg/g), followed by bulbar conjunctiva (4.03 μg/g), cornea, (2.18 μg/g), iris/ciliary body (0.162 μg/g), and aqueous humor (0.0138 μg/mL). LE remained measurable in all ocular tissues through 24 h with the exception of aqueous humor. In contrast, plasma levels of LE were low with no detectable levels after 4 h. The gel formulation of LE provided prolonged exposure to LE on the ocular surface, with measurable levels in tears through 24 h in both humans and rabbits, for delivery of LE to anterior segment tissues, as evidenced by sustained levels of LE in rabbit conjunctiva, cornea, and iris/ciliary body.

  16. Exfoliative Cytology in the Diagnosis of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayat, Kim Vieira; Correa Dantas, Paulo Elias; Felberg, Sérgio; Galvão, Maria Antonieta; Saieg, Mauro Ajaj

    2017-01-01

    Surface tumors of the eye comprise an ample spectrum of diseases with various clinical manifestations. Diagnosis has been traditionally achieved through core biopsies, but cytology is an innovative, fast, and minimally invasive method. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of exfoliative cytology as an alternative method for the detection of ocular surface squamous neoplasm (OSSN). Exfoliative cytology of the lesions was performed by collecting smears using plastic brushes followed by smearing the cells onto slides and subsequently fixing them in 90% alcohol. Incisional biopsies were performed at the exact same location and sent for processing in 10% formaldehyde. Both the surgical pathologist and cytopathologist were masked to the clinical characteristics and to the corresponding cytological or histological result. Twenty-two patients were enrolled in the study (12 men and 10 women, median age 52.5 years). Final histological diagnoses comprised 7 cases of pterygium, 7 squamous-cell carcinomas, 4 squamous papillomas, and 4 chronic inflammatory processes. Cytohistological agreement was achieved in 19 (86.4%) of the samples. Cytology showed a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 85.7%, 86.7%, 75%, and 92.9%, respectively, in detecting OSSN. Exfoliative cytology of the conjunctival lesions is a simple procedure, with high agreement to the histological follow-up. Its broad use could augment the early diagnosis of OSSN, with improvement in patient prognosis.

  17. Epidemiology of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in a Veterans Affairs Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Andrew J; McClellan, Allison L; Pezon, Candido F; Karp, Carol L; Feuer, William; Galor, Anat

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and its associated risk factors in a South Florida Veterans Affairs Hospital population. Retrospective case-control study. Twenty-eight confirmed cases of OSSN from 24,179 veterans who received care at the Miami Veterans Affairs Healthcare System and affiliated satellite eye clinics between March 1, 2007, and March 1, 2012. Data extracted from the veterans administration database that comprised demographic information and medical diagnosis information [based on International Classification of Disease (ICD-9) codes]. The main outcome measures were the period prevalence of OSSN and identification of factors associated with the presence of disease. The period prevalence of OSSN in our population was 0.1%. The risk factors studied included UV-related dermatologic diseases (melanoma, squamous and basal cell cancer, and actinic keratosis), UV-related ocular conditions (pterygium), HIV seropositivity, human papilloma virus-related diseases, and tobacco use. The presence of skin malignancy (squamous cell carcinoma and/or basal cell carcinoma) and pterygium was found to be significantly associated with the presence of OSSN [odds ratio, 4.40; 95% confidence interval, 2.03-9.55; P ocular conditions related to sun exposure was the most important risk factor for the occurrence of OSSN in a South Florida Veterans Affairs Healthcare System population consistent with previous epidemiological reports worldwide.

  18. Tear Cytokine Profile as a Noninvasive Biomarker of Inflammation for Ocular Surface Diseases: Standard Operating Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi; Gadaria-Rathod, Neha; Epstein, Seth; Asbell, Penny

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To provide standard operating procedures (SOPs) for measuring tear inflammatory cytokine concentrations and to validate the resulting profile as a minimally invasive objective metric and biomarker of ocular surface inflammation for use in multicenter clinical trials on dry eye disease (DED). Methods. Standard operating procedures were established and then validated with cytokine standards, quality controls, and masked tear samples collected from local and distant clinical sites. The concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines in tears were quantified using a high-sensitivity human cytokine multiplex kit. Results. A panel of inflammatory cytokines was initially investigated, from which four key inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, INF-γ, and TNF-α) were chosen. Results with cytokine standards statistically satisfied the manufacturer's quality control criteria. Results with pooled tear samples were highly reproducible and reliable with tear volumes ranging from 4 to 10 μL. Incorporation of the SOPs into clinical trials was subsequently validated. Tear samples were collected at a distant clinical site, stored, and shipped to our Biomarker Laboratory, where a masked analysis of the four tear cytokines was successfully performed. Tear samples were also collected from a feasibility study on DED. Inflammatory cytokine concentrations were decreased in tears of subjects who received anti-inflammatory treatment. Conclusions. Standard operating procedures for human tear cytokine assessment suitable for multicenter clinical trials were established. Tear cytokine profiling using these SOPs may provide objective metrics useful for diagnosing, classifying, and analyzing treatment efficacy in inflammatory conditions of the ocular surface, which may further elucidate the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease. PMID:24204044

  19. Demodex species in human ocular disease: new clinicopathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen G; Oakley, Carmen L; Tan, Andrea; Vote, Brendan J

    2017-02-01

    Demodex brevis and Demodex folliculorum are likely ubiquitous organisms associated with human eyelashes. However, they have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of external ocular diseases. This article reviews the current literature in regards to life cycle, morphology, pathogenesis and treatment of underlying Demodex spp. infestation and outlines the previously undescribed in vivo behaviour of the mites. Images were obtained from the epilation of lashes from 404 patients seen in clinical practice. Epilated lashes were placed on a microscope slide which had been coated with optically clear hypromellose/carbomer gel (Genteal gel, Novartis pharmaceuticals corporation, East Hanover, New Jersey). Adults were identified with either dark field or standard transmission microscopy at 40-100×. Eggs and other life-cycle stages were examined at 250× magnification, with transmission microscopy giving the best image resolution. The life cycle of the mite has been reviewed and simplified according to clinical observations. Clinical signs suggestive of underlying Demodex spp. infestation have been described, and their pathogenesis was explained based on the micrographic digital images obtained. The problem of symptomatic Demodex spp. disease likely reflects an imbalance in the external ocular ecology; however, the role of Demodex spp. as a commensal should not be overlooked. Treatment should not be aimed at total eradication of the mite but rather restoring the ocular ecology to a balanced state. By revisiting the life cycle of the mite, we can identify areas where possible intervention may be effective.

  20. Clinical outcomes of repeat autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation for ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sayan; Ali, Hasnat; Sangwan, Virender S

    2012-04-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of repeat autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in patients with recurrence of limbal stem cell deficiency after a failed primary procedure. Retrospective case series. This study included 50 patients, above 8 years of age, with clinically diagnosed unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency following ocular surface burns, treated between 2001 and 2010. Following failure of primary surgery all patients underwent a repeat limbal biopsy from the unaffected eye. The limbal cells were expanded ex vivo on a human amniotic membrane substrate for 10 to 14 days using a completely xeno-free explant culture technique. The resulting cultured epithelial monolayer and amniotic membrane were transplanted onto the patient's affected eye. All patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examination of both eyes at every follow-up visit. Postoperative corneal surface stability, change in visual acuity, and complications were objectively analyzed. At a mean follow-up of 2.3±1.4 (median: 1.96, range: 1 to 7.5) years, 33 of the 50 recipient eyes (66%) maintained a completely epithelialized, avascular, and clinically stable corneal surface. A 2-line improvement in visual acuity was seen in 38 of the 50 recipient eyes (76%). None of the donor eyes developed any clinical features of ocular surface disease, conjunctival overgrowth of the donor site, or decrease in vision throughout the follow-up period. Repeat autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation successfully restores corneal epithelial stability and improves vision in eyes with recurrence of limbal stem cell deficiency, following failed primary surgery for ocular burns, without adversely affecting donor eyes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of dynamic ocular surface temperature in healthy subjects using a new thermography device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamann, Matthias K J; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Gonnermann, Johannes; Klein, Julian P; Pleyer, Uwe

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the routine use and applicability of a new ocular thermography device (TG 1000; Tomey Corp, Nagoya, Japan) in healthy individuals. Sixty eyes of 30 healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. Intraobserver reproducibility was tested with an ocular surface-oriented infrared radiation thermographic device in a non-contact manner. Using a standard examination protocol, the ocular surface temperature was assessed by dynamic thermal imaging over a time period of 10 s. The procedure was repeated three times during a single session by one examiner. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated. Ocular surface temperature measurements were highly reproducible. The mean ocular surface temperature was 34.02°C ± 0.22. The ICC was 0.947%, 0.949%, and 0.955% for minimum, maximum, and mean temperatures, respectively. Ocular surface temperature measurements made using the Tomey TG 1000 in healthy subjects showed excellent intraobserver reproducibility. This novel non-invasive technique offers new options for increased understanding of the physiology of the ocular surface.

  2. Selective Localized Tenonplasty for Corneal Burns Based on the Findings of Ocular Surface Fluorescein Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Ali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Mirshahi, Reza; Zandian, Mehdi; Ghasemi, Hamed; Hashemian, Mohammad Naser; Ghomi, Zahra

    2017-08-01

    To report the results of a selective localized tenonplasty procedure based on findings of ocular surface fluorescein angiography (FA). Six consecutive patients with severe chemical burns were included in this study. Using fluorescein angiogram images, patients underwent selective localized tenonplasty to cover the identified ischemic areas in FA. FA 1 week after surgery showed a perfused ocular surface in all eyes except for 1 quadrant of limbal ischemia in 1 eye. After the second tenonplasty, recirculation was also detected in that quadrant. None of the eyes perforated during the follow-up period. We observed acceptable outcomes in our patients after selective tenonplasty based on ocular surface angiography.

  3. Amniotic membrane transplantation with topical interferon alfa-2b after excision of ocular surface squamous neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Tao Xie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the outcome of amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT after tumor excision followed by topical interferon alfa-2b (IFNα2b drops for primary ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN. Twelve eyes of 12 patients with a mean age of 66±10y were included. The average follow-up was 23±10mo. All 12 patients had limbal involvement. Smooth ocular surface and transparent cornea were achieved in all cases. No sign of inflammation, neovascularization, symblepharon or recurrence was noted at the last follow-up. We conclude that AMT with topical IFNα2b drops restores a healthy ocular surface in OSSN without recurrence.

  4. Eyelid and ocular surface carcinoma: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Vivian T; Merritt, Helen A; Sniegowski, Matt; Esmaeli, Bita

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid cancers account for 5% to 10% of all cutaneous malignancies. The incidence of eyelid cancer is approximately 15 cases per 100,000 individuals per year. Basal cell carcinoma is by far the most common cutaneous malignancy in the periocular area; other cutaneous malignancies that occur in this area include, in decreasing order of frequency, squamous cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. The most common treatment for eyelid carcinomas is surgical resection with frozen section examination for margin control, but exenteration may be needed when there is orbital invasion. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be needed in patients at high risk for local recurrence; sentinel lymph node biopsy may be considered in patients at high risk for lymph node metastasis. Primary or residual in situ disease of the conjunctiva can be treated with topical chemotherapy, such as mitomycin C, 5-fluorouracil, or interferon alpha-2 b. For patients with metastatic or locally advanced basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma not amenable to surgical excision or radiotherapy, targeted therapy against the hedgehog pathway (for basal cell carcinoma) or epidermal growth factor receptor (for squamous cell carcinoma) has been shown to be effective in preventing disease progression. Patients with eyelid and ocular surface malignancies need to be monitored with careful clinical examination for at least 5years after surgical treatment, and additional investigations may be warranted in some cases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Expression of SIRT1 in ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luiz Filipe de A; Fernandes, Bruno F; Burnier, Julia V; Mansure, José J; Maloney, Shawn; Odashiro, Alexandre N; Antecka, Emilia; De Souza, Dominique F; Burnier, Miguel N

    2012-07-01

    The class III histone deacetylase SIRT1 is overexpressed in many malignancies and has been implicated in inactivating proteins that are involved in tumor suppression and DNA damage repair. In the current study, we examined the expression of SIRT1 in normal epithelium (NE) compared with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) to elucidate a possible role for SIRT1 in the development or progression of this malignancy. We examined SIRT1 expression by immunohistochemistry in 47 cases of OSSN and 10 specimens of NE. Our sample included 11 benign lesions (papillomas), 25 cases of conjunctival intraepithelial neoplasia, and 11 malignant lesions of squamous cell carcinoma. The extent of staining and intensity was scored and the combined raw data were then converted to the German Immunoreactive Score. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of SIRT1 was observed in all cases of OSSN. For the NE specimens, 50% showed negative expression and 30% weak expression, and 20% were considered significantly immunoreactive. The differential expression of SIRT1 between NE and OSSN was statistically significant (P cells was remarkably weaker compared with the cells located closer to the basal membrane. SIRT1 may play an important role in the development and progression of epithelial tumors of the conjunctiva. Further research into the potential of SIRT1 as a novel therapeutic target is warranted.

  6. New clinical application of amniotic membrane transplant for ocular surface disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, A; Pop, M; Burcea, M; Serban, M

    2016-01-01

    The new defined anatomical and functional complex conjunctiva-limbus-cornea is a new concept, which helps clinicians better understand and treat ocular surface pathologies. The management of the ocular surface disease has changed dramatically over the years, with spectacular improvements of techniques, and of course, results. The amniotic membrane, used as a graft or as a substrate for the cultivation of limbal corneal cells has showed encouraging results. To investigate the usefulness of amniotic membrane transplantation in ocular surface pathologies. The study is retrospective. 28 eyes of 28 patients with ocular surface pathologies (ocular burns, recent and old, symblepharon, pterygium, corneal and conjunctival tumors, persistent epithelial defect) underwent an amniotic membrane transplantation during a 1 year period. The necrotic and the scar tissue were first excised in all the patients and the amniotic membrane was sutured with an epithelial face up. Follow up ranged from 1 to 12 months. Good results were obtained in all 28 eyes. The anatomy of cornea and conjunctiva was improved, with limited benefits only in old ocular burn, symblepharon and in one case of extended tumors of the cornea and conjunctiva. Out of 28 eyes, 23 (82%) also had a visual acuity improvement. The amniotic membrane may be considered a good alternative for ocular surface reconstruction especially in acute status. AMT = amniotic membrane transplantation, BCVA = best corrected visual acuity, BUT = break up time.

  7. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: a thermographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannetti, Federica; Matteoli, Sara; Finocchio, Lucia; Lacarbonara, Francesco; Sodi, Andrea; Menchini, Ugo; Corvi, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstriction might be detected by measuring the ocular surface temperature. The ocular surface temperature was evaluated in a group of 38 healthy young subjects (28 males and 10 females; mean age: 25.4 ± 4.1 years) by infrared thermography. For each subject, the experimental procedure consisted of two thermographic acquisitions both lasting 10 s, recorded before and during the immersion of both hands in a mixture of ice and water (1.6 °C ± 0.4 °C). Specifically, the second acquisition began 20 s after the hand immersion. Analysis of variance was used to compare the ocular surface temperature of the two profiles. The analysis of infrared images was carried out every 2 s: at the eye opening (t(0)) until 10 s (t(5)), for both profiles. Data showed that ocular surface temperature increased significantly (p-value surface temperature may represent a cheap, non-invasive and non-time-consuming test to evaluate ocular vaso-regulation.

  8. Tear analytical model based on Raman microspectroscopy for investigation of infectious diseases of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Tse; Lin, Chi-Chang; Liu, Hsin-Yu; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2011-07-01

    To establish a tear analytical model by using Raman microspectroscopy to assess ocular surface diseases associated with infectious pathogens. The authors applied confocal Raman microspectroscopy based on the drop-coating deposition method on Ti/Au-coated glass slides to obtain sample spectra from different types of tears, including simplified synthetic tears (SSTs), SSTs mixed with microbes, and human tears. Raman spectra were sampled by a line-mapping procedure and classified into three groups by three different zones in a dried teardrop. To determine the tear model with optimal discrimination, the spectra of the three zones were compared using spectral morphology and principal component analysis. Finally, the optimal tear model was verified by comparing the Raman spectra of human teardrops of patients with ulcerative keratitis and bacterial infection with those of patients without any identifiable infection. Nonhomogeneous intensities of Raman spectra collected by a line-mapping sampling procedure were found in different locations of a dried teardrop. This might have been caused by coffee-ring formation and ferny crystallization phenomena. The normalized spectra in the central zone have better discriminative potential than those in the other zones, ring zone, and transitional zone, tested by pure SSTs or SSTs with microbes. The tear model based on normalized Raman spectra in the central zone was discriminative for patients with ulcerative keratitis in the presence or absence of infection. Raman spectra in the central zone of a dried teardrop may serve as useful spectral fingerprints for investigating ocular surface diseases with or without infection.

  9. [Attention to the impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Liang, Q F

    2016-10-11

    Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient's eye. It provides a precise location of the area being studied and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal. In certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of the treatment for ocular surface lesions. The purpose of this article is to comment the effect for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 721-723).

  10. Difference in ocular surface temperature by infrared thermography in phakic and pseudophakic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sniegowski, Matthew; Erlanger, Michael; Velez-Montoya, Raul; Olson, Jeffrey L

    2015-01-01

    To assess the change in ocular surface temperature between healthy phakic and pseudophakic patients. We included patients with no history of ocular disease other than cataract. Patients were divided into three groups: clear lens, cataract, and pseudophakic. All patients had two ocular surface digital thermal scans. An average of five surface points was used as the mean ocular surface temperature. Results were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance and a Tukey's least significance difference test. The patients were further divided into phakic and pseudophakic groups. Correlation coefficients between several variables were done in order to assess dependencies. Fifty-six eyes (28 cataracts, 12 clear lenses, 16 pseudophakic) were enrolled. The mean ocular surface temperature in the cataract group was 34.14°C±1.51°C; clear lens: 34.43°C±2.27°C; and pseudophakic: 34.97°C±1.57°C. There were no statistical differences among the study groups (P=0.3). There was a nonsignificant negative correlation trend between age and surface temperature in the phakic group. The trend inverted in the pseudophakic group but without statistical significance. Although cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation seem to induce a mild increase in ocular surface temperature, the effect is not clear and not significant.

  11. Ocular Surface Rreconstruction with Allogeneic Limbal Stem Cell and Autologous Oral Mucosal Graft: Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Orman

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two patients with severe ocular surface damage in both eyes are presented. In the patient with limbal stem cell deficiency, allogeneic limbal stem cell transplantation was performed. In the other patient with recurrent pterygium and symblepharon, autogenic oral mucosa transplantation was performed to manage the symblepharon. In this study, we discuss the methods that can be performed for reconstruction in patients with ocular surface disorder in both eyes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 129-31

  12. Tear film and ocular surface dysfunction in diabetes mellitus in an Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesarwani, Divya; Rizvi, Syed Wajahat Ali; Khan, Adeeb Alam; Amitava, Abadan Khan; Vasenwala, Shaista Manan; Siddiqui, Ziya

    2017-04-01

    Ophthalmic complications in diabetes such as retinopathy, cataract, and infections have been extensively studied. Recently, attention has been drawn toward ocular surface changes in diabetes mellitus (DM). This study has been carried out to investigate the tear film and ocular surface abnormalities in type II DM patients. A total of 83 participants (130 eyes) were enrolled: 53 diabetics (80 eyes) and 30 healthy controls (50 eyes). Of the 53 diabetics, 24 patients (42 eyes) had some diabetic retinopathy. The tear film and ocular surface were evaluated using Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), keratoepitheliopathy score (KES), Rose Bengal Staining (RBS) test, and conjunctival impression cytology. When compared with the healthy controls, diabetics showed significantly reduced Schirmer, TBUT measurements and the higher grades of KES and RBS test (P Tear film abnormality is a significant feature of diabetic ocular surface diseases. These abnormalities are likely on account of poor quality and function of tears, combined with the subnormal ocular surface. Therefore, all diabetic patients especially those with evidence of retinopathy changes should undergo routine early examination and follow-up of tear function and ocular surface parameters.

  13. An examination of the relationship between ocular surface tear osmolarity compartments and epitheliopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2015-04-01

    A 2014 PubMed search for tear hyperosmolarity and corneal stain yielded 2960 results. Selections from those providing evidence of variations in osmolarity were used to refine the compartmentalization model of tear osmolarity over the ocular surface. This new model includes the low point of freshly produced isotonic tears in the upper conjunctival sac, with osmolarity increasing successively in the upper meniscus, the upper area of exposed ocular surface, the lower area of over-exposed ocular surface, the lower meniscus, and the lower conjunctival sac. Compartmentalization is used to explain epitheliopathy over the ocular surface as resulting from variable degrees of exposure to hyperosmolarity-induced insult and/or friction-related mechanical damage. Also recognized is the role of localized increases in osmolarity, which appear likely to occur in the black lines and tear breakup areas of the exposed ocular surface. Variables such as the influence of ambient conditions of air humidity, temperature and movement have been considered, as well as rates of complete and incomplete blinks and associated potential for over-exposure of the inferior area of the normally exposed ocular surface. The exacerbating contribution from contact lens wear has been included. Friction-related damage may be the primary basis for lid wiper epitheliopathy, but tear hyperosmolarity could have an important contributory role. Subcompartmental consideration of variation in osmolarity may improve understanding of different presentations of epitheliopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of mild ocular surface stimulation and concentration on spontaneous blink parameters.

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    Wu, Ziwei; Begley, Carolyn G; Situ, Ping; Simpson, Trefford; Liu, Haixia

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory, pilot study compared the effects of concentrating on a visual task and a very mild ocular surface air stimulus on multiple blink parameters. Ten subjects participated in this study. There were two visits, one with an ocular surface air stimulus (AS) and one without (NS). The AS was set at a level barely perceptible by subjects (approximately 0.6 m/s at the eye). At each visit, subjects performed a high-concentration (HC) and low-concentration (LC) task. Blinking was tracked and tear-film breakup (TBU) was monitored simultaneously to measure blink parameters, including the interblink interval (IBI), blink amplitude, duration, maximum velocity and TBU before and after each blink. During the HC tasks, IBI was significantly higher and blink duration was lower (repeated measures ANOVA, p blink duration showed the opposite effect (Hotelling T² test, p blink amplitude and maximum velocity. The area of TBU was not significantly correlated with any blink parameter. The lack of correlation between TBU and blinking suggests that many blinks are stimulated by internal controls, rather than direct stimulation of the ocular surface by TBU. This pilot study suggests that even very mild ocular surface stimulation produces opposite effects on the timing and duration of the blink, when compared to concentrating on a visual task. The HC task tends to decrease blink frequency and duration, presumably to minimize interruption by the eyelids, whereas mild ocular surface AS increased blink frequency and duration, most likely to increase protection of the ocular surface.

  15. Tear film and ocular surface dysfunction in diabetes mellitus in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Kesarwani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ophthalmic complications in diabetes such as retinopathy, cataract, and infections have been extensively studied. Recently, attention has been drawn toward ocular surface changes in diabetes mellitus (DM. This study has been carried out to investigate the tear film and ocular surface abnormalities in type II DM patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 83 participants (130 eyes were enrolled: 53 diabetics (80 eyes and 30 healthy controls (50 eyes. Of the 53 diabetics, 24 patients (42 eyes had some diabetic retinopathy. The tear film and ocular surface were evaluated using Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (TBUT, keratoepitheliopathy score (KES, Rose Bengal Staining (RBS test, and conjunctival impression cytology. Results: When compared with the healthy controls, diabetics showed significantly reduced Schirmer, TBUT measurements and the higher grades of KES and RBS test (P < 0.001. Impression cytology analysis showed goblet cell loss and conjunctival squamous metaplasia in diabetics. Conclusion: Tear film abnormality is a significant feature of diabetic ocular surface diseases. These abnormalities are likely on account of poor quality and function of tears, combined with the subnormal ocular surface. Therefore, all diabetic patients especially those with evidence of retinopathy changes should undergo routine early examination and follow-up of tear function and ocular surface parameters.

  16. OCT-based profiler for automating ocular surface prosthetic fitting (Conference Presentation)

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    Mujat, Mircea; Patel, Ankit H.; Maguluri, Gopi N.; Iftimia, Nicusor V.; Patel, Chirag; Agranat, Josh; Tomashevskaya, Olga; Bonte, Eugene; Ferguson, R. Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The use of a Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Environment (PROSE) device is a revolutionary treatment for military patients that have lost their eyelids due to 3rd degree facial burns and for civilians who suffer from a host of corneal diseases. However, custom manual fitting is often a protracted painful, inexact process that requires multiple fitting sessions. Training for new practitioners is a long process. Automated methods to measure the complete corneal and scleral topology would provide a valuable tool for both clinicians and PROSE device manufacturers and would help streamline the fitting process. PSI has developed an ocular anterior-segment profiler based on Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), which provides a 3D measure of the surface of the sclera and cornea. This device will provide topography data that will be used to expedite and improve the fabrication process for PROSE devices. OCT has been used to image portions of the cornea and sclera and to measure surface topology for smaller contact lenses [1-3]. However, current state-of-the-art anterior eye OCT systems can only scan about 16 mm of the eye's anterior surface, which is not sufficient for covering the sclera around the cornea. In addition, there is no systematic method for scanning and aligning/stitching the full scleral/corneal surface and commercial segmentation software is not optimized for the PROSE application. Although preliminary, our results demonstrate the capability of PSI's approach to generate accurate surface plots over relatively large areas of the eye, which is not currently possible with any other existing platform. Testing the technology on human volunteers is currently underway at Boston Foundation for Sight.

  17. Free amino acids: an innovative treatment for ocular surface disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusciano, Dario; Roszkowska, Anna Maria; Gagliano, Caterina; Pezzino, Salvatore

    2016-09-15

    Amino acids are the basic constituents of living organisms, and have both a structural and an active dynamic role in tissue and cell physiology. Human tears contain 23 amino acids, the relative proportion of which may change with the different physiological states of the eye surface. In this review, we present a collection of data from the published literature that indicate an active role of amino acids in the maintenance of eye surface homeostasis. Moreover, another series of published clinical data indicate that supplementation of amino acids, either as food supplements or as a topical treatment in enriched eye drops, is beneficial to the eye surface, and may improve its healing in cases of eye surface disease due to different causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pax6 downregulation mediates abnormal lineage commitment of the ocular surface epithelium in aqueous-deficient dry eye disease.

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    Ying Ting Chen

    Full Text Available Keratinizing squamous metaplasia (SQM of the ocular surface is a blinding consequence of systemic autoimmune disease and there is no cure. Ocular SQM is traditionally viewed as an adaptive tissue response during chronic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS that provokes pathological keratinization of the corneal epithelium and fibrosis of the corneal stroma. Recently, we established the autoimmune regulator-knockout (Aire KO mouse as a model of autoimmune KCS and identified an essential role for autoreactive CD4+ T cells in SQM pathogenesis. In subsequent studies, we noted the down-regulation of paired box gene 6 (Pax6 in both human patients with chronic KCS associated with Sjögren's syndrome and Aire KO mice. Pax6 encodes a pleiotropic transcription factor guiding eye morphogenesis during development. While the postnatal function of Pax6 is largely unknown, we hypothesized that its role in maintaining ocular surface homeostasis was disrupted in the inflamed eye and that loss of Pax6 played a functional role in the initiation and progression of SQM. Adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells from Aire KO mice to immunodeficient recipients confirmed CD4+ T cells as the principal downstream effectors promoting Pax6 downregulation in Aire KO mice. CD4+ T cells required local signaling via Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1 to provoke Pax6 loss, which prompted a switch from corneal-specific cytokeratin, CK12, to epidermal-specific CK10. The functional role of Pax6 loss in SQM pathogenesis was indicated by the reversal of SQM and restoration of ocular surface homeostasis following forced expression of Pax6 in corneal epithelial cells using adenovirus. Thus, tissue-restricted restoration of Pax6 prevented aberrant epidermal-lineage commitment suggesting adjuvant Pax6 gene therapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent SQM in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the ocular surface.

  19. Autologous serum for ocular surface diseases Soro autólogo para doenças da superfície ocular

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    Guilherme Goulart Quinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Autologous serum has been used to treat dry eye syndrome for many years. It contains several growth factors, vitamins, fibronectin and other components that have been considered important for corneal and conjunctival integrity. Serum eye drops are usually prepared as an unpreserved blood solution. The serum is by nature well tolerated and its biochemical properties are somewhat similar to natural tears. Autologous serum eye drops have been reported to be effective for the treatment of severe dry eye-related ocular surface disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, and also other entities such as superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, graft-versus-host disease, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, ocular cicatricial pemphigoid, recurrent or persistent corneal erosions, neurotrophic keratopathy, Mooren's ulcer, aniridic keratopathy, filtering blebs after trabeculectomy, and post-keratorefractive surgery. The purpose of this study is to review the recently published literature on ocular surface diseases treated with human autologous serum eye drops.O soro autólogo tem sido adotado como uma nova abordagem para tratar síndrome do olho seco porque contém vitaminas, alguns fatores de crecimento e fibronectina que são considerados importantes contribuintes para integridade corneana e conjuntival. Colírio de soro autólogo é produzido sem preservativo. O soro é não-alérgico e suas propriedades bioquímicas são similares à lágrima. O soro autólogo tópico tem sido relatado efetivo para o tratamento de olho seco grave relacionado a distúrbios da superfície ocular como na síndrome de Sjögren, ceratoconjuntivite límbica superior, doença do enxerto versus hospedeiro, síndrome de Stevens-Johnson, procedimentos cerato-refrativos, erosão corneana persistente ou recorrente, ceratopatia neurotrófica, úlcera de Mooren, ceratopatia associada à aniridia, e bolhas filtrantes após trabeculectomia. O objetivo do presente estudo é revisar a literatura recentemente

  20. Predictors of ocular surface squamous neoplasia recurrence after exisional surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Karp, Carol L.; Oellers, Patrick; Kao, Andrew A.; Abdelaziz, Amany; Feuer, William; Dubovy, Sander R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To identify predictors of ocular surface squamous neoplasm (OSSN) recurrence after surgical resection. Design Retrospective case series. Participants Three hundred and eighty nine consecutive patients who underwent excisional biopsy for OSSN lesions at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute from January 1, 2001, to September 20, 2010 Methods Review of pathology records and patient charts. Main Outcome Measures Identification of factors predictive of OSSN recurrence. Results Of 389 excised OSSN lesions, forty-four recurred during follow up. The 1 year recurrence rate was 10% and the 5 year recurrence rate was 21% with a mean time to recurrence in those with a recurrence of 2.5 years (standard deviation (SD) 3.4). Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) clinical staging system, T3 and T2 lesions portended a higher risk of recurrence compared to T1 (T2/T1: hazard ratio (HR) = 2.05, p=0.04; T3/T1: HR= 2.31, p=0.07). In addition, a location characteristic that increased the risk of tumor recurrence was tarsal involvement (AJCC T3 stage lesion) (HR=4.12, p = 0.007). Nasal location was associated with a decreased risk of tumor recurrence (HR=0.41, p=0.008). Pathologic characteristics significantly associated with tumor recurrence were the presence of positive margins (HR=2.73, p= 0.008) and higher grade lesions (carcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma versus dysplasia) (HR=2.55, p=0.02). Treatment with adjuvant cryotherapy significantly decreased the risk of tumor recurrence (HR=0.51, p=0.03). In those patients with positive margins, the use of post-operative topical interferon therapy lowered the recurrence rate to a level similar to that of patients with negative margins. Conclusions Certain patient and tumor factors are associated with a higher risk of OSSN recurrence after surgical excision, such as tarsal tumor location and positive surgical margins. Post-operative adjuvant therapy should be considered in patients with high risk OSSN

  1. Impact of Eye Cosmetics on the Eye, Adnexa, and Ocular Surface.

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    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel V; Jones, Lyndon; Purslow, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Despite the fact that cosmetic products undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe for human use, some users report mild discomfort following their application. The cutaneous changes, such as allergic dermatitis, are well reported, but the ocular changes associated with eye cosmetic use are less so. Some pigmented cosmetic products may accumulate within the lacrimal system and conjunctivae over many years of use, but immediate reports of eye discomfort after application are most common. Changes to the tear film and its stability may occur shortly after application, and contact lens wearers can also be affected by lens spoliation from cosmetic products. Additionally, creams used in the prevention of skin aging are often applied around the eyes, and retinoids present in these formulations can have negative effects on meibomian gland function and may be a contributing factor to dry eye disease. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the impact of cosmetic products on the eye, ocular surface, and tear film.

  2. Effects of Pigment Location in Tinted Contact Lenses on the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Won; Han, Sun Hyup; Park, Si Yoon; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of the location of pigments in decorative tinted soft contact lenses on the ocular surface. Thirty test subjects were enrolled in this study. All subjects wore the following types of contact lenses, classified according to the location of the pigment layer, in one eye in three different testing sessions: conventional clear lenses, tinted lenses with a pigment layer embedded in the lens matrix, and tinted lenses with an exposed pigment layer on the surface. Tear samples were collected, the ocular surface status was evaluated, and subjective symptoms were surveyed after lens wear for 8 hours. The tinted lenses with surface pigments resulted in a greater increase in epidermal growth factor and interleukin-8 levels compared with the clear lenses and tinted lenses with embedded pigments (p lenses showing superior results compared with the two tinted lenses (p lenses with exposed pigments resulted in a greater degree of conjunctival redness and ocular surface staining and poorer symptom scores compared with the tinted lens with embedded pigments (p contact lenses increases ocular inflammation and results in a poorer ocular surface status and greater discomfort compared with clear lenses and tinted lenses with an embedded pigment layer.

  3. Líquido amniótico tópico: uma potencial nova alternativa para doenças da superfície ocular Topical amniotic fluid: a potential new alternative for ocular surface diseases

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    Guilherme Goulart Quinto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O líquido amniótico banha o feto durante a vida intra-uterina e está em contato permanente com a superfície ocular durante este importante período do desenvolvimento. Ele contém uma série de fatores de crescimento que podem ter diversos efeitos sobre o processo cicatricial. Estes fatores aceleram a recuperação da sensibilidade corneana e regeneração nervosa após procedimentos cerato-refrativos, além de controlar a formação de cicatriz e o equilíbrio da superfície ocular após sua aplicação tópica. Centenas de diferentes proteínas têm sido identificadas no líquido amniótico humano e o papel de cada uma continua desconhecido. Os resultados obtidos até o momento sobre a aplicação de líquido amniótico em doenças de superfície ocular sugerem uma terapia promissora. Pesquisas estão sendo realizadas para identificar os efeitos dos fatores específicos do líquido amniótico sobre a inflamação ocular. O objetivo desta revisão é relatar as propriedades e utilizações atuais do líquido amniótico, bem como apresentar os recentes estudos relacionados ao uso deste líquido e doenças da superfície ocular.Amniotic fluid bathes the fetus during intrauterine life and is in permanent contact with the fetal ocular surface in this important period of development. It contains a series of growth factors that may have multiple effects on the wound healing process. These factors are thought to accelerate the recovery of corneal sensitivity and nerve regeneration after keratorefractive procedures, and also may control scar formation and balance the ocular surface after topical application. Hundreds of different proteins have been identified in the human amniotic fluid, and the role of each still not quite understood. The outcomes obtained so far with amniotic fluid application to ocular surface diseases suggest a promising therapy. Research is underway to identify the effects of specific factors of the amniotic fluid in ocular

  4. Ocular surface discomfort and Demodex: effect of tea tree oil eyelid scrub in Demodex blepharitis.

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    Koo, Hyun; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Wee, Sung Wook; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Chan

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between ocular discomfort and ocular Demodex infestation, and therapeutic effects of tea tree oil (TTO) in Demodex blepharitis patients. Three hundred and thirty-five patients with ocular discomfort were evaluated for ocular Demodex infestation and subjective symptoms with ocular surface discomfort index (OSDI) score. Among them, Demodex-infested patients were randomized to receive either eyelid scrubbing with TTO (TTO group,106 patients) or without TTO (Control group, 54 patients) for 1 month. Demodex were found in 84% of patients with ocular discomfort. The number of Demodex was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.04) and OSDI score (P = 0.024). After eyelid scrub treatment, Demodex count was reduced from 4.0 ± 2.5 to 3.2 ± 2.3 in the TTO group (P = 0.004) and from 4.3 ± 2.7 to 4.2 ± 2.5 in the control group (P = 0.27). Also, OSDI score was reduced from 34.5 ± 10.7 to 24.1 ± 11.9 in the TTO group (P = 0.001) and from 35.3 ± 11.6 to 27.5 ± 12.8 in the control group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, Demodex number showed a significant positive correlation with age and subjective ocular discomfort. The tea tree oil eyelid scrub treatment is effective for eliminating ocular Demodex and improving subjective ocular symptoms.

  5. Ocular findings in human immunodeficiency virus patients in Washington, DC.

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    Kaleem, Mona A; Ramsahai, Shweta; Del Fierro, Katrina; Rasul, Samad; Onumah, Chavon; Lerebours, Valerie; Gajjala, Jhansi; Copeland, Robert A; Jones, Leslie S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ocular diseases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients in Washington, DC in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This was a cross-sectional study of patients with HIV who were seen by the ophthalmology consultation service between September 2003 and May 2011 at a single academic institution in Washington, DC. Medical history and ophthalmic findings were reviewed. Patients with complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination were included. Descriptive statistics were performed. The records of 151 patients were included in the final analysis. All patients had complete laboratory data dated within 3 months of their presenting eye examination. Sixty-eight (45 %) patients and fifty-eight (50 %) of those with a diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. The leading anterior segment disease was herpes zoster ophthalmicus and the leading posterior segment disease was HIV retinopathy. Of the 151 included patients, 78 (52 %) were receiving HAART at the time of the examination. Thirty-one (42 %) of those not receiving HAART were diagnosed with an HIV-related ophthalmic disease. In this study, we find that the overall prevalence of ocular disease has decreased since the introduction of HAART. However, HIV patients continue to be predisposed to developing ophthalmic disease at higher rates than the general population. Visual dysfunction remains an important source of morbidity in HIV patients, particularly in those with AIDS. Measures for improvement include increased communication between infectious disease specialists and ophthalmologists to ensure adherence to HAART and routine eye examinations.

  6. Ocular input for human melatonin regulation: relevance to breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Gena; Levin, Robert; Brainard, George C.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of breast cancer on women across the world has been extensive and severe. As prevalence of breast cancer is greatest in industrialized regions, exposure to light at night has been proposed as a potential risk factor. This theory is supported by the epidemiological observations of decreased breast cancer in blind women and increased breast cancer in women who do shift-work. In addition, human, animal and in vitro studies which have investigated the melatonin-cancer dynamic indicate an apparent relationship between light, melatonin and cancer, albeit complex. Recent developments in understanding melatonin regulation by light in humans are examined, with particular attention to factors that contribute to the sensitivity of the light-induced melatonin suppression response. Specifically, the role of spectral characteristics of light is addressed, and recent relevant action spectrum studies in humans and other mammalian species are discussed. Across five action spectra for circadian and other non-visual responses, a peak sensitivity between 446-484 nm was identified. Under highly controlled exposure circumstances, less than 1 lux of monochromatic light elicited a significant suppression of nocturnal melatonin. In view of the possible link between light exposure, melatonin suppression and cancer risk, it is important to continue to identify the basic related ocular physiology. Visual performance, rather than circadian function, has been the primary focus of architectural lighting systems. It is now necessary to reevaluate lighting strategies, with consideration of circadian influences, in an effort to maximize physiological homeostasis and health.

  7. Difference in ocular surface temperature by infrared thermography in phakic and pseudophakic patients

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    Sniegowski M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Matthew Sniegowski, Michael Erlanger, Raul Velez-Montoya, Jeffrey L Olson Ophthalmology Department, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Rocky Mountain Lions Eye Institute, Aurora, CO, USA Purpose: To assess the change in ocular surface temperature between healthy phakic and pseudophakic patients.Methods: We included patients with no history of ocular disease other than cataract. Patients were divided into three groups: clear lens, cataract, and pseudophakic. All patients had two ocular surface digital thermal scans. An average of five surface points was used as the mean ocular surface temperature. Results were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance and a Tukey’s least significance difference test. The patients were further divided into phakic and pseudophakic groups. Correlation coefficients between several variables were done in order to assess dependencies.Results: Fifty-six eyes (28 cataracts, 12 clear lenses, 16 pseudophakic were enrolled. The mean ocular surface temperature in the cataract group was 34.14°C±1.51°C; clear lens: 34.43°C±2.27°C; and pseudophakic: 34.97°C±1.57°C. There were no statistical differences among the study groups (P=0.3. There was a nonsignificant negative correlation trend between age and surface temperature in the phakic group. The trend inverted in the pseudophakic group but without statistical significance.Conclusion: Although cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation seem to induce a mild increase in ocular surface temperature, the effect is not clear and not significant. Keywords: digital thermal scans, intraocular lens implantation, cataract extraction

  8. Short break-up time type dry eye has potential ocular surface abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Yoshiyuki; Ide, Takeshi; Kaido, Minako; Ishida, Reiko; Hatou, Shin; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    To describe a case series in which corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) development occurred in short break-up time (s-BUT) dry eyes after a short period during prolonged opening of the eye. The study was designed as a clinical case series. Ocular surface evaluations were performed on 13 individuals with s-BUT dry eye. Tear function examinations included Schirmer's test and BUT evaluation. In all 13 cases, the BUT was short, but the tear quantity was not so bad. In all cases, CFS developed following a single eye opening, and the staining was observed at sites that showed as dark spots. In several cases, the CFS disappeared later. In this study, we demonstrated that CFS could develop following a single eye opening. Based on our findings, CFS is a dynamic phenomenon rather than a stable indicator of ocular surface abnormalities. Moreover, s-BUT dry eye has the potential to show ocular surface abnormalities.

  9. Genetic diversity of Dirofilaria spp. isolated from subcutaneous and ocular lesions of human patients in Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alice; Peix, Álvaro; Pavlikovskaya, Tamara; Sagach, Olga; Nikolaenko, Svetlana; Chizh, Nina; Kartashev, Vladimir; Simón, Fernando; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2015-02-01

    This short communication describes the phylogenetic analysis of 48 Dirofilaria worms isolated from human patients in Ukraine. 102 cases were both of subcutaneous (47; 46.1%) and ocular (54; 52.9%) locations. Worms from 44 patients (15 subcutaneous and 29 ocular) were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of a specific fragment of the 12S rRNA subunit, and sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis. Results showed that 13.8% of the ocular cases analyzed at molecular level were caused by Dirofilaria immitis. Very few cases of ocular human dirofilariosis due to D. immitis have been described in the literature to date, majority of them attributed to Dirofilaria repens. Our results show that ocular dirofilariosis cannot be excluded in areas of low endemicity for D. repens were D. immitis is also present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ocular Surface Epithelialization Pattern After Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: An In Vivo Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas; Jain, Rajat; Mittal, Ruchi

    2015-10-01

    To study the in vivo pattern of ocular surface epithelialization after simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET). A retrospective interventional case series was performed at a cornea and anterior segment services of a referral tertiary care center between June 2012 and March 2015. Patients with unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency who underwent SLET and whose medical records had serial and detailed photographic documentation of ocular surface healing were reviewed. The outcome measures consisted of the pattern of ocular surface epithelialization, time taken for complete ocular surface epithelialization, and assessment of the possible variations in the explants' characteristics in vivo. Five patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 30.8 years, the male:female ratio was 4:1. Mean follow-up after the SLET period was 10.8 months. A 2-line improvement in visual acuity was seen in 3 of 5 patients. The mean number of explants was 11.4 (range, 5-19). The first clinical evidence of proliferation of the corneal epithelium from the limbal explants was seen on the second day in all patients, and ocular surface epithelialization was complete in all cases within 14 days. The explants disappeared within 1 to 2 months in all but 1 case (24 weeks). Variations were seen in explant activity with the size and age of the explants. The in vivo pattern of ocular surface epithelialization after SLET appears to be similar to in vitro epithelialization observed after CLET. The observations in this study provide a lead for performing further laboratory and clinical research in SLET.

  11. Evaluation of topographical variation in ocular surface temperature by functional infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jen Hong; Ng, E. Y. K.; Acharya, U. Rajendra

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate topographical variation in the ocular surface temperature (OST) among the young, elderly and the subjects wearing contact lens using thermographic methodology. We recorded thermographic sequence lasting of 25 s for each eye. The ocular region in each of the thermal images in the sequence was identified and warped into a standard form. Then, the warped sequence was divided into a number of sub-sequences. A differential image which is an image matrix was obtained from each of these sub-sequences, by subtracting thermal images within the sub-sequence. And the histogram of the differential image was modelled by Gaussian mixture model to discriminate eyelashes from the ocular surface for every thermal image in the sub-sequence. Later, thermal data of eyelashes were eliminated in every thermal image and statistical analysis was performed on the sequences. Finally, topographical profile of each subject group was approximated by equations and illustrated using various temperature profiles. The ocular surface of the young subject was observed to be the warmest, and tear film was determined to play a major role in the topographical and temporal variations in OST. Significant topographical variation was observed among subject groups. Based on our compiled average OST profile (AOSTP), the maximum predictability of the bioheat simulation on ocular model can reach up to 90%.

  12. Effects of Exposure to Ozone on the Ocular Surface in an Experimental Model of Allergic Conjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kim, Hee Young; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-01-01

    Based on previous findings that ozone can induce an inflammatory response in the ocular surface of an animal model and in cultured human conjunctival epithelial cells, we investigated whether exposure to ozone exacerbates symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. We evaluated the effects of exposure to ozone on conjunctival chemosis, conjunctival injection, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, production of inflammatory cytokines in tears, and aqueous tear production in a mouse model of allergic conjunctivitis. To validate our in vivo results, we used interleukin (IL)-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells as an in vitro substitute for the mouse model. We evaluated whether exposure to ozone increased the inflammatory response and altered oxidative status and mitochondrial function in IL-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells. In the in vivo study, ozone induced increases in conjunctival chemosis, conjunctival injection, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, and production of inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by a decrease in tear volume. In the in vitro study, exposure to ozone led to additional increases in IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA levels, which were already induced by treatment with IL-1α. Ozone did not induce any changes in cell viability. Pretreatment with IL-1α increased the expression of manganese superoxide dismutase, and exposure to ozone led to additional increments in the expression of this antioxidant enzyme. Ozone did not induce any changes in mitochondrial activity or expression of mitochondrial enzymes and proteins related to mitochondrial function, with the exception of phosphor-mammalian target of rapamycin. Treatment with butylated hydroxyanisole, a free radical scavenger, attenuated the ozone-induced increases in IL-6 expression in IL-1α-pretreated conjunctival epithelial cells. Therefore, we conclude that exposure to ozone exacerbates the detrimental effects on the integrity of the ocular

  13. Prevalence and severity of ocular surface Neoplasia in African nations and need for early interventions

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    Jacob W Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is a common ocular surface tumor with an increased incidence in African countries (3.4 and 3.0 cases/year/100,000. Despite its potential for vision loss and death, OSSN remains largely neglected by both eye and HIV care programs in Africa. The purpose of this review is to identify the barriers to timely diagnosis and early interventions for OSSN in Africa. PubMed searches were conducted targeting previous use of topical chemotherapy (interferon alpha 2b, Mitomycin-C, 5-Fluorouracil and Human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination in Africa. We found that OSSN is a significant vision and life-threatening health problem in Africa leading to significant loss of vision, as well as facial disfigurement and social stigma. We did not find any reports on the use of topical interferon, Mitomycin-C or HPV vaccination for OSSN in Africa. One report on the use of topical 5-FU for OSSN in Africa was found. Common barriers to early detection and management of OSSN in Africa include lack of sufficient laboratory infrastructure, lack of trained healthcare personnel, lack of compliance with follow-up visits, cost of topical chemotherapies, and cultural preferences for traditional medicines. In conclusion, OSSN is a significant vision and life-threatening health problem in Africa. There is not much literature on prevention or treatment options for early stages of OSSN in Africa. The use of topical chemotherapy as early interventions and judicious use of smart phone Apps to help with remote diagnosis of early OSSN should be further explored.

  14. Coupling Fluid and Solute Dynamics Within the Ocular Surface Tear Film: A Modelling Study of Black Line Osmolarity

    KAUST Repository

    Zubkov, V. S.

    2012-07-06

    We present a mathematical model describing the spatial distribution of tear film osmolarity across the ocular surface of a human eye during one blink cycle, incorporating detailed fluid and solute dynamics. Based on the lubrication approximation, our model comprises three coupled equations tracking the depth of the aqueous layer of the tear film, the concentration of the polar lipid, and the concentration of physiological salts contained in the aqueous layer. Diffusive boundary layers in the salt concentration occur at the thinnest regions of the tear film, the black lines. Thus, despite large Peclet numbers, diffusion ameliorates osmolarity around the black lines, but nonetheless is insufficient to eliminate the build-up of solute in these regions. More generally, a heterogeneous distribution of solute concentration is predicted across the ocular surface, indicating that measurements of lower meniscus osmolarity are not globally representative, especially in the presence of dry eye. Vertical saccadic eyelid motion can reduce osmolarity at the lower black line, raising the prospect that select eyeball motions more generally can assist in alleviating tear film hyperosmolarity. Finally, our results indicate that measured evaporative rates will induce excessive hyperosmolarity at the black lines, even for the healthy eye. This suggests that further evaporative retardation at the black lines, for instance due to the cellular glycocalyx at the ocular surface or increasing concentrations of mucus, will be important for controlling hyperosmolarity as the black line thins. © 2012 Society for Mathematical Biology.

  15. Tear Function and Ocular Surface Alterations After Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Progressive Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan Akçay, Emine; Kilicarslan, Aydan; Uysal, Betul Seher; Hondur, Gozde; Kosekahya, Pinar; Altinkaynak, Hasan; Cagil, Nurullah

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the alterations in the ocular surface and tear film parameters 3 months after accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking (A-CXL) in progressive keratoconus (KC) patients. Twenty-six patients (33 eyes total) with progressive KC were enrolled in this study. All patients were subjected to ophthalmic surface examination, such as OSDI (ocular surface disease index) scoring, the osmolarity tear test, Schirmer test, tear film breakup time (TBUT) analysis, rose bengal (RB) and fluorescein (Fl) ocular surface staining, and conjunctival impression cytology (IC) analysis, respectively. These tests were performed at baseline and 3 months after A-CXL. Nelson's grading system was used to evaluate the cell morphology and goblet cell density. No statistically significant differences in the levels of tear osmolarity, TBUT, Schirmer test, OSDI scoring, and Fl and RB staining between pretreatment and 3 months postoperatively were observed (all P values >0.05). A statistically significant increase in superior (P=0.005) and temporal (P=0.006) IC grading was seen at the postoperative third month compared to pretreatment. Only metaplastic changes and a reduction in the density of the goblet cells were seen in conjunctival IC, which is probably because of the toxicity of ultraviolet-A 3 months after A-CXL. However, these results do not lead to deterioration in TBUT. In this study, A-CXL has no adverse effect on ocular surface and tear function, which are important for visual quality.

  16. Impact of Smoking on the Ocular Surface, Tear Function, and Tear Osmolarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Serdar; Tetikoğlu, Mehmet; Koçak, Ahmet; Kocacan, Metin; Aktaş, Hatice; Sağdık, Hacı Murat; Özcura, Fatih

    2017-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of cigarette smoking on the ocular surface, tear function, and tear osmolarity. A total of 50 smokers with at least 5 years of heavy smoking (defined as 1 pack/day) and 51 nonsmoking, healthy individuals were enrolled. Tear osmolarity was measured with an osmometer (TearLab™ Osmolarity System). Ocular surface examinations involved corneal fluorescein staining, measurement of the tear film breakup time (TBUT), the Schirmer 1 test, measurement of corneal sensitivity with a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and conjunctival impression cytology. Dry eye symptoms were scored using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire. The results were compared with those from an age and sex-matched control group. The Chi-squared and independent sample t-tests were used for statistical analyses. The smokers had significantly higher tear osmolarity values (305.38 ± 9.81 vs. 301.14 ± 7.04 mOsm/L; p = 0.014) and OSDI scores (34.13 ± 16.58 vs. 18.09 ± 9.61; p tear film, which can damage the ocular surface and tear function.

  17. Outcome of application of amniotic membrane graft in ocular surface disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Nargis Nizam; Adhi, Muhammad Idrees

    2017-07-01

    To determine the outcome of application of amniotic graft in ocular surface disorders. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, from January 2010 to December 2012, and comprised patients with ocular surface disorders. Patients' presenting symptoms and signs were recorded. Previously harvested and frozen amniotic graft was applied in different types of ocular surface disorders, such as corneal ulcers, pterygium, keratomalacia, Steven-Johnson syndrome, etc. Following the surgery, patients were assessed for improvement in symptoms and signs related to epithelialisation in corneal ulcers.. Of the 50 patients, 30(60%) were male and 20(40%) female. The overall mean age was 40±19.3 years (range: 9 months to 80 years). Out of the 18(36%) cases of pterygium, there was recurrence in 5(27.7%) cases. There were 26(52%) patients of corneal ulcers, of whom re-epithelialisation occurred in 21(80.7%) patients. Amniotic membrane grafting was found to be a safe procedure for ocular surface disorders.

