WorldWideScience

Sample records for human nutrition studies

  1. Nutritional Ecology and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2016-07-17

    In contrast to the spectacular advances in the first half of the twentieth century with micronutrient-related diseases, human nutrition science has failed to stem the more recent rise of obesity and associated cardiometabolic disease (OACD). This failure has triggered debate on the problems and limitations of the field and what change is needed to address these. We briefly review the two broad historical phases of human nutrition science and then provide an overview of the main problems that have been implicated in the poor progress of the field with solving OACD. We next introduce the field of nutritional ecology and show how its ecological-evolutionary foundations can enrich human nutrition science by providing the theory to help address its limitations. We end by introducing a modeling approach from nutritional ecology, termed nutritional geometry, and demonstrate how it can help to implement ecological and evolutionary theory in human nutrition to provide new direction and to better understand and manage OACD.

  2. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; Sijben, John W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2013-09-01

    Throughout the life span, the brain is a metabolically highly active organ that uses a large proportion of total nutrient and energy intake. Furthermore, the development and repair of neural tissue depend on the proper intake of essential structural nutrients, minerals, and vitamins. Therefore, what we eat, or refrain from eating, may have an important impact on our cognitive ability and mental performance. Two of the key areas in which diet is thought to play an important role are in optimizing neurodevelopment in children and in preventing neurodegeneration and cognitive decline during aging. From early development to aging, brain imaging can detect structural, functional, and metabolic changes in humans and modifications due to altered nutrition or to additional nutritional supplementation. Inclusion of imaging measures in clinical studies can increase understanding with regard to the modification of brain structure, metabolism, and functional endpoints and may provide early sensitive measures of long-term effects. In this symposium, the utility of existing brain imaging technologies to assess the effects of nutritional intervention in humans is described. Examples of current research showing the utility of these markers are reviewed.

  3. Brain imaging and human nutrition: which measures to use in intervention studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Babiloni, Claudio; de Bruin, Eveline A; Isaacs, Elizabeth B; Jönsson, Lena S; Kennedy, David O; Latulippe, Marie E; Mohajeri, M Hasan; Moreines, Judith; Pietrini, Pietro; Walhovd, Kristine B; Winwood, Robert J; Sijben, John W

    2013-08-01

    The present review describes brain imaging technologies that can be used to assess the effects of nutritional interventions in human subjects. Specifically, we summarise the biological relevance of their outcome measures, practical use and feasibility, and recommended use in short- and long-term nutritional studies. The brain imaging technologies described consist of MRI, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional MRI, as well as electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography, near-IR spectroscopy, positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computerised tomography. In nutritional interventions and across the lifespan, brain imaging can detect macro- and microstructural, functional, electrophysiological and metabolic changes linked to broader functional outcomes, such as cognition. Imaging markers can be considered as specific for one or several brain processes and as surrogate instrumental endpoints that may provide sensitive measures of short- and long-term effects. For the majority of imaging measures, little information is available regarding their correlation with functional endpoints in healthy subjects; therefore, imaging markers generally cannot replace clinical endpoints that reflect the overall capacity of the brain to behaviourally respond to specific situations and stimuli. The principal added value of brain imaging measures for human nutritional intervention studies is their ability to provide unique in vivo information on the working mechanism of an intervention in hypothesis-driven research. Selection of brain imaging techniques and target markers within a given technique should mainly depend on the hypothesis regarding the mechanism of action of the intervention, level (structural, metabolic or functional) and anticipated timescale of the intervention's effects, target population, availability and costs of the techniques.

  4. The use of the comet assay in the study of human nutrition and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, Gillian R; McKelvey-Martin, Valerie J; Downes, C Stephen

    2008-05-01

    The influence of diet on carcinogenesis is a hugely complex area; not only is the consumption of major dietary factors such as meat, fat and fruits and vegetables associated with increased or decreased risk of a range of cancers but also an increasing number of specific nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals are being proposed as the next 'superfoods' to combat the development of cancer. As well as epidemiological studies to determine the association of these dietary factors with cancer risk, it is also essential to investigate the underlying mechanisms through which these factors may causally influence carcinogenesis. The comet assay provides a relatively simple, cheap and rapid method to examine DNA damage and repair and is, therefore, an ideal biomarker for the study of the effects of nutrition on cancer. This review focuses on the use of the comet assay in studies involving human subjects or human cell lines, which investigate the effects of various nutrients on biomarkers relevant to carcinogenesis, and discusses the potential of the comet assay and its various modifications for use as cancer-related biomarkers suitable for use in nutritional studies.

  5. Nutritional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1975-01-01

    Detailed metabolic studies were conducted of the Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 flight crews, and the results are presented in tabular form. Intake and absorption data are also included. Apollo nutrient intakes were found to be characteristically hypocaloric. Estimates of body composition changes from metabolic balance data, from preflight and postflight weights and volumes, and from total body water and potassium provide no evidence for diminished caloric requirements during a flight. As observed during the Gemini Program and during periods of bed rest, measurements of bone density and metabolic balance confirm a tendency toward loss of skeletal tissue in weightlessness. No evidence exists that any inflight metabolic anomaly, including hypokalemia, was induced by marginal or deficient nutrient intakes. In general, the Apollo crewmen were well nourished and exhibited normal gastroenterological functions, although appetite was somewhat diminished and the organoleptic response to food was somewhat modified during flight.

  6. Progress in Human Nutrition, Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margen, Sheldon, Ed.

    In view of the international character of nutrition and interrelationships and meaning of food to all people, this annual series of open-ended books has been started to direct attention to the aspects of human nutrition in regard to the quality of life. It is believed the study of the action nutrients, their interrelationships, and their ingestion…

  7. A buccal cell model comet assay: Development and evaluation for human biomonitoring and nutritional studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeto, Y.T. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of Health Sciences, Macao Polytechnic Institute, Macao (China); Benzie, I.F.F. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: iris.benzie@inet.polyu.edu.hk; Collins, A.R. [Department of Nutrition, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Choi, S.W. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, C.Y. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yow, C.M.N. [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tse, M.M.Y. [School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-10-15

    The comet assay is a widely used biomonitoring tool for DNA damage. The most commonly used cells in human studies are lymphocytes. There is an urgent need to find an alternative target human cell that can be collected from normal subjects with minimal invasion. There are some reports of buccal cells, collected easily from the inside of the mouth, being used in studies of DNA damage and repair, and these were of interest. However, our preliminary studies following the published protocol showed that buccal cells sustained massive damage and disintegrated at the high pH [O. Ostling, K.J. Johanson. Microelectrophoretic study of radiation-induced DNA damages in individual mammalian cells. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 123 (1984) 291-298] used, but that at lower pH were extremely resistant to lysis, an essential step in the comet assay. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a protocol than enabled buccal cell lysis and DNA damage testing in the comet assay, and to use the model to evaluate the potential use of the buccal cell model in human biomonitoring and nutritional study. Specifically, we aimed to investigate intra- and inter-individual differences in buccal cell DNA damage (as strand breaks), the effect of in vitro exposure to both a standard oxidant challenge and antioxidant treatment, as well as in situ exposure to an antioxidant-rich beverage and supplementation-related effects using a carotenoid-rich food. Successful lysis was achieved using 0.25% trypsin for 30 min followed by proteinase K (1 mg/ml) treatment for 60 min. When this procedure was performed on cells pre-embedded in agarose on a microscope slide, followed by electrophoresis (in 0.01 M NaOH, 1 mM EDTA, pH 9.1, 18 min at 12 V), a satisfactory comet image was obtained, though inter-individual variation was quite wide. Pre-lysis exposure of cells to a standard oxidant challenge (induced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) increased DNA strand breaks in a dose related manner, and incubation of cells in

  8. Nutritional status assessment in semiclosed environments: ground-based and space flight studies in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J. E.; Rice, B. L.; Nillen, J. L.; Gillman, P. L.; Block, G.

    2001-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical during long-term spaceflight, as is the ability to easily monitor dietary intake. A comprehensive nutritional status assessment profile was designed for use before, during and after flight. It included assessment of both dietary intake and biochemical markers of nutritional status. A spaceflight food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to evaluate intake of key nutrients during spaceflight. The nutritional status assessment protocol was evaluated during two ground-based closed-chamber studies (60 and 91 d; n = 4/study), and was implemented for two astronauts during 4-mo stays on the Mir space station. Ground-based studies indicated that the FFQ, administered daily or weekly, adequately estimated intake of key nutrients. Chamber subjects maintained prechamber energy intake and body weight. Astronauts tended to eat 40--50% of WHO-predicted energy requirements, and lost >10% of preflight body mass. Serum ferritin levels were lower after the chamber stays, despite adequate iron intake. Red blood cell folate concentrations were increased after the chamber studies. Vitamin D stores were decreased by > 40% on chamber egress and after spaceflight. Mir crew members had decreased levels of most nutritional indices, but these are difficult to interpret given the insufficient energy intake and loss of body mass. Spaceflight food systems can provide adequate intake of macronutrients, although, as expected, micronutrient intake is a concern for any closed or semiclosed food system. These data demonstrate the utility and importance of nutritional status assessment during spaceflight and of the FFQ during extended-duration spaceflight.

  9. Nutrition, health and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brundtland, G H

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the speech delivered by Gro Harlem Brundtland, Director-General of WHO, on issues related to nutrition from a health and a human rights perspective. According to Brundtland, nutrition is a universal factor that both affects and defines the health of all people. It affects not only growth and physical development of a child, but also his cognitive and social development. However, inequity, poverty, underdevelopment, as well as inadequate access to food, health and care still exist which have resulted to the deaths of millions of children and left many more suffering from diseases. Poverty has also been identified as the main obstacle to the attainment of health. The existence of structural poverty and ill health eventually leads to poor development, which includes poor nutrition, poor health, and poor human rights. The impact of poverty on health is further worsened by discrimination on the basis of race, color, sex, language, or religion. To address this issue, the WHO will renew their focus on the political and legal links between health and human rights. A human rights perspective provides the international community with an opportunity to support the development of public health policies and practices that promote healthy nutrition as a center of all social and economic development.

  10. Improving human micronutrient nutrition through biofortification in the soil-plant system: China as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-E; Chen, Wen-Rong; Feng, Ying

    2007-10-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition is a major health problem in China. According to a national nutritional survey, approximately 24% of all Chinese children suffer from a serious deficiency of iron (Fe) (anemia), while over 50% show a sub-clinical level of zinc (Zn) deficiency. More than 374 million people in China suffer from goiter disease, which is related to iodine (I) deficiency, and approximately 20% of the Chinese population are affected by selenium (Se) deficiency. Micronutrient malnutrition in humans is derived from deficiencies of these elements in soils and foods. In China, approximately 40% of the total land area is deficient in Fe and Zn. Keshan and Kaschin-Beck diseases always appear in regions where the soil content of Se in low. The soil-plant system is instrumental to human nutrition and forms the basis of the "food chain" in which there is micronutrient cycling, resulting in an ecologically sound and sustainable flow of micronutrients. Soil-plant system strategies that have been adopted to improve human micronutrient nutrition mainly include: (1) exploiting micronutrient-dense crop genotypes by studying the physiology and genetics of micronutrient flow from soils to the edible parts of crops; (2) improving micronutrient bioavailability through a better knowledge of the mechanisms of the enhancers' production and accumulation in edible parts and its regulation through soil-plant system; (3) improving our knowledge of the relationship between the content and bioavailability of micronutrients in soils and those in edible crop products for better human nutrition; (4) developing special micronutrient fertilizers and integrated nutrient management technologies for increasing both the density of the micronutrients in the edible parts of plants and their bioavailability to humans.

  11. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring’s Epigenetic Status—Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Geraghty, Aisling A.; Lindsay, Karen L.; Goiuri Alberdi; Fionnuala M. McAuliffe; Gibney, Eileen R.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring’s epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients...

  12. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring’s Epigenetic Status—Evidence from Human and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Aisling A.; Lindsay, Karen L.; Alberdi, Goiuri; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.; Gibney, Eileen R.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring’s epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out. PMID:26917970

  13. Nutrition During Pregnancy Impacts Offspring's Epigenetic Status-Evidence from Human and Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Aisling A; Lindsay, Karen L; Alberdi, Goiuri; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a vital time of growth and development during which maternal nutrition significantly influences the future health of both mother and baby. During pregnancy, the fetus experiences a critical period of plasticity. Epigenetics, specifically DNA methylation, plays an important role here. As nutrition is influential for DNA methylation, this review aims to determine if maternal nutrition during pregnancy can modify the offspring's epigenome at birth. Research focuses on micronutrients and methyl donors such as folate and B vitamins. Evidence suggests that maternal nutrition does not largely influence global methylation patterns, particularly in nutrient-replete populations; however, an important impact on gene-specific methylation is observed. A link is shown between maternal nutrition and the methylome of the offspring; however, there remains a paucity of research. With the potential to use DNA methylation patterns at birth to predict health of the child in later life, it is vital that further research be carried out.

  14. Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K.

  15. Cereal grains for nutrition and health benefits: Overview of results from in vitro, animal and human studies in the HEALTHGRAIN project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björck, I.; Östman, E.; Kristensen, M.; Mateo Anson, N.; Price, R.K.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Havenaar, R.; Bach Knudsen, K.E.; Frid, A.; Mykkänen, H.; Welch, R.W.; Riccardi, G.

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked whole grain intake to the prevention of the metabolic syndrome, obesity and associated chronic diseases such as CVD and T2D. The Nutrition module within the HEALTHGRAIN project, included 10 partners and undertook in vitro, animal and human in vivo studies with the

  16. Nutrition, microRNAs, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Juan; Zhou, Beiyan; Ross, Sharon A; Zempleni, Janos

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs) hybridize with complementary sequences in mRNA and silence genes by destabilizing mRNA or preventing translation of mRNA. Over 60% of human protein-coding genes are regulated by miRs, and 1881 high-confidence miRs are encoded in the human genome. Evidence suggests that miRs not only are synthesized endogenously, but also might be obtained from dietary sources, and that food compounds alter the expression of endogenous miR genes. The main food matrices for studies of biological activity of dietary miRs include plant foods and cow milk. Encapsulation of miRs in exosomes and exosome-like particles confers protection against RNA degradation and creates a pathway for intestinal and vascular endothelial transport by endocytosis, as well as delivery to peripheral tissues. Evidence suggests that the amount of miRs absorbed from nutritionally relevant quantities of foods is sufficient to elicit biological effects, and that endogenous synthesis of miRs is insufficient to compensate for dietary miR depletion and rescue wild-type phenotypes. In addition, nutrition alters the expression of endogenous miR genes, thereby compounding the effects of nutrition-miR interactions in gene regulation and disease diagnosis in liquid biopsies. For example, food components and dietary preferences may modulate serum miR profiles that may influence biological processes. The complex crosstalk between nutrition, miRs, and gene targets poses a challenge to gene network analysis and studies of human disease. Novel pipelines and databases have been developed recently, including a dietary miR database for archiving reported miRs in 15 dietary resources. miRs derived from diet and endogenous synthesis have been implicated in physiologic and pathologic conditions, including those linked with nutrition and metabolism. In fact, several miRs are actively regulated in response to overnutrition and tissue inflammation, and are involved in facilitating the development of chronic

  17. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  18. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  19. FAT AND CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN HUMANS-A Study of Nutritional and Hormonal Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J

    1960-09-01

    As an index to the rate of fat utilization in human subjects, the recovery of all radioactive carbon dioxide in the expired air was measured for one hour following intravenous injection of palmitate-1-C(14). In the normal fasted subject, about 10 per cent of the injected dose was recovered, and the proportion was lowered to about 5 per cent by administration of glucose. With prolonged fasting, the recovery of radioactive carbon dioxide did not change, despite a rising concentration of fatty acids in the serum. This was interpreted as due to the development of a balance between increasing mobilization and oxidation and was thought to indicate increasing fatty acid oxidation. In chronic undernutrition and diabetes mellitus there was increased fatty acid oxidation due presumably to adaptation to a chronic increase in fat utilization for energy. Administration of human growth hormone did not increase fat oxidation but prevented the usual inhibition produced by glucose. This was interpreted to mean that growth hormone increases fat utilization only indirectly by inhibiting the usual preferential utilization of glucose over fat.

  20. Food quality and human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W P

    1993-01-01

    New nutritional analyses suggest that current trends in the production of food are inappropriate for the health of most of the world's populations. Four deficiency problems now dominate analyses of the nutritional disorders of developing countries: the risks from iodine, vitamin A and iron deficiencies and protein energy malnutrition now affect over two billion children and adults. Chronic energy deficiency affects half of Indian adults, with similar rates in Pakistan and Ethiopia. India will need to increase food production two- to three-fold by 2020 to cope with the predicted population explosion and desirable increases in food consumption. As erosion, salination and environmental degradation further limit land availability, current problems will overwhelm agricultural demand. Societies increase their meat, milk and fat consumption as they become affluent, and suffer from heart disease, diabetes, obesity, cancers and a variety of other 'Western' public health problems. Agricultural production is then regeared inappropriately. The Second World has an agriculture system geared to 1940s Western concepts of high animal production. Russia now vies with Scotland and Northern Ireland for the highest heart disease rates in the world and has the fattest adults in Europe. Most major non-infective public health issues throughout the world are nutritionally related. Global warming will exacerbate these problems, but effective dietary change with less animal production could release land which could be used more efficiently.

  1. Resting metabolic rate and diet-induced thermogenesis : studies in humans on individual differences and on the impact of nutritional and non-nutritional factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis contains studies on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) of humans using indirect calorimetry (ventilated hood system) to assess energy expenditure. A literature survey of aspects of human energy exchange and of problems of energy balance is include

  2. The nutrition intervention improved adult human capital and economic productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Reynaldo; Melgar, Paul; Maluccio, John A; Stein, Aryeh D; Rivera, Juan A

    2010-02-01

    This article reviews key findings about the long-term impact of a nutrition intervention carried out by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama from 1969 to 1977. Results from follow-up studies in 1988-89 and 2002-04 show substantial impact on adult human capital and economic productivity. The 1988-89 study showed that adult body size and work capacity increased for those provided improved nutrition through age 3 y, whereas the 2002-04 follow-up showed that schooling was increased for women and reading comprehension and intelligence increased in both men and women. Participants were 26-42 y of age at the time of the 2002-04 follow-up, facilitating the assessment of economic productivity. Wages of men increased by 46% in those provided with improved nutrition through age 2 y. Findings for cardiovascular disease risk factors were heterogeneous; however, they suggest that improved nutrition in early life is unlikely to increase cardiovascular disease risk later in life and may indeed lower risk. In conclusion, the substantial improvement in adult human capital and economic productivity resulting from the nutrition intervention provides a powerful argument for promoting improvements in nutrition in pregnant women and young children.

  3. Food & Fitness. Directory. Human Nutrition Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    Activities of the following regulatory and food service agencies of the Department of Agriculture are described: (1) Agricultural Research Service; (2) Cooperative State Research Service; (3) Economic Research Service; (4) Human Nutrition Information Service; (5) Office of Grants and Program Systems; (6) Office of International Cooperation and…

  4. Stress control and human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Eiji; Terao, Junji; Nakaya, Yutaka; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi; Baba, Yoshinobu; Chuman, Hiroshi; Kaji, Ryuji; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2004-08-01

    Stress is a pervasive factor in everyday life that critically affects development and functioning. Severe and prolonged stress exposure impairs homeostatic mechanisms, particularly associated with the onset of depressive illness. Brain food is aimed at preventing as well as treating a growing number of stress-related mental disorders. Some topics on the association of stress and nutrition is reviewed. (1) An increased activity of serotonergic neurons in the brain is an established consequence of stress. An increase in brain tryptophan levels on the order of that produced by eating a carbohydrate-rich/protein-poor meal causes parallel increases in the amounts of serotonin released into synapses. (2) Eating is thought to be suppressed during stress, due to anorectic effects of corticotrophin releasing hormone, and increased during recovery from stress, due to appetite stimulating effects of residual cortisol. (3) A strong inverse association between coffee intake and risk of suicide. (4) Night eating syndrome has been found to occur during periods of stress and is associated with poor results at attempts to lose weight and disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (5) Dietary antioxidants present in fruits and vegetables may improve cognitive function. Therefore, it is concluded that the establishment of functional foods that correctly regulate stress response must be firmly based upon scientific knowledge and legal regulation.

  5. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from ω3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (ω-6 with relative “deficiency” of ω-3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the ω-6 / ω-3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.Keywords: animal products, polyunsaturated fatty acids, meat, milk, nutrients.

  6. ANIMAL PRODUCTS IN NUTRITION OF HUMAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Kralik

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the significance of animal food (meat and milk in human nutrition and satisfaction of life needs with special look on health is reviewed. Meat is excelent source of proteins with high biological value.The proteins from meat are of high quality because they contain high share of essencial amino acids which are necessary for human organism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, esspecialy those from 3 group, became very importat to human nutritionists because they have significant role in prevention of stress induced deseases and of those induced by improper diets. New findings from western industrial countries point out the fact that longer intake of LA (-6 with relative “deficiency” of -3 is the main risk factor in occurence of cancer, coronary deseases (CHD, cerebrovascular deseases (CVD and alergic hyperactivity; not cholesterol as was considered till now. Therefore it is important to reduce the -6 / -3 acids ratio in meat and milk using some feedstufs in diets of animals. Dairy products contribute to health throughout life. Epidemiological researches as well as studies in animals and humans indicate that dairy food and/or their components have a protective effect against cancer. The potential anticancer agents identified so far in dairy foods include conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, calcium, vitamin D, sphingomyelin, butyric acid, ether lipids, protein and lactic acid bacteria. Milk is exclusive source of nutrients for the young and it also represents a high grade source of dietary nitrogen and indispensable amino acids for adults. Consumers are increasing looking for animal products, which could prevent disease or illness.

  7. Food and fuel: a hidden dimension in human nutrition. A study on the relationship between nutrition security and fuelwood availability in Ntcheu District, Malawi.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.D.

    1994-01-01

    Fuelwood is the main source of energy for rural households in developing countries and is predominantly used for food preparation and processing. Due to rapid deforestation, the supply of fuelwood is threatened. Many factors influence household food and nutrition security, but so far the role of fue

  8. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  9. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  10. Nutritional Evaluation of Australian Microalgae as Potential Human Health Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Megan; Welladsen, Heather M.; Mangott, Arnold; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the biochemical suitability of Australian native microalgal species Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., Dunaliella sp., and a chlorophytic polyculture as nutritional supplements for human health. The four microalgal cultures were harvested during exponential growth, lyophilized, and analysed for proximate composition (moisture, ash, lipid, carbohydrates, and protein), pigments, and amino acid and fatty acid profiles. The resulting nutritional value, based on biochemical composition, was compared to commercial Spirulina and Chlorella products. The Australian native microalgae exhibited similar, and in several cases superior, organic nutritional properties relative to the assessed commercial products, with biochemical profiles rich in high-quality protein, nutritious polyunsaturated fats (such as α-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid), and antioxidant pigments. These findings indicate that the microalgae assessed have great potential as multi-nutrient human health supplements. PMID:25723496

  11. The next generation of disease risk: are the effects of prenatal nutrition transmitted across generations? Evidence from animal and human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, T J; Watson, E D

    2012-11-01

    Suboptimal intrauterine conditions, including poor nutrition, during critical periods of growth may lead to lifelong changes in the body's organs and tissues, thus providing a physiological basis for adult-onset disease. Remarkably, recent evidence suggests that the long-term consequences of adverse conditions during early development may not be limited to one generation, but may lead to poor health in the generations to follow, even if these individuals develop in normal conditions themselves. For example, the diet of a pregnant mother may affect the development and disease risk of her children and even her grandchildren. There is limited evidence for this in humans since studies of multiple generations are difficult to maintain. However, recent animal models have been generated to investigate this phenomenon and will be instrumental in the future for assessing the underlying mechanisms of intergenerational and transgenerational transmission of disease. These mechanisms remain unclear, though environmental, metabolic and epigenetic factors are likely involved. Researchers have begun to address how changes in metabolism and epigenetic regulation of gene expression caused by poor nutrition can be passed from one generation to the next. Ultimately, these findings will shed light on the transmission of diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease that are rapidly expanding in Western countries. Public health strategies that focus on improved maternal nutrition may provide a means of promoting cardiovascular and metabolic health. However, the full impact of these strategies may not be apparent for decades.

  12. NAPUS 2000 Rapeseed (Brassica napus breeding for improved human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedt Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Following a competition announcement of the Federal Ministry of Research and Education (BMBF a project dealing with the improvement of the nutritional value of oilseed rape (Brassica napus for food applications and human nutrition was worked out and started in autumn 1999. A number of partners (Figure 2 are carrying out a complex project reaching from the discovery, characterisation, isolation and transfer of genes of interest up to breeding of well performing varieties combined with important agronomic traits. Economic studies and processing trials as well as nutritional investigations of the new qualities are undertaken. B. napus seed quality aspects with respect to seed coat colour, oil composition, lecithin and protein fractions and antioxidants like tocopherols and resveratrol will be improved.

  13. A comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for human nutrition training in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is consensus among stakeholders in Cameroon on the need to develop and strengthen human resource capacity for nutrition. This study was conducted to provide a comprehensive mapping of the current capacity for tertiary-level human nutrition training in Cameroon. Design: Participating institutions included university-level institutions offering dedicated nutrition degree programs or other programs in which nutrition courses were taught. A semi-structured questionnaire administered during in-person interviews was used to collect data on existing programs and content of training curricula. Nutrition curricula were reviewed against the following criteria: intended objectives, coverage of nutrition topics, and teaching methods. Results: In total, five nutrition degree programs (four undergraduate programs and one master's program were identified. Three additional programs were about to be launched at the time of data collection. We did not find any doctorate degree programs in nutrition. All the undergraduate programs only had little focus on public health nutrition whereas the master's program in our sample offered a good coverage of all dimensions of human nutrition including basic and applied nutrition. The predominant teaching method was didactic lecture in all the programs. We did not find any formal documentation outlining the competencies that students were expected to gain upon completion of these programs. Nutrition courses in agricultural and health schools were limited in terms of contact hours and scope. Public health nutrition was not covered in any of the health professional schools surveyed. We found no institution offering in-service nutrition training at the time of the study. Conclusions: Based on our findings, we recommend that nutrition training programs in Cameroon be redesigned to make them more responsive to the public health needs of the country.

  14. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate Ninety-Third Congress, Second Session. Part 3--Nutrition and Special Groups. Hearings Held Washington, D. C., June 19, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings began with an opening statement by Senator Mondale. Ronald Pollack, chairman, Panel on Nutrition and Special Groups, presented the report of the panel. This report was organized in four parts: Part 1, "Poverty, Inflation, and Hunger," included sections discussing the presence of undernutrition among the poor, and the effect of food…

  15. [What is the Optimal Nutrition for Humans?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böni, Roland

    2016-04-27

    As practitioners, we are faced in practice daily with the question about the optimal diet. Nevertheless, nutrition covers only a very small part of our medical training. A look back in the history of man shows that the human body was set to a predominantly plant-based diet for millions of years. With the introduction of factory farming and industrial food processing several hundred years ago, the current Western diet has been consisting to a large extent of animal products, leading to a number of chronic diseases such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, coronary heart disease, vascular dementia, diabetes, and to an increase of cancer. Many of these diseases are preventable, some even reversible when resorting to a whole-foods plant-based diet. This review work is intended to provide the practitioner with the necessary knowledge and the scientific facts.

  16. Nutrition and the biology of human ageing: Proceedings of the ninth nestle international nutrition symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 9th Nestle Nutrition Symposium on “Nutrition and the Biology of Human Ageing” is presented at a time of unprecedented demographic change worldwide. The UN population division forecasts that the number of people living over age 65 will rise to almost 1 billion (12% percent of the world’s populat...

  17. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974; Part 7-Nutrition and Government; and Part 7A-Appendix. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 21, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs opened with a statement by Senator McGovern, chairman. The Panel on Nutrition and Government then delivered its report and recommendations to the committee. The panel was concerned with surveillance, research, the training of professional personnel, and the overall…

  18. National Nutrition Policy Study--1974; Part 7-Nutrition and Government; and Part 7A-Appendix. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, Second Session. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 21, 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    These hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs opened with a statement by Senator McGovern, chairman. The Panel on Nutrition and Government then delivered its report and recommendations to the committee. The panel was concerned with surveillance, research, the training of professional personnel, and the overall…

  19. Have you got any cholesterol? Adults' views of human nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibeci, Renato; Wong, Khoon Yoong

    1994-12-01

    The general aim of our human nutrition project is to develop a health education model grounded in ‘everyday’ or ‘situated’ cognition (Hennessey, 1993). In 1993, we began pilot work to document adult understanding of human nutrition. We used a HyperCard stack as the basis for a series of interviews with 50 adults (25 university students, and 25 adults from offcampus). The interviews were transcribed and analysed using the NUDIST computer program. A summary of the views of these 50 adults on selected aspects of human nutrition is presented in this paper.

  20. Negev nutritional studies: nutritional deficiencies in young and elderly populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D; Shahar, D; Shai, I; Vardi, H; Bilenko, N

    2000-01-01

    The importance of nutrition to public health and preventive medicine is evident. Undernutrition is a main nutritional risk factor in the elderly and has been established as a cause of excess morbidity and mortality in different segments of the older population. In the infant population, inadequate nutrition is one of the causes of iron-deficiency anemia, which is associated with impaired physical and cognitive development and lowered immunity. The aim of this paper was to estimate the nutritional pattern and micronutrient deficiencies in elderly and young populations in the Negev. In southern Israel, 351 subjects over 64 years old reported mean dietary intake that was lower than that in younger persons and was independent of the presence of chronic diseases. Current data from southern Israel on healthy Jewish children revealed anemia prevalence of 15% in the second year of life. Data from recent prospective study on Bedouin children showed that anemia affected one quarter of children at age one year. Thus, infants in this area are at high risk for iron deficiency. The findings require the attention of public health authorities and food manufacturers, and should result in a range of activities including publicity and educational programs, fortification of foods, and supplementation programs in high risk-groups.

  1. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutam

  2. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience...

  3. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Huerou-Luron, Le Isabelle; Jager, de Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-01-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet),

  4. The NOMA track module on nutrition, human rights and governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NOMA track module on nutrition, human rights and governance: Part 1. ... were used to compile a code list and content analysis of the unstructured data. ... as an example of the benefits and challenges of interdisciplinary and transnational ...

  5. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS (Universities…

  6. Entrance Qualifications Affect the Performance of Nutrition Students at University: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Apenten, Richard; Xu, Wen Li

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of admissions qualifications on the subsequent academic performances of BSc nutrition students at a UK university. Entrance qualifications for three groups (Grp01, Grp02, Grp03) reading for a BSc(Hons) degree in, Dietetics, Food & Nutrition or Human Nutrition (n = 105) were determined from their UCAS…

  7. Nutritional contribution of plant foods to human diet in evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnorr, Stephanie Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Diets and food are indisputably core facets of human society. The great apes still rely on plants to supply most of their nutritional needs. Humans, however consume a diet that is nearly unrecognizable from that of early hominin and human ancestors. While the virtues of plant foods are widely extoll

  8. Stable isotope utilization for research on human nutrition; L`utilisation d`isotopes stables pour la recherche en nutrition humaine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desjeux, J.F. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers (CNAM), 75 - Paris (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the framework of nutritional molecule metabolism research, this paper presents the various stable isotopes used as labels for biological molecules, the reasons for their application in human nutritional study (mainly because of their non toxicity) and the various analysis methods (isotope ratio mass spectrometry, coupled gaseous chromatography and mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance). Several application examples in nutrition research are then discussed: metabolic conversion measurement for a molecule into its different metabolites, energetic losses. 23 refs.

  9. Observing Protein & Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study was designed to assess dietary measurement error by comparing results from self-reported dietary intake data with four dietary biomarkers: doubly labeled water and urinary nitrogen, sodium, and potassium.

  10. Current views on hunter-gatherer nutrition and the evolution of the human diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crittenden, Alyssa N; Schnorr, Stephanie L

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition and food choice are not only central to the daily lives of all living people, but are consistently linked with turning points in human evolutionary history. As such, scholars from a wide range of fields have taken great interest in the role that subsistence has played in both human cultural and biological evolution. Central to this discussion is the diet composition and nutrition of contemporary hunters and gatherers, who are frequently conscripted as model populations for ancestral human nutrition. Research among the world's few remaining foraging populations is experiencing a resurgence, as they are making the final transition away from diets composed of wild foods, to those dominated by domesticated cultigens and/or processed foods. In an effort to glean as much information as possible, before such populations are no longer hunting and gathering, researchers interested in the evolution of human nutrition are rapidly collecting and accessing new and more data. Methods of scientific inquiry are in the midst of rapid change and scholars are able to revisit long-standing questions using state of the art analyses. Here, using the most relevant findings from studies in ethnography, nutrition, human physiology, and microbiomes, we provide a brief summary of the study of the evolution of human nutrition as it has specifically pertained to data coming from living hunter-gatherers. In doing so, we hope to bridge the disciplines that are currently invested in research on nutrition and health among foraging populations. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  11. study on the current situation of Human nutrition and physical indexes%人体营养体格指数研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周峰; 马维民; 胡富松

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨人体营养价格指数研究现状.方法 整理国内外各种人体营养体格指数指标并进行分析.其中国外指标主要包括考甫指数、布罗克指数、劳雷尔指数、克托莱指数、利维指数以及维尔维克指数;国内指标主要包括包括青年腰腹围参数、3×上臂松围(cm)-1/2(身高(cm)-体重(kg))营养体格指数、新体格指数与人体皮脂厚度及营养水平的关系以及学生营养体格指数测评方法.结果 国内外指标各有优缺点.结论 人体营养体格指数研究国内外发展程度不一,各指标各有优缺点,在应用中应充分考虑、认真选择,个性化的进行应用.%OBJECTIVE To investigate human nutrition Price Index Research. METHODS The indexes of human nutrition and body mass index indicators at home and abroad were analyzed. Foreign indicators included test just index, index of Brock, Laurel index, Quetelet index, the Levy index and the Virgin Wake index; The domestic indicators included youth waist circumference parameter, 3 x upper arm loose cm-1/2 (height in cm-weight kg) nutrition body mass index, the relationship between the new body mass index and body skinfold thickness and nutrient levels as well as student nutrition body mass index e-valuation method. RESULTS The indicators have their advantages and disadvantages at home and abroad. CONCLUSION The human nutrition and body mass index at home and abroad had their our advantage and disadvantage, and it is necessary to fully consideration of the indexes to apply so as to personalized applications.

  12. Nutritional evaluation of senior: a bibliographical study

    OpenAIRE

    Nara Carneiro Lacerda; Silvana Sidney Costa Santos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to research about the senior’s nutritional evaluation using bibliographical rising in the base of the bibliographical data LILACS. 24 references were found, being 11 scientific articles: 5 bibliographical and 6 of prevalence. Of the investigated material, 9 were accomplished in the Brazilian Southeast. As for the nutritional evaluation it was verified that the seniors have presented larger overweight prevalence and obesity, most of them were of women. It was noticed ...

  13. A Study on Sprinter Nutrition KAP Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Zhao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many investigations have shown that unbalanced diet and un-guided intake of nutritional supplements have little effect on helping athletes' body restoration. This study has investigated the problems existed in the basic diet by providing nutritional KAP questionnaire to high-level university athletes in Hunan and using a 24-h retrospective analysis on the athlete's daily routine diet and additional diet.

  14. Human Research Program Human Health Countermeasures Element Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistrian, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The Nutrition Risk Standing Review Panel (SRP) reviewed and discussed the specific gaps and tasks for the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element related to nutrition identified in the Human Research Program (HRP) Integrated Research Plan. There was general consensus that the described gaps and proposed tasks were critical to future NASA mission success. The SRP acknowledged the high scientific quality of the work currently being undertaken by the Nutritional Biochemistry group under the direction of Dr. Scott Smith. In review of the entire HRP, four new gaps were identified that complement the Element's existing research activities. Given the limitations of ground-based analogs for many of the unique physiological and metabolic alterations in space, future studies are needed to quantify nutritional factors that change during actual space flight. In addition, future tasks should seek to better evaluate the time course of physiological and metabolic alterations during flight to better predict alterations during longer duration missions. Finally, given the recent data suggesting a potential role for increased inflammatory responses during space flight, the role of inflammation needs to be explored in detail, including the development of potential countermeasures and new ground based analogs, if this possibility is confirmed.

  15. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Deficiency and Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Available evidence suggests that trace elements, such as zinc, once thought to have no nutritional relevance, are possibly deficient in large sections of the human population. Conditioned deficiencies have been reported to result from malabsorption syndromes, acrodermatitis enteropathica, alcoholism, gastrointestinal disease, thermal injury, chronic diseases (eg, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and in total parenteral nutrition therapy. Awareness that patients with these problems are at risk has led health professionals to focus increasingly on the importance of zinc therapy in the prevention and treatment of deficiency. More recently zinc toxicity and its role in human nutrition and well-being have come under investigation. Reports have focused on the role of zinc toxicity in causes of copper deficiency, changes in the immune system and alterations in blood lipids. As the numerous challenges presented by the study of zinc in human nutrition are met, more appropriate recommendations for dietary and therapeutic zinc intake are being made.

  16. Neutron activation analysis applied to nutritional and foodstuff studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera A.; Santos, Paola S.; Moura, Patricia L.C.; Castro, Lilian P. de, E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Avegliano, Roseane P., E-mail: pagliaro@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Coordenadoria de Assistencia Social. Div. de Alimentacao

    2009-07-01

    Neutron Activation Analysis, NAA, has been successfully used on a regularly basis in several areas of nutrition and foodstuffs. NAA has become an important and useful research tool due to the methodology's advantages. These include high accuracy, small quantities of samples and no chemical treatment. This technique allows the determination of important elements directly related to human health. NAA also provides data concerning essential and toxic concentrations in foodstuffs and specific diets. In this paper some studies in the area of nutrition which have been carried out at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN/CNEN-SP will be presented: a Brazilian total diet study: nutritional element dietary intakes of Sao Paulo state population; a study of trace element in maternal milk and the determination of essential trace elements in some edible mushrooms. (author)

  17. Teaching Methods in Nutrition: Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowiak, John J.

    This article presents a teaching methodology for free radical theory and discusses the role of antioxidants in human health. Free radicals are a normal byproduct of respiration, which allows the body to use oxygen, liberate energy, and dispose of harmful substances. The body's antioxidants and nutritional antioxidants quench most of the free…

  18. Study on Physical Training and Nutritional Support of Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the concepts of nutritional support and methods of physical training in detail. Finally, it summarizes the relationship between physical training and nutritional support. Physical training is inseparable from energy supply and the source of sport energy is from nutritional support. Various nutrition supplies is closely related to physical recovery of athletes.

  19. Enzymatic modification of phospholipids forfunctional applications and human nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Zheng; Vikbjerg, Anders / Falk; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    Rapid progress in biochemistry of phospholipids and evolution of modern bioengineering has brought forth a number of novel concepts and technical advancements in the modification of phospholipids for industrial applications and human nutrition. Highlights cover preparation of novel phospholipid...... analogs based on the latest understanding of pivotal role of phospholipids in manifold biological processes, exploration of remarkable application potentials of phospholipids in meliorating human health, as well as development of new chemical and biotechnological approaches applied to the modification...

  20. Nutrition, aging and cancer: lessons from dietary intervention studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carruba, Giuseppe; Cocciadiferro, Letizia; Di Cristina, Antonietta; Granata, Orazia M; Dolcemascolo, Cecilia; Campisi, Ildegarda; Zarcone, Maurizio; Cinquegrani, Maria; Traina, Adele

    2016-01-01

    There is convincing epidemiological and clinical evidence that, independent of aging, lifestyle and, notably, nutrition are associated with development or progression of major human cancers, including...

  1. Critical review evaluating the pig as a model for human nutritional physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Eugeni; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Le Huerou-Luron, Isabelle; de Jager, Nadia; Schuurman, Teun; Val-Laillet, David

    2016-06-01

    The present review examines the pig as a model for physiological studies in human subjects related to nutrient sensing, appetite regulation, gut barrier function, intestinal microbiota and nutritional neuroscience. The nutrient-sensing mechanisms regarding acids (sour), carbohydrates (sweet), glutamic acid (umami) and fatty acids are conserved between humans and pigs. In contrast, pigs show limited perception of high-intensity sweeteners and NaCl and sense a wider array of amino acids than humans. Differences on bitter taste may reflect the adaptation to ecosystems. In relation to appetite regulation, plasma concentrations of cholecystokinin and glucagon-like peptide-1 are similar in pigs and humans, while peptide YY in pigs is ten to twenty times higher and ghrelin two to five times lower than in humans. Pigs are an excellent model for human studies for vagal nerve function related to the hormonal regulation of food intake. Similarly, the study of gut barrier functions reveals conserved defence mechanisms between the two species particularly in functional permeability. However, human data are scant for some of the defence systems and nutritional programming. The pig model has been valuable for studying the changes in human microbiota following nutritional interventions. In particular, the use of human flora-associated pigs is a useful model for infants, but the long-term stability of the implanted human microbiota in pigs remains to be investigated. The similarity of the pig and human brain anatomy and development is paradigmatic. Brain explorations and therapies described in pig, when compared with available human data, highlight their value in nutritional neuroscience, particularly regarding functional neuroimaging techniques.

  2. Hotspots of human nutrition: Micronutrient supply, demand, and pollinator dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombeck, E.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Mueller, M.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    While our caloric needs can mostly be met by wind-pollinated crops such as cereals, a recent analysis of USDA data shows that animal-pollinated crops contain the vast majority of many essential nutrients, including vitamins A and C, calcium, fluoride, and folic acid. In this work we combined global crop yield data with data on nutritional content in each crop to map nutrient production around the world, and to illustrate the value of pollination services to human nutrition. Spatially explicit crop yields (at 5 min resolution) were multiplied by crop nutrient content and by crop dependence on pollination to map where reductions in total nutrient production would occur if pollination services were removed. Nutrient demand maps (human nutrient requirements multiplied by population density) were generated to identify regions where local reduction in pollination services could threaten nutritional security. Nutrient deficiency maps (nutrient supply minus nutrient demand) were also created to identify hotspots where local crop production is not adequate to meet local nutritional needs.

  3. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Pakan, [No Value; Hofstede, GJH; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Veer, E; De Vries, PJF

    2000-01-01

    Chicken eggshell powder (ESP) might be an attractive source of Ca for human nutrition. To study its nutritional value, we analyzed minerals, amino acids, and hormones in commercially available Slovakian ESP. The mineral composition was compared with three Dutch ESP samples that differed in feed and

  4. Mineral, amino acid, and hormonal composition of chicken eggshell powder and the evaluation of its use in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, A; Pakan, [No Value; Hofstede, GJH; Muskiet, FAJ; Van Der Veer, E; De Vries, PJF

    2000-01-01

    Chicken eggshell powder (ESP) might be an attractive source of Ca for human nutrition. To study its nutritional value, we analyzed minerals, amino acids, and hormones in commercially available Slovakian ESP. The mineral composition was compared with three Dutch ESP samples that differed in feed and

  5. Effects of brain evolution on human nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, William R; Snodgrass, J Josh; Robertson, Marcia L

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of large human brain size has had important implications for the nutritional biology of our species. Large brains are energetically expensive, and humans expend a larger proportion of their energy budget on brain metabolism than other primates. The high costs of large human brains are supported, in part, by our energy- and nutrient-rich diets. Among primates, relative brain size is positively correlated with dietary quality, and humans fall at the positive end of this relationship. Consistent with an adaptation to a high-quality diet, humans have relatively small gastrointestinal tracts. In addition, humans are relatively "undermuscled" and "over fat" compared with other primates, features that help to offset the high energy demands of our brains. Paleontological evidence indicates that rapid brain evolution occurred with the emergence of Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago and was associated with important changes in diet, body size, and foraging behavior.

  6. Human utilization of triticale: technological and nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, L; Acs, E; Lantos, Cs; Tomoskozi, S; Lango, B

    2014-01-01

    In spite of the fact that triticale is not subject of the EU intervention, its acreage shows a continuously growing trend. Albeit, both parental species (sp. Triticum, sp. Secale) are used for human food, the utilization of triticale as human food is still uncertain. The main focus of this paper was to study and compare technological and nutritional values of triticale and its parental species. Triticale (cultivars and experimental lines) along with one wheat and one rye varieties were used in the tests. Most of the grain and flour technological properties (Kernel diameter, Test Weight, flour yield, gluten content, Zeleny volume) of the triticale entries positioned in between the parental wheat and rye attributes. However, thousand kernel weight (TKW) of triticale cultivar GK Szemes and grain hardness of cv. GK Idus surpassed all other entries. The study revealed that--having considerable variation--triticale grains are very rich in beneficial elements such us Ca, Mg, P, Cu and Zn. Dietary fiber (DF) content of triticales were between the rye and wheat controls (10-15%). Total arabinoxylan content (TOTAX) of triticales were much closer to rye (6%), and in some genotypes considerably expanded it (6,5-7%). Health conscious consumers trend to use increasingly novel, valuable grain sources and products in their daily based diets. The inappropriate nature of triticale per se flours for baking industry seems to hinder the human utilization. Blends exploiting favorable attributes of triticale may be a suitable way to use this valuable crop in milling products and in larger food industrial scale.

  7. The importance of milk and diary products in human nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Maroušková, Nela

    2016-01-01

    Milk and dairy products become integral part of human nutrition and belong to common food. Milk is very valuable because it contains complete proteins. Its disaccharide lactose is a source of energy. Butterfat is easily digestible. Besides potassium, sodium, magnesium, chlorine and sulfur milk contains also dietary elements like calcium and phosphorus. Milk also contains many trace elements like iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, manganese, fluorine, chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum. Milk is a...

  8. NEW TEACHING AND LEARNING TECHNOLOGIES IN HUMAN NUTRITION COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The University of Porto, like other universities around the world, is working to promote effective integration of various learning techniques. This paper describes the results of a research that aimed to find and test new technologies in TL of human nutrition in a second-cycle course of Porto University. The application of blended-learning as a strategy to respond to the numerous pedagogical challenges that Bologna presents to Higher Education and its use to join what should not be separated:...

  9. Influence of human genetic variation on nutritional requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Patrick J

    2006-02-01

    Genetic variation is known to affect food tolerances among human subpopulations and may also influence dietary requirements, giving rise to the new field of nutritional genomics and raising the possibility of individualizing nutritional intake for optimal health and disease prevention on the basis of an individual's genome. However, because gene-diet interactions are complex and poorly understood, the use of genomic knowledge to adjust population-based dietary recommendations is not without risk. Whereas current recommendations target most of the population to prevent nutritional deficiencies, inclusion of genomic criteria may indicate subpopulations that may incur differential benefit or risk from generalized recommendations and fortification policies. Current efforts to identify gene alleles that affect nutrient utilization have been enhanced by the identification of genetic variations that have expanded as a consequence of selection under extreme conditions. Identification of genetic variation that arose as a consequence of diet as a selective pressure helps to identify gene alleles that affect nutrient utilization. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying gene-nutrient interactions and their modification by genetic variation is expected to result in dietary recommendations and nutritional interventions that optimize individual health.

  10. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E.; Loria, Catherine M.; Wilson, Dawn K.; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.; Webb, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been documented adequately. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children’s diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013–2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children-guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children’s dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of “what is working” to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  11. A nutrition study in juvenile elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, C; Hagenfeldt, K; Hagman, U

    1995-03-01

    Twenty-two female teenagers engaged in elite gymnast training and 22 healthy girls of comparable age were studied with regard to nutritional intake. The mean daily intakes of most nutrients in both groups were in accordance with the Swedish Nutritional Recommendations; exceptions were iron and dietary fibre which were too low in both groups. The individual variation was large in both groups and many subjects had an intake below the nutritional recommendations. Both the gymnasts and the reference group had an energy intake significantly below the estimated energy need. The mean daily energy intake was 725 kcal less than the energy need in the gymnast group and 450 kcal less in the reference group. The clinical investigation revealed that several gymnasts had delayed menarche or irregular menstruation as well as less body fat than the reference group. Among the gymnasts, girls with a regular menstrual pattern had more body fat than those who had not started to menstruate. The higher energy expenditure of the gymnasts could partly explain their smaller amounts of body fat, late pubertal development and menstrual patterns.

  12. Beyond diet reconstruction: stable isotope applications to human physiology, health, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitsema, Laurie J

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes from soft or mineralized tissues is a direct and widely-used technique for modeling diets. In addition to its continued role in paleodiet analysis, stable isotope analysis is now contributing to studies of physiology, disease, and nutrition in archaeological and living human populations. In humans and other animals, dietary uptake and distribution of carbon and nitrogen among mineralized and soft tissue is carried out with varying efficiency due to factors of internal biology. Human pathophysiologies may lead to pathology-influenced isotopic fractionation that can be exploited to understand not just skeletal health and diet, but physiological health and nutrition. This study reviews examples from human biology, non-human animal ecology, biomedicine, and bioarchaeology demonstrating how stable isotope analyses are usefully applied to the study of physiological adaptation and adaptability. Suggestions are made for future directions in applying stable isotope analysis to the study of nutritional stress, disease, and growth and development in living and past human populations.

  13. Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ... for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health education increased ...

  14. Towards a systems biology understanding of human health: interplay between genotype, environment and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desiere, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Sequencing of the human genome has opened the door to the most exciting new era for the holistic system description of human health. It is now possible to study the underlying mechanisms of human health in relation to diet and other environmental factors such as drugs and toxic pollutants. Technological advances make it feasible to envisage that in the future personalized drug treatment and dietary advice and possibly tailored food products can be used for promoting optimal health on an individual basis, in relation to genotype and lifestyle. Life-Science research has in the past very much focused on diseases and how to reestablish human health after illness. Today, the role of food and nutrition in human health and especially prevention of illness is gaining recognition. Diseases of modern civilization, such as diabetes, heart disease and cancer have been shown to be effected by dietary patterns. The risk of disease is often associated with genetic polymorphisms, but the effect is dependent on dietary intake and nutritional status. To understand the link between diet and health, nutritional-research must cover a broad range of areas, from the molecular level to whole body studies. Therefore it provides an excellent example of integrative biology requiring a systems biology approach. The current state and implications of systems biology in the understanding of human health are reviewed. It becomes clear that a complete mechanistic description of the human organism is not yet possible. However, recent advances in systems biology provide a trajectory for future research in order to improve health of individuals and populations. Disease prevention through personalized nutrition will become more important as the obvious avenue of research in life sciences and more focus will need to be put upon those natural ways of disease prevention. In particular, the new discipline of nutrigenomics, which investigates how nutrients interact with humans, taking predetermined genetic

  15. A study to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition attending a tertiary care centre

    OpenAIRE

    Renu Gupta; Shaily Agarwal; Neetu Singh; Rimjhim Jain; Arti Katiyar; Almas siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition is the fundamental pillar of human life. All human beings need a balanced amount of nutrients for proper functioning of body system. Inadequate nutrition during pregnancy has a negative impact on the pregnant mother as well as short and long term consequences on the newborn. This study aims to assess knowledge and attitude of antenatal women about maternal nutrition in pregnancy and highlights the need of interventions aimed at promoting awareness about healthy diet duri...

  16. Calcium in edible insects and its use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Adámková

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is one of the most problematic substances in human nutrition. Nutrition in the present population is not optimal, because of insufficient consumption of milk and dairy products. Due to the expanding interest of specialists and the general public about entomophagy, as well as increase of the EU interest in this type of food, there is a need to consider the use of edible insects as an alternative source of nutrition. From the perspective of edible insects as a source of calcium, edible insects could be considered as a possible source of calcium for enriching the diet and also as a substitute for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to other categories of foods rich in calcium. Of the six analysed species of edible insect, Bombyx mori had the highest calcium content, almost comparable to semi-skimmed cow's milk. Gryllus assimillis can also be a rich source of calcium as well as other analysed species. The lowest content of calcium was detected in Zophobas morio. Common meat (chicken, beef, pork has lower calcium content comparing with all analysed species of edible insect (Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, Gryllus assimillis, Locusta migratoria, Tenebrio molitor, Zophobas morio. Therefore, the selected species of edible insect could serve as an alternative source of calcium for people with lactose intolerance and allergies to soy. Phosphorus level in human body is closely related to calcium in the calcium-phosphate metabolism, therefore phosphorus level was detected in these samples too. Bombyx mori had the highest phosphorus content and the lowest content of phosphorus was measured in Zophobas morio samples.

