WorldWideScience

Sample records for human nasal epithelium

  1. Patient-specific three-dimensional explant spheroids derived from human nasal airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marthin, June Kehlet; Stevens, Elizabeth Munkebjerg; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional explant spheroid formation is an ex vivo technique previously used in studies of airway epithelial ion and water transport. Explanted cells and sheets of nasal epithelium form fully differentiated spheroids enclosing a partly fluid-filled lumen with the ciliated apical...... surface facing the outside and accessible for analysis of ciliary function. METHODS: We performed a two-group comparison study of ciliary beat pattern and ciliary beat frequency in spheroids derived from nasal airway epithelium in patients with primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and in healthy controls...... in the investigation of pathophysiological aspects and drug effects in human nasal airway epithelium....

  2. Sodium transport and intracellular sodium activity in cultured human nasal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

     human nasal epithelium (HNE). Under control conditions, intracellular Na+ activity (acNa) was 23 +/- 1 mM (n = 44 preparations, 393 impalements).Amiloride (10(-4) M) hyperpolarized the apical membrane and increased the fractional apical membrane resistance but did not affect acNa. Exposure to...

  3. Demonstration of carboxylesterase in cytology samples of human nasal respiratory epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, D.A.; Nikula, K.J.; Avila, K. [and others

    1995-12-01

    The epithelial lining of the nasal airways is a target for responses induced by a variety of toxicant exposures. The high metabolic capacity of this tissue has been suggested to play a role in both protection of the airways through detoxication of certain toxicants, as well as in activation of other compounds to more toxic metabolites. Specifically, nasal carboxylesterase (CE) has been shown to mediate the toxicity of inhaled esters and acrylates by converting them to more toxic acid and alcohol metabolites which can be cytotoxic and/or carcinogenic to the nasal mucosa. Due to difficulties in extrapolating rodent models to human, new paradigms using human cells and tissues are essential to understanding and evaluating the metabolic processes in human nasal epithelium.

  4. Aspects of nitrogen dioxide toxicity in environmental urban concentrations in human nasal epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, C.; Ginzkey, C.; Friehs, G.; Hackenberg, S.; Froelich, K.; Scherzed, A.; Burghartz, M.; Kessler, M.; Kleinsasser, N.

    2010-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) as part of urban exhaust pollution are widely discussed as potential hazards to human health. This study focuses on toxic effects of NO 2 in realistic environmental concentrations with respect to the current limit values in a human target tissue of volatile xenobiotics, the epithelium of the upper aerodigestive tract. Nasal epithelial cells of 10 patients were cultured as an air-liquid interface and exposed to 0.01 ppm NO 2 , 0.1 ppm NO 2 , 1 ppm NO 2 , 10 ppm NO 2 and synthetic air for half an hour. After exposure, genotoxicity was evaluated by the alkaline single-cell microgel electophoresis (Comet) assay and by induction of micronuclei in the micronucleus test. Depression of proliferation and cytotoxic effects were determined using the micronucleus assay and trypan blue exclusion assay, respectively. The experiments revealed genotoxic effects by DNA fragmentation starting at 0.01 ppm NO 2 in the Comet assay, but no micronucleus inductions, no changes in proliferation, no signs of necrosis or apoptosis in the micronucleus assay, nor did the trypan blue exclusion assay show any changes in viability. The present data reveal a possible genotoxicity of NO 2 in urban concentrations in a screening test. However, permanent DNA damage as indicated by the induction of micronuclei was not observed. Further research should elucidate the effects of prolonged exposure.

  5. Solitary Chemoreceptor Cell Proliferation in Adult Nasal Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Gulbransen, Brian D.; Finger, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein α-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cβ2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These ...

  6. NORMAL GENE EXPRESSION IN MALE F344 RAT NASAL TRANSITIONAL/RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract The nasal epithelium is an important target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity in rodents. Gene expression profiles were determined in order to provide normal baseline data for nasal transitional/respiratory epithelium from healthy rats. Ce...

  7. Solitary chemoreceptor cell proliferation in adult nasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbransen, Brian D; Finger, Thomas E

    2005-03-01

    Nasal trigeminal chemosensitivity in mice and rats is mediated in part by solitary chemoreceptor cells (SCCs) in the nasal epithelium (Finger et al., 2003). Many nasal SCCs express the G-protein alpha-gustducin as well as other elements of the bitter-taste signaling cascade including phospholipase Cbeta2, TRPM5 and T2R bitter-taste receptors. While some populations of sensory cells are replaced throughout life (taste and olfaction), others are not (hair cells and carotid body chemoreceptors). These experiments were designed to test whether new SCCs are generated within the epithelium of adult mice. Wild type C57/B6 mice were injected with the thymidine analog 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label dividing cells. At various times after injection (1-40 days), the mice were perfused with 4% paraformaldehyde and prepared for dual-label immunocytochemistry. Double labeled cells were detected as early as 3 days post BrdU injection and remained for as long as 12 days post-injection suggesting that SCCs do undergo turnover like the surrounding nasal epithelium. No BrdU labeled cells were detected after 24 days suggesting relatively rapid replacement of the SCCs.

  8. Cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following three months exposure to formaldehyde gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, T.M.; Morgan, K.T.