  18. Limbal Pseudoepitheliomatous Hyperplasia Mimicking Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Palpebral Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan Malhotra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia at the limbus can mimic an ocular surface squamous neoplasia. It is an uncommon manifestation of vernal keratoconjunctivitis and has been reported previously in limbal VKC. It, however, has not been reported as a manifestation in the palpebral form of the disease and needs to be kept in the differential diagnosis of a limbal mass lesion in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Case Report. We report the case of a 24 year old male patient having palpebral VKC and presenting with a papillomatous limbal mass with focal areas of keratinization mimicking an ocular surface squamous neoplasia. An excision biopsy was performed, and the specimen sent for histopathologywhich revealed features of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with no evidence of dysplasia or malignant transformation. The subepithelium revealed a dense plasma-rich inflammation. Discussion. We report this relatively uncommon presentation of limbal pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia mimicking an ocular surface squamous neoplasia in palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Wide excision as is required for an ocular surface neoplasia may thus be avoided if this entity is recognized in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

  19. Limbal pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia mimicking ocular surface squamous neoplasia in palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chintan; Jain, Arun K; Thapa, Bikram

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia at the limbus can mimic an ocular surface squamous neoplasia. It is an uncommon manifestation of vernal keratoconjunctivitis and has been reported previously in limbal VKC. It, however, has not been reported as a manifestation in the palpebral form of the disease and needs to be kept in the differential diagnosis of a limbal mass lesion in vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Case Report. We report the case of a 24 year old male patient having palpebral VKC and presenting with a papillomatous limbal mass with focal areas of keratinization mimicking an ocular surface squamous neoplasia. An excision biopsy was performed, and the specimen sent for histopathologywhich revealed features of pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia with no evidence of dysplasia or malignant transformation. The subepithelium revealed a dense plasma-rich inflammation. Discussion. We report this relatively uncommon presentation of limbal pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia mimicking an ocular surface squamous neoplasia in palpebral vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Wide excision as is required for an ocular surface neoplasia may thus be avoided if this entity is recognized in vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

  20. Impression cytological study for ocular surface disorders of late stage eye burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y-F; Zheng, L-B; Yao, Y-F

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the ocular surface of late stage eye burns by impression cytology (IC) and analyze the cytological changes and their relationship to ocular surface abnormalities. 68 eyes with late stage eye burns (thermal burn: 28 eyes; alkali burn: 26 eyes; acid burn: 14 eyes), procured from 68 patients (aged ranges from 17 to 70 years old). Ocular surface abnormalities were assessed under slit lamp and graded. These were broadly classified as eyelid, corneal, conjunctival, and tear film abnormalities. Impression cytological examination was taken by cellulose acetate filter paper for all eyes. Samples were analyzed and scored under light microscope, including the status of epithelial cells, goblet cells, mucus and inflammatory cells. All the results and data were compared and analyzed by SPSS software (version 16.0). According to the IC results, loosed cell-to-cell density and nuclear abnormality, keratinization, reduced goblet cell amount, disorder of mucus, and existing of inflammatory cells were observed in almost all the cases. The IC results were significantly correlated to the ocular surface injury severity (r=0.458, pocular surface injury severity mostly contains three aspects: the corneal neovascularization scales, the present or absent of recurrent epithelial erosion and the tear film break-up time. Eyes with the foreword three symptoms were inclined to have higher IC scores. The epithelial cell-to-cell density, goblet cell and mucus amount were all correlated to tear film break-up time. However, inflammatory cell density showed no significant correlation to the conjunctival hyperemia grade. But inflammatory cell density correlated to the corneal opacity grade and epithelial stability status. IC examinations could reflect the cytological disorders and relative injury severity of the ocular surface in late stage eye burns. It provides further information which will be useful in surgery and therapy.

  1. Efficacy of cultivated corneal epithelial stem cells for ocular surface reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhasawat P

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pinnita Prabhasawat,1 Pattama Ekpo,2 Mongkol Uiprasertkul,3 Suksri Chotikavanich,1 Nattaporn Tesavibul11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Immunology, 3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To investigate the clinical outcomes of cultivated corneal limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET using human amniotic membrane for corneal limbal stem-cell deficiency.Methods: Prospective, noncomparative case series. Eighteen patients (19 eyes with severe ocular surface diseases were chosen to undergo CLET using human amniotic membrane. Twelve eyes received auto-CLET, and seven eyes received allo-CLET. Clinical outcomes of corneal surface epithelialization, conjunctivalization, inflammation, visual acuity, graft status, and complications were observed.Results: Corneal epithelium cultivated on amniotic membrane (two to four layers was positive for molecular markers p63, ABCG2, CK3, and CK12. The mean patient age was 44.7 ± 15.2 years. A successful clinical outcome, defined as corneal epithelialization without central conjunctivalization or severe inflammation, was obtained in 14 (73.7% of 19 eyes (mean follow-up 26.1 ± 13.5 months; range 6–47. A histopathologic success, defined as absence of goblet cells at the central cornea, was achieved in 12 (63.2% eyes. Clinical failures occurred in five (26.3% of 19 eyes, and histopathologic failures occurred in seven (36.8% of 19 eyes. Survival analysis at 1 year showed that the clinical success rate was 77.9% and the pathological success rate was 72.3%. Fourteen of 19 (73.7% eyes had visual acuity improvements after CLET. Six cases underwent penetrating keratoplasty; five of these grafts remained clear after 20.4 ± 6.9 months (range, 12–31 of follow-up. Complications included infectious keratitis (three cases and recurrent symblepharon (one case. All complicated cases had lid abnormalities. Factors affecting the final clinical

  2. Measurement of ocular surface protection under natural blink conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelson R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Abelson1,2, Keith J Lane3, Endri Angjeli3, Patrick Johnston3, George Ousler3, Douglas Montgomery1 1Arizona State University, 2Statistics and Data Corporation, Tempe, AZ, USA; 3Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA Purpose: To evaluate a new method of measuring ocular exposure in the context of a natural blink pattern through analysis of the variables tear film breakup time (TFBUT, interblink interval (IBI, and tear film breakup area (BUA. Methods: The traditional methodology (Forced-Stare [FS] measures TFBUT and IBI separately. TFBUT is measured under forced-stare conditions by an examiner using a stopwatch, while IBI is measured as the subject watches television. The new methodology (video capture manual analysis [VCMA] involves retrospective analysis of video data of fluorescein-stained eyes taken through a slit lamp while the subject watches television, and provides TFBUT and BUA for each IBI during the 1-minute video under natural blink conditions. The FS and VCMA methods were directly compared in the same set of dry-eye subjects. The VCMA method was evaluated for the ability to discriminate between dry-eye subjects and normal subjects. The VCMA method was further evaluated in the dry eye subjects for the ability to detect a treatment effect before, and 10 minutes after, bilateral instillation of an artificial tear solution. Results: Ten normal subjects and 17 dry-eye subjects were studied. In the dry-eye subjects, the two methods differed with respect to mean TFBUTs (5.82 seconds, FS; 3.98 seconds, VCMA; P = 0.002. The FS variables alone (TFBUT, IBI were not able to successfully distinguish between the dry-eye and normal subjects, whereas the additional VCMA variables, both derived and observed (BUA, BUA/IBI, breakup rate, were able to successfully distinguish between the dry-eye and normal subjects in a statistically significant fashion. TFBUT (P = 0.034 and BUA/IBI (P = 0.001 were able to distinguish the treatment effect of artificial tears

  3. Impact of ocular surface symptoms on quality of life in a United States veterans affairs population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyeh, Bozorgmehr; Viteri, Eduardo; Feuer, William; Lee, David J; Florez, Hermes; Fabian, James A; Perez, Victor L; Galor, Anat

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of ocular surface symptoms on quality of life in a veteran population receiving eye care services. Cross-sectional survey study. setting: Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center (VAMC). patient population: Patients seen at the eye clinic between June and August 2010 were asked to fill out the Dry Eye Questionnaire 5 (DEQ5) and the Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL) questionnaire. main outcome measures: Correlation between ocular surface symptoms and functionality. Four hundred eighty-nine patients elected to fill out the DEQ5 questionnaire (36% response rate). The mean age of respondents was 66 years (standard deviation 12). Ninety-four percent were male; 62% were white and 37% were black. Using the DEQ5 as a surrogate measure of ocular surface symptoms, 65% of respondents reported at least mild ocular surface symptoms (DEQ5 ≥6) and 27% of them reported severe symptoms (DEQ5 ≥12). Black subjects had a 2-fold increased risk of severe symptoms compared to white subjects (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.33-3.19). Several medications were associated with a significantly increased risk of severe symptoms, including glaucoma medications (1.7-fold increase), antidepressants (2.3-fold increase), and antihistamines (2.1-fold increase). There was an inverse correlation between DEQ5 and IDEEL scores with regard to ability to perform activities of daily living (n = 391, r = -0.54, P life of Miami VAMC veterans. Eye care professionals should be vigilant in eliciting ocular surface complaints from their patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Jeison de Nadai; Almeida, Simone Ribeiro Araújo de; Lowen, Marcia Serva; Cunha, Marcelo Carvalho da; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Impression cytology (IC) has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient's eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.

  5. Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology (IC has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient’s eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.

  6. Ocular surface symptoms in veterans returning from operation Iraqi freedom and operation enduring freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Yasha S; Qurban, Qirat; Zlotcavitch, Leonid; Echeverri, Roberto J; Feuer, William; Florez, Hermes; Galor, Anat

    2014-02-03

    To correlate situational exposures and psychiatric disease with self-reported ocular surface symptoms in a younger veteran population involved in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Cross-sectional study of all veterans evaluated in the OIF/OEF clinic between December 2012 and April 2013 who completed the dry eye questionnaire and screening evaluations for environmental exposures, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and depression. The main outcome measures were the influence of environmental exposure and psychiatric disease on ocular surface symptoms. Of 115 participants, the average age was 33 years. While overseas, exposure to incinerated waste (odds ratio [OR] 2.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-5.81, P = 0.02) and PTSD (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.23-5.85, P = 0.02) were associated with self-reported ocular surface symptoms. On return to the United States, older age (OR per decade 2.66, 95% CI 1.65-4.31, P = 0.04) was associated with persistent symptoms and incinerated waste was associated with resolution of symptoms (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.90, P = 0.04). When evaluating symptom severity, 26% of the responders complained of severe ocular surface symptoms, with PTSD (OR 3.10, 95% CI 1.22-7.88, P = 0.02) and depression (OR 4.28, 95% CI 1.71-10.68, P = 0.002) being significant risk factors for their presence. PTSD was significantly associated with ocular surface symptoms both abroad and on return to the United States, whereas air pollution in the form of incinerated waste, was correlated with reversible symptoms.

  7. Ocular surface evaluation in eyes with chronic glaucoma on long term topical antiglaucoma therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Saini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate ocular surface changes and its correlation with the central corneal subbasal nerve fibre layer in chronic glaucoma patients. METHODS: A prospective comparative study of ocular surface evaluation was performed in 50 eyes of 25 patients using two or more antiglaucoma medications for at least 6mo and 50 eyes of 25 normal subjects without any ocular problems as controls. The study parameters evaluated included visual acuity, intraocular pressure, ocular surface evaluation parameters [fluorescein break-up time (FTBUT, Schirmer’s I test, ocular surface staining scores and ocular surface disease index score (OSDI], central corneal sensation (Cochet Bonnett aesthesiometer, central subbasal nerve fiber layer density (SBNFLD by confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The mean values in the glaucoma cases and control groups respectively were as follows: OSDI score (35.89±16.07/6.02±3.84; P=0.001, Schirmer’s I test score (7.63±2.64 mm/12.86±1.93 mm; P=0.001, FTBUT (9.44±2.76s/11.8±1.88s; P=0.001, corneal (5.7±2.33/ 1.1±0.58; P=0.001 and conjunctival staining score (5.06±1.94/0.84±0.46; P=0.001, corneal sensitivity (4.68±0.44/5.07±0.37; P=0.076, mean subbasal nerve fiber number (3.58±0.99/5.40±1.70; P=0.001, SBNFL length (1101.44±287.56 μm/1963.70±562.56 μm; P=0.001 and density (6883.94±1798.03 μm/mm2/12 273.15±3516.04 μm/mm2; P=0.001. Dry eye severity of level 2 and 3 was seen in 66% of glaucoma group. Corneal (R²=0.86 and conjunctival staining (R²=0.71 and OSDI score (R²=0.67 showed statistically significant negative correlation with central corneal SBNFLD while FTBUT (R²=0.84, corneal sensitivity (R²=0.52 showed positive correlation to central corneal SBNFLD in the long term topical antiglaucoma medication group. CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes and antiglaucoma therapy induced dry eye is found to be associated with decreased SBNFLD in eyes on long term topical antiglaucoma medications.

  8. Touch-free measurement of body temperature using close-up thermography of the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Benjamin; Wagner, Heike; Gmoser, Johanna; Wörner, Anja; Löschberger, Anna; Peters, Laura; Frey, Anna; Hofmann, Ulrich; Frantz, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In experimental animal research body temperature (BT) is measured for the objective determination of an animals' physiological condition. Invasive, probe-based measurements are stressful and can influence experimental outcome. Alternatively BT can be determined touch-free from the emitted heat of the organism at a single spot using infrared thermometers [1]. To get visual confirmation and find more appropriate surfaces for measurement a hand-held thermal imager was equipped with a self-made, cheap, 3D-printable close-up lens system that reproducibly creates eight-time magnified thermal images and improves sensitivity. This setup was used to establish ocular surface temperature (OST), representing the temperature of the brain-heart axis, as a touch-free alternative for measurement of BT in mice, rats, rabbits and humans.OST measurement after isoflurane exposure and myocardial infarction (MI) experiments in mice revealed high physiological relevance and sensitivity, the possibility to discriminate between MI and sham operations in one hour and even long-term outcome-predictive capabilities of OST after MI. Summarized here we present: •Self-made close-up lens for thermal imaging cameras for eight-time magnification•Establishment of OST for touch-free determination of BT in rodents and humans•Short- and long-term predictive capabilities of OST in experimental MI in mice.

  9. Coculture of autologous limbal and conjunctival epithelial cells to treat severe ocular surface disorders: Long-term survival analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Sandhya V; Sejpal, Kunjal; Fatima, Anees; Gaddipati, Subhash; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cultivated limbal epithelium for reconstruction of corneal surface is a well-established procedure; however, it is not adequate for damage which also extensively involves the conjunctiva. In severe cases of ocular surface damage that warrant additional conjunctival transplantation apart from cultivated limbal stem cell transplantation, we describe the long-term survival of a novel method of cocultivating autologous limbal and conjunctival epithelium on a single substrate. Materials and Methods: Forty eyes of 39 patients with severe limbal stem cell deficiency and conjunctival scarring or symblepharon underwent transplantation of autologous cocultivated epithelium on human amniotic membrane. A ring barrier was used to segregate the central limbal and peripheral conjunctival epithelia in vitro. Patients were followed up at regular intervals to assess stability of the ocular surface, defined by absence of conjunctivalization into the central 4 mm of the cornea and absence of diffuse fluorescein staining. Penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) was subsequently performed, where indicated, in patients with surface stability. Results: The cumulative survival probability was 60% at 1 year and 45% at 4 years by Kaplan–Meier analysis (mean follow-up duration: 33 ± 29 months, range: 1–87 months). Best-corrected visual acuity improved to greater than 20/200 in 38% eyes at the last follow-up, compared with 5% eyes before surgery. Immunohistochemistry in five of the corneal buttons excised for PKP showed an epithelial phenotype similar to cornea in all five. Conclusions: Synchronous use of cultured limbal and conjunctival epithelium offers a feasible alternative and a simpler one-step surgical approach to treat severe ocular surface disorders involving limbus and conjunctiva. PMID:23552358

  10. Inflammatory markers in the tears of patients with ocular surface disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acera, Arantxa; Rocha, Germán; Vecino, Elena; Lema, Isabel; Durán, Juan A

    2008-10-01

    To determine the concentration of interleukins (IL-1beta and -6) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (pro-MMP-9) in the tears of patients with different ocular surface diseases and to examine the possible relationship between the disorders and molecular inflammation. 77 patients diagnosed as having different ocular surface disorders and 18 normal control subjects were studied. Patients were routinely examined and separated into 5 groups: (1) control, (2) blepharitis, (3) ocular allergic disease, (4) dry eye and (5) conjunctivochalasis. Ten microliters of tears were collected by a Weck cell sponge. The concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6 and pro-MMP-9 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the MMP-9 activity was evaluated with gelatin zymography. Levels of IL-1beta and IL-6 in tear fluid were significantly higher in conjunctivochalasis (p = 0.0062 and p = 0.0134) than in the control group. Pro-MMP-9 levels were significantly elevated in blepharitis (p = 0.013), in allergic eye disease, in dry eye and in conjunctivochalasis (all p tears are elevated in all of the studied pathologies especially in ocular allergy and conjunctivochalasis. However, IL-1beta and IL-6 were only found to be overexpressed in conjunctivochalasis. These findings illustrate the selective implication of different molecules in each disorder. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. ocular disorders in patients infected with the human immun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus was the commonest ocular disease encountered, occurring in 2.7% of the study population. This is in keeping with reports from other parts of the world. We recommend that young patients presenting with Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, conj unctival Squamuos cell carcinoma and sudden onset.

  12. Ocular Disorders In Patients Infected With The Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen patients (2.7%) had Herpes zoster ophthalmicus, four (0.8%) had Squamuos cell carcinoma, two (0.4%) had Kaposi\\'s sarcoma while one (0.2%) had Cytomegalovirus retinitis. The signs seen on ocular examination were vesicular rash (66.7%) diminished vision (57.1%) corneal ulcers (38.0%), conjunctival ...

  13. Tear film mucins: front line defenders of the ocular surface; comparison with airway and gastrointestinal tract mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Robin R; Dartt, Darlene A

    2013-12-01

    The ocular surface including the cornea and conjunctiva and its overlying tear film are the first tissues of the eye to interact with the external environment. The tear film is complex containing multiple layers secreted by different glands and tissues. Each layer contains specific molecules and proteins that not only maintain the health of the cells on the ocular surface by providing nourishment and removal of waste products but also protect these cells from environment. A major protective mechanism that the corneal and conjunctival cells have developed is secretion of the innermost layer of the tear film, the mucous layer. Both the cornea and conjunctiva express membrane spanning mucins, whereas the conjunctiva also produces soluble mucins. The mucins present in the tear film serve to maintain the hydration of the ocular surface and to provide lubrication and anti-adhesive properties between the cells of the ocular surface and conjunctiva during the blink. A third function is to contribute to the epithelial barrier to prevent pathogens from binding to the ocular surface. This review will focus on the different types of mucins produced by the corneal and conjunctival epithelia. Also included in this review will be a presentation of the structure of mucins, regulation of mucin production, role of mucins in ocular surface diseases, and the differences in mucin production by the ocular surface, airways and gastrointestinal tract. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Borneol Is a TRPM8 Agonist that Increases Ocular Surface Wetness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui-Lan Chen

    Full Text Available Borneol is a compound widely used in ophthalmic preparations in China. Little is known about its exact role in treating eye diseases. Here we report that transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8 channel is a pharmacological target of borneol and mediates its therapeutic effect in the eyes. Ca2+ measurement and electrophysiological recordings revealed that borneol activated TRPM8 channel in a temperature- and dose-dependent manner, which was similar to but less effective than the action of menthol, an established TRPM8 agonist. Borneol significantly increased tear production in guinea pigs without evoking nociceptive responses at 25°C, but failed to induce tear secretion at 35°C. In contrast, menthol evoked tearing response at both 25 and 35°C. TRPM8 channel blockers N-(3-Aminopropyl-2-[(3-methylphenylmethoxy]-N-(2-thienylmethylbenzamide hydrochloride (AMTB and N-(4-tert-butylphenyl-4-(3-chloropyridin-2-ylpiperazine-1-carboxamide (BCTC abolished borneol- and menthol-induced tear secretion. Borneol at micromolar concentrations did not affect the viability of human corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that borneol can activate the cold-sensing TRPM8 channel and modestly increase ocular surface wetness, which suggests it is an active compound in ophthalmic preparations and particularly useful in treating dry eye syndrome.

  15. Fluorophotometric Analysis of the Ocular Surface Glycocalyx in Soft Contact Lens Wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Masaki; Yamada, Masakazu; Akune, Yoko; Shigeyasu, Chika; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Unstable tear film characterized by shorting of tear break-up time (BUT) is associated with discomfort and dryness in contact lens wearers. The glycocalyx is thought to be crucial in maintaining the wettability and lubrication of the ocular surface. We evaluated the ocular surface glycocalyx in soft contact lens (SCL) wearers using a fluorescein-labeled wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) as a marker to demonstrate the ocular surface glycoconjugates in vivo. Twenty experienced SCL wearers and 20 healthy volunteers with no history of CL wearing (controls) were enrolled in the study. After applying a 5% F-WGA solution to the eyes of study individuals, fluorescent intensities in their respective central corneas were measured by fluorophotometry. The relationship between F-WGA intensity in the corneal surface and clinical parameters associated with contact lens wear were analyzed. F-WGA fluorescence intensity in the SCL group was 418.5 ± 103.3, which was significantly lower than that of the controls (825.0 ± 179.8; p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). F-WGA fluorescence intensity was not correlated with Schirmer's test values or age, whereas a statistically significant correlation between F-WGA fluorescence intensity and tear film BUT was observed (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). The decrease in F-WGA fluorescence intensity could be reversed by discontinuation of SCL use. Reduction and/or compositional alteration of ocular surface glycocalyx may be one of the causative factors of SCL-induced eye dryness.

  16. Scleral contact lenses for overnight wear in the management of ocular surface disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, M J; Pullum, K W; Buckley, R J

    2001-04-01

    To describe the use of overnight wear scleral contact lenses (Scl CLs). The authors describe 7 patients using this modality of contact lens wear. Most of the lenses were made from highly gas-permeable materials, but a long-standing case is also reported when the lenses were made from PMMA, which is impermeable to gases. There is a range of therapeutic indications for the use of Scl CLs. The development of rigid gas-permeable (RGP) materials has widened this range. Seven case reports are presented which describe patients in whom severe ocular surface disease has been managed with overnight-wear Scl CLs. The indications were: corneal exposure, post-radiotherapy complications, Stevens Johnson disease, recurrent erosion and congenital or post-surgical lid defects. Scl CLs provide a therapeutic option for a range of complicated corneal and ocular surface conditions for which the treatment by other methods is either unsuitable or less effective. They have several advantages over silicone rubber and hydrogel lenses. The relative ease of handling for some patients allows removal for cleaning, their rigidity gives stability and a high degree of protection to the ocular surface, and the presence of a pre-corneal fluid reservoir optically neutralises an irregular corneal surface. Highly oxygen-permeable materials enable consideration of overnight wear in appropriate circumstances.

  17. The effect of smoking on the ocular surface and the precorneal tear film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSmoking, both active and passive, creates a plethora ofhealth‐related problems, which primarily affect thecardiovascular and respiratory systems. There is very littleevidence on the effects of tobacco smoke on the eye,especially regarding anterior ocular surface relatedpathology. This study was undertaken to determine theeffects of smoking on the ocular surface and the tear film insmokers.MethodsA total of 51 (102 eyes smokers and 50 (100 eyes age‐ andgender‐matched healthy non‐smokers were included in thisstudy. The ocular surface was evaluated by measuring tearfilm break‐up time, surface staining with fluorescein, andcorneal and conjunctival sensitivities, and by completing theSchirmer’s II test. Data was analysed using StatisticalPackage for Social Sciences (SPSS version 11.5. A p valueless than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThe smoker group had significantly lower tear film break‐uptime, and corneal and conjunctival sensitivity than the nonsmokergroup. Punctate staining was significantly higher inthe smoker group than the non‐smoker group. There wasno statistically significant difference in Schirmer’s II testresults between the smoker and non‐smoker group.ConclusionSmoking caused adverse effects on the precorneal tear filmand there was strong association between smoking and tearfilm instability. Although a causative relationship could notbe determined, there is a need for further longitudinalstudies.

  18. Oral epithelial cells transplanted on to corneal surface tend to adapt to the ocular phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddipati, Subhash; Muralidhar, R; Sangwan, Virender S; Mariappan, Indumathi; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Balasubramanian, Dorairajan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the response of oral epithelial cells, transplanted on corneal surface to the ocular cues in vivo. The corneal button obtained after penetrating keratoplasty (PK) of an eye of a patient with total limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD), previously treated with cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) was examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of keratins, p63, p75, PAX6, Ki-67, CD31, and CD34. COMET followed by optical-PK has improved visual acuity to 20/40 and rendered a stable ocular surface. The excised corneal tissue showed the presence of stratified epithelium with vasculatures. The epithelial cells of the corneal button expressed K3, K19, Ki-67, p63, p75 and the cornea-specific PAX6 and K12. This study confirms that the oral cells, transplanted to corneal surface, survive and stably reconstruct the ocular surface. They maintain their stemness at the ectopic site and acquire some of the corneal epithelial-like characters. PMID:23571256

  19. Ocular surface, fornix, and eyelid rehabilitation in Boston type I keratoprosthesis patients with mucous membrane disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rootman, Dan B; Kim, Michelle J; Aldave, Anthony J; Douglas, Raymond; Hwang, Catherine; Goldberg, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To understand the efficacy of various approaches for ocular surface reconstruction in eyes with implanted Boston Type I keratoprosthesis. All eyes implanted with a Boston Type I keratoprosthesis over a 9-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Any case in which mucosal rehabilitation was performed was included in the study sample. The type, number, approach, and outcome for all eyelid and ocular surface procedures were assessed. A total of 22 mucosal surface surgeries were performed before, concurrent with, and after implantation of 11 keratoprostheses and 1 penetrating keratoplasty (after keratoprosthesis removal) in 9 eyes of 9 patients. Most of the ocular surface reconstructive surgeries (81.8%; 18/22) were performed at the time of or following keratoprosthesis implantation, with the most common indication being corneal stromal necrosis (44.4%; 8/18). Free grafting and simple advancement resulted in graft retraction for each case, and pedicle or bucket handle flaps resulted in a stable vascularized graft for half of the cases. Graft retraction occurred in 6 of the 9 eyes in this study, including in all 5 eyes of patients with Stevens Johnsons syndrome (SJS). Free grafting and simple advancement flaps do not appear to be effective for rehabilitation in these eyes. However, even vascularized pedicle and bucket handle flaps retracted 50% of the time. Individuals with SJS were more likely to both require conjunctival rehabilitation after keratoprosthesis surgery and develop graft retraction in the course of management.

  20. Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem scleral lens therapy for patients with ocular symptoms of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heur, Martin; Bach, Dianne; Theophanous, Christos; Chiu, Gloria B

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the results of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral lens treatment on visual acuity and function in patients with ocular symptoms of chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS). Retrospective interventional case series. setting: Single multi-specialty institutional practice. study population: A chart review from July 2009 to July 2013 identified 19 patients with ocular symptoms from chronic SJS who were referred for PROSE fitting evaluation. Three patients deemed appropriate candidates were excluded because they were lost to follow-up during the fitting process. Only 1 eye was fitted in 4 patients because anatomic changes prohibited PROSE fitting in the fellow eye. Another patient chose to have PROSE fitting only in 1 eye. A total of 27 eyes of 16 patients who completed PROSE fitting were included in this study. intervention: PROSE scleral lens fitting. outcome measures: Visual acuity and visual function were assessed before and after PROSE fitting using Snellen acuity and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) survey. The OSDI survey is a validated questionnaire that assesses ocular surface disease in the context of vision-related function, ocular symptoms, and environmental triggers. Visual acuity improved from 0.43 ± 0.35 logMAR pre-PROSE to 0.14 ± 0.22 logMAR post-PROSE (P = .0007) in SJS patients. OSDI scores improved from 70.4 ± 19.0 pre-PROSE to 37.4 ± 23.2 post-PROSE (P = .0002) in the same cohort. The results of this study show that PROSE treatment is a viable option for improving visual acuity and function in SJS patients who failed conventional treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A MODEL FOR THE TEAR FILM AND OCULAR SURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR PARTIAL BLINKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Quan; Braun, R J; Driscoll, T A; King-Smith, P E

    In this paper, we investigate the dynamics of tear film and the associated temperature variation for partial blinks. We investigate the mechanism of fluid supply during partial blink cycles, and compare the film thickness with observation in vivo. We find that varying the thickness of the fluid layer beneath the moving upper lid improves the agreement for the in vivo measurement of tear film thickness after a half blink. By examining the flux of the fluid, we provide an explanation of this assumption. We also investigate the temperature dynamics both at the ocular surface and inside the simulated anterior chamber. Our simulation results suggest that the ocular surface temperature readjusts rapidly to normal temperature distribution after partial blinks.

  2. Impact of contact lens material and design on the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Alcocer, Javier; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; García-Lázaro, Santiago; Albarrán-Diego, César; Hernández-Verdejo, José Luis; Madrid-Costa, David

    2017-10-11

    To evaluate the impact on the ocular surface of a daily disposable hydrogel contact lens with high water content compared with two silicone hydrogel daily disposable lenses of lower water content. The hydrogel lens assessed was made from nesofilcon A and the silicone hydrogel lenses were made of delefilcon A and stenfilcon A. Contact lens thickness was measured to assess material stability during daily wear, and ocular surface parameters such as tear film osmolarity, tear meniscus area and central corneal thickness were also assessed. Optical quality was analysed for all cases by means of wavefront aberrometry. The nesofilcon A was shown to be the thinnest lens (p  0.05). In spite of having the thinnest lens and the highest water content, the hydrogel does not significantly impact on tear film and corneal swelling after one day of use in first-time wearers. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  3. Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis Implantation Following Autologous Submandibular Gland Transplantation for End Stage Ocular Surface Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianjun; Zhai, Jiajie; Liao, Guiqing; Chen, Jiaqi

    2016-10-11

    To describe the results of Boston keratoprosthesis implantation in a patient with Stevens-Johnson syndrome following autologous submandibular gland transplantation. Observational case report. We report the case of a man diagnosed with Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Autologous submandibular gland transplantation was performed in the right eye in 2008 to ameliorate tear film deficiency. Due to the improvement in the microenvironment of the ocular surface, Boston keratoprosthesis implantation was performed in the right eye in 2011. He maintained a VA of 20/100 for 12 months. At the last follow-up visit (54 months), his VA had declined to finger count level due to de novo glaucoma, which was treated with glaucoma drainage device implantation, cyclophotocoagulation and topical anti-glaucoma medications. The procedures described provide patients with end-stage ocular surface disease an option to lessen the severity of keratoconjunctivitis sicca and to regain their VA.

  4. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia among HIV-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    human papillomavirus (HPV)[14,15] have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of OSSN in this region. Surgical excision is the mainstay of treatment for OSSN,[16] but recurrence rates following excision remain unacceptably high, ranging from 15% to 52%.[1] In an effort to reduce recurrence rates, primary excision.

  5. Potential Role of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs for Cell-Based Therapy of the Ocular Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo P. Casaroli-Marano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The integrity and normal function of the corneal epithelium are crucial for maintaining the cornea’s transparency and vision. The existence of a cell population with progenitor characteristics in the limbus maintains a dynamic of constant epithelial repair and renewal. Currently, cell-based therapies for bio replacement—cultured limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET and cultured oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET—present very encouraging clinical results for treating limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD and restoring vision. Another emerging therapeutic approach consists of obtaining and implementing human progenitor cells of different origins in association with tissue engineering methods. The development of cell-based therapies using stem cells, such as human adult mesenchymal or induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSCs, represent a significant breakthrough in the treatment of certain eye diseases, offering a more rational, less invasive, and better physiological treatment option in regenerative medicine for the ocular surface. This review will focus on the main concepts of cell-based therapies for the ocular surface and the future use of IPSCs to treat LSCD.

  6. Ocular surface disease incidence in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radenković Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ocular surface disease (OSD is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbances, tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface, accompanied by increased tear film osmolarity and inflammation of the ocular surface. It is a consequence of disrupted homeostasis of lacrimal functional unit. The main pathogenetic mechanism stems from tear hyperosmolarity and tear film instability. The etiological classification is hyposecretory (Sy-Sjögren and non-Sjögren and evaporative (extrinsic and intrinsic form. Delphi panel classification grades disease stages. Antiglaucoma topical therapy causes exacerbation or occurrence of symptoms of dry eye due to main ingredients or preservatives (benzalkonium chloride - BAK, which are dose- and time-dependent. BAK reduces the stability of the lipid layer of tears, the number of goblet cells, induces apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration. Objective. The aim of this study was the analysis of the OSD incidence in open-angle glaucoma patients caused by topical medicamentous therapy. Methods. Retrospective analysis of examined patients with open-angle glaucoma was used. Results. Increased incidence of moderate and advanced OSD Index degrees in the group of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. According to the Delphi Panel Scale the most common grade is IIb (POAG and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma. Evaporative form of OSD prevailed in all treatment groups. High percentage of dry eye in patients with higher concentrations of preservatives applied was noticed. Conclusion. OSD should be timely diagnosed and treated. Dry eye has an impact on surgical outcome and postoperative visual acuity, and in order to improve patient compliance and quality of life, symptoms of dry eye should be addressed and medications with lower concentrations of preservatives should be applied.

  7. Femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis versus photorefractive keratectomy: Effect on ocular surface condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Paola; Julio, Gemma; Alvarez de Toledo, Juan; Charoenrook, Victor; Barraquer, Rafael I

    2017-02-01

    To compare ocular surface characteristics in eyes after femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). Centro de Oftalmologia Barraquer, Barcelona, Spain. Prospective comparative observational study. Patients with myopia who had femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK or PRK were included. Tear osmolarity, the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire, Schirmer I, corneal sensitivity, tear breakup time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining were evaluated preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for temporal intragroup analysis, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for intergroup comparisons. The study comprised 44 patients (44 eyes) with myopia. Comparison of the parameters between the femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK group (22 eyes) and the PRK group (22 eyes) showed a similar temporal progression postoperatively. Compared with the preoperative evaluation, corneal sensitivity decreased after 3 months (P = .002 and P = .02, respectively) and 6 months (P = .03 and P = .04, respectively). The TBUT reached the highest mean value after 12 months (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively), and tear osmolarity was slightly increased after 1 year, although the mean values remained within the normal range (P = .01 and P = .04, respectively). The only difference between the 2 groups was lower corneal sensitivity in the femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK group after 3 months (P = .02). The ocular surface condition could be considered clinically unaltered after 1 year in both groups. Femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK and PRK techniques seemed to be safe for the ocular surface condition and to have a similar effect on it. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The involvement of proline-rich protein Mus musculus predicted gene 4736 in ocular surface functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xia; Ren, Sheng-Wei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    To research the two homologous predicted proline-rich protein genes, Mus musculus predicted gene 4736 (MP4) and proline-rich protein BstNI subfamily 1 (Prb1) which were significantly upregulated in cultured corneal organs when encountering fungal pathogen preparations. This study was to confirm the expression and potential functions of these two genes in ocular surface. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis model was established in Balb/c mice. One day post infection, mRNA level of MP4 was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and MP4 protein detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) or Western blot using a customized polyclonal anti-MP4 antibody preparation. Lacrimal glands from normal mice were also subjected to IHC staining for MP4. An online bioinformatics program, BioGPS, was utilized to screen public data to determine other potential locations of MP4. One day after keratitis induction, MP4 was upregulated in the corneas at both mRNA level as measured using real-time PCR and protein levels as measured using Western blot and IHC. BioGPS analysis of public data suggested that the MP4 gene was most abundantly expressed in the lacrimal glands, and IHC revealed that normal murine lacrimal glands were positive for MP4 staining. MP4 and Prb1 are closely related with the physiology and pathological processes of the ocular surface. Considering the significance of ocular surface abnormalities like dry eye, we propose that MP4 and Prb1 contribute to homeostasis of ocular surface, and deserve more extensive functional and disease correlation studies.

  9. Three-Dimensional Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in Humans: a Matter of Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Goumans (Janine)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this thesis was to quantify three-dimensional ocular stability in response to head movements in healthy human subjects and in patients with various types of peripheral vestibular disorders. Despite a large increase in our knowledge from animal and human studies about the

  10. The Effects of Topical Antiglaucoma Drugs as Monotherapy on the Ocular Surface: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevda Aydin Kurna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim was to compare the effects of antiglaucoma eye drops on the tear functions and ocular surface. Method. Eighty-five eyes of 43 patients with glaucoma were included into this randomized prospective study. Timolol without preservative (1, timolol with benzododecinium bromide (2, latanoprost (3, bimatoprost (4, travoprost with benzalkonium chloride (5, and brimonidine with purite (6 were given to 6 groups. Schirmer I, tear film breakup time (TBUT, staining scores, and impression cytology samples were evaluated before and during 12-month-follow-up period. Results. At the end of 12 months, there was no detected change in Schirmer I and TBUT tests indicating dry eye. Corneal staining scores were higher in groups 1 and 2, while conjunctival staining scores were higher in group 6. Goblet cell count decreased in groups 1 and 5 in superior and inferior, group 2 in superior, and groups 3 and 6 in inferior conjunctiva. Squamous metaplasia grades showed a significant increase in groups 1 and 2 at 3rd, 6th, and 12th month controls (P<0.05. Conclusion. We observed nonserious impact on tear functions and ocular surface with antiglaucoma monotherapy. Beta blockers induced more damage on the ocular surface suggesting the role of the dosing and active substances beside preservatives.

  11. Management of vascularized limbal keratitis with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressey, Anna; Jacobs, Deborah S; Carrasquillo, Karen G

    2012-03-01

    To describe a case of contact lens-induced vascularized limbal keratitis (VLK) and management with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface system (PROSE) treatment. Clinical retrospective case report describing the clinical appearance, course of development, and treatment of VLK with PROSE. A 58-year-old white woman presented with a history of advanced keratoconus and almost four decades of contact lens wear, including polymethyl-methacrylate, small-diameter, gas-permeable lenses, low-Dk hybrid, and piggyback lens modalities. Complications of lens wear caused the development of extensive VLK in both eyes, with vascularization, lipid keratopathy, and corneal scarring projecting into the central cornea, more so in the left eye. She was evaluated and treated with PROSE in both eyes, demonstrating initial improvements in both comfort and vision, from 20/30 to 20/25 in the right eye and from 20/40 to 20/20 in the left eye. After 2 years of PROSE treatment, she reported excellent vision and comfort. Acuities were OD 20/25(+2) and OS 20/20(-/+). There was normalization of the corneal surface with reduced staining and epithelial irregularity, and there was substantial regression of corneal neovascularization and opacity, particularly in the left eye. PROSE, by normalizing the environment at the ocular surface, ultimately improved visual function and long-term ocular health for this patient.

  12. Impairment of tear film and the ocular surface in patients with facial burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Ouk; Chung, Tae-Young; Shin, Young Joo

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the factors affecting tear film and ocular surface in patients with facial burns. A total of 273 patients with facial burns, treated at Hallym University Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital from November 2012 to July 2015, were included. Tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's tear secretion test, fluorescein staining score (FSS), ocular surface disease index (OSDI), and visual analogue pain score (VAS) were compared according to burned surface area, burn site, burn cause, time since burn injury, or lid abnormality. Mean age was 48.66±14.46years (range: 18-85). Tear film stability was not different according to burn area, burn site, or burn cause. Facial burn patients with lid abnormalities had shorter TBUT and higher OSDI scores compared to no lid abnormality (pburn. FSS was different according to the area of burn (p=0.007, ANOVA). OSDI and VAS was higher in the patients with an electrical burn compared to thermal burn (p=0.003 and 0.024, ANOVA). Facial burn patients with lid abnormalities had tear film instability and ocular discomforts. Aggressive treatment may be of benefit in facial burn patients with lid involvement. Electrical burn caused more severe pain compared to thermal burn. Attention should be paid to pain control in patients with electrical burns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocular surface chemical injury treated by regenerating agent (RGTA, Cacicol20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustaoglu, Melih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the successful outcome of regenerating agent (RGTA treatment in a patient with severe ocular surface chemical injury.Methods: Case reportResults: A 14-year-old female patient was admitted to our clinic following chemical burn in the left eye. Her best corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/40; and she had total corneal and 75% conjunctival epithelial loss, corneal haze, and limbal ischemia for nine clock hours in the left eye. The patient had already received standard therapy consisting of patching, preservative-free artificial tears, topical netilmicin, topical dexamethasone, oral doxycycline, and vitamin C for two weeks. We initially cleaned the conjunctival necrotic tissues, applied the silicon hydrogel bandage contact lens, exchanged the topical netilmicin with preservative-free moxifloxacin and supplemented this therapy with RGTA (Cacicol20, Paris, France once in two days. The BCVA of the patient improved to 20/20 and the ocular surface re-epithelization was completed on day 20.Conclusion: RGTAs are effective biological agents for the treatment of corneal epithelial defects following severe ocular surface chemical injuries.

  14. Ocular Surface Temperature During Scleral Lens Wearing in Patients With Keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, Gonzalo; Wang, Zicheng; Serramito-Blanco, Maria; Martin-Gil, Alba; Carballo-Alvarez, Jesús; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the ocular surface temperature using an infrared thermography camera before and after wearing scleral lens in patients with keratoconus and correlate these results with the tear production and stability. A pilot, experimental, short-term study has been performed. Twenty-six patients with keratoconus (36.95±8.95 years) participated voluntarily in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: patients with intrastromal corneal ring (KC-ICRS group) and patients without ICRS (KC group). Schirmer test, tear breakup time (TBUT), and ocular surface temperature in the conjunctiva, limbus, and cornea were evaluated before and after wearing a scleral lens. The patients wore the scleral lenses from 6 to 9 hours with average of 7.59±0.73 hours. No significant changes in Schirmer test and TBUT were found for both groups. No temperature differences were found between the KC-ICRS and the KC groups for all zones evaluated. There was a slight, but statistically significant, increase in the inferior cornea, temporal limbus, and nasal conjunctival temperature for KC-ICRS group and temporal limbus temperature decreasing for the KC group after wearing scleral lens (P0.05). Scleral contact lens seems not to modify the ocular surface temperature despite the presence of the tear film stagnation under the lens.

  15. Ocular surface temperature in patients with evaporative and aqueous-deficient dry eyes: a thermographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteoli, S; Favuzza, E; Mazzantini, L; Aragona, P; Cappelli, S; Corvi, A; Mencucci, R

    2017-07-26

    In recent decades infrared thermography (IRT) has facilitated accurate quantitative measurements of the ocular surface temperature (OST), applying a non-invasive procedure. The objective of this work was to develop a procedure based on IRT, which allows characterizing of the cooling of the ocular surface of patients suffering from dry eye syndrome, and distinguishing among patients suffering from aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and evaporative dry eyes (EDE). All patients examined (34 females and 4 males, 23-84 years) were divided into two groups according to their Schirmer I result (⩽ 7 mm for ADDE and  >  7 mm for EDE), and the OST was recorded for 7 s at 30 Hz. For each acquisition, the temperatures of the central cornea (CC) as well as those of both temporal and nasal canthi were investigated. Findings showed that the maximum temperature variation (up to 0.75  ±  0.29 °C) was at the CC for both groups. Furthermore, patients suffering from EDE tended to have a higher initial OST than those with ADDE, explained by the greater quantity of the tear film, evenly distributed over the entire ocular surface, keeping the OST higher initially. Results also showed that EDE patients had an average cooling rate higher than those suffering from ADDE, confirming the excessive evaporation of the tear film. Ocular thermography paves the way to become an effective tool for differentiating between the two different etiologies of dry eye syndrome.

  16. Intraoperative mitomycin C and amniotic membrane transplantation for fornix reconstruction in severe cicatricial ocular surface diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Scheffer C G; Di Pascuale, Mario A; Liu, Daniel Tzong-Shyue; Gao, Ying Ying; Baradaran-Rafii, Alireza

    2005-05-01

    To investigate whether intraoperative application of mitomycin C may enhance the success of amniotic membrane transplantation in symblepharon lysis and fornix reconstruction in severe cicatricial ocular surface diseases. Noncomparative interventional case series. Sixteen patients (8 female, 8 male; 18 eyes) with a mean age of 41+/-23.4 years (range, 3-79) and suffering from severe chemical/thermal burns (7 eyes), multiple recurrent pterygia and pseudopterygia (5 eyes), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (4 eyes), and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (2 eyes) were consecutively enrolled. All except for 2 eyes had had prior surgical attempts of surgical reconstruction, including 6 eyes with a mucous membrane graft (MMG), but still presented with symblepharon and persistent ocular surface inflammation. After excision of subconjunctival fibrovascular tissues, 0.04% mitomycin C was applied for 5 minutes in the deep fornix before amniotic membrane transplantation. Deeper fornix, noninflamed ocular surface, and full motility. The mean epithelial healing time was 4.2+/-1.9 weeks. During the follow-up of 14.16+/-5.2 months, all eyes showed a marked reduction of conjunctival inflammation, a deep fornix, and a continuous tear meniscus. Of 12 eyes with motility restriction, 2 eyes with multiple recurrent pterygia and 1 eye with severe thermal burn showed recurrence of partial motility restriction 2 months after surgery. The vision of 9 eyes was successfully restored by an additional keratolimbal allograft with subsequent penetrating keratoplasty (6 eyes). Intraoperative application of mitomycin C is an effective means to reduce chronic and deep-seated conjunctival inflammation, and helps amniotic membrane restore a deep fornix after symblepharon lysis, even in eyes that had a failed MMG. Restoration of deep fornix and tear meniscus is an important prerequisite to achieve successful reconstruction by subsequent limbal stem cell transplantation.

  17. Ocular surface changes and tear film alterations associated with sun gazing during a solar eclipse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepp, Johannes; Dorner, Guido T; Jandrasits, Kerstin; Maar, Noemi; Schild, Gebtraud; Wedrich, Andreas

    2003-01-31

    A solar eclipse occurred in central Europe on August 11th, 1999. Following the eclipse, patients with ocular symptoms were investigated. Gazing at the sun without protection is liable to damage the retina. Our attention was focused on changes of the ocular surface and the tear film. Forty-three patients were investigated within one week after the solar eclipse as baseline. 33 of them were followed up one year later. Visual acuity and the central visual-field were measured, and the ocular surface and the fundus were examined using a slit lamp. The quality of the lacrimal tear film was examined using Schirmer's test for the aqueous layer, break-up time for the mucous layer and interference observation for the lipid layer, measured by a slit lamp and a tearoscope. At the baseline 19 patients had non-specific visual problems. Pathological alterations of the tear film were seen in all three tear-film layers: Schirmer's test was pathological in 87%, break-up time decreased in 85%, the interference pattern of the lipid layer changed in 67% and there were changes in 87% using the tearoscope. One year later the non specific visual disorders had disappeared. Schirmer's test did not reveal much change from the baseline: 51% pathological, 24% remained pathological in break-up-time and the lipid layer was normalized except in 9%. Using the tearoscope, lipids were better than grade 3 in all patients. After gazing at a solar eclipse the ocular surface and tear film changed. While the aqueous layer remained pathological in many patients, the lipid layer and the mucous layer recovered spontaneously.

  18. Sphere-forming cells from peripheral cornea demonstrate the ability to repopulate the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathan, Jeremy John; Ismail, Salim; McGhee, Jennifer Jane; McGhee, Charles Ninian John; Sherwin, Trevor

    2016-06-01

    The limbus forms the outer rim of the cornea at the corneoscleral junction and harbours a population of stem cells for corneal maintenance. Injuries to the limbus, through disease or accidents such as chemical injuries or burns, may lead to significant visual impairment due to depletion of the native stem cells of the tissue. Sphere-forming cells were isolated from peripheral cornea for potential use as transplantable elements for limbal stem cell repopulation and limbal reconstruction. Immunocytochemistry, live cell imaging and quantitative PCR were used to characterize spheres and elucidate activity post implantation into human cadaveric corneal tissue. Spheres stained positively for stem cell markers ∆NP63α, ABCG2 and ABCB5 as well as the basal limbal marker and putative niche marker, notch 1. In addition, spheres also stained positively for markers of corneal cells, vimentin, keratin 3, keratocan and laminin, indicating a heterogeneous mix of stromal and epithelial-origin cells. Upon implantation into decellularized corneoscleral tissue, 3D, polarized and radially orientated cell migration with cell proliferation was observed. Cells migrated out from the spheres and repopulated the entire corneal surface over 14 days. Post-implantation analysis revealed qualitative evidence of stem, stromal and epithelial cell markers while quantitative PCR showed a quantitative reduction in keratocan and laminin expression indicative of an enhanced progenitor cell response. Proliferation, quantified by PCNA expression, significantly increased at 4 days subsequently followed by a decrease at day 7 post implantation. These observations suggest great promise for the potential of peripheral corneal spheres as transplantable units for corneal repair, targeting ocular surface regeneration and stem cell repopulation.

  19. Disruption of TGF-β signaling improves ocular surface epithelial disease in experimental autoimmune keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

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    Cintia S De Paiva

    Full Text Available TGF-β is a pleiotropic cytokine that can have pro- or anti-inflammatory effects depending on the context. Elevated levels of bioactive TGF-β1 in tears and elevated TGF-β1mRNA transcripts in conjunctiva and minor salivary glands of human Sjögren's Syndrome patients has also been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response to desiccating stress (DS, an experimental model of dry eye, in dominant-negative TGF-β type II receptor (CD4-DNTGFβRII mice. These mice have a truncated TGF-β receptor in CD4(+ T cells, rendering them unresponsive to TGF-β.DS was induced by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine and exposure to a drafty low humidity environment in CD4-DNTGFβRII and wild-type (WT mice, aged 14 weeks, for 5 days. Nonstressed (NS mice served as controls. Parameters of ocular surface disease included corneal smoothness, corneal barrier function and conjunctival goblet cell density. NS CD4-DNTGFβRII at 14 weeks of age mice exhibited a spontaneous dry eye phenotype; however, DS improved their corneal barrier function and corneal surface irregularity, increased their number of PAS+ GC, and lowered CD4(+ T cell infiltration in conjunctiva. In contrast to WT, CD4-DNTGFβRII mice did not generate a Th-17 and Th-1 response, and they failed to upregulate MMP-9, IL-23, IL-17A, RORγT, IFN-γ and T-bet mRNA transcripts in conjunctiva. RAG1KO recipients of adoptively transferred CD4+T cells isolated from DS5 CD4-DNTGFβRII showed milder dry eye phenotype and less conjunctival inflammation than recipients of WT control.Our results showed that disruption of TGF-β signaling in CD4(+ T cells causes paradoxical improvement of dry eye disease in mice subjected to desiccating stress.