  17. Creating convenience food based on human nutritional requirements

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Nanoscale science and technology are now enabling us to understand many natural and unnatural processes. Studying nanostructures at the cell and DNA level, gives us insight in to the working of these processes and how to manipulate, prevent and/or enhance them for the benefit of mankind. Emergent technologies can and must help correct the food system by creating modern convenience foods on a mass scale that mimic and improve on the nutritional value of the most nutriti...

  18. Nutrition policy in whose interests? A New Zealand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkin, Gabrielle; Signal, Louise; Thomson, George

    2012-08-01

    In the context of the global obesity epidemic, national nutrition policies have come under scrutiny. The present paper examines whose interests - industry or public health - are served by these policies and why. Using an exemplary case study of submissions to an inquiry into obesity, the research compared the positions of industry and public health groups with that taken by government. We assessed whether the interests were given equal consideration (a pluralist model of influence) or whether the interests of one group were favoured over the other (a neo-pluralist model). 2006 New Zealand Inquiry into Obesity. Food and advertising industry and public health submitters. The Government's position was largely aligned with industry interests in three of four policy domains: the national obesity strategy; food industry policy; and advertising and marketing policies. The exception to this was nutrition policy in schools, where the Government's position was aligned with public health interests. These findings support the neo-pluralist model of interest group influence. The dominance of the food industry in national nutrition policy needs to be addressed. It is in the interests of the public, industry and the state that government regulates the food and advertising industries and limits the involvement of industry in policy making. Failure to do so will be costly for individuals, in terms of poor health and earlier death, costly to governments in terms of the associated health costs, and costly to both the government and industry due to losses in human productivity.

  19. Onset and evolution of stunting in infants and children. Examples from the Human Nutrition Collaborative Research Support Program. Kenya and Egypt studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, C G; Harrison, G G

    1994-02-01

    The etiology of the early onset of stunting is diverse among populations of varying biological, environmental and cultural circumstances. This is exemplified within the Nutrition CRSP project, which took place in three different populations and ecological conditions. Within each study area a different mix and varying proportions of causative factors were identified. At least in Kenya, and probably in Mexico, the problem has its antecedents in prepregnancy and pregnancy. Powerful determinants of the infants' size at birth and during the first 6 months of life are maternal size upon entry into pregnancy, and weight and fat gain during pregnancy and lactation. In all three countries a low pregnancy weight gain was observed. Notably in Kenya, where the energy intake of the mother decreases progressively throughout pregnancy, not only do mothers gain only half as much as European or North American women, but they even lose weight and fat in the last month of pregnancy, and some mothers gain no weight or lose weight during the whole of pregnancy. Mothers in Kenya start lactation with relatively poor fat stores. Although their energy intake increases somewhat during lactation, preliminary estimates suggest that these increases may be insufficient to maintain their bodily integrity, to carry out their normal tasks of daily living, and to produce a sufficient amount of milk for optimal infant growth. In addition to an energy deficit, diet quality is a problem, particularly in Kenya and Mexico and less so in Egypt. Intakes of animal products and animal protein are very low. Zinc and iron intakes are not only low, but the bioavailability of these nutrients is poor because of the high phytate, fiber and tea content of the diet. Also vitamin B12 intake is extremely low, and at least mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency (IDD) is present in Kenya. The above micronutrients have been demonstrated to affect the linear growth of the Kenyan children, even after confounding factors have

  20. Brazilian indigenous children: Review of studies about nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematize studies on the anthropometric nutritional status of Brazilian indigenous children in order to examine the ability to address the totality of biological, anthropological, and ecological aspects, as well as to characterize the main analytical results of the determinants of nutritional status of Brazilian indigenous children. Methods: MedLine and Lilacs were searched using the intersection of "South American Indians" and "nutritional status" descriptors (the search in MedLine also included the descriptor "Brazil". Results: Overall, 65 studies were identified, and 23 were considered relevant to this study. The systematization of these studies highlights the concentration of studies in the midwestern and northern regions of Brazil, as well as the lack of cultural, biochemical, and food consumption approaches. Regarding nutritional status, we found: 1 greater vulnerability of younger children, especially in relation to stunting; 2 absence of differences in nutritional status according to sex; 3 socioeconomic determination of nutritional status; 4 differences in nutritional status between children from different villages. Conclusion: The nutritional status of Brazilian indigenous children is associated with age, socioeconomic status, and ethnic characteristics. Efforts are needed to understand the ethnic and cultural influence on nutritional status and on its causal network, as well as of various factors minimally discussed.

  1. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation, challenges, and way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Sodjinou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study was conducted to provide baseline data on university-level nutrition training programs that exist in the 16 countries in West Africa. It also aimed to identify existing gaps in nutrition training and propose solutions to address them. Design: Participating institutions were identified based on information provided by in-country key informants, UNICEF offices or through internet searches. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. Results: In total, 83 nutrition degree programs comprising 32 B.Sc. programs, 34 M.Sc. programs, and 17 Ph.D. programs were identified in the region. More than half of these programs were in Nigeria. Six countries (Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, The Gambia, and Togo offered no nutrition degree program. The programs in francophone countries were generally established more recently than those in anglophone countries (age: 3.5 years vs. 21.4 years. Programs were predominantly (78% run by government-supported institutions. They did not provide a comprehensive coverage of all essential aspects of human nutrition. They were heavily oriented to food science (46%, with little emphasis on public health nutrition (24% or overnutrition (2%. Annual student intakes per program in 2013 ranged from 3 to 262; 7 to 40; and 3 to 10, respectively, for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs while the number of graduates produced annually per country ranged from 6 to 271; 3 to 64; and 1 to 18, respectively. External collaboration only existed in 15% of the programs. In-service training programs on

  2. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation, challenges, and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodjinou, Roger; Fanou, Nadia; Deart, Lucie; Tchibindat, Félicité; Baker, Shawn; Bosu, William; Pepping, Fré; Delisle, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. This study was conducted to provide baseline data on university-level nutrition training programs that exist in the 16 countries in West Africa. It also aimed to identify existing gaps in nutrition training and propose solutions to address them. Participating institutions were identified based on information provided by in-country key informants, UNICEF offices or through internet searches. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews during on-site visits or through self-administered questionnaires. Simple descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed. In total, 83 nutrition degree programs comprising 32 B.Sc. programs, 34 M.Sc. programs, and 17 Ph.D. programs were identified in the region. More than half of these programs were in Nigeria. Six countries (Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Mali, The Gambia, and Togo) offered no nutrition degree program. The programs in francophone countries were generally established more recently than those in anglophone countries (age: 3.5 years vs. 21.4 years). Programs were predominantly (78%) run by government-supported institutions. They did not provide a comprehensive coverage of all essential aspects of human nutrition. They were heavily oriented to food science (46%), with little emphasis on public health nutrition (24%) or overnutrition (2%). Annual student intakes per program in 2013 ranged from 3 to 262; 7 to 40; and 3 to 10, respectively, for bachelor's, master's, and doctoral programs while the number of graduates produced annually per country ranged from 6 to 271; 3 to 64; and 1 to 18, respectively. External collaboration only existed in 15% of the programs. In-service training programs on nutrition existed in less than half of the countries

  3. Chronic and acute effects of walnuts on antioxidant capacity and nutritional status in humans: a randomized, cross-over pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichtenstein Alice H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared with other common plant foods, walnuts (Juglans regia are consistently ranked among the highest in antioxidant capacity. In vitro, walnut polyphenols inhibit plasma and LDL oxidation, while in animal models they lower biomarkers of oxidative stress and raise antioxidant capacity. A limited number of human feeding trials indicate that walnuts improve some measures of antioxidant status, but not others. Methods A 19 wk, randomized crossover trial was conducted in 21 generally healthy men and postmenopausal women ≥50 y to study the dose-response effects of walnut intake on biomarkers of antioxidant activity, oxidative stress, and nutrient status. Subjects were randomized to receive either 21 or 42 g raw walnuts/d during each 6 wk intervention phase with a 6 wk washout between phases. Subjects were instructed to consume their usual diet, but refrain from eating any other tree nuts, seeds, peanuts, or ellagitannin-rich foods during the entire study, and other polyphenol-rich foods for 2 d prior to each study visit. Results Compared to baseline levels, red blood cell (RBC linoleic acid and plasma pyridoxal phosphate (PLP were significantly higher after 6 wk with 42 g/d walnuts (P Conclusions Walnut consumption did not significantly change the plasma antioxidant capacity of healthy, well-nourished older adults in this pilot study. However, improvements in linoleic acid and pyridoxal phosphate were observed with chronic consumption, while total plasma thiols were enhanced acutely. Future studies investigating the antioxidant effects of walnuts in humans are warranted, but should include either a larger sample size or a controlled feeding intervention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00626691

  4. Changes in the chemical form of selenium observed during the manufacture of a selenium-enriched sourdough bread for use in a human nutrition study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryszewska, M A; Ambroziak, W; Diowksz, A; Baxter, M J; Langford, N J; Lewis, D J

    2005-02-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and hydride generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry were used, respectively, to investigate changes in both the chemical form and the concentration of selenium during its bio-incorporation and bio-accumulation into rye seedlings. A 60-fold increase in the total level of selenium in the seedlings ('control' biomass = 0.99 mg kg(-1), 'enriched' biomass = 55.27 mg kg(-1)) was accompanied by a change from selenite to several organo-selenium forms, with more than 40% being present as selenomethionine. The seedling biomass was dried, ground and used as an ingredient in the production of a fermented sourdough bread (popular in Poland and many Eastern European countries). The selenium in the resulting bread was also characterized in terms of its speciation, as well as its total selenium content ('control' bread = 0.06 mg kg(-1), 'enriched' bread = 3.56 mg kg(-1)). The breads were then fed to 24 volunteers as part of a human intervention study designed to establish the efficacy of this mode of selenium supplementation. The human study data subsequently showed the bread was a good source of dietary selenium.

  5. A prospective study of nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brant César Q

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Weight loss in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD is a common clinical manifestation that may have clinical significance. Objectives To evaluate if there is a difference between nutrition education and oral nutritional supplementation on nutritional status in patients with AD. Methods A randomized, prospective 6-month study which enrolled 90 subjects with probable AD aged 65 years or older divided into 3 groups: Control Group (CG [n = 27], Education Group (EG [n = 25], which participated in an education program and Supplementation Group (SG [n = 26], which received two daily servings of oral nutritional supplementation. Subjects were assessed for anthropometric data (weight, height, BMI, TSF, AC and AMC, biochemical data (total protein, albumin, and total lymphocyte count, CDR (Clinical Dementia Rating, MMSE (Mini-mental state examination, as well as dependence during meals. Results The SG showed a significant improvement in the following anthropometric measurements: weight (H calc = 22.12, p = Conclusion Oral nutritional supplementation is more effective compared to nutrition education in improving nutritional status.

  6. Nutritional practices of athletes in oman: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Kilani, Hashem A; Al-Busafi, Majid S

    2013-09-01

    Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake) among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman. This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids. The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  7. Foods: Where Innovation, Agriculture, Molecular Biosciences and Human Nutrition Meet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Brennan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available There is one commodity the world over that unites mankind—food. In 2011 the United Nations claimed that the world’s population had reached the seven billion mark, a number which is set to increase dramatically in the decades to come. Food security, supply and sustainability are of paramount concern to the future economic and social progress of humanity. It is the responsibility of the food industry, together with food scientists and technologists, to shoulder the burden of ensuring an adequate supply of nutritious, safe and sensorially acceptable foods for a range of demanding consumers. In responding to this challenge, we need to understand the link between agriculture, engineering, food processing, molecular biosciences, human nutrition, commercialisation and innovation. Access to information concerning the composition and quality of foods has never been so easy for consumers and technologists alike. A plethora of research publications are made available each month to scientists and associated interested parties. The outcomes of these research manuscripts are often distilled and disseminated into messages available to everyone through bulletin boards, forums and the popular press. Newspapers and new agencies constantly report on the latest pharma-medical finding, or news regarding food safety and security concerns. We live in an age where information is so readily available to everyone that the task of finding credible and reputable data can be difficult at times. Providing sound evidenced based research is where a peer-reviewed journal can provide clarity. [...

  8. Health benefits of algal polysaccharides in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišurcová, Ladislava; Škrovánková, Soňa; Samek, Dušan; Ambrožová, Jarmila; Machů, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    The interest in functional food, both freshwater and marine algal products with their possible promotional health effects, increases also in regions where algae are considered as rather exotic food. Increased attention about algae as an abundant source of many nutrients and dietary fiber from the nutrition point of view, as well as from the scientific approaches to explore new nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals, is based on the presence of many bioactive compounds including polysaccharides extracted from algal matter. Diverse chemical composition of dietary fiber polysaccharides is responsible for their different physicochemical properties, such as their ability to be fermented by the human colonic microbiota resulted in health benefit effects. Fundamental seaweed polysaccharides are presented by alginates, agars, carrageenans, ulvanes, and fucoidans, which are widely used in the food and pharmaceutical industry and also in other branches of industry. Moreover, freshwater algae and seaweed polysaccharides have emerged as an important source of bioactive natural compounds which are responsible for their possible physiological effects. Especially, sulfate polysaccharides exhibit immunomodulatory, antitumor, antithrombotic, anticoagulant, anti-mutagenic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antiviral activities including anti-HIV infection, herpes, and hepatitis viruses. Generally, biological activity of sulfate polysaccharides is related to their different composition and mainly to the extent of the sulfation of their molecules. Significant attention has been recently focused on the use of both freshwater algae and seaweed for developing functional food by reason of a great variety of nutrients that are essential for human health.

  9. Nutritional ecology of obesity: from humans to companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raubenheimer, David; Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Gosby, Alison K; Simpson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We apply nutritional geometry, a framework for modelling the interactive effects of nutrients on animals, to help understand the role of modern environments in the obesity pandemic. Evidence suggests that humans regulate the intake of protein energy (PE) more strongly than non-protein energy (nPE), and consequently will over- and under-ingest nPE on diets with low or high PE, respectively. This pattern of macronutrient regulation has led to the protein leverage hypothesis, which proposes that the rise in obesity has been caused partly by a shift towards diets with reduced PE:nPE ratios relative to the set point for protein regulation. We discuss potential causes of this mismatch, including environmentally induced reductions in the protein density of the human diet and factors that might increase the regulatory set point for protein and hence exacerbate protein leverage. Economics--the high price of protein compared with fats and carbohydrates--is one factor that might contribute to the reduction of dietary protein concentrations. The possibility that rising atmospheric CO₂ levels could also play a role through reducing the PE:nPE ratios in plants and animals in the human food chain is discussed. Factors that reduce protein efficiency, for example by increasing the use of ingested amino acids in energy metabolism (hepatic gluconeogenesis), are highlighted as potential drivers of increased set points for protein regulation. We recommend that a similar approach is taken to understand the rise of obesity in other species, and identify some key gaps in the understanding of nutrient regulation in companion animals.

  10. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  11. The nutritional situation in Swedish nursing homes - a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgström Bolmsjö, Beata; Jakobsson, Ulf; Mölstad, Sigvard; Ostgren, Carl Johan; Midlöv, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Poor nutritional status is widespread among the elderly and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to longitudinally describe the nutritional status in elderly people living in nursing homes. Nutritional status was recorded longitudinally in elderly people living in 11 different nursing homes in Sweden. Participants were examined at baseline by specially trained nurses who also assisted with questionnaires and collected data for current medical treatment from patient records. Nutritional status was evaluated at baseline and after 24 months with the mini nutritional assessment (MNA). The study included 318 subjects. The mean age of the participants was 85.0 years (range 65-101). At baseline, 41.6% were well nourished, 40.3% at risk of malnutrition, and 17.7% malnourished according to the MNA. Survival was significantly lower in the malnourished group. After 24 months, almost half of the population had died. The group of participants who survived at 24 months represents a population of better nutritional state, where 10.6% were malnourished at baseline increasing to 24.6% after 24 months. After 24 months, 38.7% of the participants showed a decline in nutritional state. The group with deteriorating MNA scores had higher weight, BMI values, and a higher hospitalization rate. The prevalence of malnutrition in nursing home residents increased over time and it is important to evaluate nutritional state regularly. Nutritional interventions should be considered in better nourished groups, as well as in malnourished individuals, to prevent a decline in nutritional state.

  12. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenZhengxing; YaoHuiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it.The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utillize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  13. Studies on Nutritive Food from Rice Bran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zhengxing; Yao Huiyuan

    2000-01-01

    Rice bran has high nutritive value and good prospects on developing new foods from it .The paper described preparation of a new functional food from stabilized rice bran and provided new technical ways to utilize rice bran in the area of healthy foods.

  14. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation,challenges, and way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sodjinou, R.; Fanou, N.; Deart, L.; Pepping, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study wa

  15. Region-wide assessment of the capacity for human nutrition training in West Africa: current situation,challenges, and way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sodjinou, R.; Fanou, N.; Deart, L.; Pepping, F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is a dearth of information on existing nutrition training programs in West Africa. A preliminary step in the process of developing a comprehensive framework to strengthen human capacity for nutrition is to conduct an inventory of existing training programs. Objective: This study

  16. Improving Wellness on Campus: Service Learning in a Human Nutrition Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    In a human nutrition class, students are paired with university faculty or staff volunteer participants. Students teach their service learning partners how to record their food consumption and physical activity during a typical 7-day period. Using these data, students complete nutritional assessments of their partners. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Improving Wellness on Campus: Service Learning in a Human Nutrition Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Bonnie

    2003-01-01

    In a human nutrition class, students are paired with university faculty or staff volunteer participants. Students teach their service learning partners how to record their food consumption and physical activity during a typical 7-day period. Using these data, students complete nutritional assessments of their partners. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Nutrition support practice: a study of factors inherent in the delivery of nutrition support services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriesti-Johnson, C; Dwyer, K; Steinbaugh, M

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of intercorrelation among dietitian, physician, and team nutrition support functions. Eight hundred and eighty dietitians and physicians were asked to respond to a questionnaire describing nutrition support functions as reported in the literature and validated by a panel of nutrition support physicians and dietitians. Two hundred and fifty-four completed questionnaires were included in the study, 84 from physicians and 170 from dietitians. Intercorrelations among function statements were subjected to factor analysis. The magnitude and consistency of factor loadings suggest that nutrition support is not perceived as independent components, but as a comprehensive pattern or structure. However, there was one important difference in perception. The sample tended to have an "enteral" orientation to the dietitian role and a "parenteral" orientation to the physician and team roles. The data support the contention that all members of nutrition support teams need a common core of knowledge and a set of highly developed process skills which can best be attained through an integrated, rather than segmented, approach to team training.

  19. Regulation of nutrition-associated receptors in blood monocytes of normal weight and obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivovarova, Olga; Hornemann, Silke; Weimer, Sandra; Lu, Ye; Murahovschi, Veronica; Zhuk, Sergei; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Malashicheva, Anna; Kostareva, Anna; Kruse, Michael; Busjahn, Andreas; Rudovich, Natalia; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2015-03-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated metabolic diseases are characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation which involves interplay of nutrition and monocyte/macrophage functions. We suggested that some factors such as nutrient components, neuropeptides involved in the control of gastrointestinal functions, and gastrointestinal hormones might influence immune cell functions and in this way contribute to the disease pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA expression of twelve nutrition-associated receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), isolated monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and their regulation under the switching from the high-carbohydrate low-fat diet to the low-carbohydrate high-fat (LC/HFD) isocaloric diet in healthy humans. The mRNA expression of receptors for short chain fatty acids (GPR41, GPR43), bile acids (TGR5), incretins (GIPR, GLP1R), cholecystokinin (CCKAR), neuropeptides VIP and PACAP (VIPR1, VIPR2), and neurotensin (NTSR1) was detected in PBMC and monocytes, while GPR41, GPR43, GIPR, TGR5, and VIPR1 were found in macrophages. Correlations of the receptor expression in monocytes with a range of metabolic and inflammatory markers were found. In non-obese subjects, the dietary switch to LC/HFD induced the increase of GPR43 and VIPR1 expression in monocytes. No significant differences of receptor expression between normal weight and moderately obese subjects were found. Our study characterized for the first time the expression pattern of nutrition-associated receptors in human blood monocytes and its dietary-induced changes linking metabolic responses to nutrition with immune functions in health and metabolic diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D Nogiec

    Full Text Available Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  1. Study review : The European Nutrient Database (ENDB) for Nutritional Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charrondiere, U.R.; Vignat, J.; Moller, A.; Ireland, J.; Becker, W.; Church, S.; Farran, A.; Holden, J.; Klemm, C.; Linardou, A.; Mueller, D.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDB), as well as standardized calculation procedures are required for international studies on nutrition and disease to calculate nutrient intakes across countries. Comparisons of national FCDBs have shown that major improvements are needed in standardization and documen

  2. Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative study of the nutritional composition of matured green and red fruits of ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... It is still green when matured and turn from yellow to red if left for sometime after reaching maturity.

  3. Nutrition attitudes and knowledge in medical students after completion of an integrated nutrition curriculum compared to a dedicated nutrition curriculum: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Carolyn O; Ziniel, Sonja I; Delichatsios, Helen K; Ludwig, David S

    2011-08-12

    Nutrition education has presented an ongoing challenge to medical educators. In the 2007-2008 academic year, Harvard Medical School replaced its dedicated Preventive Medicine and Nutrition course with an integrated curriculum. The objective of the current study was to assess the effect of the curriculum change on medical student attitudes and knowledge about nutrition. A survey was administered in a quasi-experimental design to students in the last class of the dedicated curriculum (n = 131) and the first class of the integrated curriculum (n = 135) two years after each class completed the required nutrition course. Main measures were attitude scores based on modified Nutrition in Patient care Survey and satisfaction ratings, performance on a nutrition knowledge test, and demographic variables. Two-tailed t-tests were performed. Response rates were 50.4% and 42.2%. There were no differences between the groups in attitude scores from the Nutrition in Patient care Survey (p = 0.43) or knowledge scores (p = 0.63). Students with the integrated curriculum were less satisfied with both the quantity (p nutrition education, and were more likely to have completed optional online nutrition training modules (p = 0.0089). Medical student attitudes and knowledge about nutrition were not affected by the model of nutrition education they receive, though students in an integrated curriculum may feel their education is inadequate and seek additional training.

  4. Assessment of vascular and endothelial dysfunction in nutritional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S; Miglio, C; Eden, T; Del Rio, D

    2014-09-01

    Vascular and endothelial dysfunction (VED) is emerging as a potential set of early markers of cardiovascular disease risk and tests for its measurement have been widely used in clinical research. The aim of this viewpoint is to describe and discuss the current usage of these measures in well-designed nutritional trials, using the potential relationship between fruit juice intake and VED as example. A search was conducted using the NHS evidence portal including studies published in English between January 1980 and October 2013. Only 10 suitable studies were selected, which investigated the effect of fruit juice intake on VED, among which 4 interventions used flow-mediated dilatation, 2 arterial stiffness, 2 a combination of arterial stiffness and flow-mediated dilatation, 2 carotid intimal media thickness and 1 iontophoresis with laser Doppler. Despite minimal effects reported on classical CVD markers, such as lipids, 8 out of the 10 identified studies reported an effect on endothelial function following juice consumption, indicating that VED tests can be effectively used in human dietary interventions to identify relationships between bioactive compounds from fruit and CVD risk. However, paucity of available data, scarcity of compound bioavailability and metabolism information, strong heterogeneity among experimental methodologies and a number of limitations to study designs, still limit the interpretation of the results obtained through these measures. Future, well-designed studies with greater attention to consider use of VED measures are needed to strengthen the utility of VED tests in nutrition research such as those investigating the impact of polyphenol-rich juices and CVD risk.

  5. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  6. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  7. [Possible uses of sunflower in proper human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorić, Dragan

    2009-01-01

    products based on sunflower kernel that willfurther improve human nutrition.

  8. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa—Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurencia Govender

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN. Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  9. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in Selected Rural Communities of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa-Linking Human Nutrition and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Laurencia; Pillay, Kirthee; Siwela, Muthulisi; Modi, Albert; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe

    2016-12-27

    Lack of access to nutritious and balanced diets remains a major impediment to the health and well-being of people living in rural areas. The study utilizes a qualitative systematic approach to conduct an environmental scan and review of scientific literature of studies conducted in South Africa, specifically KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). Availability and access to nutritious, diverse and balanced diets were identified as key constraints for achieving food and nutrition security as well as for human health and well-being. This has led to both under- and over-nutrition, with the former, in particular stunting, affecting children under 5 years. A high incidence of over-nutrition, both overweight and obesity, was observed among black African females. In South Africa, poor people rely mostly on social grants and cannot afford a balanced diet. Under these circumstances, agriculture could be used to increase availability and access to diverse and nutritious foods for the attainment of a balanced diet. The wider use of traditional vegetable crops and pulses could improve availability and access to healthy and locally available alternatives. The promotion of household and community food gardens, and the use of nutrient dense crops with low levels of water use, i.e., high nutritional water productivity, offers prospects for addressing malnutrition in poor rural areas.

  10. Nutritional Practices of Athletes in Oman: A Descriptive Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa I. Waly

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adequate dietary intake is crucial for optimum training and performance of athletes. There is almost no available information related to dietary practices among Omani athletes, especially during the competition. This study aimed to assess the nutritional practices (nutritional knowledge, eating habits and daily nutrients intake among Omani male handball athletes in Muscat city, Oman.Methods: This is a cross sectional study including 35 male handball athletes involved in serious training for no less than three years. Data collection was done through personal interviews using a study questionnaire which enlisted questions relating to socio-demographic information, anthropometric measurements and nutritional practices. All the study participants declared no intake of anabolic steroids.Results: The mean age of the study participants was 27 ± 3 years. Their anthropometric assessment revealed that their mean height was 166 ± 12 cm, mean weight was 75 ± 10 kg, and body mass index was 27 ± 3. Nutritional knowledge analysis revealed that 80% had no nutritional supervision by a nutritionist/dietitian. Their knowledge of nutritional requirements was only 23% correct for total energy intake, 63% for protein intake, 46% for carbohydrate intake, 11% for fat intake and 83% for water intake. Eating habits indicated that 55% had <3 meals/day, 51% had lunch as the principal meal, 51% always added extra salt to their food, 28% took protein supplements on a daily basis, and 51% used pre-competition glycogen load diet. However, none consumed vitamins or mineral supplements. The mean daily caloric intake was 3674 ± 265 kcal/day, which was roughly comprised of 596 ± 66 g carbohydrates, 147 ± 28 g of protein and 78 ± 20 g of total fat.Conclusion: Professional nutritional supervision is needed in order to improve the nutritional knowledge and eating habits of Omani athletes, and therefore improve their athletic performance.

  11. Single-Subject Studies in Translational Nutrition Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, Nicholas J; Goetz, Laura H

    2017-08-21

    There is a great deal of interest in personalized, individualized, or precision interventions for disease and health-risk mitigation. This is as true of nutrition-based intervention and prevention strategies as it is for pharmacotherapies and pharmaceutical-oriented prevention strategies. Essentially, technological breakthroughs have enabled researchers to probe an individual's unique genetic, biochemical, physiological, behavioral, and exposure profile, allowing them to identify very specific and often nuanced factors that an individual might possess, which may make it more or less likely that he or she responds favorably to a particular intervention (e.g., nutrient supplementation) or disease prevention strategy (e.g., specific diet). However, as compelling and intuitive as personalized nutrition might be in the current era in which data-intensive biomedical characterization of individuals is possible, appropriately and objectively vetting personalized nutrition strategies is not trivial and requires novel study designs and data analytical methods. These designs and methods must consider a very integrated use of the multiple contemporary biomedical assays and technologies that motivate them, which adds to their complexity. Single-subject or N-of-1 trials can be used to assess the utility of personalized interventions and, in addition, can be crafted in such a way as to accommodate the necessarily integrated use of many emerging biomedical technologies and assays. In this review, we consider the motivation, design, and implementation of N-of-1 trials in translational nutrition research that are meant to assess the utility of personalized nutritional strategies. We provide a number of example studies, discuss appropriate analytical methods given the complex data they generate and require, and consider how such studies could leverage integration of various biomarker assays and clinical end points. Importantly, we also consider the development of strategies and

  12. Nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, and phytotherapy for improvement of human health: a perspective on plant biotechnology application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    2007-01-01

    Plants are one of the most important resources of human foods and medicines. Rapidly increasing knowledge on nutrition, medicine, and plant biotechnology has dramatically changed the concepts about food, health and agriculture, and brought in a revolution on them. Nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as new concepts and healing systems have quickly and widely spread in recent years. Strong recommendations for consumption of nutraceuticals, natural plant foods, and the use of nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have become progressively popular to improve health, and to prevent and treat diseases. With these trends, improving the dietary nutritional values of fruits, vegetables and other crops or even bioactive components in folk herbals has become targets of the blooming plant biotechnology industry. This review attempts to display and remark on these aspects. It summarizes the progress made on nutraceuticals, nutritional therapy, phytonutrients, phytotherapy, and their related epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. It also covers markets of these health-promoting products and disease-preventing or healing systems, as well as regulations behind them that direct the development of biotechnology study and application. Finally, related patents are listed and briefly analyzed, regarding of plant biotechnological research and progress on transgenic crops to improve nutritional value, phytotherapy efficiency, or to produce pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites or high-valued protein medicines such as vaccines and antibodies.

  13. Can oxidative DNA damage be used as a biomarker of cancer risk in humans? Problems, resolutions and preliminary results from nutritional supplementation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, B

    1998-12-01

    Damage to DNA by oxygen radicals and other reactive oxygen/nitrogen/chlorine species occurs in vivo despite the presence of multiple antioxidant defence and repair systems. Such damage is thought to make a significant contribution to the age-related development of cancer. Modulation of oxidative DNA damage by diet thus constitutes a "biomarker" putatively predictive of the effect of diet on cancer incidence, provided that DNA damage can be accurately quantitated by validated methods. Current issues addressed in this article include the problems of artifactual DNA oxidation during isolation and analysis, the relative merits of different analytical methods, the advantages and disadvantages of relying on measurement of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG, 8-oxodG) as an index of oxidative DNA damage, and the limited data that are so far available on how diet can affect "steady-state" levels of oxidative DNA damage in humans. It appears that such damage can be modulated by vegetable intake, although the effects of vegetables may be mediated by components different from the "classical" antioxidants vitamin C, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene.

  14. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children.

  15. Impact of nutrition messages on children's food choice: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannon, Katie; Schwartz, Marlene B

    2006-03-01

    This pilot study tested the influence of nutrition message framing on snack choice among kindergarteners. Three classrooms were randomly assigned to watch one of the following 60s videos: (a) a gain-framed nutrition message (i.e. the positive benefits of eating apples) (n=14); (b) a loss-framed message (i.e. the negative consequences of not eating apples) (n=18); or (c) a control scene (children playing a game) (n=18). Following this, the children were offered a choice between animal crackers and an apple for their snack. Among the children who saw one of the nutrition message videos, 56% chose apples rather than animal crackers; in the control condition only 33% chose apples. This difference was statistically significant (chi2=7.56, p<0.01). These results suggest that videos containing nutritional messages may have a positive influence on children's short-term food choices.

  16. Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions to Human Nutrition and Health: Managing Genome–Diet Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    STOVER, PATRICK J.; CAUDILL, MARIE A.

    2017-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently convened a workshop to review the state of the various domains of nutritional genomics research and policy and to provide guidance for further development and translation of this knowledge into nutrition practice and policy. Nutritional genomics holds the promise to revolutionize both clinical and public health nutrition practice and facilitate the establishment of (a) genome-informed nutrient and food-based dietary guidelines for disease prevention and healthful aging, (b) individualized medical nutrition therapy for disease management, and (c) better targeted public health nutrition interventions (including micronutrient fortification and supplementation) that maximize benefit and minimize adverse outcomes within genetically diverse human populations. As the field of nutritional genomics matures, which will include filling fundamental gaps in knowledge of nutrient–genome interactions in health and disease and demonstrating the potential benefits of customizing nutrition prescriptions based on genetics, registered dietitians will be faced with the opportunity of making genetically driven dietary recommendations aimed at improving human health. PMID:18755320

  17. Pollination and plant resources change the nutritional quality of almonds for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Claire; Kremen, Claire; Garber, Andrea; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Insect-pollinated crops provide important nutrients for human health. Pollination, water and nutrients available to crops can influence yield, but it is not known if the nutritional value of the crop is also influenced. Almonds are an important source of critical nutrients for human health such as unsaturated fat and vitamin E. We manipulated the pollination of almond trees and the resources available to the trees, to investigate the impact on the nutritional composition of the crop. The pollination treatments were: (a) exclusion of pollinators to initiate self-pollination and (b) hand cross-pollination; the plant resource treatments were: (c) reduced water and (d) no fertilizer. In an orchard in northern California, trees were exposed to a single treatment or a combination of two (one pollination and one resource). Both the fat and vitamin E composition of the nuts were highly influenced by pollination. Lower proportions of oleic to linoleic acid, which are less desirable from both a health and commercial perspective, were produced by the self-pollinated trees. However, higher levels of vitamin E were found in the self-pollinated nuts. In some cases, combined changes in pollination and plant resources sharpened the pollination effects, even when plant resources were not influencing the nutrients as an individual treatment. This study highlights the importance of insects as providers of cross-pollination for fruit quality that can affect human health, and, for the first time, shows that other environmental factors can sharpen the effect of pollination. This contributes to an emerging field of research investigating the complexity of interactions of ecosystem services affecting the nutritional value and commercial quality of crops.

  18. Special considerations for nutritional studies in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riobó Serván, Pilar; Sierra Poyatos, Roberto; Soldo Rodríguez, Judith; Gómez-Candela, Carmen; García Luna, Pedro Pablo; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2015-02-26

    The elderly population is increasing and it is well documented that may present some health problems related to nutritional intake. Both mental and physical impairments in the elderly may need specific adaptations to dietary assessment methods. But all self-report approaches include systematic and random errors, and under-reporting of dietary energy intake is common. Biomarkers of protein intake, as 24 hours urinary Nitrogen, may not be useful in elderly patients because of incontinence problems. Some micronutrients, like vitamin B12, have special importance in the elderly population. Also, measurement of fluid intake is also critical because elderly population is prone to dehydration. A detailed malnutrition status assessment should be included in the geriatric dietary history, and assessment. Body mass index (BMI) is not useful in the elderly, and it is important to evaluate functional status. Gait speed, handgrip strength using hand dynamometry can be used. Body Shape Index (ABSI) appears to be an accurate measure of adiposity, and is associated with total mortality. Further research is needed to clarify the best and simple methods to accurately estimate food and beverage fluid intake in the elderly population, and to evaluate nutritional and hidration status.

  19. The impact of nutritional fatty acids during pregnancy and lactation on early human adipose tissue development. Rationale and design of the INFAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauner, H; Vollhardt, C; Schneider, K T M; Zimmermann, A; Schuster, T; Amann-Gassner, U

    2009-01-01

    Recent observational studies suggest that mean birth weight and body fat growth in the first year of life have increased continuously over the last decades. Both elevated birth weight and early fat mass are potential risk factors for childhood obesity. Experimental and limited clinical data suggest that the dietary ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids (FAs) during pregnancy is critical for early adipose tissue growth. The aim of this randomized controlled study is to examine the effect of the supplementation with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs and reduction in the n-6/n-3 ratio in the diet of pregnant women/breast-feeding mothers on adipose tissue growth in their newborns using various methods for the assessment of body fat mass. Measurement of skinfold thickness in the newborn is the primary outcome parameter. Two hundred and four pregnant women will be recruited before the 15th week of gestation and randomly assigned to either active intervention or an isocaloric control diet. This upcoming study will explore the potential of this dietary approach to limit early adipose tissue growth and may contribute to the development of a new strategy for the primary prevention of childhood obesity. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Nutrition modulation of human aging: The calorie restriction paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sai Krupa; Balasubramanian, Priya; Weerasekara, Yasoma K

    2017-11-05

    Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described. CALERIE findings indicate the feasibility of CR in non-obese humans, confirm observations in NHP, and are consistent with improvements in disease risk reduction and potential anti-aging effects. Finally, the mechanisms of CR in humans are reviewed which sums up the fact that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms mediate the anti-aging effects of CR. Overall, the prospect for further research in both NHP and humans is highly encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional Status Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  2. Nutrition of students from dietetics profile education in the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities compared with students from other academic centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalcze, Katarzyna; Turyk, Zofia; Drywień, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition in humans is one of the most important factors affecting normal development, nutritional status and keeping healthy. University students can be overburdened with responsibilities arising from their studies which may result in abnormal diet/nutrition and decrease their levels of physical activity. To determine and assess nutrition and eating habits for selected female students studying nutrition at the Siedlce University of Natural Sciences & Humanities (UPH), compared with young people from other academic centres also studying nutrition and having a similar education profile. A diagnostic survey was undertaken anonymously on 100 female student subjects using a proprietary questionnaire. Students were undergraduates at the UPH during their 2nd and 3rd year. Dietetics students considered that the practical application of proper nutrition principles is very important. Nevertheless, 44% assessed themselves to follow abnormal diets; 58% declared they ate whole grains frequently whereas 58% and 65% respectively consumed fruit and vegetables daily. Dietary irregularities were identified, particularly in how often fish was eaten, where 46% either never ate fish or did so only occasionally. Subjects preferred lean cuts of poultry meat (65%), and the most common cooking practice was frying (52%). Subjects did not follow dietary recommendations, although responses varied in the different academic centres. Despite learning from their studies about normal nutritional requirements it seems that, to large degree, students follow eating habits acquired during their childhoods in the home.

  3. The effect of nutritional quality on comparing environmental impacts of human diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Oosting, S.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Gerber, P.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies support the general conclusion that plant-based diets have a lower environmental impact than animal-based diets. These studies, however, do not account for the nutritional quality of diets. The main objective of our study, therefore, was to explore if accounting for nutritional quali

  4. A study of anemia in human immunodeficiency virus patients: Estimating the prevalence, analyzing the causative effect of nutritional deficiencies, and correlating the degree of severity with CD4 cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Panwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anemia is a common complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. The role of iron, Vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies, which are otherwise most common causes of anemia, is not well-established in HIV patients. Several studies in India have shown that severe immunodeficiency is associated with higher grade of anemia, but correlation of CD4 cell counts with severity of anemia is not well-documented. Aims: The aims of the present study were: To estimate the point prevalence of anemia in HIV patients, to analyze the causative role of iron, Vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies in anemic HIV patients, and correlating the degree of severity of anemia with CD4 cell counts. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study. The study group enrolled 103 consecutive HIV patients attending medical emergency, medical outpatient department, medical wards, and anti-retroviral therapy (ART center at a tertiary care medical center in North India. Study participation consisted of a single visit during which relevant data, including medical history, current medications, CD4 T-lymphocyte count, complete hemogram with red blood cell indices, peripheral smear picture, iron studies, serum Vitamin B12, serum folate and bone marrow studies, were recorded on a case report form. Anemia was classified according to the World Health Organization criteria. Data analysis was carried out using Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: 86.4% (89/103 patients were found to be anemic. There was no significant difference in prevalence of anemia in ART-naive patients from those who were on ART (P > 0.05. Pearson′s correlation had shown a highly significant positive correlation of hemoglobin and CD4 cell counts in male patients (r = 0.418 as well as female patients (r = 0.565. Normocytic normochromic was the most common type of anemia in males (46% as well as females (42%. Significant iron deficiency

  5. Food and Nutrition for the 1980's: Moving Ahead. Comprehensive Plan for Implementing the National Food and Human Nutrition Research and Education and Information Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This booklet outlines a plan for the delivery of human nutrition research and services, in accord with the 1977 Federal Food and Agriculture Act. Research priorities are identified as: (1) nutritional needs; (2) actual eating habits and their effects on health; (3) factors which shape eating habits; (4) production and distribution of food; (5)…

  6. Impact of nutrition education on nutrition knowledge of public school educators in South Africa: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilna H Oldewage-Theron; Abdulkadir Egal

    2012-01-01

    The Department of Basic Education (DBE) has not given nutrition education the necessary emphasis that it needs, despite its importance in South African schools. Nutrition is included as only one of many topics forming part of the Life Orientation syllabus. Educators are role models for learners in making healthy food choices, however, studies have shown that major gaps exist in the health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of educators.The objective of this research was to undertak...

  7. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental biochemic

  8. Plant metabolomics and its potential application for human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hall, R.D.; Brouwer, I.D.; Fitzgerald, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    With the growing interest in the use of metabolomic technologies for a wide range of biological targets, food applications related to nutrition and quality are rapidly emerging. Metabolomics offers us the opportunity to gain deeper insights into, and have better control of, the fundamental

  9. Millipedes as Food for Humans: Their Nutritional and Possible Antimalarial Value—A First Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Enghoff

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The first record of millipedes (Diplopoda being regularly used for food by humans (the Bobo people of Burkina Faso is given, including information on how the millipedes are prepared. The species in question are Tymbodesmus falcatus (Karsch, 1881 and Sphenodesmus sheribongensis (Schiøtz, 1966 (Gomphodesmidae and an unidentified species of Spirostreptidae. New information on the nutritional value of millipedes is provided; unsaturated fatty acids, calcium, and iron contents are particularly high. The millipedes’ defensive secretions, hydrogen cyanide and benzoquinones, present a severe challenge for the spread of millipedes as an everyday food source. On the other hand, the possibility that benzoquinones may act as insect-repellents, as known from studies on nonhuman primates, and that sublethal cyanide ingestion may enhance human innate resistance to malaria, suggests promising ethnomedical perspectives to our findings.

  10. Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Seres, David S.; Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

  11. [Development of a software program for nutrition studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defagó, María D; Perovic, Nilda R; Aguinaldo, Cristina A; Actis, Adriana B

    2009-04-01

    The Interfood v. 1.3 software program was developed to process nutrition information and generate data on dietary intakes--in terms of food, nutrients, and phytochemical substances--valid for conducting studies on nutrition and epidemiology. The program has three basic components: the dietary intake frequency questionnaire CFCA); a database of common foods and their composition of 131 possible substances (macro- and micronutrients and phytochemicals); and a relational database that links the CFCA data with the food database. In this manner, the Interfood software program calculates the amount of food, nutrients, and phytochemical substances consumed by an individual daily, weekly, and monthly. Interfood is an open-source program; as such, the database can be modified and updated according to study requirements. This program has already proven useful to various studies of nutrition and epidemiology.

  12. The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of animal source food products on human nutrition and health. ... more readily absorbed into the human body than lower-quality nutrients from other food ... the role of animal source foods as part of a healthy diet requires continuous ...

  13. Using Satellite Remote Sensing and Household Survey Data to Assess Human Health and Nutrition Response to Environmental Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Grace, Kathryn; Shively, Gerald; Johnson, Kiersten B.; Carroll, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Climate change and degradation of ecosystem services functioning may threaten the ability of current agricultural systems to keep up with demand for adequate and inexpensive food and for clean water, waste disposal and other broader ecosystem services. Human health is likely to be affected by changes occurring across multiple geographic and time scales. Impacts range from increasing transmissibility and the range of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and yellow fever, to undermining nutrition through deleterious impacts on food production and concomitant increases in food prices. This paper uses case studies to describe methods that make use of satellite remote sensing and Demographic and Health Survey data to better understand individual-level human health and nutrition outcomes. By bringing these diverse datasets together, the connection between environmental change and human health outcomes can be described through new research and analysis.

  14. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…

  15. Diet quality and obesity in women: the Framingham Nutrition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolongevicz, Dolores M; Zhu, Lei; Pencina, Michael J; Kimokoti, Ruth W; Newby, P K; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Millen, Barbara E

    2010-04-01

    Obesity affects one in three American adult women and is associated with overall mortality and major morbidities. A composite diet index to evaluate total diet quality may better assess the complex relationship between diet and obesity, providing insights for nutrition interventions. The purpose of the present investigation was to determine whether diet quality, defined according to the previously validated Framingham nutritional risk score (FNRS), was associated with the development of overweight or obesity in women. Over 16 years, we followed 590 normal-weight women (BMI Framingham Offspring and Spouse Study who presented without CVD, cancer or diabetes at baseline. The nineteen-nutrient FNRS derived from mean ranks of nutrient intakes from 3 d dietary records was used to assess nutritional risk. The outcome was development of overweight or obesity (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) during follow-up. In a stepwise multiple logistic regression model adjusted for age, physical activity and smoking status, the FNRS was directly related to overweight or obesity (P for trend = 0.009). Women with lower diet quality (i.e. higher nutritional risk scores) were significantly more likely to become overweight or obese (OR 1.76; 95 % CI 1.16, 2.69) compared with those with higher diet quality. Diet quality, assessed using a comprehensive composite nutritional risk score, predicted development of overweight or obesity. This finding suggests that overall diet quality be considered a key component in planning and implementing programmes for obesity risk reduction and treatment recommendations.

  16. Effect of nutritional status and dietary patterns on human serum C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita

    2015-11-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Recent advances in knowledge of zinc nutrition and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Sonja Y; Lönnerdal, Bo; Hotz, Christine; Rivera, Juan A; Brown, Kenneth H

    2009-03-01

    Zinc deficiency increases the risk and severity of a variety of infections, restricts physical growth, and affects specific outcomes of pregnancy. Global recognition of the importance of zinc nutrition in public health has expanded dramatically in recent years, and more experience has accumulated on the design and implementation of zinc intervention programs. Therefore, the Steering Committee of the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG) completed a second IZiNCG technical document that reexamines the latest information on the intervention strategies that have been developed to enhance zinc nutrition and control zinc deficiency. In particular, the document reviews the current evidence regarding preventive zinc supplementation and the role of zinc as adjunctive therapy for selected infections, zinc fortification, and dietary diversification or modification strategies, including the promotion and protection of breastfeeding and biofortification. The purposes of this introductory paper are to summarize new guidelines on the assessment of population zinc status, as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and IZiNCG, and to provide an overview on several new advances in zinc metabolism. The following papers will then review the intervention strategies individually.

  18. Disentangling the relative effects of bushmeat availability on human nutrition in central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fa, John E.; Olivero, Jesús; Real, Raimundo; Farfán, Miguel A.; Márquez, Ana L.; Vargas, J. Mario; Ziegler, Stefan; Wegmann, Martin; Brown, David; Margetts, Barrie; Nasi, Robert

    2015-02-01

    We studied links between human malnutrition and wild meat availability within the Rainforest Biotic Zone in central Africa. We distinguished two distinct hunted mammalian diversity distributions, one in the rainforest areas (Deep Rainforest Diversity, DRD) containing taxa of lower hunting sustainability, the other in the northern rainforest-savanna mosaic, with species of greater hunting potential (Marginal Rainforest Diversity, MRD). Wild meat availability, assessed by standing crop mammalian biomass, was greater in MRD than in DRD areas. Predicted bushmeat extraction was also higher in MRD areas. Despite this, stunting of children, a measure of human malnutrition, was greater in MRD areas. Structural equation modeling identified that, in MRD areas, mammal diversity fell away from urban areas, but proximity to these positively influenced higher stunting incidence. In DRD areas, remoteness and distance from dense human settlements and infrastructures explained lower stunting levels. Moreover, stunting was higher away from protected areas. Our results suggest that in MRD areas, forest wildlife rational use for better human nutrition is possible. By contrast, the relatively low human populations in DRD areas currently offer abundant opportunities for the continued protection of more vulnerable mammals and allow dietary needs of local populations to be met.

  19. Assessment of nutritional status, body composition, and human immunodeficiency virus-associated morphologic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Tamsin A; Zafonte-Sanders, Melissa; Fields-Gardner, Cade; Moen, Karol; Johansen, Diana; Paton, Nicholas

    2003-04-01

    Nutritional status should be assessed at regular intervals as part of management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The simplest approach to assessment is serial weight measurement. A comprehensive nutritional assessment includes (1) anthropometric measurements of body composition; (2) biochemical measurements of serum protein, micronutrients, and metabolic parameters; (3) clinical assessment of altered nutritional requirements and social or psychological issues that may preclude adequate intake; and (4) measurement of dietary intake. Techniques for measuring body composition of fat and lean body mass include anthropometry and bioelectric impedance analysis. Other techniques, including dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), hydrodensitometry, total body potassium measurement, and cross-sectional computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging are available in research centers. Anthropometry, including waist-hip ratios, regional DXA, and cross-sectional imaging, is best for detecting morphologic changes associated with fat redistribution syndrome. Nutritional assessment and intervention in children with HIV can help to prevent stunted growth and development.

  20. Development of professional practice through problem-based learning in human nutrition and Dietetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero-López Ma Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although competency-based education is well established in health care education, research shows that the competencies do not always match the reality of clinical workplaces, especially in nutrition area. Student of Human Nutrition and Dietetics, have reported shortcomings in their general competencies, such as organizational skills, teamwork, knowledge to develop proposals for intervention. Were given to students a problem-based learning (PBL activity with collaborative learning competence for to investigate their evolutions in collaborative learning and the knowledge in nutrition education. The results suggest that the PBL provided better preparation with respect to several of the competencies. The effect of PBL for the experienced students' collaborative learning and education nutrition competencies is especially promising in the professional development of future nutritionists.

  1. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  2. Consumer Understanding of Nutrition Marketing Terms: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroldson, Amber; Yen, Chih-Lun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the validity of a questionnaire developed to assess adult consumer understanding of nutrition marketing terms and the resulting impact on consumer behavior. Participants (n = 40) completed an electronic questionnaire. Efforts to establish validity and reliability suggest that the questionnaire is a…

  3. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: The nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bouwman, J.; Dragsted, L.O.; Drevon, C.A.; Elliott, R.; Groot, P. de; Kaput, J.; Mathers, J.C.; Müller, M.; Pepping, F.; Saito, J.; Scalbert, A.; Radonjic, M.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Travis, A.; Wopereis, S.; Evelo, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition res

  4. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: The nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Bouwman, J.; Dragsted, L.O.; Drevon, C.A.; Elliott, R.; Groot, P. de; Kaput, J.; Mathers, J.C.; Müller, M.; Pepping, F.; Saito, J.; Scalbert, A.; Radonjic, M.; Rocca-Serra, P.; Travis, A.; Wopereis, S.; Evelo, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition

  5. Nutrition Education--1973. Part 7--School Nutrition Education Programs. Hearings Held Pittsburgh, Pa., May 25, 1973. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    The following witnesses testified before these hearings of the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: Mrs. G. Marsh, area consultant, Division of Food and Nutrition Services, Pennsylvania Department of Education; Mrs. G. Chegwidden, director, School Food Service, Franklin Regional School District, Murrysville, Pa.; Mr. S. Lympany, senior…

  6. Nutrition, epigenetics, and developmental plasticity: implications for understanding human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Lillycrop, Karen A

    2010-08-21

    There is considerable evidence for induction of differential risk of noncommunicable diseases in humans by variation in the quality of the early life environment. Studies in animal models show that induction and stability of induced changes in the phenotype of the offspring involve altered epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation and covalent modifications of histones. These findings indicate that such epigenetic changes are highly gene specific and function at the level of individual CpG dinucleotides. Interventions using supplementation with folic acid or methyl donors during pregnancy, or folic acid after weaning, alter the phenotype and epigenotype induced by maternal dietary constraint during gestation. This suggests a possible means for reducing risk of induced noncommunicable disease, although the design and conduct of such interventions may require caution. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent advances in understanding the mechanism that underlies the early life origins of disease and to place these studies in a broader life-course context.

  7. Chemical composition of lucerne leaf extract (EFL) and its applications as a phytobiotic in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaweł, Eliza

    2012-01-01

    Lucerne, a valuable plant grown mainly for animal feed, is rich in protein, minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Si), vitamins (A, B, C, D, E, K, U), phytochemical substances (carotene, chlorophyll, coumarins, isoflavones, alkaloids, saponins), contains secondary metabolites of plants (phytoestrogens: isoflavones and coumestrol), and antinutritional components (phytates, L-canavanine, saponins). It may be used as a dietary supplement in human nutrition. The proteins found in lucerne are comprised of numerous exogenous and semi-exogenous amino acids which are desirable for human body. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa (EFL - l'Extrait Foliaire de Luzerne) practically does not contain mycotoxins and pesticide pollutants. It is a completely natural product, safe even in a long-term supplementation. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa has a positive, multidirectional impact on the human body. It increases the level of estrogen, prevents atherosclerosis, helps blood circulation and strenghtens immunity, protects against the development of dangerous diseases of the digestive tract, combats anemia and many other health ailments. The results of preclinical studies indicate that alfalfa leaf extract enriched with vitamin C (EFL) can be a dietary supplement supporting the human body in fighting malnutrition, ischemic diseases, and various disorders of digestive tract. It also strengthens and enhances immunity.