    1990-01-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO), a ubiquitous chemical and rat nasal carcinogen, enhances cell proliferation in rat, monkey, and xenotransplanted human respiratory epithelium following short-term exposure. The present studies were designed to evaluate cell proliferation in relation to tumor induction in rat nasal respiratory epithelium following subchronic HCHO exposure. Male F-344 rats were whole-body exposed to either 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, or 15 ppm HCHO, for wither 4 d (6hr/d), 6 wks (5d/wk) or 3 months. Animals were labeled with tritiated thymidine prior to euthanasia. Nasal sections were processed for autoradiography and cell proliferation data was expressed as unit length labeling indices (ULLI). HCHO-induced lesions and increases in cell proliferation occurred in specific regions of the nose, primarily the wall of the lateral meatus and nasal septum of the anterior nasal cavity. Following 4 d exposure, significant elevations in cell proliferation were observed only in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups (16-, 18-, and 20-fold increase over control, respectively). Increases in ULLI were also present in the 6, 10 and 15 ppm groups after 6 wks of exposure (12-, 35-, and 40-fold increase over control). However, after 3 months exposure, elevations in ULLI were present only in the 10 and 15 ppm groups (9- and 14-fold increase over controls). These results demonstrate that (1) low levels of HCHO (0.7 and 2 ppm) do not increase cell proliferation in rat nasal respiratory epithelium; (2) 6 ppm HCHO induces transient increases in cell proliferation; and (3) clearly carcinogenic concentrations of HCHO (10 and 15 ppm) cause sustained elevations in cell proliferation which may play an important role in HCHO-induced carcinogenesis

  9. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  10. FORMALDEHYDE-INDUCED GENE EXPRESSION IN F344 RAT NASAL RESPIRATORY EPITHELIUM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde-induced gene expression in F344 rat nasal respiratory epithelium ABSTRACTFormaldehyde, an occupational and environmental toxicant used extensively in the manufacturing of many household and personal use products, is known to induce squamous cell carci...

  11. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Henderson, R.F.; Mauderly, J.L.; Cuddihy, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  12. Regional differences in DNA replication in nasal epithelium following acute ozone or cigarette smoke exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, N F; Hotchkiss, J A; Harkema, J R; Henderson, R F; Mauderly, J L; Cuddihy, R G

    1988-12-01

    The epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity is composed of four cell types, squamous, respiratory, cuboidal, and olfactory cells. We monitored proliferation In these tissues by bromodeoxy-uridine (BrdUrd) incorporation; the labeled cells were identified by using a monoclonal antibody that recognizes BrdUrd. The respiratory, cuboidal and olfactory epithelia had low cell turnover (1-labeled ceIl/mm basal lamina). Squamous epithelium contained 40-labeled cells per mm basal lamina. Following exposure to diluted mainstream cigarette smoke, a transient, but marked increase in DNA replication was seen in the cuboidal epithelium. In contrast, ozone exposure was associated with DNA replication in the olfactory and respiratory epithelium, as well as in the cuboidal epithelium. These studies show that the sensitivity of nasal epithelium to irritants can be assayed by measuring DNA replication. (author)

  13. The cytological status of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.T. Bazeliuk; B.M. Salimbaeva

    2006-11-15

    Sixty-four persons were examined. The examination was undertaken to study the cytomophological parameters of the cells of the nasal mucosa and the buccal epithelium in coal miners. Group 1 consisted of 18 donors without contact with industrial dust; Group 2 comprised 24 apparently healthy miners; Group 3 included 22 workers (drift miners) with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis, grade 1 respiratory failure. The patients with Stage 1 anthracosilicosis had noticeably worse morphofunctional characteristics of the epithelium that displayed extensive fields with pronounced structural changes, such as destruction and desquamation of the integumentary epithelium of the nasal mucosa. Nasal mucosal atrophic changes were observed in 50% of the examined miners. Examination of the buccal epithelium in apparently healthy miners (code 0) and in workers with Stage I anthracosilicosis revealed the increased proportion of microfloral (Streptococcus) contamination by 79% and 3.7 times, respectively.

  14. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewell, H.J.; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  15. Transcriptional responses in the rat nasal epithelium following subchronic inhalation of naphthalene vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clewell, H.J., E-mail: hclewell@thehamner.org; Efremenko, A.; Campbell, J.L.; Dodd, D.E.; Thomas, R.S.

    2014-10-01

    Male and female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to naphthalene vapors at 0 (controls), 0.1, 1, 10, and 30 ppm for 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, over a 90-day period. Following exposure, the respiratory epithelium and olfactory epithelium from the nasal cavity were dissected separately, RNA was isolated, and gene expression microarray analysis was conducted. Only a few significant gene expression changes were observed in the olfactory or respiratory epithelium of either gender at the lowest concentration (0.1 ppm). At the 1.0 ppm concentration there was limited evidence of an oxidative stress response in the respiratory epithelium, but not in the olfactory epithelium. In contrast, a large number of significantly enriched cellular pathway responses were observed in both tissues at the two highest concentrations (10 and 30 ppm, which correspond to tumorigenic concentrations in the NTP bioassay). The nature of these responses supports a mode of action involving oxidative stress, inflammation and proliferation. These results are consistent with a dose-dependent transition in the mode of action for naphthalene toxicity/carcinogenicity between 1.0 and 10 ppm in the rat. In the female olfactory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of neuroblastomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest concentration at which any signaling pathway was significantly affected, as characterized by the median pathway benchmark dose (BMD) or its 95% lower bound (BMDL) was 6.0 or 3.7 ppm, respectively, while the lowest female olfactory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 16.1, 11.1, and 8.4 ppm, respectively. In the male respiratory epithelium (the gender/site with the highest incidences of adenomas in the NTP bioassay), the lowest pathway BMD and BMDL were 0.4 and 0.3 ppm, respectively, and the lowest male respiratory BMD values for pathways related to glutathione homeostasis, inflammation, and proliferation were 0.5, 0.7, and 0.9 ppm

  16. TRANSCRIPTOMIC ANALYSIS OF F344 RAT NASAL EPITHELIUM SUGGESTS THAT THE LACK OF CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO GLUTARALDEHYDE IS DUE TO ITS GREATER TOXICITY COMPARED TO FORMALDEHYDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaldehyde is cytotoxic and carcinogenic to the rat nasal respiratory epithelium inducing tumors after 12 months. Glutaraldehyde is also cytotoxic but is not carcinogenic to nasal epithelium even after 24 months. Both aldehydes induce similar acute and subchronic histopathology...

  17. Genotoxic differences by sex in nasal epithelium and blood leukocytes in subjects residing in a highly polluted area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortoul, T.I.; Valverde, M.; Lopez, M.C.; Avila-Costa, M.R.; Avila-Casado, M.C.; Mussali-Galante, P.; Gonzalez-Villalva, A.; Rojas, E.; Ostrosky-Shejet, P.