  20. Targeted delivery of hyaluronic acid to the ocular surface by a polymer-peptide conjugate system for dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lu, Qiaozhi; Sommerfeld, Sven D; Chan, Amanda; Menon, Nikhil G; Schmidt, Tannin A; Elisseeff, Jennifer H; Singh, Anirudha

    2017-06-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) solutions effectively lubricate the ocular surface and are used for the relief of dry eye related symptoms. However, HA undergoes rapid clearance due to limited adhesion, which necessitates frequent instillation. Conversely, highly viscous artificial tear formulations with HA blur vision and interfere with blinking. Here, we developed an HA-eye drop formulation that selectively binds and retains HA for extended periods of time on the ocular surface. We synthesized a heterobifunctional polymer-peptide system with one end binding HA while the other end binding either sialic acid-containing glycosylated transmembrane molecules on the ocular surface epithelium, or type I collagen molecule within the tissue matrix. HA solution was mixed with the polymer-peptide system and tested on both ex vivo and in vivo models to determine its ability to prolong HA retention. Furthermore, rabbit ocular surface tissues treated with binding peptides and HA solutions demonstrated superior lubrication with reduced kinetic friction coefficients compared to tissues treated with conventional HA solution. The results suggest that binding peptide-based solution can keep the ocular surface enriched with HA for prolonged times as well as keep it lubricated. Therefore, this system can be further developed into a more effective treatment for dry eye patients than a standard HA eye drop. Eye drop formulations containing HA are widely used to lubricate the ocular surface and relieve dry eye related symptoms, however its low residence time remains a challenge. We designed a polymer-peptide system for the targeted delivery of HA to the ocular surface using sialic acid or type I collagen as anchors for HA immobilization. The addition of the polymer-peptide system to HA eye drop exhibited a reduced friction coefficient, and it can keep the ocular surface enriched with HA for prolonged time. This system can be further developed into a more effective treatment for dry eye than a

  1. Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem as treatment for ocular surface disease in patients with a history of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakostas, Thanos D; Le, Hong-Gam; Chodosh, James; Jacobs, Deborah S

    2015-02-01

    To report the visual outcomes of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in patients with ocular surface disease related to Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). Retrospective cohort study. We included 86 patients (167 eyes) with history of SJS/TEN who underwent PROSE treatment from January 1, 2006, to January 1, 2011. Etiology, previous interventions, change in visual acuity, change in visual function, and duration of follow-up are reported. Paired t test and Friedman test with Dunn's post hoc test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis. Visual acuity at last follow-up and visual function based on the National Eye Institute 25-item Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25) at 6 months. We treated 35 males and 51 females with a history of SJS/TENS; median age was 36 years. The most common reported etiologies for SJS/TENS were antibiotics (n = 25), ibuprofen (n = 15), and lamotrigine (n = 11). The median visual acuity at the initial visit was 20/60 (range, 20/400-20/25; 0.48 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution [logMAR]), and the visual acuity at completion of customization was 20/25 (range, 20/200-20/20; 0.096 logMAR; P < 0.001), with no decline in median acuity at the end of follow-up. Median duration of follow-up was 16 months. There was a significant improvement in the visual function of the patients based on the NEI VFQ-25 questionnaire (mean of 48 points at baseline vs. mean of 72 points at 6 months; P < 0.001). In addition, there was also an improvement in the self-reported general health of the patients (mean of 57 points at baseline vs. mean of 65 points at 6 months; P < 0.01). In a large cohort of patients with chronic ocular surface disease related to SJS/TEN, PROSE treatment offers sustained and significant large improvement in visual function and acuity. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Control of Cross Talk between Angiogenesis and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Ocular Surface Diseases

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    Fei Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is beneficial in the treatment of ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease. However, it facilitates inflammatory cell filtration and inflammation cascade that disrupt the immune and angiogenesis privilege of the avascular cornea, resulting in ocular surface diseases and even vision loss. Although great progress has been achieved, healing of severe ocular surface injury and immunosuppression of corneal transplantation are the most difficult and challenging step in the treatment of ocular surface disorders. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, derived from various adult tissues, are able to differentiate into different cell types such as endothelial cells and fat cells. Although it is still under debate whether MSCs could give rise to functional corneal cells, recent results from different study groups showed that MSCs could improve corneal disease recovery through suppression of inflammation and modulation of immune cells. Thus, MSCs could become a promising tool for ocular surface disorders. In this review, we discussed how angiogenesis and inflammation are orchestrated in the pathogenesis of ocular surface disease. We overviewed and updated the knowledge of MSCs and then summarized the therapeutic potential of MSCs via control of angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune response in the treatment of ocular surface disease.

  3. Hydrophilic surface modification of poly(methyl methacrylate)-based ocular prostheses using poly(ethylene glycol) grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, JaeSang; Cho, Kanghee; Han, Sang Won; Sung, Hyung Kyung; Baek, Seung Woon; Koh, Won-Gun; Yoon, Jin Sook

    2017-10-01

    Ocular prostheses are custom-made polymeric inserts that can be placed in anophthalmic sockets for cosmetic rehabilitation. Prosthetic eye wearers have reduced tear amount, and they often experience dry eye symptoms including dryness, irritation, discomfort, and discharge. Most modern ocular prostheses are made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), which is highly hydrophobic. Previous research has shown that improving the wettability of contact lens materials decreases its wearers discomfort by increasing lubrication. Therefore, hydrophilic modification of PMMA-based ocular prostheses might also improve patient discomfort by improving lubrication. We modified the surfaces of PMMA-based ocular prostheses using poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which is hydrophilic. To do this, we used two strategies. One was a "grafting from" method, whereby PEG was polymerized from the PMMA surface. The other was a "grafting to" method, which involved PEG being covalently bonded to an amine-functionalized PMMA surface. Assessments involving the water contact angle, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that PEG was successfully introduced to the PMMA surfaces using both strategies. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images revealed that neither strategy caused clinically significant alterations in the PMMA surface morphology. In vitro bacterial adhesion assessments showed that the hydrophilic modifications effectively reduced bacterial adhesion without inducing cytotoxicity. These results imply that hydrophilic surface modifications of conventional ocular prostheses may decrease patient discomfort and ocular prosthesis-related infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Current approaches to diagnosis and management of ocular lesions in human immunodeficiency virus positive patients

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    Biswas Jyotirmay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunovirus infection in India is rapidly increasing. Ocular lesions due to highly active antiretroviral therapy have been well recognized. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can affect all parts of the eye. However, posterior segment lesions are the most common and of these, Human immunodeficiency virus retinopathy and cytomegalovirus retinitis predominate. Often clinical examination can establish the diagnosis of many ocular lesions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome; therefore, ophthalmologists need to be aware of the more common ones. Various drugs in different routes can used to treat cytomegalovirus retinitis. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has remarkably reduced systemic and ocular morbidity among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. To facilitate care of these patients aseptic precautions for ophthalmic care personnel are now well established and therefore ophthalmologist should not hesitate to provide ophthalmic care to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.

  5. Effect of contact lens surface properties on comfort, tear stability and ocular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Rohr, Maria; Wolffsohn, James S; Davies, Leon N; Cerviño, Alejandro

    2017-09-15

    Retrospective analysis of different contact lens wearing groups suggests lens surface lubricity is the main factor influencing contact lens comfort. However, the examined commercially available contact lenses differ in material and design as well as surface properties. Hence this study isolates the contribution of lens surface properties using an ultra-thin coating technology. Nineteen habitual contact lens wearers (21.6±1.7years) wore formofilcon B soft monthly disposable contact lenses with and without coating technology modified surface properties for a month each in a randomised double-masked cross-over study. OBJECTIVE NON-INVASIVE: breakup time (NIKBUT), NIKBUT average and ocular redness (Jenvis grading scale) were evaluated (Keratograph 5M) after 1 week and 1 month of wear. Symptoms were assessed using the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire (CLDEQ-8); perceived vision quality and subjective lens comfort at insertion, mid-day and end of the day were rated with four Visual Analog Scales. Perceived visual quality (F=5.049,p=0.037), contact lens dry eye symptoms (F=14.408,p=0.001) and subjective lens comfort (F=28.447,p0.05). Lens surface wettability and ocular redness were not correlated to changes in symptoms (p>0.05). As previously hypothesised, enhancing the physical surface properties of a soft contact lens improves subjectively rated wearer comfort, which, in turn, should result in reduced contact lens discontinuation. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Single motor unit activity in human extraocular muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara

    2012-01-01

    Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888

  7. LRIG1 as a potential novel marker for neoplastic transformation in ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Maho; Nakamura, Takahiro; Sotozono, Chie; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Yokoi, Norihiko; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like protein 1 (LRIG1) is a newly discovered negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and a proposed tumor suppressor. It is not universally downregulated in human cancers, and its role in neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis is not well-documented. In this study, we show the expression of LRIG1 as a novel potential marker for neoplastic transformation in ocular-surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). The following two groups were included in this study: 1) benign group (3 cases; 1 with papilloma and 2 with dysplasia) and 2) malignant group (3 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)). In both groups, immunofluorescence analysis was firstly performed for keratins 4, 12, 13, and 15 to characterize the state of differentiation, and for Ki67 to evaluate the proliferation activity. Subsequently, LRIG1 and EGFR expression was analyzed. Either keratin 4 and/or 13, both non-keratinized epithelial cell markers, were generally expressed in both groups, except for 1 severe SCC case. Keratin 15, an undifferentiated basal cell marker, was more strongly expressed in the malignant cases than in the benign cases. The Ki67 index was significantly higher (Pbasal epithelial cells in normal corneal epithelial tissue. Interestingly, LRIG1 was expressed throughout the epithelium in all the benign cases. In contrast, its expression was limited or totally disappeared in the malignant cases. Inversely, EGFR staining was faintly expressed in the benign cases, yet strongly expressed in the malignant cases. Malignant tissue with proliferative potential presented EGFR overexpression and inverse downregulation of LRIG1, consistent with LRIG1 being a suppressor of neoplastic transformation by counteracting the tumor growth property of EGFR. Our findings indicate that downregulation of LRIG1 is possibly a novel potential marker of transformation and tumorigenesis in OSSN cases.

  8. Culture and Characterization of Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cells on a Fibrin Gel for Ocular Surface Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Radhika; Neale, Michael H; Shortt, Alex J; Massie, Isobel; Vernon, Amanda J; Daniels, Julie T

    2015-01-01

    To develop a clinical grade fibrin gel for the culture of oral mucosal epithelial cells (OMEC) intended for ocular surface reconstruction in the treatment of limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Transparent fibrin gels composed of fibrinogen and thrombin were developed for the culture of epithelial cells. Oral mucosa was harvested from the buccal region of healthy volunteers and cultured as explants on fibrin gels. Tranexamic acid (TA), a clinically approved anti-fibrinolytic agent was added to prevent the fibrin gel from digesting due to cellular activity. The gels were stained for p63α (as a marker of poorly differentiated epithelial cells), CK19, CK13 and CK3 (expressed by OMEC). Epithelial cell stratification was observed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. Addition of TA prevented gels from dissolving during the culture period. OMEC proliferated on the fibrin gel and attained confluence over a 2-week period (±2 d) and exhibited a typical epithelial, cobblestone morphology. Basal OMEC exhibited positive staining for p63α while the superficial cells exhibited positive staining for CK3. The cells expressed a strong immunoreactivity for CK19 and CK13 suggesting that they retained a normal oral epithelial phenotype. Fibrin gels, maintained in the presence of TA, to control the rate of substrate degradation, provide a more robust yet transparent substrate for the culture and transplantation of cultured OMEC. The fibrin gels are easily standardized, the components commercially available, and produced from clinically approved materials. The resulting stratified OMEC-derived epithelium displays characteristics similar to that of a human cornea, e.g. CK3 expression. The conventional dependence on a murine feeder layer for support of epithelial cells is unnecessary with this technique and hence, provides for an attractive alternative for treatment of LSCD.

  9. LRIG1 as a potential novel marker for neoplastic transformation in ocular surface squamous neoplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maho Nagata

    Full Text Available The leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin-like protein 1 (LRIG1 is a newly discovered negative regulator of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR and a proposed tumor suppressor. It is not universally downregulated in human cancers, and its role in neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis is not well-documented. In this study, we show the expression of LRIG1 as a novel potential marker for neoplastic transformation in ocular-surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN. The following two groups were included in this study: 1 benign group (3 cases; 1 with papilloma and 2 with dysplasia and 2 malignant group (3 cases with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. In both groups, immunofluorescence analysis was firstly performed for keratins 4, 12, 13, and 15 to characterize the state of differentiation, and for Ki67 to evaluate the proliferation activity. Subsequently, LRIG1 and EGFR expression was analyzed. Either keratin 4 and/or 13, both non-keratinized epithelial cell markers, were generally expressed in both groups, except for 1 severe SCC case. Keratin 15, an undifferentiated basal cell marker, was more strongly expressed in the malignant cases than in the benign cases. The Ki67 index was significantly higher (P<0.002 in the malignant group (33.2% than in the benign group (10.9%. LRIG1 expression was limited to basal epithelial cells in normal corneal epithelial tissue. Interestingly, LRIG1 was expressed throughout the epithelium in all the benign cases. In contrast, its expression was limited or totally disappeared in the malignant cases. Inversely, EGFR staining was faintly expressed in the benign cases, yet strongly expressed in the malignant cases. Malignant tissue with proliferative potential presented EGFR overexpression and inverse downregulation of LRIG1, consistent with LRIG1 being a suppressor of neoplastic transformation by counteracting the tumor growth property of EGFR. Our findings indicate that downregulation of LRIG1 is possibly a novel

  10. A modified symblepharon ring for sutureless amniotic membrane patch to treat acute ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xuanwei; Liu, Zhiping; Lin, Ying; Li, Naiyang; Huang, Minghai; Wang, Zhichong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate a sutureless technique by using a modified symblepharon ring to fix an amniotic membrane (AM) patch on the ocular surface to treat acute ocular burns. Seventy-five patients with acute ocular burns of total 75 eyes graded III to VI were enrolled in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty-nine eyes received the sutureless AM patch with a modified symblepharon ring, and the other 36 eyes underwent the conventional sutured AM patch as control. The time and the rate of epithelialization, corneal neovascularization, and complications were recorded. Both the operation time and the time to epithelial closure in the sutureless group were much shorter than that in the suture group (P < .01). The rate of reepithelialization in the sutureless group was higher than in the suture group (P < .05). The rate of the vascularization and symblepharon were lower in the sutureless group than in the suture group (P < .05). The conjunctival sac contraction occurred only in the eyes with grade V and VI in the sutureless group and was later than in the suture group (P < .05). This modified method is simple, minimally invasive, free from trauma, and more effective compared with controls.

  11. Contribution of the otholiths to the human torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Bos, J.E.; Graaf, J.E. de

    1999-01-01

    The dynamic contribution of the otoliths to the human ocular torsion response was examined during passive sinusoidal body roll about an earth-horizontal axis (varying otolith input) and about an earth-vertical axis (unvarying otolith input). At a fixed amplitude of 25°, the stimulus frequency was

  12. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

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    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  13. Topographical distribution and characterization of epithelial cells and intraepithelial lymphocytes in the human ocular mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso, R; Martín-Sanz, R; Martino, M; Mateo, M E; Blanco-Salado, R; Calonge, M; Corell, A

    2012-07-01

    The conjunctiva plays a key role in the protection of the ocular surface by initiating and regulating immune responses. In this study, we analyze the relative proportion of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), apoptotic cells, and proliferative state in three different topographical regions of the normal human conjunctiva. Superior tarsal, superior bulbar, and inferior tarsal-bulbar-fornical conjunctival cells were collected by brush cytology from 63 healthy donors. Flow cytometry analysis showed higher levels of CD3⁺ and CD8⁺ IELs in both upper tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva than in the inferior tarsal-bulbar-fornix, where the CD19⁺ B cells were increased. For all zones two different cell populations (by cell size and complexity) were present in the apoptosis assay. The more complex cells were reduced within the inferior tarsal-bulbar-fornix when compared with the superior bulbar and tarsal areas. Less complex cells were more predominant in the inferior conjunctiva and were mainly alive. The mean proliferation index of the conjunctival epithelium was significantly lower in the superior bulbar conjunctiva than in superior tarsal and inferior fornical conjunctivas. These findings suggest that each topographical zone from normal human conjunctiva has a unique profile of immunophenotype, viability, and proliferative state that could be related to a differentiated regional functionality.

  14. Non-invasive objective and contemporary methods for measuring ocular surface inflammation in soft contact lens wearers - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Richdale, Kathryn; Jalbert, Isabelle; Doung, Kim; Gokhale, Moneisha

    2017-10-01

    Contact lens wear is one of the primary risk factors for the development of ocular surface inflammatory events. The purpose of this review is to examine and summarize existing knowledge on the mechanisms of contact lens related ocular surface inflammation and the evidence for the effectiveness of current objective methods to measure ocular surface inflammation. Contact lens wear is postulated to trigger an inflammatory response on the ocular surface due to mechanical, chemical, hypoxic stress, or by the introduction of microbes and their toxins. Apart from the traditional signs of inflammation, such as swelling, oedema, redness and heat, on the ocular surface, other methods to measure ocular surface inflammation in sub-clinical levels include tear inflammatory mediator concentrations, conjunctival cell morphology, and corneal epithelial dendritic cell density and morphology. Tear inflammatory mediator concentrations are up- or down-regulated during contact lens wear, with or without the presence of associated inflammatory events. There is higher conjunctival cell metaplasia observed with contact lens wear, but changes in goblet cell density are inconclusive. Dendritic cell density is seen to increase soon after initiating soft contact lens wear. The long term effects of contact lens wear on dendritic cell migration in the cornea and conjunctiva, including the lid wiper area, require further investigation. Currently patient factors, such as age, smoking, systemic diseases and genetic profile are being studied. A better understanding of these mechanisms may facilitate the development of new management options and strategies to minimize ocular surface inflammation related to contact lens wear. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A decade of silicone hydrogel development: surface properties, mechanical properties, and ocular compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighe, Brian J

    2013-01-01

    Since the initial launch of silicone hydrogel lenses, there has been a considerable broadening in the range of available commercial material properties. The very mobile silicon-oxygen bonds convey distinctive surface and mechanical properties on silicone hydrogels, in which advantages of enhanced oxygen permeability, reduced protein deposition, and modest frictional interaction are balanced by increased lipid and elastic response. There are now some 15 silicone hydrogel material variants available to practitioners; arguably, the changes that have taken place have been strongly influenced by feedback based on clinical experience. Water content is one of the most influential properties, and the decade has seen a progressive rise from lotrafilcon-A (24%) to efrofilcon-A (74%). Moduli have decreased over the same period from 1.4 to 0.3 MPa, but not solely as a result of changes in water content. Surface properties do not correlate directly with water content, and ingenious approaches have been used to achieve desirable improvements (e.g., greater lubricity and lower contact angle hysteresis). This is demonstrated by comparing the hysteresis value of the earliest (lotrafilcon-A, >40°) and most recent (delefilcon-A, silicone hydrogels. Although wettability is important, it is not of itself a good predictor of ocular response because this involves a much wider range of physicochemical and biochemical factors. The interference of the lens with ocular dynamics is complex leading separately to tissue-material interactions involving anterior and posterior lens surfaces. The biochemical consequences of these interactions may hold the key to a greater understanding of ocular incompatibility and end of day discomfort.

  16. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem Scleral Lens Therapy for Exposure Keratopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Jasdeep S; Heur, Martin; Chiu, Gloria B

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the utility of Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral lenses in patients with exposure keratopathy, with outcomes based on changes in visual acuity, visual function, and corneal staining. A retrospective interventional case series of patients evaluated and treated from September 2009 through June 2014 at a single multi-specialty institutional practice. Eighteen of 29 patients with exposure keratoconjunctivitis, lagophthalmos, ectropion, or lid retraction, referred to USC Eye Institute after failing conventional therapies completed PROSE scleral lens fitting and were included in the study. Visual function was assessed before and after PROSE fitting with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) survey. Visual acuity (VA) and corneal staining changes were also evaluated before and after treatment. Visual acuity improved from 0.60±0.68 logMAR pre-PROSE to 0.25±0.34 logMAR (Z=-3.81, P=0.00014) post-PROSE, which corresponds to an improvement of about 20/80 to 20/35 on Snellen VA. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores improved from 56.54±29.75 pre-PROSE to 24.98±21.23 post-PROSE (Z=-2.98, P=0.0029), and corneal staining values decreased from 2.17±0.84 pre-PROSE to 0.64±0.70 post-PROSE (Z=-3.27, P=0.011). The results suggest that PROSE scleral lens therapy is effective in patients with exposure keratopathy who had failed conventional therapies and can serve as an alternative to lid surgery.

  17. Clinical analysis of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effect and value of amniotic membrane patches and grafts for acute ocular surface burn at different degrees.METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 28 cases(28 eyesaffected by ocular chemical or thermal burn with different degree were included in our hospital from March 2007 to March 2012. Amniotic membrane patched was undergone in 13 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients corneal burns degree Ⅱ or Ⅲ with partial limbal buns at degree Ⅳ. Amniotic membrane grafts was performed in 15 eyes with fresh amnion that the patients all corneal burns at degree Ⅲ with the whole limbal necrosis without severe eyelid defect. The follow-up time ranged 6~24mo. The postoperative visual acuity, the condition of amniotic membrane transplant, renovation of cornea and complications were observed. RESULTS: Postoperative corrected visual acuity was improved in 20 eyes(71%, it was not changed in 5 eyes(18%, the visual acuity declined in 3 eyes(11%. The amniotic membrane survived in 23 eyes and the survival rate was up to 82%. The cornea of 4 eyes recovered to transparent, nebula emceed in 8 eyes eventually, corneal macula emerged in 10 eyes, 4 eyes ended up with leukoma, 2 eyes developed corneal melting after therapy, then received lamellar keratoplasty. Corneal surface become epithelization after amnion patches or grafts, but any of them have recurrent epithelial erosion, and become stable epithalization after repeat operation.CONCLUSION: Amniotic membrane patches and grafts is an effective method to deal with acute ocular surface burn.

  18. Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When acute inflammation in anterior eye segment of a forward piece of an eye was stopped, ophthalmologists face a problem of absence of acute inflammation signs and at the same time complaints to the remain discomfort feelings. It causes dissatisfaction from the treatment. The complaints are typically caused by disturbance of tears productions. No accidental that the new group of diseases was allocated — the diseases of the ocular surface. Ocular surface is a difficult biologic system, including epithelium of the conjunctiva, cornea and limb, as well as the area costal margin eyelid and meibomian gland ducts. Pathological processes in conjunctiva, cornea and eyelids are linked with tears production. Ophthalmologists prescribes tears substitutions, providing short-term relief to patients. However, in respect that the lipid component of the tear film plays the key role in the preservation of its stability, eyelids hygiene is the basis for the treatment of dry eye associated with ocular surface diseases. Eyelids hygiene provides normal functioning of glands, restores the metabolic processes in skin and ensures the formation of a complete tear film. Protection of eyelids, especially the marginal edge from aggressive environmental agents, infections and parasites and is the basis for the prevention and treatment of blepharitis and dry eye syndrome. The most common clinical situations and algorithms of their treatment and prevention of dysfunction of the meibomian glands; demodectic blepharitis; seborrheic blepharitis; staphylococcal blepharitis; allergic blepharitis; barley and chalazion are discussed in the article. The prevention keratoconjunctival xerosis (before and postoperative period, caused by contact lenses, computer vision syndrome, remission after acute conjunctiva and cornea inflammation is also presented. The first part of the article presents the treatment and prevention algorithms for dysfunction of the meibomian glands, as well as

  19. Evaluation of lipid oxidative stress status and inflammation in atopic ocular surface disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Tais H.; Ayako, Igarashi; Takano, Yoji; Matsumoto, Yukihiro; Ibrahim, Osama M.A.; Okada, Naoko; Satake, Yoshiyuki; Fukagawa, Kazumi; Shimazaki, Jun; Tsubota, Kazuo; Fujishima, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    Background Although the oxidative stress status in atopic skin disease has been reported to be elevated, there are still no studies related to the status of oxidative stress in atopic ocular surface disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ocular surface lipid oxidative stress status and inflammation in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) patients and normal subjects. Methods Twenty eight eyes of 14 patients (9 males, 5 females) with AKC and 18 eyes of 9 age and sex matched (4 males and 5 females) normal healthy controls were examined in this prospective study. The severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) was scored by the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index. All subjects underwent Schirmer test, tear film break up time (BUT), fluorescein/Rose Bengal stainings, tear collection, and brush cytology from the upper palpebral conjunctiva. The brush cytology samples were stained with Diff-Quik for differentiation of inflammatory cells and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining with HEL (hexanoyl-lysine) and 4-HNE (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal) to study lipid oxidation. HEL and cytokine (interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ)) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) from tear samples of AKC patients and control subjects. Toluidine Blue and IHC staining with HEL, 4-HNE and cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45) were performed on papillary samples of AKC patients. This study was conducted in compliance with the “Declaration of Helsinki.” Results The tear stability and vital staining scores were significantly worse in eyes of AKC patients (ptears of AKC patients compared to controls. Papillary specimens also revealed many CD45 inflammatory cells as well as many cells positively stained with HEL and 4-HNE in IHC. A strong significant linear positive correlation between conjunctival inflammation and epithelial lipid oxidative stress status was observed

  20. Novel implantable composite biomaterial by fibrin glue and amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mingming; Zhang, Jie; Guan, Lili; Zhao, Min

    2015-03-01

    Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) is considered a substantial treatment option in the management of ocular surface disorders. However, several inherent drawbacks still remain. The present study devised a novel implantable composite biomaterial of fibrin glue-double layer Amniotic membrane (AM) and evaluated the biomechanical properties and effects on corneal surface reconstruction in alkali-burned rabbit model. Biomechanic parameters were calculated by an electronic universal testing machine. Corneal alkali burning was done in the right eyes of thirty rabbits, which were randomized into three groups of ten animals each. The eyes in group 1 underwent fibrin glue-double layer AMT, the eyes in group 2 underwent ordinary single layer AMT, and the eyes in group 3 (control group) did not undergo any surgical procedure. Healing of corneal epithelial defect, extent of corneal vascularization and corneal clarity were assessed and compared at two time points. One month after surgery, animals were killed and the eyes were processed for histopathology. The fibrin glue-double layer AM composites had more ideal biomechanical properties. In fibrin glue-double layer AM group, the rate of epithelial healing, vascularization inhibition and corneal clarity was significantly better than the other two groups. Novel fibrin glue-double layer AMT with corneal alkali burns is more effective and useful for ocular surface reconstruction and has great potential applications.

  1. Ocular surface changes in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

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    Yan Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect and analyze the changes on ocular surface and tear function in type II diabetic patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR, an advanced stage of diabetic retinopathy (DR, using conventional ophthalmic tests and the high-resolution laser scanning confocal microscopy. METHODS: Fifty-eight patients with type II diabetes were selected. Based on the diagnostic criteria and stage classification of DR, the patients were divided into the non-DR (NDR group and the PDR group. Thirty-six patients with cataract but no other ocular and systemic disease were included as non-diabetic controls. All the patients were subjected to the conventional clinical tests of corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I Test, and corneal fluorescein staining. The non-invasive tear film break-up time (NIBUT and tear interferometry were conducted by a Tearscope Plus. The morphology of corneal epithelia and nerve fibers was examined using the high-resolution confocal microscopy. RESULTS: The NDR group exhibited significantly declined corneal sensitivity and Schirmer I test value, as compared to the non-diabetic controls (P< 0.001. The PDR group showed significantly reduced corneal sensitivity, Schirmer I test value, and NIBUT in comparison to the non-diabetic controls (P < 0.001. Corneal fluorescein staining revealed the progressively injured corneal epithelia in the PDR patients. Moreover, significant decrease in the corneal epithelial density and morphological abnormalities in the corneal epithelia and nerve fibers were also observed in the PDR patients. CONCLUSION: Ocular surface changes, including blunted corneal sensitivity, reduced tear secretion, tear film dysfunction, progressive loss of corneal epithelia and degeneration of nerve fibers, are common in type II diabetic patients, particularly in the diabetic patients with PDR. The corneal sensitivity, fluorescein staining scores, and the density of corneal epithelial cells and nerve fibers in the diabetic

  2. Clinical outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty after autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation for ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sayan; Mohamed, Ashik; Chaurasia, Sunita; Sejpal, Kunjal; Vemuganti, Geeta K; Sangwan, Virender S

    2011-12-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PK) after autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation in eyes with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) after ocular surface burns. Retrospective case series. This study included 47 patients with unilateral LSCD treated by autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation and PK between 2001 and 2010. PK was performed either along with (single-stage; n = 12) or at least 6 weeks after (2-stage; n = 35) limbal transplantation. The primary outcome measure was corneal allograft survival, and failure was defined clinically as loss of central graft clarity. Secondary outcomes were postoperative Snellen visual acuity and complications. Most patients were young (mean age, 18 ± 11.4 years) males (76.6%) with LSCD resulting from alkali burns (78.7%) and with visual acuity less than 20/200 (91.5%). The mean follow-up was 4.2 ± 1.9 years. Kaplan-Meier corneal allograft survival rate at 1 year was significantly greater in eyes undergoing 2-stage limbal and corneal transplantation (80 ± 6%; median survival, 4 years) compared with single-stage limbal and corneal transplantation (25 ± 13%; median survival, 6 months; P = .0003). Visual acuity of 20/40 or better was attained by 71.4% of eyes with clear corneal grafts. Allograft failure occurred in 26 (60.5%) eyes as a result of graft rejection (57.7%), graft infiltrate (26.9%), or persistent epithelial defects (15.4%). Recurrence of LSCD was more common after single-stage (58.3%) than 2-stage (14.3%) surgery (P = .008). The 2-stage approach of autologous cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation followed by PK successfully restores ocular surface stability and vision in eyes with chronic ocular burns. The single-stage approach is associated with poorer clinical outcomes and should be avoided. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of topical acne treatment on the ocular surface in patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Bayhan, Hasan Ali; Çölgeçen, Emine; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-12-01

    To assess the ocular side effects during topical retinoid-antibiotic combination treatment in patients with facial acne vulgaris. Forty-three patients applying topical isotretinoin+erythromycin combination (isotrexin gel, GlaxoSmithKline) once daily for the treatment of acne vulgaris were enrolled. Full ophthalmologic examination, Schirmer test (with topical anesthesia), fluorescein break-up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining and tear osmolarity measurement with the TearLab system (TearLab Corporation) were carried out before and at the end of the first month of the treatment. For evaluation of symptoms participants completed the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire at each visit. The mean age of the patients was 23.16±3.03 (18-30) years. Mean tear osmolarity increased significantly from 282.09±8.95 mOsm/L at baseline to 300.39±16.65 mOsm/L after the treatment (ptreatment. The average Schirmer values were 13.09±1.90 and 12.41±2.44mm/5min before and at the end of the first month of the treatment, respectively (p=0.117). The findings of this study indicate that topical retinoid-antibiotic combination treatment causes significant signs and symptoms of dry eye. Patients receiving topical treatment for acne should be evaluated regularly to ensure the timely detection and treatment of pathologic signs on the ocular surface. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ocular Surface Alterations in the Context of Corneal In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Characteristics in Patients With Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Kocabeyoglu, Sibel; Unal-Cevik, Isin; Bezci, Figen; Akinci, Aysen; Irkec, Murat

    2018-02-01

    To quantify the morphology of corneal basal epithelium and subbasal nerves and to evaluate the ocular surface alterations in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients with FM (n = 34) and healthy controls (n = 42) were enrolled. All participants underwent ocular surface tests in the following order: corneal sensitivity, tear film breakup time, lissamine green staining, Schirmer test, and the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Basal epithelial cells and subbasal nerves were evaluated using in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Demographic characteristics, Visual Analog Scale for Pain (VAS), American College of Rheumatology 1990, the Widespread Pain Index (WPI), and the Symptom Impact Questionnaire (SIQR) scores of patients with FM were obtained. Corneal sensitivity was 0.4 g/mm (fiber length: 6.0 cm) in all eyes. Patients with FM had a higher Ocular Surface Disease Index (42.2 ± 18.9 vs. 1.2 ± 1.7, P FM compared with those of the controls (P FM should be evaluated in terms of ocular surface diseases. IVCM may be used in FM to assess small fiber neuropathy.

  5. Ocular surface inflammation, and nerve growth factor level in tears in active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin Sook; Choi, Soo Hyun; Lee, Joon H; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Sang Yeul

    2010-02-01

    To measure tear nerve growth factor (NGF) concentrations in cases of active thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) before and after glucocorticoid treatment, and to correlate NGF levels with disease inflammatory activity and thyroid autoantibody concentration. The study involved 20 patients with active TAO and 20 age- and gender-matched controls. Tear break-up time (BUT) was obtained, the Schirmer test was performed, and tear NGF/total protein ratio was measured in control subjects and patients with active TAO before, and 2 and 4 weeks after, steroid treatment. Tear BUT and Schirmer values significantly increased after 2 and 4 weeks of steroid treatment (p tear NGF/total protein ratio was higher in patients with active TAO than in control subjects, and the ratio significantly decreased after 2 and 4 weeks of steroid treatment (p Tear NGF/total protein ratio did not correlate with inflammatory activity score, exophthalmos value and thyroid binding inhibiting immunoglobulin (TBII) level (p > 0.05). Tear NGF may have a specific role in ocular surface inflammation, which protects against ocular surface damage in patients with active TAO. Anti-inflammatory treatment significantly reduced the level of NGF in tears, increased tear film stability and production, and decreased congestive symptoms.

  6. Changes in the ocular surface: initial observations from a pilot study of diagnostic radiology technicians (radiographers)

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    Guerdal, Canan; Aydin, Sevda; Sengoer, Tomris [Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul PI Hospital (Turkey); Onmus, Hale [Department of Pathology, Inoenue University Hospital (Turkey); Oezarar, Muemtaz [Department of Radiology, Istanbul PI Hospital, Bostanci, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and cytological changes in the ocular surface of radiology technicians (radiographers) exposed to diagnostic doses of radiation. The Schirmer, Rose Bengal staining and Tear-Break-Up-Time tear function tests were carried out following routine ophthalmic examination in 15 radiology technicians (group I) and 15 controls (group II). Impression cytology was performed by placing 5-mm-thick half-circular cellulose acetate filter paper in the upper and lower quadrants around the limbus. The cytological evaluation was made using the mapping technique. Significantly increased dry eye was detected in group I. In the impression cytology investigation, squamous metaplasia and intraepithelial lymphocytic infiltration was noted in all the group-I cases. A distinct change was observed between the regions showing squamous metaplasia and neigbouring normal epithelial cell structure. Dry eye and ocular surface cytological changes were observed in diagnostic radiology technicians. Routine ophthalmic evaluation of radiology technicians would be beneficial in detecting early cytological changes and dry eye. (orig.)

  7. Correlation analysis of inflammatory cytokine concentrations of patients' tears with chemical burns of the ocular surface and its prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hua Zhu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the correlation of inflammatory cytokine(TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6concentrations of patients' tears with chemical burns of the ocular surface and its severity and prognosis.METHODS: Totally, 66 cases(80 eyesof chemical burns of the ocular surface were divided to 4 degrees according to Roper-Hall classificatory criteria, with 35 cases(44 eyesof degree I and II, 22 cases(25 eyesof degree III, 9 cases(11 eyesof degree IV. The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in tears was detected by ELISA, and there were 12 healthy people as control group.RESULTS: The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with chemical burns of the ocular surface was higher than control group(P degree III > degree I and II(PPCONCLUSION: The concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in patients with chemical burns of the ocular surface rises dramatically, with the increase of Roper-Hall classificatory criteria. With the increase of concentration of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, the blinding rate rises. There would be of great significance of inflammatory cytokine concentrations for judging the severity and prognosis of patients with chemical burns of ocular burn.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of varicella-zoster virus DNA on the ocular surface associated with herpes zoster ophthalmicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, M.J.; Volker-Dieben, H.J.; Wienesen, M.; Amaro, D' J.; Kijlstra, A.

    2001-01-01

    PURPOSE: Longitudinal analysis of varicella-zoster virus DNA on the ocular surface of patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus. METHODS: Clinical specimens were obtained from the bulbar conjunctival surface with a cotton-tipped swab at weekly intervals for 6 consecutive weeks from 21 patients with

  9. The role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor in ocular surface disease pathogenesis after chemical burn in the murine eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sei Yeul; Choi, Jong-Sun; Kim, Eo-Jin; Chuck, Roy S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in the wound healing process following severe chemical burns to the ocular surface. Methods Chemical burning of the ocular surface was induced in mice (C57BL/6) via the application of 0.1 M NaOH. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression in the ocular surface and lacrimal gland was evaluated via real-time reverse transcription PCR on days 2, 7, and 30 after induction of the chemical burn. The expression of MIF protein in the ocular surface and lacrimal gland was evaluated via western blot analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted to detect MIF and vasculoendothelial growth factor in the cornea during the wound healing process. The angiogenic role of MIF was further evaluated using an 8–0 polyglactin suture technique to induce corneal neovascularization. Results MIF, TNF-α, and IL-1β mRNA expression were elevated significantly in the ocular surface up to day 30 after chemical burn induction. TNF-α alone was elevated in the lacrimal gland. MIF protein elevation was confirmed via western blot analysis, and the spatial similarity of MIF and VEGF expression in the cornea was noted during the wound healing process. 8–0 polyglactin sutures soaked in MIF induced significantly higher numbers of new vessels on the mouse cornea after 7 days (p=0.003, Mann–Whitney test). Conclusions These findings indicate that MIF performs a crucial role in wound healing on the ocular surface after the induction of chemical burns. PMID:21152395

  10. Texture analysis the evaluation of human irises reproduction in ocular prostheses and colored contact lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera Ramírez, Jorge Alexis; Vilaseca Ricart, Meritxell; Arjona Carbonell, Mª Montserrat; Pujol Ramo, Jaume

    2009-01-01

    This work takes advantage of multispectral data from human irises, ocular prostheses and colored contact lenses to compare them accounting for their texture features. For this aim, several procedures from image processing were implemented: image segmentation algorithms to extract the areas of interest, statical texture analysis tools for texture description, and statistical classifiers for samples discrimination from texture descriptors. For the texture study two approaches were implemented, ...

  11. Topical cyclosporine a 1% for the treatment of chronic ocular surface inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragam, Ashwinee; Kolomeyer, Anton M; Kim, Jason S; Nayak, Natasha V; Fang, Christina; Kim, Eliott; Chu, David S

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the use of topical cyclosporine A (CsA) 1% emulsion in the treatment of chronic ocular surface inflammation (OSI). We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients with various forms of OSI treated with topical CsA 1% from 2001 to 2012. Twenty-nine patients (52 eyes) with various forms of OSI, including epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (n=14), chronic follicular conjunctivitis (n=12), Thygeson superficial punctate keratopathy (n=2), and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (n=1), were included. Twenty-seven patients had inflammation refractory to prior therapies. Twenty-four patients received concurrent medications with CsA 1%. Twenty-three of 24 patients on concurrent corticosteroids (CS) were able to taper their use while receiving CsA 1%. Thirteen patients experienced ocular discomfort with CsA 1%; one patient discontinued therapy all together as a result of these side effects; another switched to CsA 0.5% with improvement of adverse symptoms. Inflammation was controlled in 22 (92%) of the 24 patients who received CsA 1% for at least 2 months in duration. Topical CsA 1% helps to control inflammation and spares CS use in patients with chronic OSI.

  12. Ocular surface and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease

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    Flavia Pelinsari Lana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Many reports have indicated an association between thyroid dieases and primary Sjögren’s syndrome (pSS. The aim of our study was to evaluate the outcomes of the tests used for dry eye diagnosis and salivary gland involvement in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods: Forty-two patients (group 1 with autoimmune thyroid disease and 30 controls (group 2 were selected. Tear film break up time, Schirmer I test, Schirmer II test, ocular staining with 1% rose Bengal and salivary gland cintilography were performed in both groups. Results: Regarding the ocular surface damage observed by Rose Bengal test there was no difference between groups (p=0.77. For tear film break up time the groups did not differ statistically (p=0.46. There was no statistical difference between groups 1 and control in scintigraphy of the salivary gland (p=0.99. A statistical difference between the patients with thyroid disease and the control group was seem only in the Schirmer II test (p=0.0009. Conclusions: No patients fulfilled all criteria for Sjögren’s syndrome. It is possible that it could be underestimated.

  13. Technological advances shaping scleral lenses: the Boston ocular surface prosthesis in patients with glaucoma tubes and trabeculectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhehco, Tasha; Jacobs, Deborah S

    2010-01-01

    The Boston Ocular Surface Prosthesis (BOS-P) (Boston Foundation for Sight, Needham, MA) is a fluid-ventilated rigid gas-permeable scleral lens that is utilized for the treatment of irregular corneal astigmatism and severe ocular surface disease. Recent reports have highlighted the utility of the BOS-P as a therapeutic device in cases of persistent epithelial defects, corneal neovascularization, ocular graft versus host disease, and exposure keratopathy. Patients with significant cornea disease might also have glaucoma, and those who have undergone glaucoma surgery, which typically disrupts the limbus, present a challenge when fitting the BOS-P. This report describes five patients with a history of both corneal disease and glaucoma surgery who were successfully fitted with the BOS-P.

  14. Challenging Treatment of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Patients with Atopic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lily; Mercado, Carolina; Galor, Anat; Holland, Edward J; Wang, Gaofeng; Karp, Carol L

    2017-11-30

    Few studies have described ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and its association with atopic diseases and there is no consensus on the course of OSSN in atopic patients. We thereby report three patients with atopy and OSSN. Retrospective case series. Three male patients with mean age of 73 presented with OSSN and history of atopy treated with immunosuppressant therapy. Their histories included atopic dermatitis and keratoconjunctivitis. All patients had treatment complicated by multiple surgeries, recurrences, or advanced disease. The patients initially received medical treatment with topical interferon-alpha-2b (IFNα2b). However, all the patients had recurrences and required modification of treatment including topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We report on three patients with a history of atopy whose OSSN presentation and course was challenging. Overall, our cases responded better to topical 5-fluorouracil compared to topical interferon-alpha-2b, but recurrences were common. These patients may benefit from more aggressive and long-term treatment.

  15. Influence of Light Emitting Diode-Derived Blue Light Overexposure on Mouse Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Seok; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Choi, Joo-Hee; Li, Zhengri; Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Won; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of overexposure to light emitting diode (LED)-derived light with various wavelengths on mouse ocular surface. LEDs with various wavelengths were used to irradiate C57BL/6 mice at an energy dose of 50 J/cm2, twice a day, for 10 consecutive days. The red, green, and blue groups represented wavelengths of 630 nm, 525 nm, and 410 nm, respectively. The untouched group (UT) was not exposed to LED light and served as the untreated control. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in the cornea and conjunctiva using a multiplex immunobead assay at day 10. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow cytometry, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA) assay, histologic analysis, immunohistochemistry with 4-hydroxynonenal, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were also performed. TBUT of the blue group showed significant decreases at days 7 and 10, compared with the UT and red groups. Corneal fluorescein staining scores significantly increased in the blue group when compared with UT, red, and green groups at days 5, 7, and 10. A significant increase in the corneal levels of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed in the blue group, compared with the other groups. The blue group showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species production in the DCF-DA assay and increased inflammatory T cells in the flow cytometry. A significantly increased TUNEL positive cells was identified in the blue group. Overexposure to blue light with short wavelengths can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis to the cornea, which may manifest as increased ocular surface inflammation and resultant dry eye.

  16. Effects of osmoprotection on symptoms, ocular surface damage, and tear film modifications caused by glaucoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Gaspare; Cacioppo, Viviana; Consonni, Dario; Troiano, Pasquale

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effects of 2 artificial tear formulas on the ocular surface in patients with glaucoma using topical preserved beta-blockers (BB) or prostaglandins (PG). This was a prospective, comparative, randomized, double-blind study with a crossover design. Twenty patients with dry eye were divided into 2 groups based on glaucoma treatment: BB (10 subjects) or PG (10 subjects). Each group was administered a 4-week course of unpreserved isotonic (300 mOsm/L) solution containing 0.2% sodium hyaluronate (SH) or a preserved isotonic (295-305 mOsm/L) solution containing 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose and 0.9% glycerin as compatible solute (CMCs) administered QID. After a 2-week washout period, the course of treatment was reversed. The primary efficacy criteria consisted of assessing symptoms according to the Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI); the secondary efficacy criteria consisted of evaluating tear film confocal microscopy, central corneal thickness (CCT), and lissamine corneal and conjunctival staining (Oxford Grading System Score [OGSS]). Within each group, only CMCs induced a significant improvement in OSDI and OGSS compared to baseline values: OSDI -20.5, p<0.0001; OGSS -0.9, p<0.0001. Tear film confocal microscopy improved after treatment, especially in case of patients who were administered CMCs. No difference in CCT was noticed for any subject. This study demonstrates for the first time that the use of concomitant CMCs in the management of glaucoma undergoing treatment with BB or PG may assist in tear film production and could lead to better compliance with intraocular pressure-lowering medication and ultimately better prognosis.

  17. Influence of Light Emitting Diode-Derived Blue Light Overexposure on Mouse Ocular Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Seok Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of overexposure to light emitting diode (LED-derived light with various wavelengths on mouse ocular surface.LEDs with various wavelengths were used to irradiate C57BL/6 mice at an energy dose of 50 J/cm2, twice a day, for 10 consecutive days. The red, green, and blue groups represented wavelengths of 630 nm, 525 nm, and 410 nm, respectively. The untouched group (UT was not exposed to LED light and served as the untreated control. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (TBUT, and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10. Levels of interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α were measured in the cornea and conjunctiva using a multiplex immunobead assay at day 10. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Flow cytometry, 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA assay, histologic analysis, immunohistochemistry with 4-hydroxynonenal, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL staining were also performed.TBUT of the blue group showed significant decreases at days 7 and 10, compared with the UT and red groups. Corneal fluorescein staining scores significantly increased in the blue group when compared with UT, red, and green groups at days 5, 7, and 10. A significant increase in the corneal levels of IL-1β and IL-6 was observed in the blue group, compared with the other groups. The blue group showed significantly increased reactive oxygen species production in the DCF-DA assay and increased inflammatory T cells in the flow cytometry. A significantly increased TUNEL positive cells was identified in the blue group.Overexposure to blue light with short wavelengths can induce oxidative damage and apoptosis to the cornea, which may manifest as increased ocular surface inflammation and resultant dry eye.

  18. Age-related changes and diseases of the ocular surface and cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Ilene K

    2013-12-13

    Aging of the ocular surface and corneal tissues, major components of the visual system, causes major eye disease and results in substantial cost in medical and social terms. These diseases include the highly prevalent dry eye disease that affects the ocular surface and its glands, leading to tear film alterations, discomfort, and decreased vision. Studies show that 14.4% of the population in the United States older than 50 years have dry eye disease and demonstrate that it is particularly prevalent among women. Annual medical costs per patient with dry eye in the United States are estimated at $783 per year, with an overall medical cost adjusted to prevalence of $3.84 billion per year. Societal costs, which include loss of productivity, are estimated per patient at $11,302 per year, with overall costs adjusted to prevalence of $55.4 billion per year. Because there are few effective treatments for the disease, more research on its etiology and mechanisms is warranted and needed. Increased public education about risk factors for the disease is also required. Another major age-related eye disease of the cornea that leads to vision impairment and potentially blindness if left untreated is Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy. This disease leads to loss of the endothelial cells on the internal side of the cornea that are responsible for keeping the cornea in the proper hydration state to ensure its transparency to light. The mechanism of cell loss is unknown, and the only treatment available to date is surgical transplantation of the cornea or inner part of the cornea. These medically costly procedures require donor corneas, eye banking, and medical follow-up, with accrued costs. Fuchs' endothelial corneal dystrophy is a major cause of corneal transplantation in the United States; therefore, research support is needed to determine the mechanism of this age-related disease, to develop medical, nonsurgical methods for treatment.

  19. Functional and visual improvement with prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem scleral lenses for irregular corneas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer C; Chiu, Gloria B; Bach, Dianne; Bababeygy, Simon R; Irvine, John; Heur, Martin

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the Doheny Eye Institute Experience with Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral lenses for the management of irregular corneas with outcomes based on visual acuity (VA) and visual function. A retrospective chart review of 58 subjects (90 eyes) with irregular corneal surfaces referred to the Doheny Eye Institute for PROSE treatment between July 2009 and December 2011 was performed. The best-corrected VA before and after PROSE fitting was recorded. A functional assessment before and after PROSE fitting was also performed using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, a 12-item questionnaire that grades the severity of ocular discomfort and vision-related function. Keratoconus (43%) represented the largest group, and post-PK astigmatism (31%) represented the second largest group of patients with irregular corneas who had completed the PROSE treatment. Patients with keratoconus had the greatest improvement in VA after PROSE fitting with an 88% improvement in the logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution vision. Patients with post-PK astigmatism had the greatest improvement in Ocular Surface Disease Index scores with a 79% improvement observed after PROSE fitting. PROSE scleral lenses offer improvements in the VA and function, and they could be an option for patients with irregular corneas who have failed conventional treatments before considering additional surgery.

  20. New developments in analysis of ocular surface diseasesNieuwe ontwikkelingen in analyse van ziekten van het oogoppervlak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Sander

    2008-01-01

    The thesis is divided into three parts, each part investigates a different disease of the ocular surface. The first part describes a new animal model to follow allogenetic limbal transplants by enhanced green fluorescent protein (E-GFP). In this model E-GFP is able to reliably follow transplant

  1. The modified Cincinnati procedure: combined conjunctival limbal autografts and keratolimbal allografts for severe unilateral ocular surface failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Clara C; Biber, Joseph M; Holland, Edward J

    2012-11-01

    To describe the technique and present the outcomes of combined conjunctival limbal autografts (CLAU) and keratolimbal allografts (KLAL) for the treatment of unilateral severe ocular surface failure. Interventional case series. Eleven eyes of 11 patients who sustained chemical burns (4 alkali and 2 acid) and combined chemical/thermal burns (5 eyes) from firework explosions had combined CLAU/KLAL surgery. Keratoplasty was performed subsequently for residual corneal stromal scarring limiting visual acuity. Inclusion criteria included eyes with severe unilateral total ocular surface failure, controlled glaucoma, and reasonable eyelid apposition with no exposure. Exclusion criteria included patients with any ocular surface abnormality in the fellow eye and those with contraindications to systemic immunosuppression (SI). Outcome measures included Snellen best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ocular surface stability, SI exposure, and complications. Preoperative BCVA was 20/400 or worse in all eyes. At the final follow-up (mean, 35.8 months; range, 12.1-105.9 months), 73% (8 of 11) eyes had BCVA of 20/80 or better (range, 20/25 to counting fingers), and ocular surface was stable in 82% (9 of 11). Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) had additional penetrating keratoplasty (PK) with a 60% (6 of 10 eyes) success rate. Three cases had subsequent Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis implantation after PK failure, and the fourth patient, at the time of his last follow-up visit, did not want further intervention for his edematous PK, which was a result of noncompliance-related corneal rejection. In eyes with more than 2 years of follow-up, SI was tapered at a mean of 16 months (range, 8-28 months). There were no intraoperative complications. No secondary tumors, cardiac events, or deaths occurred while patients were on SI. One patient developed secondary glaucoma refractory to medical management after subsequent PK, requiring cyclodiode laser. Combined CLAU/KLAL and staged keratoplasty is

  2. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Yu, Fen-Fen; Zhong, Yi-Min; Guo, Xin-Xing; Mao, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved drugs is often associated with ocular surface toxicity. Ocular surface symptoms had a substantial impact on the glaucoma patients’ quality of life and compliance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (SH) on ocular surface toxicity induced by BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. Methods: Fifty-eight patients (101 eyes), who received topical BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment and met the severe dry eye criteria, were included in the analysis. All patients were maintained the original topical anti-glaucoma treatment. In the SH-treated group (56 eyes), unpreserved 0.3% SH eye drops were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days. In the control group (55 eyes), phosphate-buffered saline were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, break-up time (BUT) test, corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, Schirmer test, and conjunctiva impression cytology were performed sequentially on days 0 and 91. Results: Compared with the control group, SH-treated group showed decrease in OSDI scores (Kruskal-Wallis test: H = 38.668, P < 0.001), fluorescein and rose Bengal scores (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test: z = −3.843, P < 0.001, and z = −3.508, P < 0.001, respectively), increase in tear film BUT (t-test: t = −10.994, P < 0.001) and aqueous tear production (t-test: t = −10.328, P < 0.001) on day 91. The goblet cell density was increased (t-test: t = −9.981, P < 0.001), and the morphology of the conjunctival epithelium were also improved after SH treatment. Conclusions: SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity, and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti

  3. Ocular penetration of topically applied norfloxacin 0.3% in the rabbits and in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bron, A M; Péchinot, A; Garcher, C; Guyonnet, G; Kazmierczak, A

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of topically applied norfloxacin 0.3 percent were studied in rabbit and man. All measurements were performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Norfloxacin concentrations were investigated five to 120 minutes in rabbit ocular tissues after instillation of a single drop. In normal eyes, after 30 minutes, mean +/- SEM levels were 14.3 +/- 3.7 micrograms/g in cornea, 3.3 +/- 0.7 micrograms/g in conjunctiva, 0.2 +/- 0.1 microgram/g in aqueous humor. After removal of the corneal epithelium concentrations were as follows: 84.2 +/- 15.8 micrograms/g, 7.3 +/- 2.3 micrograms/g, 8.6 +/- 1.9 micrograms/g respectively. Penetration in posterior ocular tissues were rather poor. In human eyes, the intracorneal concentrations were assessed in patients being operated on corneal grafts. After instillation of 5 drops, the concentration in cornea was 15.5 +/- 2.1 micrograms/g. These data show that therapeutic levels of norfloxacin can be achieved in anterior ocular tissues, which may be of help in superficial infections of the eye.