  8. Chemical composition of lucerne leaf extract (EFL and its applications as a phytobiotic in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Gaweł

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available   Lucerne, a valuable plant grown mainly for animal feed, is rich in protein, minerals (Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Si, vitamins (A, B, C, D, E, K, U, phytochemical substances (carotene, chlorophyll, coumarins, isoflavones, alkaloids, saponins, contains secondary metabolites of plants (phytoestrogens: isoflavones and coumestrol, and antinutritional components (phytates, L-canavanine, saponins. It may be used as a dietary supplement in human nutrition. The proteins found in lucerne are comprised of numerous exogenous and semi-exogenous amino acids which are desirable for human body. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa (EFL – l’Extrait Foliaire de Luzerne practically does not contain mycotoxins and pesticide pollutants. It is a completely natural product, safe even in a long-term supplementation. Extract from the leaves of alfalfa has a positive, multidirectional impact on the human body. It increases the level of estrogen, prevents atherosclerosis, helps blood circulation and strenghtens immunity, protects against the development of dangerous diseases of the digestive tract, combats anemia and many other health ailments. The results of preclinical studies indicate that alfalfa leaf extract enriched with vitamin C (EFL can be a dietary supplement supporting the human body in fighting malnutrition, ischemic diseases, and various disorders of digestive tract. It also strengthens and enhances immunity.  

  9. Intervention in child nutrition : evaluation studies in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1989-01-01

    In this monograph three major types of intervention in child nutrition are examined: nutrition education, food supplementation and nutrition rehabilitation. Detailed evaluations were carried out, between 1976 and 1979, of programmes in Central Kenya operating under different ecological circumstances

  10. Safety assessment of menaquinone-7 for use in human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaias Ravishankar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin K occurs widely in foods and has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, as well as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiosteoporosis properties. A previous study indicates that long-chain menaquinone-7 may be more bioavailable than vitamin K and short-chain menaquinones. In the present study, acute, subacute toxicity and genotoxicity assays were carried out to evaluate the safety of oral menaquinone-7 in albino Wistar rats. Oral administration of menaquinone-7, at a concentration of 2000 mg/kg, did not cause toxic symptoms in either male or female rats. A subacute toxicity study also proved the safety and tolerance of prolonged treatment (for 90 days with menaquinone-7 in rats, as evidenced by biochemical, hematological, and urine parameters as well as by histopathological analysis. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity studies were performed by comet, micronucleus, and Ames tests on Salmonella typhimurium strains, which showed cellular safety and nonmutagenicity of menaquinone-7. The results indicate the safety of menaquinone-7 for human consumption.

  11. USDA Human Nutrition Research and Education Activities. A Report to Congress Covering the Period January-December 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Jacqueline; And Others

    This document is the sixth annual, legislatively mandated report on the human nutrition research and education activities of the United States Department of Agriculture for fiscal year 1992 in which directions and highlights are emphasized. The report contains six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 covers human nutrition research…

  12. Assessment of nutritional status among adolescents: a hospital based cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence, a period of transition between childhood and adulthood, occupies a crucial position in the life of human beings. The primary causes of under nutrition in India are its large population, socio-economic differences and inadequate access to health facilities. Nutritional assessments among adolescents are important as they are the future parents and constitute a potentially susceptible group. Studies on the assessment of nutritional status of adolescents are less in number and a National database has not yet been developed. Methods: The present hospital based cross sectional study was conducted in year 2013 among 344 rural adolescents of 10-19 years age (166 boys and 178 girls attending the outpatient department at rural health training centre (RHTC Dhaura Tanda, district Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, belonging to the Muslim and Hindu caste communities. The nutritional status was assessed in terms of under nutrition (weight-for-age below 3rd percentile, stunting (Height-for-age below 3rd percentile and thinness (BMI-for-age below 5th percentile. Diseases were accepted as such as diagnosed by pediatrician, skin specialist and medical officer. Results: The prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 32.8%, 19.5% and 26.7% respectively. The maximum prevalence of malnutrition was observed among early adolescents (28%-47% and the most common morbidities were URTI (38.6%, diarrhea (16.8%, carbuncle / furuncle (16% and scabies (9.30%. Conclusion: The study concluded that the most common morbidities among adolescents were related to nutrition and personal hygiene. Regular health programmes should focus to educate and promote health among adolescent. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 620-624

  13. FDA Consumer Nutrition Knowledge Survey. Report II, 1975. A Nationwide Study of Food Shopper's Knowledge, Beliefs, Attitudes and Reported Behavior Regarding Food and Nutrition. Factors Related to Nutrition Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelson, Herbert; And Others

    During 1973, a nationwide study for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was conducted which provided information on nutrition knowledge, beliefs about nutrition, and first reactions to nutrition labeling among food shoppers. This initial research provided a baseline measurement of nutrition knowledge and attitudes among consumers, and in 1975…

  14. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research...

  15. Global Analysis of Food and Nutrition: What the Human Body Wants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seunghyeon; Foo, Mathias; Sung, Jaeyun; Jin, Yong-Su; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2014-03-01

    There is currently an abundance of quantitative information regarding foods we consume, such as their total nutrient composition and daily nutritional requirements. In this study, we systematically analyzed such large-scale data of foods to better understand how the composition of foods affects their overall nutritional value. Herein, we constructed two types of networks that reflect nutritional data from about 700 food products: 1) The Food-food Network, in which each edge connects a pair of foods having similar nutritional contents; and 2) the Nutrient-nutrient Network, which is based on co-occurrence patterns of different nutrients across foods. By adopting the insight we obtained from the topological properties of these networks, we present a novel measure to quantify the overall nutritional value of a food, which we call the Nutritional Fitness (NF). Some nutrients can hinder foods from having high NF, acting as ``nutritional bottlenecks.'' Interestingly, a food's NF is not only affected by individual nutrients, but also pairs of nutrients. To this effect, foods with very high NFs tend to have unique nutrient pairs not observed from the majority of foods. To summarize, our study provides insight into how NF and nutrients are intricately related.

  16. Nutrition Education in Australian Midwifery Programmes: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Arrish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Little research has explored how nutrition content in midwifery education prepares midwives to provide prenatal nutrition advice. This study examined the nature and extent of nutrition education provided in Australian midwifery programmes. A mixed-methods approach was used, incorporating an online survey and telephone interviews. The survey analysis included 23 course coordinators representing 24 of 50 accredited midwifery programmes in 2012. Overall, the coordinators considered nutrition in midwifery curricula and the midwife’s role as important. All programmes included nutrition content; however, eleven had only 5 to <10 hours allocated to nutrition, while two had a designated unit. Various topics were covered. Dietitians/other nutrition experts were rarely involved in teaching or reviewing the nutrition content. Interviews with seven coordinators revealed that nutrition education tended to be problem-oriented and at times based on various assumptions. Nutrition content was not informed by professional or theoretical models. The development of nutrition assessment skills or practical training for midwifery students in providing nutrition advice was lacking. As nutrition is essential for maternal and foetal health, nutrition education in midwifery programmes needs to be reviewed and minimum requirements should be included to improve midwives’ effectiveness in this area. This may require collaboration between nutrition experts and midwifery bodies.

  17. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  18. Design and evaluation of digital learning material for academic education in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    E-learning and digital learning materials are becoming more and more popular. Therefore we investigated the value of digital learning material for academic education in Human Nutrition. Five digital modules were developed focusing on for example design, analysis and interpretation of nutrigenomics

  19. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  20. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  1. Identifying the Learning Styles and Instructional Tool Preferences of Beginning Food Science and Human Nutrition Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, D. M.; Rasmussen, C. N.; Schmidt, S. J.

    2004-01-01

    Learning styles vary among individuals, and understanding which instructional tools certain learning styles prefer can be utilized to enhance student learning. Students in the introductory Food Science and Human Nutrition course (FSHN 101), taught at the Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, were asked to complete Gregorc's Learning Style…

  2. History of the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Jean Mayer United States Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, while quite a mouthful, is aptly named, since it has contributed substantially to the legacy of Jean Mayer, to the scientific stature of the USDA and, in Atwater’s tradition, to the d...

  3. Design and evaluation of digital learning material for academic education in human nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busstra, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    E-learning and digital learning materials are becoming more and more popular. Therefore we investigated the value of digital learning material for academic education in Human Nutrition. Five digital modules were developed focusing on for example design, analysis and interpretation of nutrigenomics r

  4. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2000 forward. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of...

  5. Humanities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, Internet studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    the interplay between four areas which until now to a certain extent have been separated: Traditional Hu- manities, Digital Humanities, Media studies, and Internet studies. The vision is followed by an outline of how it can be unfolded in concrete activities, in the form of research projects, research......Todays expanding digital landscape constitutes an important research object as well as the research environment for the Humanities at the beginning of the 21st century. Taking this state of affairs as a starting point this inaugural lecture presents a vision for how the digital affects...

  6. Altered Nutrition State in the Severe Multiple Trauma Patients Undergoing Adjuvant Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Nutritional Support Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yanqing; BAI Xiangjun; LIN Guanyu; TANG Zhaohui

    2007-01-01

    In order to observe the nutrition state in the severe multiple trauma patients undergoing adjuvant recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) nutritional support therapy, 45 patients with severe multiple traumas (ISS>25) were randomly divided into 3 groups. All the 3 groups had been supplied with nitrogen and caloricity according to the need of patients for 16 days. The rhGH therapy started 48 h after surgery and lasted for 14 days in two rhGH-treated groups in which rhGH was 0.2 and 0.4 U/(kg·d) respectively, and the resting group served as control one. The levels of nitrogen balance, prealbumin and safety variables (blood sugar, Na+, TT3 and TT4) were observed and compared among the three groups. The levels of nitrogen balance on the postoperative day (POD) 3 and 5 in the rhGH-treated groups were - 1.28±3.19, 5.45±2.00 and -0.18±2.55, 6.11±1.60, respectively,which were significantly higher than those in the control group (-5.17±1.68 and -1.08±3.31, P<0.01). The values of prealbumin on the POD 3 and 5 in the rhGH-treated groups were 180.19±27.15, 194.44±50.82 and 194.94±29.65, 194.11±16.17, respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (117.42±19.10 and 135.63±28.31, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the rhGH 0.2 U/(kg·d) group and rhGH 0.4 U/(kg·d) group in both of the levels of nitrogen balance and prealbumin. It is concluded that the nutritional support therapy with adjuvant rhGH which starts 48 h after surgery improves the nutrition state of the patients with severe multiple trauma. It is safe for severe multiple trauma patients who accept rhGH at the dose of 0.2 and 0.4 U/(kg·d).

  7. Stroke and nutrition: A review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Foroughi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions : Adherence to Mediterranean diet or DASH diet and increasing the consumption of antioxidant, vitamins, potassium, calcium food sources, vegetables, fruits, and whole grains intake can lower the risk of stroke. Healthy diet is effective in reducing risk of stroke, however, more studies need to be carried out in this area.

  8. Impact of nutrition education on nutrition knowledge of public school educators in South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilna H. Oldewage-Theron

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Basic Education (DBE has not given nutrition education the necessary emphasis that it needs, despite its importance in South African schools. Nutrition is included as only one of many topics forming part of the Life Orientation syllabus. Educators are role models for learners in making healthy food choices, however, studies have shown that major gaps exist in the health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of educators.The objective of this research was to undertake a pilot study to determine the impact of a nutrition education programme (NEP on the nutrition knowledge of Life Orientation educators in public schools in South Africa (SA. An exploratory baseline survey, to determine the nutrition education practices in 45 purposively selected public schools, was carried out before the experimental nutrition education intervention study. A nutrition knowledge questionnaire was completed by 24 purposively selected educators, representing all nine provinces in SA, before and after a three-day NEP. Pre and post-NEP data were analysed on the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS for a Windows program version 17.0 for descriptive statistics, version 17.0. Paired t-tests measured statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 before and after the NEP.The knowledge of the respondents improved significantly after the NEP as the mean±s.d. score of correctly answered questions (n = 59 improved from 63.3±30.2% before to 80.6±21.1% after the NEP. The results proved that nutrition knowledge of Life Orientation educators in primary schools is not optimal, but can be improved by NEP.

  9. Infant Nutrition and 12 and 18 Months Secure Base Behavior: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Posada, German; Carbonell, Olga A.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hillary; Gurkas, Pinar

    2011-01-01

    A notable omission in studies of developmental links to early nutritional deficiencies is infant attachment. In those few studies investigating associations between infant nutrition and attachment, nutrition was defined solely by physical growth, and infants had moderate-severe growth retardation. In this study, we utilized multiple markers of…

  10. Effect of Nutritional Status and Dietary Patterns on Human Serum C-Reactive Protein and Interleukin-6 Concentrations12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidowicz, Angelika; Regula, Julita

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory process plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2, and metabolic syndrome. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are widely tested inflammatory markers involved in the development of these diseases. Several studies indicate a relation between nutritional status and the concentrations of human high-sensitivity CRP and IL-6. Similarly, the role of diet in reducing inflammation and thereby modulating the risk of non-communicable diseases is supported by numerous studies. This review focuses on the effects of the selected nutrition models in humans on the concentrations of CRP and IL-6. It seems that the Mediterranean diet model is most effective in inhibiting inflammation. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension model and the plant nutrition model also have proven to be beneficial. The data on low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets are inconclusive. Comprehensive studies are necessary, taking into account the cumulative effect of dietary and other factors on the inflammatory process. PMID:26567198

  11. Effects of Three Oral Nutritional Supplements on Human Hydration Indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Lindsay A; Yates, Brandon A; McKenzie, Amy L; Muñoz, Colleen X; Casa, Douglas J; Armstrong, Lawrence E

    2016-08-01

    Urine color (Ucol) as a hydration assessment tool provides practicality, ease of use, and correlates moderately to strongly with urine specific gravity (Usg) and urine osmolality (Uosm). Indicative of daily fluid turnover, along with solute and urochrome excretion in 24-hr samples, Ucol may also reflect dietary composition. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the efficacy of Ucol as a hydration status biomarker after nutritional supplementation with beetroot (880 mg), vitamin C (1000 mg), and riboflavin (200 mg). Twenty males (Mean ± SD; age, 21 ± 2 y; body mass, 82.12 ± 15.58 kg; height, 1.77 ± 0.06 m) consumed a standardized breakfast and collected all urine voids on one control day (CON) and 1 day after consuming a standardized breakfast and a randomized and double-blinded supplement (SUP) over 3 weeks. Participants replicated exercise and diet for one day before CON, and throughout CON and SUP. Ucol, Usg, Uosm, and urine volume were measured in all 24-hr samples, and Ucol and Usg were measured in all single samples. Ucol was a significant predictor of single sample Usg after all supplements (p < .05). Interestingly, 24-hr Ucol was not a significant predictor of 24-h Usg and Uosm after riboflavin supplementation (p = .20, p = .21). Further, there was a significant difference between CON and SUP 24-h Ucol only after riboflavin supplementation (p < .05). In conclusion, this investigation suggests that users of the UCC (urine color chart) should consider riboflavin supplementation when classifying hydration status and use a combination of urinary biomarkers (e.g., Usg and Ucol), both acutely and over 24 hr.

  12. Sulfur in human nutrition - effects beyond protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2008-01-01

    That sulfur is essential to humans is based on the requirement of S-animo acids for normal growth and maintenance of nitrogen balance and not on the optimization of metabolic proccesses involving the synthesis of non-protein sulphur containing compounds. This paper reviews the significance of sulfur

  13. Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, David C; Morris, Cindy E; Dratz, Edward A; Pilgeram, Alice

    2009-11-01

    High-yielding cereals and other staples have produced adequate calories to ward off starvation for much of the world over several decades. However, deficiencies in certain amino acids, minerals, vitamins and fatty acids in staple crops, and animal diets derived from them, have aggravated the problem of malnutrition and the increasing incidence of certain chronic diseases in nominally well-nourished people (the so-called diseases of civilization). Enhanced global nutrition has great potential to reduce acute and chronic disease, the need for health care, the cost of health care, and to increase educational attainment, economic productivity and the quality of life. However, nutrition is currently not an important driver of most plant breeding efforts, and there are only a few well-known efforts to breed crops that are adapted to the needs of optimal human nutrition. Technological tools are available to greatly enhance the nutritional value of our staple crops. However, enhanced nutrition in major crops might only be achieved if nutritional traits are introduced in tandem with important agronomic yield drivers, such as resistance to emerging pests or diseases, to drought and salinity, to herbicides, parasitic plants, frost or heat. In this way we might circumvent a natural tendency for high yield and low production cost to effectively select against the best human nutrition. Here we discuss the need and means for agriculture, food processing, food transport, sociology, nutrition and medicine to be integrated into new approaches to food production with optimal human nutrition as a principle goal.

  14. [Food supplements on the domestic market in Hungary: nutritional assessment of the ingredients, risks and benefits, the role of food supplements in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugasi, Andrea; Horacsek, Márta; Martos, Éva

    2010-11-28

    Food supplements are foods that are concentrated sources of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals and other substances with a physiological or nutritional effect. Since joining to the European Union, the distribution of food supplements in Hungary has not been bound to pre-market authorisation; products can be placed to the market after a formal notification at the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Science. Distribution, ingredients, and all information on the label are determined by numerous regulations but at the same time, the lack of harmonized legislation at Community level may cause a lot of problems. In the second part of the review authors introduce the evaluation process of components from the point of view of nutritional and physiological effects and the possible role of food supplements in human nutrition.

  15. Nutrition and muscle loss in humans during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The protein loss in humans during spaceflight is partly due to a normal adaptive response to a decreased work load on the muscles involved in weight bearing. The process is mediated by changes in prostaglandin release, secondary to the decrease in tension on the affected muscles. On missions, where there is a high level of physical demands on the astronauts, there tends to be an energy deficit, which adds to the muscle protein loss and depletes the body fat reserves. While the adaptive response is a normal part of homeostasis, the additional protein loss from an energy deficit can, in the long run, have a negative effect on health and capability of humans to live and work in space and afterward return to Earth.

  16. Golden Rice and 'Golden' crops for human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Peter

    2010-11-30

    Micronutrients are essential for a healthy life. Humans do not produce micronutrients, and hence they must obtain them through the foodchain. Staple crops are the predominant food source of mankind, but need to be complemented by other foodstuffs because they are generally deficient in one or the other micronutrient. Breeding for micronutrient-dense crops is not always a viable option because of the absence of genetic variability for the desired trait. Moreover, sterility issues and the complex genetic makeup of some crop plants make them unamenable to conventional breeding. In these cases, genetic modification remains the only viable option. The tools to produce a number of micronutrients in staple crops have recently become available thanks to the identification of the genes involved in the corresponding biochemical pathways at an unprecedented rate. Discarding genetic modification as a viable option is definitely not in the interest of human wellbeing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jimin; Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-Yun; Lee, Song Mi; Chang, Namsoo

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact...

  18. Fetal developmental programing: insights from human studies and experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Gisele Aparecida Dionísio; Ribeiro, Vinícius Luís Bertotti; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; Marchesan Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida

    2017-03-01

    Environmental factors, particularly nutrition during pregnancy and early life can influence the risk of chronic diseases in later life. The underlying mechanism, termed "programing", postulates that an environmental stimulus during a critical window of time, early in life, has a permanent effect on subsequent structure and function of the organism. In this study we review the concept of fetal programing on chronic diseases and the proposed hypotheses for the association between early development and later disease, including epigenetic variation. We concentrate on specific aspects of maternal nutrition, particularly under-nutrition and over-nutrition, in humans and animal models. An adequate maternal nutrition during pregnancy is crucial for the health outcome of the offspring at adulthood.

  19. Comparative Proteomics of Human and Macaque Milk Reveals Species-Specific Nutrition during Postnatal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kristen L; Weber, Darren; Phinney, Brett S; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hinde, Katie; Lönnerdal, Bo; Korf, Ian; Lemay, Danielle G

    2015-05-01

    Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques to highlight differences in neonatal nutrition. We developed a milk proteomics technique that overcomes previous technical barriers including pervasive post-translational modifications and limited sample volume. We identified 1606 and 518 proteins in human and macaque milk, respectively. During analysis of detected protein orthologs, we identified 88 differentially abundant proteins. Of these, 93% exhibited increased abundance in human milk relative to macaque and include lactoferrin, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor, alpha-1 antichymotrypsin, vitamin D-binding protein, and haptocorrin. Furthermore, proteins more abundant in human milk compared with macaque are associated with development of the gastrointestinal tract, the immune system, and the brain. Overall, our novel proteomics method reveals the first comprehensive macaque milk proteome and 524 newly identified human milk proteins. The differentially abundant proteins observed are consistent with the perspective that human infants, compared with nonhuman primates, are born at a slightly earlier stage of somatic development and require additional support through higher quantities of specific proteins to nurture human infant maturation.

  20. [Feeding and assessment of nutritional status of spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Evaluation of risks and interventional proposal. I.Methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gross, M; Castillo, M J; Moreno, L; Nova, E; González-Lamuño, D; Pérez-Llamas, F; Gutiérrez, A; Garaulet, M; Joyanes, M; Leiva, A; Marcos, A

    2003-01-01

    Adolescence is a decisive period in human life due to the multiple physiological and psychological changes that take place. These changes will condition both nutritional requirements and eating/physical activity behavior. It has been demonstrated that these "adolescence" factors are of significant influence in health status during adult life. Due to its importance and adequate development the project has been granted by the Fondo de Investigación Sanitaria of the Institute of Health Carlos III. To develop a methodology to evaluate the health and nutritional status of a representative population of Spanish adolescents. Specific attention is paid to three specific health problems: obesity, anorexia nervosa/bulimia, dislipidemia. The following magnitudes will be studied: 1) dietary intake, food habits and nutrition knowledge; 2) daily physical activity and personal approach; 3) physical condition; 4) anthropometry and body composition; 5) hematobiochemical study: plasma lipid phenotypic and metabolic profile, blood cell counts; 6) genotipic profile of cardiovascular risk lipid factors; 7) immune function profile related to nutritional status; 8) psychological profile. This project includes the co-ordinate activity of five Spanish centers of five different cities (Granada, Madrid, Murcia, Santander, Zaragoza). Each center is specialized in a specific area and will be responsible for the corresponding part of the study. From the data obtained, we will elaborate a specific intervention program in order to improve nutrition and neutralize the risk for nutritional related problems in adolescence. By this, we will contribute to improve the health status of the Spanish population in the new millennium.

  1. The nutritive and immunoprotective quality of human milk beyond 1 year postpartum: are lactation-duration-based donor exclusions justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne Tigchelaar; Fogleman, April; Allen, Jonathan C

    2013-08-01

    Donor human milk is critical for the fragile preterm infant who does not have access to his or her mother's milk, improving survival rates and quality of survival and decreasing hospital stay. Despite the opening of donor milk banks around the world, shortages continue as demand for donor milk exceeds supply. One potential means of increasing supply is by reducing exclusion criteria that prohibit mothers from donating milk based on duration of lactation. Minimal research has been done on the composition of human milk during the second year of lactation, with most research focusing on the nutritive compounds and not the immunoprotective compounds. Several immunoprotective compounds, including lysozyme, lactoferrin, secretory immunoglobulin A, and oligosaccharides, are abundant in human milk compared to bovine-based infant formula and are partially or fully retained during Holder pasteurization, making them an important differentiating feature of donor milk. A PubMed search was conducted to review studies in human milk composition during the second year of lactation. Limitations of existing research include sample collection protocols, small study sizes, and use of populations that may have been at risk for nutritional deficiencies. Stable concentrations of several components were reported including protein, lactose, iron, copper, lactoferrin, and secretory immunoglobulin A. Lysozyme concentration increased during extended lactation, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined into the second year. Conflicting findings were reported on fat content, and no information was available regarding oligosaccharide content. More research is needed to create evidence-based guidelines regarding the nutritive and immunoprotective value of donor milk throughout the course of lactation.

  2. A Study of Nutrition in Entry-Level Dental Hygiene Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah L; Gurenlian, JoAnn R; Freudenthal, Jacqueline J

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to document the extent of nutritional content in U.S. dental hygiene program curricula; identify program directors' opinions, perceptions, and barriers to expanding nutritional content; and evaluate if a proposed nutrition curriculum model would be beneficial. This mixed methods study involved quantitative and qualitative aspects. An invitation letter was sent to all 335 directors of entry-level U.S. dental hygiene programs. In response, 55 directors submitted nutrition course syllabi from their programs (16.4% of the total) for the quantitative analysis. In addition, 14 nutrition instructors and ten program directors were interviewed regarding their perceptions and opinions of nutrition education for dental hygiene students. All aspects of the content analysis results revealed that nutrition content in entry-level dental hygiene programs is diverse. Some programs did not include nutrition content, while others provided oral and systemic nutrition intervention subject matter. Some programs offered multiple clinical nutrition applications and patient contact opportunities while most required none. The interview results disclosed a variety of opinions and perceptions of dental hygienists' role in nutrition. Several interviewees viewed dental hygienists' role in nutrition to be an integral part of patient care, while others indicated no role or providing caries prevention counseling only. Although dental hygienists are expected to provide nutrition assessments and interventions, no standards or standardized competencies exist for nutrition in dental hygiene education. A standardized nutrition model could be beneficial for entry-level programs to ensure dental hygienists possess basic knowledge to perform nutrition assessments and intervention to address Healthy People 2020's intervention initiatives.

  3. Observation of Human Retinal Remodeling in Octogenarians with a Resveratrol Based Nutritional Supplement

    OpenAIRE

    Donn Carroll; Carla Podella; Lawrence Ulanski; William Stiles; Stuart Richer

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Rare spontaneous remissions from age-related macular degeneration (AMD) suggest the human retina has large regenerative capacity, even in advanced age. We present examples of robust improvement of retinal structure and function using an OTC oral resveratrol (RV) based nutritional supplement called Longevinex® or L/RV (circa 2004, Resveratrol Partners, LLC, Las Vegas, NV, USA). RV, a polyphenolic phytoalexin caloric-restriction mimic, induces hormesis at low doses with widespread bene...

  4. Pilot Study on the Influence of Nutritional Counselling and Implant Therapy on the Nutritional Status in Dentally Compromised Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Wöstmann

    Full Text Available To investigate the impact of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation combined with nutritional counseling on the nutritional status of patients with severely reduced dentitions.An explorative intervention study including an intra-individual comparison of 20 patients with severely reduced dentitions in terms of nutrition- and quality of life-related parameters recorded at baseline and at six and twelve months after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation.Twenty patients from the Department of Prosthetic Dentistry of Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, with an mean age of 63 years, who had fewer than ten pairs of antagonists.The baseline data collection included dental status, a chewing ability test, laboratory parameters, anthropometric data (body mass index, energy supply, a 3-day dietary record, an analysis of the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL with the OHIP-G14, the Mini-Mental Status (MMS and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA. Six months after implantation and prosthetic rehabilitation, individual nutritional counseling was performed by a dietician. Data were again collected and analyzed. A final follow-up was conducted 12 months after prosthetic rehabilitation.Despite the highly significant improvement in masticatory ability and OHRQoL after implant-prosthetic rehabilitation, no significant changes were observed regarding MNA, anthropometric data or energy supply. Except for cholinesterase (p = 0.012, ferritin (p = 0.003, folic acid (p = 0.019 and vitamin A (p = 0.004, no laboratory parameter changed significantly during the investigation period. In addition, no general significant differences were observed for nutrient intake or food choice.The present study does not confirm the assumption that the implant-prosthetic rehabilitation of patients with severely reduced residual dentitions with or without an individual nutritional counseling influences nutritional status.

  5. Spinal pain and nutrition in adolescents - an exploratory cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oddy Wendy H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal pain is an important health issue for adolescents resulting in functional limitations for many and increasing the risk of spinal pain in adulthood. Whilst human and animal studies suggest nutrition could influence spinal pain, this has not been investigated in adolescents. The objective of this exploratory cross sectional study was to evaluate associations between diet and adolescent spinal pain. Methods This study surveyed the spinal pain (neck and back and nutrition (specific nutrients, broad food groups, diet quality and dietary pattern of 1424 male and female adolescents at 14 years of age, in Western Australia. Results Back or neck pain were experienced by around half of the adolescents, with females more likely to experience spinal pain. Nutrition differed between sexes and deviated from optimal intakes. Vitamin B12, eggs, cereals and meat consumption were related to spinal pain in sex specific multivariate analyses including primary carer education level and adolescent waist girth and smoking. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that certain aspects of diet may have an association with spinal pain in adolescence.

  6. Nutritional Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  7. [Milk and dairy products for human nutrition: contribution of technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maubois, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    The complex composition of milk has led to the development of innovative technological processes such as membrane separation. The dairy industry is now able to offer consumers safe classical products (liquid milk, raw-milk cheeses) with little or no heat treatment. Indeed, heat treatment undermines the organoleptic qualities and bioactivity of many molecules found in milk. New technologies, and especially membrane microfiltration, have allowed researchers to identify two groups of milk proteins in terms of their human absorption kinetics: slow micellar casein and fast whey proteins. The highly purified products thus obtained are used for infant foods and slimming aids, and as functional ingredients. The same technologies have been applied to colostrum, yielding a sterile "serocolostrum" containing biologically active immunoglobulins, growth factors, and polypeptides. Combined with other separation techniques, membrane technologies should soon allow the separation and purification of minor milk proteins described as having essential roles in bone calcium uptake and vitamin transport, for example. The use of enzymatic membrane reactors has led to the identification of several bioactive peptides, such as--kappa-caseinomacropeptide, which induces CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion and thus regulates food intake and lipid assimilation,--alpha(S1) CN (91-100), a compound with benzodiazepine activity,-- kappaCN (106-116), which has anti-thrombotic activity by inhibiting blood platelet binding to fibrinogen, and--alpha(S) and beta casein phosphopeptides, which are thought to increase iron and calcium absorption.

  8. Differences in Learning Processes between Successful and Less Successful Students in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in the Field of Human Nutrition and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Busstra, M.C.; Mulder, M.; Chizari, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the differences in learning processes between successful and less successful pairs of students in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in the field of human nutrition and health. As part of their regular MSc (and optional BSc) course “Exposure assessment

  9. Differences in Learning Processes between Successful and Less Successful Students in Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning in the Field of Human Nutrition and Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noroozi, O.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Busstra, M.C.; Mulder, M.; Chizari, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the differences in learning processes between successful and less successful pairs of students in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in the field of human nutrition and health. As part of their regular MSc (and optional BSc) course “Exposure assessment i

  10. An exclusive human milk-based diet in extremely premature infants reduces the probability of remaining on total parenteral nutrition: A reanalysis of the data

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously shown that an exclusively human-milk-based diet is beneficial for extremely premature infants who are at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). However, no significant difference in the other primary study endpoint, the length of time on total parenteral nutrition (TPN), was fo...

  11. Improving human nutrition by feeding DDGS to layer hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a previous study of the quality of lipids in DDGS versus corn conducted at NCERC, it was established that DDGS has high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Other studies have shown that DDGS also has high antioxidants, dietary fiber, and xanthophylls, all of which have been shown to have beneficia...

  12. [Iron nutrition in Mapuche infants fed with human milk (2d phase)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, E; Hertrampf, E; Rodríguez, E; Illanes, J C; Palacios, L; Llaguno, S; Lettelier, A

    1990-01-01

    Blood hemoglobin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and serum ferritin were measured in 140 healthy rural mapuche (southern Chile's indigenous ethnic group) infants aged 8 to 15 months: 90 had been exclusively breast fed for the first 5 or 6 months of life, then solid foods were introduced but cow's milk was never given to them. The remaining 50, which were all weaned at nearly 4 months of age and then given cow's milk and solid foods at the corresponding age, were designated as controls. Anemia was detected in 4.5% of breast fed infants and in 38% of controls. Evidence of iron deficient erythropoiesis was found in 5% and 81% of cases and controls, respectively. Human milk apparently protects this ethnic group from iron deficiency anemia and this protection seems to be better in mapuche infants than in other groups of chilean infants, because these late have shown 30% incidence of anemia around the first year of life in other studies. More studies on differences in iron nutritional state among mapuche and non mapuche are needed and are under way.

  13. Drug supersaturation in simulated and human intestinal fluids representing different nutritional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevernage, Jan; Brouwers, Joachim; Clarysse, Sarah; Vertzoni, Maria; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    It was the purpose of this study to explore supersaturation of poorly soluble drugs in human intestinal fluids (HIF), and to assess potential food effects on the creation and maintenance of supersaturation. Duodenal fluids were collected from healthy volunteers and pooled according to three nutritional states (fasted-, fed-, and fat-enriched fed state). Supersaturation was created at a fixed degree of supersaturation (DS=20) using the solvent-shift method. Fasted- and fed-state simulated intestinal fluids (FaSSIF and FeSSIF) were used as intestinal simulation media. Supersaturation in HIF showed to be stable up to a certain degree for different poorly soluble drugs. In HIF as well as in FaSSIF and FeSSIF, supersaturation appeared to be compound and medium specific. Supersaturation stability was found to be inversely proportional to the solubility in the corresponding media. Food intake affected itraconazole supersaturation positively. On the contrary, etravirine and loviride supersaturation decreased upon food intake. Supersaturation experiments in FaSSIF and FeSSIF showed similar results as in HIF for etravirine and loviride, whereas itraconazole supersaturation behaved differently in HIF versus simulation media. The present study illustrates, for the first time, that supersaturation can be created and maintained in HIF, even in the absence of excipients. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  14. Incidence of nutritional support complications in patient hospitalized in wards. multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Agudelo Ochoa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutritional support generates complications that must be detected and treated on time. Objective: To estimate the incidence of some complications of nutritional support in patients admitted to general hospital wards who received nutritional support in six high-complexity institutions. Methods: Prospective, descriptive and multicentric study in patients with nutritional support; the variables studied were medical diagnosis, nutritional condition, nutritional support duration, approach, kind of formula, and eight complications. Results: A total of 277 patients were evaluated; 83% received enteral nutrition and 17% received parenteral nutrition. Some 69.3% presented risk of malnourishment or severe malnourishment at admittance. About 35.4% of those receiving enteral nutrition and 39.6% of the ones who received parenteral nutrition had complications; no significant difference per support was found (p = 0.363. For the enteral nutrition, the most significant complication was the removal of the catheter (14%, followed by diarrhea (8.3%; an association between the duration of the enteral support with diarrhea, constipation and removal of the catheter was found (p < 0.05. For parenteral nutrition, hyperglycemia was the complication of highest inci­dence (22.9%, followed by hypophosphatemia (12.5%; all complications were associated with the duration of the support (p < 0.05. Nutritional support was suspended in 24.2% of the patients. Conclusions: Complications with nutritional support in hospital-ward patients were frequent, with the removal of the catheter and hyperglycemia showing the highest incidence. Duration of the support was the variable that revealed an asso­ciation with complications. Strict application of protocols could decrease the risk for complications and boost nutritional support benefits.

  15. A Nutrition Education Intervention Trial for Adolescent Girls in Isfahan: Study Design and Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morvarid Ghasab Shirazi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNutrition behaviors of adolescent girls is of serious health concerns. Although nutrition education interventions in Iran have met with some success, most of them could not promote nutrition behavioral changes. The aim of our study is to determine a school-based nutrition education intervention to improve adolescents’ nutrition behaviors and behavioral mediators based on the social cognitive theory (SCT.Materials and MethodsThis study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Eligible participants will be all student girls in grade 6 and 7, their parents and teachers in Isfahan governmental schools. This multi com­ponent school-based intervention include adolescents’ nutrition education package, parents’ nutrition massages, participatory homework, parents and teachers nutrition education package, supportive group, and collaboration with decision makers. Changing in nutrition behaviors including breakfast, fruit and vegetable, snack and fast food consumption will be examined, as primary outcome. Secondary outcome will be behavioral mediators such as knowledge, self-efficacy, intention, situation, self-regulation, social support, outcome expectations and expectancies, in adolescent girls. The outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6-month follow-up.DiscussionThis study evaluates a school-based, guided SCT intervention, designed to improve healthy dietary behaviors, nutrition knowledge of adolescent girls. Few behavioral interventions have targeted this high-risk population in Iran. The intervention seems to be promising and has the potential to bridge the gap of the limited program outcomes of nutrition education in Iranian adolescents.

  16. The application of near infrared spectroscopy in nutritional intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippa A Jackson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Functional near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a non-invasive optical imaging technique used to monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and by proxy neuronal activation. The use of NIRS in nutritional intervention studies is a relatively novel application of this technique, with only a small, but growing, number of trials published to date. These trials—in which the effects on CBF following administration of dietary components such as caffeine, polyphenols and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are assessed—have successfully demonstrated NIRS as a sensitive measure of change in haemodynamic response during cognitive tasks in both acute and chronic treatment intervention paradigms. The existent research in this area has been limited by the constraints of the technique itself however advancements in the measurement technology, paired with studies endeavouring increased sophistication in number and locations of channels over the head should render the use of NIRS in nutritional interventions particularly valuable in advancing our understanding of the effects of nutrients and dietary components on the brain.

  17. Energetic and nutritional constraints on infant brain development: implications for brain expansion during human evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnane, Stephen C; Crawford, Michael A

    2014-12-01

    The human brain confronts two major challenges during its development: (i) meeting a very high energy requirement, and (ii) reliably accessing an adequate dietary source of specific brain selective nutrients needed for its structure and function. Implicitly, these energetic and nutritional constraints to normal brain development today would also have been constraints on human brain evolution. The energetic constraint was solved in large measure by the evolution in hominins of a unique and significant layer of body fat on the fetus starting during the third trimester of gestation. By providing fatty acids for ketone production that are needed as brain fuel, this fat layer supports the brain's high energy needs well into childhood. This fat layer also contains an important reserve of the brain selective omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), not available in other primates. Foremost amongst the brain selective minerals are iodine and iron, with zinc, copper and selenium also being important. A shore-based diet, i.e., fish, molluscs, crustaceans, frogs, bird's eggs and aquatic plants, provides the richest known dietary sources of brain selective nutrients. Regular access to these foods by the early hominin lineage that evolved into humans would therefore have helped free the nutritional constraint on primate brain development and function. Inadequate dietary supply of brain selective nutrients still has a deleterious impact on human brain development on a global scale today, demonstrating the brain's ongoing vulnerability. The core of the shore-based paradigm of human brain evolution proposes that sustained access by certain groups of early Homo to freshwater and marine food resources would have helped surmount both the nutritional as well as the energetic constraints on mammalian brain development.

  18. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Fitó

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.

  19. Nutritional Genomics and the Mediterranean Diet’s Effects on Human Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini

    2016-01-01

    The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360

  20. Nutrition and human physiological adaptations to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; LeBlanc, A. D.; Putcha, L.; Whitson, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    Space flight provides a model for the study of healthy individuals undergoing unique stresses. This review focuses on how physiological adaptations to weightlessness may affect nutrient and food requirements in space. These adaptations include reductions in body water and plasma volume, which affect the renal and cardiovascular systems and thereby fluid and electrolyte requirements. Changes in muscle mass and function may affect requirements for energy, protein and amino acids. Changes in bone mass lead to increased urinary calcium concentrations, which may increase the risk of forming renal stones. Space motion sickness may influence putative changes in gastro-intestinal-hepatic function; neurosensory alterations may affect smell and taste. Some or all of these effects may be ameliorated through the use of specially designed dietary countermeasures.

  1. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  2. Evaluation of the microelement profile of Turkish hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) varieties for human nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Atilla; Aykut, Osman

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the levels of boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) microelements in 16 hazelnut samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave digestion, and are discussed for human nutrition and health. Significant differences were observed between the microelement contents of the 16 varieties (P < 0.01). The average microelements concentrations in the varieties varied in the following ranges: B, 13.63-23.87; Co, 0.47-0.82; Cr, 0.22-0.52; Cu, 16.23-32.23; Fe, 31.60-51.60; Li, 0.035-0.042; Ni, 0.58-2.58; Se, 0.96-1.39; and Zn, 22.03-44.03 mg/kg. These results showed that hazelnuts can be an important microelement source for human nutrition and health. According to our trace element data, a daily consumption of 50 g hazelnut can supply easily about 6% for B, 9% for Co, 19% for Fe, 9% for Ni and 16% for Zn of the recommended daily allowance. On the other hand, Se, Cu and Cr levels of 50 g hazelnuts are higher than the respective daily requirements, but slight overdoses of these elements are non-toxic for human health.

  3. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  4. [Nutritional study in geriatric patients (older than 65 years of age) with ambulatory enteral nutrition: correlation between underlying disease, nutritional support, and drug treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vázquez, M J; Piñeiro Corrales, G; Martínez Olmos, M

    2002-01-01

    To identify the current status of out-patient enteral nutrition among elderly patients in Galicia: indications, access routes, forms of administration, types of diet, complications, disability status. Assessment of nutritional status and concomitant pharmacological treatment. Prospective, observational, multi-centric study lasting for one month. Data capture by means of a questionnaire regarding: age, sex, diagnosed pathology leading to nutritional analysis, disability status, current nutritional status, type of diet, months under treatment with NEA (out-patient enteral nutrition in its Spanish acronym), form of administration, complications, concomitant medication. The statistical methodology included a descriptive analysis and a study of the correlations between the different variables. For the comparison of both groups, Student's t test or Mann-Whitney's U test was used for quantitative variables and chi-squared, Yate's correction or Fisher's exact test was used for qualitative variables. 469 patients were studied, corresponding to 13 publicly-funded centres. Age: 81.15 years (95% CI 80.8-82.3), women (70.6%). neurological disorders (46.1%), cerebrovascular accidents (27.5%), neoplasia (12.4%) and others (14.1%). 45.2% presented a bedbound disability status and 53.5% presented communication difficulties. Standard diet was the most common (39.4%). DURATION OF THE NUTRITION: > 1 year in 36.7% of cases, between 6 months and 1 year for 21.3%, between 3 and 6 months for 10.9% and < 3 months in 13.7% of cases. Nasogastric tube was the route for administration in 55.2%. Patients with nutrition treatment lasting over 1 year presented a significantly lower rate of malnutrition (p < 0.0001). Neurological patients and those with communication difficulties had a lower prevalence of malnutrition (p < 0.0001), as did those with a greater degree of disability (p < 0.01). Undernourished patients presented a greater prevalence of bedsores (49.1% versus 25.8%, p < 0.0001). The

  5. Study of the effect of a liquid nutrition supplement on the nutritional status of psycho-geriatric nursing home patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters-Wesseling, W.; Wouters, A.E.J.; Kleijer, C.N.; Bindels, J.G.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the acceptance of a multinutrient liquid nutrition supplement in psycho-geriatric nursing home patients and the effect on weight, plasma nutrients and activities of daily life. Design: Double-blind, placebo-controlled 12-week intervention study. Setting: Two nursing homes in

  6. Acidosis and nutritional status in hemodialyzed patients. French Study Group for Nutrition in Dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauveau, P; Fouque, D; Combe, C; Laville, M; Canaud, B; Azar, R; Cano, N; Aparicio, M; Leverve, X

    2000-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of more than 30% of French dialysis patients (N = 7,123), we evaluated the relationships between predialysis plasma bicarbonate concentration and nutritional markers. Data including age, gender, cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), time on dialysis, body mass index (BMI), blood levels of midweek predialysis albumin, prealbumin, and bicarbonate were collected. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM) were computed from pre- and postbicarbonate-dialysis urea and creatinine levels according to the classical formulas of Garred. Average values (+/- 1 SD) were age 61 +/- 16 years, BMI 23.3 +/- 4.6 kg/m2, dialysis time 12.4 +/- 2.7 h/week, HCO3 22.8 +/- 3.5 mmol/L, albumin 38.7 +/- 5.3 g/L, prealbumin 340 +/- 90 mg/L, Kt/V 1.36 +/- 0.36, nPCR 1.13 +/- 0.32 g/kg BW/day, and LBM 0.86 +/- 0.21% of ideal LBM. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between predialysis bicarbonate levels (within a range of 16-30 mmol/L, 95% of this population) and nPCR confirmed by analysis of variance using bicarbonate classes (p V despite a positive correlation between Kt/V and nPCR. It is likely that a persistent acidosis observed despite standard bicarbonate dialysis was caused by a high dietary protein intake which results in an increased acid load, but also overcomes the usual catabolic effects of acidosis.

  7. Study on Cultivation Nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata Plantations with Multi-generation Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the previous study on cultivation nutrition of Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations of first generation, the cultivation nutrition of C. lanceolata plantations with multi-generation was studied. The results show that there are significant differences in the growth, development and nutrient assimilation among C. lanceolata plantations with different generations and nutrition conditions. These differences are closely related to the land fertility decline of C. lanceolata plantations. This paper de...

  8. Cultural perceptions and nutritional disorders: a Jamaican case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonaroff, A

    1975-01-01

    This case study brings out differences in the way protein-calorie malnutrition (PCM) in Jamaica is regarded by women who use medical services, women who do not, indigenous health practitioners, and trained health workers. The study reveals that women who utilize modern health clinics are able to identify appropriate techniques for reducing a child's susceptibility to PCM. But women who rely on indigenous medical services, as well as the actual providers of such services, frequently misdiagnose PCM as a "marasmi cold" and treat it as such. This treatment often involves actions which decrease the child's resistance to nutrition-related disorders. Both groups of women, and also the indigenous practitioners, provided more information about marasmus than about kwashiorkor, and often identified the latter as a form of robust good health. All of the mothers believed that improper prenatal and postnatal care would increase a child's susceptibility marasmus, although some mothers did not associate the condition with nutritional deficiency. These and other findings are used to recommend ways of organizing and disseminating information about PCM to the public at large. Such educational efforts should emphasize that food is a prime etiological and therapeutic factor, and that the quality and quantity of foods influence a child's susceptibility to PCM. Education programs, however, need not attempt to change indigenous practices which are neutral or harmless; ideas about PCM which parallel rather than conflict with traditional beliefs may stand the best chance of altering PCM incidence. It is also recommended that influential family members and native practitioners such as the nana be enlisted as local sources in the effort to provide health information about PCM.

  9. Differences in fatty acid composition between aquatic and terrestrial insects used as food in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaneto, Diego; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Galli, Claudio; Risé, Patrizia; Glew, Robert H; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2011-01-01

    Edible insects may be a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). The aim of this article is to test for differences in aquatic and terrestrial insects used in human nutrition. We implemented linear models and discovered that differences in the proportion of LC-PUFA between aquatic and terrestrial insects do exist, with terrestrial insects being significantly richer in particular omega-6 fatty acids. In conclusion, any kind of insect may provide valuable sources of LC-PUFA. Because terrestrial insects are more abundant and easier to collect, they can be considered a better source of LC-PUFA than aquatic ones.

  10. Essential metals at the host-pathogen interface: nutritional immunity and micronutrient assimilation by human fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Aaron; Wilson, Duncan

    2015-11-01

    The ability of pathogenic microorganisms to assimilate sufficient nutrients for growth within their hosts is a fundamental requirement for pathogenicity. However, certain trace nutrients, including iron, zinc and manganese, are actively withheld from invading pathogens in a process called nutritional immunity. Therefore, successful pathogenic species must have evolved specialized mechanisms in order to adapt to the nutritionally restrictive environment of the host and cause disease. In this review, we discuss recent advances which have been made in our understanding of fungal iron and zinc acquisition strategies and nutritional immunity against fungal infections, and explore the mechanisms of micronutrient uptake by human pathogenic fungi.

  11. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and bioactive peptides in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, G

    2009-10-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed and evaluated. A new concept for the safety assessment of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof is developed. Benchmarks for the evaluation are safety of total protein intake, safety of free amino acid intake, documented history of safe use, outcome of questionnaires in efficacy studies and safety studies. Similar to the intake of intact proteins with a history of safe use, the intake of hydrolysates made from them, does not raise concern about safety, provided the applied proteolytic enzymes are food grade and thus of suitable quality. The safety of hydrolysates and of fractions thereof, including the so-called bioactive peptides, should always be assessed by the company before market introduction (company safety assessment). Only when a novel protein source is used or a novel production process is applied, which results in significant changes in nutritional value, metabolic effect or increased level of undesirable substances, that products might fall under novel food regulations. This means that company safety assessment should be reviewed and approved by external independent experts (external safety evaluation) and the novel protein hydrolysate (fraction) is authorized by competent authorities before market introduction. It is argued that good judgement on the safety of hydrolysates and the fractions thereof can be obtained by comparing the anticipated intake of amino acids by these products with those levels to be reasonably expected to be ingested under normal conditions of consumption of a balanced and varied diet. The paper shows a decision tree that can be used for safety assessment.

  12. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2009-2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a program of studies designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in...

  13. Midwives’ Role in Providing Nutrition Advice during Pregnancy: Meeting the Challenges? A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jamila Arrish; Heather Yeatman; Moira Williamson

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the Australian midwives’ role in the provision of nutrition advice. Little is known about their perceptions of this role, the influence of the model of care, and the barriers and facilitators that may influence them providing quality nutrition advice to pregnant women. Semistructured telephone interviews were undertaken with a subsample (n=16) of the members of the Australian College of Midwives who participated in an online survey about midwives’ nutrition knowledge, atti...

  14. Nutritional self-care in two older Norwegian males - A case study

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: How to support nutritional self-care among older vulnerable individuals living in their own homes can be considered important knowledge for health care professionals. Aim: The aim of this case study was to evaluate the effects of a nutritional intervention by comparing self-reported perceived health, sense of coherence, self-care ability and nutritional risk in two older home-dwelling individuals before, during and after the intervention and also to describe experiences of nutri...

  15. Physicians' nutritional counselling practices: A study in district hospitals of Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition counseling is an important tool for fostering healthy nutrition behavior among individuals. Physicians play a strategic role in imparting nutrition advice to their patient during daily encounters in healthcare settings. Present study explored nutritional counseling practices and attitudes of physicians working at district hospitals in Chhattisgarh state in India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore present scenario of nutritional counseling practices by Physicians from 1 st April to 30 th June 2011. Questionnaires and observation guides were framed based on previous studies. Both 3-point and 5-point Likert scale were used to explore the knowledge, satisfaction, and attitude related statements. Results: Majority of the respondents (76% were strongly in favor of training in nutrition counseling and 35% believed that they should spend more time exploring dietary habit of patients in routine practice. Fifty-four percent of practitioners were of the opinion that counseling is futile and 62% considered counseling as time-consuming process. Majority of physician expressed their willingness to undergo additional training in nutrition. Discussion: In view of emerging burden of chronic disease related to nutrition and life style, it is imperative that physician should be trained adequately so as to advice their patients appropriately, pertaining to nutrition.

  16. Dietary roles of non-starch polysaccharides in human nutrition: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Sinha, Amit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; de Boeck, Gudrun; Becker, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs) occur naturally in many foods. The physiochemical and biological properties of these compounds correspond to dietary fiber. Nonstarch polysaccharides show various physiological effects in the small and large intestine and therefore have important health implications for humans. The remarkable properties of dietary NSPs are water dispersibility, viscosity effect, bulk, and fermentibility into short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These features may lead to diminished risk of serious diet related diseases which are major problems in Western countries and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, colo-rectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, breast cancer, tumor formation, mineral related abnormalities, and disordered laxation. Insoluble NSPs (cellulose and hemicellulose) are effective laxatives whereas soluble NSPs (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol levels and help to normalize blood glucose and insulin levels, making these kinds of polysaccharides a part of dietary plans to treat cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Moreover, a major proportion of dietary NSPs escapes the small intestine nearly intact, and is fermented into SCFAs by commensal microflora present in the colon and cecum and promotes normal laxation. Short chain fatty acids have a number of health promoting effects and are particularly effective in promoting large bowel function. Certain NSPs through their fermented products may promote the growth of specific beneficial colonic bacteria which offer a prebiotic effect. Various modes of action of NSPs as therapeutic agent have been proposed in the present review. In addition, NSPs based films and coatings for packaging and wrapping are of commercial interest because they are compatible with several types of food products. However, much of the physiological and nutritional impact of NSPs and the mechanism involved is not fully

  17. Nutrition and Its Effects on the Hyperkinetic Child's Behavior and Learning: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Roberta L.