    2004-01-01

    We describe differences by sex in genotoxic damage found in a population of medical students exposed to a highly oxidative atmosphere, compared with a control group, measured by the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay and histological changes in nasal epithelium smears. Cells were obtained from the nasal epithelium and blood leukocytes. Higher DNA damage in nasal cells and leukocytes was found in males compared to females and control subjects. The percentage of squamous metaplastic changes in the nasal epithelium was also higher in males compared with females and controls. The commutation of normal nasal epithelium by squamous cells might modify its protective function in the nose, increasing the risk of damage to the lower respiratory tract. Although, as medical students, males and females were exposed to the same environment and activity patterns, male genotoxicity damage was higher in control and exposed subjects. More research should be done in order to identify direct or indirect sexual hormone intervention

  18. Shared Gene Expression Alterations in Nasal and Bronchial Epithelium for Lung Cancer Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We previously derived and validated a bronchial epithelial gene expression biomarker to detect lung cancer in current and former smokers. Given that bronchial and nasal epithelial gene expression are similarly altered by cigarette smoke exposure, we sought to determine if cancer-associated gene expression might also be detectable in the more readily accessible nasal epithelium. Nasal epithelial brushings were prospectively collected from current and former smokers undergoing diagnostic evaluation for pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer in the AEGIS-1 (n = 375) and AEGIS-2 (n = 130) clinical trials and gene expression profiled using microarrays. All statistical tests were two-sided. We identified 535 genes that were differentially expressed in the nasal epithelium of AEGIS-1 patients diagnosed with lung cancer vs those with benign disease after one year of follow-up ( P  cancer-associated gene expression alterations between the two airway sites ( P  lung cancer classifier derived in the AEGIS-1 cohort that combined clinical factors (age, smoking status, time since quit, mass size) and nasal gene expression (30 genes) had statistically significantly higher area under the curve (0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74 to 0.89, P  = .01) and sensitivity (0.91; 95% CI = 0.81 to 0.97, P  = .03) than a clinical-factor only model in independent samples from the AEGIS-2 cohort. These results support that the airway epithelial field of lung cancer-associated injury in ever smokers extends to the nose and demonstrates the potential of using nasal gene expression as a noninvasive biomarker for lung cancer detection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Nasal obstruction and human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinoff, R; Moreno, C

    1989-04-01

    Nasal obstruction may cause a variety of communication disorders, particularly in children. The effects of nasal obstruction on hearing, speech, language, and voice are examined. Methods for assessing the effects of nasal obstruction are delineated, and recommendations for therapeutic interventions are described.

  20. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane ...

  1. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  2. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, P.; Duim, B.; Wittink, F.R.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Van Putten, J.P.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Fluit, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  3. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 gene expression profiling during ex vivo colonization of porcine nasal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulinski, Pawel; Duim, Birgitta; Wittink, Floyd R; Jonker, Martijs J; Breit, Timo M; van Putten, Jos P; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Fluit, Ad C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a common human and animal opportunistic pathogen. In humans nasal carriage of S. aureus is a risk factor for various infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus ST398 is highly prevalent in pigs in Europe and North America. The mechanism of successful pig

  4. Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term "epithelium" refers to layers of cells that line hollow organs and glands. It is also those cells that make ... Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL. Epithelium. In: Kierszenbaum AL, Tres LL, ... to Pathology . 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  5. Smoking-induced gene expression changes in the bronchial airway are reflected in nasal and buccal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaohui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and a significant cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Prior studies have demonstrated that smoking creates a field of molecular injury throughout the airway epithelium exposed to cigarette smoke. We have previously characterized gene expression in the bronchial epithelium of never smokers and identified the gene expression changes that occur in the mainstem bronchus in response to smoking. In this study, we explored relationships in whole-genome gene expression between extrathorcic (buccal and nasal and intrathoracic (bronchial epithelium in healthy current and never smokers. Results Using genes that have been previously defined as being expressed in the bronchial airway of never smokers (the "normal airway transcriptome", we found that bronchial and nasal epithelium from non-smokers were most similar in gene expression when compared to other epithelial and nonepithelial tissues, with several antioxidant, detoxification, and structural genes being highly expressed in both the bronchus and nose. Principle component analysis of previously defined smoking-induced genes from the bronchus suggested that smoking had a similar effect on gene expression in nasal epithelium. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that this set of genes was also highly enriched among the genes most altered by smoking in both nasal and buccal epithelial samples. The expression of several detoxification genes was commonly altered by smoking in all three respiratory epithelial tissues, suggesting a common airway-wide response to tobacco exposure. Conclusion Our findings support a relationship between gene expression in extra- and intrathoracic airway epithelial cells and extend the concept of a smoking-induced field of injury to epithelial cells that line the mouth and nose. This relationship could potentially be utilized to develop a non-invasive biomarker for

  6. In vivo models of human airway epithelium repair and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coraux

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions. The in vivo study of epithelial regeneration in animal models has shown that airway epithelial cells are able to dedifferentiate, spread, migrate over the denuded basement membrane and progressively redifferentiate to reconstitute a functional respiratory epithelium after several weeks. Humanised tracheal xenograft models have been developed in immunodeficient nude and severe combined immunodeficient (SCID mice in order to mimic the natural regeneration process of the human airway epithelium and to analyse the cellular and molecular events involved during the different steps of airway epithelial reconstitution. These models represent very powerful tools for analysing the modulation of the biological functions of the epithelium during its regeneration. They are also very useful for identifying stem/progenitor cells of the human airway epithelium. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration, as well as the characterisation of the epithelial stem and progenitor cells, may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics, allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.