  4. [Preservative-free betaxolol for POAG patients: evaluation of hypotensive effect and ocular surface safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, A L; Dimaksyan, M V; Kolbasko, A V; Zilina, N M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate ocular surface changes in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) as well as the hypotensive effect of preservative-free betaxolol eye drops. A total of 22 patients (42 eyes) aged 55-83 with POAG stage I-II were examined. All of them were switched from betaxolol b.i.d. to its preservative-free analogue (Xonef BK). The baseline examination included visual acuity measurement, Morisky-Green test (questionnaire), Norn test, Schirmer's test, lissamine green staining, and ocular tonometry. The latter was repeated 2 and 4 weeks after the drug had been switched, while the whole complex--2 months after the beginning of the study. The total tear production in POAG patients under betaxolol therapy was 19.1 ± 10.6 mm. After the 2 months of preservative-free betaxolol use there were no statistically significant changes in Schirmer's test results (p = 0.248). Tear film break-up time (Norn test) improved from 7.8 ± 0.5 secto 9.8 ± 0.8 sec (p = 0.067) as well as the results of lissamine green staining (W = 90.0, p < 0.022). In the Morisky-Green Test betaxolol patients scored only 2.6 ± 0.05 points on average, thus showing non-compliance. After the 2 months of preservative-free betaxolol instillations the scores increased up to 3.1 ± 0.07 (p = 0.04). According to Dunnett's test, used for multiple comparisons, intraocular pressure did not change significantly in either of the study periods (baseline and follow-up measurements at weeks 2, 4, and 8 were taken into account). The study proves Xonef BK safe, effective, and appropriate in all types of glaucoma.

  5. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribelles, Alfredo; Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Parras, Maria A; Vivar-Llopis, Bárbara; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS) and tear film (TF) by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40-65 years (n = 148) were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain) and distributed into two age groups, 40-52 years (AGE1; n = 87) and 53-65 years (AGE2; n = 61), and then subdivided according to being (or not) computer users (CUG; NCUG) during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not) to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33%) versus the AGE2-CUG (64%) of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.), as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, resp.). Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  6. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribelles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS and tear film (TF by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3 in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n=148 were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n=87 and 53–65 years (AGE2; n=61, and then subdivided according to being (or not computer users (CUG; NCUG during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33% versus the AGE2-CUG (64% of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P=0.006 and P=0.001, resp., as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P=0.001 and P=0.000, resp.. Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  7. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty using irradiated acellular cornea with amniotic membrane transplantation for intractable ocular surface diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Sung Wook; Choi, Sang Uk; Kim, Jae Chan

    2015-04-01

    To report the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) when sterile gamma-irradiated acellular corneal tissues (VisionGraft) are used in combination with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for intractable ocular surface diseases. The medical records of fifteen patients who had DALK with AMT were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery included ocular burn, bacterial keratitis, herpes simplex virus keratitis, corneal opacity with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Mooren's ulcer, idiopathic myxoid degeneration of corneal stroma, and recurrent band keratopathy. DALK was performed using partial-thickness acellular corneal tissue and a temporary amniotic membrane patch was added at the end of the operation. All cases that underwent DALK with AMT became epithelialized within 2 postoperative weeks. Twelve patients showed favorable outcomes without graft rejection, corneal opacification, or neovascularization. The other three grafts developed corneal opacification and neovascularization, and required additional penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Unlike the results of previous PKs, there were no graft rejections and the graft clarity was well-maintained in these three cases for at least 8 months after PK. DALK using sterile acellular corneal tissues in combination with AMT may be a good therapeutic strategy for treating intractable ocular surface diseases because of lowered immune rejection, fibroblast activation, and facilitation of epithelialization. Furthermore, DALK can help stabilize the ocular surface, prolong graft survival, and may allow better outcomes when combined with subsequent PK.

  8. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirci, Emre; Yagci, Ayse; Palamar, Melis; Basoglu, O K; Veral, Ali

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on the ocular surface. This is a prospective, sectional cohort study of 80 eyes of 40 patients diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Routine ophthalmologic examination and ocular surface evaluation, including biomicroscopy, Schirmer 1 testing, tear break-up time measurement, ocular surface staining, and conjunctival impression cytology, were performed in both of each patient's eyes before and 4 months after starting CPAP therapy. After CPAP therapy, increases in squamous metaplasia (Nelson classification: t = 0.34, P = 0.014) and Schirmer 1 score (t = 3.20, P = 0.008), and decreases in tear break-up time (t = -1.38, P = 0.008) in the right eyes were statistically significant, as compared with the pretreatment values. Although these parameters changed in a similar fashion in the left eyes, differences between the pre-CPAP and post-CPAP values were not significant. The findings indicate that CPAP therapy increased ocular irritation, tear evaporation, and squamous metaplasia in the conjunctiva of the patients' right and left eyes. Although the parameters measured were similar in both eyes before CPAP therapy, these parameters changed significantly after CPAP therapy only in the right eyes. The observed differences between the right and left eyes require further investigation to determine the possible effects of sleeping position, CPAP mask displacement, and the other factors involved.

  9. The safety and efficacy of Diphoterine for ocular and cutaneous burns in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Darren D; Zukin, Leonid M; Dellavalle, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Diphoterine, developed by the French company Prevor, is a polyvalent, chelating, amphoteric and slightly hypertonic solution used in the management of chemical cutaneous and ocular burns. While used extensively in Europe and Canada, it is has not been approved by the United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) as an alternative to the water-rinse method due to a lack of evidence of its safety and efficacy on human subjects. An unbiased and extensive systematic review was undertaken in order to better understand Diphoterine's safety and efficaciousness on humans. Review the safety and efficacy of Diphoterine for treating chemical burns of the skin and eyes in humans. Data sources: Information sources included Pubmed, the National Library of Medicine's Medline Database and the "Publications" sections of the Prevor website. Search terms included Diphoterine, chemical burn, ocular burn and cutaneous burn. Any study type published through a peer-reviewed journal up to May 2016 was considered eligible. Published data must have included Diphoterine in the treatment of chemical burns on the skin or eyes as well as meet other specified criteria. Acceptable studies had to use either a quantitative (e.g. number of work days lost) or qualitative (e.g. level of erythema) approach when measuring cutaneous or ocular lesion outcomes. Independent assessment of article inclusion by two authors using predefined criteria. Diphoterine is safe and highly effective in improving healing time, healing sequelae and pain management of chemical burns on the skin and eyes of humans. Outcomes are significantly improved when compared to water or a physiologic solution equivalent. We recommend that this product be readily available to emergency responders and companies that expose their employees to hazardous chemical substances in order to improve healing sequelae, pain management and lost work days from these types of burns.

  10. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstric...

  11. Evaluation of the Efficacy of 50% Autologous Serum Eye Drops in Different Ocular Surface Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Semeraro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study evaluated the efficacy of 50% autologous serum eye drops in ocular surface diseases not improved by conventional therapy. Methods. We analyzed two groups: (1 acute eye pathologies (e.g., chemical burns and (2 chronic eye pathologies (e.g., recurrent corneal erosion, neurotropic keratitis, and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The patients were treated for surface instability after conventional therapy. The patients received therapy 5 times a day until stabilization of the framework; they then reduced therapy to 3 times a day for at least 3 months. We analyzed the best corrected visual acuity, epithelial defects, inflammation, corneal opacity, and corneal neovascularization. We also analyzed symptoms such as tearing, burning, sense of foreign body or sand, photophobia, blurred vision, and difficulty opening the eyelids. Results. We enrolled 15 eyes in group 1 and 11 eyes in group 2. The average therapy period was 16 ± 5.86 weeks in group 1 and 30.54 ± 20.33 weeks in group 2. The epithelial defects all resolved. Signs and symptoms improved in both groups. In group 2, the defect recurred after the suspension of therapy in 2 (18% patients; in group 1, no defects recurred. Conclusions. Autologous serum eye drops effectively stabilize and improve signs and symptoms in eyes previously treated with conventional therapy.

  12. Results of simple limbal epithelial transplantation in unilateral ocular surface burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aimed to report the long-term outcomes of autologous Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation (SLET performed for unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD following chemical burn at a tertiary eye center in North India. Methods: This was a single-center prospective interventional case series of patients who developed unilateral LSCD after suffering from ocular surface burns and who underwent SLET between October 2012 and May 2016 with a follow-up period of at least 6 months. The primary outcome measure was restoration of a completely epithelized, stable, and avascular corneal surface. The secondary outcome measure was percentage of eyes, which reported visual gain. Results: The study included 30 eyes of 30 patients, 18 adults and 12 children, at a median follow-up of 1.1 years (range: 6 months to 3.5 years, 21 of 30 eyes (70%; 95% confidence interval, 53.6%–86.2% maintained successful outcome. Visual acuity gain was seen in 71.4% of successful cases. The clinical factors associated with failure were identified as acid injury, severe symblepharon at the time of presentation, and SLET combined with penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Conclusion: Autologous SLET is an effective limbal cell transplantation technique for the treatment of unilateral LSCD. It is especially beneficial for centers where cell cultivation laboratory is unavailable. Presence of severe symblepharon, which requires PK peroperatively , has poor outcome.

  13. Local Recurrence and Ocular Adnexal Complications Following Electronic Surface Brachytherapy for Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lower Eyelid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Kian; Anderson, Richard L; Suneja, Gita; Bowen, Anneli; Oberg, Thomas J; Bowen, Glen M

    2015-09-01

    Various treatment options exist for nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including topical agents, surgery, or definitive or adjuvant radiation therapy. Recently, electronic surface brachytherapy (ESB) has been described as a noninvasive option for NMSC. We report a case of local recurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and ocular complications following ESB to the lower eyelid. A man in his 60s presented with a recurrent BCC within the radiation field 10 months after undergoing ESB for a biopsy-proven BCC. In addition to the recurrence, he had contracture of the conjunctiva in the socket of his previously enucleated eye, as well as lower eyelid ectropion, resulting in displacement and loss of retention of his ocular prosthesis. Electronic surface brachytherapy should be used with caution, particularly in the periocular region because the late effects of hypofractionated radiation may cause ocular and orbital complications. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ocular complications with this modality. This case highlights a local recurrence following use of this new treatment modality, suggesting further investigation is warranted to determine the safety and efficacy of ESB.

  14. [The ocular surface of severe alkali burns patients on confocal microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen-qing; Xu, Jian-jiang; Sun, Xing-huai; Qiu, Ting; Hong, Jia-xu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Wen-tao

    2010-01-01

    To analyze the morphology on the ocular surface of severe alkali burns patients by in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy. This research was a retrospective observation case series. From February to November 2008 in Eye Ear Nose and Throat Hospital of Fudan University, 39 alkali burns patients who classified as III or IV according to Roper-Hall classification were enrolled in this study. They were divided into four groups according to the course of disease: A (less than 3 months), B (3 - 6 months), C (6 - 12 months) and D (over 12 months). In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopic examinations were performed on the injured cornea, the limbus and the bulbar conjunctiva and the images were recorded. The morphology of the injured cornea, the limbus and the bulbar conjunctiva was analyzed and the densities of the inflammatory cells and dendritic cells in the limbus were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the means of the inflammatory cells and dendritic cells. Subsequently the data between two groups were analyzed by least significant difference. The corneal epitheliums of the patients in Group A manifested large irregular features with hyperreflective cytoplasm and hyporeflective nuclei, sometimes losing cell features. There were numerous small hyperreflective inflammatory cells in groups beneath the superficial epitheliums. Shallow corneal stroma was edema, and it was hard to discriminate the morphology of the stromal cells. Deep stromal cells were in the activated state. The images of the endothelial layer were unclear. In Group B and Group C, there were the same manifestation of the superficial epitheliums as the group A and it disappeared in Group D. The inflammatory cells beneath the superficial epitheliums reduced and some residual basal epitheliums and hyperreflective conjunctiva-like epitheliums were visible in Group B and Group C. In Group D, there were small oval tight-arranged cells with punctiform hyperreflective nuclei

  15. S100A expression in normal corneal-limbal epithelial cells and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Riau, Andri K; Setiawan, Melina; Mehta, Jodhbir S; Ti, Seng-Ei; Tong, Louis; Tan, Donald T H; Beuerman, Roger W

    2011-01-01

    To study the expression and cellular distribution of multiple S100A genes and proteins in normal corneal-limbal epithelium and ocular surface squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissue. Normal corneal-limbal tissue was obtained from the Lions Eye Bank, Tampa, FL. Ocular surface SCC tissues were excised from patients undergoing surgery at Singapore National Eye Centre. S100A mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR. S100 protein distribution was determined by immunofluorescent staining analysis. Twelve S100 mRNAs were identified in human corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10, and A11 mRNA was expressed at high level, while S100A1, A3, A4, A5, A6, A7, and A12 mRNA expression was low. The intracellular localization of S100A2, A6, A8, A9, A10 and A11 protein was determined in normal corneal-limbal and SCC tissues. S100A2 and S100A10 proteins were enriched in basal limbal epithelial cells of the normal tissue. S100A8 and S100A9 were found only at the surface of peripheral corneal and limbal epithelium. S100A6 was uniformly found at the plasma membrane of corneal and limbal epithelial cells. S100A11 was found at the supralayer limbal epithelial cells adjacent to the conjunctiva. SCC tissue showed typical pathological changes with expression of cytokeartin (CK) 14 and CK4 in the epithelial cells. All SCC epithelial cells were positive of S100A2, S100A10, S100A6 and S100A11 staining. Intracellular staining of S100A8 and S100A9 was found in several layers of SCC epithelium. Expression of S100A2 and S100A10 decreased dramatically in cultured limbal epithelial cells with increased passaging, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA, with no changes of S100A8 gene expression. Serum and growth hormone depletion of the culture serum caused a small reduction of S100A2 and S100A10 gene expression, which was accompanied by a small increase of S100A9 mRNA while no changes of S100A8 expression was measured. Normal corneal and limbal epithelial

  16. Successful autologous simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) in previously failed paediatric limbal transplantation for ocular surface burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, Swapnil; Basu, Sayan; Lal, Ikeda; Sangwan, Virender S

    2013-05-10

    A 3-year-old child sustained severe ocular surface burns in her left eye after accidental lime injury. Despite appropriate management in the acute stage, she developed limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) in that eye. This was initially treated with autologous ex vivo cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET), which unfortunately failed after 6 months resulting in recurrence of LSCD. One year following CLET, she underwent simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) using autologous donor tissue from the healthy fellow eye. Successful restoration of the ocular surface following SLET combined with amblyopia therapy led to significant cosmetic and functional improvement. One year following SLET her vision in the left eye was 20/80 and she continues to maintain a stable, avascular and completely epithelised corneal surface. This case illustrates that SLET is effective in treating LSCD even in cases that are conventionally considered to be at high risk for failure of limbal stem cell transplantation.

  17. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es la Hipertensión Ocular? ...

  18. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Melanoma Sections What is Ocular Melanoma? Ocular Melanoma Causes ... Melanoma Diagnosis Ocular Melanoma Treatment What is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Melanoma Ocular? ...

  19. Application of in vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy for evaluation of ocular surface diseases: lessons learned from pterygium, meibomian gland disease, and chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Le, Qihua; Zhao, Feng; Hong, Jiaxu; Xu, Jianjiang; Zheng, Tianyu; Sun, Xinghuai

    2011-10-01

    In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) has been widely used to evaluate the alterations caused by ocular surface diseases at a cellular level in the living eye. In this review, we focus on its use in the diagnosis of pterygium, meibomian gland (MG) disease, and chemical burns. Histopathologic changes occurring in pterygium can be examined in situ using in vivo LSCM. Alterations at the junction of the pterygium and the cornea, which cannot be observed in excised tissue samples, can be observed. MGs play an important role in maintaining the health of the ocular surface. Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is one of the most common ocular surface diseases. The use of in vivo LSCM helps in the diagnosis of MGD and provides a way to examine the microstructure of MG acinar units and measure their size. In vivo LSCM also provides a new perspective in understanding the contribution of the MG to the health of the ocular surface. Chemical burns are one of the most common ocular injuries, and in vivo LSCM can provide images of the goblet cells on the corneal surface. This is a hallmark of limbal stem cell deficiency. The application of in vivo LSCM to assessing chemical burns requires extension, allowing for evaluation of the limbus structure and ocular surface changes after reconstructive ocular surgery.

  20. Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients and response to 5-fluorouracil in Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutt RJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert J Nutt,1 John L Clements,2 William H Dean3 1Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 2Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Benguela, Angola; 3Bristol Eye Hospital, Bristol, UK Background: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is becoming increasingly prevalent and aggressive in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is a phenomenon linked with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, although association rates in Angola are currently unknown. A topical treatment that is effective in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals may be preferable to surgery in some contexts. We aimed to estimate the proportion of OSSN associated with HIV in Angola and to report on the success of topical 5-fluorouracil as a primary treatment in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.Methods: Photographs of OSSNs taken at presentation and following treatment with 5-fluorouracil in patients presenting to Boa Vista Eye Clinic, Angola, between October 2011 and July 2013 were grouped into HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups and analyzed to compare presenting features and treatment response. Eighty-one OSSNs were analyzed for clinical features and 24 met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response.Results: Eighty-two patients presented with OSSN between October 2011 and July 2013. Twenty-one (26% were HIV-positive and typically had OSSNs that exhibited more pathological features than those in HIV-negative patients. Twenty-four (29% patients met the inclusion criteria for analysis of treatment response; of these, 26 (91% OSSNs in both groups displayed at least partial resolution after one treatment course. In the HIV-positive group, five of eight patients displayed complete resolution, two showed partial resolution, and one failed. In the HIV-negative group, five of 16 showed complete resolution, ten of 16 had partial resolution, and one failed.Conclusion: Individuals presenting with OSSN in Angola are more likely to have HIV infection compared

  1. Bombyx mori silk fibroin membranes as potential substrata for epithelial constructs used in the management of ocular surface disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirila, Traian; Barnard, Zeke; Zainuddin; Harkin, Damien G; Schwab, Ivan R; Hirst, Lawrence

    2008-07-01

    Membranes were prepared from fibroin, a protein isolated from the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) silk, and evaluated as a potential substratum for corneal limbal epithelial cells. These membranes (i.e., B. mori silk fibroin [BMSF] membranes) were cast from dialyzed solutions of fibroin protein (4% w/v) dispensed into 35-mm-diameter culture dishes and dried at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). The resulting material was transparent, easy to handle, and supported levels of human limbal epithelial (HLE) cell growth comparable to that observed on tissue culture plastic. Remarkably, these results were obtained utilizing a commercial serum-free medium (CnT-20) designed for the ex vivo expansion of corneal epithelial progenitor cells. The potential benefits of serum proteins on this culture system were examined through addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) either to fibroin stocks prior to membrane casting or by supplementation of the CnT-20 medium. Membranes cast in the presence of FBS displayed increasing opacity and induced little change in HLE growth. Supplementation of CnT-20 medium with FBS deterred cell growth on all substrata, including tissue culture plastic control substrata. The remarkable properties of BMSF membranes demonstrated under serum-free conditions warrant investigation of this material as a substratum in the creation of tissue-engineered constructs for the restoration of diseased or damaged ocular surface.

  2. Repeated measurements of dynamic tear distribution on the ocular surface after instillation of artificial tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhua; Aquavella, James; Palakuru, Jayachandra; Chung, Suk

    2006-08-01

    To determine the repeatability of real-time optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements of tear film thickness (TFT) and variables of tear film menisci. Forty eyes were imaged with a custom-built, real-time OCT to obtain heights, curvatures, and cross-sectional areas of upper and lower tear menisci simultaneously. The central TFT was indirectly determined as the difference between the combined thickness of the central cornea and tear film and the true corneal thickness obtained after instillation of artificial tears. Dynamic tear distribution was determined by OCT imaging immediately and 5, 20, 40, and 60 minutes after tear instillation. Measurements taken after two blinks of one eye at each visit were repeated on the next day. Measurements from the companion eye were made on separate days. There were no significant differences between the two measurements of each variable made on consecutive days. At baseline, upper tear meniscus variables were strongly correlated with the comparable lower meniscus variables. However, there were no significant correlations between TFT and any tear meniscus variable. Immediately after instillation of artificial tears, all measured variables increased significantly. TFT, upper and lower menisci heights, and upper meniscus area remained elevated for at least 5 minutes. In addition there were significant correlations between TFT and the lower tear meniscus height and area. The custom-built OCT showed good repeatability and holds promise in measuring the dynamic distribution of artificial tears on the ocular surface.

  3. The Prospective Health Assessment of Cataract Patients’ Ocular Surface (PHACO) study: the effect of dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattler, William B; Majmudar, Parag A; Donnenfeld, Eric D; McDonald, Marguerite B; Stonecipher, Karl G; Goldberg, Damien F

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF) scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery. Patients and methods This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye. Results Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9%) had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer’s score with anesthesia ≤5 mm. Conclusion The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated. PMID:28848324

  4. The Prospective Health Assessment of Cataract Patients' Ocular Surface (PHACO) study: the effect of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trattler, William B; Majmudar, Parag A; Donnenfeld, Eric D; McDonald, Marguerite B; Stonecipher, Karl G; Goldberg, Damien F

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF) scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery. This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT), ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye. Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9%) had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer's score with anesthesia ≤5 mm. The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated.

  5. Multiple oncogenic viruses identified in Ocular surface squamous neoplasia in HIV-1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisson Gregory

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is a rare cancer that has increased in incidence with the HIV pandemic in Africa. The underlying cause of this cancer in HIV-infected patients from Botswana is not well defined. Results Tissues were obtained from 28 OSSN and 8 pterygia patients. The tissues analyzed from OSSN patients were 83% positive for EBV, 75% were HPV positive, 70% were KSHV positive, 75% were HSV-1/2 positive, and 61% were CMV positive by PCR. Tissues from pterygium patients were 88% positive for EBV, 75% were HPV positive, 50% were KSHV positive, and 60% were CMV positive. None of the patients were JC or BK positive. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry analyses further identified HPV, EBV, and KSHV in a subset of the tissue samples. Conclusion We identified the known oncogenic viruses HPV, KSHV, and EBV in OSSN and pterygia tissues. The presence of these tumor viruses in OSSN suggests that they may contribute to the development of this malignancy in the HIV population. Further studies are necessary to characterize the molecular mechanisms associated with viral antigens and their potential role in the development of OSSN.

  6. Amniotic membrane traps and induces apoptosis of inflammatory cells in ocular surface chemical burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Zhai, Hualei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Dong, Yanling; Sun, Yajie; Zang, Xinjie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Severe chemical burns can cause necrosis of ocular surface tissues following the infiltration of inflammatory cells. It has been shown that amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) is an effective treatment for severe chemical burns, but the phenotypes of cells that infiltrate the amniotic membrane and the clinical significance of these cellular infiltrations have not previously been reported. The present work studies the inflammation cell traps and apoptosis inducing roles of the amniotic membrane after AMT in patients with acute chemical burns. Methods A total of 30 patients with acute alkaline burns were classified as having either moderate or severe burns. In all participants, AMT was performed within one week of his/her injury. After 7–9 days, the transplanted amniotic membranes were removed. Histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques were used for the examination and detection of infiltrating cells, and tests for the expression of CD (cluster of differentiation)15, CD68, CD3, CD20, CD57, CD31, CD147, and CD95 (Fas) were performed. A TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay was used to confirm apoptosis of the infiltrating cells. Three patients with herpes simplex-induced keratitis who had undergone AMT to treat persistent epithelium defects were used as a control group. Amniotic membrane before transplantation was used as another control. Results After amniotic membrane transplantation, the number of infiltrating cells in patients with severe burns was significantly higher than in patients with moderate burns or in control patients (pburns patients, CD15 and CD68 were widely expressed in the infiltrating cells, and CD3, CD20, and CD57 were only found in a small number of cells. Occasionally, CD31-positive cells were found in the amniotic membranes. More cells that were CD147, Fas, and TUNEL positive were found in patients with severe burns than in patients with moderate burns or in control patients. Conclusions Neutrophils and

  7. Degradation of proteoglycan 4/lubricin by cathepsin S: Potential mechanism for diminished ocular surface lubrication in Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Suresh C; Samsom, Michael L; Heynen, Miriam L; Jay, Gregory D; Sullivan, Benjamin D; Srinivasan, Sruthi; Caffery, Barbara; Jones, Lyndon; Schmidt, Tannin A

    2017-08-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands with hallmark clinical symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Recently, markedly increased cathepsin S (CTSS) activity has been observed in the tears of SS patients. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), also known as lubricin, is an effective boundary lubricant that is naturally present on the ocular surface. While PRG4 is susceptible to proteolytic digestion, the potential effect of CTSS on PRG4 remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of CTSS to enzymatically degrade purified PRG4, and PRG4 naturally present in human tears, and alter ocular surface boundary lubricating properties. To assess the potential time course and dose-dependency of PRG4 digestion by CTSS, full-length recombinant human PRG4 (rhPRG4) was incubated at 37 °C with or without CTSS in an enzymatic digestion buffer. Digestion of PRG4 by CTSS was also examined within normal human tear samples, both with and without supplementation by rhPRG4. Finally, digestion of endogenous PRG4 by CTSS, and the effect of a CTSS inhibitor, was examined in SS tears on Schirmer strips. Digestion products were separated on 3-8% SDS-PAGE and visualized by protein staining and western blotting. The boundary lubricating ability of rhPRG4 samples was assessed using an in vitro human eyelid-cornea friction test. Finally, SDS-PAGE protein stain bands resulting from rhPRG4 digestion were submitted for tandem mass spectrometry analysis to confirm their identity as PRG4 and identify non-tryptic cleavage sites. CTSS digested rhPRG4 in a time and dose dependent manner. CTSS digestion of rhPRG4 at 1% (where % is the mass ratio of CTSS to rhPRG4) resulted in a time dependent decrease in the full-length, ∼460 kDa, monomeric rhPRG4 band, and an appearance of lower MW fragments. After 20 h, no full-length rhPRG4 was observed. Furthermore, with an increased relative enzyme concentration of 3%, no protein bands were observed

  8. Effect of different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate on the ocular surface change of dry eye in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-Yong Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the effect of different concentrations of sodium hyaluronate on ocular surface change of dry eye. METHODS: New Zealand rabbits with dry eye was prepared and treated with 0.1% and 0.3% sodium hyaluronate drops fluid respectively, which were regarded as low concentration treatment group(group Band high concentration treatment group(group Crespectively. However, the rabbits treated with saline were regarded as control group(group A. And then, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, conjunctival goblet cells, mucin expression and histological changes were observed.RESULTS: On D7 and D14 after treatment, corneal fluorescein staining scores were lower in group B and group C than that in group A(PP PCONCLUSION: The sodium hyaluronate can improve ocular surface damage of dry eye in New Zealand rabbits. The high concentration of sodium hyaluronate has better effect than low concentration.

  9. The differences of tear function and ocular surface findings in patients with atopic keratoconjunctivitis and vernal keratoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y; Matsumoto, Y; Dogru, M; Okada, N; Igarashi, A; Fukagawa, K; Tsubota, K; Fujishima, H

    2007-08-01

    The pathogenesis of the ocular surface disease in atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) and vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) has not been fully understood. We tried to clarify the differences in the ocular surface status in patients with AKC, VKC, and healthy control subjects. Twenty-four eyes of 12 AKC patients, 12 eyes of six VKC patients, and 20 eyes of 10 normal control subjects were studied. The subjects underwent corneal sensitivity measurements, Schirmer test, tear film break-up time (BUT), vital staining of the ocular surface, conjunctival impression and brush cytology. Impression cytology samples underwent periodic acid Schiff staining for goblet cell density, squamous metaplasia grading, and immunohistochemical staining for MUC1, 2, 4, and 5AC. Brush cytology specimens underwent staining for inflammatory cell counting and Real Time PCR for MUC1, 2, 4, and 5AC mRNA expression. The mean BUT, corneal sensitivity, and conjunctival goblet cell density values in AKC patients were significantly lower compared with VKC patients and control subjects. The squamous metaplasia grades in eyes with AKC were significantly higher compared to eyes with VKC and controls. The inflammatory cell response in brush cytology specimens was different between patients with AKC and VKC. Eyes with AKC showed significantly higher MUC1, 2 and 4 and lower MUC5AC mRNA expression compared to eyes with VKC. Differences of the infiltrates, higher level of tear instability, lower corneal sensitivity, up-regulation of MUC1, 2, and 4, and down regulation of MUC5AC were important differential features of the ocular surface disease in AKC compared with VKC.

  10. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Dietary Supplementation on Ocular Surface and Tear Film in Diabetic Patients with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Constantine D; Makri, Olga E; Pagoulatos, Dionisios; Vasilakis, Panagiotis; Peristeropoulou, Politimi; Kouli, Vasiliki; Eliopoulou, Maria I; Psachoulia, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on ocular surface and tear film in patients with type 2 diabetes suffering from dry eye. Thirty-six patients suffering from type 2 diabetes and moderate to severe dry eye syndrome were included in the study. Patients were assigned to receive omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for 3 months. Tear film break-up time test, Schirmer-I test, and conjunctival impression cytology analysis were performed on all patients at baseline and after 1 and 3 months. The subjective symptoms of dry eye were evaluated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire at the same time points. Patients' average age was 65.57 ± 4.27 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 14.85 ± 5.4 years. There was a statistically significant increase in Schirmer-I test results and tear break-up time score after 3 months of supplementary intake of omega-3 fatty acids compared to baseline (p tear film characteristics, reverse ocular surface features, and alleviate the subjective symptoms associated with dry eye syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  11. Ocular surface changes induced by topical intraocular-press-lowering medication in primary glaucoma patients after antiglaucoma surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Yu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To analyze ocular surface changes induced by topical intraocular-press(IOP-lowering medication in primary glaucoma patients after antiglaucoma surgery. METHODS:A case control study. Patients with primary glaucoma(primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open angle glaucomawho were treated by a topical IOP-lowering medication containing benzalkonium chloride(BAKwere enrolled. According to either accepted antiglaucoma surgery or not, patients were divided into group with surgery and group without surgery, indicators of ocular surface disease(OSDwere compared between the two groups. Main indicators for outcomes included tear film break-up time(TFBUTand fluorescein staining of the cornea(punctate keratitis. RESULTS:This study collected 39 primary glaucoma cases(72 eyes, in which there were 9 cases(14 eyesin group with surgery and 30 cases(58 eyesin group without surgery. There were 78% of the cases in group with surgery suffering from the OSD and 67% in group without surgery. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. In group with surgery, TFBUT abnormal rate was 50% and 14% of the cases with punctate keratitis. In group without surgery, the rates were 54% and 5% respectively, and there were no statistical differences between the two groups on the two indicators. CONCLUSION:The probability of ocular surface damage in primary glaucoma patients with topical IOP-lowering medication to control IOP after antiglaucoma surgery is similar to that in primary glaucoma patients with topical IOP-lowering medication only.

  12. Short-term effect of latanoprost and timolol eye drops on tear fluid and the ocular surface in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, John; Aaen, Kim; Theodorsen, F.

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology......ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology...

  13. Effects of dry eye therapies on environmentally induced ocular surface disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Quianta L.; De Paiva, Cintia S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the effectiveness of artificial tears and corticosteroids on mitigating the acute ocular surface response to low humidity environments. DESIGN Single-group, crossover clinical trial. METHODS Twenty subjects with aqueous deficient dry eye were enrolled. Subjects meeting inclusion criteria at visit 1 and were exposed to a baseline 90-minute low humidity environment at visit 2. They then used artificial tears for 2 weeks prior to low humidity exposure at visit 3, followed by 0.1% dexamethasone for two weeks prior to the final low humidity exposure at visit 4. Outcome measures included corneal and conjunctival staining, blink rate and irritation symptoms before and after each low humidity exposure. Digital polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to measure HLA-DR RNA transcripts in conjunctival cells taken by impression cytology at each visit. RESULTS There was significantly less corneal and conjunctival epitheliopathy after the low humidity exposure at visit 4 compared to after the low humidity exposure at visit 3 (p= 0.003). Subjects reported significantly less eye irritation during the low humidity exposure after using the dexamethasone (visit 4) compared to artificial tears (visit 3) (p=0.01). HLA-DR transcripts significantly decreased after the stress at visit 4 (post dexamethasone) compared to visit 2. CONCLUSION Our study demonstrates corticosteroid eye drops mitigate the acute adverse effects of an experimental low humidity challenge, likely due to suppression of stress-activated inflammatory pathways. While extended use of corticosteroids is not indicated, other anti-inflammatory therapies with activity against stress-activated pathways may prove as effective. PMID:25868759

  14. The Prospective Health Assessment of Cataract Patients’ Ocular Surface (PHACO study: the effect of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trattler WB

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available William B Trattler,1 Parag A Majmudar,2 Eric D Donnenfeld,3 Marguerite B McDonald,4 Karl G Stonecipher,5 Damien F Goldberg6 On behalf of the PHACO Study Group 1Center for Excellence in Eye Care, Miami, FL, USA; 2Chicago Cornea Consultants, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Garden City, NY, USA; 4Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island, Lynbrook, NY, USA; 5University North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Wolstan & Goldberg Eye Associates, Torrance, CA, USA Purpose: To determine the incidence and severity of dry eye as determined by the International Task Force (ITF scale in patients being screened for cataract surgery.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, multi-center, observational study of 136 patients, at least 55 years of age, who were scheduled to undergo cataract surgery. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of dry eye as evaluated by grade on the ITF scale and secondary outcome measures include tear break-up time (TBUT, ocular surface disease index score, corneal staining with fluorescein, conjunctival staining with lissamine green, and a patient questionnaire to evaluate symptoms of dry eye.Results: Mean patient age was 70.7 years. A total of 73.5% of patients were Caucasian and 50% were female. Almost 60% had never complained of a foreign body sensation; only 13% complained of a foreign body sensation half or most of the time. The majority of patients (62.9% had a TBUT ≤5 seconds, 77% of eyes had positive corneal staining and 50% of the eyes had positive central corneal staining. Eighteen percent had Schirmer’s score with anesthesia ≤5 mm.Conclusion: The incidence of dry eye in patients scheduled to undergo cataract surgery in a real-world setting is higher than anticipated. Keywords: cataract surgery screening, dry eye, International Task Force scale, observational study

  15. Protozoal infections of the cornea and conjunctiva in dogs associated with chronic ocular surface disease and topical immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith-Cohen, Billie; Gasper, David J; Bentley, Ellison; Gittelman, Howard; Ellis, Angela E; Snowden, Karen F; Shock, Barbara C; Yabsley, Michael J; Dubielzig, Richard R

    2016-05-01

    To describe five cases of protozoal keratitis or conjunctivitis in dogs with chronic preexisting ocular surface disease treated with long-term immunosuppression. Five dogs that developed corneal or conjunctival mass lesions. The database of the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin was searched for canine cases diagnosed with corneal or conjunctival protozoal infection. Five cases were identified, and tissues were examined using routine and special histochemical stains: immunohistochemical labels for Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Leishmania spp., and tissue sample PCR for Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, tissue coccidia (i.e., T. gondii/Sarcocystis/Neospora), piroplasms, trichomonads, and Acanthamoeba. Electron microscopy was performed for two cases, and serology for N. caninum and T. gondii was available for three cases. Preexisting ocular diseases included keratoconjunctivitis sicca and pigmentary keratitis (n = 4) and pyogranulomatous meibomian adenitis (n = 1). All dogs were treated with tacrolimus or cyclosporine for at least 1.2 years. Dogs were presented with fleshy corneal or conjunctival masses that were clinically suspected to be neoplastic (n = 4) or immune mediated (n = 1). Histologic examination revealed granulomatous inflammation with intralesional protozoal organisms. Amoeba (n = 2), T. gondii (n = 2), or Leishmania mexicana (n = 1) were identified using molecular techniques. Serological tests were negative. Protozoal keratitis and conjunctivitis without systemic involvement appears rare and may be associated with chronic preexisting ocular surface disease treated with long-term immunosuppression. Based upon clinical appearance, lesions could be confused with neoplasia. This is the first report of amoebic keratoconjunctivitis in dogs and of L. mexicana in dogs in the United States. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Transport and interaction of cosmetic product material within the ocular surface: beauty and the beastly symptoms of toxic tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Adeela; Claoué, Charles

    2012-12-01

    Eye cosmetics such as mascara, eye shadow and eyeliner are used extensively to highlight the eyes, and are normally applied external to the ocular surface. Adverse reactions of cosmetics within the ocular surface include mild discomfort, eyelid dermatitis, pre-corneal tear film instability, and keratitis. These are attributed mainly to the preservative (benzalkonium chloride (BAC)) constituent of cosmetic product material (CPM). Transport of CPM from an external environment to any location on the ocular surface, essentially precedes the adverse interactions occurring at the location, and the control of these transport modes is therefore of clinical relevance. The inter-transport of CPM across the TF occurs due to both diffusion and drift processes. Diffusion of neutral species is driven by concentration gradients, and the drift of cationic BAC is influenced by the inherent electric field; determined by the distribution of the various ions secreted into the aqueous layer, and the negative glycocalyx charge at the mucin layer. In the presence of mucin deficiency, the corneal epithelium is exposed to invasion by both incident BAC and lipophilic species. The transport of cationic BAC across the TF may be controlled by regulating the secretion of various electrolytes at the lacrimal gland. This is of clinical significance in reducing corneal epithelial adverse effects. However, the risks of adverse effects at the corneal surface due to invasion by the lipophilic species remain. Patients with mucin deficiency, and especially those on eye ointment/drops medication, should be discouraged from using cosmetics in a way likely to contaminate the TF. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Ocular Surface and How It Can Influence the Outcomes of Keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Sarah; Reitsamer, Herbert; Ruckhofer, Josef; Grabner, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Severe ocular diseases may result in partial or complete limbal cell deficiency. Besides conservative options, treatment options include conjunctival replacement procedures and limbal autografting. Limbal allografts are an option in patients with bilateral limbal cell deficiency. In many of these cases, a keratoprosthesis (KPro) is the last option to restore functional vision in patients with severe corneal blindness with no other options.

  18. Human Ocular Infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an Area Endemic for Canine Dirofilariasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Brianti, Emanuele; Gaglio, Gabriella; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Azzaro, Salvatore; Giannetto, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D. repens in a given area has never been demonstrated. The uneven distribution of D. repens in provinces in Sicily, Italy represented the foundation for this study. We report a human case of ocular infection with D. repens from Trapani Province, where canine dirofilariasis is endemic. The nematode was morphologically and molecularly identified and surgical removal of the parasite was documented. The relationship between the prevalence of D. repens in dogs and the occurrence of human cases of ocular dirofilariasis is discussed on the basis of a review of the historical literature. PMID:21633041

  19. Presence or absence of ocular surface inflammation directs clinical and therapeutic management of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambursky R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert Sambursky Coastal Eye Institute, Cornea and Comprehensive Ophthalmology, Bradenton, FL, USA Background: The presence of clinically significant inflammation has been confirmed in the tears of 40%–65% of patients with symptoms of dry eye. Ocular surface inflammation may lead to tear film instability, epithelial cell irregularities, and permeability, resulting in chronic symptomatic pain and fluctuating vision as well as negative surgical outcomes.Patients and methods: A retrospective single center medical chart review of 100 patients was conducted. All patients were tested with the InflammaDry test to determine if patients exhibited elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9. InflammaDry-positive patients were started on a combination of cyclosporine 0.05% twice daily, 2,000–4,000 mg oral omega-3 fatty acids, and frequent artificial tear replacement. InflammaDry-negative patients were started on 2,000–4,000 mg of oral omega-3 fatty acids and frequent artificial tear replacement. Each patient was retested at ~90 days. A symptom questionnaire was performed at the initial visit and at 90 days.Results: 60% of the patients with dry eye symptoms tested positive for elevated MMP-9 at the initial visit. 78% of all patients returned for follow-up at ~90 days including 80% (48/60 of the previously InflammaDry-positive patients and 75% (30/40 of the previously InflammaDry-negative patients. A follow-up symptom questionnaire reported at least 75% symptomatic improvement in 65% (31/48 of the originally InflammaDry-positive patients and in 70% (21/30 of the initially InflammaDry-negative patients. Symptomatic improvement of at least 50% was reported in 85% (41/48 of previously InflammaDry-positive patients and 86% (26/30 of previously InflammaDry-negative patients. Following treatment, 54% (26/48 of previously InflammaDry-positive patients converted to a negative InflammaDry result.Conclusion: Identifying which symptomatic dry eye

  20. THERAPEUTIC EYELIDS HYGIENE IN THE ALGORITHMS OF PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF OCULAR SURFACE DISEASES. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Trubilin

    2016-01-01

    problem of modern ophthalmology.Part 1 — Trubilin VN, Poluninа EG, Kurenkov VV, Kapkova SG, Markova EY, Therapeutic eyelids hygiene in the algorithms of prevention and treatment of ocular surface diseases. Ophthalmology in Russia. 2016;13(2:122–127 doi: 10.18008/1816–5095– 2016–2–122–127

  1. Effective melanin depigmentation of human and murine ocular tissues: an improved method for paraffin and frozen sections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Manicam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The removal of excessive melanin pigments that obscure ocular tissue morphology is important to address scientific questions and for differential diagnosis of ocular tumours based on histology. Thus, the goal of the present study was to establish an effective and fast melanin bleaching method for paraffin and frozen mouse and human ocular tissues. METHODS: Paraffin-embedded and frozen ocular specimens from mice and human donors were subjected to bleaching employing two methods. The first employed potassium permanganate (KMnO4 with oxalic acid, and the second 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2. To determine optimal bleaching conditions, depigmentation was carried out at various incubation times. The effect of diluents used for 10% H2O2 was assessed using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, and deionized water. Three different slide types and two fixatives, which were ice-cold acetone with 80% methanol, and 4% paraformaldehyde (PFA were used to determine the optimal conditions for better tissue adherence during bleaching. All tissues were stained in hematoxylin and eosin for histological evaluation. RESULTS: Optimal bleaching was achieved using warm 10% H2O2 diluted in PBS at 65°C for 120 minutes. Chromium-gelatin-coated slides prevented tissue detachment. Adherence of cryosections was also improved with post-fixation using 4% PFA and overnight air-drying at RT after cryosectioning. Tissue morphology was preserved under these conditions. Conversely, tissues bleached in KMnO4/oxalic acid demonstrated poor depigmentation with extensive tissue damage. CONCLUSIONS: Warm dilute H2O2 at 65°C for 120 minutes rapidly and effectively bleached both cryo- and paraffin sections of murine and human ocular tissues.

  2. Migration of limbal melanocytes onto the central cornea after ocular surface reconstruction: an in vivo confocal microscopic case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsin-Wei; Hu, Fung-Rong; Wang, I-Jong; Hou, Yu-Chih; Chen, Wei-Li

    2010-02-01

    To report the in vivo confocal microscopic findings of migrated melanocytes onto the central cornea in a patient with Stevens-Johnson syndrome who received ocular surface reconstruction by amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT). Single interventional case report. A 37-year-old man presented with bilateral symblepharon because of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Release of the bilateral symblepharon with AMT on the bare sclera was performed. Three weeks after the surgery, slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the right eye revealed patchy brown pigmentation on the surface of the cornea and the amniotic membrane transplanted to the bare sclera. In vivo confocal microscopy of the affected cornea revealed abnormal basal epithelial cells with hyperreflective nuclei and loss of cellular borders. Multiple dendritiform cells, which appeared to be melanocytes, were distributed mainly on the corneal basal epithelial layer and superficial stroma. The number of the migrated melanocytes gradually decreased over 6 months of observation. Melanocytes can migrate into the central cornea after reconstruction of the ocular surface with AMT. In vivo confocal microscopy can be a useful tool to observe these changes.

  3. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Fornos, Angelica; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; Stokroos, Robert; Micera, Silvestro; Kingma, Herman; Pelizzone, Marco; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

  4. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ePerez Fornos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR, the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

  5. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt Dienes

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients.Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar drops.In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05.Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment.

  6. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Lóránt; Kiss, Huba J.; Perényi, Kristóf; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Zoltán Z.; Barsi, Árpád; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients. Methods Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years) with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years) without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT) in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar) drops. Results In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05). Conclusion Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment. PMID:26302222

  7. Modulation of ocular surface glycocalyx barrier function by a galectin-3 N-terminal deletion mutant and membrane-anchored synthetic glycopolymers.

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    Jerome Mauris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interaction of transmembrane mucins with the multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 is critical to maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface epithelial glycocalyx. This study aimed to determine whether disruption of galectin-3 multimerization and insertion of synthetic glycopolymers in the plasma membrane could be used to modulate glycocalyx barrier function in corneal epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Abrogation of galectin-3 biosynthesis in multilayered cultures of human corneal epithelial cells using siRNA, and in galectin-3 null mice, resulted in significant loss of corneal barrier function, as indicated by increased permeability to the rose bengal diagnostic dye. Addition of β-lactose, a competitive carbohydrate inhibitor of galectin-3 binding activity, to the cell culture system, transiently disrupted barrier function. In these experiments, treatment with a dominant negative inhibitor of galectin-3 polymerization lacking the N-terminal domain, but not full-length galectin-3, prevented the recovery of barrier function to basal levels. As determined by fluorescence microscopy, both cellobiose- and lactose-containing glycopolymers incorporated into apical membranes of corneal epithelial cells, independently of the chain length distribution of the densely glycosylated, polymeric backbones. Membrane incorporation of cellobiose glycopolymers impaired barrier function in corneal epithelial cells, contrary to their lactose-containing counterparts, which bound to galectin-3 in pull-down assays. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that galectin-3 multimerization and surface recognition of lactosyl residues is required to maintain glycocalyx barrier function at the ocular surface. Transient modification of galectin-3 binding could be therapeutically used to enhance the efficiency of topical drug delivery.

  8. Modulation of Ocular Surface Glycocalyx Barrier Function by a Galectin-3 N-terminal Deletion Mutant and Membrane-Anchored Synthetic Glycopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauris, Jerome; Mantelli, Flavio; Woodward, Ashley M.; Cao, Ziyhi; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Godula, Kamil; Argüeso, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Interaction of transmembrane mucins with the multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 is critical to maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface epithelial glycocalyx. This study aimed to determine whether disruption of galectin-3 multimerization and insertion of synthetic glycopolymers in the plasma membrane could be used to modulate glycocalyx barrier function in corneal epithelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Abrogation of galectin-3 biosynthesis in multilayered cultures of human corneal epithelial cells using siRNA, and in galectin-3 null mice, resulted in significant loss of corneal barrier function, as indicated by increased permeability to the rose bengal diagnostic dye. Addition of β-lactose, a competitive carbohydrate inhibitor of galectin-3 binding activity, to the cell culture system, transiently disrupted barrier function. In these experiments, treatment with a dominant negative inhibitor of galectin-3 polymerization lacking the N-terminal domain, but not full-length galectin-3, prevented the recovery of barrier function to basal levels. As determined by fluorescence microscopy, both cellobiose- and lactose-containing glycopolymers incorporated into apical membranes of corneal epithelial cells, independently of the chain length distribution of the densely glycosylated, polymeric backbones. Membrane incorporation of cellobiose glycopolymers impaired barrier function in corneal epithelial cells, contrary to their lactose-containing counterparts, which bound to galectin-3 in pull-down assays. Conclusions/Significance These results indicate that galectin-3 multimerization and surface recognition of lactosyl residues is required to maintain glycocalyx barrier function at the ocular surface. Transient modification of galectin-3 binding could be therapeutically used to enhance the efficiency of topical drug delivery. PMID:23977277

  9. Bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia with bilateral periocular basal cell carcinoma in a case of xeroderma pigmentosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rohit; Chawla, Bhavna; Asif, Mohamed Ibrahime; Pujari, Amar

    2017-12-02

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous manifestations.We discuss a unique case of XP having bilateral ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) and periocular basal cell carcinoma. In the right eye, a large OSSN mass involving the ocular surface extensively along with intraocular invasion was noted, whereas in the left eye, the tumour mass was involving the limbus, and extending up to three clock hours. Because of extensive disease in the right eye, orbital exenteration was performed, and for the left eye, a wide excision of the mass with triple freeze thaw cryo application to the margins followed by amniotic membrane grafting was done. Basal cell carcinoma was noted around the medial canthus on both sides. The right-sided basal cell carcinoma was treated by wide excision followed by a forehead rotation flap and the left-sided lesion was managed with topical 5% imiquimod cream. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Primary Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation Along With Excisional Biopsy in the Management of Extensive Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Vikas; Narang, Purvasha; Menon, Vikas; Mittal, Ruchi; Honavar, Santosh

    2016-12-01

    To describe the utility of simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) along with tumor excision in the management of extensive ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) to avoid limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). This case report describes the management of a 75-year-old man clinically diagnosed with OSSN involving more than 3 quadrants of limbus. The excisional biopsy of tumor along with 4-mm healthy margin led to a complete loss of the limbus, which was restored by limbal epithelial cell transplantation using the SLET technique in the same setting. The tumor was found adherent to the episclera in the superotemporal quadrant and required episcleral and superficial lamellar scleral dissection. The entire tumor could be excised, and complete reepithelialization of the cornea was seen within 2 weeks. Histopathology showed tumor cells infiltrating the stroma and base of the excision biopsy, suggesting invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The excised margins were tumor free. To prevent recurrence, the patient underwent radiotherapy (plaque brachytherapy). After a follow-up period of 2 years, a successful outcome in the form of a stable ocular surface, no tumor recurrence, and no signs of LSCD was achieved in our patient. Restoration of limbal stem cells using SLET technique in an extensive OSSN in the primary setting may be pertinent to a good outcome.

  11. Clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries

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    Fen-Dui Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on early ocular surface reconstruction after thermal or chemical injuries. METHODS: Seventy-eight cases with thermal or chemical injuries to eyes were selected and divided into two groups by randomized, double-blind, positive drug parallel controlled method: group A(40 cases were treated with vitamin A palmitate eye geland group B \\〖38 cases were treated with basic fibroblast growth factor(bFGF\\〗. The bFGF and vitamin A palmitate eye gel were used 4 times a day. The treatment course was 14d. Restoration of epithelial defect, Schirmer's test values, tear break-up time(BUT, and subjective assessment of symptoms and signs were observed on D1, D3, D5, D7, D10 and D14.RESULTS: In group A, 31 cases were cured, 5 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 76% and efficiency 90%. In group B, 32 cases were cured, 3 cases were effective, with the cure rate of 84% and efficiency 92%. There were no significant differences between the two groups(P>0.05. However, there were significant differences on the results of Schirmer's test and BUT(PPCONCLUSION: Vitamin A palmitate eye gel is valuable and safe on early ocular surface reconstruction of the eyes suffered from thermal or chemical injuries.

  12. Effect of hypotonic 0.18% sodium hyaluronate eyedrops on inflammation of the ocular surface in experimental dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Han Jin; Li, Zhengri; Park, Soo-Hyun; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the efficacy of hypotonic 0.18% sodium hyaluronate (SH) eyedrops in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). EDE was induced in C57BL/6 mice by a subcutaneous scopolamine injection and an air draft. The mice were divided into 4 groups according to topical treatment regimens: EDE control, isotonic 0.5% carboxymethycellulose (CMC), isotonic 0.1% SH, and hypotonic 0.18% SH. Tear volume, corneal smoothness, and corneal staining scores were measured at 5 and 10 days of EDE. Multiplex immunobead assay, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry for proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory molecules were performed at 10 days of EDE. The 0.18% SH group had a significantly lower corneal smoothness and staining scores than the 0.5% CMC and 0.1% SH groups at 10 days of EDE (PHypotonic 0.18% SH eyedrops are more effective in improving ocular surface irregularity and staining and decreasing inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and cells on the ocular surface compared with isotonic 0.5% CMC or 0.1% SH eyedrops in the treatment of EDE.

  13. The Effect of Tear Supplementation with 0.15% Preservative-Free Zinc-Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Sensations in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perényi, Kristóf; Dienes, Lóránt; Kornafeld, Anna; Kovács, Balázs; Kiss, Huba J; Szepessy, Zsuzsanna; Nagy, Zoltán Z; Barsi, Árpád; Acosta, M Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    To evaluate the effect of tear supplementation with preservative free 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate on ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity in dry eye patients. Ocular surface sensations were assessed using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire and by recording ocular sensations during forced blinking in parallel with noninvasive tear film breakup time measurement in 20 eyes of 20 dry eye patients. Corneal sensitivity thresholds to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, thermal- and chemical receptors were measured using the Belmonte gas esthesiometer. All baseline measurements were repeated after 1 month of treatment with 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate. After 1 month, a significant decrease in mean OSDI score (from 35.66 ± 12.36 to 15.03 ± 11.22; P tear film breakup time (from 3.83 ± 0.80 to 8.67 ± 4.50 s; P  0.05). Prolonged use of 0.15% zinc-hyaluronate results in an improvement of tear film stability and a decrease of dry eye complaints. The decrease in corneal mechano-and polymodal receptor excitability suggests that zinc-hyaluronate helps to recover normal corneal sensitivity, and thus might have a beneficial additional effect on reducing ocular surface complaints in dry eye patients.