    This case study reviews the literature related to diet, behavior and learning and describes procedures and results of a change in the diet of an adolescent girl who had an extensive history of problems at home and at school. Studies of nutritional deficiency, nutritional imbalance, allergies, and synthetic food additives are briefly overviewed.…

  18. Evaluation of nutritional and sub-acute toxicological study of plant based supplement of Achyranthes aspera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Nudrat; Dar, Nabeela G; Imran, Hina; Sohail, Tehmina; Asghar, Uzma; Yaqeen, Zahra; Syed, Shazia; Jamil, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted for the nutritional, microbiological and toxicological evaluation of test compound having main ingredient Achyranthes aspera. Nutritional value assessment, microbiological analysis and toxicological studies were conducted according to the standard reported methods which exhibited that A. aspera contains moisture 4.05%, proteins 20.54%, fats 0.903%, ash 20.25%, carbohydrates 54,26% and energy 294 Kcal. Vitamin profile was found to be B(1) 0.27mg/100g, B(2) 0.28mg/100g, B(3) 0.58mg/100g, B(6) 0.27mg/100g and B(9) 39μg/100g. The content of sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, chloride and phosphorus was found to be 1119.67, 5385.23, 5446.08, 1343.6, 675880.73 and 1447.5mg/kg respectively and trace metals i.e. iron, copper, zinc, manganese and aluminum were detected as 283.05, 8.062, 48.37, 16.12 and 9.853 mg/kg respectively. The microbiological result indicated that the compound qualifies the international standards of microbial limit and was found free from Salmonella species. The toxicological study was conducted to find safe use of Achyranthes aspera compound in human as a nutritive supplement in blood disorders. The toxicity studies exhibited that the test compound has a good effect on general health as an increase in body weights of animals of test group was noticed as compared to that of control group. Blood parameters before and after the study were monitored which confirms our hypothesis by showing an increase in hemoglobin from 9.133 to 10.96, RBC count from 3.11 to 3.6, WBC count from 5.68 to 5.73 and platelets from 245 to 319.

  19. A prospective study of nutritional status in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sattianayagam, Prayman T; Lane, Thirusha; Fox, Zoe;

    2013-01-01

    Weight loss is common in systemic immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis but there are limited data on the impact of nutritional status on outcome. Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) score, we prospectively examined nutritional status in 110 consecutive newly......-diagnosed, treatment-naïve patients with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis attending the UK National Amyloidosis Centre. At study entry, 72 of 110 (66%) patients had a PG-SGA score of 4 or over, indicating malnutrition requiring specialist nutritional intervention. Number of amyloidotic organs, elevated alkaline...... phosphatase, presence of autonomic neuropathy and advanced Mayo disease stage were independently associated with poor nutritional status (P...

  20. Are Nutritional Care Adequate for Elderly Hospitalized Patients? A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Kjøllesdal Eide

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article assesses nutritional care in identifying and treating nutritional risk in elderly hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a large Norwegian University hospital in the period 2011 to 2013. Data on nutritional risk and care for elderly patients (≥70 years without dementia were collected at 20 wards by 173 second-year nursing students in acute-care clinical studies. A stratified sampling technique was utilized to improve the representativeness of the sample. In total, 508 patients (48.8% women with a mean age of 79.6 years participated. The internationally and nationally recommended nutritional care was not implemented at the hospital, suggesting that nutritional care for elderly hospitalized patients was not adequate. This implies that the majority of the elderly patients nutritionally at risk are neither identified nor treated according to their needs. The article highlights the importance of having systematic nutritional care practices to make it possible for the hospital ward staff to routinely identify nutritional risk and initiate appropriate nutritional treatment measures.

  1. OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS AND LOCAL ANIMAL HUSBANDRY: TASKS AND POSSIBILITIES FOR THE HUMAN HEALTHY NUTRITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SEREGI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The positive nutritional effects of PUFA in the human diet nowadays are wellknown. The presence of PUFA in food of animal origin is first of all influenced by the feeding. The animal feeds rich in omega-3 PUFA are considered as basic feeds, such as meadow, grass, hay, green forage, grains etc. In the newly accessed EU countries the traditional breeding methods are typical (housing, lairage, pasture. This tendency is reflected also in the composition of local breeds: the so called indigenous, traditional breeds are characteristic. The development and expansion of local breeding methods is of crucial importance for the viable region, the protection (many times the restoration of environment and for the above mentioned human nutritional advantages. With modern control methods of origin, with adherence of food-safety rules, the local commercialization of the traditional foods can be solved, as many positive examples show in different countries. The need for diverse, tasteful and safe products of special quality is also increasing. Our aim is to support and favour the local, traditional breeding for direct commercialization with ensuring the proper conditions, financial support and legislation.

  2. Study protocol: Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment (MINA) cohort study in Qatar and Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara; Al Thani, Al Anoud; Yunis, Khaled; Clinton, Michael; Nassar, Anwar; Farhat Jarrar, Sara; Moghames, Patricia; Ghazeeri, Ghina; Rahman, Sajjad; Al-Chetachi, Walaa; Sadoun, Eman; Lubbad, Nibal; Bashwar, Zelaikha; Bawadi, Hiba; Hwalla, Nahla

    2016-05-04

    The Middle East and North Africa region harbors significant proportions of stunting and wasting coupled with surging rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Recent evidence identified nutrition during the first 1000 days of life as a common denominator not only for optimal growth but also for curbing the risk of NCDs later in life. The main objective of this manuscript is to describe the protocol of the first cohort in the region to investigate the association of nutrition imbalances early in life with birth outcomes, growth patterns, as well as early determinants of non-communicable diseases. More specifically the cohort aims to 1) examine the effects of maternal and early child nutrition and lifestyle characteristics on birth outcomes and growth patterns and 2) develop evidence-based nutrition and lifestyle guidelines for pregnant women and young children. A multidisciplinary team of researchers was established from governmental and private academic and health sectors in Lebanon and Qatar to launch the Mother and Infant Nutritional Assessment 3-year cohort study. Pregnant women (n = 250 from Beirut, n = 250 from Doha) in their first trimester are recruited from healthcare centers in Beirut, Lebanon and Doha, Qatar. Participants are interviewed three times during pregnancy (once every trimester) and seven times at and after delivery (when the child is 4, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months old). Delivery and birth data is obtained from hospital records. Data collection includes maternal socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and household food security data. For biochemical assessment of various indicators of nutritional status, a blood sample is obtained from women during their first trimester. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices, dietary intake, as well as anthropometric measurements of children are also examined. The Delphi technique will be used for the development of the nutrition and lifestyle

  3. Are prospective cohort studies an appropriate tool to answer clinical nutrition questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Preiser, Jean-Charles

    2013-03-01

    Randomized controlled trials can be difficult to conduct in critically ill patients and may not always be the most appropriate type of study. Cohort studies can provide valuable information in large complete populations of patients without strict exclusion criteria and without the need for informed consent, thus potentially being more representative of and applicable to daily practice. Recent cohort studies have evaluated the various aspects of the epidemiology and practice of nutrition in critically ill patients, including the proportions of patients receiving different types of nutritional support, the potential benefits of supplementary parenteral nutrition, the importance of meeting nutrition targets especially for protein, and the beneficial effects of feeding protocols on outcomes. Results from some of these cohort studies have provided an indication of how nutrition guidelines have been applied in clinical practice and which areas need to be improved. Others have generated hypotheses that will be (or are already being) tested in randomized studies.

  4. Invited review: Role of livestock in human nutrition and health for poverty reduction in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, T F; Schelling, E; Grace, D; Nicholson, C F; Leroy, J L; Cole, D C; Demment, M W; Omore, A; Zinsstag, J; Ruel, M

    2007-11-01

    Livestock keeping is critical for many of the poor in the developing world, often contributing to multiple livelihood objectives and offering pathways out of poverty. Livestock keeping also affects an indispensable asset of the poor, their human capital, through its impact on their own nutrition and health. This paper outlines the linkages between livestock keeping and the physical well-being of the poor, and examines a number of commonly held beliefs that misrepresent livestock development issues related to these linkages. These beliefs limit the scope of intervention programs to promote livestock and limit their potential contribution to poverty reduction. Recognition of the complexity of the role livestock play in household decision-making and of the opportunities foregone due to these misconceptions can enhance the ability of livestock to contribute to human well-being in the developing world.

  5. Maternal nutrition at conception modulates DNA methylation of human metastable epialleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Moore, Sophie E; Baker, Maria S; Bergen, Andrew W; Cox, Sharon E; Dyer, Roger A; Fulford, Anthony J; Guan, Yongtao; Laritsky, Eleonora; Silver, Matt J; Swan, Gary E; Zeisel, Steven H; Innis, Sheila M; Waterland, Robert A; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2014-04-29

    In experimental animals, maternal diet during the periconceptional period influences the establishment of DNA methylation at metastable epialleles in the offspring, with permanent phenotypic consequences. Pronounced naturally occurring seasonal differences in the diet of rural Gambian women allowed us to test this in humans. We show that significant seasonal variations in methyl-donor nutrient intake of mothers around the time of conception influence 13 relevant plasma biomarkers. The level of several of these maternal biomarkers predicts increased/decreased methylation at metastable epialleles in DNA extracted from lymphocytes and hair follicles in infants postnatally. Our results demonstrate that maternal nutritional status during early pregnancy causes persistent and systemic epigenetic changes at human metastable epialleles.

  6. Hearings Before the Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs of the United States Senate, Ninety-Second Congress, Second Session on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part 2--Nutritional Needs of Nation's Older Americans. Hearings Held Washington, D.C., June 14, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

    This hearing before the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs began with opening statements by a number of senators. Following this, statements were made by a number of witnesses, including Hon. Claude Pepper, a U.S. Representative from the Eleventh District of the State of Florida; Dr. Jean Mayer, professor of nutrition, Harvard…

  7. A study on nutrition knowledge and dietary behavior of elementary school children in Seoul

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Suil; Shin, Na-Ri; Jung, Eun-Im; Park, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Hong-Mie

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition and diet related knowledge, attitude, and behavior of elementary school children in Seoul. The subjects included were 439 (male 236, female 203) elementary school children in the 4th to the 6th grades. The statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS 12.0 program. The average obesity index (OI) was 104.98 and 99.82 for male and female subjects, respectively. The average percentage of underweight, normal, overweight and obese of subjects was 33.7%, 32.8%, 12.3%, and 19.4%, respectively. The percentage of the underweight group of female subjects was higher than that of the male subjects. The percentage of the obese group of male subjects was higher than that of the female subjects. The average score of nutrition knowledge, nutrition attitude and dietary behavior was 6.8, 7.44, and 7.34, respectively. Dietary behavior of male subjects was positively correlated with parents' education levels, monthly household income and nutrition attitude. Dietary behavior of female subjects was positively correlated with monthly household income, nutrition knowledge and nutrition attitude. Dietary behavior of female subjects was positively correlated with obesity index (OI). Proper nutrition education and intervention are required for the improvement of elementary school children's nutrition knowledge, nutrition attitudes and dietary behaviors. PMID:20016735

  8. Nutritional metabolomics and breast cancer risk in a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Playdon, Mary C; Ziegler, Regina G; Sampson, Joshua N; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Thompson, Henry J; Irwin, Melinda L; Mayne, Susan T; Hoover, Robert N; Moore, Steven C

    2017-08-01

    Background: The epidemiologic evidence for associations between dietary factors and breast cancer is weak and etiologic mechanisms are often unclear. Exploring the role of dietary biomarkers with metabolomics can potentially facilitate objective dietary characterization, mitigate errors related to self-reported diet, agnostically test metabolic pathways, and identify mechanistic mediators.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate associations of diet-related metabolites with the risk of breast cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial.Design: We examined prediagnostic serum concentrations of diet-related metabolites in a nested case-control study in 621 postmenopausal invasive breast cancer cases and 621 matched controls in the multicenter PLCO cohort. We calculated partial Pearson correlations between 617 metabolites and 55 foods, food groups, and vitamin supplements on the basis of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and derived from a 137-item self-administered food-frequency questionnaire. Diet-related metabolites (P-correlation cancer analyses. ORs for the 90th compared with the 10th percentile were calculated by using conditional logistic regression, with body mass index, physical inactivity, other breast cancer risk factors, and caloric intake controlled for (false discovery rate cancer risk (621 cases): caprate (10:0), a saturated fatty acid (OR: 1.77; 95% CI = 1.28, 2.43); γ-carboxyethyl hydrochroman (γ-CEHC), a vitamin E (γ-tocopherol) derivative (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.18, 2.28); and 4-androsten-3β,17β-diol-monosulfate (1), an androgen (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.16). Nineteen metabolites were significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer (418 cases): 12 alcohol-associated metabolites, including 7 androgens and α-hydroxyisovalerate (OR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.50, 3.32); 3 vitamin E (tocopherol) derivatives (e.g., γ-CEHC; OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.70); butter

  9. Phospholipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulas: Benefits and Needs for Correct Infant Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilla, Antonio; Diego Quintaes, Késia; Barberá, Reyes; Alegría, Amparo

    2016-08-17

    The composition of human milk has served as a basis for the development of infant formulas, which are used when breastfeeding is not possible. Among the human milk nutrients, 50% of the total energetic value corresponds to fat, with a high level of fatty acids and 0.2-2.0% present in the form of phospholipids (PLs). The PL contents and fatty acid distribution in PL species have been investigated as bioactive elements for the production of infant formulas, since they offer potential benefits for the optimum growth and health of the newborn infant. The differences in the amount of PLs and in fatty acid distribution in PL species between human milk and infant formulas can imply biologically significant differences for newborn infants fed with infant formulas versus human milk-mainly due to the greater proportion of sphingomyelin with respect to phosphatidylcholine in infant formulas. The limited information referred to the characterization of fatty acid distribution in PL species in infant formulas or in ingredients used to enrich them merits further research in order to obtain products with benefits similar to those of human milk in terms of infant growth, visual acuity, and neurological development. The present review establishes the scientific basis for helping to adjust formulations to the requirements of infant nutrition.

  10. Nutrition awareness before and throughout different trimesters in pregnancy: a quantitative study among Dutch women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Maas, L.; Koelen, M.; Woerkum, van C.

    2012-01-01

    Method. Data were collected in a cross-sectional study with the aid of a face-to-face interview, based on our conceptualization of nutrition awareness and the 'rules of thumb' designed by the Dutch Nutrition Centre. The sample consisted of five groups each of similar to 100 Dutch nulliparous women:

  11. The Team up for School Nutrition Success Workshop Evaluation Study: Three Month Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Rushing, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the "Team Up for School Nutrition Success" pilot initiative, conducted by the Institute of Child Nutrition (ICN), on meeting the objectives of the individual action plans created by school food authorities (SFAs) during the workshop. The action plans could address improving…

  12. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effects of a Nutrition Intervention on Nutrition Knowledge, Behaviors, and Efficacy Expectations in Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlman, Mariane M.; Dake, Joseph A.; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background: This was a pilot study to determine the impact of the Michigan Model (MM) Nutrition Curriculum on nutrition knowledge, efficacy expectations, and eating behaviors in middle school students. Methods: The study was conducted in a large metropolitan setting and approved by the Institutional Review Board. The participants for this study…

  13. Impact of Metabolic Hormones Secreted in Human Breast Milk on Nutritional Programming in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Suárez, Pilar Amellali; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Nieves-Morales, Xóchitl

    2017-06-27

    Obesity is the most common metabolic disease whose prevalence is increasing worldwide. This condition is considered a serious public health problem due to associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Perinatal morbidity related to obesity does not end with birth; this continues affecting the mother/infant binomial and could negatively impact on metabolism during early infant nutrition. Nutrition in early stages of growth may be essential in the development of obesity in adulthood, supporting the concept of "nutritional programming". For this reason, breastfeeding may play an important role in this programming. Breast milk is the most recommended feeding for the newborn due to the provided benefits such as protection against obesity and diabetes. Health benefits are based on milk components such as bioactive molecules, specifically hormones involved in the regulation of food intake. Identification of these molecules has increased in recent years but its action has not been fully clarified. Hormones such as leptin, insulin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin, obestatin and insulin-like growth factor-1 copeptin, apelin, and nesfatin, among others, have been identified in the milk of normal-weight women and may influence the energy balance because they can activate orexigenic or anorexigenic pathways depending on energy requirements and body stores. It is important to emphasize that, although the number of biomolecules identified in milk involved in regulating food intake has increased considerably, there is a lack of studies aimed at elucidating the effect these hormones may have on metabolism and development of the newborn. Therefore, we present a state-of-the-art review regarding bioactive compounds such as hormones secreted in breast milk and their possible impact on nutritional programming in the infant, analyzing their functions in appetite regulation.

  14. Life style and nutritional status in university students: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Córdoba Adaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle is the set of behaviors that an individual practices consciously and voluntarily in the course of his or her life. The assessment of nutritional status by anthropometry can lead to the adoption of preventive measures for health. This is especially important in young people, as many authors have noted that the university population is particularly vulnerable for risky customs and habits. Aim. The purpose of this study is to assess and relate lifestyle with nutritional status of university students. Design. Observational descriptive, cross-sectional. Nutritional status was evaluated and the FANTASTIC questionnaire was applied. Results. 88.1% of students have a healthy lifestyle and 65% were classified as normal according to body mass index. Conclusion. The study found that there is a relationship between lifestyle and nutritional status. On the other hand risk behaviors were identified in the dimensions of nutrition, tobacco smoking, sleep and stress.

  15. AN ETHNOGRAPHY STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL CONDITIONS OF PREGNANT WOMEN IN BANTEN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyowati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality in childbirth in developing countries is still high. The study describes the qualitative methods used to examine the knowledge, attitude, beliefs and behaviour related to nutrition and nutritional supplementation of pregnant women. The role of village midwives and cadres’ in relation to nutrition education resulted in improving nutritional behaviour of pregnant women to some extent, but poverty and culture restricted the ability of pregnant women to access better food. The study shows that the position of pregnant woman is low within the hierarchy of both the health care system and the power structures of the broader community. Husbands, mothers-in-law, village midwives, cadres and village leaders all have more power in determining nutrition during pregnancy. However, some women tried to eat better and more nutritious food in secret, thereby subverting culture and the authority of husbands and mothers-in-law.

  16. Mechanisms of dietary response in mice and primates: a role for EGR1 in regulating the reaction to human-specific nutritional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Weng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Humans have a widely different diet from other primate species, and are dependent on its high nutritional content. The molecular mechanisms responsible for adaptation to the human diet are currently unknown. Here, we addressed this question by investigating whether the gene expression response observed in mice fed human and chimpanzee diets involves the same regulatory mechanisms as expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. RESULTS: Using mouse and primate transcriptomic data, we identified the transcription factor EGR1 (early growth response 1 as a putative regulator of diet-related differential gene expression between human and chimpanzee livers. Specifically, we predict that EGR1 regulates the response to the high caloric content of human diets. However, we also show that close to 90% of the dietary response to the primate diet found in mice, is not observed in primates. This might be explained by changes in tissue-specific gene expression between taxa. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the gene expression response to the nutritionally rich human diet is partially mediated by the transcription factor EGR1. While this EGR1-driven response is conserved between mice and primates, the bulk of the mouse response to human and chimpanzee dietary differences is not observed in primates. This result highlights the rapid evolution of diet-related expression regulation and underscores potential limitations of mouse models in dietary studies.

  17. Bone mass in Indian children--relationships to maternal nutritional status and diet during pregnancy: the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule, A; Yajnik, C S; Fall, C H D; Rao, S; Fisher, D J; Kanade, A; Cooper, C; Naik, S; Joshi, N; Lubree, H; Deshpande, V; Joglekar, C

    2006-08-01

    Bone mass is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have highlighted associations between maternal nutritional status during pregnancy and bone mass in the offspring. We hypothesized that maternal calcium intakes and circulating micronutrients during pregnancy are related to bone mass in Indian children. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Nutritional status was measured at 18 and 28 wk gestation in 797 pregnant rural Indian women. Measurements included anthropometry, dietary intakes (24-h recall and food frequency questionnaire), physical workload (questionnaire), and circulating micronutrients (red cell folate and plasma ferritin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C). Six years postnatally, total body and total spine bone mineral content and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the children (n = 698 of 762 live births) and both parents. Both parents' DXA measurements were positively correlated with the equivalent measurements in the children (P pregnancy (milk, milk products, pulses, non-vegetarian foods, green leafy vegetables, fruit) had higher total and spine bone mineral content and BMD, and children of mothers with higher folate status at 28 wk gestation had higher total and spine BMD, independent of parental size and DXA measurements. Modifiable maternal nutritional factors may influence bone health in the offspring. Fathers play a role in determining their child's bone mass, possibly through genetic mechanisms or through shared environment.

  18. Stability of the Framingham Nutritional Risk Score and its component nutrients over 8 years: the Framingham Nutrition Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimokoti, R W; Newby, P K; Gona, P; Zhu, L; Campbell, W R; D'Agostino, R B; Millen, B E

    2012-03-01

    Diet quality indices are increasingly used in nutrition epidemiology as dietary exposures in relation to health outcomes. However, literature on the long-term stability of these indices is limited. We aimed to assess the stability of the validated Framingham Nutritional Risk Score (FNRS) and its component nutrients over 8 years, as well as the validity of the follow-up FNRS. Framingham Offspring/Spouse Study women and men (n=1734) aged 22-76 years were evaluated over 8 years. Individuals' nutrient intake and nutritional risk scores were assessed using 3-day dietary records administered at baseline (1984-1988) and at follow-up (1992-1996). Agreement between baseline and follow-up FNRS and nutrient intakes was evaluated by Bland-Altman method; stability was assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) and weighted Kappa statistics. The effect of diet quality (as assessed by the FNRS) on cardiometabolic risk factors was evaluated using analysis of covariance. Modest changes from baseline (15%) were observed in nutrient intake. The stability coefficients for the FNRS (ICC: women, 0.49; men, 0.46; P1 quartile. The FNRS was directly associated with body mass index in women (P<0.01) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among both women (P<0.001) and men (P<0.01). The FNRS and its constituent nutrients remained relatively stable over 8 years of follow-up. The stability of diet quality has implications for prospective epidemiological investigations.

  19. Interventional nutrition in cancer survivorship. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Gregory A

    2010-10-01

    Interventional nutrition is an emerging field in medicine that utilizes advanced laboratory technologies to identify a patient's clinically relevant biochemical uniqueness in order to treat the metabolic contributors to multifactorial symptoms such as fatigue, insomnia, and pain. This article presents a complex case in which a breast cancer patient's severe symptoms fit no clear disease pattern and prevented her from undergoing chemotherapy and radiation treatment. Specialized testing for metabolic, gastrointestinal, and immunologic function uncovered important nutritional deficiencies that could not be identified through isolated tests or addressed by supplementation with a daily multivitamin. Nutritional intervention based on specific measurements, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach to supplementation, resolved this patient's debilitating symptoms and restored her capacity to benefit from chemotherapy and radiation.

  20. The natural impact of banana inflorescences (Musa acuminata on human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina E. Fingolo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Banana inflorescences are popularly known as 'navels,' and they are used in Brazil as nutritional complements. However, the nutritional value of banana inflorescences (male flowers and bracts has never been studied. Therefore, plant material of Musa acuminata, cultivar "ouro", was collected in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, and then submitted to chemical procedures to determine its nutritional composition. The experiment was arranged a completely randomized design and performed in triplicate. The sample composition analysis showed percentual average value for moisture, protein, fat and ash as 8.21, 14.50, 4.04 and 14.43, respectively. The dehydrated inflorescences were found to contain a significant nutritive complement based on their high content of potassium (5008.26 mg / 100 g and fiber 49.83% (lignin, cellulose and hemicelluloses revealing important functional and nutritional properties. In a parallel evaluation, the anatomical study revealed key elements for the recognition of Musa acuminata when reduced to fragments.Inflorescências de bananeira são popularmente conhecidas como "umbigos", e esses são usados no Brasil como complementos nutricionais. No entanto, o valor nutricional das inflorescências (flores masculinas e brácteas de bananeira nunca foi estudado. Portanto, o material vegetal de Musa acuminata cultivar "ouro" foi coletado no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil e, em seguida, submetido aos procedimentos químicos para determinar a sua composição nutricional. As análises foram realizadas em triplicata. A análise da composição da amostra apresentou teor percentual médio de umidade, proteína, lipídeos e cinza de 8,21, 14,50, 4,04 e 14,43, respectivamente. As inflorescências secas mostraram significativo complemento nutritivo baseado no alto conteúdo de potássio (5.008,26 mg / 100 g e de fibra 49,83% (lignina, celulose e hemiceluloses revelando importantes propriedades funcional e nutritiva. Em uma avaliação paralela, o estudo

  1. Staphylococcus aureus Infection Reduces Nutrition Uptake and Nucleotide Biosynthesis in a Human Airway Epithelial Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gierok

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Gram positive opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus induces a variety of diseases including pneumonia. S. aureus is the second most isolated pathogen in cystic fibrosis patients and accounts for a large proportion of nosocomial pneumonia. Inside the lung, the human airway epithelium is the first line in defence with regard to microbial recognition and clearance as well as regulation of the immune response. The metabolic host response is, however, yet unknown. To address the question of whether the infection alters the metabolome and metabolic activity of airway epithelial cells, we used a metabolomics approach. The nutrition uptake by the human airway epithelial cell line A549 was monitored over time by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR and the intracellular metabolic fingerprints were investigated by gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (GC-MS and (HPLC-MS. To test the metabolic activity of the host cells, glutamine analogues and labelled precursors were applied after the infection. We found that A549 cells restrict uptake of essential nutrients from the medium after S. aureus infection. Moreover, the infection led to a shutdown of the purine and pyrimidine synthesis in the A549 host cell, whereas other metabolic routes such as the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway remained active. In summary, our data show that the infection with S. aureus negatively affects growth, alters the metabolic composition and specifically impacts the de novo nucleotide biosynthesis in this human airway epithelial cell model.

  2. Resource conflict and cooperation between human host and gut microbiota: implications for nutrition and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Helen; Alcock, Joe; Aktipis, Athena

    2016-05-01

    Diet has been known to play an important role in human health since at least the time period of the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates. In the last decade, research has revealed that microorganisms inhabiting the digestive tract, known as the gut microbiota, are critical factors in human health. This paper draws on concepts of cooperation and conflict from ecology and evolutionary biology to make predictions about host-microbiota interactions involving nutrients. To optimally extract energy from some resources (e.g., fiber), hosts require cooperation from microbes. Other nutrients can be utilized by both hosts and microbes (e.g., simple sugars, iron) in their ingested form, which may lead to greater conflict over these resources. This framework predicts that some negative health effects of foods are driven by the direct effects of these foods on human physiology and by indirect effects resulting from microbiome-host competition and conflict (e.g., increased invasiveness and inflammation). Similarly, beneficial effects of some foods on host health may be enhanced by resource sharing and other cooperative behaviors between host and microbes that may downregulate inflammation and virulence. Given that some foods cultivate cooperation between hosts and microbes while others agitate conflict, host-microbe interactions may be novel targets for interventions aimed at improving nutrition and human health.

  3. National survey of the Portuguese elderly nutritional status: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Teresa; Peixoto-Plácido, Catarina; Goulão, Beatriz; Mendonça, Nuno; Alarcão, Violeta; Santos, Nuno; de Oliveira, Rita Machado; Yngve, Agneta; Bye, Asta; Bergland, Astrid; Lopes, Carla; Nicola, Paulo; Santos, Osvaldo; Clara, João Gorjão

    2016-07-16

    Worldwide we are facing a serious demographic challenge due to the dramatic growth of the population over 60 years. It is expected that the proportion of this population will nearly double from 12 to 22 %, between 2015 and 2050. This demographic shift comes with major health and socio-economic concerns. Nutrition is a fundamental determinant of both health and disease and its role in extending a healthy lifespan is the object of considerable research. Notably, malnutrition is one of the main threats to health and quality of life among the elderly. Therefore, knowledge about nutritional status among the elderly is essential for the promotion and maintenance of healthy ageing and to support the development of health protection policies and equity in elderly health care. This is a nationwide nutrition survey of the Portuguese population over 65 years old, with data collection through face-to-face interviews. A representative and random sample of community dwelling elderly and nursing homes residents will be obtained by multistage sampling stratified per main Portuguese regions, sex and age groups. Minimum sample size was estimated to be 2077 elderly (979 in the community and 1098 in nursing homes). Data will be collected on food habits and eating patterns, nutritional status, food insecurity, lifestyle, self-rated general health status and self-reported diseases, functionality, loneliness, cognitive function, emotional status and demographic and socio-economic characterization. This is the first national survey to evaluate the prevalence of nutritional risk and malnutrition of the Portuguese population above 65 years old, including those living in nursing homes. It will allow the identification of population subgroups of elderly with increased odds of malnutrition and nutritional risk. In addition, this survey will contribute to the identification of psychosocial and clinical predictors of malnutrition among elderly, which is an important risk factor for other

  4. Determinants of infant nutritional status in Dabat district, North Gondar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amarech Asratie Wubante

    2017-01-01

    .... Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. Methods A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district...

  5. [Prognostic morbidity and mortality factors in hospital enteral nutrition: prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno Pérez, O; Meoro Avilés, A; Martínez, A; Boix, E; Aznar, S; Martín, Ma D; Picó, A M

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prognostic factors that may best for see the outcome of an enteral nutritional intervention and to assess the assistance quality of a nutrition unit. Patients that required enteral nutrition during hospital admission at a third level center. Observational prospective study in which 160 patients were included by means of consecutive sampling, for a 6-months follow-up period. Underlying pathology, disability degree, nutritional assessment, type of enteral nutrition, complications, nursing care, and clinical course of patients were determined. severe caloric and protein hyponutrition was diagnosed in 48.4 and 52.9% of patients; stress degree was moderate in 52.2% and severe in 36.5%. In 88.2% of patients variation of protein parameters was unchanged or improved, with a 0.26 g/dL increase in albumin levels and 2.4 m/dL in prealbumin (p enteral nutritional intervention in the hospitalized patient (p enteral nutritional support at the hospital setting, to advance in patients care and promote the development of nutritional therapy.

  6. Dietary requirements of "nutritionally non-essential amino acids" by animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoyao; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Yang, Ying; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Chuang; Wang, Bin; Wang, Junjun; Yin, Yulong

    2013-04-01

    Amino acids are necessary for the survival, growth, development, reproduction and health of all organisms. They were traditionally classified as nutritionally essential or non-essential for mammals, birds and fish based on nitrogen balance or growth. It was assumed that all "non-essential amino acids (NEAA)" were synthesized sufficiently in the body to meet the needs for maximal growth and health. However, there has been no compelling experimental evidence to support this assumption over the past century. NEAA (e.g., glutamine, glutamate, proline, glycine and arginine) play important roles in regulating gene expression, cell signaling, antioxidative responses, neurotransmission, and immunity. Additionally, glutamate, glutamine and aspartate are major metabolic fuels for the small intestine to maintain its digestive function and protect its mucosal integrity. Therefore, based on new research findings, NEAA should be taken into consideration in revising the classical "ideal protein" concept and formulating balanced diets to improve protein accretion, food efficiency, and health in animals and humans.

  7. Nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical courses of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    OpenAIRE

    H Mozaffari-Khosravi; Vaziri, N; A. Mohammadimanesh; Z. Naderi; H. Daneshbodi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Nutrition is one of the important components of health promotion and disease prevention. However, nutrition literacy of medical students is unclear. This study aims to determine nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 114 medical students in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi hospital were randomly selected. Nutritional knowledge questionnaire was comp...

  8. Nutritional status in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and a study of the effects of zinc supplementation together with antimony treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Guzman-Rivero

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of micronutrient status for the incidence and clinical course of cutaneous leishmaniasis is not much studied. Still zinc supplementation in leishmaniasis has shown some effect on the clinical recovery, but the evidence in humans is limited. Objective: To compare biochemical nutritional status in cutaneous leishmaniasis patients with that in controls and to study the effects of zinc supplementation for 60 days. Design: Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were treated with antimony for 20 days. Fourteen of them got 45 mg zinc daily and 15 of them got placebo. Biomarkers of nutritional and inflammatory status and changes in size and characteristics of skin lesions were measured. Results: The level of transferrin receptor was higher in patients than in controls but otherwise no differences in nutritional status were found between patients and controls. No significant effects of zinc supplementation on the clinical recovery were observed as assessed by lesion area reduction and characteristics or on biochemical parameters. Conclusions: It is concluded that nutritional status was essentially unaffected in cutaneous leishmaniasis and that oral zinc supplementation administered together with intramuscular injection of antimony had no additional clinical benefit.

  9. Fish products available in Polish market--assessment of the nutritive value and human exposure to dioxins and other contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usydus, Zygmunt; Szlinder-Richert, Joanna; Polak-Juszczak, Lucyna; Komar, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Maria; Malesa-Ciecwierz, Małgorzata; Ruczynska, Wiesława

    2009-03-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on one hundred and twenty of the most popular varieties of fish products (smoked fish, salted fish, and marinated fish) of the fish market in Poland. The contents of the nutritive substances of fish products (protein, micro- and macronutrients, vitamins A(1), D(3), E, and fatty acids) and the chosen contaminant (toxic metals--mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic; dioxin/furans--PCDDFs; dioxin-like PCB--dl-PCBs; seven congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers--PBDEs; organochlorine pesticides--SigmaDDT, HCB, SigmaHCH and marker polychlorinated biphenyls--PCB(7)) levels were determined. It was confirmed that fish products are a good source of digestible proteins, iodine, selenium, and vitamin D(3). The fundamental nutritive benefit of processed fish lies in its highly beneficial fatty acid composition, which is what imparts them healthy nutritive qualities. The high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), which is not noted in other food products, is particularly important. The majority of contaminants studied were present in low levels. The possible threats, particularly in the case of pregnant/nursing women and young children, can pose the levels of dioxin/furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like (dl-PCBs) in smoked Baltic salmon and smoked sprat, elevated in a relation to particular requirements concerning the content of sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in fish (8pg WHO-TEQg(-1)). The health benefits and risks stemming from consumption of fish products were determined according to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) for chosen contaminants (Cd, Hg, As, PCDD/Fs+dl-PCB) and the quantity of ingredients that render a fish diet healthy based on data from the EFSA Journal [EFSA (European Food Safety Authority), 2005. Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the European Parliament related to the safety assessment of wild and farmed fish. EFSA J. 236, 1-118]. In regard of high

  10. A Comparative Study of Nutritional Status and Foodstuffs in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents in both ... the nutritional status and food‑stuffs among high‑school girls in Arak, Iran, in matter of body mass index (BMI) ..... Sports Med 2013;21:90‑7. 11. Amirhakimi GH.

  11. Nutritional status of institutionalized elderly Brazilians: a study with the Mini Nutritional Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim Sena Pereira, Maria Luiza; de Almeida Moreira, Pricilla; Cunha de Oliveira, Carolina; Carneiro Roriz, Anna Karla; Teresópolis Reis Amaral, Magali; Lima Mello, Adriana; Barbosa Ramos, Lílian

    2014-10-04

    Objective: Evaluar el estado nutricional de los ancianos residentes en Hogares para Ancianos, en la ciudad de Salvador, Brasil y factores asociados. Métodos: Estudio transversal con 359 individuos mayores de 60 años, de ambos sexos y residentes en hogares de ancianos en la zona urbana de la ciudad de Salvador, Bahia, Brasil. Resultados: En cuanto al estado nutricional de acuerdo con Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), el 66,3% de los ancianos evaluados estaban desnutridos y en riesgo de desnutrición. La prevalencia de esta afección fue mayor entre los hombres (76,6%) en comparación con las mujeres (62,4%). Se ha observado, como resultado del análisis multivariado, que sólo la capacidad funcional variable para Actividades de la Vida Diaria (AVD) fue estadísticamente significativa. Hubo correlación moderada entre MNA y Mini Examen del Estado Mental (r = 0,454; p.

  12. The impact of nutritional status, nutritional risk, and nutritional treatment on clinical outcome of 2248 hospitalized cancer patients: a multi-center, prospective cohort study in Chinese teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hongming; Cai, Sanjun; Ji, Jiafu; Jiang, Zhiwei; Liang, Houjie; Lin, Feng; Liu, Xiyong

    2013-01-01

    To better understand the impact of undernutrition, nutritional risk, and nutritional treatment on the clinical outcomes of hospitalized cancer patients in China, the authors conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study with 2248 cancer patients from 20 hospitals from January to June 2010. The authors defined 19.7% and 26.8% patients as undernourished at baseline and reassessment, respectively. Patients with gastrointestinal malignancies had a higher rate of undernutrition than other patients. The nutritional risk rate was 24.6% and 40.2% at baseline and reassessment, respectively. For patients with nutritional risk, the relative risk (RR) of adverse events (AEs) significantly increased with and without nutritional treatment. In comparison with the nonnutritional treatment subgroup, patients who received enteral nutrition (EN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN) significantly reduced the RR of AE development. The RR of AEs for EN and TPN were 0.08 (95% CI: 0.01-0.62) and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33-0.96), respectively. Separated nutrient infusion increased the risk of AEs. The authors concluded that undernutrition and nutritional risk are general problems that impact the outcomes of hospitalized cancer patients in China. Higher NRS2002 scores are related to AE risk but not weight loss. In nutritional treatment, EN and TPN can significantly reduce the risk of AEs.

  13. Analgesia in newborns: a case-control study of the efficacy of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To verify the nutritive and non-nutritive stimuli efficacy in the newborn's response to pain during venipuncture. METHODS: The main sample was composed of 64 newborns that were randomly divided into three groups. The first group (n=20) received nutritive sucking stimulus that was performed through maternal breastfeeding. The second group (n=21) received non-nutritive sucking stimulus that was performed through the introduction of the researcher little finger in the newborn's oral cav...

  14. Attrition in Long-Term Nutrition Research Studies: A Commentary by the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Early Nutrition Research Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Domellöf, Magnus; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie M; Kennedy, Kathy; Koletzko, Berthold; Mihatsh, Walter; Stijnen, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term follow-up of randomised trials and observational studies provide the best evidence presently available to assess long-term effects of nutrition, and such studies are an important component in determining optimal infant feeding practices. Attrition is, however, an almost inevitable occurrence with increasing age at follow-up. There is a common assumption that studies with <80% follow-up rates are invalid or flawed, and this criticism seems to be more frequently applied to follow-up studies involving randomised trials than observational studies. In this article, we explore the basis and evidence for this "80% rule" and discuss the need for greater consensus and clear guidelines for analysing and reporting results in this specific situation.

  15. Buffalo milk and cheese from animal to human nutrition. Part 2: tracing parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pizzoferrato

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Specific tracing parameters, also useful as quality indicators, have been utilized to evaluate if quality changes occur, due to farm, cheese production, and environmental variables, in milk and Mozzarella di Bufala Campana PDO samples of commercial and experimental origin. In particular, observing the 13 cis retinol levels it is interesting to note that, even if nutritional quality is comparable for all the studied products (see also Part 1, the analyzed experimental products seem to be handled with slightly less care than commercial products.

  16. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders.

  17. Pilot study of a budget-tailored culinary nutrition education program for undergraduate food science students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Dorothy Adair

    The primary objective of this pilot study is to provide evidence that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program is both appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students both in everyday life as well as their future health careers. Two validated programs were combined into one program in order to evaluate their combined effects: Cooking With a Chef and Cooking Matters at the Store. The secondary objective of this pilot study is to evaluate the components and reliability of a questionnaire created specifically for this pilot study. A review of past literature was written, which included culinary nutrition as a source of primary prevention, the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition, and the importance of incorporating cost with culinary nutrition. Based on the literature review, it was determined that a budget-tailored culinary nutrition program was appropriate and applicable to undergraduate food science students interested in pursuing health-related careers. The pilot study design was a semi-crossover study: all four groups received the program, however, two groups were first treated as the control groups. All fifty-four participants received 5 sessions of culinary nutrition information from Cooking With a Chef, collaboratively delivered by a nutrition educator and a chef, and one session of information about shopping healthy on a budget from Cooking Matters at the Store in the form of a grocery store tour led by the nutrition educator. Three questionnaires were administered to the participants that evaluated culinary nutrition and price knowledge, cooking attitudes, and opinions of the programs' relevance to participants' everyday lives and careers. Two of the questionnaires, including a questionnaire developed specifically for the pilot study, were delivered as a pre- and post-test while the third questionnaire was delivered as a post-test. Eight random participants also partook in a focus group session led by the nutrition

  18. Stuck in tradition - A qualitative study on barriers for implementation of evidence-based nutritional care perceived by nursing staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O Connell, Malene Barfod; Jensen, Pia Søe; Andersen, Signe Lindgård

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To explore the barriers for nutritional care as perceived by nursing staff at an acute orthopedic ward, aiming to implement evidence-based nutritional care. BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that nurses recognize nutritional care as important, but interventions are often lacking....... These studies show that a range of barriers influence the attempt to optimize nutritional care. Before the implementation of evidence-based nutritional care, we examined barriers for nutritional care among the nursing staff. DESIGN: Qualitative study. METHODS: Four focus groups with thirteen members...... treatment and Struggling with existing resources. The nursing staff was lacking both knowledge and common practice regarding nutritional care. They felt they protected patient autonomy by accepting patient's reluctance to eat or getting a feeding tube. The lack of nutritional focus from doctors decreased...

  19. Adequacy of usual dietary intake and nutritional status among pregnant women in the context of nutrition transition: the DEPOSIT Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Saad, Kathleen; Shahar, Danit R; Fraser, Drora; Vardi, Hillel; Friger, Michael; Bolotin, Arkardy; Freedman, Laurence S

    2012-11-28

    Bedouin Arabs in southern Israel are a traditionally semi-nomadic population undergoing the nutrition transition in a context of urbanisation. The effect of these changes on the nutritional status of pregnant women is unknown. The Dietary Exposures and Pregnancy Outcomes in a Society In Transition (DEPOSIT) study evaluated the adequacy of pregnant Bedouin women's usual dietary intake and their nutritional status. Dietary intake was assessed in a cross-sectional study design using repeat 24 h recall (24HR) questionnaires. The National Cancer Institute method was used to estimate the usual intake of selected nutrients. The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) was used to evaluate nutrient intake adequacy. Measured weight and height data were used to calculate the participants' BMI. A total of 1109 24HR were obtained from 683 participants, of which 8 % contained no animal-source protein and an additional 43 % contained no haeme-Fe. Animal-source protein intake reached less than half of the EAR for most participants (71 %). Over 90 % had inadequate intakes of Ca, Fe, animal-source Zn, vitamin A and folate. The probability of consuming haeme-source Fe was higher among urban than rural participants (OR 1·68, 95 % CI 1·17, 2·41), and among those with employed v. unemployed husbands (OR 1·81, 95 % CI 1·27, 2·58). Only 14 % reported consuming home-produced animal products. According to pre-pregnancy BMI, 42 % were overweight or obese. The DEPOSIT study findings suggest that Bedouin Arab women are in need of interventions that address the co-existing problems of inadequate nutrient intakes and increased risk of obesity.

  20. Nutritional and safety assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology--case studies by the International Food Biotechnology Committee of ILSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, the public and private sectors have made substantial research progress internationally toward improving the nutritional value of a wide range of food and feed crops. Nevertheless, significant numbers of people still suffer from the effects of undernutrition. As newly developed crops with nutritionally improved traits come closer to being available to producers and consumers, scientifically sound and efficient processes are needed to assess the safety and nutritional quality of these crops. In 2004, a Task Force of international scientific experts, convened by the International Food Biotechnology Committee (IFBiC) of ILSI, published recommendations for the safety and nutritional assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through modern biotechnology (J. Food Science, 2004, 69:CRH62-CRH68). The comparative safety assessment process is a basic principle in this publication and is the starting point, not the conclusion, of the analysis. Significant differences in composition are expected to be observed in the case of nutritionally enhanced crops and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The Golden Rice 2 case study will be presented as an example of a food crop nutritionally enhanced through the application of modern biotechnology (i.e., recombinant DNA techniques) to illustrate how the 2004 recommendations provide a robust paradigm for the safety assessment of "real world" examples of improved nutrition crops.

  1. EPEC-O Self-Study - Module 11 - Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  2. Medium-chain triglycerides for parenteral nutrition: kinetic profile in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Greco, A V; Capristo, E; Castagneto, M; Gasbarrini, G

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) have been introduced as lipid substrates in parenteral nutrition because of their rapid and complete oxidation. Although there are many clinical studies on the use of MCTs in parenteral nutrition there are only a few studies on their kinetics; most of these studies used indirect methods (such as light scattering) to determine MCT concentrations in plasma. We determined the hydrolysis rate of MCTs to medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and the disposition rate of MCFAs in nine healthy volunteers who received an intravenous bolus of MCTs as 10% MCT + 10% long-chain triglyceride solution. MCTs and MCFAs were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. One linear compartment model was used and its parameters were numerically estimated. The first-order transformation constant of the hydrolysis step from MCT to MCFA was 0.0964 +/- 0.0152 min-1(for 8- and 10-carbon pooled together); the rate constant for tissue MCFA uptake from plasma was 0.0725 +/- 0.0230 min-1. The apparent volumes of distribution were about 4.5 L for MCT and 19 L for MCFA in a typical 70-kg subject. The plasma half-life of MCT was 11 min and that of MCFA was 17 min. The limiting step in the clinical use of MCTs seems to be tissue uptake of MCFAs.

  3. Nutritional rehabilitation after ICU - does it happen: a qualitative interview and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriweather, Judith; Smith, Pam; Walsh, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    To compare and contrast current nutritional rehabilitation practices against recommendations from National Institute for Health and Excellence guideline Rehabilitation after critical illness (NICE) (2009, http://www.nice.org.uk/cg83). Recovery from critical illness has gained increasing prominence over the last decade but there is remarkably little research relating to nutritional rehabilitation. The study is a qualitative study based on patient interviews and observations of ward practice. Seventeen patients were recruited into the study at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) of a large teaching hospital in central Scotland in 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on transfer to the ward and weekly thereafter. Fourteen of these patients were followed up at three months post-ICU discharge, and a semi-structured interview was carried out. Observations of ward practice were carried out twice weekly for the duration of the ward stay. Current nutritional practice for post-intensive care patients did not reflect the recommendations from the NICE guideline. A number of organisational issues were identified as influencing nutritional care. These issues were categorised as ward culture, service-centred delivery of care and disjointed discharge planning. Their influence on nutritional care was compounded by the complex problems associated with critical illness. The NICE guideline provides few nutrition-specific recommendations for rehabilitation; however, current practice does not reflect the nutritional recommendations that are detailed in the rehabilitation care pathway. Nutritional care of post-ICU patients is problematic and strategies to overcome these issues need to be addressed in order to improve nutritional intake. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Home parenteral nutrition improves quality of life and nutritional status in patients with cancer: a French observational multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culine, S; Chambrier, C; Tadmouri, A; Senesse, P; Seys, P; Radji, A; Rotarski, M; Balian, A; Dufour, P

    2014-07-01

    Malnutrition is a predictor of poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Little is known about the benefit of nutritional support in these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) on quality of life (Qol) in cancer patients. We performed an observational prospective study to determine the impact of HPN on Qol in a population of patients with heterogeneous cancer. Physicians, patients and family members had to complete a questionnaire before HPN administration and 28 days after the course of HPN. Qol was evaluated using the self-administered questionnaire FACT-G. We included 767 patients with cancer of whom 437 ended the study. Mean patient age was 63±11.4 years and 60.5% were men. Primary gastrointestinal cancer was reported in 50% of patients and 65.3% were presenting metastases. Malnutrition was reported in 98.3%. After 28 days of HPN intake, significant improvement was observed in the Qol (49.95±5.82 vs. 48.35±5.01 at baseline, pnutrition risk index had also improved significantly. Most patients (78%) had perceived a positive impact of the HPN. A significant improvement in patient's well-being was perceived also by family members and physicians. Our data suggest that preventing and correcting malnutrition using HPN in patients with cancer might have a significant benefit on their well-being. Randomized controlled studies are required to confirm this finding.

  5. An Observational Study of Consumers’ Accessing of Nutrition Information in Chain Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2009-01-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions. PMID:19299679

  6. An observational study of consumers' accessing of nutrition information in chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Agnew, Henry; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-05-01

    In this observational study, we determined how frequently consumers accessed on-premises nutrition information provided at chain restaurants. The number of patrons entering and accessing nutrition information was recorded at 8 locations that were part of 4 major restaurant chains (McDonald's, Burger King, Starbucks, and Au Bon Pain). Only 6 (0.1%) of 4311 patrons accessed on-premises nutrition information before purchasing food. This very small percentage suggests that such information should be more prominently displayed, such as on restaurant menu boards, to help customers make informed decisions.

  7. Getting the Dimensions Right - Human Nutrition as Key for the Control of Regional Nitrogen Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zessner, M.; Thaler, S.; Ruzicka, K.; Natho, S.

    2009-04-01

    The western society is rested upon a strong animal-based (meat, eggs, milk) nutrition, which is far of a healthy balanced diet. Furthermore, the production of animal based food consumes five to six times more resources (e.g.: area, fertilizer) compared to plant-based food and is closely connected to environmental pollution (e.g.: emission of greenhouse gases, water pollution). Especially the regional nitrogen turnover is highly driven by the request from human nutrition on agricultural production. While the efficiency of the transfer of applied nitrogen into the product is 60 - 70 % for vegetarian food, it is 15 - 25 % for animal based food. This contribution is going to demonstrate the most important nitrogen fluxes on national scale in Austria calculated using a national material flow analysis. The national nitrogen balance is driven by the production of nitrogen fertiliser and import of fooder. The airborne transport of reactive nitrogen (NOX and NHX) plays a decisive role within this balance. The main losses into the environment occur during the agricultural production process. Losses to the atmosphere exceed losses to groundwater and surface waters. After introduction of nitrogen removal at treatment plants, emissions to surface waters are dominated by land use driven fluxes via groundwater. The influence of nitrogen depositions on land (agricultural area, forest and mountain regions) on nitrogen emissions to the water system is in the same order of magnitude as the direct emissions due to fertiliser application - especially in a country as Austria with high shares of mountainous and silvicultural areas. Sources for depositions of reactive nitrogen are mainly NH3 emissions to the air from animal husbandry and NOX emissions to the air from traffic. Both substance are matter of transboundary transport and thus are highly influenced by activities outside a specific country or river catchment. Management of nitrogen on a national or catchment scale has therefore

  8. Historical Study (1986-2014): Improvements in nutritional status of dialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Mette; Kromann, Charles Boy; Hvidtfeldt, Danni

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Despite an increased focus on improved nutrition in dialysis patients, it is claimed that the prevalence of malnutrition in this group of patients has not changed during the last decades. Direct...... historical comparisons of the nutritional status of dialysis patients have never been published. To directly compare the nutritional status of past and current dialysis patients, we implemented the methodology of a study from 1986 on a population of dialysis patients in 2014. DESIGN: Historical study...... comparing results of two cross-sectional studies performed in 1986 and 2014. SETTING: We compared the nutritional status of hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients attending the dialysis center at Roskilde Hospital, Denmark, in February to June 2014, with that of HD and PD patients treated...

  9. [Carl Arthur Scheunert's experiments on human nutrition, 1938-1943: boundary transgressions of a scientist under national socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joost, Hans-Georg

    2012-01-01

    Carl Arthur Scheunert (1879-1957) was a German scientist who supervised several studies with prisoners that were designed to assess the optimal vitamin and nutrient supply, and were conducted by his associate Karl-Heinz Wagner (1911-2007) from 1938 to 1943. This contribution describes the aims, results and conclusions of Scheunert's research 1923 to 1945 in comparison with the national and international vitamin research and its consequences for public health measures. Conditions and results of the human experiments are reconstructed and compared with similar studies performed in other countries. Burden as well as health risks for the study participants are assessed. In addition, it is discussed whether general rules for human experimentation were followed (e.g. informed consent and minimizing of health risks). Although the available documents support the conclusion that no deaths or lasting injuries were caused, the experiments violated ethical standards, in particular because of the conditions in the Waldheim prison including progressive deterioration of nutrition and health.