  7. Regional deposition of mometasone furoate nasal spray suspension in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Samir A; Berger, Robert L; McDermott, John; Gupta, Pranav; Monteith, David; Connor, Alyson; Lin, Wu

    2015-01-01

    Nasal deposition studies can demonstrate whether nasal sprays treating allergic rhinitis and polyposis reach the ciliated posterior nasal cavity, where turbinate inflammation and other pathology occurs. However, quantifying nasal deposition is challenging, because in vitro tests do not correlate to human nasal deposition; gamma scintigraphy studies are thus used. For valid data, the radiolabel must distribute, as the drug, into different-sized droplets, remain associated with the drug in the formulation after administration, and not alter its deposition. Some nasal deposition studies have demonstrated this using homogenous solutions. However, most commercial nasal sprays are heterogeneous suspensions. Using mometasone furoate nasal suspension (MFS), we developed a technique to validate radiolabel deposition as a surrogate for nasal cavity drug deposition and characterized regional deposition and nasal clearance in humans. Mometasone furoate (MF) formulation was spiked with diethylene triamine pentacaetic acid. Both unlabeled and radiolabeled formulations (n = 3) were sprayed into a regionally divided nasal cast. Drug deposition was quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography within each region; radiolabel deposition was determined by gamma camera. Healthy subjects (n = 12) were dosed and imaged for six hours. Scintigraphic images were coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging scans to quantify anterior and posterior nasal cavity deposition and mucociliary clearance. The ratio of radiolabel to unlabeled drug was 1.05 in the nasal cast and regionally appeared to match, indicating that in vivo radiolabel deposition could represent drug deposition. In humans, MFS delivered 86% (9.2) of metered dose to the nasal cavity, approximately 60% (9.1) of metered dose to the posterior nasal cavity. After 15 minutes, mucociliary clearance removed 59% of the initial radiolabel in the nasal cavity, consistent with clearance rates from the ciliated posterior surface. MFS

  8. Functional short- and long-term effects of nasal CPAP with and without humidification on the ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, J Ulrich; Kraus, Marius; Birk, Richard; Schultz, Johannes D; Hörmann, Karl; Stuck, Boris A

    2014-03-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the gold standard in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), but its impact on ciliary function is unclear to date. Furthermore, CPAP is associated with numerous side effects related to the nose and upper airway. Humidified CPAP is used to relieve these symptoms, but again, little is known regarding its effect on ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. In this prospective, randomized, crossover trial, 31 patients with OSA (AHI >15/h) were randomized to two treatment arms: nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) with humidification or nCPAP without humidification for one night in each modality to assess short-term effects of ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and mucus transport time (MTT) and consecutively for 8 weeks in each modality to assess long-term effects in a crossover fashion. The baseline CBF was 4.8 ± 0.6 Hz, and baseline MTT was 540 ± 221 s. After one night of CPAP with and without humidification, ciliary function increased moderately yet with statistical significance (p humidification did not differ statistically significant. Regarding long-term effects of CPAP, a statistically significant increase in ciliary function above the baseline level and above the short-term level was shown without humidification (7.2 ± 0.4 Hz; 402 ± 176 s; p humidification (9.3 ± 0.7 Hz; 313 ± 95 s; p humidification, nCPAP has moderate effects on short-term ciliary function of the nasal respiratory epithelium. However, a significant increase in ciliary function-both in terms of an increased CBF and a decreased MTT-was detected after long-term use. The effect was more pronounced when humidification was used during nCPAP.

  9. Permeability and ultrastructure of human bladder epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, J; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Nielsen, S L

    1983-01-01

    Leakage of tight junctions as observed with electron microscopy and demonstration of solute transport across bladder epithelium was investigated in 13 patients with different bladder diseases: urinary retention and infection, bladder tumours and interstitial cystitis. The latter group showed...

  10. Transcellular sodium transport in cultured cystic fibrosis human nasal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Boucher, Richard C.

    1991-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) airway epithelia exhibit raised transepithelial Na+ transport rates, as determined by open-circuit isotope fluxes and estimates of the amiloride-sensitive equivalent short-circuit current (Ieq). To study the contribution of apical and basolateral membrane paths to raised Na+ ...

  11. Correlation of nasal geometry with aerosol deposition in human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yung-Seng; Simpson, S.Q.; Cheng, Kuo-His; Swift, D.L.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Guilmette, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The nasal airways act as the first filter in the respiratory tract to remove very large or small particles, that would otherwise penetrate to the lower airways. Aerosol deposition data obtained with human volunteers vary considerably under comparable experimental conditions. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. Because there is no direct proof of this hypothesis, nasal deposition of ultrafine particles in human volunteers has been studied in our laboratory. Preliminary results obtained with four adult volunteers also vary considerably between subjects. The purpose of this part of the study was to establish a theoretical equation relating diffusional deposition in nasal airways to the geometrical dimensions of the individual nasal airways. This relationship was then applied to the experimental deposition data and measurement of airway morphometry for correlation

  12. Nasal cytochrome P4502A: Identification in rats and humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton-Manning, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center for Laboratories and Research, Albany, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The nasal mucosa, the first tissue of contact for inhaled xenobiotics, possesses substantial enobiotic-metabolizing capacti. Enzymes of the nasal cavity may metabolize xenobiotics to innocuous, more water-soluble compounds that are eliminated from the body, or they may bioactivate them to toxic metabolites. These toxic metabolites may find to cellular macromolecules in the nasal cavity or be transported to other parts of the body where they may react. Nasal carcinogenesis in rodents often results from bioactivation of xenobiotics. The increased incidences of nasal tumors associated with certain occupations suggest that xenobiotic bioactivation may be important in human nasal cancer etiology, as well. The increasing popularity of the nose as a route of drug administration makes information concerning nasal drug metabolism and disposition vital to accomplish therapeutic goals. For these reasons, the study of xenobiotic-met abolizing capacity of the nasal cavity is an important area of health-related research. In the present study, we have confirmed the presence of CYP2A6 mRNA in human respiratory mucosa.

  13. Human factor in Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.L. Nouwen (Jan); H.A.M. Boelens (Hélène); A.F. van Belkum (Alex); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractPersistent nasal carriers and noncarriers of Staphylococcus aureus were inoculated with a mixture of different S. aureus strains. The majority of noncarriers and nearly all persistent carriers returned to their original carrier state after artificial inoculation. Furthermore, the

  14. Zicam-induced damage to mouse and human nasal tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae H Lim

    Full Text Available Intranasal medications are used to treat various nasal disorders. However, their effects on olfaction remain unknown. Zicam (zinc gluconate; Matrixx Initiatives, Inc, a homeopathic substance marketed to alleviate cold symptoms, has been implicated in olfactory dysfunction. Here, we investigated Zicam and several common intranasal agents for their effects on olfactory function. Zicam was the only substance that showed significant cytotoxicity in both mouse and human nasal tissue. Specifically, Zicam-treated mice had disrupted sensitivity of olfactory sensory neurons to odorant stimulation and were unable to detect novel odorants in behavioral testing. These findings were long-term as no recovery of function was observed after two months. Finally, human nasal explants treated with Zicam displayed significantly elevated extracellular lactate dehydrogenase levels compared to saline-treated controls, suggesting severe necrosis that was confirmed on histology. Our results demonstrate that Zicam use could irreversibly damage mouse and human nasal tissue and may lead to significant smell dysfunction.