  14. Correlation of corneal thickness, endothelial cell density and anterior chamber depth with ocular surface temperature in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattmöller, Johanna; Wang, Jiong; Zemova, Elena; Seitz, Berthold; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim; Szentmáry, Nóra

    2015-09-01

    To analyze corneal surface temperature profile in a young and healthy study population and to determine the impact of corneal thickness (CT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and endothelial cell density (ECD) on surface temperature. In this prospective, single-center study 61 healthy right eyes of 61 subjects without tear film pathologies (mean age 24.9 ± 6.7 years) were recruited. Ocular surface temperature (OST) was measured with the Ocular Surface Thermographer TG-1000. From Pentacam HR CT and ACD, and from specular microscopy ECD and central corneal thickness (CCT) were acquired. From the raw measurement data (OST, CT and ACD) we extracted a) local OST the corneal center and 3mm away from the center at the 3, 6, and 9 o'clock positions, and b) Zernike parameters Z1, Z2 and Z3 to evaluate the general temperature profile within a 6mm circular area around the center. Overall, there was no correlation between OST and CT, ACD or ECD. Local OST did not correlate with CT at any measurement position. On average local OST was highest at measurement positions where CT was lowest, but without reaching statistical significance. Baseline OST was highest at thin corneal regions and temperature decay over time was smallest in those regions. Z1, Z2 and Z3 correlated well with CT. In healthy subjects corneal thickness, endothelial cell density and anterior chamber depth have no effect on corneal surface temperature. The general temperature profile seems to be influenced by the corneal thickness profile effecting a higher temperature and lower decay at thinner corneal regions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  15. Correlations among ocular surface temperature difference value, the tear meniscus height, Schirmer's test and fluorescein tear film break up time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tai Yuan; Ho, Wei Ting; Lu, Chien Yi; Chang, Shu Wen; Chiang, Huihua Kenny

    2015-04-01

    To report the use of a thermographer for measuring ocular surface temperature, and to evaluate the correlation among the obtained temperature difference values (TDVs) and dry eye parameters (tear meniscus height (TMH); Schirmer's test results; fluorescent tear breakup time (FTBUT)). Forty-three participants (age 40.2±14.7 years; range 21-67 years) from Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, Taiwan were recruited for the study. The surface temperature was measured at the centre of the ocular surface for 4 s after blinking. TDV was defined as the change in corneal surface temperature relative to that of the preceding eye opening, where TDV01, TDV02, TDV03, and TDV04 represent the values obtained 1, 2, 3, and 4 s after blinking, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) was employed to measure the lower TMH. Schirmer's test with topical anaesthetic was conducted to measure the basal tear secretion. The FTBUT was recorded using a digital camera. TDV measurement exhibited high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.91). TDV03 exhibited the highest significance and strongest positive correlation with the TMH (r=0.52, p=0.0003) and Schirmer's test value (r=0.39, p=0.008), whereas the TDV03-FTBUT correlation was non-significant. Age correlated negatively and significantly with the TDV (r= -0.35, p=0.021), TMH (r= -0.33, p=0.031), and Schirmer's test value (r= -0.31, p=0.044). TDV03 remained significantly correlated with the TMH and Schirmer's test value after adjustment for age. The thermographer was effective in capturing temperature changes in the ocular surface. The temperature difference 3 s after blinking appears to be correlated with lower TMH and Schirmer test values. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Among ocular vector-borne pathogens, Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of the so-called “river blindness”, affects about 37 million people globally. Other Onchocerca spp. have been sporadically reported as zoonotic agents. Cases of canine onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi are on the rise in the United States and Europe. Its zoonotic role has been suspected but only recently ascertained in a single case from Turkey. The present study provides further evidence on the occurrence of O. lupi infesting human eyes in two patients from Turkey (case 1) and Tunisia (case 2). The importance of obtaining a correct sample collection and preparation of nematodes infesting human eyes is highlighted. Methods In both cases the parasites were identified with morpho-anatomical characters at the gross examination, histological analysis and anatomical description and also molecularly in case 1. Results The nematode from the first case was obviously O. lupi based on their morphology at the gross examination, histological analysis and anatomical description. In the second case, although the diagnostic cuticular characters were not completely developed, other features were congruent with the identification of O. lupi. Furthermore, the morphological identification was also molecularly confirmed in the Turkish case. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that O. lupi infestation is not an occasional finding but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other zoonotic helminths causing eye infestation in humans (e.g., D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens). Both cases came from areas where no cases of canine onchocerciasis were previously reported in the literature, suggesting that an in depth appraisal of the infestation in canine populations is necessary. Physicians and ophthalmologists are advised on how to preserve nematode samples recovered surgically, to allow a definitive, correct etiological diagnosis. PMID:22541132

  17. Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among ocular vector-borne pathogens, Onchocerca volvulus, the agent of the so-called “river blindness”, affects about 37 million people globally. Other Onchocerca spp. have been sporadically reported as zoonotic agents. Cases of canine onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi are on the rise in the United States and Europe. Its zoonotic role has been suspected but only recently ascertained in a single case from Turkey. The present study provides further evidence on the occurrence of O. lupi infesting human eyes in two patients from Turkey (case 1 and Tunisia (case 2. The importance of obtaining a correct sample collection and preparation of nematodes infesting human eyes is highlighted. Methods In both cases the parasites were identified with morpho-anatomical characters at the gross examination, histological analysis and anatomical description and also molecularly in case 1. Results The nematode from the first case was obviously O. lupi based on their morphology at the gross examination, histological analysis and anatomical description. In the second case, although the diagnostic cuticular characters were not completely developed, other features were congruent with the identification of O. lupi. Furthermore, the morphological identification was also molecularly confirmed in the Turkish case. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that O. lupi infestation is not an occasional finding but it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of other zoonotic helminths causing eye infestation in humans (e.g., D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens. Both cases came from areas where no cases of canine onchocerciasis were previously reported in the literature, suggesting that an in depth appraisal of the infestation in canine populations is necessary. Physicians and ophthalmologists are advised on how to preserve nematode samples recovered surgically, to allow a definitive, correct etiological diagnosis.

  18. Absence of acute ocular damage in humans after prolonged exposure to intense RF EMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibzadeh, F.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Verduijn, G. M.; Naus-Postema, N. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    The eye is considered to be a critical organ when determining safety standards for radio frequency (RF) radiation. Experimental data obtained using animals showed that RF heating of the eye, particularly over a specific threshold, can induce cataracts. During the treatment of cancer in the head and neck by hyperthermia, the eyes receive a considerable dose of RF radiation due to stray radiation from the prolonged (60 min) and intense exposure at 434 MHz of this region. In the current study, we verified the exposure guidelines for humans by determining the association between the electromagnetic and thermal dose in the eyes with the reported ocular effects. We performed a simulation study to retrospectively assess the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature increase in the eyes of 16 selected patients (encompassing a total of 74 treatment sessions) whose treatment involved high power delivery as well as a minimal distance between the tumor site and the eye. Our results show that the basic restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (10 W kg-1) and peak tissue temperature increase (1 °C) are exceeded by up to 10.4 and 4.6 times, on average, and by at least 6.2 and 1.8 times when considering the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval. Evaluation of the acute effects according to patients’ feedback (all patients), the common toxicity criteria scores (all patients) and an ophthalmology investigation (one patient with the highest exposure) revealed no indication of any serious acute ocular effect, even though the eyes were exposed to high electromagnetic fields, leading to a high thermal dose. We also found that, although there is a strong correlation (R 2  =  0.88) between the predicted induced SAR and temperature in the eye, there are large uncertainties regarding the temperature-SAR relationship. Given this large uncertainty (129%) compared with the uncertainty of 3D temperature simulations (61%), we recommend using temperature

  19. Human ocular-derived virus-specific CD4+ T cells control Varicella zoster virus replication in human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Milikan (Johannes); G.S. Baarsma (Seerp); R.W.A.M. Kuijpers (Robert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); G.M.G.M. Verjans (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. Varicella zoster virus (VZV)-induced retinitis is characterized by the presence of virus-infected cells in the retinal layer and the ocular infiltration of VZV-specific T cells. Herein, the susceptibility of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells to VZV infection and the

  20. Ocular Surface Reconstruction with Cultivated Limbal Epithelial Cells in Limbal Stem Cell Deficiency: One-year Follow-up Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmet Durak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the 1-year follow-up results of cultivated limbal epithelial cell (CLEC transplantation in unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD. Ma te ri al and Met hod: One-year follow-up results of five unilateral LSCD patients who had undergone CLEC transplantation were evaluated. Parameters for this evaluation were: fluorescein staining of ocular surface, corneal vascularization and status of epithelium with slit lamp, and visual acuity. 1.5-mm limbal biopsy was performed from the superior limbus of the healthy eyes, broke into two equal pieces, expanded on human amniotic membrane (hAM and inserts for 14 days until getting 20 mm in size. CLECs on hAMs were used directly, and cells on inserts were usedafter detachment procedure. The symblepharon and pannus tissues were removed, superficial keratectomy was performed. CLEC on hAMs were transplanted with the epithelial side up onto the bare corneal stroma, sutured to the conjunctiva with 10-0 nylon sutures. Free CLEC layer from insert was placed on hAM as a second layer, additional hAM was used as a protective layer all over other tissues. Re sults: Median age was 44.4 years (14-71. The etiology was chemical burn in all patients. Median duration of symptoms was 10 years (2-18, median follow-up period was 12.6 (12-12.5 months. Preoperative best corrected visual acuities (BCVA were light perception in three patients, counting fingers at 50 cm in one patient and 3/10 in one patient. Visions were improved in all patients. Postoperative BCVA 12 months after the surgery were between counting fingers at 3 meters to 6/10. There was a temporary hemorrhage between the two layers of hAMs in one patient at the early postoperative period. Peripheral corneal vascularization has occurred in three patients, in patient corneal vascularization has reached to the paracentral area. Dis cus si on: CLEC transplantation is an efficient treatment option for unilateral LSCD in mid-long term. (Turk J

  1. The Effect of Low-Dose Aspirin on Dry Eye Parameters and Ocular Surface Disease Index Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazıcı, Alper; Sarı, Esin; Ayhan, Erkan; Şahin, Gözde; Tıskaoğlu, Nesime Setge; Gürbüzer, Taha; Kurt, Hüseyin; Ermiş, Sıtkı Samet

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) on tear film parameters and dry eye disease. Fifty-seven patients using low-dose aspirin regularly for antiaggregant purposes as well as 49 controls, who required antiaggregant treatment but who had not yet started, were included in the study. Tear osmolarity, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer and Oxford grading of ocular surface staining were performed on all patients and dry eye symptomatology was assessed using the ocular surface disease index questionnaire (OSDI). The mean osmolarity was 302.11 ± 16.22 mOsm/L in the aspirin group and 313.88 ± 19.57 mOsm/L in the control group (P < 0.01). The mean Schirmer's score was 24.16 ± 10.52 mm and 21.94 ± 10.11 mm (P = 0.232), TBUT was 13.61 ± 3.31 s and 10.39 ± 4.46 s (P < 0.01), OSDI score was 5.15 ± 5.98 and 16.94 ± 14.17 (P < 0.01), and Oxford score was 0.12 ± 0.33 and 0.12 ± 0.44 in aspirin and control groups, respectively (P = 0.99). Dry eye diagnosis was lower in the aspirin group, but statistical significance was present only in TBUT and osmolarity-based dry eye diagnosis (P ≤ 0.01). In terms of symptom-based dry eye diagnosis with the threshold of OSDI ≥23, none of the aspirin group had dry eye diagnosis, whereas 32.6% of the control group had the diagnosis (P < 0.01). The use of low-dose aspirin might be great option for treatment of ocular surface inflammatory disease through increasing TBUT and decreasing tear osmolarity with a resultant symptomatic satisfaction.

  2. Simple Limbal Epithelial Transplantation: Long-Term Clinical Outcomes in 125 Cases of Unilateral Chronic Ocular Surface Burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Sayan; Sureka, Shraddha P; Shanbhag, Swapna S; Kethiri, Abhinav R; Singh, Vivek; Sangwan, Virender S

    2016-05-01

    This study describes the long-term clinical outcomes of autologous simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET), a relatively new technique of limbal stem cell transplantation. This was a single-center prospective interventional cases series. This study included 125 patients, 65 adults and 60 children who developed unilateral limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) after suffering with ocular surface burns and underwent SLET between 2010 and 2014. A 1-clock hour limbal biopsy sample was obtained from the unaffected eye. At the same sitting, the recipient eye was surgically prepared and the donor tissue was divided into small pieces and transplanted using an amniotic membrane scaffold with fibrin glue. The diagnosis and outcome in every case was validated by 5 independent masked assessors. The primary outcome measure was restoration of a completely epithelized, stable, and avascular corneal surface. The secondary outcome measure was improvement in visual acuity. Complications, risk factors for failure, and immunohistochemistry analysis of corneas that underwent SLET also were described. At a median postoperative follow-up of 1.5 years (range, 1-4 years), 95 of 125 eyes (76%; 95% confidence interval, 68.5%-83.5%) maintained a successful outcome. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a comparable survival probability at 1 year of 80% in adults and 72% in children (P = 0.304). Two-line improvement in visual acuity was seen in 75.2%, and 67% of successful cases attained 20/60 or better vision (P ocular surface burns. Simple limbal epithelial transplantation is probably preferable to other techniques of limbal stem cell transplantation, particularly where cell cultivation facilities are unavailable. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 bacterial ghosts retain crucial surface properties and express chlamydial antigen: an imaging study of a delivery system for the ocular surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montanaro J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jacqueline Montanaro,1 Aleksandra Inic-Kanada,1 Angela Ladurner,1 Elisabeth Stein,1 Sandra Belij,1 Nora Bintner,1 Simone Schlacher,1 Nadine Schuerer,1 Ulrike Beate Mayr,2 Werner Lubitz,2 Nikolaus Leisch,3 Talin Barisani-Asenbauer11Laura Bassi Centres of Expertise, OCUVAC – Centre of Ocular Inflammation and Infection, Centre for Pathophysiology, Infectiology, and Immunology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 2BIRD-C GmbH & Co KG, Kritzendorf, Austria; 3Department of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: To target chronic inflammatory ocular surface diseases, a drug delivery platform is needed that is safe, possesses immunomodulatory properties, and can be used either for drug delivery, or as a foreign antigen carrier. A new therapeutic approach that we have previously proposed uses nonliving bacterial ghosts (BGs as a carrier-delivery system which can be engineered to carry foreign antigens and/or be loaded with therapeutic drugs. The parent strain chosen for development of our BG delivery system is the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN, whose intrinsic properties trigger the innate immune system with the flagella and fimbriae used to attach and stimulate epithelial cells. In previous studies, we have shown that EcN BGs are safe for the ocular surface route, but evidence that EcN BGs retain flagella and fimbriae after transformation, has never been visually confirmed. In this study, we used different visualization techniques to determine whether flagella and fimbriae are retained on EcN BGs engineered either for drug delivery or as a foreign antigen carrier. We have also shown by immunoelectron microscopy that EcN retains two foreign antigens after processing to become EcN BGs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BGs derived from EcN and expressing a foreign antigen attachment to conjunctival epithelial cells in vitro without causing reduced cell viability. These results

  4. Citologia de impressão da superfície ocular: técnica de exame e de coloração Impression cytology of the ocular surface: examination technique and staining procedure

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    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Apresentar uma técnica de exame e de coloração de amostras de citologia de impressão da superfície ocular desenvolvida em serviço de referência. Método: Obtiveram-se 28 amostras de citologia de impressão de pacientes com alterações da superfície ocular no Setor de Doenças Externas Oculares no período de julho a novembro de 1999. Coraram-se e avaliaram-se as amostras microscopicamente no Laboratório de Microbiologia Ocular, do Departamento de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo - Escola Paulista Medicina. Resultados: Desenvolveu-se um modelo de papel de filtro com ápice, base e abertura lateral, que forneceu seu posicionamento correto no olho no momento da colheita e na lâmina para a fixação e coloração. A técnica de coloração descrita, que usa ácido periódico-Schiff, hematoxilina e Papanicolaou, é um procedimento econômico e fácil, cora as células caliciformes de róseo e as epiteliais de roxo. Conclusões: A técnica de exame mostrou-se ideal na avaliação celular das amostras de citologia de impressão. A citologia de impressão é um método bastante confiável para o estudo da superfície ocular, no acompanhamento da evolução de patologias externas, e provou ser um procedimento realmente simples, mais barato e mais confortável para o paciente que as biópsias invasivas.Purpose: To present an examination technique and to standardize the staining procedure of samples of impression cytology of the ocular surface in a reference service. Methods: 28 samples of impression cytology were obtained from patients with ocular surfaces alterations of the External Eye Diseases Sector in the period of July to November 1999. They were stained and microscopically evaluated in the Ocular Microbiology Laboratory of the Federal University of São Paulo. Results: We developed a design of a filter paper with apex, base and lateral opening that promoted its adequate position both in the eye at collection

  5. The Usage of a Conjunctival Flap to Improve Retention of Boston Type 1 Keratoprosthesis in Severe Ocular Surface Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghrari, Allen O; Ahmad, Sumayya; Ramulu, Pradeep; Iliff, Nicholas T; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2016-10-01

    The Boston keratoprostheses type 1 devices (KPro) are utilized in cases unfavorable to penetrating keratoplasty. The prognosis remains guarded in cases of ocular surface disease due to risk of tissue necrosis. We describe a novel surgical approach using a conjunctival flap with a delayed opening to improve retention. In three patients with advanced cicatrizing conjunctivitis, a Type 1 keratoprosthesis was stabilized using a full tarsal conjunctival flap. Three months postoperatively, an opening was created in the flap overlying the optical portion of the device. All patients had no device related complications over a mean follow-up period of 17.7 months (range 15-21 months) and vision remained excellent at better than 20/200 for all patients. Utilization of a tarsal flap either primarily as part of a two stage modified technique or secondarily in cases of tissue necrosis and impending device extrusion might maximize retention of the type 1 KPro.

  6. Evaluation of the Tear Function Tests and the Ocular Surface in First-Time Users of Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz Tasci, Yelda; Gürdal, Canan; Sarac, Ozge; Onusever, Aykut

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of three different silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCL), (balafilcon A, senofilcon A, and comfilcon A) on tear function tests, corneal thickness, and ocular surface cytology in first time contact lens users. In this prospective study, 120 eyes of 60 subjects were evaluated. Balafilcon A users were designated as group 1, senofilcon A users as group 2, and comfilcon A users as group 3. In all cases, before and after 6 months of contact lens wear, ocular surface disease index score (OSDI), tear breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer 1 test, central corneal thickness (CCT), central corneal epithelium thickness (CCET), and conjunctival impression cytology samples were evaluated. In group 1, 40 eyes of the 20 patients, in group 2, 40 eyes of the 20 patients, and in group 3, 40 eyes of the 20 patients were evaluated. The mean OSDI scores did not differ between the three groups after contact lens wear (p > 0.05). In group 1 and group 2, significant decrease was found in the mean TBUT 6 months after contact lens wear (p = 0.04, p contact lens wear, the mean Schirmer 1 tear test was decreased significantly (p = 0.021). In all 3 groups, no significant change was observed in the mean CCT and CCET after contact lens wear (p > 0.05). After 6 months, the morphological changes in temporal and superior conjunctival epithelial cells were found to be significant in all groups (p < 0.001). Six months after SHCL wear, marked morphological changes occurred in the conjunctival epithelium. Tear function tests were also affected, while corneal thickness did not show any significant difference.

  7. Expression of Lipid Peroxidation Markers in the Tear Film and Ocular Surface of Patients with Non-Sjogren Syndrome: Potential Biomarkers for Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Lian, Cui; Ying, Li; Kim, Ga Eon; You, In Cheon; Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the expression of lipid peroxidation markers in the tear film and ocular surface and their correlation with disease severity in patients with dry eye disease. The concentrations of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL), 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), and malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in tears obtained from 44 patients with non-Sjogren syndrome dry eye and 33 control subjects. The correlations between the marker levels and the tear film and ocular surface parameters, including tear film break-up time (BUT), Schirmer tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, corneal sensitivity, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score, were analyzed. The expression of the lipid peroxidation markers HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA in the conjunctiva was evaluated using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of HEL, 4-HNE, and MDA were 279.84 ± 69.98 nmol/L, 0.02 ± 0.01 μg/mL, and 3.80 ± 1.05 pmol/mg in control subjects and 283.21 ± 89.67 nmol/L (p = 0.97), 0.20 ± 0.03 μg/mL (p tear value, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy scores, conjunctival goblet cell density, and symptom score (p tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye. The levels correlate with various tear film and ocular surface parameters and may reflect the severity of dry eye disease.

  8. Impact of oral vitamin D supplementation on the ocular surface in people with dry eye and/or low serum vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chih-Huang; Albietz, Julie; Harkin, Damien G; Kimlin, Michael G; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-09-11

    To determine the possible association between serum vitamin D levels and dry eye symptoms, and the impact of an oral vitamin D supplement. Three linked studies were performed. (i) 29 older adult participants, (ii) 29 dry eyed participants, and (iii) 2-month vitamin D supplementation for 32 dry eyed/low serum vitamin D levelled participants. All participants were assessed by the Ocular Surface Diseases Index (OSDI) to determine dry eye symptoms, and the phenol red thread test (PRT) and/or Schirmer's tear test, tear meniscus height, non-invasive tear break up time, grading ocular surface redness and fluorescein staining of the cornea to detect the tear quality and ocular surface conditions. Blood samples were collected for serum vitamin D analysis and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Among older adult participants, vitamin D levels were negatively correlated with dry eye symptoms, the severity of dry eye, and associated with tired eye symptom. Vitamin D levels of people with dry eye diagnosis were not correlated with OSDI scores and IL-6 levels; while IL-6 levels showed correlation with tear production. In supplement study, vitamin D levels increased by 29mol/l, while dry eye symptoms and grading of corneal staining appeared significant reductions. No significant changes in IL-6 levels. Low vitamin D levels (eye symptoms in older individuals but not those diagnosed with dry eye. Vitamin D supplement increased the vitamin D levels, and improved dry eye symptoms, the tear quality and ocular surface conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. In Vivo and Impression Cytology Study on the Effect of Compatible Solutes Eye Drops on the Ocular Surface Epithelial Cell Quality in Dry Eye Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Lanzini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate in vivo and ex vivo ocular surface alterations induced by dry eye disease and modification after osmoprotective therapy. Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients suffering from dry eye have been recruited. All patients received Optive (compatible solutes eye drops in one randomly selected eye and Hylogel (sodium hyaluronate 0,2% in the other. Follow-up included a baseline visit and further examination 30-, 60-, and 90-day intervals (which comprises clinical evaluation, in vivo confocal microscopy—IVCM—of the ocular surface, and conjunctival impression cytology. No significant difference in Schirmer I Test, TBUT, and vital staining results was observed during the follow-up period in both groups. IVCM showed in all patients an improvement of ocular surface epithelial morphology and signs of inflammation (oedema and keratocyte activation. However, these modifications were more evident in patients treated with Optive therapy. A significant reduction of the expression of MMP9 and IL6 in Optive group was observed during the follow-up period in comparison to Hylogel treatment. Our results show that in dry eye disease therapy based on osmoprotective eye drops determines a reduction of inflammatory activation of ocular surface, with consequent improvement of the quality of corneal and conjunctival epithelium.

  10. Volitional control of anticipatory ocular pursuit responses under stabilised image conditions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G; Goodbody, S; Collins, S

    1995-01-01

    Ocular pursuit responses have been examined in humans in three experiments in which the pursuit target image has been fully or partially stabilised on the fovea by feeding a recorded eye movement signal back to drive the target motion. The objective was to establish whether subjects could volitionally control smooth eye movement to reproduce trajectories of target motion in the absence of a concurrent target motion stimulus. In experiment 1 subjects were presented with a target moving with a triangular waveform in the horizontal axis with a frequency of 0.325 Hz and velocities of +/- 10-50 degrees/s. The target was illuminated twice per cycle for pulse durations (PD) of 160-640 ms as it passed through the centre position; otherwise subjects were in darkness. Subjects initially tracked the target motion in a conventional closed-loop mode for four cycles. Prior to the next target presentation the target image was stabilised on the fovea, so that any target motion generated resulted solely from volitional eye movement. Subjects continued to make anticipatory smooth eye movements both to the left and the right with a velocity trajectory similar to that observed in the closed-loop phase. Peak velocity in the stabilised-image mode was highly correlated with that in the prior closed-loop phase, but was slightly less (84% on average). In experiment 2 subjects were presented with a continuously illuminated target that was oscillated sinusoidally at frequencies of 0.2-1.34 Hz and amplitudes of +/- 5-20 degrees. After four cycles of closed-loop stimulation the image was stabilised on the fovea at the time of peak target displacement. Subjects continued to generate an oscillatory smooth eye velocity pattern that mimicked the sinusoidal motion of the previous closed-loop phase for at least three further cycles. The peak eye velocity generated ranged from 57-95% of that in the closed-loop phase at frequencies up to 0.8 Hz but decreased significantly at 1.34 Hz. In experiment 3

  11. Transmastoid galvanic stimulation does not affect the vergence-mediated gain increase of the human angular vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Americo A; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P

    2013-02-01

    Vergence is one of several viewing contexts that require an increase in the angular vestibular-ocular reflex (aVOR) response. A previous monkey study found that the vergence-mediated gain (eye/head velocity) increase of the aVOR was attenuated by 64 % when anodic currents, which preferentially lower the activity of irregularly firing vestibular afferents, were delivered to both labyrinths. We sought to determine whether there was similar evidence implicating a role for irregular afferents in the vergence-mediated gain increase of the human aVOR. Our study is based upon analysis of the aVOR evoked by head rotations, delivered passively while subjects viewed a near (15 cm) or far (124 cm) target and applying galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) via surface electrodes. We tested 12 subjects during 2-3 sessions each. Vestibular stimuli consisted of passive whole-body rotations (sinusoids from 0.05-3 Hz and 12-25°/s, and transients with peak ~15°, 50°/s, 500°/s(2)) and head-on-body impulses (peak ~30°, 150°/s, 3,000°/s(2)). GVS was on for 10 s every 20 s. All polarity combinations were tested, with emphasis on uni- and bi-lateral anodic inhibition. The average stimulus current was 5.9 ± 1.6 mA (range: 3-9.5 mA), vergence angle (during near viewing) was 22.6 ± 2.8° and slow-phase eye velocity caused by left anodic current stimulation with head stationary was -3.4 ± 1.1°/s, -0.2 ± 0.6°/s and 2.5 ± 1.4°/s (torsion, vertical, horizontal). No statistically significant GVS effects were observed, suggesting that surface electrode GVS has no effect on the vergence-mediated gain increase of the aVOR at the current levels (~6 mA) tolerated by most humans. We conclude that clinically practical transmastoid GVS does not effectively silence irregular afferents and hypothesize that currents >10 mA are needed to reproduce the monkey results.

  12. Coefficient of Friction Between Carboxymethylated Hyaluronic Acid-Based Polymer Films and the Ocular Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colter, Jourdan; Wirostko, Barbara; Coats, Brittany

    2017-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid-based polymer films are emerging as drug-delivery vehicles for local and continuous drug administration to the eye. The highly lubricating hyaluronic acid increases comfort, but displaces films from the eye, reducing drug exposure and efficacy. Previous studies have shown that careful control of the surface interaction of the film with the eye is critical for improved retention. In this study, the frictional interaction of a carboxymethylated, hyaluronic acid-based polymer (CMHA-S) with and without methylcellulose was quantified against ovine and human sclera at three axial loads (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7 N) and four sliding velocities (0.3, 1.0, 10, and 30 mm/s). Static coefficients of friction significantly increased with rate (P < 0.003), ranging between 0.18 ± 0.08 and 0.46 ± 0.13 for 0.3 to 30 mm/s, respectively. Friction became more rate-dependent when methylcellulose was added to CMHA-S. Kinetic coefficient of friction was not affected by rate, and averaged 0.15 ± 0.1. Methylcellulose increased CMHA-S static and kinetic friction by 60% and 80%, respectively, but was also prone to wear during testing. These data suggest that methylcellulose can be used to create a friction differential on the film, but a potentially increased degradation rate with the methylcellulose must be considered in the design.

  13. Characterization of ocular gland morphology and tear composition of pinnipeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher Davis, Robin; Doane, Marshall G; Knop, Erich; Knop, Nadja; Dubielzig, Richard R; Colitz, Carmen M H; Argüeso, Pablo; Sullivan, David A

    2013-07-01

    The importance of tear film integrity to ocular health in terrestrial mammals is well established, however, in marine mammals, the role of the tear film in protection of the ocular surface is not known. In an effort to better understand the function of tears in maintaining health of the marine mammal eye surface, we examined ocular glands of the California sea lion and began to characterize the biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds. Glands dissected from California sea lion eyelids and adnexa were examined for gross morphology, sectioned for microscopic analysis, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The tear film was examined using interferometry. Tears were collected from humans and pinnipeds for the analysis of protein and carbohydrate content. The sea lion has sebaceous glands in the lid, but these glands are different in size and orientation compared with typical meibomian glands of terrestrial mammals. Two other accessory ocular glands located dorsotemporally and medially appeared to be identical in morphology, with tubulo-acinar morphology. An outer lipid layer on the ocular surface of the sea lion was not detected using interferometry, consistent with the absence of typical meibomian glands. Similar to human tears, the tears of pinnipeds contain several proteins but the ratio of carbohydrate to protein was greater than that in human tears. Our findings indicate that the ocular gland architecture and biochemical nature of the tear film of pinnipeds have evolved to adapt to the challenges of an aquatic environment. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Alkali Burn of the Ocular Surface Associated With a Commonly Used Antifog Agent for Eyewear: Two Cases and a Review of Previous Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, John D; Pike, Evan C; Mauger, Thomas F

    2016-02-01

    To report 2 cases of ocular chemical burns associated with the use of a swim goggle antifog agent and to review the literature for this and similar antifog products. Case reports and systematic review of the medical literature, material safety data, product safety reports, and consumer reviews. Two males, one 46 years and the other 41 years, were referred to our clinic with chemical burns of the ocular surface after using the same goggle antifog agent while swimming in a triathlon. Both sustained significant epithelial defects. Fortunately, with prompt treatment, both of our patients returned to their baseline vision within a few weeks without suffering sight-threatening complications. These are the first cases of ocular chemical burn secondary to use of an eyewear antifog agent to be reported in the medical literature. Similar reports found in consumer forums suggest that our cases are not isolated and these products may have the potential to cause vision-threatening chemical burns.

  15. Early changes in ocular surface and tear inflammatory mediators after small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Gao

    Full Text Available To characterize the early ocular-surface changes or tear inflammatory-mediators levels following small-incision lenticule extraction (ReLEx smile and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK.Forty-seven myopic subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Fifteen underwent ReLEx smile and thirty-two underwent FS-LASIK. Corneal fluorescein (FL staining, tear break-up time (TBUT, Schirmer I test (SIT, ocular surface disease index (OSDI and central corneal sensitivity were evaluated in all participants. Tears were collected and analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, nerve growth factor (NGF and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 levels using multiplex magnetic beads. All measurements were preformed preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively.FL scores in ReLEx smile group were lower than those of FS-LASIK group 1 week postoperatively (P = 0.010. Compared to the FS-LASIK group, longer TBUT were observed in ReLEx smile group 1 month (P = 0.029 and 3 months (P = 0.045 postoperatively. No significant differences were found in tear secretion for the two groups (P>0.05. OSDI scores were higher in FS-LASIK group 1 month after surgery (P = 0.020. Higher central corneal sensitivity was observed in ReLEx smile group 1 week, 1 month and 3 months (P0.05. Moreover, IL-6 and NGF levels correlated with ocular surface changes after ReLEx smile or FS-LASIK.In the early postoperative period, ReLEx smile results in milder ocular surface changes than FS-LASIK. Furthermore, the tear inflammatory mediators IL-6 and NGF may play a crucial role in the ocular surface healing process following ReLEx smile and FS-LASIK.

  16. Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral device compared to keratoplasty for the treatment of corneal ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoss, Karen S; Fatteh, Nadeem H; Hood, Christopher T

    2014-11-01

    To compare the ocular characteristics and visual outcomes of eyes with corneal ectasia that were fitted with the Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem (PROSE) scleral device to those that underwent keratoplasty. Retrospective, comparative case series. We reviewed the charts of consecutive patients with corneal ectasia that were evaluated for PROSE or underwent keratoplasty at our institution. Clinical data, topographic indices, and corneal thickness were reviewed, and eyes were stratified according to the Amsler-Krumeich classification for severity of ectasia. Only the more severe eye of each patient was included in the study. We compared visual acuity before and after PROSE fitting or keratoplasty. For PROSE evaluations, achievement of satisfactory fit and continued wear at 1 year of follow-up were recorded. From 2010 to 2012, 36 patients underwent PROSE evaluation for corneal ectasia while 37 patients underwent keratoplasty for the same indication. All eyes were successfully fitted with the PROSE device. Eyes in the keratoplasty group had more severe ectasia than eyes in the PROSE group (P = .038). Visual acuity was achieved more rapidly in the PROSE cohort compared to keratoplasty, and mean visual acuity was significantly better for all eyes (P eyes with stage 4 ectasia (P eyes with stage 4 ectasia achieved 20/25 visual acuity after PROSE than after keratoplasty (P = .003). At 1 year follow-up in the PROSE cohort, Snellen acuity was 20/28 (P = .108 vs keratoplasty), improving to 20/25 with over-refraction (P = .006 vs keratoplasty). Eyes with advanced corneal ectasia can be successfully fitted with the PROSE device, and the visual acuity outcome for stage 4 ectasia was better and more rapid compared to keratoplasty. The acuity remained excellent with 1 year of follow-up. PROSE evaluation should be considered in patients with advanced corneal ectasia before proceeding to keratoplasty, especially if the ectasia is deemed stable. Copyright © 2014

  17. Prospective, multicenter demographic and epidemiological study on vernal keratoconjunctivitis: a glimpse of ocular surface in Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambiase, Alessandro; Minchiotti, Simona; Leonardi, Andrea; Secchi, A G; Rolando, Maurizio; Calabria, Giovanni; Orsoni, Jelka; Zola, Enrica; Ferreri, Giuseppe; Aragona, Pasquale; Reibaldi, Alfredo; Chisari, Giorgio; Bonini, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the frequency and epidemiological features of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) in Italy. a specific electronic clinical chart for vernal keratoconjunctivitis was created to standardize: 1) medical history; 2) diagnostic criteria; 3) signs and symptoms; and 4) treatments. This study involved 6 Italian referral centers for ocular surface diseases: between March 2005 and March 2006, all referred patients were included, clinical data collected and statistically examined. The mean age of the vernal keratoconjunctivitis population (n = 156) was 13.8 +/- 8.8 with 64.1% of subjects under 14 years of age and a male/female ratio of 3.5:1. Among VKC patients, 48.7% showed associated systemic allergic diseases. Only 32.1% of patients were positive for RAST and/or prick test. The limbal form (53.8%) was the most frequent subtype of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. Approximately 9% of patients showed a severe form of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. At the first visit patients were treated with: multiple action or mast cell stabilizer eye drops (58.1% and 41.3% of cases, respectively), topical corticosteroids alone (0.6%) or in association (26.8% of cases). All patients used topical steroids at least once in the studied year. Systemic antihistamine therapy was used by 25.6% of patients. In this cohort, 32.7% of patients required two or more examinations per year for exacerbations of their symptoms. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is a severe ocular condition that mainly affects young males. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis is characterized by different clinical features and therapeutic responses, suggesting the need for a standardized therapeutic approach on the basis of a grading of disease severity.

  18. Evaluation of an eyelid warming device (Blephasteam) for the management of ocular surface diseases in France: the ESPOIR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, S; Chiambaretta, F; Baudouin, C

    2014-12-01

    Eyelid hygiene, including massage and warm compresses, is an important part of the treatment and prevention of Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). Although effective, it requires active participation of the patient and lacks standardisation. Blephasteam is a medical device designed to warm and humidify the eyelid with heating glasses, in order to liquify meibum, thus relieving symptoms and preventing relapse. The ESPOIR study (Evaluation of the Satisfaction of Patients with Management of Ocular Surface Diseases) presented herein was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this medical device in patients with MGD. A total of 28 French centers participated in the study. One hundred and two patients presenting with symptomatic dysfunction or Meibomian-related dry eye underwent two sessions per day with the eyelid warming device and recorded diary entries on a number of parameters every 2 days for the first week and then weekly for the remaining 2 weeks. Patients were assessed on days 0 and 21. Symptomatology, as recorded on a visual analogue scale (VAS) by the investigator (the primary efficacy variable) was significantly (Pvs. 39.71, 95% CI 34.78-44.65 on Days 0 and 21 respectively), as was the mean symptoms score (mean decrease of 19.93 ± 22.15 VAS units; Preading and watching television. No adverse events were reported, and there were no changes in intraocular pressure or visual acuity. Safety was rated as satisfactory or very satisfactory by more than 95% of the investigators. The study suggests that the eyelid warming device is safe and effective in reducing ocular discomfort and symptoms in MGD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Refractive astigmatism and the toricity of ocular components in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Donald O; Mitchell, G Lynn; Jones, Lisa A; Friedman, Nina E; Frane, Sara L; Lin, Wendy K; Moeschberger, Melvin L; Zadnik, Karla

    2004-10-01

    Many studies have characterized astigmatism in infancy, but few have been longitudinal or contained ocular component data. This study characterized the frequency, orientation, and longitudinal change with age of infant astigmatism. Additional factors investigated were the influence of early astigmatism on emmetropization and its relation to corneal and lenticular toricity. Three hundred two infants were enrolled in the study. Of these, 298 provided data for at least one visit at 3 +/- 1 months, 9 +/- 1 months, 18 +/- 2 months, and 36 +/- 3 months. Testing included cycloplegic retinoscopy (cyclopentolate 1%), video-based keratophakometry, and ultrasonography over the closed eyelid. Astigmatism > or =1.00 DC was common at 3 months of age (41.6%) but decreased in prevalence to 4.1% by 36 months (p < 0.0001). The most common orientation was with-the-rule at 3 months (37.0% compared with 2.7% for against-the-rule) but against-the-rule at 36 months (3.2% compared with 0.9% for with-the-rule). Most of the change in the average value of the horizontal/vertical component of astigmatism (J0) occurred between 3 and 9 months (-0.26 +/- 0.36 D; p < 0.0001) with no significant change between 9 and 36 months (-0.05 +/- 0.36 D; p=0.09). Spherical equivalent refractive error was not correlated with J0 at 3 and 9 months (R=0.002, p=0.48 and R=0.001, p=0.56, respectively). The two were only weakly correlated at 18 and 36 months (R=0.06 for each age, p <0.0001, p=0.0002, respectively). Changes in spherical equivalent between 3 and 9 months were unrelated to either the initial value of J0 (partial R for J0=0.0001; p=0.85) or the change in J0 (partial R for change in J0=0.0031; p=0.31). Across all the ages, corneal toricity was with-the-rule, and lenticular toricity was against-the-rule (produced by the toricity of the posterior lens surface). The cornea and anterior lens surface became more spherical with age, contributing to the shift away from with-the-rule refractive astigmatism

  20. Use of the Boston Ocular Surface Prosthesis in the management of severe periorbital thermal injuries: a case series of 10 patients.

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    Kalwerisky, Kevin; Davies, Brett; Mihora, Lisa; Czyz, Craig N; Foster, Jill A; DeMartelaere, Sheri

    2012-03-01

    To report the use of the Boston Ocular Surface Prosthesis (BOSP) in patients with severe periorbital thermal injuries. Retrospective, interventional case series. Patients with severe periorbital thermal injuries treated with the BOSP. Chart review of 10 consecutive patients (16 eyes) who sustained severe periorbital thermal injuries during combat missions in Iraq and Afghanistan and were treated for exposure keratopathy with the BOSP, a Food and Drug Administration-approved gas-permeable, scleral contact lens. Corneal epithelial defect healing, uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, and BOSP wear time. Exposure keratopathy occurred after severe periorbital thermal injuries and followed a predictable course of scar contracture. In all patients, vision-threatening ocular surface disease developed as a result of chronic ocular exposure. Rehabilitation of the ocular surface was accomplished using the BOSP, with 10 of the 16 treated eyes achieving a corrected visual acuity of 20/70 or better. Five eyes achieved a best-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. The BOSP also was used as a drug-delivery vehicle to treat corneal ulcers successfully in 6 eyes. The only eye that required penetrating keratoplasty was an early intervention believed to be a direct sequelae of the original thermal burn, rather than a failure of the BOSP regimen. The mean BOSP wear time was 16 hours per day. The BOSP can play an important role in rehabilitation of the ocular surface for patients with severe periorbital thermal injuries and resultant exposure keratopathy. Use of the BOSP should be considered as a treatment option for these difficult cases of severe periorbital thermal injuries. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Ocular surface and tear film abnormalities in women under adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer with the 5-Fluorouracil, Epirubicin and Cyclophosphamide (FEC) regimen.

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    Karamitsos, A; Kokkas, V; Goulas, A; Paraskevopoulos, P; Gougoulias, K; Karampatakis, V; Boboridis, K

    2013-04-01

    To study possible ocular surface and lacrimal drainage changes in women being on adjuvant chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil 600 mg/m2, Epirubicin 60-90 mg/m(2), Cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) (FEC) regimen for breast cancer. Sixty one consecutive women with early stage breast cancer (median age 58 years - interquartile range 22) were included in this study. They all underwent mastectomy followed by 6 cycles of tri-weekly administration of FEC regimen and were free of ocular surface, eyelid and tear film symptomatic disease at baseline. None of them had pre- or coexisting treatment with other chemotherapeutic agent or radiotherapy. Slit lamp examination of the ocular surface, Schirmer test I (without topical anesthesia) and tears Break up Time test (BUT) were performed before the initiation of treatment and immediately after the third therapeutic cycle. From 61 women 39.34% had significant conjunctival hyperemia, 41.0% lid margin abnormalities, 4.92% blepharitis, 6.56% madarosis, 3.28% punctate epithelial keratopathy and 4.92% oedema of the lower punctum mucosal opening after three chemotherapeutic cycles. Mean BUT measures were found lower after the third chemotherapeutic cycle (p=0.001) but mean Schirmer test I values were higher after the third chemotherapeutic cycle (p=0.001). Women on chemotherapy with FEC regimen are more susceptible to develop ocular surface and tear film alterations, within the first three cycles of chemotherapy for breast cancer, and thus, prompt ophthalmological evaluation may be proven beneficial for early diagnosis and management of the induced ocular disease.

  2. Ocular rosacea: a review

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    Ana Carolina Cabreira Vieira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rosacea is a prevalent chronic cutaneous disorder with variable presentation and severity. Although considered a skin disease, rosacea may evolve the eyes in 58-72% of the patients, causing eyelid and ocular surface inflammation. About one third of the patients develop potentially sight-threatening corneal involvement. Untreated rosacea may cause varying degrees of ocular morbidity. The importance of early diagnosis and adequate treatment cannot be overemphasized. There is not yet a diagnostic test for rosacea. The diagnosis of ocular rosacea relies on observation of clinical features, which can be challenging in up to 90% of patients in whom accompanying roseatic skin changes may be subtle or inexistent. In this review, we describe the pathophysiologic mechanisms proposed in the literature, clinical features, diagnosis and management of ocular rosacea, as well as discuss the need for a diagnostic test for the disease.

  3. Conservative treatment for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in patients with ocular surface disease

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    Sagara H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hideto Sagara,1,2 Tomohiro Iida,2,3 Kimimori Saito,4 Hiroki Noji,2 Masashi Ogasawara,2 Hiroshi Oyamada21The Marui Eye Clinic, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 3Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 4Matuki Eye Clinic, Fukushima, JapanBackground: Sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops are used to treat ocular surface disease (OSD and are reported to prevent and treat late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops and treatment for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction as a therapy for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional, nonsimultaneous study of 12 subjects (12 eyes of mean age of 64.3 ± 18.3 years with OSD and apparent late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C between 1998 and 2008. We compared patients diagnosed with leakages before July 2005, who had been treated with separate eye drop solutions containing 0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.3% ofloxacin (sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group, n = 7, with patients diagnosed from August 2005 to December 2008, who were treated with a combination of eye drops (0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.08% levofloxacin hydrate and eyelid massage and warm compresses for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (combination eye drop group, n = 5.Results: Leakage was resolved in one patient (14.3% in the separately treated sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drop group and in five patients (100% in the combination eye drop group (P = 0.015. The period after resolution of leakage with conservative treatment was 23 months in the one eye in the sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group and 36–61 (mean 52.4 ± 10.1 months in the five eyes in the

  4. On-eye breakage and recovery of mini-scleral contact lens without compromise for the ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo-de-Araújo, Rute J; van der Worp, Eef; González-Méijome, José M

    2017-12-13

    To report the on-eye breakage of a mini-scleral contact lens in a healthy cornea after being hit by a speeding object, without causing any severe corneal damage. A 24-year-old Caucasian male involved in a clinical study reported the in situ breakage of a mini-scleral contact lens during motorbike maintenance. The patient reported eye redness and irritation that significantly decreased after all the pieces of the lens were recovered from the eye. Ocular examinations within 48 h showed absence of corneal damage other than superficial punctate keratitis inferiorly and no fragments of the lens were found in the conjunctival sac. The patient was wearing a 15.2 mm mini-scleral lens in a high Dk material. The evolution of rigid materials towards higher Dk values has resulted in a decreased hardness and modulus values, so these materials are more elastic when subjected to mechanical stress, which could be a beneficial aspect in absorbing the energy of an impact before breaking in pieces. This case report shows that ScCL could have a protective effect to the corneal surface from the direct impact of a high-speed object. Mechanical material properties, wide supporting area and post-lens tear volume acted as protective factors helping to absorb and distribute the kinetic energy of the impacting object. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation between the histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burns and the final outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation.

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    Sati, Alok; Basu, Sayan; Sangwan, Virender S; Vemuganti, Geeta K

    2015-04-01

    To report the influence of histological features of corneal surface pannus following ocular surface burn on the outcome of cultivated limbal epithelial transplantation (CLET). On retrospectively reviewing the medical records of the patients who underwent autologous CLET from April 2002 to June 2012 at L V Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India, we could trace the histological reports in only 90 records. These 90 records, besides clinical parameters, were reviewed for the influence of various histological features on the final outcome of CLET. The histological features include epithelial hyperplasia (21.1%), surface ulceration (2.2%), goblet cells (62.2%), squamous metaplasia (11.1%), active fibrosis (31.1%), severe inflammation (8.9%), multinucleated giant cells (3.3%), stromal calcification (8.9%) and active proliferating vessels (5.6%). Among these histological features, patients with either hyperplasia or calcification in their excised corneal pannus show an unfavourable outcome compared with patients without hyperplasia (p=0.003) or calcification (p=0.018). A similar unfavourable outcome was not seen with other histological features and various clinical parameters. Presence of either calcific deposits or hyperplasia in the excised corneal pannus provides poor prognostication; hence, a proper counselling of such patients is mandatory along with a close follow-up. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients.

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    Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Orzechowska-Wylegala, Boguslawa; Wowra, Bogumil; Wroblewska-Czajka, Ewa; Grolik, Maria; Szczubialka, Krzysztof; Nowakowska, Maria; Puzzolo, Domenico; Wylegala, Edward A; Micali, Antonio; Aragona, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET) procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes) with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  7. Cultivated Oral Mucosa Epithelium in Ocular Surface Reconstruction in Aniridia Patients

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    Dariusz Dobrowolski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Efficacy of cultivated oral mucosa epithelial transplantation (COMET procedure in corneal epithelium restoration of aniridia patients. Methods. Study subjects were aniridia patients (13 patients; 17 eyes with irregular, vascular conjunctival pannus involving visual axis who underwent autologous transplantation of cultivated epithelium. For the procedure oral mucosa epithelial cells were obtained from buccal mucosa with further enzymatic treatment. Suspension of single cells was seeded on previously prepared denuded amniotic membrane. Cultures were carried on culture dishes inserts in the presence of the inactivated with Mitomycin C monolayer of 3T3 fibroblasts. Cultures were carried for seven days. Stratified oral mucosa epithelium with its amniotic membrane carrier was transplanted on the surgically denuded corneal surface of aniridia patients with total or subtotal limbal stem cell deficiency. Outcome Measures. Corneal surface, epithelial regularity, and visual acuity improvement were evaluated. Results. At the end of the observation period, 76.4% of the eyes had regular transparent epithelium and 23.5% had developed epithelial defects or central corneal haze; in 88.2% of cases visual acuity had increased. VA range was from HM 0.05 before the surgery to HM up to 0.1 after surgery. Conclusion. Application of cultivated oral mucosa epithelium restores regular epithelium on the corneal surface with moderate improvement in quality of vision.

  8. Expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the Tear Film and Ocular Surface of Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome

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    Park, Chang-Soo; You, In-Cheon; Choi, Hwan-Jun; Lee, Kwang-Hoon; Im, Seong-Kyu; Park, Hong-Yong; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome. Methods. Thirty-three patients with dry eye (16 with and 17 without Sjögren's syndrome) and 15 control subjects were recruited. The concentrations of CXCL9, -10, and -11 in tears were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The correlation between chemokine levels and tear film and ocular surface parameters was analyzed. The expression of CXCL9, -10, -11, and CXCR3 in the conjunctiva was evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Flow cytometry was performed to count CXCR3+ cells and CXCR3+CD4+ cells in the conjunctiva. Results. The concentrations of CXCL9, -10, and -11 were 1,148 ± 1,088, 24,338 ± 8,706, and 853 ± 334 pg/mL, in the patients with dry eye, and 272 ± 269 (P = 0.01), 18,149 ± 5,266 (P = 0.02), and 486 ± 175 (P tears of the patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with those of the patients with non-Sjögren's dry eye (P tear secretion, and CXCL11 levels correlated significantly with basal tear secretion, tear clearance rate, keratoepitheliopathy score, and goblet cell density (P tear film and ocular surface of patients with dry eye syndrome, especially in those with Sjögren's syndrome. CXCL11 levels correlated significantly with various tear film and ocular surface parameters. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00991679.) PMID:19850844

  9. Ocular Sarcoidosis

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    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  10. Clinical Usefulness of Monitoring Expression Levels of CCL24 (Eotaxin-2) mRNA on the Ocular Surface in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis and Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis.

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    Shiraki, Yukiko; Shoji, Jun; Inada, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of using expression levels of CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA on the ocular surface as a biomarker in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Methods. Eighteen patients with VKC or AKC (VKC/AKC group) and 12 control subjects (control group) were enrolled in this study. The VKC/AKC clinical score was determined by objective findings in patients by using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. All subjects underwent modified impression cytology and specimens were obtained from the upper tarsal conjunctiva. Expression levels of CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA on the ocular surface were determined using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results. The VKC group was divided into two subgroups, depending on the clinical score: the active stage subgroup with 100 points or more of clinical scores and the stable stage subgroup with 100 points or less. CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA expression levels in the active VKC/AKC stage subgroup were significantly higher than those in the stable VKC/AKC subgroup and the control group. Clinical scores correlated significantly with CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA expression levels in the VKC group. Conclusions. CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA expression levels on the ocular surface are a useful biomarker for clinical severity of VKC/AKC.

  11. Traumatismos oculares Ocular traumas

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    Gelen Welch Ruiz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo longitudinal cuyo universo estuvo constituido por 72 ojos de 72 pacientes con traumatismos oculares mecánicos que fueron hospitalizados en el Hospital Militar Central “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” desde enero de 1999 hasta enero de 2005. Para el análisis estadístico de la información se utilizó el programa automatizado SPSS versión 11.5 en el cual también se conformó la base de datos y se realizaron los cálculos de acuerdo con el tipo de variable analizada. Se utilizaron medidas de resumen, tendencia central y asociación estadística con un nivel de significación de p A retrospective longitudinal and descriptive study was carried out in 72 eyes from 72 patients with mechanical occular traumas, who had been hospitalized in “Dr. Carlos J. Finlay” Military Hospital from December 1999 to January 2005. For the statistical data analysis, an automated program (SPSS 11.5 version was used to create the database and estimations were made according to the variable types. Summary measures, central tendency measures and statistical association with significance level equal to p < 0.05 were employed. Males prevailed (95.8%, the average age was 30.26 years with a minimum rate of 17 years and maximum rate of 82 years. The most frequent mechanisms of trauma were aggressions (23. 6% and injures from secondary projectiles (13.9%. The anterior segment traumas were more frequent (61, 1% than posterior segment traumas (6.94%. Both segments of the eyeball were affected in 39, 1% of eyes which evinced the worst visual acuity. The most common associated injures were hyphema (54, 2% and vitreous hemorrhage (16.6%. Closed trauma (contusions were more common and most of the eyes had better final visual acuity (45, 2% with vision range of 0.6-1.0 and 26.2% with vision range of 0.59-0.1. On the other hand, eyes affected by open trauma (simple wound, contusion-wound, wound with intraocular foreign body and

  12. Upregulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Tears and Ocular Surface of Dry Eye Patients.

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    Niu, Liangliang; Zhang, Shujie; Wu, Jihong; Chen, Ling; Wang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream inflammatory factors in human dry eye. We recruited 54 patients with Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE), 50 patients with non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (NSSDE), and 46 healthy controls. Tear film breakup time (TBUT), Schirmer I test, and fluorescein staining (FL) were performed on all subjects. Tear samples were obtained to analyze the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-1β and IL-18 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA). Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) specimens were collected to detect the mRNA expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 using quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 by Western blotting. NLRP3 mRNA expression showed higher levels in both dry eye groups compared with controls, with a comparably significant elevation in the SSDE group (relative 2.47-fold upregulation, ptear IL-18 concentrations were also significantly increased in the SSDE (p<0.001) and NSSDE (p<0.05) groups. In the current study, we found that mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3 inflammasome were upregulated in human dry eyes, especially in SSDE; the downstream inflammatory factors caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 were also elevated in dry eye patients. These observations suggest the involvement of NLRP3 inflammasome in the onset and development of the inflammation in dry eye.