  10. Midwives’ Role in Providing Nutrition Advice during Pregnancy: Meeting the Challenges? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamila Arrish

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the Australian midwives’ role in the provision of nutrition advice. Little is known about their perceptions of this role, the influence of the model of care, and the barriers and facilitators that may influence them providing quality nutrition advice to pregnant women. Semistructured telephone interviews were undertaken with a subsample (n=16 of the members of the Australian College of Midwives who participated in an online survey about midwives’ nutrition knowledge, attitudes, and their confidence in providing nutrition advice during pregnancy. Thematic descriptive analysis was used to analyse the data. Midwives believed they have a vital role in providing nutrition advice to pregnant women in the context of health promotion. However, this was not reflected in the advice many of them provided, which in many accounts was passive and medically directed. The extent and efficacy of their role appear to be challenged by many structural barriers. Midwives suggested facilitators that may assist in overcoming these challenges. Midwives need assistance, support, and guidance to provide holistic nutrition advice that assists women to achieve healthy pregnancies. A collaborative approach between midwifery bodies, nutrition and education experts, and maternity care services may provide an effective way forward.

  11. The role of vitamin A in nutritional anaemia: a study in pregnant women in West Java, Indonesia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suharno, D.

    1994-01-01

    Nutritional anaemia affects 50-70% of pregnant women in the developing world where vitamin A deficiency is also a problem. Since previous studies have indicated that vitamin A deficiency can be involved in the aetiology of nutritional anaemia, the role of vitamin A deficiency in nutritional anaemia

  12. CLINIC STUDY ON THE INFLUENCE OF RECOMBINANT HUMAN ERYTHROPOIETIN ON ERYTHROID PARAMETERS, NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN CHRONIC RENAL FAILURE%rHuEPO对慢性肾衰竭患者红系参数、营养状态及生活质量影响的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香玲; 赵学兰; 郭振涛; 李加村; 肖青

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨重组人促红细胞生成素(rHuEPO)对慢性肾衰竭(CRF)患者红系及营养状况与生活质量的影响.[方法]对24例CRF患者给予rHuEPO 1万IU皮下注射,每周1次,连续8周,在治疗前后分别对红系参数、营养状态和生活质量进行检测,并行自身对照.[结果]患者治疗后2、8周红系指标RBC、Hb、HCT、MCV、MCH、MCHC、Ret均明显升高(P< 0.05);IRF在2周时显著升高(P<0.01)而RDW 8周后明显升高(P<0.01);营养参数血清白蛋白(ALB)、总蛋白(TP)、转铁蛋白(Tf)治疗后明显增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).生活质量中躯体功能、躯体职能、精力状况、社会功能、疼痛、总的健康状况治疗前后比较差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]rHuEPO不仅能改善CRF患者的贫血状态,而且可改善患者的营养状况和生活质量.%[Objective] To study the recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) on erylhroid parameters and nutritional status and quality of life (QOL) in chronic renal failure (CRF) patients with anemia. [Methods] 24 patients with CRF patients received treatment of rHuEPO injection subcutaneous for 8 weeks, observed the variation of blood erythroid parameters, nutritional status and quality of life, before and after the treatment. [ Results] After 2 and 8 weeks of treatment, erythroid target RBC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC and Ret were significantly increased (P<0.05), 1RF at 2 weeks was significantly higher (P < 0.01) and the RDW 8 weeks was significantly higher (P < 0.01), the nutritional status of ALB, TP and Tf were significantly increased (P < 0.05). QOL physical function, emotional function, energy status, emotional status, social function, pain and general health status were significantly different (P< 0.03). [Conclusion] rHuEPO can not only improve patients with renal anemia, but also improve the nutritional status and quality of life of the patients.

  13. [Multicenter study on incidence of total parenteral nutrition complications in the critically-ill patient. ICOMEP study. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, T; Bonet, A

    2005-01-01

    To assess enteral nutrition complications in a prospective cohort of patients admitted to the ICU. Prospective, multicenter study of patients admitted to the ICU and that received enteral nutrition (EN). Demographical data, main diagnosis, and nutritional and severity indexes were included. Complications were previously defined and were categorized as gastrointestinal or infectious. An independent group managed the databases and performed the statistical analysis. Data were expressed in absolute values or by their median and percentile (25-75). The rate and incidence density of complications and the odds ratio for complications were determined. 544 out of 3409 patients received enteral nutrition. Three hundred and three patients were admitted for medical causes, 149 for surgical causes and 92 for trauma. Ninety nine patients were underfed, and the nutritional risk index was 69.7. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications was 6 episodes per 100 days of nutrition, and in 89 patient they resulted in enteral nutrition withdrawal. Early enteral nutrition did not yield more complications than late EN. Vomiting was more frequent in late EN (OR 0.4; 95%CI: 0.2-0.7). Temporary withdrawal of diet in 140 patients was the most used procedure, which resulted in a lower caloric intake (median of 2 kcal/kg/d) than programmed. Nosocomial infection rates were 7.47% for catheter-induced sepsis and 51% for other nosocomial infections, and 35% developed pneumonia. Gastrointestinal complications with enteral nutrition are frequent, result in insufficient caloric intake and definitive withdrawal of diet in a significant number of cases. Early enteral nutrition is not associated with an increased number of complications. Episodes of increase of the gastric residue do not increase the incidence of pneumonia. Other infectious complications are within the range of what has been published and seem to be little modified by the use of enteral nutrition.

  14. Genetic diversity for grain Zn concentration in finger millet genotypes: Potential for improving human Zn nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramegowda Yamunarani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nearly half of the world population suffers from micronutrient malnutrition, particularly Zn deficiency. It is important to understand genetic variation for uptake and translocation behaviors of Zn in relevant crop species to increase Zn concentration in edible parts. In the present study, genetic variation in grain Zn concentration of 319 finger millet genotypes was assessed. Large genetic variation was found among the genotypes, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 86 μg g− 1 grain. Uptake and translocation studies with Zn/65Zn application in 12 selected low-Zn genotypes showed wide variation in root uptake and shoot translocation, with genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 showing greater uptake and translocation. Genotypes GEC164 and GEC543 showed increased grain Zn concentration. Genotypes GEC331 and GEC164 also showed improved yield under Zn treatment. Appreciable variation in grain Zn concentration among finger millet genotypes found in this study offers opportunities to improve Zn nutrition through breeding.

  15. A study of impact of cost-effective nutritional supplement in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rangarajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional status in patients on hemodialysis is always of concern as malnutrition predisposes to excess morbidity and mortality. Most of the nutritional supplements available in the market are expensive. We explored the possibility of improving nutrition of the patients on maintenance hemodialysis by supplementation of calories and proteins that can be given in the form of a palatable and economical gruel in this prospectively designed, open labeled study. Patients who were on maintenance hemodialysis (twice a week for a period of at least 6 months were divided into two groups. The study group was given the gruel supplement and the control group was not given the gruel supplement. Nutritional status was assessed in the study group and controls at 0 and 3 months by the following parameters: percentage body fat, mid arm muscle circumference and serum albumin. Analysis of results revealed that there was a significant decline in the protein intake at the end of the 3 rd month in the control group (P = 0.01. Other parameters did not show significant change at the end of the study period in both groups. The nutritional supplement can be assumed to have helped at least in the maintenance of protein intake over this short period and could possibly in the long run contribute to improvement of nutritional parameters.

  16. Mycotoxins in milk for human nutrition: cow, sheep and human breast milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hof, Herbert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are produced pre harvest by some molds and secreted into various food items of plant origin, such cereals, vegetables, spices, coffee and nuts. If the food items are not stored under adequate conditions, a post harvest contamination may also occur. Animals and humans take them up by food items and some of them are stored and accumulated in different tissues and organs, so that food of animal origin may be contaminated, too. Especially aflatoxin and ochratoxin are secreted into milk by consumers of contaminated food. Since milk represents the major food source of newborns and infants, they are notably exposed to these mycotoxins. This health risk for these individuals may be of particular importance, because their ability to metabolize these fungal toxic agents is not yet fully developed at this stage.

  17. Study of food habits, food practices and taboos in Bangladesh: their implications in nutrition education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, R; Hussain, M A; Abdullah, M; Ahmad, K

    1979-06-01

    The paper reports the findings of a retrospective study conducted to determine the prevailing food habits, food taboos and practices among 381 mothers selected randomly from twelve villages situated in 4 administrative divisions of Bangladesh. Undesirable food taboos and practices, maldistribution of food, lack of understanding of the nutritional needs of the vulnerable groups and bad cooking practices were found to be widespread in rural Bangladesh. Nutritional and health implications of these are discussed and remedial measures suggested.

  18. A social-historical study on brochures featuring food and nutrition education (1938-1946).

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Tiago; Universidade Federal do Ceará; Secretaria da Educação do Ceará; Bezerra, José Arimatea Barros; Professor Associado da Universidade Federal do Ceará, Faculdade de Educação e do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Educação.

    2016-01-01

    A social-historical study of brochures about food and nutrition education, which were published in Brazil between 1938 and 1946, is provided. Food, meals, feeding education and their relationship with social, political and educational ideas of the period are investigated. Since the above-mentioned brochures were diffusion strategies on feeding and nutrition knowledge current at that time, an analysis of four brochure copies was undertaken based on the theory of social action and depth hermene...

  19. STUDY ON SOME FACTORS FOR HEALTHY NUTRITION ENVIRONMENT IN RESTAURANTS IN SOUTHWESTERN BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Ivanova; Julieta Trifonova; Ilinka Terziyska

    2012-01-01

    The purpose – The purpose of the study is to conduct a regional survey in tourist companies in Southwestern Bulgaria for examining some key factors for building/forming a healthy nutrition environment. Design – The special focus is given to analysis of the key factors for creating healthy nutrition environment in restaurants. Methodology – A cross sectional survey conducted including 34 respondents from 120 operating hotels with restaurants in Southwestern Bulgaria and 30 independent restaura...

  20. Patient perceptions of the role of nutrition for pressure ulcer prevention in hospital: an interpretive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Shelley; Desbrow, Ben; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore (a) patients' perceptions of the role of nutrition in pressure ulcer prevention; and (b) patients' experiences with dieticians in the hospital setting. Interpretive qualitative study. The sample comprised 13 females and 7 males. Their mean age was 61.3 ± 12.6 years (mean ± SD), and their average hospital length of stay was 7.4 ± 13.0 days. The research setting was a public health hospital in Australia. In this interpretive study, adult medical patients at risk of pressure ulcers due to restricted mobility participated in a 20 to 30 minute interview using a semi-structured interview guide. Interview questions were grouped into 2 domains; perceptions on the role of nutrition for pressure ulcer prevention; and experiences with dieticians. Recorded interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Within the first domain, 'patient knowledge of nutrition in pressure ulcer prevention,' there were varying patient understandings of the role of nutrition for prevention of pressure ulcers. This is reflected in 5 themes: (1) recognizing the role of diet in pressure ulcer prevention; (2) promoting skin health with good nutrition; (3) understanding the relationship between nutrition and health; (4) lacking insight into the role of nutrition in pressure ulcer prevention; and (5) acknowledging other risk factors for pressure ulcers. Within the second domain, patients described their experiences with and perceptions on dieticians. Two themes emerged, which expressed differing opinions around the role and reputation of dieticians; they were receptive of dietician input; and displaying ambivalence towards dieticians' advice. Hospital patients at risk for pressure ulcer development have variable knowledge of the preventive role of nutrition. Patients had differing perceptions of the importance and value of information provided by dieticians.

  1. Nutritional issues for older adults: addressing degenerative ageing with long-term studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2016-05-01

    The ageing process is influenced by a variety of factors, including extrinsic, malleable lifestyle variables. The present paper deals with the epidemiological evidence for the role of dietary patterns and key nutritional concerns in relation to survival and ageing-related disorders that present themselves in later life. Healthful dietary patterns appear to be most relevant in old age. Specific nutritional concerns are related to vitamin D, vitamin B12 and protein malnutrition. An important challenge to further expand the knowledge base is currently addressed by the NuAge project, acknowledging the complexity of the ageing process and integrating different dimensions of research into human healthy ageing. In the meantime, reversing poor adherence to existing guidelines for a healthy diet remains a first challenge in public health nutritional practices.

  2. [Fortified food products as a potential source of folic acid in human nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicińska, Ewa; Pelc, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analysis the number and variety offoodproducts fortified with folic acid available on the Warsaw market and to assess consumers' knowledge about these products. Information about food products was based on label declaration, in summer 2009. In addition knowledge about fortified food was studied in the group of 94 market customers. There were 166 foodstuffs fortified with folic acid from various food categories, like breakfast cereals, wheat flour, fruit juices and drinks, sweets, margarine, instant cocoa and tea instant as well as milk products. Breakfast cereals and juices, nectars and fruit drinks were the largest groups. Less than half of market customers correctly defined term 'fortified product", less than 40% of respondents answered properly on question concerning folic acid. There is possibility to increase the folates intake by consuming various products fortified with folic acid. The wide public education is essential for increasing the role of these products in nutrition.

  3. Rural nutrition interventions with indigenous plant foods - a case study of vitamin A deficiency in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu S.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, propagation, and introduction of a nutritionally rich, indigenous plant species in the existing cropping system are presented in this paper as a method of rural nutrition intervention. A case study of Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, which is a common tree in Malawi and one of the richest sources of vitamin A and vitamin C compared to the commonly consumed vegetables is presented to address the problem of vitamin A deficiency. After a brief review of the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency and the efforts to reduce its incidence in Malawi, Moringa is suggested as a potential solution to the problem. A framework for designing nutrition intervention with Moringa is described for actual implementation. It is argued that attempts to identify, document, and encourage the utilization of nutrient-rich indigenous plants could be cost-effective, and a sustainable method of improving the nutritional status of local populations.

  4. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookari, Khlood; Yeatman, Heather; Williamson, Moira

    2016-01-01

    Background The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65%) were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000) of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that independent variables explained 33% (adjusted R2) of the variance found between respondents’ knowledge scores. Conclusion Australian pregnant women’s knowledge regarding AGHE for pregnancy and other key dietary recommendations is poor and varies significantly with their demographic profile. The setting of dietary guidelines is not sufficient to ensure

  5. Nutrition and cancer: Review of epidemiological studies and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demosthenes Panagiotakos

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Risk factors of cancer include unhealthy dietary habits, physical inactivity, smoking, various genetic and environmental factors. Cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases with increased incidence; moreover, 80% of gastrointestinal, breast and prostate cancers are attributed to unhealthy eating habits. Many surveys have investigated the role of diet in cancer prevention. Here we summarized current knowledge about dietary factors associated with cancer incidence. There is a strong correlation of the protective effect of fruits and vegetables with colon cancer and the negative effect of red meat and the protective effect of milk on colorectal cancer. High alcohol consumption is related to higher incidence of mouth and esophageal cancers, with hot drinks playing a role in mouth or even gastrointestinal cancers. High fat consumption seems to play a negative role in colorectal cancer, where sugar and salt might be negatively related to stomach cancer. Beyond nutrition, physical inactivity and body fat seems to play an important role in cancer, where there are strong evidence that the first protects against colorectal cancer and the second increases the incidence of breast cancer after menopause. Data for the role of micronutrients, vitamins and minerals lead to the suggestion that dietary supplements should be avoided and all nutritional needs should be covered through a well balanced diet.

  6. Symposium overview and synthesis: The Substance and Politics of a Human Rights Approach to Food and Nutrition Policies and Programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, L

    1999-07-01

    This article presents an overview of the recurring themes presented at the 26th Session of the Administrative Committee on Coordination/Sub-Committee on Nutrition (ACC/SCN) symposium entitled ¿The Substance and Politics of a Human Rights Approach to Food and Nutrition Policies and Programmes¿, held on April 12-13, 1999. The symposium consists of speeches delivered by High Commissioner for Human Rights Mary Robinson, WHO Director-General Gro Harlem Brundtland, and other senior officials from various international organizations. Among the main topics discussed were the adoption of human rights perspective and food and nutrition related indicators. This article also focused on the need to develop an explicit conceptual and legislative framework to clarify what constitutes a violation and develop mechanisms to obtain information on violations. Issues involving enforcement and allocation were some of the questions that emerged from the ACC/SCN symposium. As an end result, the symposium demonstrated the potential of the human rights approach in accelerating the decline in malnutrition rates. The challenge, therefore, is on the way to make this approach a reality for all parties concerned.

  7. Nutrition support in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  8. Observation of Human Retinal Remodeling in Octogenarians with a Resveratrol Based Nutritional Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donn Carroll

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Rare spontaneous remissions from age-related macular degeneration (AMD suggest the human retina has large regenerative capacity, even in advanced age. We present examples of robust improvement of retinal structure and function using an OTC oral resveratrol (RV based nutritional supplement called Longevinex® or L/RV (circa 2004, Resveratrol Partners, LLC, Las Vegas, NV, USA. RV, a polyphenolic phytoalexin caloric-restriction mimic, induces hormesis at low doses with widespread beneficial effects on systemic health. RV alone inhibits neovascularization in the murine retina. Thus far, published evidence includes L/RV mitigation of experimentally induced murine cardiovascular reperfusion injury, amelioration of human atherosclerosis serum biomarkers in a human Japanese randomized placebo controlled trial, modulation of micro RNA 20b and 539 that control hypoxia-inducing-factor (HIF-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF genes in the murine heart (RV inhibited micro RNA20b 189-fold, L/RV 1366-fold. Little is known about the effects of L/RV on human ocular pathology. Methods: Absent FDA IRB approval, but with permission from our Chief of Staff and medical center IRB, L/RV is reserved for AMD patients, on a case-by-case compassionate care basis. Patients include those who progress on AREDS II type supplements, refuse intra-vitreal anti-VEGF injections or fail to respond to Lucentis®, Avastin® or Eylea®. Patients are clinically followed traditionally as well as with multi-spectral retinal imaging, visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, cone glare recovery and macular visual fields. Three cases are presented. Results: Observed dramatic short-term anti-VEGF type effect including anatomic restoration of retinal structure with a suggestion of improvement in choroidal blood flow by near IR multispectral imaging. The visual function improvement mirrors the effect seen anatomically. The effect is bilateral with the added benefit of better

  9. Enteral nutrients potentiate glucagon-like peptide-2 action and reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition in a rat model of human intestinal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkman, Adam S; Murali, Sangita G; Hitt, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    human SBS and requires parenteral nutrition (PN). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups and maintained with PN for 18 days: total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone, TPN + GLP-2 (100 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), PN + EN + GLP-2(7 days), PN + EN + GLP-2(18 days), and a nonsurgical oral...

  10. Study protocol: follow-up home visits with nutrition: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beck Anne Marie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geriatric patients are at high risk of re-admission after discharge. Pre-existing nutritional risk amongst these patients is of primary concern, with former nutritional intervention studies being largely ineffective. None of these studies has included individual dietary counselling by a registered dietician or has considered competing medical conditions in the participants. A former randomised study has shown that comprehensive discharge follow-up in geriatric patients homes by general practitioners and district nurses was effective in reducing the re-admission risk in the intervention group compared to the control group. That study did not include a nutritional intervention. The purpose of this study is to assess the combined benefits of an intervention consisting of discharge follow-up in geriatric patients' home by a general practitioner and a registered dietician. Methods/design This single-blind randomised controlled study, will recruit 160 hospitalised geriatric medical patients (65+ y at nutritional risk. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive in their homes, either 12 weeks individualised nutritional counselling by a registered dietician complemented with follow-up by general practitioners or a 12 weeks follow-up by general practitioners alone. Discussion This trial is the first of its kind to provide individual nutritional intervention combined with follow-up by general practitioner as an intervention to reduce risk of re-admission after discharge among geriatric medical patients. The results will hopefully help to guide the development of more effective rehabilitation programs following hospital admissions, which may ultimately lead to reduced health care costs, and improvement in mobility, independence and quality of life for geriatric patients at nutritional risk. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov 2010 NCT01249716

  11. Human nutrition and adaptation in Brazilian Amazon fishing areas: contributions to health policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Ferreira de Souza Aguiar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for equity in access to services is presently an important principle in public policies for health in Brazil. Social inequalities in the Amazonia occur at high levels comparatively to the other regions in the country; and, within Amazonia, they particularly affect rural communities. The present study aims to appreciate associations between food and nutritional profile, adaptive strategies, and epidemiology in these communities, specially in areas of artisanal fishery, and also to suggest general lines of appropriated health policies. The construction of a context of equitable assistance and of sustainable health, without significant damage to biodiversity, depends on the capacity of public power in exploring the relationships between use and management of natural resources and the quality of life of riverine man.

  12. Copy number polymorphism of the salivary amylase gene: implications in human nutrition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J L; Saus, E; Smalley, S V; Cataldo, L R; Alberti, G; Parada, J; Gratacòs, M; Estivill, X

    2012-01-01

    The salivary α-amylase is a calcium-binding enzyme that initiates starch digestion in the oral cavity. The α-amylase genes are located in a cluster on the chromosome that includes salivary amylase genes (AMY1), two pancreatic α-amylase genes (AMY2A and AMY2B) and a related pseudogene. The AMY1 genes show extensive copy number variation which is directly proportional to the salivary α-amylase content in saliva. The α-amylase amount in saliva is also influenced by other factors, such as hydration status, psychosocial stress level, and short-term dietary habits. It has been shown that the average copy number of AMY1 gene is higher in populations that evolved under high-starch diets versus low-starch diets, reflecting an intense positive selection imposed by diet on amylase copy number during evolution. In this context, a number of different aspects can be considered in evaluating the possible impact of copy number variation of the AMY1 gene on nutrition research, such as issues related to human diet gene evolution, action on starch digestion, effect on glycemic response after starch consumption, modulation of the action of α-amylases inhibitors, effect on taste perception and satiety, influence on psychosocial stress and relation to oral health.

  13. The Change in Nutritional Status in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients: A Retrospective Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masha'al, Dina A.

    There is a high prevalence in malnutrition among traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to the hypermetabolism and hypercatabolism which develop post injury. Traumatic brain injury patients are different, even among themselves, in their energy requirements and response to nutritional therapy. This implies that there are other factors that affect the energy intake of these patients and enhance the incidence of malnutrition. This dissertation study examines the nutritional status of TBI patients upon admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and during their hospital stay to describe baseline status, detect changes in nutritional status over 7 days, and identify the factors affecting the adequacy of energy intake and the change in nutritional status as a consequence. Anthropometric measurements, biomedical measurements, measures of severity of illness, daily health status, level of brain injury severity, and other data were collected from the medical records of 50 patients, who were ≥ 18 years old, mechanically ventilated in the first 24 hours of ICU admission, and had a Glasgow Coma Scale score between 3-12. These data were used to examine the previous relationships. Although there was no statistically significant change found in body mass index and weight, there was a significant change detected in other nutritional markers, including hemoglobin, albumin, and total lymphocyte levels over the 7 days of ICU and hospital stay. No significant relationship was found between the adequacy of energy intake and total prescribed energy, severity of illness, level of brain injury severity, daily health status, patient age, intracranial pressure, or time of feeding initiation. Findings may be used to develop and test interventions to improve nutritional status during the acute phase of TBI. This will lay a foundation for health care providers, including nurses, to establish standards for practice and nutrition protocols to assure optimal nutrition assessment and intervention in a

  14. Nutritional status in cognitively intact older people receiving home care services--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soini, H; Routasalo, P; Lagstrom, H

    2005-01-01

    Older adults are a potentially vulnerable group for malnutrition. This cross-sectional pilot study aims to assess the nutritional status of elderly patients living at home and receiving home health care services. The data were collected from patient care plans, the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a questionnaire on eating problems. In addition, serum nutritional status indicators were measured, and an oral examination including quantitative saliva measurement was carried out. Out of 71 eligible patients 51 (72%) patients aged 76-93 years participated. MNA results showed that 47% were at risk of malnutrition. Care plans for 26 patients made reference to questions of nutrition but provided no detailed forward planning. The mean serum albumin value was 39.1 +/- 3.8 g/l, seven patients had a value lower than 35 g/l. MNA scores were significantly lower for female patients with haemoglobin values lower than 120 g/l (p = 0.027). The dentist's estimation of dry mouth and subjective problems in energy intake were significantly associated with lower MNA scores (p = 0.049 and p = 0.015). Subjects with functioning natural dentition had higher body mass index (BMI) scores than others (p = 0.0485). The results point at the importance of using screening tools such as the MNA for purposes of nutritional assessment, the estimation of oral problems such as dry mouth, chewing and swallowing problems, and advance planning in nutritional issues within the field of home care.

  15. Nutritional status and eating habits of the institutionalised elderly in Turkey: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakıcıoğlu, N; Aksoy, B; Tamer, F; Yıldız, E Akal; Samur, G; Pekcan, G; Besler, H T

    2016-04-01

    As the elderly population increases in Turkey, so do the associated health and nutritional problems. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the nutritional status of elderly individuals who live in institutions. A total of 102 elderly volunteers was recruited from seven residential homes of the Ministry of Family and Social Policies in Ankara. In the consecutive years of 2007, 2008 and 2009, dietary intake was assessed using a 24-h food recall. Nutritional status was screened using a questionnaire from the Mini-Nutritional Assessment, basic characteristics were determined and anthropometric measurements were assessed. The percentage of elderly participants who were malnourished or at risk for malnutrition increased by the completion of the follow-up (P 102 cm for men was 46.4%, 45.6% and 48.1%, respectively, and the percentage of waist circumferences for women >88 cm was 75.6%, 75.6% and 81.8%, respectively. During the follow-up, significant nutritional changes were determined. To prevent malnutrition, periodical screening of nutritional status should be a priority and a standard policy for elderly people, especially for those institutionalised. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  16. Nutrition and lifestyle in european adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Gottrand, Frédéric; Huybrechts, Inge; Ruiz, Jonatan R; González-Gross, Marcela; DeHenauw, Stefaan

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a critical period, because major physical and psychologic changes occur during a very short period of time. Changes in dietary habits may induce different types of nutritional disorders and are likely to track into adulthood. The aim of this review is to describe the key findings related to nutritional status in European adolescents participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. We performed a cross-sectional study in 3528 (1845 females) adolescents aged 12.5–17.5 y. Birth weight was negatively associated with abdominal fat mass in adolescents and serum leptin concentrations (in female adolescents), providing additional evidence for a programming effect of birth weight on energy homeostasis control. Breakfast consumption was associated with lower body fat content and healthier cardiovascular profile. Adolescents eat half of the recommended amount of fruit and vegetables and less than two-thirds of the recommended amount of milk and milk products but consume more meat and meat products, fats, and sweets than recommended. For beverage consumption, sugar-sweetened beverages, sweetened milk, low-fat milk, and fruit juice provided the highest amount of energy. Although the intakes of saturated fatty acids (FAs) and salt were high, the intake of polyunsaturated FAs was low. Adolescents spent, on average, 9 h/d of their waking time (66–71% and 70–73% of the registered time in boys and girls, respectively) in sedentary activities. Factors associated with adolescents’ sedentary behavior included the following: 1) age; 2) media availability in the bedroom; 3) sleeping time; 4) breakfast consumption; and 5) season. Sedentary time was also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and bone mineral content. In European adolescents, deficient concentrations were identified for plasma folate (15%), vitamin D (15%), pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (5%), β-carotene (25%), and vitamin E (5%). Scientists and public

  17. Nutrition-related risk indexes and long-term mortality in noncritically ill inpatients who receive total parenteral nutrition (prospective multicenter study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Ma Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Cabrerizo, Lucio; Rubio, Miguel A; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C; Olveira, Gabriel

    2015-10-01

    Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is associated with an increased risk of death, in both the short and the long term. The purpose of this study was to determine which nutrition-related risk index predicts long-term mortality better (three years) in patients who receive total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective, multicenter study involved noncritically ill patients who were prescribed TPN during hospitalization. Data were collected on Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), body mass index, albumin and prealbumin, as well as long-term mortality. Over the 1- and 3-year follow-up periods, 174 and 244 study subjects (28.8% and 40.3%) respectively, died. Based on the Cox proportional hazards survival model, the nutrition-related risk indexes most strongly associated with mortality were SGA and albumin (<2.5 g/dL) (after adjustment for age, gender, C-reactive protein levels, prior comorbidity, mean capillary blood glucose during TPN infusion, diabetes status prior to TPN, diagnosis, and infectious complications during hospitalization). The SGA and very low albumin levels are simple tools that predict the risk of long-term mortality better than other tools in noncritically ill patients who receive TPN during hospitalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving diets and nutrition through an integrated poultry value chain and nutrition intervention (SELEVER) in Burkina Faso: study protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Becquey, Elodie; Ganaba, Rasmane; Headey, Derek; Hidrobo, Melissa; Huybregts, Lieven; Verhoef, Hans; Kenfack, Romain; Zongouri, Sita; Guedenet, Hannah

    2017-09-06

    The SELEVER study is designed to evaluate the impact of an integrated agriculture-nutrition package of interventions (including poultry value chain development, women's empowerment activities, and a behavior change communications strategy to promote improved diets and feeding, care, and hygiene practices) on the diets, health, and nutritional status of women and children in Burkina Faso. This paper presents the rationale and study design. The impact evaluation involves a cluster randomized controlled trial design that will be implemented in 120 rural communities/villages within 60 communes supported by SELEVER in the Boucle de Mouhoun, Centre-Ouest, and Haut-Bassins regions of Burkina Faso. Communities will be randomly assigned to one of three treatment arms, including: (1) SELEVER intervention group; (2) SELEVER with an intensive WASH component; and (3) control group without intervention. Primary outcomes include the mean probability of adequacy of diets for women and children (aged 2-4 years at baseline), infant and young child feeding practices of caregivers of children aged 0-2 years, and household poultry production and sales. Intermediate outcomes along the agriculture and nutrition pathways will also be measured, including child nutrition status and development. The evaluation will follow a mixed-methods approach, including a panel of child-, household-, community-, and market-level surveys, and data collection points during post-harvest and lean seasons, as well as one year after implementation completion to examine sustainability. To our knowledge, this study is the first to rigorously examine from a food systems perspective, the simultaneous impact of scaling-up nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions through a livestock value-chain and community-intervention platform, across nutrition, health, and agriculture domains. The findings of this evaluation will provide evidence to support the design of market-based nutrition

  19. Insights From the Diabetes in India Nutrition Guidelines Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trostler, Naomi; Varsha, V.; Voet, Hillary

    2017-01-01

    This 12-month prospective randomized cluster trial of 20 dietitians in India compared usual care (UC) and evidence-based nutrition practice guideline (EBNPG) care for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Baseline, 6-month, and 12-month data from 238 patients were analyzed. EBNPG implementation was evaluated using the Ottawa Model for Knowledge Transfer. EBNPG and UC groups achieved significant hemoglobin A1C improvements. EBNPG-treated participants were significantly more likely to meet low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and triglyceride goals at 6 or 12 months. Dietitian dropout, implementation barriers, and undetermined EBNPG intervention fidelity are limitations. Future research should assess barriers/supports and degree of EBNPG use. PMID:28232773

  20. Longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with glycated hemoglobin in youth with type 1 diabetes: the SEARCH Nutrition Ancillary Study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, Jamie L; Jaacks, Lindsay M; Couch, Sarah C; Lawrence, Jean M; Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Improved glycated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) delays the progression of microvascular and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We previously showed that higher baseline intakes of n–3 (ω-3) fatty acids and leucine are associated with preserved β cell function 2 y later in youth with T1D. Objective: In the current study, we extend this work to explore the longitudinal associations of nutritional factors with Hb A1c in youth with T1D. Design: We included 908 T1D youth with baseline and follow-up Hb A1c measurements. Nutritional factors assessed at baseline were as follows: breastfeeding status and timing of complimentary food introduction; intakes of leucine, carbohydrates, protein, fat, and fiber estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ); and plasma biomarkers for vitamins D and E, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid. We fit linear regression models adjusted for baseline Hb A1c, sociodemographic variables, diabetes-related variables, time between baseline and follow-up visits, saturated fat, physical activity, and for FFQ-derived nutrients, total calories. The vitamin D model was further adjusted for season and body mass index z score. Results: The mean ± SD age and diabetes duration at baseline was 10.8 ± 3.9 y and 10.1 ± 5.8 mo, respectively. A total of 9.3% of participants had poor Hb A1c (value ≥9.5%) at baseline, which increased to 18.3% during follow-up (P < 0.0001). Intakes of EPA (β = −0.045, P = 0.046), leucine (β = −0.031, P = 0.0004), and protein (β = −0.003, P = 0.0002) were significantly negatively associated with follow-up Hb A1c after adjustment for confounders. Intake of carbohydrates was significantly positively (β = 0.001, P = 0.003) associated with follow-up Hb A1c after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Several nutritional factors may be associated with Hb A1c during early stages of disease progression in youth recently diagnosed with T1D. In addition to

  1. A.S.P.E.N. Clinical Guidelines: Nutrition Support of Children With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sabery, Nasim; Duggan, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in children differ substantially from those in adults, and these differences are important to consider in providing both medical and nutrition care. Growth failure, wasting, and loss of active lean tissue are all associated with increased mortality and accelerated disease progression. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has improved the prognosis and life span of c...

  2. Key Strategies for Improving School Nutrition: A Case Study of Three School Nutrition Program Innovators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacheck, Jennifer M.; Morgan, Emily H.; Wilde, Parke; Griffin, Timothy; Nahar, Elizabeth; Economos, Christina D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: This case study identified common elements of three diverse New England school districts that were real-world models of improving school meals. Methods: School districts that had greater than 1,000 students, [greater than or equal to]3 schools, and [greater than or equal to]40% of students who qualified for free- or…

  3. A cross-sectional study of the nutritional status of community-dwelling people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Turnbull Elizabeth J; Porter Bob; Gray William K; Jaafar Ahmed F; Walker Richard W

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Parkinson's disease (PD) patients have an increased risk of under-nutrition, but we are unaware of any population based prevalence studies of under-nutrition in PD. The main objective of this study was to identify the prevalence, and nature, of under-nutrition in a representative population of people with PD. Methods People diagnosed with idiopathic PD from within two PD prevalence study sites in North-East England were asked to participate in this study. Those who partici...

  4. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs : a study among three generations of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on

  5. Family resemblance in fat intake, nutrition attitudes and beliefs: a study among three generations of women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stafleu, A.

    1994-01-01

    In this thesis nutrition attitudes, beliefs, and fat intake in three generations of women are described. The aim of the study was twofold: the development of methods, and to study family resemblance in food habits. Based on literature study and qualitative pilot studies a questionnaire on beliefs an

  6. Sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomanić Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to higher energy consumption, physically active people have higher nutritional requirements. In addition to other important factors for sports, such as good health and physical predisposition, adequate nutrition is a fundamental component. Sports nutrition must be well planned and individually adapted based on physical characteristics, tendencies towards gaining or losing weight, frequency, duration and intensity of training sessions. Studies have shown that a well-balanced ratio of macro and micronutrients, with the support of supplements and adequate hydration, can significantly improve athletic performance and plays a key role in achieving better results. An optimally designed nutritional program, with realistic and achievable goals, which complements a well-planned training program, is the basis for success in sports. Only when nutritional requirements are met, deficits can be prevented and performance in sport pushed to the limit.

  7. Integration of nutrition support into oncologic treatment protocols for high and low nutritional risk children with Wilms' tumor. A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, K A; Godshall, B J; Loghmani, E S; Coates, T D; Grosfeld, J L; Weetman, R M; Lingard, C D; Foland, B B; Yu, P L; McGuire, W

    1989-07-15

    Benefits and risks of nutrition support were evaluated in 31 malnourished children with newly diagnosed Wilms' tumor managed according to the third National Wilms' Tumor Study protocol. Patients were classified at diagnosis as being at high nutritional risk (HNR, n = 19) or low nutritional risk (LNR, n = 12). Ten HNR patients were randomized to central parenteral nutrition (CPN) and nine HNR patients were randomized to peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) plus enteral nutrition (EN) for 4 weeks of initial intense treatment and EN (nutritional counseling, oral foods and supplements) thereafter. Thirteen HNR patients (seven CPN, six PPN) completed the protocol. Twelve LNR patients received EN; 11 Stage I malnourished patients were randomized to 10 or 26 weeks of chemotherapy. Dietary, anthropometric, and biochemical data were determined for HNR patients at weeks 0-4, 6, 13, 19, and 26 and for LNR patients at weeks 1, 2, 5, and 26. In HNR patients, adequate parenteral nutrition support reversed protein energy malnutrition (PEM), and prevented chemotherapy and radiotherapy delays due to granulocytopenia. CPN was superior to PPN in reversing PEM: energy intake, weight gain, and retinol binding protein were higher (P less than 0.05). LNR patients lost weight and fat reserves in the first 2 weeks of treatment; depletion persisted at week 5, and 25% had chemotherapy delays. Thereafter, EN reversed PEM in patients with both chemotherapy regimens. These data suggest that CPN is preferable during initial intense treatment for HNR patients, and that, although EN is ineffective in preventing depletion and treatment delays in the first 5 weeks of treatment for LNR patients, it is effective thereafter.

  8. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC): study populations and data collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riboli, E.; Hunt, K.J.; Slimani, N.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978...... participants (366 521 women and 153 457 men, mostly aged 35-70 years) in 23 centres located in 10 European countries, to be followed for cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality for several decades. At enrollment, which took place between 1992 and 2000 at each of the different centres, information...

  9. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes; Túlio Silva Pereira; Monize Ferreira Figueiredo de Carvalho; Joana Ramos-Jorge; Leandro Silva Marques; Maria Letícia Ramos-Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2) was conducted. The case group included all children...

  10. Comparative study of nutritional status of urban and rural Nigerian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oninla, S O; Owa, J A; Onayade, A A; Taiwo, O

    2007-02-01

    Nutritional assessment in the community is essential for accurate planning and implementation of intervention programmes to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with under-nutrition. The study was, therefore, carried out to determine and compare the nutritional status of children attending urban and rural public primary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area (ICLGA) of Nigeria. The schools were stratified into urban and rural, and studied schools were selected by balloting. Information obtained on each pupil was entered into a pre-designed proforma. The weight and height were recorded for each pupil, and converted to nutritional indices (weight for age, weight for height, height for age). A total of 749 pupils (366 and 383 children from the rural and urban communities, respectively) were studied. The overall prevalent rates of underweight, wasting and stunting were 61.2, 16.8 and 27.6%, respectively. In the rural area these were 70.5, 17.8 and 35.8%, while in the urban they were 52.2, 15.9 and 19.8%, respectively. The mean nutritional indices (Weight for Age, Weight for Height and Height for Age) were found to be significantly lower among the rural pupils than urban pupils (P school children in Nigeria. This is particularly so in the rural areas. Therefore, prevention of malnutrition should be given a high priority in the implementation of the ongoing primary health care programmes with particular attention paid to the rural population.

  11. A comparative study of nutritional status between government and private primary school children of Mysore city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N C Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: School health has been acknowledged as important since the beginning of 20 th century. Nutritional status is a major component of school health services. This study was undertaken to assess the nutritional status of government and private primary school children of Mysore city. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional study design was adopted. One private and one government school were selected using multistage stratified random sampling method. A total of 1566 school children aged 6-12 years were measured for height and weight. Data on demographic details, dietary habits, and physical activity of child and education status, occupation, monthly income of their parents were collected. Results: Of 1566 children, 385 (24.5% were underweight, 132 (8.4% were overweight, and 65 (4.1% were obese. Majority of underweight children 226 (32.5% were found in government school. Except for two overweight children in government school, all overweight and obese children were found in private schools. Socioeconomic status, dietary habits, and physical activity of the child were found to be the determinants of their nutritional status. Conclusion: This study attempt to highlight the dual nutritional problem, under-nutrition among the lower socioeconomic class on one hand and growing epidemic of obesity among the affluent on the other.

  12. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  13. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut: An Extension of the STROBE Statement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Lachat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised about the quality of reporting in nutritional epidemiology. Research reporting guidelines such as the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE statement can improve quality of reporting in observational studies. Herein, we propose recommendations for reporting nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research by extending the STROBE statement into Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology-Nutritional Epidemiology (STROBE-nut.Recommendations for the reporting of nutritional epidemiology and dietary assessment research were developed following a systematic and consultative process, coordinated by a multidisciplinary group of 21 experts. Consensus on reporting guidelines was reached through a three-round Delphi consultation process with 53 external experts. In total, 24 recommendations for nutritional epidemiology were added to the STROBE checklist.When used appropriately, reporting guidelines for nutritional epidemiology can contribute to improve reporting of observational studies with a focus on diet and health.

  14. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H.; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women’s self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women’s group members to champion

  15. A qualitative study of nutritional behaviors in adults with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plow, Matthew; Finlayson, Marcia

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have explored how people living with multiple sclerosis (MS) cope with impairments and disability to participate in nutritional behaviors, such as meal preparation and grocery shopping. Thus, we conducted a qualitative study among eight individuals with MS who experienced mobility impairments. The eight individuals participated in semistructured, face-to-face interviews that focused on obtaining narratives about day-to-day dietary habits, preparing food, grocery shopping, and going to restaurants. Interviews were analyzed using an inductive category and theme development approach. Overall themes were (a) "it's a lot of work," (b) "it's not just up to me," (c) sifting through nutritional information, and (d) "why I eat what I eat." Participants frequently reported fatigue and mobility impairments as barriers to engagement in nutritional behaviors and often described family members as the "gatekeepers" for food selection and preparation (i.e., providing tangible support). Future research should explore the effectiveness of nutritional interventions that target family dynamics and create a supportive social environment to promote healthy eating habits and nutritional autonomy.

  16. The Integrated Impact of Diet On Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2017-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce flight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g.,omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, fruits, and vegetables). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of closed chamber confinement, realistic mission simulation, in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the dysregulated physiology observed in astronauts. Biosampling of crew members will occur at selected intervals, with complete dietary tracking. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Data collection will also include complete dietary tracking. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological and biochemical shifts in relation to nutrient in take and

  17. A cluster-randomised controlled trial of a physical activity and nutrition programme in retirement villages: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Anne-Marie; Jancey, Jonine; Lee, Andy H; Kerr, Deborah A; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S; Howat, Peter A

    2014-09-25

    Physical activity levels of Australia's ageing population are declining and coincidentally rates of overweight and obesity are increasing. Adequate levels of physical activity and a healthy diet are recognised as important lifestyle factors for the maintenance of a healthy weight and prevention of chronic diseases. Retirement village (RV) residents rarely engage in physical activity and nutrition programmes offered, with poor attendance and low use of existing facilities such as on-site fitness centres and classes and nutrition seminars. The RV provides a unique setting to access and engage with this older target group, to test the effectiveness of strategies to increase levels of physical activity, improve nutrition and maintain a healthy weight. This cluster-randomised controlled trial will evaluate a physical activity, nutrition and healthy weight management intervention for insufficiently active ('not achieving 150 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per week') adults aged 60-75 residing in RV's. A total of 400 participants will be recruited from 20 randomly selected RV's in Perth, Western Australia. Villages will be assigned to either the intervention group (n=10) or the control group (n=10) each containing 200 participants. The Retirement Village Physical Activity and Nutrition for Seniors (RVPANS) programme is a home-based physical activity and nutrition programme that includes educational resources, along with facilitators who will motivate and guide the participants during the 6-month intervention. Descriptive statistics and mixed regression models will be performed to assess the intervention effects. This trial will evaluate an intervention for the modification of health risk factors in the RV setting. Such research conducted in RV's has been limited. Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (approval number: HR128/2012). Dissemination of the study results will occur through publications, reports, conference presentations and community

  18. Inclusion of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes as a source of higher plant mineral nutrition in BTLSS mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Anischenko, Olesya; Trifonov, Sergey V.

    Human exometabolites inclusion into an intrasystem mass exchange will allow increasing of a closure level of a biological-technical life support system (BTLSS). Previously at the IBP SB RAS it was shown that human mineralized exometabolites could be incorporated in the BTLSS mass exchange as a mineral nutrition source for higher plants. However, it is not known how that combined use of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes in the capacity of nutrient medium, being a part of the BTLSS consumer wastes, will affect the plant productivity. Several wheat vegetations were grown in an uneven-aged conveyor on a neutral substrate. A mixture of human mineralized exometabolites and fish wastes was used as a nutrient solution in the experiment treatment and human mineralized exometabolites were used in the control. Consequently, a high wheat yield in the experiment treatment practically equal to the control yield was obtained. Thus, mineralized fish wastes can be an additional source of macro-and micronutrients for plants, and use of such wastes for the plant mineral nutrition allows increasing of BTLSS closure level.

  19. Randomized study to compare nasojejunal with nasogastric nutrition in critically ill patients without prior evidence of altered gastric emptying

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Friedman; Cecilia Lopes Flávia Couto; Maicon Becker

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Studies comparing jejunal and gastric nutrition show inconsistent results regarding pneumonia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of pneumonia comparing gastric with jejunal nutrition. Secondarily, we evaluated 28 th day Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality rate and other complications related to enteral feeding. Subjects: Age >18 years; need for enteral nutrition without contraindication for placement of an enteral tube, duration of ICU stay > than 48 h. ...

  20. Redox homeostasis in stomach medium by foods: The Postprandial Oxidative Stress Index (POSI for balancing nutrition and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Kanner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Red-meat lipid peroxidation in the stomach results in postprandial oxidative stress (POS which is characterized by the generation of a variety of reactive cytotoxic aldehydes including malondialdehyde (MDA. MDA is absorbed in the blood system reacts with cell proteins to form adducts resulting in advanced lipid peroxidation end products (ALEs, producing dysfunctional proteins and cellular responses. The pathological consequences of ALEs tissue damage include inflammation and increased risk for many chronic diseases that are associated with a Western-type diet. In earlier studies we used the simulated gastric fluid (SGF condition to show that the in vitro generation of MDA from red meat closely resembles that in human blood after consumption the same amount of meat. In vivo and in vitro MDA generations were similarly suppressed by polyphenol-rich beverages (red wine and coffee consumed with the meal. The present study uses the in vitro SGF to assess the capacity of more than 50 foods of plant origin to suppress red meat peroxidation and formation of MDA. The results were calculated as reducing POS index (rPOSI which represents the capacity in percent of 100 g of the food used to inhibit lipid peroxidation of 200 g red-meat a POSI enhancer (ePOSI. The index permitted to extrapolate the need of rPOSI from a food alone or in ensemble such Greek salad, to neutralize an ePOSI in stomach medium, (ePOS–rPOSI=0. The correlation between the rPOSI and polyphenols in the tested foods was R2=0.75. The Index was validated by comparison of the predicted rPOSI for a portion of Greek salad or red-wine to real inhibition of POS enhancers. The POS Index permit to better balancing nutrition for human health.

  1. Exploring Australian women’s level of nutrition knowledge during pregnancy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bookari K

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Khlood Bookari,1 Heather Yeatman,1 Moira Williamson2,3 1School of Health and Society, Faculty of Social Sciences, 2School of Nursing, Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Higher Education Division, Central Queensland University, Noosaville, QLD, Australia Background: The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE for pregnancy provides a number of food- and nutrition-related recommendations to assist pregnant women in optimizing their dietary behavior. However, there are limited data demonstrating pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE recommendations. This study investigated Australian pregnant women’s knowledge of the AGHE and related dietary recommendations for maintaining a healthy pregnancy. The variations in nutrition knowledge were compared with demographic characteristics. Methods: A cross-sectional study assessed eight different nutrition knowledge domains and the demographic characteristics of pregnant women. Four hundred women across Australia completed a multidimensional online survey based on validated and existing measures. Results: More than half of the pregnant women surveyed (65% were not familiar with the AGHE recommendations. The basic recommendations to eat more fruit, vegetables, bread, and cereals but less meat were poorly understood. An in-depth investigation of knowledge of nutrition information revealed misconceptions in a range of areas, including standard serving size, nutrients content of certain foods, energy density of fat, and the importance of key nutrients in pregnancy. Univariate analysis revealed significant demographic variation in nutrition knowledge scores. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the significant independent effects on respondents’ nutrition knowledge score (P<0.000 of the education level, income, age, stage of pregnancy, language, and having a health/nutrition qualification. The model indicated that

  2. Nutritional status of an elderly population in Southwest China: a cross-sectional study based on comprehensive geriatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, R; Duan, J; Deng, Y; Tu, Q; Cao, Y; Zhang, M; Zhu, Q; Lü, Y

    2015-01-01

    Few data is available on the nutritional status of old Chinese. The present study aimed to describe the nutritional status and clinical correlates for malnutrition risk in the older people. Cross-sectional study. Hospital- and community-based older people were recruited in the region of Chongqing, China. 558 individuals aged 60 years old or over between April 2011 and October 2012. Comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed and nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF). Nutrition-associated factors were analyzed, including health status (chronic diseases, depression, cognition, function impaired), social factors (education status, marital status, the type of work before 60 years old) and life style factors (smoking, drinking, diet). The mean age was 73.1±8.0 years and 43.9% were men. Prevalence of malnutrition and risk for malnutrition were 3.2% and 19.3 %, respectively. Several factors increased poor nutrition independently including self-rated health, comorbidity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, gastrointestinal disease and cognitive impairment. Fish decreased the risk of poor nutrition. The prevalence was relatively low in older people of Chongqing, Southwest China. Poor nutrition was found to be increased due to the common health problems. Thus the patients with these problems should pay more attention on nutritional status. The older people should often have fish because of their nutritional benefit.

  3. Maternal nutritional status, C(1) metabolism and offspring DNA methylation: a review of current evidence in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Salas, Paula; Cox, Sharon E; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J; Moore, Sophie E

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is growing for the long-term effects of environmental factors during early-life on later disease susceptibility. It is believed that epigenetic mechanisms (changes in gene function not mediated by DNA sequence alteration), particularly DNA methylation, play a role in these processes. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of the involvement of C1 metabolism and methyl donors and cofactors in maternal diet-induced DNA methylation changes in utero as an epigenetic mechanism. Methyl groups for DNA methylation are mostly derived from the diet and supplied through C1 metabolism by way of choline, betaine, methionine or folate, with involvement of riboflavin and vitamins B6 and B12 as cofactors. Mouse models have shown that epigenetic features, for example DNA methylation, can be altered by periconceptional nutritional interventions such as folate supplementation, thereby changing offspring phenotype. Evidence of early nutrient-induced epigenetic change in human subjects is scant, but it is known that during pregnancy C1 metabolism has to cope with high fetal demands for folate and choline needed for neural tube closure and normal development. Retrospective studies investigating the effect of famine or season during pregnancy indicate that variation in early environmental exposure in utero leads to differences in DNA methylation of offspring. This may affect gene expression in the offspring. Further research is needed to examine the real impact of maternal nutrient availability on DNA methylation in the developing fetus.

  4. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  5. The nutritional role of free sialic acid, a human milk monosaccharide, and its application as a functional food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Christoph H; Choi, Sharon S H; Baldwin, Nigel

    2017-03-24

    N-Acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NANA), more commonly known by its trivial name sialic acid, is an endogenous human and ubiquitous nutritional monosaccharide. As a bound sugar at the terminal positions of glycans NANA is known to play important roles in many biological events. The data that exist on the occurrence of the free monosaccharide in breast milk and nutrition, however, are less commonly discussed. In most foods of animal origin, sialic acid occurs as a mixture of NANA and N-glycolyl-d-neuraminic acid (NGNA), a hydroxylated derivative of NANA that is not found in humans. The dietary intake of NGNA has been identified as a risk factor for long-term adverse health effects. Therefore, we present summaries on the biochemistry, metabolism, bioavailability, and the data on NANA and NGNA levels that occur in diverse foods. Finally, we discuss the emerging data demonstrating that free NANA is linked to positive nutritional effects including pronounced antioxidative properties. These data and the extremely high safety profile of NANA justify dietary enrichment at levels that correspond to the dietary intake of NANA in infants through breast milk.