  15. Tissue microenvironments in the nasal epithelium of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) define two distinct CD8α+ cell populations and establish regional immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepahi, Ali; Casadei, Elisa; Tacchi, Luca; Muñoz, Pilar; LaPatra, Scott E.; Salinas, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces require balancing different physiological roles and immune functions. In order to effectively achieve multifunctionality, mucosal epithelia have evolved unique microenvironments that create unique regional immune responses without impairing other normal physiological functions. Whereas examples of regional immunity are known in other mucosal epithelia, to date, no immune microenvironments have been described in the nasal mucosa, a site where the complex functions of olfaction and immunity need to be orchestrated. In this study we identified for the first time the presence of CD8α+ cells in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) nasal epithelium. Nasal CD8α+ cells display a distinct phenotype suggestive of CD8+ T cells with high integrin β2 expression. Importantly, nasal CD8α+ cells are located in clusters at the mucosal tip of each olfactory lamella but scattered in the neuroepithelial region. The grouping of CD8α+ cells may be explained by the greater expression of CCL19, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 in the mucosal tip compared to the neuroepithelium. Whilst viral antigen uptake occurred via both tip and lateral routes, tip resident MHC-II+ cells are located significantly closer to the lumen of the nasal cavity than their neuroepithelial counterparts, therefore having quicker access to invading pathogens. Our studies reveal for the first time compartmentalized mucosal immune responses within the nasal mucosa of a vertebrate species, a strategy that likely optimizes local immune responses while protecting olfactory sensory functions. PMID:27798156

  16. Characteristics of nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and nasal absorption capacity in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2013-01-01

    As the main mucosal immune inductive site of nasal cavity, nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) plays an important role in both antigen recognition and immune activation after intranasal immunization. However, the efficiency of intranasal vaccines is commonly restricted by the insufficient intake of antigen by the nasal mucosa, resulting from the nasal mucosal barrier and the nasal mucociliary clearance. The distribution of NALT and the characteristic of nasal cavity have already been described in humans and many laboratory rodents, while data about poultry are scarce. For this purpose, histological sections of the chicken nasal cavities were used to examine the anatomical structure and histological characteristics of nasal cavity. Besides, the absorptive capacity of chicken nasal mucosa was also studied using the materials with different particle size. Results showed that the NALT of chicken was located on the bottom of nasal septum and both sides of choanal cleft, which mainly consisted of second lymphoid follicle. A large number of lymphocytes were distributed under the mucosal epithelium of inferior nasal meatus. In addition, there were also diffuse lymphoid tissues located under the epithelium of the concha nasalis media and the walls of nasal cavity. The results of absorption experiment showed that the chicken nasal mucosa was capable to absorb trypan blue, OVA, and fluorescent latex particles. Inactivated avian influenza virus (IAIV) could be taken up by chicken nasal mucosa except for the stratified squamous epithelium sites located on the forepart of nasal cavity. The intake of IAIV by NALT was greater than that of the nasal mucosa covering on non-lymphoid tissue, which could be further enhanced after intranasal inoculation combined with sodium cholate or CpG DNA. The study on NALT and nasal absorptive capacity will be benefit for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and development of nasal vaccines for poultry.

  17. Mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D J; Taylor, D J; Schroter, R C

    2008-11-30

    The mechanics of airflow in the human nasal airways is reviewed, drawing on the findings of experimental and computational model studies. Modelling inevitably requires simplifications and assumptions, particularly given the complexity of the nasal airways. The processes entailed in modelling the nasal airways (from defining the model, to its production and, finally, validating the results) is critically examined, both for physical models and for computational simulations. Uncertainty still surrounds the appropriateness of the various assumptions made in modelling, particularly with regard to the nature of flow. New results are presented in which high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and direct numerical simulation are applied to investigate the development of flow instability in the nasal cavity. These illustrate some of the improved capabilities afforded by technological developments for future model studies. The need for further improvements in characterising airway geometry and flow together with promising new methods are briefly discussed.

  18. Zinc uptake in vitro by human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsome, D.A.; Rothman, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Zinc, an essential trace element, is present in unusually high concentrations in the chorioretinal complex relative to most other tissues. Because little has been known about the interactions between the retinal pigment epithelium and free or protein-associated zinc, we studied 65 Zn uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro. When monolayers were exposed to differing concentrations from 0 to 30 microM 65 Zn in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium with 5.4 gm/l glucose at 37 degrees C and 4 degrees C, we observed a temperature-dependent saturable accumulation of the radiolabel. With 15 microM 65 Zn, we saw a biphasic pattern of uptake with a rapid first phase and a slower second phase over 120 min. Uptake of 65 Zn was inhibited by iodacetate and cold, and reduced approximately 50% by the addition of 2% albumin to the labelling medium. Neither ouabain nor 2-deoxyglucose inhibited uptake. Cells previously exposed to 65 Zn retained approximately 70% of accumulated 65 Zn 60 min after being changed to radiolabel-free medium. Following removal of cells from the extracellular matrix adherent to the dish bottom, a variable amount of nonspecific binding of 65 Zn to the residual matrix was demonstrated. These observations are consistent with a facilitated type of transport and demonstrate the ability of human retinal pigment epithelium in vitro to accumulate and retain zinc

  19. Evidence of connections between cerebrospinal fluid and nasal lymphatic vessels in humans, non-human primates and other mammalian species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Dianna