  13. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  14. Ocular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Ocular Injury En Español What causes eye injuries ? Injuries ... only the eyelid but the structures that drain tears from the eye. Lacerations of the eyelid or ...

  15. Ocular Rosacea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... default.asp. Accessed March 31, 2015. Bron A. Ocular rosacea. http://www.uptodate.com. Accessed March 31, 2015. Riordan-Eva P, et al. Conjunctiva and tears. In: Vaughan & Asbury's General Ophthalmology. 18th ed. New ...

  16. Ocular rosacea

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    Đaković Zorana

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cases of ocular rosacea (one male and four females are reported in this paper. Two of the patients were with keratoconjunctivitis sicca, one with conjunctivitis chronica and blepharitis, one with conjunctivitis chronica and meibomitis, and one with reccurent corneal erosions with meibomitis and chordeloum. In four patients ocular symptoms preceded the occurence of skin lesions. The treatment with oral tetracyclines significantly improved the state of ocular rosacea in four patients, while in one case the changes of the anterior eye segment progressed in more severe state of ulcerative keratitis. It is considered that in almost 20% of the patients with rosacea ocular lesions may precede the skin changes, representing a diagnostic problem. Thus, in those cases multidisciplinary approach is suggested. Such approach is particularly important because of the decrease of morbidity and the prevention of the onset of the eye complications such as drastic worsening of visual acuity, i.e., the blindness.

  17. The Effect of Autologous Serum Eye Drop Application on Epithelization in the Treatment of Various Ocular Surface Disorders and its Safety

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    Fatma Selin Kaya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effect of autologous serum application on epithelization in the treatment of ocular surface disorders in hard cases and its safety. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Patients with serious ocular surface disorders, unresponsive to conventional treatment were recruited. Clinical features of retrospective cohort of patients who were prescribed serum drops are presented. From July 2007 to January 2010, 31 eyes of 21 patients, who were given autologous serum eye drops, were included into the study. Clinical examination included epithelial changes, rose bengal/lissamine green staining, fluorescein staining, and tear film break-up time. A history of systemic disease was recorded together with systemic medications used. A complete ocular history was also obtained. Re sults: Autologous serum was used in 7 patients with delayed epithelization after penetrating keratoplasty, in 4 patients with epithelial disturbances secondary to keratitis, in 2 patients with alkali burns, in 3 patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, in 1 patient with ligneous conjunctivitis, in 1 patient with epidermolysis bullosa, in 1 patient with corneal burn with hot water, and in 2 patients with Sjogren syndrome. The female:male ratio was 13:8. The mean age was 36.23±24.80 standard deviation (range: 7 months-87 years. No significant sight-threatening complication has been observed with the use of serum drops. Dis cus si on: Autologous serum application is safe and efficient additional therapy in the treatment of serious ocular surface problems in difficult cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 336-41

  18. Early changes in ocular surface and tear inflammatory mediators after small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shaohui; Li, Saiqun; Liu, Liangping; Wang, Yong; Ding, Hui; Li, Lili; Zhong, Xingwu

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the early ocular-surface changes or tear inflammatory-mediators levels following small-incision lenticule extraction (ReLEx smile) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). Forty-seven myopic subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Fifteen underwent ReLEx smile and thirty-two underwent FS-LASIK. Corneal fluorescein (FL) staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and central corneal sensitivity were evaluated in all participants. Tears were collected and analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nerve growth factor (NGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels using multiplex magnetic beads. All measurements were preformed preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. FL scores in ReLEx smile group were lower than those of FS-LASIK group 1 week postoperatively (P = 0.010). Compared to the FS-LASIK group, longer TBUT were observed in ReLEx smile group 1 month (P = 0.029) and 3 months (P = 0.045) postoperatively. No significant differences were found in tear secretion for the two groups (P>0.05). OSDI scores were higher in FS-LASIK group 1 month after surgery (P = 0.020). Higher central corneal sensitivity was observed in ReLEx smile group 1 week, 1 month and 3 months (Ptears was observed in ReLEx smile group postoperatively (PTears TNF-α and ICAM-1 concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups at any follow-up time (P>0.05). Moreover, IL-6 and NGF levels correlated with ocular surface changes after ReLEx smile or FS-LASIK. In the early postoperative period, ReLEx smile results in milder ocular surface changes than FS-LASIK. Furthermore, the tear inflammatory mediators IL-6 and NGF may play a crucial role in the ocular surface healing process following ReLEx smile and FS-LASIK.

  19. Influenza virus respiratory infection and transmission following ocular inoculation in ferrets.

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    Jessica A Belser

    Full Text Available While influenza viruses are a common respiratory pathogen, sporadic reports of conjunctivitis following human infection demonstrates the ability of this virus to cause disease outside of the respiratory tract. The ocular surface represents both a potential site of virus replication and a portal of entry for establishment of a respiratory infection. However, the properties which govern ocular tropism of influenza viruses, the mechanisms of virus spread from ocular to respiratory tissue, and the potential differences in respiratory disease initiated from different exposure routes are poorly understood. Here, we established a ferret model of ocular inoculation to explore the development of virus pathogenicity and transmissibility following influenza virus exposure by the ocular route. We found that multiple subtypes of human and avian influenza viruses mounted a productive virus infection in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets following ocular inoculation, and were additionally detected in ocular tissue during the acute phase of infection. H5N1 viruses maintained their ability for systemic spread and lethal infection following inoculation by the ocular route. Replication-independent deposition of virus inoculum from ocular to respiratory tissue was limited to the nares and upper trachea, unlike traditional intranasal inoculation which results in virus deposition in both upper and lower respiratory tract tissues. Despite high titers of replicating transmissible seasonal viruses in the upper respiratory tract of ferrets inoculated by the ocular route, virus transmissibility to naïve contacts by respiratory droplets was reduced following ocular inoculation. These data improve our understanding of the mechanisms of virus spread following ocular exposure and highlight differences in the establishment of respiratory disease and virus transmissibility following use of different inoculation volumes and routes.

  20. Analysis of keratoscopic images for detecting fixational eye movements and ocular surface deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, M.; Mas, D.; Kasprzak, H.

    2009-08-01

    A sequence of videokeratoscopic images was registered using commercially available instrument E300 at a rate of 50 fps. During the 20 seconds measurement, subject's head was fixed strongly. Acquired images were analyzed for detecting fixational eye movements and corneal surface deformation. For this purpose two rings were extracted from each frame and the ellipses were fitted to them, using least square method. The time series of the ellipses geometrical parameters were considered: minor and major axes length as well as the ellipses center and the orientation. The frequency spectra of mentioned parameters were obtained by application of the Fast Fourier Transform. The longitudinal position of the corneal apex was controlled, thanks to the cone side viewer installed inside the videokeratoscope. The average amplitude of the variation of the ellipse's axes length is around 20μm and of the orientation of the ellipse around 0,1 rad. In the signals frequency characteristics, appear the peak corresponding to the heart rate. No clear relationship was found between the variations of the fitted ellipse parameters and the longitudinal position of the corneal apex. The fixational eye movements were examined using two different methods. One of them consists of calculating the correlation function between the first and successive frame of the sequence and searching its maximum. The other is based on tracking the center of the ellipse fitted to particular ring of the videokeratoscopic image. The accuracy of the second method found to be higher. Simple methods proposed in this work can extend the application of videokeratoscopic measurements.

  1. Changes in in vivo confocal microscopic findings of ocular surface squamous neoplasia during treatment with topical interferon alfa-2b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran; Mousavi, Ebrahim; Nabavi, Amin; Latifi, Golshan; Mehrjardi, Hadi Z; Mohebbi, Masoomeh; Ghassemi, Hamed; Mirzaie, Farrin; Zare, Mohammad Ali

    2018-01-03

    To evaluate in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) findings of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) during treatment with topical interferon alfa-2b (IFN alfa-2b). In this prospective interventional case series, 20 eyes from 20 patients with OSSN were treated with topical IFN alfa-2b 3 million IU/mL four times a day. Treatment was continued for 2 or 3 months after clinical resolution. IVCM was done at baseline, on a monthly basis, and at the end of treatment. Confocal images were evaluated in conjunction with clinical findings during treatment. Limbal dendritic cell (DC) density within the involved areas was calculated manually in confocal images. Topical therapy resulted in clinical resolution of neoplasia in 80% of eyes. Main features of OSSN on IVCM were hyper-reflectivity of epithelium, demarcation line between neoplastic and normal epithelium, and pleomorphic cells. These findings became less prominent in response to IFN alfa-2b therapy. However, some degree of residual epithelial hyper-reflectivity could be detected in 9 (56.2%) subjects who responded to therapy at time of treatment cessation. Limbal DCs density within involved areas was significantly increased at month 1 follow-up compared to baseline only in responders (P alfa-2b than non-responders (208.6 ± 53.5 vs. 153.1 ± 48.2 cell/mm 2 , respectively; P = .08) at month 1 follow-up. IVCM is proposed as an adjunctive tool for monitoring OSSN during topical treatment. IVCM documents epithelial cell response as well as limbal DC density increase during topical IFN therapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability after punctal plug therapy of aqueous deficient dry eye

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    Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of punctal occlusion using thermosensitive (smart plug versus silicone plug for management of aqueous deficient dry eye on corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability. METHODS: A comparative prospective interventional case study included 45 patients with bilateral severe form of aqueous deficient dry eye. In each patient, the smart plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the right eye which was considered as study group 1 and silicone plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the left eye of the same patient which was considered as study group 2. All patients were subjected to careful history taking and questionnaire for subjective assessment of severity of symptoms. Corneal sensitivity, corneal fluorescein, rose bengal staining, Schirmer’s I test, tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology were performed pre and 1, 3 and 6mo post plug insertion. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective manifestations occurred following treatment with both types of plugs (P<0.01. The thermosensitive plug caused significant overall improvement, decrease in frequency of application of tear substitutes and improvement of conjunctival impression cytology parameters in the inserted side (P<0.01. Canaliculitis was reported in two eyes (4.4% following punctal occlusion using thermosensitive plug (study group 1. Spontaneous plug loss occurred in 21 eyes (46.6% in the silicone plug group (study group 2. CONCLUSION: Improvement of subjective and objective manifestations of aqueous deficient dry eye occurs following punctal plug occlusion. Thermosensitive plug has good patient's compliance with fewer complications and lower rates of loss compared to the silicone plug.

  3. Upregulation of NLRP3 Inflammasome in the Tears and Ocular Surface of Dry Eye Patients.

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    Liangliang Niu

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mRNA and protein expressions of NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream inflammatory factors in human dry eye.We recruited 54 patients with Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE, 50 patients with non-Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (NSSDE, and 46 healthy controls. Tear film breakup time (TBUT, Schirmer I test, and fluorescein staining (FL were performed on all subjects. Tear samples were obtained to analyze the inflammatory cytokine levels of IL-1β and IL-18 via enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA. Conjunctival impression cytology (CIC specimens were collected to detect the mRNA expression of NLRP3, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 using quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 by Western blotting.NLRP3 mRNA expression showed higher levels in both dry eye groups compared with controls, with a comparably significant elevation in the SSDE group (relative 2.47-fold upregulation, p<0.05. NLRP3 protein expression was also increased in SSDE group (relative1.94-fold upregulation compared with the controls. mRNA expression of caspase-1 was significantly upregulated in both SSDE (relative 1.44-fold upregulation, p<0.05 and NSSDE (relative 1.32-fold upregulation, p<0.05. Procaspase-1 protein level was increased in SSDE (relative 1.84-fold upregulation and NSSDE (relative 1.12-fold upregulation versus controls; and caspase-1 protein expression was also increased in SSDE (relative 1.49-fold upregulation and NSSDE (relative 1.17-fold upregulation compared with the controls. The patients with SSDE and NSSDE had higher IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA values and protein expressions than the controls did. The relative mRNA expression of IL-1β upregulated 3.59-fold (p<0.001 in SSDE and 2.13-fold (p<0.01 in NSSDE compared with the controls. IL-1β protein level also showed significant upregulation in SSDE (p=0.01; vs. controls groups. IL-18 mRNA expression levels were significantly upregulated in the SSDE (relative 2.97-fold upregulation, p

  4. Augmented dried versus cryopreserved amniotic membrane as an ocular surface dressing.

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    Claire L Allen

    Full Text Available Dried amniotic membrane (AM can be a useful therapeutic adjunct in ophthalmic surgery and possesses logistical advantages over cryopreserved AM. Differences in preservation techniques can significantly influence the biochemical composition and physical properties of AM, potentially affecting clinical efficacy. This study was established to investigate the biochemical and structural effects of drying AM in the absence and presence of saccharide lyoprotectants and its biocompatibility compared to cryopreserved material.AM was cryopreserved or dried with and without pre-treatment with trehalose or raffinose and the antioxidant epigallocatechin (EGCG. Structural and visual comparisons were assessed using electron microscopy. Localisation, expression and release of AM biological factors were determined using immunoassays and immunofluorescence. The biocompatibility of the AM preparations co-cultured with corneal epithelial cell (CEC or keratocyte monolayers were assessed using cell proliferation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis and migration assays.Drying devitalised AM epithelium, but less than cryopreservation and cellular damage was reduced in dried AM pre-treated with trehalose or raffinose. Dried AM alone, and with trehalose or raffinose showed greater factor retention efficiencies and bioavailability compared to cryopreserved AM and demonstrated a more sustained biochemical factor time release in vitro. Cellular health assays showed that dried AM with trehalose or raffinose are compatible and superior substrates compared to cryopreserved AM for primary CEC expansion, with increased proliferation and reduced LDH and caspase-3 levels. This concept was supported by improved wound healing in an immortalised human CEC line (hiCEC co-cultured with dried and trehalose or raffinose membranes, compared to cryopreserved and fresh AM.Our modified preservation process and our resultant optimised dried AM has enhanced structural properties and biochemical stability

  5. Conjunctival granuloma with necrosis associated with exposed suture in upper double lid masquerading as ocular surface squamous neoplasia: a case report.

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    Kim, Yu Jeong; Kim, Jaeyoung; Choung, Hokyung; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2017-04-26

    This study reports two cases of conjunctival granuloma with necrosis caused by an exposed suture in the upper palpebral conjunctiva masquerading as ocular surface squamous neoplasia. Two patients presented with chronic conjunctival ulcerative and granulomatous lesions on the superior bulbar conjunctiva that repeatedly recurred after the mass was removed. The pathologic findings revealed the absence of malignant cells and presence of many lymphocytes, plasma cells, and histiocytes. There was no evidence of acid-fast bacilli or fungal organisms. When a past history of blepharoplasty was established, microscopic examination revealed occult exposed suture tips. After the sutures were removed, the granuloma with necrosis was resolved within a month. For all conjunctival lesions in the superior bulbar conjunctiva, a thorough examination of the ocular adnexae which includes eyelid eversion should be performed. There should be a suspicion of foreign body or exposed suture material especially when there is a non-healing ulcer.

  6. Combat Ocular Problems. Supplement,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    Brooks Air Force Base, TX: USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, 1978 6. BROWNELL , A.S., and B.E. STUCK. Ocular and skin hazards from C02 laser...acuity following laser radiation. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society. 1980. pp 162-166 9. KELLY , D.H. Photopic contrast sensitivity without

  7. Latrunculin B Reduces Intraocular Pressure in Human Ocular Hypertension and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    Rasmussen, Carol A.; Kaufman, Paul L.; Ritch, Robert; Haque, Reza; Brazzell, R. Kim; Vittitow, Jason L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of Latrunculin-B (Lat-B), a marine macrolide that disrupts the actin cytoskeleton, in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) or early primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods In this Phase I, multicenter, double-masked, randomized, placebo-controlled, ascending-dose study, subjects with bilateral OHT or early POAG (>22 mm Hg) received one of four concentrations of INS115644 (Lat-B ophthalmic solutions, 0.005%, 0.01%, 0.02%, or 0.05%) in one eye over 3 days (5 single-dose instillations, separated by 12 hours). One eye was randomly assigned to active drug, the other to placebo. IOP was measured prior to treatment initiation (day 0) and on days 1 and 3. Results Baseline IOPs were 22.9 ± 2.4 mm Hg and 23.5 + 3.1 mm Hg in the 0.02% and 0.05% dose groups, respectively. At 4 hours post instillation of the first dose, 0.02% INS115644 reduced IOP from baseline (mean ± SE) by 3.8 ± 0.7 mm Hg (P = 0.002) and 0.05% by 3.9 ± 1.0 mm Hg (P = 0.004). A maximum IOP decrease of 24% was noted at 4 hours after the fifth instillation of 0.02%. Adjusting for diurnal baseline and IOP in the contralateral, placebo-treated eye, the maximal 12-hour hypotensive effect was 4.0 ± 0.5 mm Hg (adjusted mean ± SE), a 17% decrease, following the fifth instillation of 0.02% (day 3). Adverse events were few and consisted mainly of mild redness, irritation, and a transient, clinically insignificant increase (≤2.5%) in central corneal thickness. Conclusions In OHT or POAG patients, twice daily Lat-B significantly lowered IOP compared with contralateral, placebo-treated eyes, with few and mild ocular adverse events. Translational Relevance Lat-B may be a potential therapeutic agent for glaucoma. PMID:25237590

  8. A novel peptide derived from human apolipoprotein E is an inhibitor of tumor growth and ocular angiogenesis.

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    Partha S Bhattacharjee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a hallmark of tumor development and metastasis and now a validated target for cancer treatment. We previously reported that a novel dimer peptide (apoEdp derived from the receptor binding region of human apolipoprotein E (apoE inhibits virus-induced angiogenesis. However, its role in tumor anti-angiogenesis is unknown. This study demonstrates that apoEdp has anti-angiogenic property in vivo through reduction of tumor growth in a mouse model and ocular angiogenesis in a rabbit eye model. Our in vitro studies show that apoEdp inhibits human umbilical vein endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and capillary tube formation. We document that apoEdp inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor-induced Flk-1 activation as well as downstream signaling pathways that involve c-Src, Akt, eNOS, FAK, and ERK1/2. These in vitro data suggest potential sites of the apoE dipeptide inhibition that could occur in vivo.This is the first evidence that a synthetic dimer peptide mimicking human apoE has anti-angiogenesis functions and could be an anti-tumor drug candidate.

  9. Parasitic diseases of zoonotic importance in humans of northeast India, with special reference to ocular involvement

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    Das D

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dipankar Das,1 Saidul Islam,2 Harsha Bhattacharjee,1 Angshuman Deka,1 Dinakumar Yambem,1 Prerana Sushil Tahiliani,1 Panna Deka,1 Pankaj Bhattacharyya,1 Satyen Deka,1 Kalyan Das,1 Gayatri Bharali,1 Apurba Deka,1 Rajashree Paul1 1Sri Sankaradeva Nethralaya, Guwahati, 2Department of Parasitology, College of Veterinary Science, Assam Agricultural University, Guwahati, Assam, India Abstract: Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent in India, including the northeastern states. Proper epidemiological data are lacking from this part of the country on zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in the current scenario. Systemic manifestation of such diseases as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. The incidence of acquired toxoplasmal infection is showing an increasing trend in association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Among the ocular parasitic diseases, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, dirofilariasis, gnathostomiasis, hydatidosis, amebiasis, giardiasis, etc, are the real problems that are seen in this subset of the population. Therefore, proper coordination between various medical specialities, including veterinary science and other governing bodies, is needed for better and more effective strategic planning to control zoonoses. Keywords: zoonoses, regional infections, toxoplasmosis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, hydatidosis 

  10. The vestibular implant: frequency-dependency of the electrically evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, Raymond; Guinand, Nils; Nguyen, T A Khoa; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cavuscens, Samuel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Stokroos, Robert; Kingma, Herman; Perez-Fornos, Angelica

    2014-01-01

    The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR) elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency. Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in seven patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the "natural" VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies. A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the "natural" VOR. Other characteristics of the (e)VOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry) showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited) frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the "normal" vestibular system.

  11. The vestibular implant: Frequency-dependency of the electrically evoked Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex in humans

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    Raymond eVan De Berg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency.Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in 7 patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz, and 2Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the natural VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies.A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the natural VOR. Other characteristics of the (eVOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the normal vestibular system.

  12. Activation of p38 and Erk Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Signaling in Ocular Rosacea.

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    Wladis, Edward J; Swamy, Supraja; Herrmann, Alyssa; Yang, Jinhong; Carlson, J Andrew; Adam, Alejandro P

    2017-02-01

    Rosacea-related cutaneous inflammation is a common cause of ocular surface disease. Currently, there are no specific pharmacologic therapies to treat ocular rosacea. Here, we aimed at determining the differences in intracellular signaling activity in eyelid skin from patients with and without ocular rosacea. This was an observational, comparative case series including 21 patients undergoing lower lid ectropion surgery at one practice during 2013 and 2014 (18 patients with rosacea, 13 control patients), and 24 paraffin-embedded archival samples from Albany Medical Center, selected randomly (12 patients with rosacea, 12 control patients). Cutaneous biopsies resulting from elective lower lid ectropion surgery were analyzed by Proteome Profiler Human Phospho-Kinase Array, Western blot, and/or immunohistochemistry. Samples derived from ocular rosacea patients showed increased levels of phosphorylated (active) p38 and Erk kinases. Phosphoproteins were mainly localized to the epidermis of affected eyelids. This finding provides a novel potential therapeutic target for treatment of ocular rosacea and possibly other forms of rosacea. Further testing is required to determine if p38 and Erk activation have a causal role in ocular rosacea. The selective activation of keratinocytes in the affected skin suggests that topical pathway inhibition may be an effective treatment that will ultimately prevent ocular surface damage due to ocular rosacea.

  13. Effects of wink glass on blink rate, nibut and ocular surface symptoms during visual display unit use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Cheah Kiok; Mohidin, Norhani; Chung, Kah Meng

    2014-09-01

    Wink glass (WG), an invention to stimulate blinking at interval of 5 s was designed to reduce dry eye symptoms during visual display unit (VDU) use. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of WG on visual functions that include blink rate, ocular surface symptoms (OSS) and tear stability during VDU use. A total of 26 young and asymptomatic subjects were instructed to read articles in Malay language with a computer for 20 min with WG whereby their blink rate, pre- and post-task tear break-up time, and OSS were recorded. The results were compared to another reading session of the subjects wearing a transparent plastic sheet as a control. Non-invasive tear break-up time was reduced after reading session with transparent plastic sheet (pre-task = 5.97 s, post-task = 5.14 s, z = -2.426, p = 0.015, Wilcoxon), but remained stable (pre-task = 5.62 s, post-task = 5.35 s, z = -0.67, p = 0.501) during the reading session with WG. The blink rate recorded during reading session with plastic sheet was 9 blinks/min (median) and this increased to 15 blinks/min (z = -3.315, p = 0.001) with WG. The reading task caused OSS (maximum scores = 20) with median score of 1 (0-8) reduced to median score of 0 (0-3) after wearing WG (z = -2.417, p = 0.016). WG was found to increase post-task tear stability, increased blinking rate and reduced OSS during video display unit use among young and healthy adults. Although it may be considered as an option to improve dry eye symptoms among VDU users, further studies are warranted to establish its stability and its effect on subjects with dry eyes.

  14. Association of combined IL-13/IL-4R signaling pathway gene polymorphism with Stevens-Johnson syndrome accompanied by ocular surface complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Mayumi; Sotozono, Chie; Inatomi, Tsutomu; Kojima, Kentaro; Hamuro, Junji; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2008-05-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are acute-onset mucocutaneous diseases induced by infectious agents or inciting drugs. The authors previously reported an association between SJS/TEN and IL-4R gene polymorphism that is essential for IL-4 and IL-13 signaling. To examine IL-4 and IL-13 gene polymorphisms and the combination of these polymorphisms with IL-4R polymorphism, the authors performed polymorphism analysis. In 76 Japanese SJS/TEN patients with ocular surface complications and 160 healthy controls, the authors analyzed polymorphisms of the promoter -590C/T in the IL-4 gene and of the promoter -1111C/T and Arg110Gln in the IL-13 gene and assessed Gln551Arg in the IL-4R gene. Because Arg110Gln affects serum IL-13, plasma IL-13 levels were also examined. In the SJS/TEN patients, the Arg110Gln SNP of IL-13 was significantly associated with the disease, and the frequency of Arg110 alleles was significantly higher than that in the controls. Plasma IL-13 tended to be lower in SJS/TEN patients than in the controls. Analysis of the genotype pattern of IL-4R SNP Gln551Arg and IL-13 SNP Arg110Gln showed that the Gln551Gln(A/A)-Arg110Arg(G/G) genotype pattern was also associated with SJS/TEN. IL-13 gene polymorphisms might be associated with SJS/TEN with ocular surface complications. The present findings suggest that SJS/TEN is different from allergic diseases such as atopy and asthma because the ratio of each allele in the IL-13 SNP Arg110Gln was the opposite of the ratio in those diseases. They also reveal that combined polymorphisms in the IL-13/IL-4R signaling pathway were associated with SJS/TEN with ocular surface complications.

  15. Histamine H1 and H4 receptor expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic allergic conjunctival diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inada, Noriko; Shoji, Jun; Shiraki, Yukiko; Aso, Hiroshi; Yamagami, Satoru

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the histamine H1 and H4 receptors mRNA (H1R and H4R, respectively) expression on the ocular surface of patients with chronic forms of allergic conjunctival diseases to determine whether they can serve as biomarkers for allergic inflammation in the conjunctiva. We examined 19 patients with vernal or atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC/VKC group) and 15 healthy volunteers (control group). The AKC/VKC group was divided into active and stable stage subgroups. Specimens were obtained from the upper tarsal conjunctiva of each participant using a modified impression cytology method. H1R, H4R, and eotaxin-1, -2, and -3 mRNA (eotaxin-1, eotaxin-2, eotaxin-3, respectively) expression was determined by real-time RT-PCR. Immunohistochemical analysis for eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), eosinophil major basic protein (MBP), eotaxin-2, and histamine H4 receptor (H4R) were performed using conjunctival smears. The number of H4R-positive patients was higher in the active than the stable stage subgroup and control group, whereas no difference was observed for H1R. H1R levels were higher in the active than in the stable stage subgroup, while those of H4R were higher in the active stage subgroup than in the control group. H1R and H4R levels were correlated with eotaxin-2 level. In immunohistochemical analysis, H4R revealed their expression on eosinophils in conjunctival smears of patients with AKC/VKC. H4R is useful as biomarkers of allergic inflammation on ocular surfaces. Most notably, H4R expressed on eosinophils is useful as a biomarker of eosinophilic inflammation of the ocular surface. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Membrana amniótica na reconstrução da superfície ocular após exérese de carcinoma de células escamosas da conjuntiva Amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction after conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Carvalho-Rêgo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a utilização da membrana amniótica humana na reconstrução da superfície ocular após exérese de carcinoma de células escamosas da conjuntiva. MÉTODOS: A membrana amniótica foi captada a partir de parto cesárea, conservada em meio de preservação de córnea e glicerol 1:1 e armazenada a -80º C. Os critérios de inclusão foram: pacientes portadores de lesão proliferativa conjuntival com características de carcinoma de células escamosas (lesão esbranquiçada plana ou elevada com aspecto em "carne de peixe", envolvendo conjuntiva, limbo e córnea. Oito olhos de 8 pacientes portadores de "carcinoma de células escamosas" da conjuntiva foram submetidos a cirurgia de exérese do tumor conjuntival, associado a transplante de membrana amniótica. Destes, 3 foram submetidos a epiteliectomia total da córnea e a transplante de limbo do olho contralateral. RESULTADOS: O tempo médio de seguimento foi de 17,8 meses (variação entre 10 e 35 meses. Cinco pacientes (71,4% obtiveram sucesso com o tratamento cirúrgico, com adequada reconstrução da área conjuntival retirada. Dois pacientes (28,6% obtiveram sucesso parcial, com presença de alterações cicatriciais leves (simbléfaro pequeno ou pequena fibrose. Um paciente foi excluído porque apresentou recidiva agressiva do tumor, com invasão intraocular, necessitando ser submetido a exenteração. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de membrana amniótica humana pode constituir uma importante opção para a reconstrução da superfície ocular após remoção de carcinoma de células escamosas.PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate the use of human amniotic membrane for ocular surface reconstruction after conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma resection. METHODS: Amniotic membrane was obtained at the time of cesarean section and was preserved at -80ºC in glycerol and cornea culture media at a ratio of 1:1. The inclusion criteria were patients presenting proliferating lesions

  17. Ocular Straylight

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    Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.

  18. Ocular Straylight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Schotte, Sigrid; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2015-01-01

    Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL). This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s), and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s), rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s)). Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association (p = .06) between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction) or the number of (instrumental) activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals. PMID:28138473

  19. Ocular toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, G D

    1997-12-01

    This review of recent articles on ocular toxicology concentrates on undesirable effects on the eye induced by systemically used xenobiotics. These include color vision deficiencies or visual field deterioration related to antiepileptic drugs, elevated intraocular pressure associated with inhaled corticosteroids, retinal detachments associated with systemic corticosteroids, rifabutin-induced uveitis, cocaine-related retinal hemorrhagic lesions in utero, deferoxamine-related decreases in vision, ocular allergy to bovine-derived collagen, and a large case study of hydroxychloroquine retinotoxicity. Other publications reviewed include a controlled study showing that glucose levels do not seem to alter color vision, a report that intravenous methotrexate can reach clinically meaningful levels in the aqueous humor, and a study showing the effect of systemic pentoxifylline on ocular blood flow and diabetes. With respect to systemic effects of topical ocular medications, there was a case report of apparent systemic exposure to pilocarpine from an Ocusert (Alza Corp., Palo Alto, CA), generalized urticaria after a single application of 1% cyclopentolate, and asthma induced with topical ketorolac. Readers are reminded that no drug achieves ultimate efficacy or ultimate safety. Thus, the decision to employ a given therapy involves a physician's evaluation of its therapeutic index, that is, the ratio between efficacy and toxicity.

  20. Clinical Usefulness of Monitoring Expression Levels of CCL24 (Eotaxin-2) mRNA on the Ocular Surface in Patients with Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis and Atopic Keratoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yukiko Shiraki; Jun Shoji; Noriko Inada

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of using expression levels of CCL24 (eotaxin-2) mRNA on the ocular surface as a biomarker in patients with vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) and atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC). Methods. Eighteen patients with VKC or AKC (VKC/AKC group) and 12 control subjects (control group) were enrolled in this study. The VKC/AKC clinical score was determined by objective findings in patients by using the 5-5-5 exacerbation grading scale. All su...

  1. Ocular Hypotensive Effects of the ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Opener Cromakalim in Human and Murine Experimental Model Systems.

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    Uttio Roy Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the most prevalent and only treatable risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Unfortunately, all current therapeutics used to treat elevated IOP and glaucoma have significant and sometimes irreversible side effects necessitating the development of novel compounds. We evaluated the IOP lowering ability of the broad spectrum KATP channel opener cromakalim. Cultured human anterior segments when treated with 2 μM cromakalim showed a decrease in pressure (19.33 ± 2.78 mmHg at 0 hours to 13.22 ± 2.64 mmHg at 24 hours; p<0.001 when compared to vehicle treated controls (15.89 ± 5.33 mmHg at 0 h to 15.56 ± 4.88 mmHg at 24 hours; p = 0.89. In wild-type C57BL/6 mice, cromakalim reduced IOP by 18.75 ± 2.22% compared to vehicle treated contralateral eyes (17.01 ± 0.32 mmHg at 0 hours to 13.82 ± 0.37 mmHg at 24 hours; n = 10, p = 0.002. Cromakalim demonstrated an additive effect when used in conjunction with latanoprost free acid, a common ocular hypotensive drug prescribed to patients with elevated IOP. To examine KATP channel subunit specificity, Kir6.2(-/- mice were treated with cromakalim, but unlike wild-type animals, no change in IOP was noted. Histologic analysis of treated and control eyes in cultured human anterior segments and in mice showed similar cell numbers and extracellular matrix integrity within the trabecular meshwork, with no disruptions in the inner and outer walls of Schlemm's canal. Together, these studies suggest that cromakalim is a potent ocular hypotensive agent that lowers IOP via activation of Kir6.2 containing KATP channels, its effect is additive when used in combination with the commonly used glaucoma drug latanoprost, and is not toxic to cells and tissues of the aqueous humor outflow pathway, making it a candidate for future therapeutic development.

  2. Ocular tropism of respiratory viruses.

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    Belser, Jessica A; Rota, Paul A; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism.

  3. Screening for Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia (OSSN by Slit-lamp Assisted Visual Inspection (SAVI following a short course of mild topical steroid-test qualities

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    E. Katsekera

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is currently the commonest ocular malignancy affecting people of child bearing age and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in Zimbabwe. Early surgical intervention has been shown to mitigate the effects of OSSN amongst its victims, however this is hampered by limited histopathological services which should guide the extent of surgical excisions of these tumours.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of Slit-lamp Assisted Visual Inspection (SAVI in diagnosing ocular surface squamous neoplasia with the hope of recommending a fall back tool that ophthalmologists / medical practitioners / ophthalmic nurses or optometrists can use in resource limited situations without readily accessible histopathological services when surgical intervention is contemplated.Method: This was part of a study which screened one hundred and nineteen (119 patients with conjunctival growths and recruited sixty seven (67 patients with ocular surface squamous neoplasia by visual inspection over a period of six months. All patients received a week’s course of topical fluorometholone 0.1% and had the lesions excised either completely or partially depending on size of tumour and histology performed on the tissues. The histology results were compared with the results by visual inspection to determine diagnostic accuracy. Outcome measures were specificity, sensitivity and predictive values.Results: Total number of patients with conjunctival growths screened by visual inspection was 119, with median age of 42 years and a range of 18 to 90 years and gender ratio of 1:1.9 in favour of females. There was no significant age difference between confirmed OSSN patients and non-OSSN (pterygia and the p-value was 0.617. Sensitivity and specificity of visual inspection in diagnosing OSSN when compared to histology were 94.3% and 74.2% respectively, with a positive predictive value of 74

  4. Comparison of effect of nepafenac and diclofenac ophthalmic solutions on cornea, tear film, and ocular surface after cataract surgery: the results of a randomized trial

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    Kawahara A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atsushi Kawahara,1–3 Tsugiaki Utsunomiya,4 Yuji Kato,2 Yoshinori Takayanagi3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Tokushukai Hospital, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan; 2Sapporo Kato Eye Clinic, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan; 3Takayanagi Clinic, Kushiro, Hokkaido, Japan; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.1% (Nevanac and diclofenac sodium ophthalmic solution 0.1% (Diclod on the cornea, tear film, and ocular surface after cataract surgery. Methods: A total of 60 eyes (60 patients were selected for this study, with no ocular diseases other than cataract (scheduled for cataract surgery by one surgeon. Patients were randomly enrolled to receive nepafenac or diclofenac in the perioperative period, and cataract surgery was performed using torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification and aspiration with intraocular lens implantation via a transconjunctival single-plane sclerocorneal incision at the 12 o’clock position. We compared intra- and intergroup differences preoperatively and postoperatively in conjunctival and corneal fluorescein staining scores, tear film breakup times, Schirmer’s tests, the Dry Eye Related Quality of Life Scores, and tear meniscus areas using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Results: The diclofenac group had significantly higher conjunctival and corneal fluorescein staining scores at 4 weeks postoperatively compared with the nepafenac group (P<0.001. Within the diclofenac group, significantly higher conjunctival and corneal fluorescein staining scores were noted at 4 weeks postoperatively than those seen preoperatively (P<0.001 and at 1 week postoperatively (P<0.001. No statistically significant differences were found in any other items. Conclusions: Nepafenac ophthalmic suspension 0.1% is considered safe for the corneal epithelium after cataract surgery. Keywords

  5. Detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in a Spanish population using the Schirmer strip test: pathogenic potential, molecular classification and evaluation of the sensitivity to chlorhexidine and voriconazole of the isolated Acanthamoeba strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Cabrera, Pedro; Reyes-Batlle, María; Martín-Navarro, Carmen María; Dorta-Gorrín, Alexis; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Sifaoui, Ines; Martínez-Carretero, Enrique; Piñero, José E; Martín-Barrera, Fernando; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Pathogenic strains of Acanthamoeba are causative agents of a sight-threatening infection of the cornea known as Acanthamoeba keratitis, which is often associated with the misuse of contact lenses. However, there is still a question remaining to be answered, which is whether these micro-organisms are present on the ocular surface of healthy individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface in healthy patients and also in those with other ocular surface infections. Sterile Schirmer test strips were used to collect samples from a group of patients who attended an ophthalmology consultation at the Hospital del Norte, Icod de los Vinos, Tenerife, Canary Islands. Most of the patients (46 individuals, 79.31  %) presented ocular surface pathologies such as blepharitis or conjunctivitis; the rest did not present any pathology. None of the patients included in the study wore contact lenses. The collected samples were cultured in 2  % non-nutrient agar plates and positive plates were then cultured in axenic conditions for further analyses. Molecular analysis classified all isolated strains as belonging to Acanthamoeba genotype tbl4, and osmotolerance and thermotolerance assays revealed that all strains were potentially pathogenic. Furthermore, all strains were assayed for sensitivity against voriconazole and chlorhexidine. Assays showed that both drugs were active against the tested strains. In conclusion, the Schirmer strip test is proposed as an effective tool for the detection of Acanthamoeba on the ocular surface.

  6. Ganglioside Profiling of the Human Retina: Comparison with Other Ocular Structures, Brain and Plasma Reveals Tissue Specificities.

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    Sibille, Estelle; Berdeaux, Olivier; Martine, Lucy; Bron, Alain M; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; He, Zhiguo; Thuret, Gilles; Bretillon, Lionel; Masson, Elodie A Y

    2016-01-01

    Gangliosides make a wide family of glycosphingolipids, highly heterogeneous in both the ceramide moiety and the oligosaccharide chain. While ubiquitously expressed in mammalian tissues, they are particularly abundant in the brain and the peripheral nervous system. Gangliosides are known to play a crucial role in the development, maintenance and functional integrity of the nervous system. However, the expression and roles of gangliosides in the retina, although often considered as a window on the brain, has been far less studied. We performed an in-depth analysis of gangliosides of the human retina, especially using powerful LC/MS methods. We compared the pattern of ganglioside classes and ceramide molecular species of this tissue with other ocular structures and with brain and plasma in elderly human individuals. About a hundred of ganglioside molecular species among 15 distinct classes were detected illustrating the huge structural diversity of these compounds. The retina exhibited a very diverse ganglioside profile and shared several common features with the brain (prominence of tetraosylgangliosides, abundance of d20:1 long chain base and 18:0 fatty acid…). However, the retina stood out with the specific expression of GD3, GT3 and AcGT3, which further presented a peculiar molecular species distribution. The unique ganglioside pattern we observed in the human retina suggests that these ganglioside species play a specific role in the structure and function of this tissue. This lipidomic study, by highlighting retina specific ganglioside species, opens up novel research directions for a better understanding of the biological role of gangliosides in the retina.

  7. Ocular-following responses to white noise stimuli in humans reveal a novel nonlinearity that results from temporal sampling.

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    Sheliga, Boris M; Quaia, Christian; FitzGibbon, Edmond J; Cumming, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    White noise stimuli are frequently used to study the visual processing of broadband images in the laboratory. A common goal is to describe how responses are derived from Fourier components in the image. We investigated this issue by recording the ocular-following responses (OFRs) to white noise stimuli in human subjects. For a given speed we compared OFRs to unfiltered white noise with those to noise filtered with band-pass filters and notch filters. Removing components with low spatial frequency (SF) reduced OFR magnitudes, and the SF associated with the greatest reduction matched the SF that produced the maximal response when presented alone. This reduction declined rapidly with SF, compatible with a winner-take-all operation. Removing higher SF components increased OFR magnitudes. For higher speeds this effect became larger and propagated toward lower SFs. All of these effects were quantitatively well described by a model that combined two factors: (a) an excitatory drive that reflected the OFRs to individual Fourier components and (b) a suppression by higher SF channels where the temporal sampling of the display led to flicker. This nonlinear interaction has an important practical implication: Even with high refresh rates (150 Hz), the temporal sampling introduced by visual displays has a significant impact on visual processing. For instance, we show that this distorts speed tuning curves, shifting the peak to lower speeds. Careful attention to spectral content, in the light of this nonlinearity, is necessary to minimize the resulting artifact when using white noise patterns undergoing apparent motion.

  8. Ocular surface cytokine profile in chronic Stevens-Johnson syndrome and its response to mucous membrane grafting for lid margin keratinisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurumurthy, Srividya; Iyer, Geetha; Srinivasan, Bhaskar; Agarwal, Shweta; Angayarkanni, Narayanasamy

    2018-02-01

    To study the tear cytokine and the conjunctival and oral mucosal marker profile in chronic ocular Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and their alteration following mucous membrane grafting (MMG) for lid margin keratinisation (LMK). In a 1-year prospective study, SJS cases (n=25) and age-matched/sex-matched healthy controls (n=25) were recruited. Tear specimen (Schirmer's strip), conjunctival and oral mucosal imprints were collected from controls and SJS cases pre-MMG and post-MMG (at first follow-up, n=17). Tear cytokines were profiled using 27-bioplex array. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-mediated extracellular matrix changes in conjunctival and oral mucosal cells were analysed by gene expression studies. 30 RESULTS: Tear cytokine profiling of chronic SJS cases at pre-MMG stage revealed significant upregulation of cytokines granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, IL-15, IL-2, IL-17A and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) with downregulation of IP-10 (interferon gamma-induced protein 10), tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), IL-7, IL-12p70 and IL-13, with maximal increase in GM-CSF and maximal downregulation of IP-10, respectively. Of these, IL-2, IL-15, bFGF and IL-17A showed significant correlation with disease severity, pre-MMG. Conjunctival cells pre-MMG showed increase in TGF-β1, TGF-βRII, connective tissue growth factor and collagen-III gene expression by 10, 67, 173 and 184 folds, respectively, which dropped to 1.3, 11, 13.5 and 19 folds correspondingly, post-MMG. However, their expressions in oral mucosa were negligible. A proinflammatory, profibrotic, antiapoptotic ocular surface milieu characterises chronic ocular SJS. IP-10, an antifibrotic cytokine was noted to be maximally downregulated, unlike in other forms of chronic dry eye disease. The

  9. [Ocular burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, H; Gérard, M; Schrage, N

    2008-09-01

    Ocular or thermal burns account for 7.7%-18% of ocular trauma. The majority of victims are young. The burns occur in the setting of accidents at work or in the home, or during a physical attack. Chemical burns by strong acids or bases are responsible for the most serious injuries. Associated with the destruction of limbal stem cells, they present as recurrent epithelial ulcerations, chronic stromal ulcers, deep stromal revascularization, conjunctival overlap, or even corneal perforation. The initial clinical exam is sometimes difficult to perform in the presence of burning symptoms. Nevertheless, it enables the physician to classify the injury, establish a prognosis, and most importantly, guide the therapeutic management. The Roper-Hall modification of the Hughes classification system is the most widely utilized, broken down into stages based on the size of the stromal opacity and the extent of possible limbal ischemia. This classification is now favorably supplemented by those proposed by Dua and Wagoner, which are based on the extent of the limbal stem cell deficiency. The prognosis of the more serious forms of ocular burns has markedly improved over the last decade because of a better understanding of the physiology of the corneal epithelium. Surgical techniques aimed at restoring the destroyed limbal stem cells have altered the prognosis of severe corneal burns. In order to decrease the incidence of burns, prevention, particularly in industry, is essential.

  10. Acute and phase-shifting effects of ocular and extraocular light in human circadian physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rüger, Melanie; Gordijn, Marijke C.M.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; de Vries, Bonnie; Daan, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Light can influence physiology and performance of humans in two distinct ways. It can acutely change the level of physiological and behavioral parameters, and it can induce a phase shift in the circadian oscillators underlying variations in these levels. Until recently, both effects were thought to

  11. Oxidative phosphorylation in human muscle in patients with ocular myopathy and after general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Scholte (Hans); E. Agsteribbe (E.); H.F.M. Busch (Herman); T.U. Hoogenraad (T.); F.G.I. Jennekens (Frans G.); B. van Linge (Bert); I.E.M. Luyt-Houwen (I. E M); J.D. Ross (John); M.H.J. Ruiters (M. H J); M.H.M. Verduin (M. H M)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The fuel preference of human muscle mitochondria has been given. Substrates which are oxidized with low velocity cannot be used to detect defects in oxidative phosphorylation. After general anaesthesia, the oxygen uptake with the different substrates is much lower than

  12. NMR Spectroscopy of Human Eye Tissues: A New Insight into Ocular Biochemistry

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    Tomasz Kryczka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human eye is a complex organ whose anatomy and functions has been described very well to date. Unfortunately, the knowledge of the biochemistry and metabolic properties of eye tissues varies. Our objective was to reveal the biochemical differences between main tissue components of human eyes. Methods. Corneas, irises, ciliary bodies, lenses, and retinas were obtained from cadaver globes 0-1/2 hours postmortem of 6 male donors (age: 44–61 years. The metabolic profile of tissues was investigated with HR MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. A total of 29 metabolites were assigned in the NMR spectra of the eye tissues. Significant differences between tissues were revealed in contents of the most distant eye-tissues, while irises and ciliary bodies showed minimal biochemical differences. ATP, acetate, choline, glutamate, lactate, myoinositol, and taurine were identified as the primary biochemical compounds responsible for differentiation of the eye tissues. Conclusions. In this study we showed for the first time the results of the analysis of the main human eye tissues with NMR spectroscopy. The biochemical contents of the selected tissues seemed to correspond to their primary anatomical and functional attributes, the way of the delivery of the nutrients, and the location of the tissues in the eye.

  13. Clinical and Immunological Responses in Ocular Demodecosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hoon; Chun, Yeoun Sook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and immunological responses to Demodex on the ocular surface. Thirteen eyes in 10 patients with Demodex blepharitis and chronic ocular surface disorders were included in this study and treated by lid scrubbing with tea tree oil for the eradication of Demodex. We evaluated ocular surface manifestations and Demodex counts, and analyzed IL-1β, IL-5, IL-7, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β in tear samples before and after the treatment. All patients exhibited ocular surface manifestations including corneal nodular opacity, peripheral corneal vascularization, refractory corneal erosion and infiltration, or chronic conjunctival inflammatory signs before treatment. After treatment, Demodex was nearly eradicated, tear concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 were significantly reduced and substantial clinical improvement was observed in all patients. In conclusion, we believe that Demodex plays an aggravating role in inflammatory ocular surface disorders. PMID:21935281

  14. Interaction of linear and angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes of human subjects in response to transient motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, D; Gianna, C C; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A

    1996-08-01

    The possibility of synergistic interaction between the canal and otolith components of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was evaluated in human subjects by subtracting the response to pure angular rotation (AVOR) from the response to combined angular and translational motion (ALVOR) and comparing this difference with the VOR to isolated linear motion (LVOR). Assessments were made with target fixation at 60 cm and in darkness. Linear stimuli were acceleration steps attaining 0.25 g in less than 80 ms. To elicit responses to combined translational and angular head movements, the subjects were seated on a Barany chair with the head displaced forwards 40 cm from the axis of rotation. The chair was accelerated at approximately 300 deg/s2 to 127 deg/s peak angular velocity, the tangential acceleration of the head being comparable with that of isolated translation. Estimates of the contribution of smooth pursuit to responses in the light were made from comparisons of isolated pursuit of similar target trajectories. In the dark the slow phase eye movements evoked by combined canal-otolith stimuli were higher in magnitude by approximately a third than the sum of those produced by translation and rotation alone. In the light, the relative target displacement during isolated linear motion was similar to the difference in relative target displacements during eccentric and centred rotation. However, the gain of the translational component of compensatory eye movement during combined translational and angular motion was approximately unity, in contrast to the gain of the response to isolated linear motion, which was approximately a half. Pursuit performance was always poorer than target following during self-motion. The LVOR responses in the light were greater than the sum of the LVOR responses in the dark with pursuit eye movements. We conclude that, in response to transient motion, there is a synergistic enhancement of the translational VOR with concurrent canal

  15. Cisticercosis ocular

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    Danaides Arencibia González

    Full Text Available La cisticercosis establece un grupo de enfermedades zoonóticas parasitarias; cuando se aloja en el ojo y sus anexos producen una cisticercosis ocular y periocular. Constituye una de las causas de uveítis ocular y pérdida importante de la visión. El diagnóstico clínico se realiza mediante la observación directa del parásito, cuando existen opacidades de los medios, el ultrasonido se emplea como medio diagnóstico útil. Los anti helmintos asociados a esteroides forman parte de su terapéutica, sumado al tratamiento definitivo de la extracción del parásito, en este tipo de afección mediante vitrectomía vía pars plana. Se presenta un caso portador de esta condición, se describen las características más importantes del cuadro clínico, diagnóstico, manejo y curso evolutivo-terapéutico.

  16. Drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment using lipid emulsion via eye drop administration: effect of emulsion formulations and surface modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lin; Tahara, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hirofumi

    2013-09-10

    This work explored submicron-sized lipid emulsion as potential carriers for intraocular drug delivery to the posterior segment via eye drops. The effects of physicochemical properties of lipid emulsion on drug delivery were evaluated in vivo using mice. Different formulations of submicron-sized lipid emulsions were prepared using a high pressure homogenization system. Using coumairn-6 as a model drug and fluorescent marker, fluorescence could be observed in the retina after administration of the lipid emulsion. The fluorescence intensity observed after administration of medium chain triglycerides containing the same amount of coumarin-6 was much lower than that observed after administration of lipid emulsions. The inner oil property and phospholipid emulsifier did not affect the drug delivery efficiency to the retina. However, compared with unmodified emulsions, the fluorescence intensity in the retina increased by surface modification using a positive charge inducer and the functional polymers chitosan (CS) and poloxamer 407 (P407). CS-modified lipid emulsions could be electrostatically interacted with the eye surface. By its adhesive property, poloxamer 407, a surface modifier, possibly increased the lipid emulsion retention time on the eye surface. In conclusion, we suggested that surface-modified lipid emulsions could be promising vehicles of hydrophobic drug delivery to the ocular posterior segment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kensaku; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS) on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT), corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms), and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT) six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036), fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012), but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (Peye was shortened BUT type (53.1%). The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7%) compared with before surgery (69.7%). Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015), but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001). Total subjective symptom score was significantly decreased in the AT group (P<0.001), but not in the DQS group. Conclusion Our study suggests that cataract surgery has harmful effects on tear film stability and ocular surface, and DQS has a capability to improve them. PMID:28360509

  18. Changes of the ocular surface and tear film after the coaxial incision 2.5mm and 3.0mm in the phacoemulsification

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    Jing Tao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To study the changes of tear film and ocular surface after the coaxial incision 2.5mm and 3.0mm in the phacoemulsification.METHODS: Seventy patients(92 eyesfrom February 2015 to February 2016 in our hospital were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Thirty-four patients(46 eyesin Group A: coaxial 2.5mm incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens(IOLimplantation. Thirty-six patients(46 eyesin Group B: the conventional coaxial 3.0mm small incision phacoemulsification cataract extraction and IOL implantation. The break up time(BUT, Schirmer's Ⅰ test(SⅠtand lid-parallel conjunctival folds(LIPCOFwere assessed preoperatively and postoperatively. RESULTS: At 1wk, 1 and 3mo postoperatively, the BUT in two groups decreased after operations, and the BUT of Group B was significantly lower than those of Group A, the differences were statistically significant(t=3.089, 4.497, 4.322; all Pt=-6.286, -3.992, -3.278; all Pt=-6.552, -5.131, -3.652; all Pt=0.646, 0.551, 0.165; P>0.05. The BUT, SⅠt and LIPCOF score in Group B showed statistically significant differences(t=-4.059, 3.629, 4.211; all PCONCLUSION: Ocular surface has less damage and tear film has little influence at early stage after the coaxial 2.5mm incision phacoemulsmcation, compared with the conventional coaxial 3.0mm incision phacoemulsification surgery.