  6. Learning Method and Its Influence on Nutrition Study Results Throwing the Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin; Nugraha, Bayu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to know the difference between playing and learning methods of exploratory learning methods to learning outcomes throwing the ball. In addition, this study also aimed to determine the effect of nutritional status of these two learning methods mentioned above. This research was conducted at SDN Cipinang Besar Selatan 16 Pagi East…

  7. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : Rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, B.J.; Giesbrecht, G.F.; Leung, B.M.; Field, C.J.; Dewey, D.; Bell, R.C.; Manca, D.P.; O'Beirne, M.; Johnston, D.W.; Pop, V.J.M.; Singhal, N.; Gagnon, L.; Bernier, F.P.; Eliasziw, M.; McCargar, L.J.; Kooistra, L.; Farmer, A.; Cantell, M.; Goonewardene, L.; Casey, L.M.; Letourneau, N.; Martin, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their

  8. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their

  9. Exploring Pre-Operational and Concrete Operational Children's Thinking on Nutrition: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouse, Corey H.; Chow, Tracy H. F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In this exploratory study, we observed the process in which children make food choices from a cognitive development perspective and the implications that these choices have on the areas of cognitive development and health and nutrition education. Design: This was a cross-sectional case study that involved an in-depth examination of the…

  10. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study : rationale and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J.; Giesbrecht, Gerald F.; Leung, Brenda M. Y.; Field, Catherine J.; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C.; Manca, Donna P.; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W.; Pop, Victor J.; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P.; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J.; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M.; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offsp

  11. Non-nutritive sucking habits after three years of age: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabella Barbosa Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-nutritive sucking habits can result in negative consequences on the development of orofacial structures and occlusion. Aim: Assess factors associated with non-nutritive sucking habits in children after 3 years old. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in two stages. In the first stage, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 638 children aged 3-6 years. In the second stage, a case-control study (1:2 was conducted. The case group included all children who presented some non-nutritive sucking habits in the first stage of the study (n = 110. The control group (n = 220 was made up of children who had never presented non-nutritive sucking habits, matched to the case group for gender and age. The data were collected during the national poliomyelitis vaccination campaign, through a questionnaire applied to parents/guardians with questions related to the presence of sucking habits, sociodemographic aspects, birth aspects, and early life of the child. Statistical analysis involved descriptive analysis, chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test, and conditional logistic regression. Results: Reduction in maternal education was a protective factor for the development of non-nutritive sucking habits (education ≤8 years OR = 0.38, CI 95%: 0.16, 0.89, P = 0.025. Prematurity (OR = 3.30, CI 95%: 1.13, 9.69, P = 0.030 and a longer period using a baby bottle (OR = 1.03, CI 95%: 1.01, 1.05, P = 0.006 remained associated with a greater possibility of the occurrence of sucking habits, regardless of monthly family income. Conclusion: Non-nutritive sucking habits were associated with maternal education, premature birth, and greater time of bottle feeding in children after 3 years old.

  12. [Study of the nutritive value of grain proteins using Tribolium confusum larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaian, V M; Levitskiĭ, A P

    1985-01-01

    A study was made of the nutrition of Tribolium confusum larvae with the purpose of using them as test-organism for determination of the nutritive value of grain proteins. It was demonstrated that there is a good agreement between the content of lysine in the grain diets containing barley and corn and average daily weight gains among the insects: r = +0,85 and r = +0,75, respectively. It was noted that during nutrition with grain diets containing different levels of proteins, the growth of the insects depended on the protein quality. Experiments on the insects fed diets prepared from different anatomical parts of the grain demonstrated a high nutritive value of germ proteins. Comparative experiments performed with the diets from barley demonstrated a good agreement between average daily weight gains of rats and insect larvae (r = +0.9). The data obtained indicate that the test-organism under consideration can be used for evaluating the nutritive value of grain proteins.

  13. Ageing and COPD affect different domains of nutritional status: the ECCE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, S; Spatafora, M; Paglino, G; Pedone, C; Corsonello, A; Scichilone, N; Antonelli-Incalzi, R; Bellia, V

    2011-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ageing may contribute to malnutrition. We aimed to explore whether COPD and ageing determine malnutrition in different manners. 460 stable COPD outpatients (376 males and 84 females) from the Extrapulmonary Consequences of COPD in the Elderly (ECCE) study database were investigated (age 75.0±5.9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54.7±18.3% predicted). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment® (MNA) questionnaire. From the MNA, three scores exploring the domains of the nutritional status were calculated: body composition, energy intake and body functionality scores. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were negatively correlated with five MNA items exploring mobility, patient's perception of own nutrition and health status, and arm and calf circumferences (lowest Spearman's rho (rs)=-0.011; highest p=0.039). GOLD stages were independently correlated with body composition and body functionality scores (model r2=0.073). Age was negatively correlated with four MNA items exploring loss of appetite, fluid intake, mobility and autonomy in daily life (lowest rs=-0.013; highest p=0.030). Age was independently correlated with body functionality score (model r2=0.037). Severe COPD and ageing are independent and probably concurrent conditions leading to malnutrition. The MNA questionnaire allows a valuable insight into the complexity of components of nutritional status and may provide useful clues for treatment strategies.

  14. Concentrações de vitamina A no leite humano e características socioeconômicas e nutricionais maternas: resultados de estudos brasileiros Vitamin A in human milk and socioeconomic and maternal nutritional factors: some results of Brazilian studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julicristie Machado de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    study outcomes described average vitamin A concentrations in human milk ranging from 0.62 to 4.50 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: there was no consensus as to the relationship between the vitamin A content of human milk and a diet with a suitable vitamin A content, maternal nutritional status, maternal obstetric and demographical characteristics and duration of pregnancy. The review indicates that future studies should use casual samples of mature milk, and use high performance liquid chromatography - HPLC - as the laboratory technique in order to quantify vitamin A.

  15. Nutritional and biochemical properties of human milk: II. Lipids, micronutrients, and bioactive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Palmero, M; Koletzko, B; Kunz, C; Jensen, R

    1999-06-01

    Human milk lipids contain preformed LCPUFA in considerable amounts, which serve as precursors for the formation of prostaglandins, prostacyclins, and other lipid mediators, as well as essential components in membrane-rich tissues (such as the brain and the retina), thus affecting functional outcomes. Besides a balanced nutrient composition and a number of conditionally essential nutrients, human milk provides different types and classes of bioactive factors, such as enzymes, hormones, and growth factors, many of which appear to have a role in supporting infantile growth and development. The bioactive agents include antimicrobial factors (e.g., secretory IgA, oligosaccharides, FA); anti-inflammatory agents; transporters (e.g., lactoferrin); and digestive enzymes (e.g., BSSL). Several nonpeptide hormones (thyroid hormones, cortisol, progesterone, pregnanediol, estrogens, and artificial contraceptive) and peptide hormones and growth factors (erythropoietin, hHG, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, epidermal growth factor insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, nerve growth factor, transforming growth factor-alpha, gastrointestinal regulatory peptides and thyroid-parathyroid hormones) have been isolated and quantitated in human milk. Some of these components are also involved in the maturation of the gastrointestinal tract of the infant. In addition to the passive benefits provided by human milk, several data support the hypothesis that breastfeeding promotes the development of the infant's own immune system, which might confer long-term benefits for the newborn infant. The risk of IDDM, Crohn's disease, and atopic disease is lower in individuals who had been breastfed during infancy. Areas of major interest in human milk research include the study of human milk synthesis and the contributions of dietary composition and maternal metabolism to human milk composition, infantile utilization of human milk components, and the study of bioactive components, such as

  16. Postpyloric enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bustinza Amaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tolerance to enteral nutrition in the critically ill child with shock has not been studied. The purpose of the study was to analyze the characteristics of enteral nutrition and its tolerance in the critically ill child with shock and to compare this with non-shocked patients. Methods A prospective, observational study was performed including critically ill children with shock who received postpyloric enteral nutrition (PEN. The type of nutrition used, its duration, tolerance, and gastrointestinal complications were assessed. The 65 children with shock who received PEN were compared with 461 non-shocked critically ill children who received PEN. Results Sixty-five critically ill children with shock, aged between 21 days and 22 years, received PEN. 75.4% of patients with shock received PEN exclusively. The mean duration of the PEN was 25.2 days and the maximum calorie intake was 79.4 kcal/kg/day. Twenty patients with shock (30.7% presented gastrointestinal complications, 10 (15.4% abdominal distension and/or excessive gastric residue, 13 (20% diarrhoea, 1 necrotising enterocolitis, and 1 duodenal perforation due to the postpyloric tube. The frequency of gastrointestinal complications was significantly higher than in the other 461 critically ill children (9.1%. PEN was suspended due to gastrointestinal complications in 6 patients with shock (9.2%. There were 18 deaths among the patients with shock and PEN (27.7%. In only one patient was the death related to complications of the nutrition. Conclusion Although most critically ill children with shock can tolerate postpyloric enteral nutrition, the incidence of gastrointestinal complications is higher in this group of patients than in other critically ill children.

  17. Changes in nutritional status in childhood cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem A; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Boot, Annemieke M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Tissing, Wim J E

    2015-02-01

    Under- and overnutrition are linked to adverse outcomes during and after childhood cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the timing of weight loss and weight gain and their contributory factors is essential for improving outcomes. We aimed to determine in which period of treatment changes in nutritional status occurred and which factors contributed to these changes. A prospective cohort study of 133 newly diagnosed cancer patients with hematological, solid, and brain malignancies was performed. Anthropometric data and related factors were assessed at 0, 3, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. Despite initial weight loss at the beginning of treatment in patients with hematological and solid malignancies, body mass index (BMI) and fat mass (FM) increased within 3 months with 0.13 SDS (P nutritional status might be accomplished by increasing physical activity from the early phase of treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  18. [Study on nutritional status of primary and middle school students in Huai'an and Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Gang; Zuo, Pingguo; Sun, Guiju; Kai, Haitao

    2009-05-01

    To study the nutritional status of primary and middle school students in Huai'an and Nanjing. To discuss the factors which affect the nutritional status of students and provide evidence for intervention among them. Height, weight and hemoglobin indexes were measured among 2111 students in Huai'an and 1280 students in Nanjing. The body mass index and Rohrer index were used to assess the status of nutrition. WHO measures and standards were introduced to screen for the anemia ones. The prevalence rates of obesity, overweight, malnutrition and anemia were 9.8%, 3.6%, 17.6% and 25.3% respectively; while the prevalence rates of obesity, overweight, malnutrition and anemia were 13.8%, 8.4%, 23.2% and 22.4% in Nanjing. The height and weight of the students in Huaian were lower than the Jiangsu average levels of the students in Huai'an.

  19. Comparative study of the nutritional composition and toxic elements of farmed and wild Chanodichthys mongolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Geng, Longwu; Tang, Shizhan; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    Information of the difference in quality between farmed and wild fish is central to better ensuring fish products produced in aquaculture meet regulatory and consumer requirements. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and toxic elements contents of farmed and wild C. mongolicus were established and compared. Significantly higher crude protein content while lower moisture content in farmed fish compared to wild fish were observed (P values, the ratios of TEAA/TAA (39.84%-40.33%) were comparable to 40% and TEAA / TNEAA (66.22%-67.60%) were above 60%. Fatty acid profiles in both farmed and wild C. mongolicus were dominated by monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), with farmed fish contained much more MUFA content compared to wild counterpart (P nutritional quality of farmed C. mongolicus was inferior to their wild counterpart with respect to fatty acids nutrition, and therefore further studies should focus on the improving C. mongolicus diet in order to enhance the overall nutritional composition.

  20. Comparative study of the nutritional composition and toxic elements of farmed and wild Chanodichthys mongolicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Cheng, Xiaofei; Geng, Longwu; Tang, Shizhan; Tong, Guangxiang; Xu, Wei

    2017-07-01

    Information of the difference in quality between farmed and wild fish is central to better ensuring fish products produced in aquaculture meet regulatory and consumer requirements. Proximate composition, amino acid and fatty acid profiles, and toxic elements contents of farmed and wild Chanodichthys mongolicus were established and compared. Significantly higher crude protein content while lower moisture content in farmed fish compared to wild fish were observed ( Pcontent compared to wild counterpart ( Pelement levels (As, Cd, Pb and Hg) in comparison with wild fish, and both were far lower than the established limit standard. In conclusion, our results suggest that the nutritional quality of farmed C. mongolicus was inferior to their wild counterpart with respect to fatty acids nutrition, and therefore further studies should focus on the improving C. mongolicus diet in order to enhance the overall nutritional composition.

  1. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-16

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  2. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  3. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kovalskys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  4. Phytate: impact on environment and human nutrition. A challenge for molecular breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lisbeth BOHN; Anne S. MEYER; Sφren K. RASMUSSEN

    2008-01-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is the primary storage compound of phosphorus in seeds accounting for up to 80% of the total seed phosphorus and contributing as much as 1.5% to the seed dry weight. The negatively charged phosphate in PA strongly binds to metallic cations of Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn and Zn making them insoluble and thus unavailable as nutritional factors. Phytate mainly accumulates in protein storage vacuoles as globoids, predominantly located in the aleurone layer (wheat, barley and rice) or in the embryo (maize). During germination, phytate is hydrolysed by endogenous phytase(s) and other phosphatases to release phosphate, inositol and micrunutrients to support the emerging seedling. PA and its derivatives are also implicated in RNA export, DNA repair, signalling, endocytosis and cell vesicular trafficking. Our recent studies on purification of phytate globoids, their mineral composition and dephytinization by wheat phytase will he discussed. Biochemical data for purified and characterized phytases isolated from more than 23 plant species are presented, the dephosphorylation pathways of phytic acid by different classes of phytases are compared, and the application of phytase in food and feed is discussed.

  5. Edible Flowers—A New Promising Source of Mineral Elements in Human Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindriska Vabkova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, people are demanding more attractive and tasty food. Both the quality of foodstuffs and aesthetic aspects contribute to the appearance of consumed meals. The attraction and appeal of individual dishes could be enhanced by edible flowers. New information concerning the composition and nutritional value of edible flowers is also important and represents a sufficient reason for their consumption. The aim of this study is to contribute to the popularization of some selected edible flowers of ornamental plants involving altogether 12 species. The flowers were used to determine their antioxidant capacity, which fluctuated between 4.21 and 6.96 g of ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE/kg of fresh mass (FM. Correlation coefficients between antioxidant capacity and the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids were r2 = 0.9705 and r2 = 0.7861, respectively. Moreover, the results were supplemented with new data about the mineral composition of edible flowers (mostly, not found in the available literature. The highest levels of mineral elements were observed in the flowers of species Chrysanthemum, Dianthus or Viola. The most abundant element was potassium, the content of which ranged from 1,842.61 to 3,964.84 mg/kg of FM.

  6. Hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving total parenteral nutrition: a multicenter study. (Study group on the problem of hyperglycemia in parenteral nutrition; Nutrition area of the Spanish Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Tapia, María José; Ocón, Julia; Cabrejas-Gómez, Carmen; Ballesteros-Pomar, María D; Vidal-Casariego, Alfonso; Arraiza-Irigoyen, Carmen; Olivares, Josefina; Conde-García, Maria Carmen; García-Manzanares, Álvaro; Botella-Romero, Francisco; Quílez-Toboso, Rosa P; Matía, Pilar; Rubio, Miguel Ángel; Chicharro, Luisa; Burgos, Rosa; Pujante, Pedro; Ferrer, Mercedes; Zugasti, Ana; Petrina, Estrella; Manjón, Laura; Diéguez, Marta; Carrera, Ma José; Vila-Bundo, Anna; Urgelés, Juan Ramón; Aragón-Valera, Carmen; Sánchez-Vilar, Olga; Bretón, Irene; García-Peris, Pilar; Muñoz-Garach, Araceli; Márquez, Efren; Del Olmo, Dolores; Pereira, José Luis; Tous, María C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among hospitalized patients. Treatment of hyperglycemia with insulin is potentially associated with an increased risk for hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of hypoglycemia (capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL) in hospitalized patients receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). This prospective multicenter study involved 19 Spanish hospitals. Noncritically ill adults who were prescribed TPN were included, thus enabling us to collect data on capillary blood glucose and insulin dosage. The study included 605 patients of whom 6.8% (n = 41) had at least one capillary blood glucose <70 mg/dL and 2.6% (n = 16) had symptomatic hypoglycemia. The total number of hypoglycemic episodes per 100 d of TPN was 0.82. In univariate analysis, hypoglycemia was significantly associated with the presence of diabetes, a lower body mass index (BMI), and treatment with intravenous (IV) insulin. Patients with hypoglycemia also had a significantly longer hospital length of stay, PN duration, higher blood glucose variability, and a higher insulin dose. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a lower BMI, high blood glucose variability, and TPN duration were risk factors for hypoglycemia. Use of IV insulin and blood glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. The occurrence of hypoglycemia in noncritically ill patients receiving PN is low. A lower BMI and a greater blood glucose variability and TPN duration are factors associated with the risk for hypoglycemia. IV insulin and glucose variability were predictors of symptomatic hypoglycemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Studies of the nutritional quality of commercial ‘ready to eat‘ infant foods in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Zand Fard, Nazanin

    2011-01-01

    Infancy is a time of rapid physiological (e.g. anthropometric, immunological and neurological) development. Hence, during this period of life nutritional requirements are at their highest in relation to body mass. There is a paucity of data with respect to the nutritional quality of complementary foods manufactured in the UK for infants and young children. The primary objective of this study was to examine the nutritional value of ‘ready to feed‘ complementary infant foods on the UK market in...

  8. Nutritional and Phytochemical Study of Ilex paraguariensis Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cogoi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Yerba mate is defined as the product constituted by the dried, slightly roasted, and milled leaves of Ilex paraguariensis. However, the fruits of this species are often found in the commercial product. Nowadays the fruits are considered a byproduct. The objective of this work was to obtain the preliminary data of minerals, lipids, methylxanthines and polyphenols in the ripe fruits of I. paraguariensis. The results showed a considerable amount of total dietary fiber (42.0 ± 1.6 g/100 g and nutritionally valuable minerals: potassium (1324 ± 15 mg/100 g, iron (6.4 ± 0.5 mg/100 g, magnesium (168 ± 15 mg/100 g, calcium (150 ± 12 mg/100 g, copper (1.1 ± 0.1 mg/100 g, zinc (2.3 ± 0.3 mg/100 g, and sodium (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/100 g. The lipid content was 4.5 g/100 g. Oleic acid was the predominant unsaturated fatty acid (38.74 ± 0.75 g/100 g. Linoleic acid (1.83 ± 0,01 g/100 g was also present. Methylxanthines were quantified: caffeine (0.118 ± 0.001 and theobromine (0.0125 ± 0.0002 g/100 g. The total polyphenol content was 0.717 ± 0.001 g/100 g. The results obtained in this work suggest the potential value of the fruits of I. paraguariensis for the development of novel products in the food and pharmaceutical industries. This paper aims to contribute to the scientific knowledge of a natural by-product from industry regarding the need of foods and medicines for the new millennium.

  9. Characteristics of mineral nutrition of plants in the bio-technical life support system with human wastes included in mass exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirova, Natalia; Ushakova, Sofya; Kalacheva, Galina; Tikhomirov, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The study addresses the effectiveness of using ion exchange substrates (IES) to optimize mineral nutrition of plants grown in the nutrient solutions containing oxidized human wastes for application in bio-technical life support systems. The study shows that the addition of IES to the root-inhabited substrate is favorable for the growth of wheat vegetative organs but causes a decrease in the grain yield. By contrast, the addition of IES to the nutrient solution does not influence the growth of vegetative organs but favors normal development of wheat reproductive organs. Thus, to choose the proper method of adjusting the solution with IES, one should take into account specific parameters of plant growth and development and the possibility of multiple recycling of IES based on the liquid products of mineralization of human wastes.

  10. Grizzly bear nutrition and ecology studies in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Charles T.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Gunther, Kerry A.; Servheen, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    T HE CHANCE TO SEE a wild grizzly bear is often the first or second reason people give for visiting Yellow - stone National Park. Public interest in bears is closely coupled with a desire to perpetuate this wild symbol of the American West. Grizzly bears have long been described as a wilderness species requiring large tracts of undisturbed habitat. However, in today’s world, most grizzly bears live in close proximity to humans (Schwartz et al. 2003). Even in Yellowstone National Park, the impacts of humans can affect the long-term survival of bears (Gunther et al. 2002). As a consequence, the park has long supported grizzly bear research in an effort to understand these impacts. Most people are familiar with what happened when the park and the State of Montana closed open-pit garbage dumps in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when at least 229 bears died as a direct result of conflict with humans. However, many may not be as familiar with the ongoing changes in the park’s plant and animal communities that have the potential to further alter the park’s ability to support grizzly bears.

  11. Nutritional anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oski, F A

    1979-10-01

    The role of the metals, iron and copper, and the vitamins E, folic acid, and B12 in the genesis of nutritional anemias in infancy have been reviewed. All are preventable. The precise requirements for each of these trace elements and vitamins in the small premature infant remain to be defined. The nonhematologic consequences of these nutritional deficiencies require further study. Anemia may prove to be the least important manifestation of the deficiency states.

  12. Nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical courses of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mozaffari-Khosravi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nutrition is one of the important components of health promotion and disease prevention. However, nutrition literacy of medical students is unclear. This study aims to determine nutritional knowledge of medical students studying in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 114 medical students in clinical course of Shahid Sadoughi hospital were randomly selected. Nutritional knowledge questionnaire was completed. Each correct answer had one score and wrong answers had no score. Results: Of 114 students, 69 students (60.5% were female and 45 students (39.5% were male with the mean age of 24.1±1.5 year. The mean score of students in basic nutrition, nutrition in the life cycle and diet therapy was 4.6±2.2, 6.2±3.2 and 6.2±3.8, respectively. There was significant association between the score of nutrition course and nutritional knowledge score in all of the fields. Conclusion: The average of scores was low. Improving the nutrition courses, especially clinical aspects, during clinical education and presence of nutritionist in treatment teams will be helpful.

  13. Nutrition promotion approaches preferred by Australian adolescents attending schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Lena D.; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Background Links between socioeconomic disadvantage and unhealthy eating behaviours among adolescents are well established. Little is known about strategies that might support healthy eating among this target group. This study aimed to identify potential strategies and preferred dissemination methods that could be employed in nutrition promotion initiatives focussed on improving eating behaviours among socioeconomically disadvantaged adolescents. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conduc...

  14. Nutritional Status of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe-García, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have problems of food selectivity, implying risks of nutritional deficiencies. The aim was to compare intakes of macro and micronutrients and body mass index in ASD and typically developing (TD) children. In a case--control study, 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements were completed for ASD…

  15. Nutritional status and quality of life of cancer patients needing exclusive chemotherapy: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Sebastien; Mercier, Sophie; Moheng, Benjamin; Olivet, Sandrine; Garcia, Marie-Eve; Hamon, Sophie; Sibertin-Blanc, Camille; Duffaud, Florence; Auquier, Pascal; Baumstarck, Karine

    2017-04-27

    The aims of this study were to report nutritional status in a large panel of patients with cancer requiring exclusive chemotherapy and to study the influence of nutritional status on their quality of life (QoL). This work was a longitudinal cohort study performed at a French university teaching hospital. Eligible patients were individuals with a cancer needing treatment based on exclusive chemotherapy. Three work-ups were performed: i) before the administration of the first course of chemotherapy: T1, ii) before the administration of the second (for patients with 3 planned courses) or third (patients with 6 planned courses) course: T2, and iii) before the administration of the last planned course: T3. The following data were collected: general health (performance status) and nutritional status (weight, anorexia grading, albuminemia, pre-albuminemia, and C-reactive protein) and QoL. The nutritional status of patients with cancer was preserved. Functional impairment, the presence of anorexia, the palliative nature of the chemotherapy, and an elevated C-reactive protein dosage were independent predictive factors of a lower QoL among patients assessed at the end of chemotherapy. Although larger studies should corroborate these findings, clinicians may include this information in the management of patients with cancer requiring exclusive chemotherapy to identify the most vulnerable patients. Current controlled trials NCT01687335 (registration date: October 6, 2011).

  16. Use of dietary supplements in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition calibration study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skeie, G.; Braaten, T.; Hjartaker, A.; Lentjes, M.; Amiano, P.; Jakszyn, P.; Pala, V.; Palanca, A.; Niekerk, E. M.; Verhagen, H.; Avloniti, K.; Psaltopoulou, T.; Niravong, M.; Touvier, M.; Nimptsch, K.; Haubrock, J.; Walker, L.; Spencer, E. A.; Roswall, N.; Olsen, A.; Wallstrom, P.; Nilsson, S.; Casagrande, C.; Deharveng, G.; Hellstrom, V.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Joensen, A. M.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Martinez, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Frasca, G.; Sacerdote, C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Linseisen, J.; Schienkiewitz, A.; Welch, A. A.; Manjer, J.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Bingham, S.; Engeset, D.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is increasing, but there are few comparable data on supplement intakes and how they affect the nutrition and health of European consumers. The aim of this study was to describe the use of dietary supplements in subsamples of the 10 countries participating in the

  17. Calcium Nutrition Perceptions among Food Bank Users: A Canadian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Shanthi; Hawkins, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the differences in the food bank users' perceptions related to calcium nutrition across sex and employment status using a cross-sectional, prospective design at a large food bank in Canada. A total of 197 individuals participated for a response rate of 97%. A structured survey was developed and pilot tested before it was…

  18. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  19. Understanding consumer evaluations of personalised nutrition services in terms of the privacy calculus: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezowska, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Ronteltap, A.; Kuznesof, S.; Macready, A.; Fallaize, R.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personalised nutrition (PN) may provide major health benefits to consumers. A potential barrier to the uptake of PN is consumers' reluctance to disclose sensitive information upon which PN is based. This study adopts the privacy calculus to explore how PN service attributes contribute to

  20. Understanding consumer evaluations of personalised nutrition services in terms of the privacy calculus: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezowska, A.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Ronteltap, A.; Kuznesof, S.; Macready, A.; Fallaize, R.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Personalised nutrition (PN) may provide major health benefits to consumers. A potential barrier to the uptake of PN is consumers' reluctance to disclose sensitive information upon which PN is based. This study adopts the privacy calculus to explore how PN service attributes contribute to

  1. Trash Tells a Tale: School Studies of Food Waste as a Tool for Nutrition Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gail G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The article presents recent data on food waste in the United States, shows how several schools have built upon these data and on student interest in the subject, and suggests ways to utilize the study of food waste to stimulate learning in nutrition and in critical thinking about societal issues. (Author/AJ)

  2. Mini-nutritional assessment (MNA) is useful for assessing the nutritional status of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Kuo, Han-Pin; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Tsai, Alan C

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is often neglected in clinical practice. This study examined the usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) for assessing the nutritional status of patients with COPD. We recruited 83 patients with COPD in stable condition from the pulmonary rehabilitation unit of a medical center in northern Taiwan. Each patient was interviewed with a structured questionnaire to elicit personal and health-related data, and measured for anthropometric and blood biochemical indicators. Nutritional status was rated with two Taiwanese-specific versions of the MNA, MNA-T1 and MNA-T2. Fat-free mass was measured with bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and exercise capacity indicators with the 6-Minute Walk Test. The two MNA versions showed high agreement (kappa = 0.949) in predicting the nutritional risk, and both versions predicted the FFMI well (area under the curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristics = 0.804, p exercise (all p COPD. The MNA appears appropriate for rating the nutritional risk of patients with COPD. Routine use of the MNA may help reduce the risk of malnutrition in patients with COPD.

  3. Could nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains be introduced in Ghana? Report of a brief study that identifies opportunities and bottlenecks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de K.

    2015-01-01

    This study looks at whether introducing nutrition sensitive cocoa value chains in Ghana is feasible and recommends how this could be done. After establishing the cocoa farming and nutrition context in Ghana, the study zooms in on one cocoa producing sub-district to collect detailed data in order to

  4. A Study on Nutritional Status of Rural School going Children in Kavre District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, D I; Haque, M K; Sharma, K; Mehta, D K; Shakya, R

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood is a time of active growth in terms of physical size, mental, emotional and psychological development. Normal growth is dependent on adequate nutrition and encompasses major transformations from birth to adulthood. Nutrition is a focal point for health and well being; and has special significance in countries with disadvantages in socioeconomic and hygienic standards. Objective The objective of the present study was to assess the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among rural school going children. Method The present study was cross-sectional study, conducted on 438 rural school going children (169 male and 259 female) with the age group 4-16 years, during the period from April 2014 to July 2014. Age was recorded in year; height and weight were measured in centimeter and kilogram respectively. BMI was calculated by using standard equation. Result The present study concluded that the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were found to be 30.85%, 24.54% and 10.05% respectively among rural school going children of Kavre district. It was revealed that 37.87% was underweight, 29.59% was stunted and 11.25% was thinness among male children whereas in female children, 26.27% was underweight, 21.24% was stunted and 9.27% was thinness. Hence, high prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness were observed in male than in female children. Conclusion The present study has successfully documented the nutritional status in terms of prevalence of underweight, stunting and thinness among the rural school going children of Kavre district. The results of the present study will be useful for policy makers in their endeavor to formulate various developmental and health care programs.

  5. Maternal-child nutrition practices and pediatric overweight/obesity in the United States and Chile: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Gaffney, Kathleen F; Pawloski, Lisa R; Jaimovich, Sonia P; Campos, Maria C

    2012-10-01

    Childhood overweight/obesity is now epidemic in both developed countries and those undergoing economic transition. This study compared maternal and school-age child nutrition practices and body mass index in the United States and in Chile. Children (125 in the United States, 121 in Chile) and their mothers (116 in the United States, 101 in Chile) participated. Findings indicated that child nutrition practices were comparable, but mothers in the U.S. group demonstrated fewer healthy nutrition practices on behalf of their children. Significant associations were found between maternal and child nutrition practices. Substantially more children in the U.S. sample were overweight/obese. Implications for practice are presented.

  6. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  7. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Llopis-González, Agustín; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María

    2017-02-21

    Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI) in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height) were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs) and adequate intake (AI) values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006). Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032). When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086) and fluorine (p = 0.503). These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  8. Nutritional self-care in two older Norwegian males: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomstad ST

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Solveig T Tomstad,1,2 Ulrika Söderhamn,2 Geir Arild Espnes,1,3 Olle Söderhamn21Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, 2Centre for Caring Research-Southern Norway, Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Agder, Grimstad, 3Research Centre for Health Promotion and Resources, Department of Social Work and Health Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, NorwayBackground: Knowledge about how to support nutritional self-care in the vulnerable elderly living in their own homes is an important area for health care professionals. The aim of this case study was to evaluate the effects of nutritional intervention by comparing perceived health, sense of coherence, self-care ability, and nutritional risk in two older home-dwelling individuals before, during, and after intervention and to describe their experiences of nutritional self-care before and after intervention.Methods: A study circle was established to support nutritional self-care in two older home-dwelling individuals (≥65 years of age, who participated in three meetings arranged by health professionals over a period of six months. The effects of this study circle were evaluated using the Nutritional Form For the Elderly, the Self-care Ability Scale for the Elderly (SASE, the Appraisal of Self-care Agency scale, the Sense of Coherence (SOC scale, and responses to a number of health-related questions. Qualitative interviews were performed before and after intervention to interpret the changes that occurred during intervention.Results: A reduced risk of undernutrition was found for both participants. A higher total score on the SASE was obtained for one participant, along with a slightly stronger preference for self-care to maintain sufficient food intake, was evident. For the other

  9. Translation of Nutritional Genomics into Nutrition Practice: The Next Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Chiara; Adamski, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetics is an important piece of every individual health puzzle. The completion of the Human Genome Project sequence has deeply changed the research of life sciences including nutrition. The analysis of the genome is already part of clinical care in oncology, pharmacology, infectious disease and, rare and undiagnosed diseases. The implications of genetic variations in shaping individual nutritional requirements have been recognised and conclusively proven, yet routine use of genetic information in nutrition and dietetics practice is still far from being implemented. This article sets out the path that needs to be taken to build a framework to translate gene–nutrient interaction studies into best-practice guidelines, providing tools that health professionals can use to understand whether genetic variation affects nutritional requirements in their daily clinical practice. PMID:28383492

  10. A metabolomics study on human dietary intervention with apples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Kristensen, M.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    interpretation. Design considerations for metabolomic studies include the overall structure of the study as well as the control group, sample collection and handling, sample storage, sample analysis, quality control measures and plans for data analyses. Suggestions for designing feasible and ethical dietary......Metabolomics is a promising tool for searching out new biomarkers and the development of hypotheses in nutrition research. This chapter will describe the design of human dietary intervention studies where samples are collected for metabolomics analyses as well as the analytical issues and data...

  11. Kindergarten food familiarization. An exploratory study of teachers' perspectives on food and nutrition in kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    This exploratory study employed a netnographic approach (netnography being a research methodology that adopts the practices of ethnography in an Internet-based setting) to reveal opportunities for kindergarten food familiarization. The study analyses kindergarten teachers' discussions on seven Internet message boards regarding the various food and nutrition experiences in their classes. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted with seven kindergarten teachers to explore further the message board findings. Five opportunities for how food familiarization occurs in kindergartens emerged from the analysis. These opportunities were categorized as being either "overt": (1) nutrition lessons, (2) snack times, (3) cooking experiences, or "covert" (4) food as teaching materials, and (5) dramatic play centres. Overt refers to any opportunity centred on food, healthy eating, or nutrition, whereas covert refers to opportunities where food was involved but in a non-exclusive manner. The five opportunities are examined and discussed in terms of their implications for children's food preference development. Results should be useful for future researchers for two main reasons. First, the results demonstrate the wide variety of food and nutrition experiences kindergarten students encounter throughout the day, beyond healthy eating interventions or foods served during meals. And second, because the findings are preliminary they require further research using various methods of data collection and samples of teachers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of School-Based Nutritional Education Program among Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supinya In-Iw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the change in body weight and body mass index (BMI, as well as diet behaviors at 4 months after intervention between obese adolescent girls who participated in the school-based nutritional education program, addressed by pediatrician, compared to those who attended regular nutritional class. Methods. 49 obese girls were recruited from a secondary school. Those, were randomized into 2 groups of intervention and control. The intensive interactive nutritional program was provided to the intervention group. Weight and height, dietary record and % fat consumption, as well as self-administered questionnaires on healthy diet attitudes were collected at baseline and 4-month follow-up, and then compared between two groups. Results. There was a statistically significant change of BMI in the intervention group by  kg/m2 ( compared to the control group ( kg/m2, but no significant change in calorie and % fat consumption between groups. The attitudes on healthy eating behaviors in the intervention group were shown improving significantly (. Conclusions. Interactive and intensive nutritional education program as shown in the study was one of the most successful school-based interventions for obese adolescents.

  13. Nutritional status in Parkinson's disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, J M; Ash, S; Silburn, P A; Kerr, G K

    2013-02-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at higher risk of malnutrition due to PD symptoms and pharmacotherapy side effects. When pharmacotherapy is no longer effective for symptom control, deep-brain stimulation (DBS) surgery may be considered. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of people with PD who may be at higher risk of malnutrition related to unsatisfactory symptom management with optimised medical therapy. This was an observational study using a convenience sample. Participants were seen during their hospital admission for their deep brain stimulation surgery. People with PD scheduled for DBS surgery were recruited from a Brisbane neurological clinic (n=15). The Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), weight, height and body composition were assessed to determine nutritional status. Six participants (40%) were classified as moderately malnourished (SGA-B). Eight participants (53%) reported previous unintentional weight loss (average loss of 13%). On average, participants classified as well-nourished (SGA-A) were younger, had shorter disease durations, lower PG-SGA scores, higher body mass (BMI) and fat free mass indices (FFMI) when compared to malnourished participants (SGA-B). Five participants had previously received dietetic advice but only one in relation to unintentional weight loss. Malnutrition remains unrecognised and untreated in this group despite unintentional weight loss and presence of nutrition impact symptoms. Improving nutritional status prior to surgery may improve surgical outcomes.

  14. A Study of Awareness of Nutrition & Anaemia among College Going Students of Mahila College of Bhavnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshad Patel, Harsha Solanki, Vibha Gosalia, Falguni Vora, M. P. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The lives of young population are characterized by limited education, lack of knowledge pertaining to health aspects & also limited influence on decisions affecting their lives. Thus, awareness is one major factor for development of this group of population. Aim & Objectives: 1 To study awareness regarding nutrition & anaemia amongst young college going students. 2 To assess the impact of health awareness programme on knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Materials & Method: Present cross-sectional study was con-ducted among representative group of 68 young girls from Mrs. N.C.Gandhi & Mrs. B.V.Gandhi Mahila Arts & Commerce College, Bhavnagar city. Pre test was carried out before beginning the programme followed by post test to assess the impact of health awareness programme. Health Awareness programme was carried out by Department of PSM, Government Medical College of Bhavnagar on 24th January 2012 on Nutrition & anaemia. Results: The knowledge of girls regarding health aspects im-proved significantly after intervention. There was a considerable increase in the awareness levels of girls with regard to knowledge of nutrition & anaemia. Conclusion: The informative & educable intervention definitely has a positive effect on awareness levels which would eventually encourage expansion of knowledge & positive health habits.

  15. Poor nutrition during pregnancy and lactation negatively affects neurodevelopment of the offspring: evidence from a translational primate model123

    OpenAIRE

    Keenan, Kate; Bartlett, Thad Q; Nijland, Mark; Rodriguez, Jesse S; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Zürcher, Nicole R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies of the effects of prenatal nutrition on neurodevelopment in humans are complicated because poor nutrition occurs in the context of psychosocial stressors and other risk factors associated with poor developmental outcomes.

  16. Similar metabolic responses in pigs and humans to breads with different contents and compositions of dietary fibers: a metabolomics study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Hartvigsen, Merete; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2014-01-01

    respond similarly to a nutritional intervention. Using metabolomics, we compared the acute metabolic response to 4 test breads between conventional pigs (growing) and adult human subjects (with the metabolic syndrome). Design: Six catheterized pigs and 15 human subjects were tested in a randomized...... crossover design with 4 breads: white-wheat bread low in dietary fiber, rye bread with whole-rye kernels, and 2 whitewheat breads supplemented with either wheat arabinoxylan or oat b-glucan. Blood samples drawn 215, 30, and 120 min postprandially were analyzed by untargeted liquid chromatography......Background: In nutritional studies, pigs are often used as models for humans because of nutritional and physiologic similarities. However, evidence supporting similar metabolic responses to nutritional interventions is lacking. Objective: The objective was to establish whether pigs and humans...

  17. Animal products, diseases and drugs: a plea for better integration between agricultural sciences, human nutrition and human pharmacology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Anna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Eicosanoids are major players in the pathogenesis of several common diseases, with either overproduction or imbalance (e.g. between thromboxanes and prostacyclins often leading to worsening of disease symptoms. Both the total rate of eicosanoid production and the balance between eicosanoids with opposite effects are strongly dependent on dietary factors, such as the daily intakes of various eicosanoid precursor fatty acids, and also on the intakes of several antioxidant nutrients including selenium and sulphur amino acids. Even though the underlying biochemical mechanisms have been thoroughly studied for more than 30 years, neither the agricultural sector nor medical practitioners have shown much interest in making practical use of the abundant high-quality research data now available. In this article, we discuss some specific examples of the interactions between diet and drugs in the pathogenesis and therapy of various common diseases. We also discuss, using common pain conditions and cancer as specific examples, how a better integration between agricultural science, nutrition and pharmacology could lead to improved treatment for important diseases (with improved overall therapeutic effect at the same time as negative side effects and therapy costs can be strongly reduced. It is shown how an unnaturally high omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid concentration ratio in meat, offal and eggs (because the omega-6/omega-3 ratio of the animal diet is unnaturally high directly leads to exacerbation of pain conditions, cardiovascular disease and probably most cancers. It should be technologically easy and fairly inexpensive to produce poultry and pork meat with much more long-chain omega-3 fatty acids and less arachidonic acid than now, at the same time as they could also have a similar selenium concentration as is common in marine fish. The health economic benefits of such products for society as a whole must be expected vastly to outweigh the direct

  18. Modification of the school cafeteria environment can impact childhood nutrition. Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L

    2013-02-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: (1) foods selected by the children and (2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modification of the School Cafeteria Environment Can Impact Childhood Nutrition: Results from the Wise Mind and LA Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A.; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D.; Martin, Corby K.; Newton, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in nutrition standards for the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs assume that modification of the nutritional serving practices of school cafeterias will result in improved childhood nutrition in the school environment. The primary aim of this paper is to summarize the findings from two recent cluster randomized controlled trials (Wise Mind and LA Health) that tested the hypothesis that modification of school cafeteria environments, including changes in nutrition standards, would yield beneficial changes in childhood nutrition and healthy eating in the school lunch environment. A secondary aim was to investigate the association of participant characteristics and changes in nutrition and healthy eating. A third aim was to investigate the relationships between the food intake of children and: 1) foods selected by the children and 2) food that was uneaten during the lunch meal (plate waste). The studies used similar approaches for modifying the school cafeteria environment and both studies used the digital photography method to measure changes in food intake, food selection, and plate waste. Both studies reported significant improvements in childhood nutrition, and the LA Health study reported improved healthy eating, following introduction of the cafeteria modification program in comparison to baseline and/or control arms. These studies confirm the hypothesis that interventions that modify the school cafeteria environment can beneficially impact childhood nutrition. PMID:23154216

  20. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  1. Integration of datasets from different analytical techniques to assess the impact of nutrition on human metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eVernocchi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria colonizing the human intestinal tract exhibit a high phylogenetic diversity that reflects their immense metabolic potentials. The catalytic activity of gut microbes has an important impact on gastrointestinal (GI functions and host health. The microbial conversion of carbohydrates and other food components leads to the formation of a large number of compounds that affect the host metabolome and have beneficial or adverse effects on human health. Meabolomics is a metabolic-biology system approach focused on the metabolic responses understanding of living systems to physio-pathological stimuli by using multivariate statistical data on human body fluids obtained by different instrumental techniques. A metabolomic approach based on an analytical platform could be able to separate, detect, characterize and quantify a wide range of metabolites and its metabolic pathways. This approach has been recently applied to study the metabolic changes triggered in the gut microbiota by specific diet components and diet variations, specific diseases, probiotic and synbiotic food intake.This review describes the metabolomic data obtained by analyzing human fluids by using different techniques and particularly Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry Solid-phase Micro Extraction (GC-MS/SPME, Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR Spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy. This instrumental approach have a good potential in the identification and detection of specific food intake and diseases biomarkers.

  2. A Pilot Study of an Online Workplace Nutrition Program: The Value of Participant Input in Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C.; Kling, Whitney C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study's purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Design: Formative research was conducted with gaming…

  3. Xerophthalmia and post-measles eye lesions in children in Tanzania. A study of nutritional, biochemical and ophthalmological aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, F.

    1987-01-01

    From 1983 until 1986 a number of studies were carried out in collaboration with the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre on vitamin A deficiency and post-measles nutritional blindness.Prevalence surveys were carried out in four regions in Tanzania in order to estimate the magnitude of xerophthalmia wh

  4. A Pilot Study of an Online Workplace Nutrition Program: The Value of Participant Input in Program Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara; Houle, Brian; Bromberg, Jonas; Fernandez, Kathrine C.; Kling, Whitney C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Tailored nutrition Web programs constitute an emerging trend in obesity prevention. Initial investment in innovative technology necessitates that the target population be well understood. This pilot study's purpose was to determine the feasibility of a workplace nutrition Web program. Design: Formative research was conducted with gaming…

  5. The development of nutritional-supplement fact sheets for Irish athletes: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumpa, Kate L; Madigan, Sharon M; Wood-Martin, Ruth E; Flanagan, Richelle; Roche, Noreen

    2012-06-01

    The use of sport supplements presents a dilemma for many of those involved in supporting athletes, including coaches, families, support staff, and the athletes themselves. Often the information that they source can be incorrect and promote a biased view regarding the use of nutritional supplements. The aim of this case study was to describe the process that occurred around the development of a series of targeted educational fact sheets on a range of nutritional supplements for Irish athletes. It describes the initiation and support of the process by the Irish Sports Council; one of its subgroups, the Food and Food Supplements Committee; and the Irish Institute of Sport. A needs assessment through questionnaires was carried out to establish the most commonly used sport nutrition supplements by athletes age 16 or over in Ireland. Respondents completed 105 questionnaires over a 4-mo period in 2008-09 that led to the production of 20 supplement fact sheets. These supplement fact sheets will enable Irish athletes to access high-quality, up-to-date, scientific information about the supplements they have reported consuming. Since personal reading had a strong influence over athletes' decision-making process for taking nutritional supplements, as did scientific research, fact sheets available on the Internet from a reliable source are an ideal way to educate Irish athletes.

  6. A Study on the Dietary Intake and the Nutritional Status among the Pancreatic Cancer Surgical Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Seong; Yoon, Dong Sup; Kim, Woo Jeong; Chung, Hae-yun

    2016-01-01

    The adequate dietary intake is important to maintain the nutritional status of the patients after pancreatic cancer surgery. This prospective study was designed to investigate the dietary intake and the nutritional status of the patients who had pancreatic cancer surgery. Thirty-one patients (15 men, 16 women) were enrolled and measured body weight, body mass index (BMI), nutritional risk index (NRI), and Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST). Actual oral intake with nutritional impact symptoms recorded on the clinical research foam at every meal and medical information were collected from electronic medical charts. The rates of malnutrition at admission were 45.1% (14/31) and 28.9% (9/31) by NRI and MUST method, respectively, but those were increased to 87% (27/31) and 86.6% (26/31) after operation on discharge. The median values of daily intake of energy, carbohydrates, fat, and protein were 588.1 kcal, 96.0 g, 11.8 g, and 27.0 g, respectively. Most patients (n = 20, 64.5%) experienced two or more symptoms such as anorexia, abdominal bloating and early satiety. There were negative correlations between C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the intake of total energy, protein, fat, and zinc. The rates of malnutrition were increased sharply after surgery and the dietary intake also influenced the inflammatory indicators. The results suggested that need of considering special therapeutic diets for the patients who received pancreatic surgery. PMID:27812517

  7. Case study: nutrition challenges of a marathon runner with a gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    A new type of athlete is appearing in the offices of sports dietitians: formerly obese people who have undergone gastric bypass surgery and now aspire to be marathoners, triathletes, and other types of endurance athletes. The standard nutrition advice offered to bypass patients is contrary to the standard sports advice given to athletes. Bypass athletes need to limit carbohydrates, fluids, and energy intake and consume a protein-based diet. This case study describes the sport nutrition concerns of a woman who, after having gastric bypass surgery, trained to run a marathon (42 km). Because of her limited ability to consume food and fluids, she experienced difficulty preventing fatigue and dehydration during her long training runs and the marathon itself. She learned through trial and error how to survive the nutritional challenges and complete the marathon. Health professionals need to be aware of the potential medical risks associated with endurance exercise in gastric bypass patients. Research is needed to determine the best sports nutrition practices for bypass patients. Only then can sport dietitians better educate this small but growing contingent of endurance athletes so the athletes can meet their training and performance goals and reduce their risk of experiencing serious health consequences.

  8. Effect of tailored dietary guidance for pregnant women on nutritional status: a double-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruna, Megumi; Shiraishi, Mie; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Yatsuki, Yuko; Yeo, SeonAe

    2016-11-29

    This double cohort study aimed to evaluate the effect of tailored dietary guidance for pregnant women on dietary intake, nutritional status, and infant birth weight. Healthy pregnant women were recruited at an antenatal clinic during two phases over 2 years. The historical controls were analyzed a year prior to the intervention group. In both groups, data were collected at 19-26 gestational weeks (baseline) and at 34-37 gestational weeks (outcome measurement). The intervention included the following: (a) assessments of maternal dietary nutritional intake using the brief self-administered diet history questionnaire, (b) individual feedback based on the assessments of maternal nutritional status, (c) tailored guidance for a healthy diet, (d) original cooking recipes, and (e) goal sharing. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the outcome data between the groups. Of the 378 eligible women, 309 women had follow-up questionnaire data. Blood samples were obtained from 202 women. Despite a lack of improvement in reported dietary intake, plasma eicosapentaenoic acid (p = .002), docosahexaenoic acid (p dietary intake might partially contribute to improved nutrition in pregnant women. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Moringa oleifera: bioactive compounds and nutritional potential

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Farias, Davi Felipe; Oliveira, José Tadeu de Abreu; Carvalho, Ana de Fátima Urano

    2008-01-01

    This work aims to review the nutritional properties of the Moringa oleifera tree, emphasizing its main constituents and nutritional applications for humans and animals. Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae...

  10. A qualitative study of beliefs about food relating to child nutrition in the Lower Jimi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, Jessica; Keeble, Richard

    2006-01-01

    A previous study that we carried out confirmed that malnutrition is a problem amongst the young child population in the Lower Jimi Valley. This study begins to explore the cultural and traditional food beliefs in order to target the interventions of health services in reducing childhood malnutrition. The study was undertaken during maternal and child health clinics conducted on a foot patrol from Koinambe Health Centre in the villages of Kompiai, Komengwai, Kupeng, Injim and Kwiama. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with small groups of women to uncover beliefs regarding nutrition and feeding during pregnancy, infancy and childhood. This study has highlighted practices that nutritionally disadvantage young children. The four most significant are late weaning, restriction of foods, infrequency of feeding and the low priority given to children during meal times. It is suggested that it is the use, control and distribution of food, rather than its shortage, that contribute most significantly to the problem of childhood malnutrition in this area.

  11. 62 NUTRITION IN HIV: A REVIEW *L. M. Houtzager *Nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... nutritional status, treatment, food and nutrition interventions continues ... infection and poor nutritional status are interlinked. .... ART has on growth among infants and children ..... RN, Body composition studies in patients with ...

  12. Microcredit–nutrition education link: A case study analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this qualitative study was to provide an understanding of how the ... quantitative investigations as reported by other authors in this supplement. ... for obtaining microcredit, which in turn, helped increase women's business success.