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The parenchyma of the brain does not contain lymphatics. Consequently, it has been assumed that arachnoid projections into the cranial venous system are responsible for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF absorption. However, recent quantitative and qualitative evidence in sheep suggest that nasal lymphatics have the major role in CSF transport. Nonetheless, the applicability of this concept to other species, especially to humans has never been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the CSF and nasal lymph associations in human and non-human primates with those observed in other mammalian species. Methods Studies were performed in sheep, pigs, rabbits, rats, mice, monkeys and humans. Immediately after sacrifice (or up to 7 hours after death in humans, yellow Microfil was injected into the CSF compartment. The heads were cut in a sagittal plane. Results In the seven species examined, Microfil was observed primarily in the subarachnoid space around the olfactory bulbs and cribriform plate. The contrast agent followed the olfactory nerves and entered extensive lymphatic networks in the submucosa associated with the olfactory and respiratory epithelium. This is the first direct evidence of the association between the CSF and nasal lymph compartments in humans. Conclusions The fact that the pattern of Microfil distribution was similar in all species tested, suggested that CSF absorption into nasal lymphatics is a characteristic feature of all mammals including humans. It is tempting to speculate that some disorders of the CSF system (hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension for example may relate either directly or indirectly to a lymphatic CSF absorption deficit.

  20. Characterizing adult human nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Griffith, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory tract models used in calculating radiation dose from exposure to inhaled radioactive aerosols have only recently focused attention on the importance of the nasal airways (NAs). Because the NAs are the first tissues of the respiratory tract available for aerosol deposition in normally nose-breathing people, any deposition of aerosol in this anatomical structure will reduce the amounts available to be deposited in the remainder of the respiratory tract. Thus, uncertainties in estimating the deposition fractions in the NAs will propagate throughout the remainder of the respiratory tract, creating errors in the calculated dose estimates. Additionally, there is evidence that the NAs are also at risk for induction of cancer from exposure to certain occupational aerosols such as wood dust, leather dust, chromium, and nickel. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct an anatomical study to assess the variabilities in NA dimensions

  1. STUDIES ON HUMAN FALLOPIAN TUBAL EPITHELIUM IN DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS

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    Jayasri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS The “fallopian tubes” (oviducts or uterine tubes are long paired flexuous reproductive organ which transports ova, spermatozoa, zygotes, the pre-implantation morulae and blastocyst. It has major role during reproductive period, but it remains as if vestigial organ before puberty and after menopause. Due to increasing rate of tubal block and infertility, oviducts and their structures gaining importance and have become a subject of research in present days particularly epithelium. The aim of the study is to ascertain any histological difference of tubal epithelium in different age groups and the research work could be utilized for investigation and management of infertility. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven samples of each group i.e., prereproductive, reproductive & postmenopausal were collected from fresh unembalmed human cadavers received in the department of Anatomy, FAA Medical College, Barpeta, Assam. The slides were prepared using the standard laboratory procedure. Under low and high power objectives the type of cells were observed and epithelial height was measured in the different segments. Stress was given for any significant difference of epithelial height between the different age groups. RESULTS Study revealed that among the groups within the same segment, epithelial height was recorded highest (33.57µm in reproductive group as against the lowest (22.91µm in post-menopausal group. Epithelial structures of the prereproductive and reproductive groups were significantly differed (p<0.01 from the postmenopausal group. CONCLUSIONS From the findings of the present study it can be concluded that: 1. In all the groups fallopian tubal epithelium is of simple columnar type and contains three types of cells. Cells are ciliated, secretory & peg (intercalary cells. 2. In all the groups same type of increasing trend of epithelial height from intramural segment to ampullary segment was recorded. 3. In intergroup comparison of

  2. Trichosomoides nasalis (Nematoda: Trichinelloidea in the murid host Arvicanthis niloticus: Migration to the epithelium of the nasal mucosa after intramuscular development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fall E.H.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the biology of the trichinelloid subfamily Trichosomoidinae is poor. Trichosomoides nasalis is a common parasite of Arvicanthis niloticus (Muridae in Senegal, and a procedure for experimental infections has been established. It has been demonstrated that larvae develop in striated muscle fibres, similar to Trichinella spp., but they are not arrested in the first stage, and they reach the adult stage within three weeks. In the present histological study it is shown that T. nasalis females and dwarf males migrate from the abdomen and thorax to the host’s muzzle, moving through connective tissues and between muscles. A few migrating specimens were also found in the blood vessels of the nasal mucosa. While sexes were still separated in the lamina propria of the mucosa, females recovered from the epithelium contained intra-uterine males. Worms were found between the incisors in the mucosa of the anterior and median conchae which are rich in mucous cells. Only the pseudostratified epithelium was parasitized. Under natural conditions, the inflammation of the nasal mucosa that is induced by the parasites might reduce the competitiveness of infected rodents when foraging or looking for potential mates.