  19. Clinical outcomes of xeno-free expansion and transplantation of autologous ocular surface epithelial stem cells via contact lens delivery: a prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobba, Samantha; Chow, Sharron; Watson, Stephanie; Di Girolamo, Nick

    2015-03-12

    Depletion of limbal stem cells leads to a debilitating condition known as limbal stem cell deficiency, characterised by impaired corneal wound healing and poor vision. The aim of this study was to determine whether delivering progenitor cells on a contact lens is a viable and effective alternative to current transplantation techniques, which are complicated by biological and xenogeneic materials. Sixteen eyes of 16 patients who had total (n=14) and partial (n=2) limbal stem cell deficiency (chemical burns, five eyes; iatrogenic causes, four eyes; aniridia, three eyes; trachoma-induced, two eyes; contact lens over-wear, one eye; and cicatrising conjunctivitis, one eye) and who had failed prior therapy were recruited prospectively into the study. Autologous limbal (n=7) or conjunctival epithelial (n=9) biopsies were harvested from patients and placed on the concave surface of silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Cells were expanded in culture with autologous serum and transplanted onto the ocular surface. Restoration of a transparent avascular and clinically stable corneal epithelium was attained in 10 of 16 eyes (63%) at a median follow-up time of 2.5 years (range of 0.8 to 5.8 years). Although minor complications occurred in two eyes of two patients because of contact lens insertion or removal, these were not associated with long-term sequelae. This is the first and largest study to evaluate the mid-term outcomes of autologous limbal/conjunctival stem cell transplantation via a US Food and Drug Administration-approved contact lens, demonstrating that delivery of ocular progenitor cells via this procedure offers a viable, effective, and xeno-free alternative to current transplantation methodologies. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012607000211460. Registered 17 April 2007.

  20. Recent advances on ocular Demodex infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Anny M S; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C G

    2015-07-01

    To summarize recent advances on ocular Demodex infestation. Demodex infestation is a potential cause of ocular surface inflammation. The pathogenesis of Demodex in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. Cliradex is currently the treatment of choice, it comprises the most active ingredient of tea tree oil, that is terpinen-4-ol, which helps eradicate Demodex mites and reduce ocular surface inflammation. Ocular demodicosis is a common but overlooked eye disease that manifests a number of morbidities. Demodex folliculorum causes chronic anterior blepharitis whereas Demodex brevis causes posterior blepharitis, meibomian gland dysfunction, recurrent chalazia, and refractory keratoconjunctivitis. The lash sampling and microscopic counting method and in-vivo confocal microscopy are key diagnostic methods. Cliradex shows promising potential to reduce Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions.

  1. Pediatric ocular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, H L

    1999-07-01

    There are few ocular emergencies that are unique to the pediatric patient. Most ocular emergencies are traumatic in origin, and the prognosis is often determined by the extent of the injury. Some congenital anomalies that may present as ocular emergencies are also discussed. The focus of this article is recognition and initial therapy for the more common pediatric ocular emergencies.

  2. Qualitative changes of ocular surface in the patients with dry eye syndrome after Systein Ultra systemic using

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    T. I. Poltanova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate clinical efficiency of systemic usage of artificial tears drops Systein Ultra in the patients with different forms of dry eye syndrome.Methods: 42 patients (84 eyes at the age of 21‑84 with different pathogenic forms of ocular xerosis and degrees of it’s severity were investigated. Systein Ultra eye drops in instillations were prescribed to all patients 3 times a day. Complex examination of being investigated was performed before the drug administration, in 7 days and then in 2 weeks.Results: Positive dynamics after the treatment was reavealed on average in 4‑7 days. There was decrease or absolute reduction of subjective and objective signs in the majority of cases. In the severest cases of the disease all investigated parameters were not changed.Conclusion: The positive clinical result after artificial tears drops Systein Ultra using, accompanied by eye comfort without significant side effects, allows us to recommend Systein Ultra to the wide application in therapy of different pathogenic forms dry eye syndrome.

  3. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Petznick

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. METHODS: Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18. Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5 served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. RESULTS: The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding. Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively as compared to procedural controls (p0.05. Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. CONCLUSIONS: Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following corneal wounding are the lacrimal gland and CALT. Other

  4. Comparison of efficacy and ocular surface toxicity of topical preservative-free methylprednisolone and preserved prednisolone in the treatment of acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayatfar, Alireza; Hashemi, Hassan; Asgari, Soheila; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the antiinflammatory effect and ocular surface toxicity of topical nonpreserved methylprednisolone sodium succinate 1% and preserved prednisolone acetate suspension 1% for the management of acute anterior uveitis (AAU). In this prospective, randomized, investigator-masked, comparative clinical trial, patients with mild-to-moderate noninfectious AAU were assigned randomly to receive either hourly nonpreserved methylprednisolone 1% (group A) or preserved prednisolone 1% (group B) eye drops followed by a 2-week tapering regimen. Anterior chamber cells and flare were clinically evaluated for the objective comparison of the antiinflammatory effect. The main outcome measure was the percentage of patients with a resolution of inflammation (anterior chamber cells toxicity was assessed by means of the corneal fluorescein staining score, tear breakup time, Schirmer I test, and questionnaire-based grading of ocular discomfort parameters. Seventy-two eyes of 68 patients were studied, of which 38 eyes were enrolled in group A and 34 eyes were enrolled in group B. On day 14, 76.3% of the patients in group A had resolution of inflammation compared with 70.6% of the patients in group B, proving noninferiority (χ = 0.303, P = 0.582). The mean anterior chamber cell grade reduction for patients in group A was similar to that in group B (2.52 vs. 2.86, respectively; P = 0.92). Group A patients showed significantly lower corneal fluorescein staining scores (P toxicity profile and milder subjective discomfort when compared with that exhibited by preserved prednisolone.

  5. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis of dysplastic epithelium of human ocular surface: basement membrane and intermediate filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saika, S; Kawashima, Y; Okada, Y; Ohkawa, K; Yamanaka, O; Katoh, T; Ohnishi, Y; Ooshima, A; Kao, W W

    1999-05-01

    The dysplastic corneal epithelium is characterized by the abnormal proliferation of epithelial cells. The phenotypes of these cells have not been elucidated. We investigated whether such epithelium expresses the phenotypes of corneal or conjunctival epithelial cells. The corneas and conjunctivae from four normal subjects and from one patient with epithelial dysplasia of the central cornea were immunostained for IV and VII collagens and for cytokeratins. Monoclonal antibodies against collagen IV reacted to the [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) or alpha5(IV) molecule. Anti-cytokeratin antibodies were used to define epithelial cell types. The ultrastructure of the basement membrane (BM) of each specimen also was examined. Type VII collagen immunoreactivity was detected in all the specimens of epithelial BM. The anti-collagen IV [alpha1(IV)]2alpha2(IV) antibody labeled the conjunctival BMs, not the BMs of the corneal epithelia, of each subject. The normal corneal epithelial BM, not the BM of the conjunctival or dysplastic corneal epithelium, was immunolabeled with anti-alpha5(IV) antibody. The pattern of cytokeratin expression in the corneal epithelial dysplasia resembled that seen in the normal conjunctivae. Small breaks in the BM of dysplastic corneal epithelium were ultrastructurally revealed. The number of hemidesmosomes in the dysplastic corneal epithelium was decreased as compared with that in the normal BM. The composition of collagen types within the BM and the cellular phenotype of the dysplastic epithelium in the cornea resembled those of conjunctival epithelium, not of the cornea.

  6. Ocular manifestations and outcome of treatment of Stevens-Johnson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Final visual acuity depended on presenting visual acuity, how early in the disease patients presented, degree of inflammation and the degree of ocular surface cicatrisation. Conclusion: Ocular involvement in SJS results in widely differing degrees of ocular disability. Management involves medications and surgery.

  7. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  8. Human ovarian surface epithelium in primary culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersperg, N; Siemens, C H; Myrdal, S E

    1984-10-01

    The ovarian surface epithelium (OSE) represents a minute fraction of the cell mass of the ovary but gives rise to over 80% of human ovarian carcinomas. No experimental models for the study of human OSE exist. To characterize OSE cells in culture, explants of ovarian surface from normal ovary of premenopausal women were grown on plastic, glass, and collagen gel in 25% fetal bovine serum/Waymouth's medium 752/1. About 25% of explants produced epithelial outgrowths. Morphologically, these outgrowths resembled OSE in vivo and endothelial and mesothelial cells in culture, but they differed from cultured ovarian stromal, granulosa, and luteal cells. Only OSE among ovarian cell types were intensely keratin positive by immunofluorescence. Keratin also distinguished OSE cells from the keratin-negative endothelial cells. Most but not all OSE colonies tested showed 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) activity, which was absent in peritoneal mesothelial cells. Colonies from most patients were limited to a few millimetres and became stationary within a few weeks. Changes that accompanied cessation of growth included senescence, increased keratin content, or the formation of multicellular papillary aggregates. With time, OSE cells tended to assume a fibroblast-like morphology but remained keratin positive and continued to resemble OSE by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Subcultured OSE cells persisted in a stationary keratin-positive form for many weeks. Throughout this study, all pavementlike epithelial outgrowths that were contiguous with an explant stained for keratin; thus, such colonies can be assumed to be OSE. Conversely, fibroblast-shaped cells may represent OSE as indicated by keratin content and SEM appearance. The methods presented here permit culture of normal human OSE under conditions in which the cells exhibit morphologic plasticity, variable 17 beta-HSD activity, and presence of keratin.

  9. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kensaku Miyake,1 Norihiko Yokoi2 On behalf of Dry Eye After Cataract Surgery Investigational Study Group (DASIS group 1Miyake Eye Hospital, Nagoya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design: This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods: Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms, and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results: At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036, fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012, but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (P<0.001. The majority of postoperative dry eye was shortened BUT type (53.1%. The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7% compared with before surgery (69.7%. Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015, but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001. Total subjective symptom

  10. Ocular Paintball Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemet, Arie Y; Asalee, Leena; Lang, Yaron; Briscoe, Daniel; Assia, Ehud I

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most alarming ocular injury trends in recent years has been the proliferation of paintball guns and the proportional increase in the number of ocular eye injuries caused by paintballs...

  11. Evaluation of ocular irritancy of coal-tar dyes used in cosmetics employing reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium and short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Miri; Nam, Ki Taek; Kim, Jungah; Lim, Song E; Yeon, Sang Hyeon; Lee, Buhyun; Lee, Joo Young; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2017-10-01

    Coal-tar dyes in cosmetics may elicit adverse effects in the skin and eyes. Countries, like the US, have banned the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics for the eye area due to the potential for ocular irritation. We evaluated the eye irritation potential of 15 coal-tar dyes permitted as cosmetic ingredients in reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium (RhCEs [EpiOcular™ and MCTT HCE™]) tests and the short time exposure (STE) test. Eosin YS, phloxine B, tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein, and tetrabromofluorescein were identified as irritants in RhCEs; dibromofluorescein and uranine yielded discrepant results. STE enabled further classification in accordance with the UN Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals, as follows: eosin YS as Cat 2; phloxine B, Cat 1; and tetrachlorotetrabromofluorescein and tetrabromofluorescein, Cat 1/2. STE indicated dibromofluorescein (irritant in EpiOcular™) and uranine (irritant in MCTT HCE™) as No Cat, resulting in the classification of "No prediction can be made." based on bottom-up approach with each model. These results demonstrated that in vitro eye irritation tests can be utilized to evaluate the potential ocular irritancy of cosmetic ingredients and provide significant evidence with which to determine whether precautions should be given for the use of coal-tar dyes in cosmetics or other substances applied to the eye area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the influence of corneo-scleral and scleral lenses on ocular surface and tear film metrics in a presbyopic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafosse, Edouard; Romín, Daniel Monsálvez; Esteve-Taboada, José-Juan; Wolffsohn, James S; Talens-Estarelles, Cristian; García-Lázaro, Santiago

    2017-09-27

    To assess and compare the effect of the corneo-scleral lenses (C-ScL) and scleral lenses (ScL) on tear film parameters and central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy presbyopic subjects. Thirty subjects wore two contact lenses (CLs), randomly assigned, of neutral power, but of different diameters, 12.7mm (C-ScL) and 18mm (ScL) and being equal in the others parameters: material (HS100) and centre thickness (0.29mm). At baseline, 20min after insertion and at 8h, the tear meniscus area (TMA) and CCT was measured (with optical coherence tomography) as well as tear osmolarity. TMA revealed statistical differences for both lenses at 20min (plenses at 20min (p=0.002), and also at 8h (p=0.001), being lower for the C-ScL. Osmolarity did not reveal statistical differences at 20min (p=0.29), while it was statistically different at 8h (p=0.03), being lower for the C-ScL. C-ScL lead to a lesser reduction in the TMA and a lower induced hypoxic stress than the ScL. Osmolarity levels remained within normal values across the day with no clinical difference between lenses. Both designs can represent a good optical platform for correcting presbyopia as well as protecting the ocular surface by vaulting the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Intracorneal and Intraocular Invasion of Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia after Intraocular Surgery: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Juan C; Galor, Anat; Wu, Michael C; Kye, Natasha K; Wong, James; Ahmed, Ibrahim O; Joag, Madhura; Shalabi, Nabeel; Lahners, William; Dubovy, Sander; Karp, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe 2 cases of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) of the conjunctiva with intracorneal and intraocular extension following intraocular surgery. We conducted a clinical pathological retrospective case series. Case 1 underwent cataract surgery in the setting of an unnoticed adjacent OSSN. An excisional biopsy with cryotherapy and intraoperative mitomycin C was subsequently performed, confirming OSSN. The patient had two recurrences treated topically with resolution. While the conjunctiva remained clear, a corneal haze emanating from the cataract incision site was noted. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) for this haze revealed midstromal infiltrative carcinoma. Case 2 had a history of herpes simplex keratitis that ultimately required corneal grafts. Fifteen years later, he developed an OSSN treated with excisional biopsy and had clear margins. Eight months later, he presented with a recurrence of his OSSN and was treated briefly with topical interferon for 4 weeks; however, he developed an infectious keratitis with a corneal perforation requiring another PK. Four months after PK, low-grade inflammation was noted. Cytology of the anterior chamber aspirate revealed neoplastic squamous cells. Another PK was then performed. Pathology confirmed extensive intraocular neoplasia. Limited exenteration was performed. Patients with a history of OSSN may be at increased risk of neoplastic intraocular extension following intraocular surgery.

  14. Contributions of ocular surface components to matrix-metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in feline tears following corneal epithelial wounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petznick, Andrea; Madigan, Michele C; Garrett, Qian; Sweeney, Deborah F; Evans, Margaret D M

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated ocular surface components that contribute to matrix-metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 found in tears following corneal epithelial wounding. Laboratory short-haired cats underwent corneal epithelial debridement in one randomly chosen eye (n = 18). Eye-flush tears were collected at baseline and during various healing stages. Procedural control eyes (identical experimental protocol as wounded eyes except for wounding, n = 5) served as controls for tear analysis. MMP activity was analyzed in tears using gelatin zymography. MMP staining patterns were evaluated in ocular tissues using immunohistochemistry and used to determine MMP expression sites responsible for tear-derived MMPs. The proMMP-2 and proMMP-9 activity in tears was highest in wounded and procedural control eyes during epithelial migration (8 to 36 hours post-wounding). Wounded eyes showed significantly higher proMMP-9 in tears only during and after epithelial restratification (day 3 to 4 and day 7 to 28 post-wounding, respectively) as compared to procedural controls (pTears from wounded and procedural control eyes showed no statistical differences for pro-MMP-2 and MMP-9 (p>0.05). Immunohistochemistry showed increased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression in the cornea during epithelial migration and wound closure. The conjunctival epithelium exhibited highest levels of both MMPs during wound closure, while MMP-9 expression was reduced in conjunctival goblet cells during corneal epithelial migration followed by complete absence of the cells during wound closure. The immunostaining for both MMPs was elevated in the lacrimal gland during corneal healing, with little/no change in the meibomian glands. Conjunctival-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT) showed weak MMP-2 and intense MMP-9 staining. Following wounding, migrating corneal epithelium contributed little to the observed MMP levels in tears. The major sources assessed in the present study for tear-derived MMP-2 and MMP-9 following

  15. Functions of Peptidoglycan Recognition Proteins (Pglyrps) at the Ocular Surface: Bacterial Keratitis in Gene-Targeted Mice Deficient in Pglyrp-2, -3 and -4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Ranjita N; Redfern, Rachel; Frikeche, Jihane; Pinglay, Sudarshan; Foster, James William; Lema, Carolina; Cope, Leslie; Chakravarti, Shukti

    2015-01-01

    Functions of antimicrobial peptidoglycan recognition proteins (Pglyrp1-4) at the ocular surface are poorly understood. Earlier, we reported an antibacterial role for Pglyrp-1 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. Here we investigated functions of three other related genes Pglyrp-2, -3 and -4 in a mouse model of P. aeruginosa keratitis. Wild type (WT) and each of the Pglyrp-null genotypes were challenged with P. aeruginosa keratitis. The eyes were scored in a blinded manner 24 and 48h post infection. Viable bacterial counts and inflammatory factors (IL-12, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL2, IL-6 and IL-10) were measured in whole eye homogenates using cytometric bead arrays. Expressions of Pglyrp-1-4, mouse beta defensins (mBD)-2,-3, cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) were determined by qRTPCR in total RNA extracts of uninfected and infected eyes of WT and each of the Pglyrp-null mouse types. The Pglyrp-2-/- mice showed reduced disease and lower induction of pro-inflammatory TNF-α (p = 0.02) than WT or the other Pglyrp null mice. Viable bacterial yield was significantly lower in the Pglyrp-2-/- (p = 0.0007) and the Pglyrp-4-/- (p = 0.098) mice. With regards to expression of these antimicrobial genes, Pglyrp-2 expression was induced after infection in WT mice. Pglyrp-3 expression was low before and after infection in WT mice, while Pglyrp-4 expression was slightly elevated after infection in WT, Pglyrp-2 and -3 null mice. Pglyrp-1 expression was slightly elevated after infection in all genotypes without statistical significance. Transcripts for antimicrobial peptides mBD2, mBD3 and CRAMP were elevated in infected Pglyrp-2-/- males without statistical significance. Efficient resolution of keratitis in the Pglyrp-2-/- mice may be due to a reduced pro-inflammatory microenvironment and synergistic antibacterial activities of defensins, CRAMP and Pglyrp-1. Therefore, in ocular infections the pro-inflammatory functions of Pglyrp-2 must be regulated to benefit the host.

  16. Pediatric ocular nanomedicines: Challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheybani, Natasha D; Yang, Hu

    2017-09-01

    The eye is a highly complex, yet readily accessible organ within the human body. As such, the eye is an appealing candidate target for a vast array of drug therapies. Despite advances in ocular drug therapy research, the focus on pediatric ocular drug delivery continues to be highly underrepresented due to the limited number of degenerative ocular diseases with childhood onset. In this review, we explore more deeply the reasons underlying the disparity between ocular therapies available for children and for adults by highlighting diseases that most commonly afflict children (with focus on the anterior eye) and existing prognoses, recent developments in ocular drug delivery systems and nanomedicines for children, and barriers to use for pediatric patients.

  17. HLA-A*0206 with TLR3 polymorphisms exerts more than additive effects in Stevens-Johnson syndrome with severe ocular surface complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Ueta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS is an acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reaction of the skin and mucosa, often including the ocular surface, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN occurs with its progression. Although SJS/TEN is thought to be initiated by certain types of medication coupled with possible infection. In the present study we examined the multiplicative interaction(s between HLA-A*0206 and 7 Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in patients with SJS/TEN. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the genotypes for HLA-A and 7 TLR3 SNPs in 110 Japanese SJS/TEN patients with severe ocular complications and 206 healthy volunteers to examine the interactions between the two loci. We found that HLA-A*0206 exhibited a high odds ratio for SJS/TEN (carrier frequency: OR = 5.1; gene frequency: OR = 4.0 and that there was a strong association with TLR3 rs.5743312T/T SNP (OR = 7.4, TLR3 rs.3775296T/T SNP (OR = 5.8, TLR3 rs.6822014G/G SNP (OR = 4.8, TLR3 rs.3775290A/A SNP (OR = 2.9, TLR3 rs.7668666A/A SNP (OR = 2.7, TLR3 rs.4861699G/G SNP (OR = 2.3, and TLR3 rs.11732384G/G SNP (OR = 1.9. There was strong linkage disequilibrium (LD between rs.3775296 and rs.5743312 and between rs.7668666 and rs.3775290. The results of interaction analysis showed that the pair, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 SNP rs3775296T/T, which exhibited strong LD with TLR3 rs.5743312, exerted more than additive effects (OR = 47.7. The other pairs, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 rs.3775290A/A SNP (OR = 11.4 which was in strong LD with TLR3 rs7668666A/A SNP, and TLR3 rs4861699G/G SNP (OR = 7.6 revealed additive effects. Moreover, the combination HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 rs3775296T/T was stronger than the TLR3 rs6822014G/G and TLR3 rs3775290A/A pair, which reflected the interactions within the TLR3 gene alone. SIGNIFICANCE: By interaction analysis, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 SNP rs3775296T/T, which were in strong LD with TLR3 SNP rs5743312T/T, manifested more than additive effects that

  18. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.

  19. Topical interferon alfa-2b for management of ocular surface squamous neoplasia in 23 cases: outcomes based on American Joint Committee on Cancer classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sanket U; Kaliki, Swathi; Kim, H Jane; Lally, Sara E; Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of topical interferon alfa-2b in the management of ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN). Clinically visible OSSN in 20 patients (23 tumors) was managed with topical interferon alfa-2b, 1 million IU/mL, 4 times daily. Tumor control and complications were evaluated according to American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Complete tumor resolution was achieved in 19 tumors (83%) following topical interferon alfa-2b treatment for a median period of 6 months (mean, 7 months; range, 1-12 months) and maintained for up to 24 months of follow-up. Of the 4 tumors with partial resolution (17%), tumor surface area was reduced 44% (median) during 4 months (median) without further response and alternative therapy was used. Based on American Joint Committee on Cancer classification, complete control was achieved in 2 of 3 Tis (67%), 17 of 20 T3 (85%), 19 of 23 N0 (83%), and 19 of 23 M0 (83%) category tumors. Tumors involving the cornea responded earlier compared with those without corneal involvement (P = .01). Initial tumor size did not correlate with time to response (P = .27). Recurrence was noted in 1 case (Tis, 4%) at 3 months. Adverse effects included conjunctival hyperemia (2 [10%]), follicular hypertrophy (2 [10%]), giant papillary conjunctivitis (1 [5%]), irritation (1 [5%]), corneal epithelial defect (1 [5%]), and flulike symptoms (1 [5%]); all resolved within 1 month of medication discontinuation. According to American Joint Committee on Cancer classification, complete control with topical interferon alfa-2b can be achieved in 67% of Tis, 85% of T3, and 83% of all OSSN.

  20. Different effects of the hypolipidemic drugs pravastatin and lovastatin on the cholesterol biosynthesis of the human ocular lens in organ culture and on the cholesterol content of the rat lens in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.C.J. de; Cohen, L.H.

    1993-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of the hypocholesterolemic drugs pravastatin and lovastatin on the cholesterol biosynthesis in the ocular lens. Two model systems were used: a human lens organ culture system and an in vivo rat lens system. For measurements of cholesterol and fatty acid

  1. Ocular chemical injuries and their management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical burns represent potentially blinding ocular injuries and constitute a true ocular emergency requiring immediate assessment and initiation of treatment. The majority of victims are young and exposure occurs at home, work place and in association with criminal assaults. Alkali injuries occur more frequently than acid injuries. Chemical injuries of the eye produce extensive damage to the ocular surface epithelium, cornea, anterior segment and limbal stem cells resulting in permanent unilateral or bilateral visual impairment. Emergency management if appropriate may be single most important factor in determining visual outcome. This article reviews the emergency management and newer techniques to improve the prognosis of patients with chemical injuries.

  2. Ultraviolet light and ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Jason C S; Kwok, Alvin K H

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to review the association between ultraviolet (UV) light and ocular diseases. The data are sourced from the literature search of Medline up to Nov 2012, and the extracted data from original articles, review papers, and book chapters were reviewed. There is a strong evidence that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is associated with the formation of eyelid malignancies [basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)], photokeratitis, climatic droplet keratopathy (CDK), pterygium, and cortical cataract. However, the evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN), and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is related to UV exposure. It is now suggested that AMD is probably related to visible radiation especially blue light, rather than UV exposure. From the results, it was concluded that eyelid malignancies (BCC and SCC), photokeratitis, CDK, pterygium, and cortical cataract are strongly associated with UVR exposure. Evidence of the association between UV exposure and development of pinguecula, nuclear and posterior subcapsular cataract, OSSN, and ocular melanoma remained limited. There is insufficient evidence to determine whether AMD is related to UV exposure. Simple behaviural changes, appropriate clothing, wearing hats, and UV blocking spectacles, sunglasses or contact lens are effective measures for UV protection.

  3. Intraocular pressure control with Ahmed glaucoma drainage device in patients with cicatricial ocular surface disease-associated or aniridia-related glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almousa, Radwan; Lake, Damian B

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the control of intraocular pressure (IOP) with an Ahmed glaucoma drainage device (AGDD) in two groups of glaucoma patients--one with cicatricial ocular surface disease (COSD) and one with aniridia. This is a retrospective comparative case series of nine patients (11 eyes) with COSD and six patients (8 eyes) with aniridia who underwent AGDD surgery to control IOP. The main outcome measure in both groups was stability of IOP between 6 and 21 mmHg. Mean IOP decreased significantly in both groups after AGDD surgery (29.6 ± 8.7 vs 14.7 ± 2.5, p = 0.008 in the COSD group; 26.3 ± 8.2 vs 15.3 ± 5.8, p = 0.008 in the aniridia group). Over a mean post-surgery follow-up of 37.1 months in the COSD group, we managed to control IOP in nine eyes; IOP control was successful in 87 % of eyes at 12 months and 58 % of eyes at 26 months. Over a mean post-surgery follow-up of 37.4 months in the aniridia group, we managed to control the IOP in seven eyes; IOP control was successful in 87 % of eyes at 12 months. AGDD surgery had no significant deleterious effect on visual acuity in either group. A severe complication occurred in one eye (1/8) in the aniridia group (lost vision due to retinal detachment) and in one eye (1/11) in the COSD group (tube exposure). AGDD surgery is effective in controlling IOP and has a low complication rate in COSD and aniridia patients; however, some of the complications are severe and prompt management is needed to prevent deleterious results.

  4. Roles of IL-8 in ocular inflammations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Yaraee, Roya; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad

    2011-12-01

    This review presents the current in vitro and in vivo animal and human research on the roles of IL-8 in ocular inflammatory diseases. Data sources were a literature review using Pub Med, Medline, and ISI databases (from 1990 to 2011). Search items included interleukine-8 (IL-8), CXCL8, chemokines, cytokines, alone or in combination with the, serum, aqueous, vitreous, eye, ocular, ocular tissues, ophthalmic, and review. IL-8 may be involved in primary or secondary ocular inflammations. Ocular effects of IL-8 differ based on the source of the secretion and site of the action. The most important effects of IL-8 in the eyes are angiogenic activities and induction of ocular inflammation. IL-8 plays important roles in ocular inflammation and angiogenesis in conjunctiva, cornea, iris, retina, and orbit. Anti-IL-8 targeted immunotherapy has been introduced as an important treatment modality, provided that IL-8 signal blocking takes place in desired areas and tissues.

  5. The role of complement in ocular pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Bora, Nalini S.; Jha, Purushottam; Bora, Puran S.

    2008-01-01

    Functionally active complement system and complement regulatory proteins are present in the normal human and rodent eye. Complement activation and its regulation by ocular complement regulatory proteins contribute to the pathology of various ocular diseases including keratitis, uveitis and age-related macular degeneration. Furthermore, a strong relationship between age-related macular degeneration and polymorphism in the genes of certain complement components/complement regulatory proteins is...

  6. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  7. Life on human surfaces: skin metagenomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Mathieu

    Full Text Available The human skin microbiome could provide another example, after the gut, of the strong positive or negative impact that human colonizing bacteria can have on health. Deciphering functional diversity and dynamics within human skin microbial communities is critical for understanding their involvement and for developing the appropriate substances for improving or correcting their action. We present a direct PCR-free high throughput sequencing approach to unravel the human skin microbiota specificities through metagenomic dataset analysis and inter-environmental comparison. The approach provided access to the functions carried out by dominant skin colonizing taxa, including Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Propionibacterium, revealing their specific capabilities to interact with and exploit compounds from the human skin. These functions, which clearly illustrate the unique life style of the skin microbial communities, stand as invaluable investigation targets for understanding and potentially modifying bacterial interactions with the human host with the objective of increasing health and well being.

  8. Surface Chemistry Interactions of Cationorm with Films by Human Meibum and Tear Film Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi As. Georgiev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cationorm® (CN cationic nanoemulsion was demonstrated to enhance tear film (TF stability in vivo possibly via effects on tear film lipid layer (TFLL. Therefore the interactions of CN with human meibum (MGS and TFLL in vitro and in vivo deserve special study. MGS and CN were spread at the air/water interface of a Langmuir surface balance to ensure a range of MGS/CN oil phase ratios: 20/1, 10/1, 5/1, 3/1, 2/1 and 1/1. The films capability to reorganize during dynamic area changes was evaluated via the surface pressure-area compression isotherms and step/relaxation dilatational rheology studies. Films structure was monitored with Brewster angle microscopy. CN/TFLL interactions at the ocular surface were monitored with non-contact specular microscopy. The in vitro studies of MGS/CN layers showed that (i CN inclusion (at fixed MGS content increased film elasticity and thickness and that (ii CN can compensate for moderate meibum deficiency in MGS/CN films. In vivo CN mixed with TFLL in a manner similar to CN/MGS interactions in vitro, and resulted in enhanced thickness of TFLL. In vitro and in vivo data complement each other and facilitated the study of the composition-structure-function relationship that determines the impact of cationic nanoemulsions on TF.

  9. Competitive protein adsorption to polymer surface from human serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, Maria; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius; Larsen, Niels Bent

    2008-01-01

    Surface modification by "soft" plasma polymerisation to obtain a hydrophilic and non-fouling polymer surface has been validated using radioactive labelling. Adsorption to unmodified and modified polymer surfaces, from both single protein and human serum solutions, has been investigated. By using...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: ocular albinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions ocular albinism ocular albinism Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Ocular albinism is a genetic condition that primarily affects the ...

  11. Influence of age, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on localization of auditory, visual, and bimodal targets by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobreva, Marina S; O'Neill, William E; Paige, Gary D

    2012-12-01

    A common complaint of the elderly is difficulty identifying and localizing auditory and visual sources, particularly in competing background noise. Spatial errors in the elderly may pose challenges and even threats to self and others during everyday activities, such as localizing sounds in a crowded room or driving in traffic. In this study, we investigated the influence of aging, spatial memory, and ocular fixation on the localization of auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual (bimodal) targets. Head-restrained young and elderly subjects localized targets in a dark, echo-attenuated room using a manual laser pointer. Localization accuracy and precision (repeatability) were quantified for both ongoing and transient (remembered) targets at response delays up to 10 s. Because eye movements bias auditory spatial perception, localization was assessed under target fixation (eyes free, pointer guided by foveal vision) and central fixation (eyes fixed straight ahead, pointer guided by peripheral vision) conditions. Spatial localization across the frontal field in young adults demonstrated (1) horizontal overshoot and vertical undershoot for ongoing auditory targets under target fixation conditions, but near-ideal horizontal localization with central fixation; (2) accurate and precise localization of ongoing visual targets guided by foveal vision under target fixation that degraded when guided by peripheral vision during central fixation; (3) overestimation in horizontal central space (±10°) of remembered auditory, visual, and bimodal targets with increasing response delay. In comparison with young adults, elderly subjects showed (1) worse precision in most paradigms, especially when localizing with peripheral vision under central fixation; (2) greatly impaired vertical localization of auditory and bimodal targets; (3) increased horizontal overshoot in the central field for remembered visual and bimodal targets across response delays; (4) greater vulnerability to

  12. Cornea and ocular surface treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Miguel, Maria P; Alio, Jorge L; Arnalich-Montiel, Francisco; Fuentes-Julian, Sherezade; de Benito-Llopis, Laura; Amparo, Francisco; Bataille, Laurent

    2010-06-01

    In addition to being a protective shield, the cornea represents two thirds of the eye's refractive power. Corneal pathology can affect one or all of the corneal layers, producing corneal opacity. Although full corneal thickness keratoplasty has been the standard procedure, the ideal strategy would be to replace only the damaged layer. Current difficulties in corneal transplantation, mainly immune rejection and shortage of organ supply, place more emphasis on the development of artificial corneas. Bioengineered corneas range from prosthetic devices that solely address the replacement of the corneal function, to tissue-engineered hydrogels that allow regeneration of the tissue. Recently, major advances in the biology of corneal stem cells have been achieved. However, the therapeutic use of these stem cell types has the disadvantage of needing an intact stem cell compartment, which is usually damaged. In addition, long ex vivo culture is needed to generate enough cell numbers for transplantation. In the near future, combination of advanced biomaterials with cells from abundant outer sources will allow advances in the field. For the former, magnetically aligned collagen is one of the most promising ones. For the latter, different cell types will be optimal: 1) for epithelial replacement: oral mucosal epithelium, ear epidermis, or bone marrow- mesenchymal stem cells, 2) for stromal regeneration: adipose-derived stem cells and 3) for endothelial replacement, the possibility of in vitro directed differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells towards endothelial cells provides an exciting new approach.

  13. Positive or negative feedback of optokinetic signals: degree of the misrouted optic flow determines system dynamics of human ocular motor behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Bockisch, Christopher J; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2014-04-09

    The optokinetic system in healthy humans is a negative-feedback system that stabilizes gaze: slow-phase eye movements (i.e., the output signal) minimize retinal slip (i.e., the error signal). A positive-feedback optokinetic system may exist due to the misrouting of optic fibers. Previous studies have shown that, in a zebrafish mutant with a high degree of the misrouting, the optokinetic response (OKR) is reversed. As a result, slow-phase eye movements amplify retinal slip, forming a positive-feedback optokinetic loop. The positive-feedback optokinetic system cannot stabilize gaze, thus leading to spontaneous eye oscillations (SEOs). Because the misrouting in human patients (e.g., with a condition of albinism or achiasmia) is partial, both positive- and negative-feedback loops co-exist. How this co-existence affects human ocular motor behavior remains unclear. We presented a visual environment consisting of two stimuli in different parts of the visual field to healthy subjects. One mimicked positive-feedback optokinetic signals and the other preserved negative-feedback optokinetic signals. By changing the ratio and position of the visual field of these visual stimuli, various optic nerve misrouting patterns were simulated. Eye-movement responses to stationary and moving stimuli were measured and compared with computer simulations. The SEOs were correlated with the magnitude of the virtual positive-feedback optokinetic effect. We found a correlation among the simulated misrouting, the corresponding OKR, and the SEOs in humans. The proportion of the simulated misrouting needed to be greater than 50% to reverse the OKR and at least greater than or equal to 70% to evoke SEOs. Once the SEOs were evoked, the magnitude positively correlated to the strength of the positive-feedback OKR. This study provides a mechanism of how the misrouting of optic fibers in humans could lead to SEOs, offering a possible explanation for a subtype of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS).

  14. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1

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    Michaela Wiedmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV. The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1, which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs.

  15. Disturbing the balance: effect of contact lens use on the ocular proteome and microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boost, Maureen; Cho, Pauline; Wang, Zhaoran

    2017-09-01

    Contact lens wear is a popular, convenient and effective method for vision correction. In recent years, contact lens practice has expanded to include new paradigms, including orthokeratology; however, their use is not entirely without risk, as the incidence of infection has consistently been reported to be higher in contact lens wearers. The explanations for this increased susceptibility have largely focused on physical damage, especially to the cornea, due to a combination of hypoxia, mechanical trauma, deposits and solution cytotoxicity, as well as poor compliance with care routines leading to introduction of pathogens into the ocular environment. However, in recent years, with the increasing availability and reduced cost of molecular techniques, the ocular environment has received greater attention with in-depth studies of proteins and other components. Numerous proteins were found to be present in the tears and their functions and interactions indicate that the tears are far more complex than formerly presumed. In addition, the concept of a sterile or limited microbial population on the ocular surface has been challenged by analysis of the microbiome. Ocular microbiome was not considered as one of the key sites for the Human Microbiome Project, as it was thought to be limited compared to other body sites. This was proven to be fallacious, as a wide variety of micro-organisms were identified in the analyses of human tears. Thus, the ocular environment is now recognised to be more complicated and interference with this ecological balance may lead to adverse effects. The use of contact lenses clearly changes the situation at the ocular surface, which may result in consequences which disturb the balance in the healthy eye. © 2017 Optometry Australia.

  16. Oculoplastic aspects of ocular oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene, C

    2013-02-01

    It is estimated that 5-10% of all cutaneous malignancies involve the periocular region and management of periocular skin cancers account for a significant proportion of the oculoplastic surgeon's workload. Epithelial tumours are most frequently encountered, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and sebaceous gland carcinoma, in decreasing order of frequency. Non-epithelial tumours, such as cutaneous melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma, rarely involve the ocular adnexae. Although non-surgical treatments for periocular malignancies are gaining in popularity, surgery remains the main treatment modality and has as its main aims tumour clearance, restoration of the eyelid function, protection of the ocular surface, and achieving a good cosmetic outcome. The purpose of this article is to review the management of malignant periocular tumours, with particular emphasis on surgical management.

  17. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.Four cases of the so-called descending ocular myopathy with a family history in three generations are reported. In the first case muscular biopsy and electromyographic studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. Descending ocular myopathy seems to be just a clinical form of muscular distrophy of late onset.

  18. Epidemiology of Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, E.; Kijlstra, A.; Stanford, M.

    2012-01-01

    Retinal infection with Toxoplasma gondii is the most important cause of posterior uveitis, whereby prevalence and incidence of ocular symptoms after infection depend on socio-economic factors and the circulating parasite genotypes. Ocular toxoplasmosis is more common in South America, Central

  19. Paintball ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, L P; Acton, J K

    1999-03-01

    Six cases of ocular injury following paintball injuries sustained during war games are described. A CO2-powered rifle shoots a 14 mm plastic-coated paintball at participants. The muzzle velocity of the gun is 250 ft/sec (76 m/sec). Locally manufactured paintballs are harder than the more expensive imported varieties and may account for the severity of our reported injuries. Six patients presented to a retinal specialist with various ocular injuries, predominantly of the posterior pole. All patients were young males. There were no cases of ocular penetration. A variety of retinal pathologies was noted, with three cases requiring surgery; however this did not significantly improve the visual outcome. These cases highlight the severe ocular injuries that may occur from paintball injuries. Recommendations to avoid ocular injury are made.

  20. Levantamento de cauxi (Porifera, Demospongiae, provável agente etiológico de doença ocular em humanos, Araguatins, rio Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, Brasil Survey for cauxi (Porifera, Demospongiae, urged by the outbreak of human ocular injuries at Araguatins, Araguaia river, Tocantins State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Um surto recente de lesões oculares em humanos, ocorrido na localidade de Araguatins, à margem direita do rio Araguaia, Estado do Tocantins, caracterizou-se por irritação ocular seguida de prurido e produção de lesões conjuntivais, em crianças e adultos, particularmente do sexo masculino, após banho e mergulho com olhos abertos nas águas do rio, durante a estação seca de 2005. Registros publicados de dermatites pruriginosas causados pela presença de espículas de esponjas (cauxi em rios da Amazônia Central, induziram as autoras a realizarem levantamento urgente para busca de esponjas e suas espículas na água e sedimentos do rio no local, em diversas estações de amostragem georreferenciadas. Dez espécies de esponjas foram detectadas após o achado de gêmulas e espículas retidas nos sedimentos e em suspensão nas águas. É fornecida a lista das espécies e ilustrações das respectivas espículas para fins de sua detecção particularmente nos tecidos oculares alterados, cirurgicamente extraídos, fornecendo-se assim subsídios para comprovação da etiologia do surto e para procedimentos preventivos a serem tomadas pelas autoridades em saúde junto à população local.The recent outbreak of human ocular injuries, most in the conjunctive, occurred in the town of Araguatins, at the right bank of Araguaia river, State of Tocantins, Brazil, along the low water period of 2005, affected particularly male children and adults and had as main characteristic eye irritation and itching after bathing and diving with open eyes in the river waters, followed by appearance of ocular injuries. The large number of registers of itching and ulceration caused by sponge (cauxi spicules in rivers of Central Amazonia urged the authors to undertake a survey for sponges and its spicules in the river waters and sediments in several GPS referred stations at the site. Ten sponge species were detected upon the finding of gemmules as well as upon

  1. Long-term outcomes and complications of Moscow Eye Microsurgery Complex in Russia (MICOF) keratoprosthesis following ocular surface burns: clinical experience in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqiang; Huang, Yifei; Du, Gaiping; Dong, Ying; Guo, Huiling; Wang, Dajiang; Yu, Jifeng; Wang, Qun; Chen, Bing; Hou, Lulu

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of the implantation of MICOF keratoprosthesis (Kpro) in patients with alkaline, acid and thermal ocular burns. This is a retrospective, non-competitive, interventional case series. Ninety eyes of 90 patients with ocular burns underwent MICOF KPro surgery at the Chinese People's Liberation Army General Hospital between April 2000 and December 2012. Preoperative and postoperative findings were recorded. Retention of the prostheses and the treatment for postoperative complications were investigated. The mean age of patients was 40.26±12.18 years (range: 8-64 years), and the mean duration after ocular trauma was 4.8±6.2 years (range: 1.5-12 years). The mean follow-up period was 58.22±36.28 months (range: 1-145 months). Eighty patients were followed for ≥1 year and 73 eyes (81.11%) achieved the best-corrected visual acuity of 20/200 or better and 39 eyes (43.33%) achieved best-corrected visual acuity of ≥20/40. The common complications were glaucoma, corneal melt and conjunctiva overgrowth, and the incidences of these complications were 59.99%, 40% and 31.11%, respectively. One patient experienced KPro extrusion, and two patients exhibited leakage from the area of the implant. Seven with endophthalmitis eyes had final visual acuities of light perception. There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of the implants among the different causes of injuries, including acid, alkali and thermal burns. MICOF Kpro is an effective alternative for patients with ocular burn with corneal blindness. Glaucoma and endophthalmitis were identified as significant risk factors for visual loss. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Ocular shell structures in some Cretaceous trachyleberid Ostracoda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontrovitz, M.; Puckett, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    This is the first study of internal ocular shell structures of Cretaceous ostracodes. Internal molds from eight species of four genera from Santonian, Campanian, and Maastrichtian strata revealed a stalked ocular sinus constricted along its length and distally inflated. The latter part has anterior and posterior lobes and a subcentral concavity. These Cretaceous trachyleberids have ocular shell structures similar to Cenozoic taxa and it is presumed they functioned similarly. However, each taxon has a diagnostic ocular sinus and an inner surface of the eye tubercle that distinguishes each from all other forms examined.

  3. An evaluation of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in the management of tear film stability and ocular surface staining in patients diagnosed with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler III G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available George Ousler III,1 Douglas K Devries,2 Paul M Karpecki,3 Joseph B Ciolino41Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Eye Care Associates of Nevada, Sparks, NV, USA; 3Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 4Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A single-center, open-label study consisting of two visits over the course of approximately 2 weeks was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in improving the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Forty-two subjects were enrolled and received 1–2 drops twice daily of Retaine™ beginning at the first visit (day 1 and ending at the second visit. Subjects were instructed to complete a symptomatology diary twice daily prior to drop instillation through the morning of the second visit. Ocular sign and symptom assessments, visual acuity procedures, and comfort assessments were conducted during both visits. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean breakup area on the second visit between the predose time and the postdose time (P=0.026. On the second visit, subjects had significantly less corneal fluorescein staining in the superior (P=0.002, central (P=0.017, corneal sum (P=0.011, and all ocular regions combined (P=0.038 than on the first visit. On the second visit, statistically significant reductions in dryness (P<0.001, grittiness (P=0.0217, ocular discomfort (P=0.0017, and all symptoms (P<0.001 were also seen as measured by the Ora Calibra™ Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire (0–5 scale. Subjects reported a statistically significant improvement in their abilities to work with a computer at night (P=0.044. Mean drop comfort scores ranged from 1.29–1.81 on the Ora Calibra™ 0–10 Drop Comfort Scale, on which 0 is very comfortable and 10 is very uncomfortable. Retaine™ demonstrates promising results as a novel artificial tear option for individuals suffering from dry eye. The unique mechanism of action of Retaine™ provides enhanced comfort

  4. Ocular Emergencies: Red Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarff, Andreina; Behrens, Ashley

    2017-05-01

    "Red eye" is used as a general term to describe irritated or bloodshot eyes. It is a recognizable sign of an acute/chronic, localized/systemic underlying inflammatory condition. Conjunctival injection is most commonly caused by dryness, allergy, visual fatigue, contact lens overwear, and local infections. In some instances, red eye can represent a true ocular emergency that should be treated by an ophthalmologist. A comprehensive assessment of red eye conditions is required to preserve the patients visual function. Severe ocular pain, significant photophobia, decreased vision, and history of ocular trauma are warning signs demanding immediate ophthalmological consultation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Albinism: particular attention to the ocular motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertle, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize an understanding of the ocular motor system in patients with albinism. Other than the association of vertical eccentric gaze null positions and asymmetric, (a) periodic alternating nystagmus in a large percentage of patients, the ocular motor system in human albinism does not contain unique pathology, rather has "typical" types of infantile ocular oscillations and binocular disorders. Both the ocular motor and afferent visual system are affected to varying degrees in patients with albinism, thus, combined treatment of both systems will maximize visual function.

  6. Roles of IL-10 in ocular inflammations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Hassan; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Yaraee, Roya; Owlia, Parviz; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

    2012-12-01

    This review represents the current in vitro, in vivo, animal and human investigations on the roles of IL-10 in ocular inflammatory conditions. The data sources were literature reviews, including Pub Med, Medline, and ISI databases (since 1989 to mid-2012). Search items were, IL-10, chemokines, cytokines, alone or in combination with, serum, aqueous, vitreous eye, ocular, ocular tissues, ophthalmic, and review. Ocular effects of IL-10 depend on the sources of the secretion and sites of the action. IL-10 plays important anti-inflammatory and especially anti-angiogenic activities in ocular tissues such as the conjunctiva, cornea, retina, choroid, and orbit. IL-10 plays major anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic roles in most of the ocular inflammations. Also, IL-10 plays a role in development of anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID). Any manipulation of IL-10 for treatment purposes should be considered very cautiously due to its potential hazards to the immune system.

  7. Challenging ocular image recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauca, V. Paúl; Forkin, Michael; Xu, Xiao; Plemmons, Robert; Ross, Arun A.

    2011-06-01

    Ocular recognition is a new area of biometric investigation targeted at overcoming the limitations of iris recognition performance in the presence of non-ideal data. There are several advantages for increasing the area beyond the iris, yet there are also key issues that must be addressed such as size of the ocular region, factors affecting performance, and appropriate corpora to study these factors in isolation. In this paper, we explore and identify some of these issues with the goal of better defining parameters for ocular recognition. An empirical study is performed where iris recognition methods are contrasted with texture and point operators on existing iris and face datasets. The experimental results show a dramatic recognition performance gain when additional features are considered in the presence of poor quality iris data, offering strong evidence for extending interest beyond the iris. The experiments also highlight the need for the direct collection of additional ocular imagery.

  8. Pediatric Ocular Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Pediatric Ocular Trauma What causes eye injuries ? Injuries to the ... only the eyelid but the structures that drain tears from the eye. Lacerations of the eyelid or ...

  9. Surface electromyography pattern of human swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spadaro Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physiology of swallowing is characterized by a complex and coordinated activation of many stomatognathic, pharyngeal, and laryngeal muscles. Kinetics and electromyographic studies have widely investigated the pharyngeal and laryngeal pattern of deglutition in order to point out the differences between normal and dysphagic people. In the dental field, muscular activation during swallowing is believed to be the cause of malocclusion. Despite the clinical importance given to spontaneous swallowing, few physiologic works have studied stomatognathic muscular activation and mandibular movement during spontaneous saliva swallowing. The aim of our study was to investigate the activity patterns of the mandibular elevator muscles (masseter and anterior temporalis muscles, the submental muscles, and the neck muscles (sternocleidomastoid muscles in healthy people during spontaneous swallowing of saliva and to relate the muscular activities to mandibular movement. Methods The spontaneous swallowing of saliva of 111 healthy individuals was analyzed using surface electromyography (SEMG and a computerized kinesiography of mandibular movement. Results Fifty-seven of 111 patients swallowed without occlusal contact (SNOC and 54 individuals had occlusal contact (SOC. The sternocleidomastoid muscles showed a slight, but constant activation during swallowing. The SEMG of the submental and sternocleidomastoid muscles showed no differences between the two groups. The SEMG of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles showed significant differences (p Conclusion The data suggest that there is not a single "normal" or "typical" pattern for spontaneous saliva swallowing. The polygraph seemed a valuable, simple, non-invasive and reliable tool to study the physiology of swallowing.

  10. Surgical rehabilitation following severe ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, S J; Shortt, A J

    2009-10-01

    Chemical and thermal burns can cause devastating injuries to the anterior segment. The consequences of alkali injuries are notoriously severe due to the rapid penetration of these agents into the ocular tissues. Denaturation of tissue, inflammation, and scarring leads to loss of function. An understanding of the pathogenesis of tissue damage has lead to a rational approach to treatment. Emergency irrigation of the eye is essential and there is a 'window of opportunity' during the first 7-10 days after injury when medical treatment can significantly limit the potentially blinding consequences. The acute injury is followed by early and late reparative phases during which the prognosis can be further improved by surgical intervention. Early surgical intervention is targeted at protecting the ocular surface and encouraging re-epithelisation. Later, surgical treatments are directed at ocular surface reconstruction and restoration of vision. However, before any attempt is made at surface reconstruction, the ocular surface environment must be optimised by division of symblepharon, and correction of lid deformity and trichiasis. If there is conjunctivalisation of the corneal surface, limbal stem cell transplantation can restore a corneal epithelial cell phenotype, and transplantation of in vitroamplified corneal epithelial stem cells has been developed as an alternative to keratolimbal transfer techniques. Keratoplasty and cataract surgery may then be necessary to clear the visual axis. Finally, keratoprosthesis is an option for the most severely damaged eyes.

  11. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant int...

  12. Ocular Manifestations and Pathology of Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Associated with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Liu

    2010-10-01

    -fareast-language:AR-SA;} p.MsoNoSpacing, li.MsoNoSpacing, div.MsoNoSpacing {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0in; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; mso-hyphenate:none; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-font-family:Calibri; mso-bidi-font-family:Calibri; mso-fareast-language:AR-SA;} @page Section1 {size:8.5in 11.0in; margin:1.0in 1.25in 1.0in 1.25in; mso-header-margin:.5in; mso-footer-margin:.5in; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, endemic in defined geographical areas around the world, is recognized as the etiologic agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, or HTLV-1 associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL.  ATL is a rare adult onset T-cell malignancy that is characterized by the presence of ATL flower cells with T-cell markers, HTLV-1 antibodies in the serum, and monoclonal integration of HTLV-1 provirus in affected cells.  Ocular manifestations associated with HTLV-1 virus infection have been reported and include HTLV-1 uveitis and keratoconjunctivitis sicca, but reports of ocular involvement in ATL are exceedingly rare.  This article describes the ocular manifestations and pathology of ATL.  We also report

  13. Eye cosmetic usage and associated ocular comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.

  14. Vestibulo-ocular reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieterich, M; Brandt, T

    1995-02-01

    Recent animal and clinical studies on the vestibulo-ocular reflex deal with a number of physiological and clinical aspects from which three were chosen for this review: (1) the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex and its disorders; (2) the otolith contribution to the vestibulo-ocular reflex; and (3) neurotransmitters, neuropharmacological aspects, and medical treatment. Disorders of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can be classified according to the three major planes of action, yaw plane, pitch plane, and roll plane, which equate with horizontal nystagmus, upbeat or downbeat nystagmus, and torsional nystagmus, respectively. The particular interest in the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex arises from new methods for measuring ocular torsion, especially the three-dimensional eye-movement recordings with scleral coils. These methods make it possible to do three-dimensional analysis of the differential effects of horizontal and vertical semicircular canal function and their individual disorders of the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex. Otolith and semicircular canal inputs converge at the level of the vestibular nuclei to subserve static graviceptive and dynamic torsional and pitch function. The elaboration of the particular sensorial weight of the input from either the otoliths or the semicircular canal is currently a challenge for both physiologists and neurologists. Disorders of otolith function, still absent from the diagnostic repertoire of most neurologists, are increasingly being reported. The most promising developments in therapeutic measures may come from research on vestibular neurotransmitters, their agonists and antagonists. A number of pharmacological agents are effective suppressants of pathological eye movements. However, systematic prospective studies are needed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Texturing of Surface of 3D Human Head Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Michalcin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an algorithm of texturing of the surface of 3Dhuman head model. The proposed algorithm generates a textureconsequently of several camera frames of the input video sequence. Thetexture values from the camera frames are mapped on the surface of the3D human head model using perspective projection, scan line and 3Dmotion estimation. To decrease the number of camera frames a filling ofempty places by a simple interpolation method has been done in thetexture plane.