  13. Comparing nutritional requirements, provision and intakes among patients prescribed therapeutic diets in hospital: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Megan; Desbrow, Ben; Roberts, Shelley

    Nutrition is an important part of recovery for hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional adequacy of meals provided to and consumed by patients prescribed a therapeutic diet. Patients (N = 110) prescribed a therapeutic diet (texture-modified, low-fiber, oral fluid, or food allergy or intolerance diets) for medical or nutritional reasons were recruited from six wards of a tertiary hospital. Complete (24-h) dietary provisions and intakes were directly observed and analyzed for energy (kJ) and protein (g) content. A chart audit gathered demographic, clinical, and nutrition-related information to calculate each patient's disease-specific estimated energy and protein requirements. Provisions and intake were considered adequate if they met ≥75% of the patient's estimated requirements. Mean energy and protein provided to patients (5844 ± 2319 kJ, 53 ± 30 g) were significantly lower than their mean estimated requirements (8786 ± 1641 kJ, 86 ± 18 g). Consequently, mean nutrition intake (4088 ± 2423 kJ, 37 ± 28 g) were significantly lower than estimated requirements. Only 37% (41) of patients were provided with and 18% (20) consumed adequate nutrition to meet their estimated requirements. No therapeutic diet provided adequate food to meet the energy and protein requirements of all recipients. Patients on oral fluid diets had the highest estimated requirements (9497 ± 1455 kJ, 93 ± 16 g) and the lowest nutrient provision (3497 ± 1388 kJ, 25 ± 19 g) and intake (2156 ± 1394 kJ, 14 ± 14 g). Hospitalized patients prescribed therapeutic diets (particularly fluid-only diets) are at risk for malnutrition. Further research is required to determine the most effective strategies to improve nutritional provision and intake among patients prescribed therapeutic diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nutritional behavior of cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race: a field study report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bescós Raúl

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about behavior of energy intake in ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race is scarce. The nutritional strategy during such an event is an important factor which athletes should plan carefully before the race. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the nutritional intake of ultra-endurance cyclists during a 24-hour team relay race with the current nutritional guidelines for endurance events. Additionally, we analyzed the relationship among the nutritional and performance variables. Methods Using a observational design, nutritional intake of eight males (mean ± SD: 36.7 ± 4.7 years; 71.6 ± 4.9 kg; 174.6 ± 7.3 cm; BMI 23.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2 participating in a 24-hour team relay cycling race was assessed. All food and fluid intake by athletes were weighed and recorded. Additionally, distance and speed performed by each rider were also recorded. Furthermore, before to the race, all subjects carried out an incremental exercise test to determine two heart rate-VO2 regression equations which were used to estimate the energy expenditure. Results The mean ingestion of macronutrients during the event was 943 ± 245 g (13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg of carbohydrates, 174 ± 146 g (2.4 ± 1.9 g/kg of proteins and 107 ± 56 g (1.5 ± 0.7 g/kg of lipids, respectively. This amount of nutrients reported an average nutrient intake of 22.8 ± 8.9 MJ which were significantly lower compared with energy expenditure 42.9 ± 6.8 MJ (P = 0.012. Average fluid consumption corresponded to 10497 ± 2654 mL. Mean caffeine ingestion was 142 ± 76 mg. Additionally, there was no relationship between the main nutritional variables (i.e. energy intake, carbohydrates, proteins, fluids and caffeine ingestion and the main performance variables (i.e. distance and speed. Conclusions A 24-hour hours cycling competition in a team relay format elicited high energy demands which were not compensated by energy intake of the athletes despite

  15. Nutritional intervention in cognitively impaired geriatric trauma patients: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eschbach D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available D Eschbach,1 T Kirchbichler,1 T Wiesmann,2 L Oberkircher,1 C Bliemel,1 S Ruchholtz,1 B Buecking1 1Center for Orthopedics and Trauma Surgery, 2Department of Anaesthesiology and Critical Care, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany Background: Most studies focusing on improving the nutritional status of geriatric trauma patients exclude patients with cognitive impairment. These patients are especially at risk of malnutrition at admission and of worsening during the perioperative fasting period. This study was planned as a feasibility study to identify the difficulties involved in including this high-risk collective of cognitively impaired geriatric trauma patients. Patients and methods: This prospective intervention study included cognitively impaired geriatric patients (Mini–Mental State Examination <25, age >65 years with hip-related fractures. We assessed Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA, Nutritional Risk Screening (NRS 2002, body mass index, calf circumference, American Society of Anesthesiologists’ classification, and Braden Scale. All patients received parenteral nutritional supplementation of 800 kcal/d for the 96-hour perioperative period. Serum albumin and pseudocholinesterase were monitored. Information related to the study design and any complications in the clinical course were documented. Results: A total of 96 patients were screened, among whom eleven women (median age: 87 years; age range: 74–91 years and nine men (median age: 82 years; age range: 73–89 years were included. The Mini–Mental State Examination score was 9.5 (0–24. All patients were manifestly undernourished or at risk according to MNA and NRS 2002. The body mass index was 23 kg/m2 (13–30 kg/m2, the calf circumference was 29.5 cm (18–34 cm, and the mean American Society of Anesthesiologists’ classification status was 3 (2–4. Braden Scale showed 18 patients at high risk of developing pressure ulcers. In all, 12 patients had nonsurgical

  16. Plant science and human nutrition: challenges in assessing health-promoting properties of phytochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traka, Maria H; Mithen, Richard F

    2011-07-01

    The rise in noncommunicable chronic diseases associated with changing diet and lifestyles throughout the world is a major challenge for society. It is possible that certain dietary components within plants have roles both in reducing the incidence and progression of these diseases. We critically review the types of evidence used to support the health promoting activities of certain phytochemicals and plant-based foods and summarize the major contributions but also the limitations of epidemiological and observational studies and research with the use of cell and animal models. We stress the need for human intervention studies to provide high-quality evidence for health benefits of dietary components derived from plants.

  17. Impact of Nutritional Status on Cognition in Institutionalized Orphans: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Sanjana M; Venkatappa, Kavana G; Sparshadeep, Ergod Manjunath

    2017-03-01

    Proper nutrition is critical for maximizing brain function and enhancing learning. There is accumulating evidence that early malnutrition, marked by stunting, is associated with long-term deficits in cognitive and academic performance, even when social and psychological differences are controlled. All over the world, children living without permanent parental care are at a heightened risk for under-nutrition, putting their health and development in great jeopardy. To assess the nutritional and cognitive status in institutionalized orphans which might help to formulate effective interventions for improving the nutritional status of vulnerable children in future. This cross-sectional, study included 70 children (35 orphans and 35 non-orphans). Their anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and BMI) were measured and cognition was assessed using subsets of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R): Block design and Digit span. The data obtained was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. 18.57% (13) of children had stunting, 15.71% (11) had wasting, 22.86% (16) were underweight, and 17.14% (12) showed thinness. Mean±SD of Block design in non-orphans was significantly higher compared to orphans (p-value 0·05). Mean±SD of Digit span in non-orphans was significantly higher compared to orphans (p-value 0·000). For Block design, there was moderate positive correlation with nutritional status based on Z-scores (p-value children in orphanages have high rates of both malnutrition and cognitive delay compared to the non-orphans and there was a direct correlation between both the variables. If orphanages are here to stay as a last resort for children deprived of a family there is an urgent need to improve the institutional environment in order to foster the development of millions of children in orphanages around the world.

  18. Maize—A potential source of human nutrition and health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajamul Rouf Shah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize or corn (Zea mays L. is an important cereal crop of the world. It is a source of nutrition as well as phytochemical compounds. Phytochemicals play an important role in preventing chronic diseases. It contains various major phytochemicals such as carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phytosterols. It is believed to have potential anti-HIV activity due to the presence of Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA lectin or GNA-maize. A tablespoon of maize oil satisfies the requirements for essential fatty acids for a healthy child or adult. Decoction of maize silk, roots, leaves, and cob are used for bladder problems, nausea, vomiting, and stomach complaints. Zein an alcohol-soluble prolamine found in maize endosperm has unique novel applications in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical areas. Resistant starch (RS from maize reduces the risk of cecal cancer, atherosclerosis, and obesity-related complications. This review presents a detailed view on the nutritional and potential health benefits of maize.

  19. Improving nutrition and physical activity in the workplace: a meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2012-06-01

    A comprehensive search of the literature for studies examining physical activity or nutrition interventions in the workplace, published between 1999 and March 2009, was conducted. This search identified 29 relevant studies. Interventions were grouped according to the theoretical framework on which the interventions were based (e.g. education, cognitive-behavioural, motivation enhancement, social influence, exercise). Weighted Cohen's d effect sizes, percentage overlap statistics, confidence intervals and fail safe Ns were calculated. Most theoretical approaches were associated with small effects. However, large effects were found for some measures of interventions using motivation enhancement. Effect sizes were larger for studies focusing on one health behaviour and for randomized controlled trials. The workplace is a suitable environment for making modest changes in the physical activity, nutrition and health of employees. Further research is necessary to determine whether these changes can be maintained in the long term.

  20. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy E.; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that “nutritional programming” of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health. PMID:27187422

  1. A Mouse Model for Studying Nutritional Programming: Effects of Early Life Exposure to Soy Isoflavones on Bone and Reproductive Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Wendy E; Kaludjerovic, Jovana; Dinsdale, Elsa C

    2016-05-11

    Over the past decade, our research group has characterized and used a mouse model to demonstrate that "nutritional programming" of bone development occurs when mice receive soy isoflavones (ISO) during the first days of life. Nutritional programming of bone development can be defined as the ability for diet during early life to set a trajectory for better or compromised bone health at adulthood. We have shown that CD-1 mice exposed to soy ISO during early neonatal life have higher bone mineral density (BMD) and greater trabecular inter-connectivity in long bones and lumbar spine at young adulthood. These skeletal sites also withstand greater forces before fracture. Because the chemical structure of ISO resembles that of 17-β-estradiol and can bind to estrogen receptors in reproductive tissues, it was prudent to expand analyses to include measures of reproductive health. This review highlights aspects of our studies in CD-1 mice to understand the early life programming effects of soy ISO on bone and reproductive health. Preclinical mouse models can provide useful data to help develop and guide the design of studies in human cohorts, which may, depending on findings and considerations of safety, lead to dietary interventions that optimize bone health.

  2. A clinical study of the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation during total parenteral nutrition: influence on mesenteric mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aosasa, S; Mochizuki, H; Yamamoto, T; Ono, S; Ichikura, T

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial translocation (BT) is a well-known insult during total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and a high incidence of morbidity has been reported in septic patients receiving TPN. Inflammatory cytokines were shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of critical complications following sepsis. Previous studies have indicated that supplementation of TPN with glutamine is effective in preventing BT in animals, but its effectiveness in humans is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of oral glutamine supplementation to patients receiving TPN in suppressing cytokine production of mesenteric blood mononuclear cells (M-MNC). Fifteen colorectal cancer patients were divided into 3 groups according to preoperative nutrition management. (1) TPN group: TPN with conventional glutamine-free amino acid solution. (2) Gln group: TPN with oral glutamine supplementation of 30 g/d. (3) CONTROL GROUP: oral intake of normal food. M-MNC were obtained immediately after laparotomy and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) production of M-MNC was evaluated with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. TNF-alpha and IL-10 production by LPS-stimulated M-MNC was increased in the TPN group and suppressed in the Gln group. In conclusion, oral glutamine supplementation to patients with TPN was shown to be effective for the prevention of M-MNC activation to avoid excessive production of cytokines.

  3. Hedgehog signaling is synergistically enhanced by nutritional deprivation and ligand stimulation in human fibroblasts of Gorlin syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Hiromi; Fujii, Katsunori; Shiohama, Tadashi; Uchikawa, Hideki; Shimojo, Naoki

    2015-02-13

    Hedgehog signaling is a pivotal developmental pathway that comprises hedgehog, PTCH1, SMO, and GLI proteins. Mutations in PTCH1 are responsible for Gorlin syndrome, which is characterized by developmental defects and tumorigenicity. Although the hedgehog pathway has been investigated extensively in Drosophila and mice, its functional roles have not yet been determined in human cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism by which transduction of the hedgehog signal is regulated in human tissues, we employed human fibroblasts derived from three Gorlin syndrome patients and normal controls. We investigated GLI1 transcription, downstream of hedgehog signaling, to assess native signal transduction, and then treated fibroblasts with a recombinant human hedgehog protein with or without serum deprivation. We also examined the transcriptional levels of hedgehog-related genes under these conditions. The expression of GLI1 mRNA was significantly higher in Gorlin syndrome-derived fibroblasts than in control cells. Hedgehog stimulation and nutritional deprivation synergistically enhanced GLI1 transcription levels, and this was blocked more efficiently by vismodegib, a SMO inhibitor, than by the natural compound, cyclopamine. Messenger RNA profiling revealed the increased expression of Wnt signaling and morphogenetic molecules in these fibroblasts. These results indicated that the hedgehog stimulation and nutritional deprivation synergistically activated the hedgehog signaling pathway in Gorlin syndrome fibroblasts, and this was associated with increments in the transcription levels of hedgehog-related genes such as those involved in Wnt signaling. These fibroblasts may become a significant tool for predicting the efficacies of hedgehog molecular-targeted therapies such as vismodegib.

  4. Association of Industry Sponsorship With Outcomes of Nutrition Studies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartres, Nicholas; Fabbri, Alice; Bero, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Food industry sponsorship of nutrition research may bias research reports, systematic reviews, and dietary guidelines. To determine whether food industry sponsorship is associated with effect sizes, statistical significance of results, and conclusions of nutrition studies with findings that are favorable to the sponsor and, secondarily, to determine whether nutrition studies differ in their methodological quality depending on whether they are industry sponsored. OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from inception until October 2015; the reference lists of included reports. Reports that evaluated primary research studies or reviews and that quantitatively compared food industry-sponsored studies with those that had no or other sources of sponsorship. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each report and rated its quality using the ratings of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, ranging from a highest quality rating of 1 to a lowest of 5. Results (statistical significance and effect size) favorable to the sponsor and conclusions favorable to the sponsor. If data were appropriate for meta-analysis, we used an inverse variance DerSimonian-Laird random-effects model. Of 775 reports reviewed, 12, with quality ratings ranging from 1 to 4, met the inclusion criteria. Two reports, with data that could not be combined, assessed the association of food industry sponsorship and the statistical significance of research results; neither found an association. One report examined effect sizes and found that studies sponsored by the food industry reported significantly smaller harmful effects for the association of soft drink consumption with energy intake and body weight than those not sponsored by the food industry. Eight reports, including 340 studies, assessed the association of industry sponsorship with authors' conclusions. Although industry-sponsored studies were more likely to have favorable conclusions than non-industry-sponsored studies

  5. The nutritional composition of British bread: London area study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivell, L M; Wenlock, R W

    1983-12-01

    Samples of white and brown bread, both sliced and unsliced, and of wheatgerm breads and wholemeal bread were purchased in London and analysed for a wide range of nutrients. Available carbohydrate, dietary fibre, fatty acids, riboflavin, vitamin B6, and iodine were determined in bulked samples of each type of bread and, in addition, every loaf was analysed for moisture, fat, protein, phosphorus, chloride, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, thiamin, nicotinic acid, and free and total folic acid, in order to provide an estimate the variability within each kind of bread. Virtually all the constituents that were measured in the individual loaves showed inter-loaf variation--particularly moisture contents and the levels of calcium, copper and folic acid. Unsliced loaves were more variable than sliced loaves but when expressed on a dry matter basis there were no significant differences in the nutrient levels in sliced and unsliced breads. Wheatgerm breads were relatively more homogenous products but wholemeal loaves were very unhomogenous reflecting the difficulty of accurately identifying unwrapped wholemeal loaves in retail outlets. Some differences from previously published values for all breads were found for dietary fibre, iron, thiamin and vitamin B6. Experience of sampling at retail outlets and analysis provided by this study will be integrated into the design of a planned study of breads throughout Britain.

  6. Kaempferol, a new nutrition-derived pan-inhibitor of human histone deacetylases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Alexander; Venturelli, Sascha; Kallnischkies, Mascha; Böcker, Alexander; Busch, Christian; Weiland, Timo; Noor, Seema; Leischner, Christian; Weiss, Thomas S; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bitzer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Kaempferol is a natural polyphenol belonging to the group of flavonoids. Different biological functions like inhibition of oxidative stress in plants or animal cells and apoptosis induction have been directly associated with kaempferol. The underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. Here we report for the first time that kaempferol has a distinct epigenetic activity by inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). In silico docking analysis revealed that it fits into the binding pocket of HDAC2, 4, 7 or 8 and thereby binds to the zinc ion of the catalytic center. Further in vitro profiling of all conserved human HDACs of class I, II and IV showed that kaempferol inhibited all tested HDACs. In clinical oncology, HDAC inhibitors are currently under investigation as new anticancer compounds. Therefore, we studied the effect of kaempferol on human-derived hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B as well as on HCT-116 colon cancer cells and found that it induces hyperacetylation of histone complex H3. Furthermore, kaempferol mediated a prominent reduction of cell viability and proliferation rate. Interestingly, toxicity assays revealed signs of relevant cellular toxicity in primary human hepatocytes only starting at 50 μM as well as in an in vivo chicken embryotoxicity assay at 200 μM. In conclusion, the identification of a novel broad inhibitory capacity of the natural compound kaempferol for human-derived HDAC enzymes opens up the perspective for clinical application in both tumor prevention and therapy. Moreover, kaempferol may serve as a novel lead structure for chemical optimization of pharmacokinetics, pharmacology or inhibitory activities.

  7. HEALTH SECTOR ACTIONS TO IMPROVE NUTRITION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HEALTH SECTOR ACTIONS TO IMPROVE NUTRITION: CHALLENGES AND ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... advocacy, at all levels, for increased investment in nutrition and development of human and ...

  8. Postoperative nutritional effects of early enteral feeding compared with total parental nutrition in pancreaticoduodectomy patients: a prosepective, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joon Seong; Chung, Hye-Kyung; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Jae Keun; Yoon, Dong Sup

    2012-03-01

    The benefits of early enteral feeding (EEN) have been demonstrated in gastrointestinal surgery. But, the impact of EEN has not been elucidated yet. We assessed the postoperative nutritional status of patients who had undergone pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) according to the postoperative nutritional method and compared the clinical outcomes of two methods. A prospective randomized trial was undertaken following PD. Patients were randomly divided into two groups; the EEN group received the postoperative enteral feed and the control group received the postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) management. Thirty-eight patients were included in our analyses. The first day of bowel movement and time to take a normal soft diet was significantly shorter in EEN group than in TPN group. Prealbumin and transferrin were significantly reduced on post-operative day (POD) 7 and were slowly recovered until POD 90 in the TPN group than in the EEN group. EEN group rapidly recovered weight after POD 21 whereas it was gradually decreased in TPN group until POD 90. EEN after PD is associated with preservation of weight compared with TPN and impact on recovery of digestive function after PD.

  9. Implementation of nutrition care service development plan at Banning Memorial Hospital: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Oumlil, A; Rao, C P

    1992-01-01

    Health care service markets in general and hospital care service markets in particular are characterized by many competitive developments. Hence, hospital marketing managers are forced to respond to these emerging competitive pressures. However, in formulating appropriate marketing management strategies, hospital managers need to have detailed knowledge about consumers and their behaviors in the marketplace. This paper focuses on the Nutrition Care division of the Department of Nutrition Service at a hospital and its venture into new service development. This case study is intended to emphasize the significance of acquiring adequate knowledge of customers in the health care services industry. It particularly emphasizes the critical role that this type of information concerning customer behavior plays in the development and implementation of an appropriate business expansion strategy. Furthermore, the aim of this case study is to help the reader to relate the acquired marketing information to the problem at hand, and make the appropriate marketing management decision.

  10. Carnitine status of children receiving long-term total parenteral nutrition: a longitudinal prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moukarzel, A A; Dahlstrom, K A; Buchman, A L; Ament, M E

    1992-05-01

    Nine children receiving carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition for 7.2 +/- 2.6 years since birth were prospectively studied for 3 years. Plasma values of total and free carnitine were 50% lower than those of age-matched healthy control subjects (p less than 0.02) but did not decrease further during the 3-year period. No significant abnormalities in free fatty acids, triglycerides, or cholesterol were found. The mean levels of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and of alkaline phosphatase were slightly increased (p less than 0.02) at the initiation of the study but remained in the same range 3 years later. The low plasma carnitine values appeared to be without clinical consequence after 10 years of carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition.

  11. Integrating nutritional benefits and impacts in a life cycle assessment framework: A US dairy consumption case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Fulgoni III, Victor; Heller, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Although essential to understand the overall health impact of a food or diet, nutrition is not usually considered in food-related life cycle assessments (LCAs). As a case study to demonstrate comparing environmental and nutritional health impacts we investigate United States dairy consumption....... Nutritional impacts, interpreted from disease burden epidemiology, are compared to health impacts from more tradi-tional impacts (e.g. due to exposure to particulate matter emissions across the life cycle) considered in LCAs. After accounting for the present consumption, data relating dairy intake to public...... health suggest that low-fat milk leads to nutritional benefits up to one additional daily serving in the American diet. We demonstrate the importance of considering the whole-diet and nutritional trade-offs. The estimated health impacts of various dietary scenarios may be of comparable magnitude...

  12. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Community based   cross sectional study. A total of 100 women aged 45-55 years in post-menopausal phase were selected from urban areas of district Varanasi during 2012-13. Data were collected by pretested questionnaire cum interview method.Results: - In the present study half of respondent belonged to 40-45 years age group. When they were asked about importance of nutrition during menopause 70% respondent said that they paid attention on their diet during menopause. 79% women preferred food being cooked in their kitchen. 69% women took milk in their regular diet. 95% women’s took fruits and vegetables in their diet. Only 76% have knowledge of added requirement of iron & calcium but only 59% women had iron and calcium reach foods in their regular diet.Conclusion: - In the present study about three fourth respondents knew about nutritional importance during menopause.

  13. NUTRITIONAL STUDIES ON THE CONFUSED FLOUR BEETLE, TRIBOLIUM CONFUSUM DUVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Royal N.

    1924-01-01

    The confused flour beetle (Tribolium confusum) was chosen for this study because it lives in a food which ordinarily contains no living organisms. The death rates are greater in cultures which are handled daily than in those which are not handled but when all are handled alike the results are comparable. The results from experiments with individual beetles in various kinds of flour were plotted with instars (larval stages) on the ordinate and time in days on the abscissa, using the results from control experiments in wheat flour to determine the length of the various instars from an "x = y" formula. The curves of development were found to be straight lines throughout all but the last instar. The curve for the last instar during which the larva transformed deviated from the straight line in certain foods, notably rice flour. When mass cultures were used the death and transformation curves were plotted for each synthetic food. A comparison of the curves from wheat flour and the synthetic foods shows that the first parts of the curves are very much alike in all cases and that a few resemble the control in every respect except that the transformation curve has been moved back for a considerable time. The death curves for the mass cultures are not smooth but show sudden increase in death at approximately the times of molting. These curves may therefore be compared with the records from individual beetles. PMID:19872096

  14. Toward personalized nutrition: comprehensive phytoprofiling and metabotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoxiang; Li, Xin; Li, Houkai; Jia, Wei

    2013-04-05

    Nutrition research is increasingly concerned with the complex interactions between multicomponent dietary ingredients and the human metabolic regulatory system. The substantiation of nutritional health benefits is challenged by the intrinsic complexity of macro- and micronutrients and individualized human metabolic responses. Metabonomics, uniquely suited to assess metabolic responses to deficiencies or excesses of nutrients, is used to characterize the metabolic phenotype of individuals integrating genetic polymorphisms, metabolic interactions with commensal and symbiotic partners such as gut microbiota, as well as environmental and behavioral factors including dietary preferences. The two profiling strategies, metabolic phenotyping (metabotyping) and phytochemical profiling (phytoprofiling), greatly facilitate the measurement of these important health determinants and the discovery of new biomarkers associated with nutritional requirements and specific phytochemical interventions. This paper presents an overview of the applications of these two profiling approaches for personalized nutrition research, with a focus on recent advances in the study of the role of phytochemicals in regulating the human or animal metabolic regulatory system.

  15. NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE DURING MENOPAUSE: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY IN URBAN AREA OF DISTRICT VARANASI

    OpenAIRE

    Pooja Verma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: - Menopause is a universal reproductive phenomenon. All the nutrients plays important role at the time of menopause and in prevention of diseases. Deficiency of vitamin D is one of the major contributory factors responsible for lower bone mineral density (BMD) in menopausal women. Iron deficiency anemia is common among menopausal women. The present study was conducted to assess the views on importance of nutrition & intake of various food items during menopause.Methods: - Co...

  16. Rationale, design and methods of the HEALTHY study nutrition intervention component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, B; Mobley, C; Stadler, D D; Hartstein, J; Virus, A; Volpe, S L; El ghormli, L; Staten, M A; Bridgman, J; McCormick, S

    2009-08-01

    The HEALTHY study was a randomized, controlled, multicenter and middle school-based, multifaceted intervention designed to reduce risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. The study randomized 42 middle schools to intervention or control, and followed students from the sixth to the eighth grades. Here we describe the design of the HEALTHY nutrition intervention component that was developed to modify the total school food environment, defined to include the following: federal breakfast, lunch, after school snack and supper programs; a la carte venues, including snack bars and school stores; vending machines; fundraisers; and classroom parties and celebrations. Study staff implemented the intervention using core and toolbox strategies to achieve and maintain the following five intervention goals: (1) lower the average fat content of foods, (2) increase the availability and variety of fruits and vegetables, (3) limit the portion sizes and energy content of dessert and snack foods, (4) eliminate whole and 2% milk and all added sugar beverages, with the exception of low fat or nonfat flavored milk, and limit 100% fruit juice to breakfast in small portions and (5) increase the availability of higher fiber grain-based foods and legumes. Other nutrition intervention component elements were taste tests, cafeteria enhancements, cafeteria line messages and other messages about healthy eating, cafeteria learning laboratory (CLL) activities, twice-yearly training of food service staff, weekly meetings with food service managers, incentives for food service departments, and twice yearly local meetings and three national summits with district food service directors. Strengths of the intervention design were the integration of nutrition with the other HEALTHY intervention components (physical education, behavior change and communications), and the collaboration and rapport between the nutrition intervention study staff members and food service personnel at both school

  17. Probiotic yogurt consumption may improve gastrointestinal symptoms, productivity, and nutritional intake of people living with human immunodeficiency virus in Mwanza, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Stephanie L; Hummelen, Ruben; Hekmat, Sharareh

    2011-12-01

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and significantly influences disease prognosis. Reducing immune activation due to gastroenteritis may thus help slow disease progression. Probiotic microorganisms have considerable immunomodulatory effects at the level of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. A probiotic yogurt initiative was thus established in Mwanza, Tanzania, to improve gastrointestinal (GI) integrity and reduce the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections among people with HIV. The research objective was to retrospectively evaluate the effects of yogurt supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus as an adjunct to the diet of people living with HIV on systemic and GI symptoms, daily routine activities, and nutritional intake. Eighty-five people with HIV consuming probiotic yogurt and 86 controls were interviewed. Demographics and HIV disease stage were comparable between groups. Probiotic yogurt consumers reported an ability to work a median of 2 hours more daily (P = .01), experienced a lower fever incidence (P = .01), and were more likely to achieve daily nutrient requirements for vitamin A, several B complex vitamins, and calcium (P = .02). Antiretroviral users experienced less drug-induced stomach pain (P = .02) and a lower overall impact of GI symptoms on routine activities (P = .03). The results of this study need be further substantiated because of limits imposed by the observational, retrospective study design; however, results suggest that yogurt supplemented with L rhamnosus may effectively alleviate GI symptoms and improve productivity, nutritional intake, and tolerance to antiretroviral treatment among people with HIV in Mwanza.

  18. [The "Bolsa Família" family grant scheme: the interface between professional practice and the human right to adequate food and nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Camila Irigonhé; Cuervo, Maria Rita Macedo

    2012-08-01

    The Human Right to Adequate Nutrition must be ensured through the public policies included in SAN, namely the Food and Nutritional Security campaign. Besides the income transfer geared to ensuring access to basic social rights, the "Bolsa Família" Program (PBF) is included in this context. This study seeks to analyze the operational aspects of the PBF and also ascertain whether or not the health professionals see the program as a core element of the SAN public policy. With this in mind, semi-structured interviews were conducted with primary healthcare workers involved directly both with the PBF and with the families who receive this benefit. By the end of the study, it was possible to perceive the importance of training health professionals who work in this area, because when one dissociates the social reality in which the beneficiaries live from the program objectives, this can lead to the simple mechanization of these practices. In this respect, it should be stressed that health professionals need to understand the proposals of the program as political and social strategies which, in addition to providing immediate relief, strive to overcome the problems related to poverty and hunger.

  19. NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE : A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Changes in nutritional status, such as weight loss and malnutrition, are a very common complication in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.These changes primarily affect the patients' quality of life and functional capacity and they are also independent prognostic indicators of both morbidity and mortality. The above information inspired us to evaluate the nutritional status in these patients by measuring daily oral intake and anthropom etric measures. METHOD : This cross - sectional study was conducted during the period October 2008 to April 2009. Seventy two COPD patients in the age group of 40 - 65 years, with an FEV (1 < 65% of predicted and an FEV (1/FVC ratio < 70% were included in the study. All the patients were assessed for anthropometric parameters such as height, body weight (BW, Body Mass Index (BMI, Hip Circumference, waist circumference and mid upper arm circumference (MUAC. Daily dietary intakes were calculated by 24 hour re call method with the help of cups, spoons, and glasses which were standardized with commonly consumed recipes. Standardized models of chapatti, rice, fruits, and snacks items were used for accurate data. Energy and nutrient intakes were derived using the N utritive value of Indian foods. RESULTS : The prevalence of under nutrition were (30/72 41.6% based on body mass index (<18.5 kg/m(2 and (46/72 63.8% based on mid - upper arm circumference (<24 cm.More number of patients was above 60 years of age in the income grouping 3000 - 5000 INR / month living with family members of more than 3 per house. The daily intake of food as compared to reference RDA is as follows energy 54.51%, carbohydrates 84.85%, protein60.52% and Fats 71.2%. CONCLUSION : The prevalence of u nder nutrition were (30/72 41.6% based on body mass index (<18.5 kg/m2 and (46/72 63.8% based on mid - upper arm circumference (<24 cm . Nutritional assessment should be made mandatory in order to recognize

  20. Cross-sectional study of nutritional markers in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhadra Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To note the value of serum Vitamin B12, folic acid, and ferritin in normal and high-risk pregnancies (HRPs in patients attending antenatal clinic at All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study where a total of 282 patients attending Gynaecology Outpatient Department at AIIMS, New Delhi, India were recruited. Among the 282 subjects, 251 were pregnant, and 31 were controls. The serum was tested for serum Vitamin B12, serum folic acid, and serum ferritin levels using Beckman Coulter Access 2 immunoassay. Results: The median value of serum folic acid level in pregnant women was 12 pg/ml with range being 2–20 pg/ml in contrast to 8 pg/ml with range being 3–20 pg/ml in nonpregnant female. This difference was statistically significant. (P = 0.05. There was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum Vitamin B12 level was lower in the third trimester (127 pg/ml than in first trimester (171 pg/ml and the difference is statistically significant (P = 0.03. Serum ferritin levels were also significantly lower in the second trimester (16.4 pg/ml than third trimester (24.55 pg/ml. Although the median serum folic acid level was lower in the first trimester (9.84 pg/ml than in second trimester (10.8 pg/ml and in the third trimester (13.18 pg/ml but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference in Vitamin B12 level in HRPs (median value 134 pg/ml as compared to low-risk pregnancies (149.5 pg/ml. Conclusion: Serum folic acid levels are significantly higher during pregnancy as compared to nonpregnant state. However, there was no significant difference in the median level of serum Vitamin B12 and serum ferritin in pregnant and nonpregnant group. Serum folic acid level and ferritin level were significantly higher in HRPs compared to low-risk pregnancies.

  1. [Nutritional status and Alzheimer's disease: preliminary results of the REAL.FR study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, P; Benhamidat, T; Benoit, M; Staccini, P; Bertogliati, C; Guérin, O; Lechowski, L; Robert, P H

    2003-10-01

    Weight loss is common in elderly people with dementia, particularly those with Alzheimer' disease (AD), and feeding difficulties are major issues in their care in the later stages of the disease. In this study (REAL FR for Réseau sur la maladie d'Alzheimer Français) we prospectively used the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) to examine the nutritional status of 479 subjects. Three groups of patients were studied: group 1 = 22 patients with undernutrition (MNA = 17), group 2 = 166 patients with risk of undernutrition (17 < MNA < 24), and group 3 = 291 patients without undernutrition (MNA = 24). Correlations with behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (Neuropsychiatric Inventory NPI), with caregiver distress (Zarit), and with the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) were studied. Undernutrition is more frequently associated with low MMSE (p < 0.001), high behavioural disturbances (p < 0.001) and high distress of caregivers (p < 0.001). Risk of undernutrition is also associated with NPI (p < 0.001) and Zarit (p < 0.001). These first results in a French cohort of patients with AD underline the importance of the evaluation of nutritional status and finally the follow-up of eating behavior, cognitive status and the quality of life of the caregivers.

  2. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  3. The importance of rational nutrition to human health%合理营养对人体健康的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王萌

    2012-01-01

    Rational nutrition is the material basis to maintain human life activities The reasonable meal and well balanced nourishment can ensure the necessary materials for human organism.In order to prevent sickness and diseases,reasonable arrangements for balanced diet and rational nutrition are needed.%合理营养是维持人类生命活动的基础,合理均衡营养可以满足肌体的正常需求,为了预防疾病的发生,需要进行合理营养。

  4. Predicted serum folate concentrations based on in vitro studies and kinetic modeling are consistent with measured folate concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwei, M.; Freidig, A.P.; Havenaar, R.; Groten, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The nutritional quality of new functional or fortified food products depends on the bioavailability of the nutrient(s) in the human body. Bioavailability is often determined in human intervention studies by measurements of plasma or serum profiles over a certain time period. These studies are time a

  5. Complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene interventions to improve children's nutrition and health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erismann, Séverine; Shrestha, Akina; Diagbouga, Serge; Knoblauch, Astrid; Gerold, Jana; Herz, Ramona; Sharma, Subodh; Schindler, Christian; Odermatt, Peter; Drescher, Axel; Yang, Ray-Yu; Utzinger, Jürg; Cissé, Guéladio

    2016-03-09

    Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections are common among children in Burkina Faso and Nepal. However, specific health-related data in school-aged children in these two countries are scarce. In the frame of a larger multi-stakeholder project entitled "Vegetables go to School: Improving Nutrition through Agricultural Diversification" (VgtS), a study has been designed with the objectives to: (i) describe schoolchildren's health status in Burkina Faso and Nepal; and to (ii) provide an evidence-base for programme decisions on the relevance of complementary school garden, nutrition, water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions. The studies will be conducted in the Centre Ouest and the Plateau Central regions of Burkina Faso and the Dolakha and Ramechhap districts of Nepal. Data will be collected and combined at the level of schools, children and their households. A range of indicators will be used to examine nutritional status, intestinal parasitic infections and WASH conditions in 24 schools among 1144 children aged 8-14 years at baseline and a 1-year follow-up. The studies are designed as cluster randomised trials and the schools will be assigned to two core study arms: (i) the 'complementary school garden, nutrition and WASH intervention' arm; and the (ii) 'control' arm with no interventions. Children will be subjected to parasitological examinations using stool and urine samples and to quality-controlled anthropometric and haemoglobin measurements. Drinking water will be assessed for contamination with coliform bacteria and faecal streptococci. A questionnaire survey on nutritional and health knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) will be administered to children and their caregivers, also assessing socioeconomic, food-security and WASH conditions at household level. Focus group and key-informant interviews on children's nutrition and hygiene perceptions and behaviours will be conducted with their caregivers and school personnel. The studies will

  6. Nutritional status changes in humans during a 14-day saturation dive: the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Davis-Street, Janis E.; Fesperman, J. Vernell; Smith, Myra D.; Rice, Barbara L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-based analogs of spaceflight are an important means of studying physiologic and nutritional changes associated with space travel, and the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations V (NEEMO) is such an analog. To determine whether saturation diving has nutrition-related effects similar to those of spaceflight, we conducted a clinical nutritional assessment of the NEEMO crew (4 men, 2 women) before, during, and after their 14-d saturation dive. Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after the dive. The foods consumed by the crew were typical of the spaceflight food system. A number of physiologic changes were observed, during and after the dive, that are also commonly observed during spaceflight. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were lower (P < 0.05) after the dive. Transferrin receptors were significantly lower immediately after the dive. Serum ferritin increased significantly during the dive. There was also evidence indicating that oxidative damage and stress increased during the dive. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase decreased during and after the dive (P < 0.05). Decreased leptin during the dive (P < 0.05) may have been related to the increased stress. Subjects had decreased energy intake and weight loss during the dive, similar to what is observed during spaceflight. Together, these similarities to spaceflight provide a model to use in further defining the physiologic effects of spaceflight and investigating potential countermeasures.

  7. Early enteral nutrition therapy in congenital cardiac repair postoperatively: A randomized, controlled pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Manoj Kumar; Singal, Anuradha; Menon, Ramesh; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Mohan, Alka; Manral, Mala; Singh, Divya; Devagouru, V.; Talwar, Sachin; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Adequate nutritional supplementation in infants with cardiac malformations after surgical repair is a challenge. Critically ill infants in the early postoperative period are in a catabolic stress. The mismatch between estimated energy requirement (EER) and the intake in the postoperative period is multifactorial, predisposing them to complications such as immune deficiency, more infection, and growth failure. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of enriched breast milk feed on postoperative recovery and growth of infants after open heart surgery. Methodology: Fifty infants surgery is feasible and recommended. In addition, enriching the EBM is helpful in achieving the maximum possible calorie intake in the postoperative period. EN therapy might help in providing adequate nutrition, and it decreases ventilation duration, infection rate, LOIS, LOHS, and mortality. PMID:27716696

  8. Study on existing nutritional condition of peri-urban dairies at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hasanuzzaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to observe the nutritive value of concentrate used in different dairy farms at peri-urban areas of Chittagong, Bangladesh. Ten (10 different concentrate feeds were randomly selected from ten different farms which analyzed for moisture, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, crude fiber (CF, nitrogen free extracts (NFE, ether extracts (EE, total ash (TA and acid insoluble ash (AIA and requirements of concentrate for unit production of milk was calculated. It was found that the nutritive value of individual feed concentrate of each farm varied significantly. The observed proportion of using feed ingredients was also significantly different among the farms. Finally, it may be summarized that the concentrate mixture used by the different farmers of peri-urban areas of Chittagong was different in regards to chemical composition, ingredients and amount required for milk production.

  9. The suckling piglet as an agrimedical model for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, Jack; Lin, Xi; Jacobi, Sheila K; Kim, Sung Woo; Stahl, Chad H

    2014-02-01

    The neonatal pig ranks among the most prominent research models for the study of pediatric nutrition and metabolism. Its precocial development at birth affords ready adaptation to artificial rearing systems, and research using this model spans a wide array of nutrients. Sophisticated in vitro and in vivo methodologies supporting both invasive, reduction-science research as well as whole-animal preclinical investigations have been developed. Potential applications may dually benefit both agricultural and medical sciences (e.g., "agrimedical research"). The broad scope of this review is to outline the fundamental elements of the piglet model and to highlight key aspects of relevance to various macronutrients, including lipids, carbohydrates, proteins/amino acids, and calcium/phosphorus. The review examines similarities between piglets and infants and also piglet idiosyncrasies, concluding that, overall, the piglet represents an adaptable and robust model for pediatric nutrition and metabolism research.

  10. The Integrated Impact of Diet on Human Immune Response, the Gut Microbiota, and Nutritional Status During Adaptation to a Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, G. L.; Zwart, S. R.; Young, M.; Kloeris, V.; Crucian, B.; Smith, S. M.; Lorenzi, H.

    2018-01-01

    Spaceflight impacts human physiology, including well documented immune system dysregulation. Diet, immune function, and the microbiome are interlinked, but diet is the only one of these factors that we have the ability to easily, and significantly, alter on Earth or during flight. As we understand dietary impacts on physiology more thoroughly, we may then improve the spaceflight diet to improve crew health and potentially reduce spaceflight-associated physiological alterations. It is expected that increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables and bioactive compounds (e.g., omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids) and therefore enhancing overall nutritional intake from the nominal shelf-stable, fully-processed space food system could serve as a countermeasure to improve human immunological profiles, the taxonomic profile of the gut microbiota, and nutritional status, especially where currently dysregulated during spaceflight. This interdisciplinary study will determine the effect of the current shelf-stable spaceflight diet compared to an "enhanced" shelf-stable spaceflight diet (25% more foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, lycopene, flavonoids, and more fruits, and vegetables in general). The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) 2017 missions, consisting of four 45-day missions with closed chamber confinement and realistic mission simulation in a high-fidelity mock space vehicle, will serve as a platform to replicate mission stressors and the effects on crew biochemistry, immunology, and the gut microbiome. Bio sampling of crewmembers is scheduled for selected intervals pre- and in-mission. Data collection also includes dietary intake recording. Outcome measures will include immune markers (e.g., peripheral leukocyte distribution, inflammatory cytokine profiles, T cell function), the taxonomic and metatranscriptomic profile of the gut microbiome, and nutritional status biomarkers and metabolites. Statistical evaluations will determine physiological

  11. Helminthic Infection and Nutritional Studies among Orang Asli Children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, Perak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Kin Wong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orang Asli (aborigine children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC, Kato-Katz (KK, and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33 of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33 of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97% were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs.

  12. DIVERGENCE OF FOOD AND NUTRITIONAL SECURITY- A STUDY ON WESTERN ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Digambar Chand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security and nutritional security are the subsets of livelihood security. Poor nutritional outcomes of infants and children arise from the poor health status of women, overall poverty, lack of hygiene and inadequate health facilities. The study discusses the divergence between food security and nutritional security in the state as a whole and the region in particular.A multi stage random sampling technique has been adopted for the collection of data.Statistical analysis used for drawing valid inferences are testing of hypothesis, chi square test, regression analysis and fitting of trend lines. In the present study an attempt has been made to address the issues namely: i incidence of malnutrition and food insecurity through three critical links viz. children, adolescent girls and women, ii surplus/deficit of production of cereals, pulses, food grains and oilseeds as per requirement iii trends of production and availability of secondary diets such as egg, meat, fish and milk iv indicators of malnutrition. Production must be diversified from cereal crop production like paddy to other crops.A life-cycle approach to management was adopted that integrates strategy, people resources, processes and measurements to improve.

  13. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie I. Siebler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55% and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%; modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86% and sleeping problems (35.56%. There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms.

  14. Prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment: Oxford Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P B; Lambert, B; Rose, M; Ford-Adams, M; Johnson, A; Griffiths, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment within a defined geographical area. In a cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to 377 parents of children (aged 4 to 13 years) on the Oxford Register of Early Childhood Impairments with oromotor dysfunction. The return rate was 72%. Of these, 93% had cerebral palsy; 47% were unable to walk; 78% had speech difficulty; and 28% continuous drooling of saliva. Gastrointestinal problems were commonly encountered: 59% were constipated; 22% had significant problems with vomiting, and 31% had suffered at least one chest infection in the previous 6 months. Feeding problems were prevalent: 89% needed help with feeding and 56% choked with food; 20% of parents described feeding as stressful and unenjoyable. Prolonged feeding times (3h/day) were reported by 28%. Only 8% of participants received caloric supplements and 8% were fed via gastrostomy tube. Even though 38% of respondents considered their child to be underweight, 64% of children had never had their feeding and nutrition assessed. The results highlight that feeding problems in children with neurological impairment are common and severe, causing parental concern. Many of these children would benefit from nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  15. Nutritional Risk, Micronutrient Status and Clinical Outcomes: A Prospective Observational Study in an Infectious Disease Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguzhan Sıtkı Dizdar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional status and micronutrient levels of hospitalized patients in an infectious disease clinic and investigate their association with adverse clinical outcomes. The nutritional status of the study participants was assessed using the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002 and micronutrient levels and routine biochemical parameters were tested within the first 24 h of the patient’s admission. The incidence of zinc, selenium, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 deficiency were 66.7% (n = 40, 46.6% (n = 29, 39.7% (n = 27, 35.3% (n = 24, 14.1% (n = 9, respectively. Selenium levels were significantly higher in patients with urinary tract infections, but lower in soft tissue infections. Copper levels were significantly higher in patients with soft tissue infections. In the Cox regression models, lower albumin, higher serum lactate dehydrogenase levels and higher NRS-2002 scores were associated with increased death. Thiamine, selenium, zinc and vitamin B6 deficiencies but not chromium deficiencies are common in infectious disease clinics. New associations were found between micronutrient levels and infection type and their adverse clinical outcomes. Hypoalbuminemia and a high NRS-2002 score had the greatest accuracy in predicting death, systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis on admission.

  16. Stakeholders’ Views on Factors Influencing Nutrition Policy: a Qualitative Study Across Ten European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeruszka-Bielak Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to identify the main factors influencing micronutrient policies in the opinion of policy actors in ten European countries. Study was carried out during Jan-Nov 2010 in European countries: the Czech Republic, Denmark, England, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland and Spain. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with representatives of stakeholders involved in the vitamin D, folate and iodine policy making process. Fifty eight key informants representing mainly scientific advisory bodies (n=24 and governmental organisations (n=19 participated in the study. The remaining interviewees represented non-governmental organisations (n=6, industry (n=4 or were independent academic or health professional experts (n=5. Data were analysed by theoretical interpretative thematic analysis. Insights from interviewees on the development of micronutrient policies were grouped using the Public Health Nutrition Policy-making model. The main factors influencing the micronutrient policies were: systematic monitoring of nutrition and health, causal relationships between consumers’ diet-related behaviours and health outcomes, scientific recommendations from national bodies (Science area; scientific recommendations from international authorities and experiences of other countries, EU legislation, cultural factors (Wider context and political environment, national capacity to deal with the problem, national legislation, economics, stakeholder engagement, relationships between stakeholders (Policy and institutions area. The spectrum and weight of the factors influencing nutritional policy depends on nutrient, country and degree of its “advanced status” within nutrition policy, political environment, culture and socio-economic conditions as well as the point of view (who is expressing the opinion.

  17. Fecal nitrogen concentration as a nutritional quality indicator for European rabbit ecological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Gil-Jiménez

    Full Text Available Measuring the quality of the nutritional resources available to wild herbivores is critical to understanding trophic regulation processes. However, the direct assessment of dietary nutritional characteristics is usually difficult, which hampers monitoring nutritional constraints in natural populations. The feeding ecology of ruminant herbivores has been often assessed by analyzing fecal nitrogen (FN concentrations, although this method has been less evaluated in other taxa. This study analyzed the suitability of FN as an indicator of ingesta quality in the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, which is a keystone lagomorph species in Mediterranean ecosystems and of great conservation interest. Firstly, domestic O. cuniculus were used to evaluate under experimental conditions the accuracy of total FN and the metabolic FN as diet quality indicators of forages with characteristics similar to those available under natural conditions. Secondly, the accuracy of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS to calculate FN was tested using partial least squares regression. Thirdly, a pilot field study was conducted to monitor FN dynamics from wild O. cuniculus in three different habitats during wet and drought periods. A strong association was found between diet type and total FN and metabolic FN (Pseudo-R(2 ≥ 0.89. It was also found that NIRS calibrations were accurate for depicting nitrogen concentrations (R(2 > 0.98 between NIRS and chemical results. Finally, the seasonal FN dynamics measured in the field were consistent with current knowledge on vegetation dynamics and forage limitations in the three habitats. The results support the use of NIRS methods and FN indices as a reliable and affordable approach to monitoring the nutritional quality of rabbit habitats. Potential applications include the assessment of the mechanistic relationships between resource limitations and population abundance, e.g., in relation to natural drought cycles and to habitat

  18. A bibliometric study of food and nutrition education programmes and interventions in schools in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Trescastro-López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: 13.9% of children and young people in Spain today are obese, and 26.3% are overweight. It is therefore essential that healthy eating habits be developed early in life. Food and nutrition education, taught as part of health education programmes in schools, plays a fundamental role in instilling this behaviour. Te main goal of this publication was to conduct a bibliometric review in order to analyse the literature on food and nutrition education programmes and interventions in schools in Spain which have been shown to influence health and/or school children’s eating habits.Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study of the results obtained from a literature search of the databases Medline, Cochrane Library Plus en Español, Cuiden, Excelencia clínica, IBECS, Scielo, CSIC (ICYT, ISOC e IME, Lilacs, Cuidatge y Teseo. A study of bibliometric indicators: databases, journals, documents published, languages, authorship, index of collaboration, and degree of obsolescence (Burton and Kebler half-life, and Price index.Results: The search provided a total of 148 citations. The final percentage of relevant articles was 49 (33.11%. The database that provided the highest number of pertinent citations was Medline, accounting 24 (48.98%. 42 of the selected citations (85.71% corresponded to original articles. The journal with the largest number of papers was Nutrición Hospitalaria (Hospital Nutrition, accounting 11 (22.45%. The Burton and Kebler half-life was 6 years and the Price index was 42.86%.Conclusions: Many academic articles have been published concerning food and nutrition education programmes in schools in Spain, indicating the importance of acquiring healthy eating habits and behaviours in childhood and the interest this subject arouses.

  19. The impact of nutritional labels and socioeconomic status on energy intake. An experimental field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Rachel A; Jebb, Susan A; Hankins, Matthew; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-10-01

    There is some evidence for paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake particularly amongst restrained eaters and those with a higher body mass index (BMI) resulting in greater consumption of energy from foods with a positive health message (e.g. "low-fat") compared with the same foods, unlabelled. This study aimed to investigate, in a UK general population sample, the likelihood of paradoxical effects of nutritional labelling on energy intake. Participants (n = 287) attended a London cinema and were offered a large tub of salted or toffee popcorn. Participants were randomised to receive their selected flavour with one of three labels: a green low-fat label, a red high-fat label or no label. Participants watched two film clips while completing measures of demographic characteristics, emotional state and taste of the popcorn. Following the experiment, popcorn consumption was measured. There were no main effects of nutritional labelling on consumption. Contrary to predictions neither BMI nor weight concern moderated the effect of label on consumption. There was a three-way interaction between low-fat label, weight concern and socioeconomic status (SES) such that weight-concerned participants of higher SES who saw a low-fat label consumed more than weight unconcerned participants of similar SES (t = -2.7, P = .04). By contrast, weight-concerned participants of lower SES seeing either type of label, consumed less than those seeing no label (t = -2.04, P = .04). Nutritional labelling may have different effects in different socioeconomic groups. Further studies are required to understand fully the possible contribution of food labelling to health inequalities.

  20. Nutritional care and support among adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafese, Zelalem; Birhan, Yifru; Abebe, Hiwot

    2013-11-01

    Background Improving nutritional care and support for people living with HIV (PLHIV) is an integral part of comprehensive HIV treatment according to the National Nutritional Strategy of Ethiopia. However, there is no adequate published study that assesses the nutritional care and support services for adult people living with HIV/ AIDS (PLHIV) in this setting. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the existing nutritional care and support services and determine the challenges facing adults living with HIV at Hawassa Referral Hospital in southern Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative study was carried out using focus group discussions (FGDs), in-depth interviews and participant observation. Four FDGs were held and five in-depth interviews were conducted. A two-week participant observation was also conducted by trained nurses. All interviews and FDGs were tape-recorded and transcribed; those conducted in Amharic were translated back to English. Finally thematic analysis of the transcripts was performed. Results Most of the FDG participants were unsatisfied with their nutritional care and support services and expressed difficulty with disclosing their HIV status for fear of stigma and discrimination. The in-depth interviews and participant observation showed results similar to those of the FDG. Some key informants expressed a fear that such poor nutritional care and support may threaten the quality of life of people living with HIV and suggested that all stakeholders work on improving the services. Conclusion Current nutritional care and support services for people living with HIV are not well coordinated. They focus mainly on monthly supplementation of antiretroviral drugs and occasional handouts of food. The need to provide health education on antiretroviral drugs and nutrition, and to emphasise strategies aimed at improving the nutritional status of peoples living with HIV is critical. Furthermore, the study recommended strengthening the initiatives of some

  1. Vitamins B1, B2, B3 and B9 - Occurrence, Biosynthesis Pathways and Functions in Human Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Natalia; Zawrotniak, Marcin; Gogol, Mariusz; Kozik, Andrzej; Rapala-Kozik, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Vitamins are chemical compounds whose derivatives are involved in vital metabolic pathways of all living organisms. The complete endogenous biosynthesis of vitamins can be performed by many bacteria, yeast and plants, but humans need to acquire most of these essential nutrients with food. In recent years, new types of action of the well-recognized vitamins or their more sophisticated relationships have been reported. In this review we present the current knowledge of factors that can influence the yield and regulation of vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B9 biosynthesis in plants which can be important for human nutrition. A summary of modern methods applied for vitamin analysis in biological materials is also provided. Contributions of selected vitamins to the homeostasis of the human organism, as well as their relations to the progress or prevention of some important diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are discussed in the light of recent investigations. Better understanding of the mechanisms of vitamin uptake by human tissues and possible metabolic or genetic backgrounds of vitamin deficiencies can open new perspectives on the medical strategies and biotechnological processes of food fortification. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention.