  3. Effects of nasal drug delivery device and its orientation on sprayed particle deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuwen; Dong, Jingliang; Shang, Yidan; Inthavong, Kiao; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the effects of nasal drug delivery device and the spray nozzle orientation on sprayed droplets deposition in a realistic human nasal cavity were numerically studied. Prior to performing the numerical investigation, an in-house designed automated actuation system representing mean adults actuation force was developed to produce realistic spray plume. Then, the spray plume development was filmed by high speed photography system, and spray characteristics such as spray cone angle, break-up length, and average droplet velocity were obtained through off-line image analysis. Continuing studies utilizing those experimental data as boundary conditions were applied in the following numerical spray simulations using a commercially available nasal spray device, which was inserted into a realistic adult nasal passage with external facial features. Through varying the particle releasing direction, the deposition fractions of selected particle sizes on the main nasal passage for targeted drug delivery were compared. The results demonstrated that the middle spray direction showed superior spray efficiency compared with upper or lower directions, and the 10µm agents were the most suitable particle size as the majority of sprayed agents can be delivered to the targeted area, the main passage. This study elaborates a comprehensive approach to better understand nasal spray mechanism and evaluate its performance for existing nasal delivery practices. Results of this study can assist the pharmaceutical industry to improve the current design of nasal drug delivery device and ultimately benefit more patients through optimized medications delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Responses of well-differentiated nasal epithelial cells exposed to particles: Role of the epithelium in airway inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, Floriane; Gendron, Marie-Claude; Chamot, Christophe; Marano, Francelyne; Dazy, Anne-Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies support the contention that ambient air pollution particles can adversely affect human health. To explain the acute inflammatory process in airways exposed to particles, a number of in vitro studies have been performed on cells grown submerged on plastic and poorly differentiated, and on cell lines, the physiology of which is somewhat different from that of well-differentiated cells. In order to obtain results using a model system in which epithelial cells are similar to those of the human airway in vivo, apical membranes of well-differentiated human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells cultured in an air-liquid interface (ALI) were exposed for 24 h to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and Paris urban air particles (PM 2.5 ). DEP and PM 2.5 (10-80 μg/cm 2 ) stimulated both IL-8 and amphiregulin (ligand of EGFR) secretion exclusively towards the basal compartment. In contrast, there was no IL-1β secretion and only weak non-reproducible secretion of TNF-α. IL-6 and GM-CSF were consistently stimulated towards the apical compartment and only when cells were exposed to PM 2.5 . ICAM-1 protein expression on cell surfaces remained low after particle exposure, although it increased after TNF-α treatment. Internalization of particles, which is believed to initiate oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine expression, was restricted to small nanoparticles (≤ 40 nm). Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected, and DEP were more efficient than PM 2.5 . Collectively, our results suggest that airway epithelial cells exposed to particles augment the local inflammatory response in the lung but cannot alone initiate a systemic inflammatory response

  5. Phenotypic and physiologic variability in nasal epithelium cultured from smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The emergence of air-liquid interface (ALI) culturing of mammalian airway epithelium is a recent innovation for experimental modeling of airway epithelial development, function, and pathogenic mechanisms associated with infectious agent and irritant exposure. This construct provi...

  6. A model of human nasal epithelial cells adapted for direct and repeated exposure to airborne pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, Gaëlle; Achard, Sophie; Loret, Thomas; Desauziers, Valérie; Momas, Isabelle; Seta, Nathalie

    2014-08-17

    Airway epithelium lining the nasal cavity plays a pivotal role in respiratory tract defense and protection mechanisms. Air pollution induces alterations linked to airway diseases such as asthma. Only very few in vitro studies to date have succeeded in reproducing physiological conditions relevant to cellular type and chronic atmospheric pollution exposure. We therefore, set up an in vitro model of human Airway Epithelial Cells of Nasal origin (hAECN) close to real human cell functionality, specifically adapted to study the biological effects of exposure to indoor gaseous pollution at the environmental level. hAECN were exposed under air-liquid interface, one, two, or three-times at 24 h intervals for 1 h, to air or formaldehyde (200 μg/m(3)), an indoor air gaseous pollutant. All experiments were ended at day 4, when both cellular viability and cytokine production were assessed. Optimal adherence and confluence of cells were obtained 96 h after cell seeding onto collagen IV-precoated insert. Direct and repeated exposure to formaldehyde did not produce any cellular damage or IL-6 production change, although weak lower IL-8 production was observed only after the third exposure. Our model is significantly better than previous ones due to cell type and the repeated exposure protocol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Immediate effect of benzalkonium chloride in decongestant nasal spray on the human nasal mucosal temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, J; Leiacker, R; Wiesmiller, K; Rettinger, G; Keck, T

    2004-08-01

    Benzalkonium chloride is a preservative commonly used in nasal decongestant sprays. It has been suggested that benzalkonium chloride may be harmful to the nasal mucosa. Decongestion with the vasoconstrictor xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride has been shown to cause a significant reduction of the nasal mucosal temperature. The purpose of the present study was to determine the short-term influence of xylometazoline nasal spray with and without benzalkonium chloride on the nasal mucosal temperature. Healthy volunteers (30) were included in the study. Fifteen volunteers received xylometazoline nasal spray (1.0 mg/mL) containing benzalkonium chloride (0.1 mg/mL) and 15 age-matched subjects, received xylometazoline nasal spray without benzalkonium chloride. Using a miniaturized thermocouple the septal mucosal temperature was continuously measured at defined intranasal detection sites before and after application of the nasal spray. The mucosal temperature values did not significantly differ between the group receiving xylometazoline containing benzalkonium chloride and the group receiving xylometazoline spray without benzalkonium chloride before and after decongestion (P > 0.05). In both study groups septal mucosal temperatures significantly decreased after decongestion (P reduction of the nasal mucosal blood flow following vasoconstriction. This study indicates that benzalkonium chloride itself does not seem to influence nasal blood flow and nasal mucosal temperature in topical nasal decongestants.

  8. The human nasal microbiota and Staphylococcus aureus carriage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel N Frank

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Colonization of humans with Staphylococcus aureus is a critical prerequisite of subsequent clinical infection of the skin, blood, lung, heart and other deep tissues. S. aureus persistently or intermittently colonizes the nares of approximately 50% of healthy adults, whereas approximately 50% of the general population is rarely or never colonized by this pathogen. Because microbial consortia within the nasal cavity may be an important determinant of S. aureus colonization we determined the composition and dynamics of the nasal microbiota and correlated specific microorganisms with S. aureus colonization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nasal specimens were collected longitudinally from five healthy adults and a cross-section of hospitalized patients (26 S. aureus carriers and 16 non-carriers. Culture-independent analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed that the nasal microbiota of healthy subjects consists primarily of members of the phylum Actinobacteria (e.g., Propionibacterium spp. and Corynebacterium spp., with proportionally less representation of other phyla, including Firmicutes (e.g., Staphylococcus spp. and Proteobacteria (e.g. Enterobacter spp. In contrast, inpatient nasal microbiotas were enriched in S. aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis and diminished in several actinobacterial groups, most notably Propionibacterium acnes. Moreover, within the inpatient population S. aureus colonization was negatively correlated with the abundances of several microbial groups, including S. epidermidis (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The nares environment is colonized by a temporally stable microbiota that is distinct from other regions of the integument. Negative association between S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other groups suggests microbial competition during colonization of the nares, a finding that could be exploited to limit S. aureus colonization.