  16. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  17. The relationship between demodex and ocular discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Hyun; Chun, Yeoun Sook; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Eung Suk; Kim, Jae Chan

    2010-06-01

    To determine the correlative relationship between the prevalence of Demodex in eyelashes and the severity of ocular discomfort, by investigating the demographic epidemiology associated with Demodex. One hundred seventy patients underwent epilation of four eyelashes of each eye, and the number of Demodex was counted. The patients answered questionnaires about ocular surface discomfort and underwent ophthalmic examinations, including slit lamp, tear film breakup time (BUT), Schirmer test, and microbial culturing. The correlative relationship between the number of Demodex and these variable data was analyzed. Demodex was found in 120 (70%) of the 170 tested patients. Of 1360 eyelashes, 740 (54%) had Demodex. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Demodex between males and females (P = 0.35). The number of Demodex showed significant positive correlations with increased age, ocular discomfort, and 1/BUT (P Demodex was significantly higher in patients with conjunctival papillary hypertrophy than in those without (P = 0.003). The presence or distribution of bacteria on eyelashes was similar between eyelids with and without Demodex. However, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected more often on eyelids with Demodex, but this difference was not statistically significant. There is a strong correlation between the number of Demodex and the severity of ocular discomfort, suggesting that Demodex plays a pathogenic role in the ocular discomfort linked with aging.

  18. Recent Advances in Ocular Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinobu Fujii

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.

  19. Alergia ocular: un reto diagnóstico Ocular allergy: a diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona Villa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo es uno de los órganos más sensibles y está permanentemente expuesto a diversos agentes ambientales. Dado que la conjuntiva es un tejido inmunológicamente activo, no es sorprendente que sea un sitio común de respuestas alérgicas. Las alergias oculares son un grupo de enfermedades que afectan la superficie conjuntival y están asociadas usualmente a reacciones de hipersensibilidad tipo 1. Pueden ser divididas en varias categorías: conjuntivitis alérgica estacional, conjuntivitis alérgica perenne, queratoconjuntivitis vernal y queratoconjuntivitis atópica. La inflamación de la superficie ocular produce prurito, lagrimeo, edema conjuntival y fotofobia. Como en otras enfermedades alérgicas, se puede desarrollar una condición crónica, acompañada de remodelación de los tejidos oculares. Las estrategias para el tratamiento de la alergia ocular han aumentado exponencialmente y los clínicos disponen de un inventario cada vez mayor de agentes dirigidos a la protección del ojo contra la inflamación. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión sobre las principales formas de alergia ocular, haciendo énfasis en el cuadro clínico, el diagnóstico y las nuevas opciones terapéuticas disponibles en la actualidad. The eye, one of the most sensitive organs, is permanently exposed to different environmental agents. Since the conjunctiva is an immunologically active tissue, it is not surprising for it to be a common site for allergic responses. Ocular allergies constitute a group of diseases affecting the conjunctival surface; they are usually associated with type 1 hypersensitivity reactions. This disorder can be divided into several categories: seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, perennial allergic conjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Ocular surface inflammation results in itching, tearing, conjunctival edema, and photophobia. As is the case with other allergic diseases, a chronic situation can also

  20. Ocular manifestations of tick-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Harish; Starr, Matthew R; Bakri, Sophie J

    Tick-borne illnesses are a significant disease burden worldwide. Diagnosis is challenging and requires a high level of clinical suspicion. Ocular manifestations reported in association with tick-borne disease are mostly as case reports and small case series because of the relative infrequency with which they occur; however, given the global nature of health care and increase in travel in the 21st century, it is important for ophthalmologists to be aware of ocular manifestations of these diseases because early diagnosis may reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, we review of the literature of tick-borne diseases with reported ophthalmic findings. All known human tick-borne diseases are discussed, including a brief description of the causative agent, region of endemicity, vector, systemic symptoms, and any reported eye findings. When possible, we also address the strength of the evidence for these ocular associations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Pediatric genetic ocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhani, Behnaz; Ramasubramanian, Aparna

    2014-12-01

    Pediatric genetic ocular tumors include malignancies like retinoblastoma and phakomatosis like neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. It is important to screen for ocular tumors both for visual prognosis and also for systemic implications. The phakomatosis comprise of multitude of benign tumors that are aysmptomatic but their detection can aid in the diagnosis of the syndrome. Retinoblastoma is the most common malignant intraocular tumor in childhood and with current treatment modalities, the survival is more than 95%. It is transmitted as an autosomal dominant fashion and hence the offsprings of all patients with the germline retinoblastoma need to be screened from birth. This review discusses the various pediatric genetic ocular tumors discussing the clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Artefactos en ultrasonido ocular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Mayorquín Ruiz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El ultrasonido ocular es un estudio dependiente del operador. Un buen estudio ecográfico debe tener como base el conocimiento de la anatomía y fisiología normales y de los cambios producidos en diferentes enfermedades, así como los cambios tras una cirugía ocular o trauma. El conocimiento de los fenómenos físicos producidos por el ultrasonido es la base para entender y reconocer la presencia de artefactos en el ultrasonido ocular. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo hacer un recuento de los artefactos que pueden ocasionar confusión al interpretar una imagen ecográfica, así como explicar la base física en la que se basan, reduciendo de esta manera los errores de interpretación y diagnósticos.

  3. Taser penetrating ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Weng; Chehade, Mark

    2005-04-01

    To describe the presentation and treatment of a Taser penetrating ocular injury. Case report. A 50-year-old man with a Taser injury 1.5 cm below the right lower eyelid margin was admitted to the emergency department of a tertiary hospital. The case report describes the ophthalmic assessment, investigation, treatment, and outcome of the Taser barb penetrating ocular injury. The Taser has a fish hook barb that caused a full-thickness wound adequately large for vitreous to escape when the Taser was removed. Consequently, the scleral wound was repaired and cryopexy was performed. The affected eye made a satisfactory recovery, and the visual acuity was 6/9 with a pinhole 1 week after operation. Any Taser injury around the orbits should raise the suspicion of a penetrating ocular injury. In likely cases, removal of the Taser should be performed in an operating theater under general anesthesia.

  4. Feline ocular emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Elizabeth A

    2005-05-01

    Feline ocular emergencies include any ophthalmic condition that has rapidly developed or is the result of trauma to the eye or periocular structures. Common feline emergencies include proptosis, lid lacerations, corneal ulcers, and foreign bodies. Complete ophthalmic examination including procurement of the minimal ophthalmic database (Schirmer tear test, fluorescein stain, and intraocular pressure measurement) should be obtained whenever possible to ensure that the complete and correct diagnosis is made. Concern for the patient's vision and ocular comfort should guide the practioner's diagnostic and therapeutic plan. This article reviews some of the more common feline ocular emergencies, including conditions affecting the orbit and globe, adnexa, conjunctiva, and cornea. Feline uveitis, glaucoma, and lenticular diseases are covered more thoroughly elsewhere in this issue.

  5. What Is an Ocular Migraine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... When to seek help What is an ocular migraine? Is it a sign of something serious? Answers ... and retinal migraine, which could signal something serious. Migraine aura affecting your vision Ocular migraine sometimes describes ...

  6. 24-Hour Efficacy and Ocular Surface Health with Preservative-Free Tafluprost Alone and in Conjunction with Preservative-Free Dorzolamide/Timolol Fixed Combination in Open-Angle Glaucoma Patients Insufficiently Controlled with Preserved Latanoprost Monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios-Georgios; Boboridis, Konstadinos G; Kapis, Paraskevas; Marinopoulos, Konstantinos; Voudouragkaki, Irini C; Panayiotou, Dimitrios; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios G; Pagkalidou, Eirini; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Katsanos, Andreas; Quaranta, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the 24-h efficacy, tolerability, and ocular surface health with preservative-free (PF) tafluprost and a PF triple drug regimen comprising tafluprost and dorzolamide/timolol fixed combination (DTFC) in open-angle glaucoma patients who were insufficiently controlled with preserved branded or generic latanoprost monotherapy and who exhibited signs or symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD). Prospective, observer-masked, crossover, comparison. Eligible consecutive open-angle glaucoma patients were randomized to either PF tafluprost or the triple PF regimen for 3 months. They were then crossed over to the opposite therapy for another 3 months. At the end of the latanoprost run-in period and after each PF treatment period, patients underwent habitual 24-h intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring with Goldmann tonometry in the sitting position (at 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, and 22:00) and Perkins tonometry in the supine position (at 02:00 and 06:00). Tolerability and selected ocular surface parameters were evaluated at baseline and the end of each treatment period. Forty-three open-angle glaucoma patients completed the trial. Mean 24-h IOP on preserved latanoprost was 22.2 ± 3.9 mmHg. Compared with latanoprost monotherapy, PF tafluprost obtained a greater reduction in mean, peak, and fluctuation of 24-h IOP including the 02:00 and 06:00 time points (P < 0.05). With the exception of 24-h fluctuation, the triple PF regimen provided significantly lower IOP parameters than latanoprost or PF tafluprost (P < 0.001). Finally, PF tafluprost therapy displayed significantly improved tear film break-up times (6.7 vs 6.0 s), corneal staining (1.3 vs 2.2), and Schirmer I test results (9.1 vs 8.2 mm) compared with the preserved latanoprost baseline (all P < 0.01). The triple PF regimen demonstrated similar tear film break-up times (6.1 vs 6.0 s) and Schirmer I test results (8.2 vs 8.2 mm) to latanoprost, but revealed a significant

  7. Mars Surface Systems Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.; Watts, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the current status of common systems and operations as they are applied to actual locations on Mars that are representative of Exploration Zones (EZ) - NASA's term for candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the martian surface. Given NASA's current concepts for human missions to Mars, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. An EZ also contains a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. The Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), a description of NASA's current approach to these human Mars missions, assumes that a single EZ will be identified within which NASA will establish a substantial and durable surface infrastructure that will be used by multiple human crews. The process of identifying and eventually selecting this single EZ will likely take many years to finalized. Because of this extended EZ selection process it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations being evaluated for the EMC as they are likely to perform at a variety of proposed EZ locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these candidate EZs. It is also important to evaluate proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC.

  8. Human tear peptide/protein profiling study of ocular surface diseases by SPE-MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerea González

    2014-06-01

    Obtained spectra were aligned by variable penalty dynamic time warping (VPdtw and the resulting data analyzed using multivariate statistics. Comparative analyses revealed good performance of VPdtw and a high discrimination of groups with a correct assignment of 89.3% using twelve informative peaks. SDS–PAGE followed by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis allowed identification of lipocalin-1 as a biomarker candidate.

  9. The analysis of human conjunctival epithelium proteome in ocular surface diseases using impression cytology and 2D-DIGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Javier; Acera, Arantxa; Durán, Juan A; Boto-de-Los-Bueis, Ana; Del-Hierro-Zarzuelo, Almudena; González, Nerea; Reigada, Rebeca; Suárez, Tatiana

    2017-03-20

    Conjunctival impression cytology samples from patients with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), dry eye (DE), and healthy subjects (CT) were collected for determination of the degree of squamous metaplasia (SM) by PAS-hematoxylin staining and for comparative proteomic analyses by 2D-DIGE. The protein spots with discriminant expression were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Three independent statistical studies were conducted: i). Analysis of differential protein expression between study groups: We observed increased expression of proteins S100A4, S100A8, retinal dehydrogenase-1, peroxiredoxin-1, annexin-A1, annexin-A2, α-enolase, and glutathione S-transferase-P in DE, whereas the highest expression of peroxiredoxin-6, actin cytoplasmic-1, peroxiredoxin-2, and heat shock protein HSP-90-α was observed in MGD; ii). Correlation between changes in the proteome profile and the grade of SM: The expression of 5 different cytokeratins (KRT1, KRT4, KRT8, KRT10, and KRT13) correlated with the degree of SM; iii). Proteome profile differences between pathological and CT groups: An overall proteome analysis revealed upregulation of 9 proteins in the pathological groups (Annexin-A1, α-enolase, Annexin-A2, S100A8, cytokeratin-1, Peroxiredoxin-2 and Leukocyte elastase inhibitor) and downregulation of 2 proteins (Galectin-3 and Lipocalin-1). In conclusion, a sensitive proteomic approach to study conjunctival tissue collected from minimally invasive impression cytology was implemented. Differential proteomics analyses showed that in comparison with the MGD, the DE patients presented higher overexpression of proteins related to antimicrobial defense, tissue-damage response, and regulation of body fluid secretions. Changes in MGD proteome were associated with oxidative stress and anti-apoptotic processes. We found a correlation between the grade of SM and expression of proteins associated with cytoskeleton and keratinization. The studied pathological groups shared elements related to the defense and inflammatory responses. Dot blot assays of proteins ANXA1, S100A8, and S100A4 validated the proteomic results obtained from 2D-DIGE experiments and confirmed the correlation between the expression of these proteins and the clinical parameters. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Ocular Adnexal Follicular Lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter K; Coupland, Sarah E; Finger, Paul T

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The clinical features of the follicular subtype of ocular adnexal lymphoma (OAL) have not been previously evaluated in a large cohort. OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical features of follicular OAL. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We performed a retrospective multicenter study tha...

  11. Ocular straylight in albinism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijt, Bastiaan; Franssen, Luuk; Prick, Liesbeth J. J. M.; van Vliet, Johannes M. J.; van den Berg, Thomas J. T. P.

    2011-01-01

    Albinism is an inherited disorder that affects the melanin biosynthesis pathway, which results in reduced or absent pigment formation. This may lead to increased light transmission through the iris and more reflected light from the fundus. Both these effects contribute to the occurrence of ocular

  12. Ocular manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathinam S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospiral uveitis is a common entity in tropical countries. Ocular manifestations are noted in the second phase of illness, but these remain under-diagnosed mainly because of the prolonged symptom-free period that separates the systemic manifestations from detection of ocular manifestations.Varying ophthalmic presentations and the intrinsic nature of different types of uveitis to mimic one another also challenge the accuracy of the diagnosis. Of the individual ocular signs, the combination of acute, non-granulomatous, panuveitis, hypopyon, vasculitis, optic disc edema, membranous vitreous opacities and absence of choroiditis or retinitis have high predictive value for the clinical diagnosis of leptospiral uveitis. Geographic location of the patient, occupation, socio-economic status, risk factors related to exposure, past history of fever or jaundice also aid in diagnosis.Steroids are the mainstay of treatment for leptospiral uveitis. Depending upon the severity and anatomical location of inflammatory lesion, topical, peri-ocular and/or systemic steroids are given. The prognosis is generally good, even when the inflammation is severe.

  13. Goldenhar syndrome: ocular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhallil, S; Benatiya, I; El Abdouni, O; Mahjoubi, B; Hicham, T

    2010-01-01

    Goldenhar syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly which consists of a triad of an ocular dermoid cyst, preauricular skin tags and vertebral dysplasia. We report two cases of Goldenhar syndrome, diagnosed in a 4-year-old girl and in a 20-year-old young adult. The dermoid cyst is a benign tumour with serious ophthalmologic complications.

  14. Canine ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Paulo; Cardoso, Luís; Pereira, Maria J; Maltez, Luís; Coutinho, Teresa; Alves, Maria S; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-07-01

    Ocular thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease affecting dogs and humans. We report a case of thelaziosis in a 10-year-old German Shepherd dog from Vila Real city (Portugal). Ophthalmological examination revealed bulbar and nictitating membrane conjunctival hyperemia with serous discharge noted at the left medial canthus and blepharitis. Schirmer tear test value and intraocular pressure were within the reference ranges in both eyes, and biomicroscopy showed a transparent cornea without lesions or edema and no inflammatory reaction in the anterior chamber. No funduscopic alterations were detected by direct and indirect ophthalmoscopic examination. When testing the nasolacrimal patency, two white worms were observed on the caruncle conjunctival surface with undulating movements that increased with light intensity. In total, eight worms were collected and morphologically identified as T. callipaeda (seven mature females and one male). PCR amplification of a 689 sequence of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 target gene confirmed the nematodes were T. callipaeda, haplotype 1. The dog was treated with a single subcutaneous injection of ivermectin combined with additional topical application of ophthalmic fusidic acid drops and oral milbemycin oxime. One week after treatment, no worms were detected and the ocular clinical signs resolved. The most recent reports of canine thelaziosis in the Iberian Peninsula should alert local health authorities to the zoonotic potential of infestation with T. callipaeda, which should be included in the differential diagnosis of conjunctivitis in dogs and humans. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Intelligence for Human-Assistant Planetary Surface Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Robert; Graham, Jeffrey; Tyree, Kimberly; Sierhuis, Maarten; Clancey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The central premise in developing effective human-assistant planetary surface robots is that robotic intelligence is needed. The exact type, method, forms and/or quantity of intelligence is an open issue being explored on the ERA project, as well as others. In addition to field testing, theoretical research into this area can help provide answers on how to design future planetary robots. Many fundamental intelligence issues are discussed by Murphy [2], including (a) learning, (b) planning, (c) reasoning, (d) problem solving, (e) knowledge representation, and (f) computer vision (stereo tracking, gestures). The new "social interaction/emotional" form of intelligence that some consider critical to Human Robot Interaction (HRI) can also be addressed by human assistant planetary surface robots, as human operators feel more comfortable working with a robot when the robot is verbally (or even physically) interacting with them. Arkin [3] and Murphy are both proponents of the hybrid deliberative-reasoning/reactive-execution architecture as the best general architecture for fully realizing robot potential, and the robots discussed herein implement a design continuously progressing toward this hybrid philosophy. The remainder of this chapter will describe the challenges associated with robotic assistance to astronauts, our general research approach, the intelligence incorporated into our robots, and the results and lessons learned from over six years of testing human-assistant mobile robots in field settings relevant to planetary exploration. The chapter concludes with some key considerations for future work in this area.

  16. Early osseointegration to hydrophilic and hydrophobic implant surfaces in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Niklaus P; Salvi, Giovanni E; Huynh-Ba, Guy; Ivanovski, Saso; Donos, Nikolaos; Bosshardt, Dieter D

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the rate and degree of osseointegration at chemically modified moderately rough, hydrophilic (SLActive) and moderately rough, hydrophobic (SLA) implant surfaces during early phases of healing in a human model. The devices used for this study of early healing were 4 mm long and 2.8 mm in diameter and had either an SLActive chemically modified or a moderately rough SLA surface configuration. These devices were surgically installed into the retro-molar area of 49 human volunteers and retrieved after 7, 14, 28 and 42 days of submerged healing. A 5.2-mm-long specially designed trephine with a 4.9 mm inside diameter, allowing the circumferential sampling of 1 mm tissue together with the device was applied. Histologic ground sections were prepared and histometric analyses of the tissue components (i.e. old bone, new bone, bone debris and soft tissue) in contact with the device surfaces were performed. All device sites healed uneventfully. All device surfaces were partially coated with bone debris. A significant fraction of this bone matrix coating became increasingly covered with newly formed bone. The process of new bone formation started already during the first week in the trabecular regions and increased gradually up to 42 days. The percentage of direct contact between newly formed bone and the device (bone-to-implant contact) after 2 and 4 weeks was more pronounced adjacent to the SLActive than to the SLA surface (14.8% vs. 12.2% and 48.3% vs. 32.4%, respectively), but after 42 days, these differences were no longer evident (61.6% vs. 61.5%). While healing showed similar characteristics with bone resorptive and appositional events for both SLActive and SLA surfaces between 7 and 42 days, the degree of osseointegration after 2 and 4 weeks was superior for the SLActive compared with the SLA surface. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M.; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W.; Meehan, Michael J.; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L.; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2015-01-01

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5–2 m2 that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health. PMID:25825778

  18. Molecular cartography of the human skin surface in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslimani, Amina; Porto, Carla; Rath, Christopher M; Wang, Mingxun; Guo, Yurong; Gonzalez, Antonio; Berg-Lyon, Donna; Ackermann, Gail; Moeller Christensen, Gitte Julie; Nakatsuji, Teruaki; Zhang, Lingjuan; Borkowski, Andrew W; Meehan, Michael J; Dorrestein, Kathleen; Gallo, Richard L; Bandeira, Nuno; Knight, Rob; Alexandrov, Theodore; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2015-04-28

    The human skin is an organ with a surface area of 1.5-2 m(2) that provides our interface with the environment. The molecular composition of this organ is derived from host cells, microbiota, and external molecules. The chemical makeup of the skin surface is largely undefined. Here we advance the technologies needed to explore the topographical distribution of skin molecules, using 3D mapping of mass spectrometry data and microbial 16S rRNA amplicon sequences. Our 3D maps reveal that the molecular composition of skin has diverse distributions and that the composition is defined not only by skin cells and microbes but also by our daily routines, including the application of hygiene products. The technological development of these maps lays a foundation for studying the spatial relationships of human skin with hygiene, the microbiota, and environment, with potential for developing predictive models of skin phenotypes tailored to individual health.

  19. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Genes Associated With Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Severe Ocular Complications Following Use of Cold Medicine in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Tais H; Ueta, Mayumi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Okada, Yukinori; Loureiro, Renata R; Costa, Karita A; Sallum, Juliana Maria F; Milhomens, José Arthur; Inoue, Chikara; Sotozono, Chie; Gomes, José Álvaro P; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2017-04-01

    Describing the association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles could facilitate the understanding of increased risk factors for development of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in patients with severe ocular complications (SOCs). To investigate the association between HLA class I genes and cold medicine (CM)-associated SJS/TEN with SOCs. This case-control study was conducted between February 8, 2013, and August 29, 2014. Thirty-nine Brazilian patients with CM-SJS/TEN of 74 patients with SJS/TEN with SOCs and 133 healthy Brazilian volunteers were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigen class I genes (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) were examined to determine whether there was a genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOC. Patients were interviewed to identify possible etiologic factors. Data analysis was performed from April 14, 2013, to August 29, 2014. Genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs by analysis of HLA class I genes. Of 74 patients included in the analysis, 32 (43%) were male; mean (SD) age was 36.01 [15.42] years. HLA-A*66:01 (odds ratio [OR], 24.0; 95% CI, 2.79-206.0; P < .001), HLA-B*44:03 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.11-6.65; P = .04), and HLA-C*12:03 (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.67-18.80; P = .006) were associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs, and HLA-A*11:01 (OR, 0.074; 95% CI, 0.004-1.26; P = .008), HLA-B*08:01 (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-1.15; P = .048), and HLA-B*51:01 (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05-1.03; P = .045) were inversely associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs (39 cases: 19 Pardo and 16 European ancestry; 14 males and 25 females; age, 35.2 [14.4] years; and 133 controls: 66 Pardo and 61 European ancestry; 55 males and 78 females; age, 41.2 [12.9] years). When multiple test correction within the HLA locus, HLA-A*66:01 and HLA-C*12:03 demonstrated associations. When participants were segregated into Pardo and locus is considered, HLA-A*66:01 was associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC among

  20. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickney, Zachary; Losacco, Joseph; McDevitt, Sophie; Zhang, Zhiwen; Lu, Biao

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell-cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of exosome surface display technology in living human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stickney, Zachary, E-mail: zstickney@scu.edu; Losacco, Joseph, E-mail: jlosacco@scu.edu; McDevitt, Sophie, E-mail: smmcdevitt@scu.edu; Zhang, Zhiwen, E-mail: zzhang@scu.edu; Lu, Biao, E-mail: blu2@scu.edu

    2016-03-25

    Surface display technology is an emerging key player in presenting functional proteins for targeted drug delivery and therapy. Although a number of technologies exist, a desirable mammalian surface display system is lacking. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that facilitate cell–cell communication and can be engineered as nano-shuttles for cell-specific delivery. In this study, we report the development of a novel exosome surface display technology by exploiting mammalian cell secreted nano-vesicles and their trans-membrane protein tetraspanins. By constructing a set of fluorescent reporters for both the inner and outer surface display on exosomes at two selected sites of tetraspanins, we demonstrated the successful exosomal display via gene transfection and monitoring fluorescence in vivo. We subsequently validated our system by demonstrating the expected intracellular partitioning of reporter protein into sub-cellular compartments and secretion of exosomes from human HEK293 cells. Lastly, we established the stable engineered cells to harness the ability of this robust system for continuous production, secretion, and uptake of displayed exosomes with minimal impact on human cell biology. In sum, our work paved the way for potential applications of exosome, including exosome tracking and imaging, targeted drug delivery, as well as exosome-mediated vaccine and therapy.

  2. Effect of Brimonidine on the B Cells, T Cells, and Cytokines of the Ocular Surface and Aqueous Humor in Rat Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyun-Seung; Lee, Young Chun; Kim, Su-Young

    2015-12-01

    One serious ocular side effect associated with the long-term use of topical brimonidine tartrate is anterior uveitis. This study investigated the changes in the levels of several inflammatory cytokines, B cells, and T cells in rat eyes treated with topical brimonidine tartrate. Twenty Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 2 groups of 10 rats each. In the brimonidine group, rats were treated with brimonidine 3 times per day for 10 months. The rat cytokine multiplex method was used to determine the levels of cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)] in the conjunctiva, cornea, aqueous humor, and lens. The cornea and conjunctiva were subjected to immunohistochemical staining using anti-CD20 antibody and anti-CD3 antibody. The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-2, and IL-6 in the conjunctiva were significantly lower in the brimonidine group (P = 0.033, 0.017, and 0.016, respectively) than in the control group. Compared to the control group, the concentration of IL-2 in the cornea was also significantly lower in the brimonidine group (P = 0.037). However, in the analysis of the cytokines in the aqueous humor, the concentrations of IL-1β and IL-2 were significantly higher in the brimonidine group than in the control group (P = 0.016 and 0.008, respectively). There was no significant difference in CD20-positive B-cell and CD3-positive T-cell infiltration of the conjunctival biopsy specimens between the brimonidine group and the control group. Corneal specimens of both groups also showed no infiltration of CD20-positive B cells and CD3-positive T cells. These results suggest that the increase in some inflammatory cytokines in the aqueous humor after the long-term brimonidine treatment may contribute to the pathogenesis of brimonidine-induced uveitis.

  3. Ocular toxicity of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, T.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Merickel, B.S.; Hobbs, C.H.

    Three commercial formulations of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) were applied to eyes of rabbits and evaluated for their potential to cause ocular damage. All three products were severe eye irritants and water irrigation shortly after exposure was not effective in reducing ocular damage. Gross and histological observations revealed marked conjunctivitis, moderate to severe ulcerative keratitis, and hyperemia and edema of the iris, all of which showed evidence of resolution over the three-week course of investigation. However, complete reversal of all effects was not attained. TFE and its commercial formulations should be viewed as potentially severe human ocular irritants.

  4. Surface modifications of the Sima de los Huesos fossil humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, P; Fernandez Jalvo, Y

    1997-01-01

    The sample of fossil human bones from the Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, has been analysed to trace parts of its taphonomic history. The work reported here is restricted to analysis of the skeletal elements preserved and their surface modifications. Preliminary plans of specimen distribution published 6 years ago indicate that the skeletal elements are dispersed within the cave, but more recent data are not yet available. Most of the fossils are broken, with some breakage when the bone was fresh and some when already partly mineralized, both types showing some rounding. There are few longitudinal breaks on shafts of long bones and so very few bone splinters. All skeletal elements are preserved but in unequal proportions, with elements like femora, humeri and mandibles and teeth with greater structural density being best represented. There is no evidence of weathering or of human damage such as cut marks on any of the human assemblage, but trampling damage is present on most bones. Carnivore damage is also common, with some present on more than half the sample, but it is mostly superficial, either on the surfaces of shafts and articular ends or on the edges of spiral breaks. The sizes and distribution of the carnivore pits indicate extensive canid activity, and this is interpreted as scavenging of the bones in place in the cave. Indications of tooth marks from a larger carnivore indicate the activity possibly of a large felid: the marks are too large to be produced by small canids, with the larger marks concentrated on spiral breaks on the more robust bones, and there is no evidence of bone crushing and splintering in the manner of hyaenas. The nature of the SH human assemblage is also consistent with accumulation by humans, the evidence for this being the lack of other animals, especially the lack of herbivorous animals, associated with the humans, and the high number of individuals preserved.

  5. Ocular allergy and keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoconus is the most common corneal ectatic disorder, the cause of which is largely unknown. Many factors have been implicated, and the ocular allergy is being one of them. The commonly proposed pathogenesis includes the release of inflammatory mediators due to eye rubbing which may alter the corneal collagen and lead to corneal ectasias. The onset of keratoconus is often early in cases associated with allergy and routine corneal topography may detect subtle forms of keratoconus. These cases may require early keratoplasty and are at an increased risk of having acute corneal hydrops. Surgical outcomes are similar to primary keratoconus cases. However, post-operative epithelial breakdown may be a problem in these cases. Control of allergy and eye rubbing is the best measure to prevent corneal ectasias in cases of ocular allergy.

  6. Sclerodermatomyositis, ocular manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroza-Seres, M; Serna-Ojeda, J C; Flores-Suárez, L F

    2017-07-01

    Sclerodermatomyositis is an overlap syndrome of myositis and scleroderma, with dermatological, muscular and joint involvement, but may also present with ocular manifestations. A 57 year-old woman presented with ophthalmological manifestations, including scleral thinning 360°, and the presence of cells in the anterior and posterior chamber. Oriented physical examination and laboratory studies led to the diagnosis, with the need for systemic treatment. Sclerodermatomyositis is a rare disease. Its diagnosis needs thorough clinical and laboratory studies, and its management should be multidisciplinary when inflammatory ocular manifestations may be present. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Ocular Response Analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik, Sushmita; Pandav, Surinder Singh

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, corneal biomechanical properties could not be measured in vivo. The ocular response analyzer is a new, noninvasive device that analyses corneal biomechanical properties simply and rapidly. The ORA allows cornea compensated IOP measurements and can estimate corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF). It is designed to improve the accuracy of IOP measurement by using corneal biomechanical data to calculate a biomechanically adjusted estimate of intraocular press...

  8. Microsporidia: Emerging Ocular Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsporidia are eukaryotic, spore forming obligate intracellular parasites, first recognized over 100 years ago. Microsporidia are becoming increasingly recognized as infectious pathogens causing intestinal, ocular, sinus, pulmonary, muscular and renal diseases, in both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients. Ocular microsporidiosis, though uncommon, could be isolated or part of systemic infections. It occurs mainly in two forms: keratoconjunctivitis form, mostly seen in immunocompromised individuals; stromal keratitis form seen in immunocomptetant individuals. Recent reports indicate increasing number of cases of ocular microsporidiosis in immunocompetent individuals. The ocular cases present as superficial keratitis in AIDS patients, and these differ in presentation and clinical course from the cases seen in immunocompetent individuals which mainly appear to be as deep stromal keratitis. For most patients with infectious diseases, microbiological isolation and identification techniques offer the most rapid and specific determination of the etiologic agent, however this does not hold true for microsporidia, which are obligate intracellular parasites requiring cell culture systems for growth. Therefore, the diagnosis of microsporidiosis currently depends on morphological demonstration of the organisms themselves, either in scrapings or tissues. Although the diagnosis of microsporidiosis and identification of microsporidia by light microscopy have greatly improved during the last few years, species differentiation by these techniques is usually impossible and electron microscopy may be necessary. Immuno fluorescent-staining techniques have been developed for species differentiation of microsporidia, but the antibodies used in these procedures are available only at research laboratories at present. During the last 10 years, molecular techniques have been developed for the detection and species differentiation of microsporidia.

  9. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunjo Finkel

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available São relatados 4 casos de miopatia ocular descendente (MOD com história familial levantada em três gerações. Biópsia musculares e eletromiografia em um caso confirmaram o caráter miogênico da doença. A MOD nada mais seria do que uma forma clínica especial de distrofia muscular, de início tardio.

  10. Bilateral ocular osseous choristomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jeung Hee; Yoon, Dae Young; Choi, Chul Soon; Yoon, Eun Joo; Park, Sang Joon; Seo, Young Lan [Hallym University, Department of Radiology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea); Kim, Byoung Jin [Hallym University, Department of Ophthalmology, Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-11-01

    Choristoma is a benign tumour defined as normal tissue in an ectopic location. Osseous choristoma, one subtype of this entity, occurring within the orbit has rarely been reported in the world literature. We report a 6-year-old girl with bilateral ocular osseous choristomas who presented with palpable nodules protruding from both upper lids. The radiological and clinical findings are described and previous reports are reviewed. (orig.)

  11. Immunohistochemistry in ocular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, Brett; Lisle, Allison; Loy, Timothy

    2008-07-01

    The distinction between ocular sebaceous carcinoma, poorly differentiated ocular squamous cell carcinoma and ocular basal cell carcinoma can be challenging. An appropriate immunohistochemical panel may help to differentiate these lesions. To determine the distribution and use of several immunostains in these specimens, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from several of each was studied using an immunohistochemical technique. Positive staining for cytokeratin (CK)7 was seen in 100% of sebaceous carcinomas, 77.8% of basal cell carcinomas and 67.7% of squamous cell carcinomas. One hundred percent of sebaceous and basal cell carcinomas were positive for cytokeratin CAM 5.2, while only 83.3% of squamous cell carcinomas were positive. Using epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), 100% of squamous cell carcinomas and 80% of sebaceous carcinomas were positive, while basal cell carcinomas were uniformly negative. One hundred percent of basal cell carcinomas and 80% of sebaceous carcinomas were positive for Ber-EP4, while all squamous cell carcinomas were negative. Finally, 77.8%, 20% and 16.7% of basal cell carcinomas, sebaceous carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas showed immunoreactivity for the androgen receptor. An EMA positive, Ber-EP4 positive immunophenotype supports sebaceous carcinoma, EMA positive, Ber-EP4 negative result supports squamous cell carcinoma and an EMA negative, Ber-EP4 positive result supports basal cell carcinoma.

  12. Ocular injury in hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flynn, T H

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical characteristics of ocular injuries sustained in hurling in the south of Ireland and to investigate reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear. METHODS: Retrospective review of the case notes of 310 patients who attended Cork University Hospital or Waterford Regional Hospital between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2002 with ocular injuries sustained during a hurling match. A confidential questionnaire on reasons for non-use of protective headgear and eye wear was completed by 130 players. RESULTS: Hurling related eye injuries occurred most commonly in young men. Fifty two patients (17%) required hospital admission, with hyphaema accounting for 71% of admissions. Ten injuries required intraocular surgical INTERVENTION: retinal detachment repair (5); macular hole surgery (1); repair of partial thickness corneal laceration (1); repair of globe perforation (1); enucleation (1); trabeculectomy for post-traumatic glaucoma (1). Fourteen eyes (4.5%) had a final best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of <6\\/12 and six (2%) had BCVA <3\\/60. In the survey, 63 players (48.5%) reported wearing no protective facemask while playing hurling. Impairment of vision was the most common reason cited for non-use. CONCLUSIONS: Hurling related injury is a significant, and preventable, cause of ocular morbidity in young men in Ireland. The routine use of appropriate protective headgear and faceguards would result in a dramatic reduction in the incidence and severity of these injuries, and should be mandatory.

  13. Ocular Paintball Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Arie Y; Asalee, Leena; Lang, Yaron; Briscoe, Daniel; Assia, Ehud I

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most alarming ocular injury trends in recent years has been the proliferation of paintball guns and the proportional increase in the number of ocular eye injuries caused by paintballs. To describe five cases of paintball eye injuries that resulted in loss of functional vision in four of them. We conducted a retrospective review of the clinical course in five patients with paintball eye injuries treated in the ophthalmology departments of two medical centers. Five young males were evaluated for paintball injuries caused by blunt trauma. There was one case of full-thickness laceration (globe rupture). Four patients required one to five surgical interventions: three of these involved the removal of traumatic cataract including two eyes with significant zonular dehiscence treated by lens capsule conservation using anchoring devices, one retinal surgery and two glaucoma filtration surgeries. However, final visual outcome was not favorable due to irreversible retinal damage. Paintball trauma often results in significant ocular injury and loss of functional vision despite successful surgical intervention. Most injuries occur in under-supervised settings and are easily preventable. Improved safety measures, strict regulation enforcement and appropriate public education could prevent such serious damage.

  14. Treatment of acute ocular chemical burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Namrata; Kaur, Manpreet; Agarwal, Tushar; Sangwan, Virender S; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2017-09-19

    Ocular chemical burns are an ophthalmic emergency and are responsible for 11.5%-22.1% of ocular injuries. Immediate copious irrigation is universally recommended in acute ocular burns to remove the offending agent and minimize damage. Conventional medical therapy consists of the use of agents that promote epithelialization, minimize inflammation, and prevent cicatricial complications. Biological fluids such as autologous serum, umbilical cord blood serum, platelet-rich plasma, and amniotic membrane suspension are a rich source of growth factors and promote healing when used as adjuncts to conventional therapy. Surgical treatment of acute ocular burns includes the debridement of the necrotic tissue, application of tissue adhesives, tenoplasty, and tectonic keratoplasty. Amniotic membrane transplantation is a novel surgical treatment that is increasingly being used as an adjunct to conventional treatment to promote epithelial healing, minimize pain, and restore visual acuity. Various experimental treatments that aim to promote wound healing and minimize inflammation are being evaluated such as human mesenchymal and adipose stem cells, beta-1,3 glucan, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, cultivated fibroblasts, zinc desferrioxamine, antifibrinolytic agents, antioxidants, collagen cross-linking, and inhibitors of corneal neovascularization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the in vitro ocular toxicity of the fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of parenteral antibiotic eye drop formulations with non-marketed compositions or concentrations, commonly called fortified antibiotic eye drops, is a common practice in Ophthalmology in the hospital setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro ocular toxicity of the main fortified antibiotic eye drops prepared in the Hospital Pharmacy Departments. We have conducted an in vitro experimental study in order to test the toxicity of gentamicin, amikacin, cefazolin, ceftazidime, vancomycin, colistimethate sodium and imipenem-cilastatin eye drops; their cytotoxicity and acute tissue irritation have been evaluated. Cell-based assays were performed on human stromal keratocytes, using a cell-based impedance biosensor system [xCELLigence Real-Time System Cell Analyzer (RTCA], and the Hen’s Egg Test for the ocular irritation tests. All the eye drops, except for vancomycin and imipenem, have shown a cytotoxic effect dependent on concentration and time; higher concentrations and longer exposure times will cause a steeper decline in the population of stromal keratocytes. Vancomycin showed a major initial cytotoxic effect, which was reverted over time; and imipenem appeared as a non-toxic compound for stromal cells. The eye drops with the highest irritating effect on the ocular surface were gentamicin and vancomycin. Those antibiotic eye drops prepared at the Hospital Pharmacy Departments included in this study were considered as compounds potentially cytotoxic for the ocular surface; this toxicity was dependent on the concentration used

  16. Mars Surface System Common Capabilities and Challenges for Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Toups, Larry

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a process to identify and evaluate candidate locations where humans could land, live and work on the martian surface. These locations are referred to as Exploration Zones (EZs). Given current mission concepts, an EZ is a collection of Regions of Interest (ROIs) that are located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas that are relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains a landing site and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. In parallel with this process, NASA continues to make progress on the Evolvable Mars Campaign examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. This involves ongoing assessments of surface systems and operations to enable a permanent, sustainable human presence. Because of the difficulty in getting equipment and supplies to the surface of Mars, part of these assessments involve identifying those systems and processes that can perform in multiple, sometimes completely unrelated, situations. These assessments have been performed in a very generic surface mission carried out at a very generic surface location. As specific candidate EZs are identified it becomes important to evaluate the current suite of surface systems and operations as they are likely to perform for the specific locations and for the types of operations - both scientific and development - that are proposed for these EZs. It is also important to evaluate the proposed EZs for their suitability to be explored or developed given the range of capabilities and constraints for the types of surface systems and operations being considered within the EMC. This means looking at setting up and operating a field station at a central location within the EZ as well as traversing to and

  17. Glycosylation of the major human Pneumocystis carinii surface antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Bettina; Koch, C; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the major rat P. carinii surface antigen is important for initial host-organism attachment, possibly through binding to fibronectin, mannose-binding protein, or surfactant protein A. Since a carbohydrate/lectin interaction may be involved in adhesion, we undertook...... this study to characterize the glycosylation of the major human P. carinii surface glycoprotein (gp95). We have used purified gp95 as a source of antigen, and in lectin binding and deglycosylation studies it was found that approximately 9% of gp95 consists of N-linked carbohydrates of mainly high......-mannose and bisected complex-type glycans. Using a polyclonal antibody raised against purified gp95 and crossed affinoimmunoelectrophoresis and the lectins Con A and WGA, gp95 exhibited carbohydrate-dependent microheterogeneity. We therefore suggest that gp95 is composed of subtypes which differ in N...

  18. Amniotic membrane transplantation for acute ocular burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Gerry; Suleman, Hanif; Bunce, Catey; Dua, Harminder

    2012-09-12

    Ocular surface burns can be caused by chemicals (alkalis and acids) or by direct heat. Amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) performed in the acute phase (day 0 to day 7) of an ocular surface burn is reported to relieve pain, accelerate healing and reduce scarring and blood vessel formation. The surgery involves applying a patch of amniotic membrane (AM) over the entire ocular surface up to the eyelid margins. To assess the effects of AMT on the eyes of people having suffered acute ocular surface burns. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 6), MEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2012), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2012), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2012), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 11 June 2012. We included randomised trials of medical therapy and AMT applied in the first seven days after an ocular surface burn compared to medical therapy alone. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted relevant data. We contacted trial investigators for missing information. We summarised data using risk ratios (RRs) and mean differences (MDs) as appropriate. We included one RCT of 100 participants with ocular burns that were randomised to treatment with AMT and medical therapy or medical therapy alone. A subset of patients (n = 68) who were treated within the first seven days of the injury met the inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The remaining 32 eyes were excluded. The included subset consisted of 36 moderate (Dua classification II-III) and 32 severe (Dua

  19. [Epstein Barr and cytomegaloviruses in ocular pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdei, Corina; Cuşnir, Valeriu; Bârcâ, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Citomegalovirus (CMV) are Herpesviridae family representative and presents a real danger for human. A very high infect risk of population farther the danger The ocular pathology induced by them can affect all media and tunics of optic analyzer. An etiologic differentiation is necessary for the mentioned viruses induced diseases. The etiologic differentiation has like purpose the enforcement of an effective and optimal antiviral and immunomodulating therapy.

  20. Human Microbiota and Ophthalmic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Louise J; Liu, Ji

    2016-09-01

    The human ocular surface, consisting of the cornea and conjunctiva, is colonized by an expansive, diverse microbial community. Molecular-based methods, such as 16S rRNA sequencing, has allowed for more comprehensive and precise identification of the species composition of the ocular surface microbiota compared to traditional culture-based methods. Evidence suggests that the normal microbiota plays a protective immunological role in preventing the proliferation of pathogenic species and thus, alterations in the homeostatic microbiome may be linked to ophthalmic pathologies. Further investigation of the ocular surface microbiome, as well as the microbiome of other areas of the body such as the oral mucosa and gut, and their role in the pathophysiology of diseases is a significant, emerging field of research, and may someday enable the development of novel probiotic approaches for the treatment and prevention of ophthalmic diseases.

  1. Dendrimer based nanotherapeutics for ocular drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Siva Pramodh

    PAMAM dendrimers are a class of well-defined, hyperbranched polymeric nanocarriers that are being investigated for ocular drug and gene delivery. Their favorable properties such as small size, multivalency and water solubility can provide significant opportunities for many biologically unstable drugs and allows potentially favorable ocular biodistribution. This work exploits hydroxyl terminated dendrimers (G4-OH) as drug/gene delivery vehicles that can target retinal microglia and pigment epithelium via systemic delivery with improved efficacy at much lower concentrations without any side effects. Two different drugs Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC) conjugated to G4-OH dendrimers showed tailorable sustained release in physiological relevant solutions and were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. Dendrimer-TA conjugates enhanced the solubility of TA and were 100 fold more effective at lower concentrations than free TA in its anti-inflammatory activity in activated microglia and in suppressing VEGF production in hypoxic RPE cells. Dendrimers targeted activated microglia/macrophages and RPE and retained for a period of 21 days in I/R mice model. The relative retention of intravitreal and intravenous dendrimers was comparable, if a 30-fold intravenous dose is used; suggesting intravenous route targeting retinal diseases are possible with dendrimers. D-NAC when injected intravenously attenuated retinal and choroidal inflammation, significantly reduced (˜73%) CNV growth at early stage of AMD in rat model of CNV. A combination therapy of D-NAC + D-TA significantly suppressed microglial activation and promoted CNV regression in late stages of AMD without causing side-effects. G4-OH was modified with linker having minimal amine groups and incorporation of TA as a nuclear localization enhancer resulted in compact gene vectors with favorable safety profile and achieved high levels of transgene expression in hard to transfect human retinal pigment

  2. COL4A1 mutations cause ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy in mice and Walker-Warburg syndrome in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandre Labelle-Dumais

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB and Walker Warburg Syndrome (WWS belong to a spectrum of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by ocular dysgenesis, neuronal migration defects, and congenital muscular dystrophy. Until now, the pathophysiology of MEB/WWS has been attributed to alteration in dystroglycan post-translational modification. Here, we provide evidence that mutations in a gene coding for a major basement membrane protein, collagen IV alpha 1 (COL4A1, are a novel cause of MEB/WWS. Using a combination of histological, molecular, and biochemical approaches, we show that heterozygous Col4a1 mutant mice have ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy characteristic of MEB/WWS. Importantly, we identified putative heterozygous mutations in COL4A1 in two MEB/WWS patients. Both mutations occur within conserved amino acids of the triple-helix-forming domain of the protein, and at least one mutation interferes with secretion of the mutant proteins, resulting instead in intracellular accumulation. Expression and posttranslational modification of dystroglycan is unaltered in Col4a1 mutant mice indicating that COL4A1 mutations represent a distinct pathogenic mechanism underlying MEB/WWS. These findings implicate a novel gene and a novel mechanism in the etiology of MEB/WWS and expand the clinical spectrum of COL4A1-associated disorders.

  3. COL4A1 Mutations Cause Ocular Dysgenesis, Neuronal Localization Defects, and Myopathy in Mice and Walker-Warburg Syndrome in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Emily P.; de Leau, Michelle; Lyons, David; Kabaeva, Zhyldyz; Manzini, M. Chiara; Dobyns, William B.; Walsh, Christopher A.; Michele, Daniel E.; Gould, Douglas B.

    2011-01-01

    Muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB) and Walker Warburg Syndrome (WWS) belong to a spectrum of autosomal recessive diseases characterized by ocular dysgenesis, neuronal migration defects, and congenital muscular dystrophy. Until now, the pathophysiology of MEB/WWS has been attributed to alteration in dystroglycan post-translational modification. Here, we provide evidence that mutations in a gene coding for a major basement membrane protein, collagen IV alpha 1 (COL4A1), are a novel cause of MEB/WWS. Using a combination of histological, molecular, and biochemical approaches, we show that heterozygous Col4a1 mutant mice have ocular dysgenesis, neuronal localization defects, and myopathy characteristic of MEB/WWS. Importantly, we identified putative heterozygous mutations in COL4A1 in two MEB/WWS patients. Both mutations occur within conserved amino acids of the triple-helix-forming domain of the protein, and at least one mutation interferes with secretion of the mutant proteins, resulting instead in intracellular accumulation. Expression and posttranslational modification of dystroglycan is unaltered in Col4a1 mutant mice indicating that COL4A1 mutations represent a distinct pathogenic mechanism underlying MEB/WWS. These findings implicate a novel gene and a novel mechanism in the etiology of MEB/WWS and expand the clinical spectrum of COL4A1-associated disorders. PMID:21625620

  4. Ocular findings in patients with vitiligo: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Vitiligo is a common acquired disorder characterized by depigmented cutaneous patches devoid of melanocytes. The disease carries a risk for ocular abnormalities. Few reports are available about the ocular findings and their possible association with the disease in patients with vitiligo in the literature."n "nMethods: A total of 72 patients with previously documented cutaneous vitiligo were examined for ocular findings and 50 healthy individuals were enrolled as the control group in Razi Hospital in Tehran, Iran during years 2007-2008. Demographic features including age, gender, duration of the disease, presence of any accompanying autoimmune diseases, type of vitiligo and its anatomical distribution were recorded to investigate a possible association between the disease and the ocular findings."n "nResults: Amongst 72 patients with vitiligo, 11 (15.3% had ocular findings including retinal pigment epithelium hypopigmentation, posterior pole pigment changes, peripheral iris atrophy, atrophy of retinal pigment epithelium and iris hyperpigmentation. Amongst the controls, only two cases (4% had ocular findings which consisted of iris hyperpigmentation. The relationship between ocular findings and vitiligo was statistically significant (p= 0.04. No other remarkable features, such as age, gender, age at the onset of the disease, type of vitiligo, presence of priorbital lesions or body surface area involvement by the disease, were suggestive of an association or presenting a risk factor for vitiligo."n "nConclusion: Although the sample size and prevalence of ocular findings were not satisfactory enough to make a definite conclusion, we found a higher occurrence of ocular findings in patients with vitiligo than the control group.

  5. Tear Osmolarity and Tear Film Parameters in Patients With Ocular Rosacea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman Erdur, Sevil; Eliacik, Mustafa; Kocabora, Mehmet Selim; Balevi, Ali; Demirci, Goktug; Ozsutcu, Mustafa; Gulkilik, Gokhan; Aras, Cengiz

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate tear osmolarity and tear film parameters in patients with ocular rosacea. In a single center, 25 eyes of 25 patients with ocular rosacea (group 1), 25 eyes of 25 patients with rosacea without ocular involvement (group 2), and 20 eyes of 20 healthy individuals (group 3) were evaluated using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, Schirmer I test, tear film break-up time (TBUT), scoring of ocular surface fluorescein staining using modified Oxford scale, and tear osmolarity. Tear osmolarity values, OSDI and Oxford scale scores were significantly higher in group 1 than in groups 2 and 3 (Ptear osmolarity between groups 2 and 3 (P=0.629, P=0.175, P=0.713, P=865, and P=0.388, respectively). This study showed that ocular rosacea is associated with tear hyperosmolarity and tear film dysfunction.

  6. Human Mars Landing Site and Impacts on Mars Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Bussey, Ben

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes NASA's initial steps for identifying and evaluating candidate Exploration Zones (EZs) and Regions of Interests (ROIs) for the first human crews that will explore the surface of Mars. NASA's current effort to define the exploration of this planet by human crews, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), provides the context in which these EZs and ROIs are being considered. The EMC spans all aspects of a human Mars mission including launch from Earth, transit to and from Mars, and operations on the surface of Mars. An EZ is a collection of ROIs located within approximately 100 kilometers of a centralized landing site. ROIs are areas relevant for scientific investigation and/or development/maturation of capabilities and resources necessary for a sustainable human presence. The EZ also contains one or more landing sites and a habitation site that will be used by multiple human crews during missions to explore and utilize the ROIs within the EZ. With the EMC as a conceptual basis, the EZ model has been refined to a point where specific site selection criteria for scientific exploration and in situ resource utilization can be defined. In 2015 these criteria were distributed to the planetary sciences community and the in situ resource utilization and civil engineering communities as part of a call for EZ proposals. The resulting "First Landing Site/Exploration Zone Workshop for Human Missions to the Surface of Mars" was held in October 2015 during which 47 proposals for EZs and ROIs were presented and discussed. Proposed locations spanned all longitudes and all allowable latitudes (+/- 50 degrees). Proposed justification for selecting one of these EZs also spanned a significant portion of the scientific and resource criteria provided to the community. Several important findings resulted from this Workshop including: (a) a strong consensus that, at a scale of 100 km (radius), multiple places on Mars exist that have both sufficient scientific interest

  7. Comparison of ocular-surface disease index questionnaire, tearfilm break-up time, and Schirmer tests for the evaluation of the tearfilm in computer users with and without dry-eye symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, Cihan; Güney, Esra; Akçay, Betül İlkay Sezgin; Akçalı, Gülünay; Erdoğan, Gürkan; Bayramlar, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic values of the Schirmer's and tearfilm breakup time (TBUT) tests and the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) in dry-eye syndrome. Thirty-five employees of Ümraniye Training and Research Hospital who used computers in their daily work pa