  3. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF NUTRITIONAL INTERVENTION MEASURES ON CHILDREN WITH SEVERE ACUTE MALNUTRITION ADMITTED IN NUTRITION REHABILITATION CENTER AT CIVIL HOSPITAL BAIRAGARH, BHOPAL, MADHYA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The state of Madhya Pradesh has 1.3 million severely malnourished children. Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs were started in the state to control severe malnutrition and decrease the prevalence of severe malnourished children to less than 1% among c hildren aged 1 – 5 years. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of nutritional interventional measures for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM admitted in Nutrition Rehabilitation Center by reviewing anthropometric indicators. Material and methods: The p resent study was conducted from July 2014 to December 2014; all children admitted during the study period in NRC civil hospital Bairagarh, Bhopal were observed during their stay at NRC to analyze the effect of interventional measures on select anthropometr ic and outcome indicators. The data were entered into Microsoft excel spreadsheet and analyzed. RESULT: 61.8 % of the total 102 children admitted were female, 42.1% were in the age group of 13 – 24 months and 34.3% in the age group of 0 - 12 months. About 60% of the population belonged to schedule caste and tribe. The mean weight at admission was 6.4 kg and on discharge 7.09 kg. Of the total 102, 8 children defaulted and 92 were discharged amongst them 66.3% were recovered. CONCLUSION: The study reveals a propo rtion of 66.3% children amongst the study group recovered with at least 15% weight gain of initial weight

  4. A study on the consumer's perception of front-of-pack nutrition labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the present situation for front of pack labeling in Korea and the perception of consumers for the new system of labeling, front of pack labeling, based on the consumer survey. We investigated the number of processed foods with front of pack labeling in one retailer in Youngin-si. And we also surveyed 1,019 participants nationwide whose ages were from 20 to 49; the knowledge of nutrition labeling, the knowledge of 'front of pack labeling', and the opinion about the labeling system. The data were analyzed using SAS statistics program. The results were as follows: 13.4% of processed foods had front of pack labeling, and 16.8% of the consumers always checked the nutrition labeling, while 32.7% of the consumers seldom checked it. In addition, 44.3% of the consumers think that 'front of pack labeling' is necessary, and 58.3% of the consumers think it is important to show the percentage of daily value as a way of 'front of pack labeling'. However, 32% of the consumer think the possibility of 'front of pack labeling' is slim. Meanwhile, 58.3% of the consumers think that it is important to have the color difference according to contents. The number of favorite nutrients in the front of pack was four or five. It seems that the recognition of current nutrition labeling has the influence on the willingness of using the future 'front of pack labeling'. Along with our study, the policy for 'front of pack labeling' has to be updated and improved constantly since 'front of pack labeling' helps consumer understand nutrition facts. PMID:20098583

  5. Nutritional assessment of hospitalized patients in Latin America: association with prognostic variables: The ENHOLA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Castillo Pineda

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The prevalence of hospital malnutrition (HM is variable, explained by the variability of patients, the nutritional evaluation method used among others. The aim is to determine the frequency of malnutrition in hospitals in Latin America, and estimate its association with mortality and length of hospital stay. Methods: This is an analytical, observational cohort study that included 7,973 patients of both genders, 18 and older, who provided their consent. The survey was administered during the first three days of admission. The nutritional status was estimated using Subjective Global Assessment (SGA and the Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS, body mass index (BMI, percentage of change of weight (PCW and co-morbidities. Serum albumin was obtained from the clinical chart. Length of stay (LOS and the survival status at discharge (dead or alive were also recorded. Results: By SGA: 10.9% had severe malnutrition and 34% moderate malnutrition. By NRS: 36.9% had nutritional risk. Univariate analysis showed that NRS score and serum albumin were prognostic factors for mortality: NRS 3-4 (OR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.9-2.8, NRS 5-7 (OR: 5.8, 95% CI: 4.9-6.9, serum albumin < 2.5 g/dl, (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 2.2-3.8. These results were consistent and similar to a multivariate analysis. Both NRS and serum albumin were also independently and clinically associated to LOS. Conclusions: The prevalence of hospital malnutrition in Latin America is high. Our results show that screening with NRS and serum albumin can identify hospital malnutrition as well as providing clinically relevant prognostic value.

  6. [Gestational weight gain and nutritional state of the newborn: a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Kelen Cristina Ramos; Muraro, Luana Oliveira; Witkowski, Maria Carolina; Breigeirond, Márcia Koja

    2014-03-01

    The objective was to characterize puerperal women in relation to gestational weight gain and their newborns in accordance with the nutritional state at birth. This is a descriptive, quantitative and retrospective study approved by the Ethics Committee at the institution responsible. The collection of data was from December 2012 to May 2013. The sample was composed of 24 puerperal women and their children. The participants presented an average age of 26.5 (DP=5.4) years, 79.2% white; 91.7% married; 58.3% multiparous; 75% with a level of education between secondary school and higher education; 58.3% with a low family income; 54.1% presented an altered pre-gestational nutritional state and 75% obtained an inadequate gestational weight gain. 79.2% of the newborns were classified as Adequate for Gestational Age (AIG). The newborns classified as Large for Gestational Age (GIG) were from pregnant women that had excessive weight gain or were overweight. It was concluded that health professionals should be attentive to nutritional deviations with the intention of avoiding complications for maternal/fetal health.

  7. Case study: nutritional strategies of a cyclist with celiac disease during an ultraendurance race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Skidmore, Paula; Brown, Rachel Clare

    2012-08-01

    Food intolerance is becoming increasingly prevalent, and increasing numbers of athletes have celiac disease. This poses challenges as dietary recommendations for exercise are largely based on gluten-containing carbohydrate-rich foods. The K4 cycle race covers 384 km around the Coromandel Peninsula, New Zealand. Lack of sleep, darkness, and temperature variations pose a number of nutritional challenges. Limited food choices present those with celiac disease with even greater challenges. This case study describes the intakes of one such athlete during training and competing in the K4. Nutritional intakes were obtained during training using weighed-food records and during the race via dietary recall and the weighing of foods pre- and post-race. As simple substitution of gluten-containing foods for gluten-free foods leads to increased energy intake, alternatives need to be considered. During the race, insufficient energy was consumed to meet the nutritional guidelines for endurance performance. This was probably due to the nature of the course, racing conditions, the consistency of gluten-free food, and, toward the end of the race, sensory-specific satiety.

  8. The Team Nutrition pilot study: lessons learned from implementing a comprehensive school-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Elyse; Olander, Carol; Lefebvre, Craig; Cusick, Pam; Biesiadecki, Laura; McGoldrick, Danny

    2002-01-01

    Team Nutrition (TN) is an educational and promotional initiative developed by the US Department of Agriculture to change children's eating behaviors through social marketing techniques. This article reports on the process evaluation of a TN pilot project targeting students in kindergarten to grade 4 and systematically documents the implementation experience. Even with a very short start-up period, schools implemented most components of this multichannel nutrition intervention and formed new, supportive relationships with local media and community partners. School teachers and administrators, along with foodservice professionals, generally expressed support for and satisfaction with TN, citing the positive experience and gains for students. The lessons learned from this study highlight the management and organizational issues involved in a comprehensive intervention. These include the importance of local coordinators to support and create a bridge between teachers and cafeteria staff and to forge links with key external partners. To function effectively, coordinators themselves may need training in coalition building and working with media. Relationships formed with parents, local businesses, other educational institutions, health organizations, and the media offer promise for helping to sustain nutrition education efforts. The TN process evaluation identified multiple ideas for pursuing these partnerships more successfully.

  9. Studies on nutritional status in general surgery patients by clinical, anthropometric, and laboratory parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butters, M; Straub, M; Kraft, K; Bittner, R

    1996-06-01

    We assessed the nutritional status of general surgery patients with and without cancer from a western European population in this prospective study. Anamnestic (weight development, abdominal complaints) and anthropometric (fat tissue measurements) data were collected on six groups of patients: cancer of the stomach (n = 13), pancreas (n = 13), colorectal (n = 23), breast (n = 12), and two control groups with benign diseases, ages 20-45 and 50-75 y. From these data, body mass index and ideal body weight were calculated. Concentrations of albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, prealbumin, and creatinine height index were determined by biochemical tests. A weight loss of more than 10% was found in only 31% of gastric and 61% of pancreatic cancer patients. Significant values from anthropometric data were also found only in these groups. In biochemical tests, only the creatinine height index was reduced in all patients with pancreatic cancer. The remaining laboratory changes were so unspecific in all other parameters that no conclusions could be drawn as to the status of the patient's nutritional condition. For the evaluation of nutritional status, only relatively simple and inexpensive anamnestic and anthropometric measurements are necessary.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Theoretically-Based Behavioral Nutrition Intervention for Community Elders: Lessons Learned from the Behavioral Nutrition Intervention for Community Elders Study

    OpenAIRE

    Locher, JL; Vickers, KS; Buys, DR; Ellis, A; Lawrence, JC; Newton, LE; Roth, DL; Ritchie, CS; Bales, CW

    2013-01-01

    Older adults with multiple comorbidities are often undernourished or at high risk for becoming so, especially after a recent hospitalization. Randomized controlled trials of effective, innovative interventions are needed to support evidence-based approaches for solving nutritional problems in this population. Self-management approaches where participants select their own behavioral goals can enhance success of interventions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and effica...

  11. Nutrition and acute schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eridan M. Coutinho

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Brazil, nutritional deficiency diseases and schistosomiasis mansoni overlap. An experimental model, wich reproduces the marasmatic clinical form of protein-energy malnutrition, was developed in this laboratory to study these interactions. Albino Swiss mice were fed with a food association ingested usually by human populations in northeast Brazil. This diet (Regional Basic Diet - RBD has negative effects on the growth, food intake and protein utilization in infected mice (acute phase of murine schistosomiasis. Nitrogen balance studies have also shown that infection with Schistosoma mansoni has apparently no effect on protein intestinal absorption in well nourished mice. However, the lowest absorption ratios have been detected among RBD - fed infected animals, suggesting that suprerimposed schistosome infection aggravated the nutritional status of the undernourished host. The serum proteins electrophoretic pattern, as far as albumins are concerned, is quite similar for non-infected undernourished and infected well-fed animals. So, the significance of albumins as a biochemical indicator of the nutritional status of human populations residing in endemic foci of Manson's schistosomiasis, is discussable.

  12. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... a stratified random sample of 36 900 subjects from the entire EPIC cohort, using a software program (EPIC-SOFT) specifically designed to standardise the dietary measurements across study populations. This paper describes the design and populations of the calibration sub-studies set up in the EPIC centres...

  13. A STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL AND HEALTH STATUS OF ADOLESCENT GIRLS (10-19 YEARS IN JAIPUR CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available : Adolescence is a time when the body prepares itself for the nutritional demands of pregnancy, lactation and heavy workloads that girls will soon experience. Good nutrition is essential for good health, physical growth and development, body composition and mental development In recent years, the incidence of adolescent pregnancy and childbirth is increasing due to the early onset of puberty, the declining age of menarche and early sexual activity. They need to earn to cope with the future demands of life. Nutritional needs during adolescence are increased because of the increased growth rate and changes in the body composition associated with puberty. The dramatic increase in energy and nutrient requirements coincides with other factors that may affect adolescents’ food choices and nutrient intake and thus nutritional status. National and population based surveys have found that adolescents often fail to meet dietary recommendations for over all nutritional status and for specific nutrient intakes. Nutritional requirements in relation to body size are more during adolescence. In a country like India with varying social customs and common beliefs against females there is a high prevalence of malnutrition amongst girls. Adolescents are tomorrow’s adult population and their health and well-being are crucial. Yet, interest in adolescents’ health is relatively recent and a focus on nutrition is even more recent. Nutrition influences growth and development throughout infancy, childhood and adolescence; it is, however, during the period of adolescence that nutrient needs are the greatest. A questionnaire-based study was undertaken in Jaipur city of Rajasthan with 500 respondents divided equally between government schools and private schools populations. Adolescent girl is subjected to more physical and mental challenges on a day –to-day basis due to ever increasing pressure of modernization. Hence they have to work hard physically as well as

  14. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  15. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  16. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption.

  17. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Danyelle Dias Custódio

    Full Text Available Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC. In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R, and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32 and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30. However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27 were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31 of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status

  18. Impact of Chemotherapy on Diet and Nutritional Status of Women with Breast Cancer: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Isis Danyelle Dias; Marinho, Eduarda da Costa; Gontijo, Cristiana Araújo; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Maia, Yara Cristina de Paiva

    2016-01-01

    Certain food groups are often rejected during chemotherapy (CT) due to the side effects of treatment, which may interfere with adequate diet and nutritional status. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment impact on the diet and nutritional status of women with breast cancer (BC). In this prospective longitudinal study, conducted in 2014-2015, 55 women diagnosed with BC, with a mean age 51.5±10.1 years, were followed and data were collected at three different times. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were performed, the latter by applying nine 24h dietary recalls, by using the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index Revised (BHEI-R), and calculating the prevalence of inadequacy by the EAR cut-off point method. Regarding the BHEI-R analysis, the majority of women had a "diet requires modification', both at the beginning (T0, 58.2%, n = 32) and during treatment (T1, 54.5%, n = 30). However, after the end of the CT, the greater percentage of patients (T2, 49.1%, n = 27) were classified as having an "inadequate diet", since the Total Fruit consumption as well as the Dark Green and Orange Vegetable and Legume consumption decreased significantly during treatment (p = 0.043 and p = 0.026, respectively). There was a significant reduction in the intake of macro and micronutrients, with a high prevalence of inadequacy, of up to 100%, for calcium, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, niacin, riboflavin, thiamin, vitamin B6, vitamin C and zinc. Assessment of the nutritional status indicated that 56% (n = 31) of patients were overweight at these three different times. Weight, BMI and Waist Circumference increased significantly, indicating a worse nutritional status, and there was a correlation between poor diet quality and higher values for BMI, Waist-Hip Ratio and Waist-to-Height Ratio. Chemotherapy interferes in the patients' diet generating a negative impact on the quality and intake of micro and macronutrients, as well as an impact on their nutritional status, with an

  19. A randomized study of oral nutritional support versus ad lib nutritional intake during chemotherapy for advanced colorectal and non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W K; Nixon, D W; Daly, J M; Ellenberg, S S; Gardner, L; Wolfe, E; Shepherd, F A; Feld, R; Gralla, R; Fine, S

    1987-01-01

    One hundred ninety-two patients with previously untreated metastatic cancer (102 non-small-cell lung cancer [NSCLC]; 90 colorectal cancer) were randomized to receive either ad lib nutritional intake (control group) or specific nutritional intervention during a 12-week study period when chemotherapy was administered. Those patients randomized to nutritional interventions were counselled to take oral nutrients with caloric intake equal to 1.7 to 1.95 times their basal energy expenditure, depending on their pretreatment nutritional status ("standard" group). An augmented group was counselled to have a caloric intake equivalent to that of the standard group but with 25% of calories provided as protein and additional supplements of zinc and magnesium. Counselling increased caloric intake in both tumor types but reduced weight loss in the short term only for lung cancer patients. Ninety-three NSCLC patients were evaluable for tumor response to vindesine and cisplatin. Overall, only 20.4% of the patients responded, and there were no significant differences in response rates, median time to progression, or overall duration of survival between the nutrition intervention groups and the control group. The tumor response rate to time-sequenced 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and methotrexate in the 81 evaluable patients with colorectal cancer was only 14.8%, and no significant differences in tumor response rates were noted between the three groups. Furthermore, the median time to progression and overall duration of survival were not different for the control, standard, and augmented groups. Nutritional interventions using dietary counselling had no impact on the percent of planned chemotherapy dose administered, the degree of toxicity experienced by patients, or the frequency of treatment delays. A multivariate prognostic factor analysis demonstrated that for lung cancer, the percent of weight loss, serum albumin concentration, and presence of liver metastases were significant (P less

  20. Thymic function and T cell parameters in a natural human experimental model of seasonal infectious diseases and nutritional burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Gareth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study exploits a natural human experimental model of subsistence farmers experiencing chronic and seasonally modified food shortages and infectious burden. Two seasons existed, one of increased deprivation and infections (Jul-Dec, another of abundance and low infections (Jan-Jun; referred to as the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection seasons respectively. Prior analysis showed a 10-fold excess in infectious disease associated mortality in young adults born in the hungry/high infection versus harvest/low infection season, and reduced thymic output and T cell counts in infancy. Here we report findings on the role of early life stressors as contributors to the onset of T cell immunological defects in later life. Methods We hypothesised that season of birth effects on thymic function and T cell immunity would be detectable in young adults since Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated this to be the time of greatest mortality divergence. T cell subset analyses by flow-cytometry, sjTRECs, TCRVβ repertoire and telomere length by PCR, were performed on samples from 60 males (18-23 y selected to represent births in the hungry/high infection and harvest/low infection Results Total lymphocyte counts were normal and did not differ by birth season. CD3+ and CD4+ but not CD8+ counts were lower for those born during the hungry/high infection season. CD8+ telomere length also tended to be shorter. Overall, CD8+ TCRVβ repertoire skewing was observed with 'public' expressions and deletions seen in TCRVβ12/22 and TCRVβ24, respectively but no apparent effect of birth season. Conclusions We conclude that, although thymic function was unchanged, the CD4+ and CD3+ counts, and CD8+ telomere length results suggested that aspects of adult T cell immunity were under the influence of early life stressors. The endemicity of CMV and HBV suggested that chronic infections may modulate immunity through T cell repertoire development. The

  1. NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF RURAL PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN AND THEIR SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CORRELATES: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM VARANASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kaushik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the nutritional status of primary school children in rural area of Varanasi and what factors are associated with malnutrition? Objective: To assess the nutritional status of primary school children in rural Varanasi and to find out various socio-demographic correlates of nutritional status. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Setting: Four primary schools from Chiraigaon Community Development Block of Varanasi were selected for study purpose. Participants: Eight hundred and sixteen students from four schools were involved in the study. Results: Out of total 816 study subjects 429 or 52.6% (201 boys and 228 girls were underweight and 75 or 9.2% (39 boys and 36 girls were stunted. Educational status of the parents was found to be significantly associated with the nutritional status of school children Conclusion: As the literacy status of the parents has been revealed to be strongly associated with nutritional status of children, there is an increasing need to focus the efforts towards the parents to improve the nutritional status of primary school children.

  2. Transgenic mammalian species, generated by somatic cell cloning, in biomedicine, biopharmaceutical industry and human nutrition/dietetics--recent achievements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samiec, M; Skrzyszowska, M

    2011-01-01

    Somatic cell cloning technology in mammals promotes the multiplication of productively-valuable genetically engineered individuals, and consequently allows also for standardization of transgenic farm animal-derived products, which, in the context of market requirements, will have growing significance. Gene farming is one of the most promising areas in modern biotechnology. The use of live bioreactors for the expression of human genes in the lactating mammary gland of transgenic animals seems to be the most cost-effective method for the production/processing of valuable recombinant therapeutic proteins. Among the transgenic farm livestock species used so far, cattle, goats, sheep, pigs and rabbits are useful candidates for the expression of tens to hundreds of grams of genetically-engineered proteins or xenogeneic biopreparations in the milk. At the beginning of the new millennium, a revolution in the treatment of disease is taking shape due to the emergence of new therapies based on recombinant human proteins. The ever-growing demand for such pharmaceutical or nutriceutical proteins is an important driving force for the development of safe and large-scale production platforms. The aim of this paper is to present an overall survey of the state of the art in investigations which provide the current knowledge for deciphering the possibilities of practical application of the transgenic mammalian species generated by somatic cell cloning in biomedicine, the biopharmaceutical industry, human nutrition/dietetics and agriculture.

  3. Parenteral nutrition support for patients with pancreatic cancer. Results of a phase II study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riess Hanno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cachexia is a common problem in patients (pts suffering from upper gastrointestinal cancer. In addition, most of these patients suffer from malabsorption and stenosis of the gastrointestinal tract due to their illness. Various methods of supplementary nutrition (enteral, parenteral are practised. In patients with advanced pancreatic cancer (APC, phase angle, determined by bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA, seems to be a survival predictor. The positive influence of BIA determinate predictors by additional nutrition is currently under discussion. Methods To examine the impact of additional parenteral nutrition (APN we assessed outpatients suffering from APC and progressive cachexia. The assessment based on the BIA method. Assessment parameters were phase angle, ECM/BCM index (ratio of extracellular mass to body cell mass, and BMI (body mass index. Patients suffering from progressive weight loss in spite of additional enteral nutritional support were eligible for the study. Results Median treatment duration in 32 pts was 18 [8-35] weeks. Response evaluation showed a benefit in 27 pts (84% in at least one parameter. 14 pts (43.7% improved or stabilised in all three parameters. The median ECM/BCM index was 1.7 [1.11-3.14] at start of APN and improved down to 1.5 [1.12-3.36] during therapy. The median BMI increased from 19.7 [14.4-25.9] to 20.5 [15.4-25.0]. The median phase angle improved by 10% from 3.6 [2.3-5.1] to 3.9 [2.2-5.1]. Conclusions We demonstrated the positive impact of APN on the assessed parameters, first of all the phase angle, and we observed at least a temporary benefit or stabilisation of the nutritional status in the majority of the investigated patients. Based on these findings we are currently investigating the impact of APN on survival in a larger patient cohort. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00919659

  4. Identifying components of advanced-level clinical nutrition practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Rebecca A; Byham-Gray, Laura; Touger-Decker, Riva; Passannante, Marian R; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie

    2012-06-01

    The dietetics profession lacks a comprehensive definition of advanced-level practice. Using a three-round Delphi study with mailed surveys, expert consensus on four dimensions of advanced-level practice that define advanced practice registered dietitians (RDs) in clinical nutrition was explored. Purposive sampling identified 117 RDs who met advanced-level practice criteria. In round 1, experts rated the essentiality of statements on a 7-point ordinal scale and generated open-ended practice activity statements regarding the following four dimensions of advanced-level practice: professional knowledge, abilities and skills, approaches to practice, roles and relationships, and practice behaviors. Median ratings of 1.0 to 3.0 were defined as essential, 4.0 was neutral, and 5.0 to 7.0 were nonessential. In rounds 2 and 3, experts re-rated statements not reaching consensus by evaluating their previous responses, group median rating, and comments. Consensus was reached when the interquartile range of responses to a statement was ≤2.0. Eighty-five experts enrolled (72.6%); 76 (89.4%) completed all rounds. In total, 233 statements were rated, with 100% achieving consensus; 211 (90.6%) were essential to advanced practice RD clinical practice. Having a master's degree; completing an advanced practice residency; research coursework; and advanced continuing education were essential, as were having 8 years of experience; clinical nutrition knowledge/expertise; specialization; participation in research activities; and skills in technology and communication. Highly essential approaches to practice were systematic yet adaptable and used critical thinking and intuition and highly essential values encompassed professional growth and service to patients. Roles emphasized patient care and leadership. Essential practice activities within the nutrition care process included provision of complex patient-centered nutrition care using application of advanced knowledge/expertise and

  5. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  6. Nutritional hormesis and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Daniel P

    2009-11-16

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed.

  7. Determinants of infant nutritional status in Dabat district, North Gondar, Ethiopia: A case control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubante, Amarech Asratie

    2017-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is the top cause of global burden of disease, disability and mortality among infants. Over two-thirds of deaths of children globally occur during the first year of life (infancy). Malnutrition among infants is substantially high in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study is aimed to assess determinants of infant nutritional status. Methods A community based nested case-control study was conducted from February to June 2013 in Dabat district. A total of 80 cases and 320 controls (1:4 ratios) were studied. Relevant data was extracted from the community based survey data set. Anthroplus software was used to identify cases and controls. Determinants of infant nutritional status were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Among the total of 80 cases and 320 controls, more than half (52.5%) of the cases and the controls (53.8%) were males and females, respectively. Breast Feeding (BF) was started immediately after birth in only 43.8% of the cases. Nearly 94% of the mothers of the cases had no breast feeding information as part of Ante Natal Care (ANC) follow up. Maternal age (AOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.11–0.76), having radio (AOR: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.22–0.82), lack of toilet facility (AOR: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.16–4.33), deprivation of colostrum (AOR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.01–1.06) and method of complementary feeding (AOR: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.33–5.99) were associated with wasting. Conclusions This study has found that inappropriate infant feeding; nutritional information gap and lack of toilet facility as significant predictors of malnutrition. Hence, joint interventions, including counseling of mothers about benefits of colostrum feeding and use of appropriate feeding method, toilet utilization and mass media such as radio possession, are needed to address the problem in Dabat district. PMID:28346497

  8. New concept in nutrition for the maintenance of the aging eye redox regulation and therapeutic treatment of cataract disease; synergism of natural antioxidant imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds, chaperone, and glutathione boosting agents: a systemic perspective on aging and longevity emerged from studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Cataract, opacification of the lens, is one of the commonest causes of loss of useful vision during aging, with an estimated 16 million people world-wide affected. The role of nutritional supplementation in prevention of onset or progression of ocular disease is of interest to health care professionals and patients. The aging eye seems to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. This review outlines the potential role of the new nutritional strategy on redox balance in age-related eye diseases and detail how the synergism and interaction of imidazole-containing amino acid-based compounds (nonhydrolized L-carnosine, histidine), chaperone agents (such as, L-carnosine, D-pantethine), glutathione-boosting agents (N-acetylcysteine, vitamin E, methionine), and N-acetylcarnosine eye drops plays key roles in the function and maintenance of the redox systems in the aging eye and in the treatment of human cataract disease. A novel patented oral health supplement is presented which enhances the anticataract activity of eye drops and activates functional visual acuity. The clinical data demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of a combined oral health care treatment with amino acids possessing chaperone-like activity with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops. L-carnosine and N-acetylcarnosine protected the chaperone activity of alpha-crystallin and reduced the increased posttranslational modifications of lens proteins. Biological activities of the nonhydrolyzed carnosine in the oral formulation are based on its antioxidant and antiglycating (transglycating) action that, in addition to heavy metal chelation and pH-buffering ability, makes carnosine an essential factor for preventing sight-threatening eye disorders having oxidative stress in their pathogenesis, neurodegeneration, and accumulation of senile features. The findings suggest that synergism is required between carnosine or other imidazole-containing compounds and reduced glutathione in tissues and cells for

  9. Childhood pneumonia and crowding, bed-sharing and nutrition: a case-control study from The Gambia

    OpenAIRE

    Howie, S. R. C.; Schellenberg, J; Chimah, O; Ideh, R. C.; Ebruke, B. E.; Oluwalana, C.; MacKenzie, G; M. Jallow; Njie, M; Donkor, S; Dionisio, K. L.; Goldberg, G; Fornace, K.; C. Bottomley; Hill, P. C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY SETTING: Greater Banjul and Upper River Regions, The Gambia. OBJECTIVE: To investigate tractable social, environmental and nutritional risk factors for childhood pneumonia. DESIGN: A case-control study examining the association of crowding, household air pollution (HAP) and nutritional factors with pneumonia was undertaken in children aged 2–59 months: 458 children with severe pneumonia, defined according to the modified WHO criteria, were compared with 322 children with non-severe pn...

  10. Study on utilization status of internet and needs assessment for developing nutrition education programs among elementary school children

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Yun; Kim, Kyung-Won

    2007-01-01

    This study was to investigate utilization status of internet, health/nutrition websites among children, and to assess the needs for developing nutrition websites and education programs for children. The survey questionnaire was administered to 5-6th grade students (n=434) at two elementary schools. About 32% used the internet every day while 19.5% used it whenever they needed, showing significant differences in internet usage by gender (p

  11. 荸荠营养成分及保健价值的研究%Study on nutritional ingredients and health care value of Chinese water chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张怡; 胡月珍; 李小根

    2013-01-01

    Chinese water chestnut has abundant nutritions which are essential to the health of human beings.Modern medical research has found that Chinese water chestnut with a variety of health care value. The paper summarized the nutritional ingredients and health care value of Chinese water chestnut.The study provides a reliable basis for the processing of Chinese water chestnut.%  荸荠富含人体需要的多种营养成分,现代医学研究发现,荸荠含有多种保健价值。本文论述了荸荠的营养成分及保健价值,为荸荠的开发利用开辟了一条途径。

  12. Assessing, understanding and modifying nutritional status, eating habits and physical activity in European adolescents: the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, L A; González-Gross, M; Kersting, M; Molnár, D; de Henauw, S; Beghin, L; Sjöström, M; Hagströmer, M; Manios, Y; Gilbert, C C; Ortega, F B; Dallongeville, J; Arcella, D; Wärnberg, J; Hallberg, M; Fredriksson, H; Maes, L; Widhalm, K; Kafatos, A G; Marcos, A

    2008-03-01

    To identify the main knowledge gaps and to propose research lines that will be developed within the European Union-funded 'Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence' (HELENA) project, concerning the nutritional status, physical fitness and physical activity of adolescents in Europe. Review of the currently existing literature. The main gaps identified were: lack of harmonised and comparable data on food intake; lack of understanding regarding the role of eating attitudes, food choices and food preferences; lack of harmonised and comparable data on levels and patterns of physical activity and physical fitness; lack of comparable data about obesity prevalence and body composition; lack of comparable data about micronutrient and immunological status; and lack of effective intervention methodologies for healthier lifestyles. The HELENA Study Group should develop, test and describe harmonised and state-of-the-art methods to assess the nutritional status and lifestyle of adolescents across Europe; develop and evaluate an intervention on eating habits and physical activity; and develop and test new healthy food products attractive for European adolescents.

  13. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) cohort study: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bonnie J; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Leung, Brenda M Y; Field, Catherine J; Dewey, Deborah; Bell, Rhonda C; Manca, Donna P; O'Beirne, Maeve; Johnston, David W; Pop, Victor J; Singhal, Nalini; Gagnon, Lisa; Bernier, Francois P; Eliasziw, Misha; McCargar, Linda J; Kooistra, Libbe; Farmer, Anna; Cantell, Marja; Goonewardene, Laki; Casey, Linda M; Letourneau, Nicole; Martin, Jonathan W

    2014-01-01

    The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study is an ongoing prospective cohort study that recruits pregnant women early in pregnancy and, as of 2012, is following up their infants to 3 years of age. It has currently enrolled approximately 5000 Canadians (2000 pregnant women, their offspring and many of their partners). The primary aims of the APrON study were to determine the relationships between maternal nutrient intake and status, before, during and after gestation, and (1) maternal mood; (2) birth and obstetric outcomes; and (3) infant neurodevelopment. We have collected comprehensive maternal nutrition, anthropometric, biological and mental health data at multiple points in the pregnancy and the post-partum period, as well as obstetrical, birth, health and neurodevelopmental outcomes of these pregnancies. The study continues to follow the infants through to 36 months of age. The current report describes the study design and methods, and findings of some pilot work. The APrON study is a significant resource with opportunities for collaboration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Study on nutritionDay survey for nutritional status in hospitalized patients%采用nutritionDay问卷调查住院病人营养状况的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑慧君; 章黎; 黄迎春; 王新颖

    2016-01-01

    Objective To get the nutritional status in hospitalized patients using nutritionDay questionnaires. Methods The basic information and food intake of the patients at Jinling Hospital by nutritionDay questionnaires in Nov 6th, 2014 was collected. Body mass index 5% in last three months was defined as malnutrition. Risk factors of malnutrition and delay hospital length of stay were analyzed. Results A total of 249 hospitalized patients were included in this study. The normal food intake in the week before nutritionDay survey was found 116 cases (46.6%) and the normal food intake on the nutritionDay 83 cases (33.3%). There were 73 cases (29.3%) with malnutrition. There were no differences in patients with malnutrition in sex, age, activity and length hospitalized. It was shown with Logistic regression analysis that both less food intake in the week before nutritionDay survey and less activity were the risk factors of malnutrition. The two factors also had correlation with hospital stay. Conclusions The higher prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients was present. It is important to increase the food intake and maintain the proper activity in order to have better nutrition for hospitalized patients.%目的:使用nutritionDay调查问卷评估住院病人营养状况。方法:用nutritionDay调查问卷收集2014年11月6日我院住院病人的基本信息和饮食情况。营养不良的定义为体质量指数(BMI)<18.5或近3个月无意识体重下降大于5%。统计分析营养不良和总住院时间延长的危险因素。结果:共249例病人问卷结果纳入本研究,其中16例(46.6%)前1周的进食量正常,83例(33.3%)营养日当天午餐进食量正常。73例(29.3%)处于营养不良状态。营养不良在不同性别、年龄、行动力、已住院时间的比例无统计学差异。分析发现,前1周饮食减少和行动力降低是发生营养不良的危险因素,并与总住院时间相关。结论:

  15. Diet & Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. Shelly Diagnosed in 2006 Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low ...

  16. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest, quasiexperimental…

  17. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  18. Childhood Obesity Study: A Pilot Study of the Effect of the Nutrition Education Program "Color My Pyramid"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jean Burley; Pawloski, Lisa Renee; Goldberg, Patricia; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Stoehr, Ana; Baghi, Heibatollah

    2009-01-01

    The need for successful nutrition interventions is critical as the prevalence of childhood obesity increases. Thus, this pilot project examines the effect of a nutrition education program, "Color My Pyramid", on children's nutrition knowledge, self-care practices, activity levels, and nutrition status. Using a pretest-posttest,…

  19. Correlation between nutritional status and clinical parameters among Thalassaemic patients – A study of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thalassaemia is the most common monogenic, autosomal recessive hereditary disorder. The severe forms of thalassaemia are associated with chronic transfusion dependent haemolytic anaemia. Normal growth is impeded due to nutritional deficiency, chronic anaemia as well as iron overload. The aim of this study is to focus the nutritional health status of transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients. This is a cross-sectional analysis of the records of the patients registered at Day Care unit of a City Hospital, Kolkata, India. Clinical history of each patient is collected from registered book of the hospital and body weights and height of the patients are taken from day care unit before starting the transfusion. Laboratory parameters like Pretransfusion Haemoglobin (Hb and Periodic Serum Ferritin are noted in respect of each patient. Z score for height, weight and Body Mass Index (BMI is also taken into consideration using WHO reference. Statistical analysis was carried out using Microsoft excel and SPSS16 Software. Out of 117 Bengali speaking patients 84 were from different Hindu caste families and the rest 33 were from the Muslim community. The mean age of studied patients’ population was 10.77 years (range 4 -20years. Major patients (81.1% suffer high level (>1000ng/ml of serum ferritin level due to not proper management of Pretransfusion haemoglobin and as well as not taken regular chelation. About two third (65.8% of studied population are noted to be short stature, 18.8% are thin and 23.9% are very thin (BMI Z score <-3. as well as regular chelation therapy is the central aspects to improve their proper growth Only 3 children are overweight. Height Z scores is significantly co related with mean serum ferritin level. Management of the disease is very important to control the nutritional health status of thalassaemic children. Proper knowledge of iron free food, optimum transfusion as well as regular chelation therapy is the central aspects to

  20. Nutritional status and clinical outcome of children on continuous renal replacement therapy: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Ana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No studies on continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT have analyzed nutritional status in children. The objective of this study was to assess the association between mortality and nutritional status of children receiving CRRT. Methods Prospective observational study to analyze the nutritional status of children receiving CRRT and its association with mortality. The variables recorded were age, weight, sex, diagnosis, albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, severity of illness scores, CRRT-related complications, duration of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, and mortality. Results The sample comprised 174 critically ill children on CRRT. The median weight of the patients was 10 kg, 35% were under percentile (P 3, and 56% had a weight/P50 ratio of less than 0.85. Only two patients were above P95. The mean age for patients under P3 was significantly lower than that of the other patients (p = 0.03. The incidence of weight under P3 was greater in younger children (p = 0.007 and in cardiac patients and in those who had previous chronic renal insufficiency (p = 0.047. The mortality analysis did not include patients with pre-existing renal disease. Mortality was 38.9%. Mortality for patients with weight P3 (51% vs 33%; p = 0.037. In the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, the only factor associated with mortality was protein-energy wasting (malnutrition (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.067-4.173; p = 0.032. Conclusions The frequency of protein-energy wasting in children who require CRRT is high, and the frequency of obesity is low. Protein-energy wasting is more frequent in children with previous end-stage renal disease and heart disease. Underweight children present a higher mortality rate than patients with normal body weight.

  1. A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity) on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity) in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity) - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years). Design/Methods This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year). Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary) and their impact on the growth, body composition and nutritional status of young

  2. A prospective, longitudinal study of growth, nutrition and sedentary behaviour in young children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weir Kelly A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years. Design/Methods This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year. Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary and their impact on the growth, body composition and

  3. Feeding Behavior and Nutrition Education in Primary School Students: A School-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study of nutrition education given to primary school students was conducted to determine the effects of feeding behavior. Material and Method: This is an intervention study. Research was made at elementary schools located in the center of the province of Yozgat among 6 grade students in 2012-2013. Students were divided into 2 groups by random. Students in the intervention (n=305 and control (n=233 groups were administered a questionnaire prepared by the researcher feeding behaviors. Nutrition surveys in the intervention group after the application of the selected class are given a standardized nutrition education by intern nurses. In data analysis, the dependent and independent samples Student%u2019s t-test, ANOVA for repeated measures multivariate analysis (repeated multiple general model, chi-square, correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: Seventy-one percent point nine of the students usually make breakfast before coming school, 24.5% often bring food to school, 79.4% have at least 3 meals a day, %41.3 at least 2 times eating something between meals. After a year of this habit of the students (49.3% increases in the frequency of eating something between meals as well as a reduction of approximately 10% was determined. In the study, positive and negative eating behavior could not gain the desired level of behavior change with the education given in schools to students. However, the decline in average scores positive eating behaviors, the intervention group (%uF8E5d=3.5 than in the control group (%uF8E5d=6.4 were found to be less. Discussion: Education is an important method meets the information needs of individuals, but is insufficient in creating behavior change in a short time.

  4. Trends in Global Nutrition Policy and Implications for Japanese Development Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Marika; Takahashi, Kenzo; Reich, Michael R

    2015-12-01

    Although the issue of nutrition was long underrepresented in the global health agenda, it regained international attention with the introduction of the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) framework. A historical review of global nutrition policies over 4 decades illustrates the evolution of nutrition policy themes and the challenges confronted by SUN. This study reviews major events in global nutrition policy from the 1970s to the SUN movement around 2010 to illustrate the dynamics of global agenda setting for nutrition policy along with implications for the government of Japan. The events are categorized according to each decade's nutrition paradigm: nutrition and its socioeconomic features in the 1970s, nutrition and community programs in the 1980s, nutrition as a political issue in the 1990s, and nutrition and evidence in the 2000s. This study identified 2 findings: First, the arguments that led to a global consensus on nutrition policy generated paradigm shifts in core ideas, and second, in response to these paradigm shifts, global nutrition policies have changed significantly over time. With regard to Japan, this analysis concludes that the government of Japan can take a greater initiative in the global health community as supporter of SUN by strategically developing a combination of financial, political, and practical approaches to improve global nutrition policy through the concepts of Universal Health Coverage and Human Security. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Nutrition Economic Evaluation of Allergy Treatment in Infants and Children: background for probiotic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soili Alanne

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of food allergy is based on avoidance of the foods, which cause symptoms, and their replacement with nutritionally comparable foods. The cost of food allergy and elimination diets to families and society is poorly known. Our results suggest that estimation of dietary costs on the basis of dietary records was possible but challenging. In infancy, cost differences were small but vary depending on the age group with the reduction of median yearly costs around 180–240€. Thus, further studies are required for a more accurate cost estimate and an estimation of the impact of specific probiotics.

  6. Sensorized pacifier to quantify the rhythmicity of non-nutritive sucking: A preliminary study on newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, A; Cecchi, F; Guzzetta, A; Laschi, C

    2015-01-01

    Non-nutritive sucking (NNS) is one of the most significant spontaneous actions of infants. The suction/expression rhythmicity of NNS remains unknown. We developed a sensorized pacifier for an objective measurement of NNS. Two miniaturized digital pressure sensors are embedded into a commercial pacifier and they acquired suction and expression pressures simultaneously. Experimental tests with nine newborns confirmed that our device is suitable for the measurement of the natural NNS behavior and for the extrapolation of parameters related to the suction/expression rhythmicity. Preliminary results encourage future studies to evaluate the possibility to use these parameters as indicators of oral feeding readiness of premature infants.

  7. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study: rationale, design and population characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, N.; Kaaks, R.; Ferrari, P.

    2002-01-01

    The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), which covers a large cohort of half a million men and women from 23 European centres in 10 Western European countries, was designed to study the relationship between diet and the risk of chronic diseases, particularly cancer...... population differed slightly from the overall cohort but the differences were small for most characteristics and centres. The overall results suggest that, after adjustment for age, dietary intakes estimated from calibration samples can reasonably be interpreted as representative of the main cohorts in most...

  8. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  9. Probiotics in human milk and probiotic supplementation in infant nutrition: a workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Henrike; Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Salminen, Seppo; Szajewska, Hania

    2014-10-14

    Probiotics in human milk are a very recent field of research, as the existence of the human milk microbiome was discovered only about a decade ago. Current research is focusing on bacterial diversity and the influence of the maternal environment as well as the mode of delivery on human milk microbiota, the pathways of bacterial transfer to milk ducts, possible benefits of specific bacterial strains for the treatment of mastitis in mothers, and disease prevention in children. Recent advances in the assessment of early host-microbe interactions suggest that early colonisation may have an impact on later health. This review article summarises a scientific workshop on probiotics in human milk and their implications for infant health as well as future perspectives for infant feeding.

  10. Clinical Aspects of Trace Elements: Zinc in Human Nutrition – Zinc Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M Pluhator

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The body requires certain levels of essential nutrients, such as zinc, to maintain life. Intake less than the required levels can cause impaired function, disease and death. Every essential nutrient has a unique range of tissue concentration and intake necessary for proper physiological and biochemical functioning. Many criteria have been used to set dietary intake levels for nutrients. For trace elements, however, a limited number of investigative approaches are currently employed by researchers due to inadequate information on individual requirements and intake levels. Further, a clear lack of satisfactory biochemical methods to measure zinc nutritional status continues to hinder formulation of dietary guidelines. Thus, many assumptions have to be made, and large safety margins have to be added to assumed daily requirements in order to compensate for this absence of information. Numerous barriers to a full understanding of what constitutes an adequate dietary recommendation for zinc still exist. Zinc is incompletely absorbed, and this absorption can be greatly influenced by the chemical form in which zinc is bound; interactions with other nutrients also affect absorption. Part three of this five-part review presents the current Canadian recommended nutrient intakes for zinc for various sex and age categories and provides a rationale for the suggested values. The important nutrient interactions that affect the bioavailability of zinc, including those with phytates, copper, cadmium, tin and iron, are discussed.

  11. Medical Nutrition Therapy for Patients With Advanced Systemic Sclerosis (MNT PASS): A Pilot Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, Bethany; Allen, Tara S; Southwood, Courtney; Brenner, Darren; Hirano, Ikuo; Sheean, Patricia

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and associations with short-term outcomes of a medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention in patients with systemic scleroderma (SSc). Eighteen patients with SSc, gastrointestinal (GI) involvement, and unintentional weight loss were consented and recruited for a 6-week MNT intervention, in addition to their usual medical management. MNT emphasized increased calorie and protein intake, modified textures, and lifestyle modifications. Symptoms, anthropometrics, diet (24-hour recall), and body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were assessed pre- and postintervention. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean height (ALH) for women <5.45 kg/m(2) and for men <7.26 kg/m(2). Descriptive, parametric, and nonparametric statistics were conducted. Participants (n = 18) were predominantly white (78%), female (89%), malnourished (83%), and 51.3 ± 11.0 years of age with a body mass index of 22.6 ± 6.7 kg/m(2). Significant decreases in nutrition symptom scores (12.8 vs 7.6, P < .05) and improvements in ALH (5.6 ± 0.8 vs 5.8 ± 0.8 kg/m(2), respectively; P = .05) occurred pre- vs postintervention, respectively (n = 14). Sarcopenia was observed in 54% of participants at baseline and 39% at follow-up ( P = .02). Caloric intake (1400 vs 1577 kcal/d, P = .12) and macronutrient distribution (ie, % fat, protein, carbohydrate) did not change significantly pre- vs postintervention, respectively. Individually tailored MNT can improve symptom burden and potentially ALH in patients with SSc involving the GI tract. This study underscores the clinical potential of multidisciplinary patient management and the need for larger nutrition intervention trials of longer duration in these patients.

  12. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition.

  13. Assessing nutritional diversity of cropping systems in African villages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Remans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Sub-Saharan Africa, 40% of children under five years in age are chronically undernourished. As new investments and attention galvanize action on African agriculture to reduce hunger, there is an urgent need for metrics that monitor agricultural progress beyond calories produced per capita and address nutritional diversity essential for human health. In this study we demonstrate how an ecological tool, functional diversity (FD, has potential to address this need and provide new insights on nutritional diversity of cropping systems in rural Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data on edible plant species diversity, food security and diet diversity were collected for 170 farms in three rural settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Nutritional FD metrics were calculated based on farm species composition and species nutritional composition. Iron and vitamin A deficiency were determined from blood samples of 90 adult women. Nutritional FD metrics summarized the diversity of nutrients provided by the farm and showed variability between farms and villages. Regression of nutritional FD against species richness and expected FD enabled identification of key species that add nutrient diversity to the system and assessed the degree of redundancy for nutrient traits. Nutritional FD analysis demonstrated that depending on the original composition of species on farm or village, adding or removing individual species can have radically different outcomes for nutritional diversity. While correlations between nutritional FD, food and nutrition indicators were not significant at household level, associations between these variables were observed at village level. CONCLUSION: This study provides novel metrics to address nutritional diversity in farming systems and examples of how these metrics can help guide agricultural interventions towards adequate nutrient diversity. New hypotheses on the link between agro-diversity, food security and human nutrition are

  14. SPANISH MULTICENTRIC STUDY ABOUT NUTRITION-INFLAMATIONhn WITH MID DILUTION (ENIMID STUDY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barril G

    2012-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: 1-The preliminary results show that MidDilution provides a good removal of small and middle molecules, increases appetite by providing a proper balance of cytokines through stimulation of antiinflamatory ones and neuropeptide Y. 2-It provides an improvement of body composition. Finally MidDilution improves nutritional parameters which leads to a better quality of life, as well as physical and mental status.

  15. Health-related behaviors and nutritional status of adolescents who study asboarders and day-students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küçük, Emine Ela; Günay, Osman

    2016-06-23

    Boarders and day-students study together in regional boarding schools. This study was carried out to compare the health and nutritional status of boarders and day-students who study at regional boarding schools in Turkey. A total 634 boarders and 492 day-students in the 4th-8th years of nine boarding schools in Giresun Province of Turkey were included. A questionnaire including 49 questions about sociodemographic characteristics and health and nutritional status was completed by the students. Height and weight measurements of the students were also taken. The chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. The boarders evaluated their health status as worse than the day-students. The proportion of the students having three meals a day was higher among the boarders than the day-students. According to BMI values, 11% of the boarders were evaluated as underweight, 77% as normal, 9.5% as overweight, and 2.5% as obese. These proportions were respectively 15.5%, 67.3%, 12.8%. and 4.5% for the day-students. The boarders have more regular diets and the proportion of normal-weighed boarders was higher than that of the day-students. However, they perceived their health as worse than the day-tudents.

  16. "Study on Nutrition Status and Urinary Tract Infection in Elderly People at Nursing Home"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Nowroozi

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a common problem among nursing home residents and encompasses adverse outcomes. This study was conducted to determine malnutrition and urinary tract infections as well as antibiotic resistance of isolated bacteria at Kahrisak nursing home in Tehran city, capital of Iran. Nutritional status was determined by direct detection of kitchen, checking the menue of weekly foods, quality and quantity of each meal for each person. The mean age of patients in this descriptive study was 77.2 years old, (ranging from 60 to 103. Samples of midstream urine from these patients were collected and bacteria were identified by standard bacteriological methods. Then, antibiotic resistance of bacteria was determined. On the basis of nutritional status, the quality and quantity of food for each meal was good and enough. From 520 samples of urine, bacteria were grown only from 81 samples. E. coli was the most common bacteria and the other bacteria were Proteus, Klebsiella, Staphylococci aureus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia. All of bacteria were resistant at different rate to ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and co-trimoxazol, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin. Malnutrition in this study was less than 30%. This may be due to people helping, qualified foods, well nursing and suitable facility at Kahrizak nursing home.

  17. Food and Nutrition Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Disaster Assistance State Systems Offices Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion (CNPP) FNS Regional Offices Partnerships and Outreach Civil Rights Food Safety (OFS) Human Resources (Careers) News USDA Makes It Easy for ...

  18. Impact of peanut consumption in the LEAP Study: Feasibility, growth, and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mary; Du Toit, George; Roberts, Graham; Sayre, Peter H; Lawson, Kaitie; Bahnson, Henry T; Sever, Michelle L; Radulovic, Suzana; Plaut, Marshall; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    Early introduction of peanut is an effective strategy to prevent peanut allergy in high-risk infants; however, feasibility and effects on growth and nutritional intake are unknown. We sought to evaluate the feasibility of introducing peanut in infancy and explore effects on growth and nutritional intake up to age 60 months. In the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy trial, 640 atopic infants aged 4 to 11 months were randomly assigned to consume (6 g peanut protein per week) or avoid peanut until age 60 months. Peanut consumption and early feeding practices were assessed by questionnaire. Dietary intake was evaluated with prospective food diaries. Anthropometric measurements were taken at all study visits. Peanut was successfully introduced and consumed until 60 months, with median peanut protein intake of 7.5 g/wk (interquartile range, 6.0-9.0 g/wk) in the consumption group compared with 0 g in the avoidance group. Introduction of peanut in breast-feeding infants did not affect the duration of breast-feeding. There were no differences in anthropometric measurements or energy intakes between groups at any visits. Regular peanut consumption led to differences in dietary intakes. Consumers had higher intakes of fat and avoiders had higher carbohydrate intakes; differences were greatest at the upper quartiles of peanut consumption. Protein intakes remained consistent between groups. Introduction of peanut proved feasible in infants at high risk of peanut allergy and did not affect the duration of breast-feeding nor impact negatively on growth or nutrition. Energy balance was achieved in both groups through variations in intakes from fat and carbohydrate while protein homeostasis was maintained. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. All rights reserved.

  19. A study of preoperative methionine-depleting parenteral nutrition plus chemotherapy in gastric cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xin Cao; Qin Min Cheng; Xu Feng Fei; Shu Fa Li; Hao Ran Yin; Yan Zhen Lin

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the interference of methionine-free parenteral nutrition plus 5-Fu (-MetTPN + 5-Fu) in gastric cancer cell kinetics and the side effects of the regimen. METHODS Fifteen patients with advanced gastric cancer were randomly divided into two groups, 7 patients were given preoperatively a seven-day course of standard parenteral nutrition in combination with a five-day course of chemotherapy (sTPN + 5-Fu), while the other 8 patients were given methionine-deprived parenteral nutrition and 5-Fu (-MetTPN + 5-Fu).Cell cycles of gastric cancer and normal mucosa were studied by flow cytometry (FCM). Blood samples were taken to measure the serum protein, methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys)levels, and liver and kidney functions. RESULTS As compared with the results obtained before the treatment, the percentage of Gn/G1 tumor cells increased and that of S phase decreased in the -MetTPN + 5-Fu group, while the contrary was observed in the sTPN + 5-Fu group.Except that the ALT, AST and AKP levels were slightly increased in a few cases receiving -MetTPN + 5-Fu, all the other biochemical parameters were within normal limits. Serum Cys level decreased slightly after the treatment in both groups. Serum Met level of patients receiving sTPN + 5-Fu was somewhat higher after treatment than that before treatment; however,no significant change occurred in the -MetTPN +5-Fu group, nor operative complications in both groups. CONCLUSION -MetTPN + 5-Fu exerted a suppressive effect on cancer cell proliferation,probably through a double mechanism of creating a state of "Met starvation" adverse to the tumor cell cycle, and by allowing 5-Fu to kill specifically cells in S phase. Preoperative shortterm administration of-MetTPN + 5-Fu had little undesirable effect on host metabolism.

  20. Health and nutritional status in Mérida, México: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Efraín Barbosa-Martín

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Health and Nutrition National Survey (ENSANUT reports the panorama of the national and state nutritional epidemiology in Mexico. However, there are no reports of the capital cities of the country. The objective of this report was to evaluate the health and nutritional condition in a sample of the population of Merida, Yucatan, Mexico. Material and Methods: Transversal, retrospective and descriptive study that used the methodological and diagnostic guidelines of ENSANUT, WHO and Official Mexican Standards. To know malnutrition, normal weight and overweight prevalence, hypertension probable cases (CPHA and diabetes mellitus probable cases (CPDM were determined and anthropometric measurements were performed. SPSS 20.0 and Excel 2013 were used to calculate proportions and the results were expressed in prevalence. Results: 4,324 subjects were evaluated (644 pre-school pupils, 1,881 school pupils, 133 adolescents and 1,666 adults. In adults the prevalence of CPHA and CPDM were 11.8% and 10.2%, respectively. For pre-school pupils the prevalence of low weight, emaciation and low height were 0.4%, 0.7% and 2.7%, respectively. For school pupils, adolescents and adults malnutrition prevalence was 3.3%, 2.2% and 1.2% respectively. The prevalence of normal weight and overweight in pre-school pupils, school pupils, adolescents and adults was 54.6%, 45.5%, 48.1%, 20.7% and 16.1%, 51%, 49.5% y 77.9%, respectively. Conclusions: High prevalence of diabetes mellitus probable cases in men and low prevalence of malnutrition in all ages were observed. The prevalence of overweight in pre-school pupils, school pupils and adolescents was higher than the national and estate average.