  9. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation in human cataractous lens epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavada Abhay

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior lens epithelial cells undergo a variety of degenerative and proliferative changes during cataract formation. Acid phosphatase is primarily responsible for tissue regeneration and tissue repair. The lipid hydroperoxides that are obtained by lipid peroxidation of polysaturated or unsaturated fatty acids bring about deterioration of biological membranes at cellular and tissue levels. Acid phosphatase and lipid peroxidation activities were studied on the lens epithelial cells of nuclear cataract, posterior subcapsular cataract, mature cataract, and mixed cataract. Of these, mature cataractous lens epithelium showed maximum activity for acid phosphatase (516.83 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and maximum levels of lipid peroxidation (86.29 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. In contrast, mixed cataractous lens epithelium showed minimum activity of acid phosphatase (222.61 moles of p-nitrophenol released/g lens epithelium and minimum levels of lipid peroxidation (54.23 O.D./min/g lens epithelium. From our study, we correlated the maximum activity of acid phosphatase in mature cataractous lens epithelium with the increased areas of superimposed cells associated with the formation of mature cataract. Likewise, the maximum levels of lipid peroxidation in mature cataractous lens epithelium was correlated with increased permeability of the plasma membrane. Conversely, the minimum levels of lipid peroxidation in mixed cataractous lens epithelium makes us presume that factors other than lipid peroxidation may also account for the formation of mixed type of cataract.

  10. Human Milk Hyaluronan Enhances Innate Defense of the Intestinal Epithelium*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David R.; Rho, Hyunjin K.; Kessler, Sean P.; Amin, Ripal; Homer, Craig R.; McDonald, Christine; Cowman, Mary K.; de la Motte, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast-feeding is associated with enhanced protection from gastrointestinal disease in infants, mediated in part by an array of bioactive glycan components in milk that act through molecular mechanisms to inhibit enteric pathogen infection. Human milk contains hyaluronan (HA), a glycosaminoglycan polymer found in virtually all mammalian tissues. We have shown that synthetic HA of a specific size range promotes expression of antimicrobial peptides in intestinal epithelium. We hypothesize that hyaluronan from human milk also enhances innate antimicrobial defense. Here we define the concentration of HA in human milk during the first 6 months postpartum. Importantly, HA isolated from milk has a biological function. Treatment of HT-29 colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA at physiologic concentrations results in time- and dose-dependent induction of the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin 2 and is abrogated by digestion of milk HA with a specific hyaluronidase. Milk HA induction of human β-defensin 2 expression is also reduced in the presence of a CD44-blocking antibody and is associated with a specific increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting a role for the HA receptor CD44. Furthermore, oral administration of human milk-derived HA to adult, wild-type mice results in induction of the murine Hβ D2 ortholog in intestinal mucosa and is dependent upon both TLR4 and CD44 in vivo. Finally, treatment of cultured colonic epithelial cells with human milk HA enhances resistance to infection by the enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium. Together, our observations suggest that maternally provided HA stimulates protective antimicrobial defense in the newborn. PMID:23950179

  11. A Review of the Comparative Anatomy, Histology, Physiology and Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of Rats, Mice, Dogs and Non-human Primates. Relevance to Inhalation Toxicology and Human Health Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, R; Wright, J A

    2015-11-01

    There are many significant differences in the structural and functional anatomy of the nasal cavity of man and laboratory animals. Some of the differences may be responsible for the species-specific nasal lesions that are often observed in response to inhaled toxicants. This paper reviews the comparative anatomy, physiology and pathology of the nasal cavity of the rat, mouse, dog, monkey and man, highlighting factors that may influence the distribution of nasal lesions. Gross anatomical variations such as turbinate structure, folds or grooves on nasal walls, or presence or absence of accessory structures, may influence nasal airflow and species-specific uptake and deposition of inhaled material. In addition, interspecies variations in the morphological and biochemical composition and distribution of the nasal epithelium may affect the local tissue susceptibility and play a role in the development of species-specific nasal lesions. It is concluded that, while the nasal cavity of the monkey might be more similar to that of man, each laboratory animal species provides a model that responds in a characteristic and species-specific manner. Therefore for human risk assessment, careful consideration must be given to the anatomical differences between a given animal model and man. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Discovery of unique and ENM— specific pathophysiologic pathways: Comparison of the translocation of inhaled iridium nanoparticles from nasal epithelium versus alveolar epithelium towards the brain of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Wolfgang G., E-mail: kreyling@helmholtz-muenchen.de

    2016-05-15

    The biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles (NP) is more complex than that of larger particles since NP may NP deposited on the nasal mucosa of the upper respiratory tract (URT) may translocate to the olfactory bulb of the brain and also via the trigeminus (URT neuronal route); and (b) NP deposited in the lower respiratory tract (LRT) may cross the ABB into blood and enter the brain across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) or take a neuronal route from enervated tracheo-bronchial epithelia via the vagus nerve. Translocation from both - the URT and the LRT - are quantified during the first 24 h after a 1-hour aerosol inhalation of 20 nm-sized, {sup 192}Ir radiolabeled iridium NP by healthy adult rats using differential exposures: (I) nose-only exposure of the entire respiratory tract or (II) intratracheal (IT) inhalation of intubated and ventilated rats, thereby bypassing the URT and extrathoracic nasal passages. After nose-only exposure brain accumulation (BrAcc) is significantly nine-fold higher than after IT inhalation since the former results from both pathways (a + b) while the latter exposure comes only from pathway (b). Interestingly, there are significantly more circulating NP in blood 24 h after nose-only inhalation than after IT inhalation. Distinguishing translocation from URT versus LRT estimated from the differential inhalation exposures, the former is significantly higher (8-fold) than from the LRT. Although the BrAcc fraction is rather low compared to total NP deposition after this short-term exposure, this study proofs that inhaled insoluble NP can accumulate in the brain from both – URT and LRT which may trigger and/or modulate adverse health effects in the central nervous system (CNS) during chronic exposure. - Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) translocation from nose versus lungs to brain is differentiated. • Differential exposure of 20 nm radio-NP:nose-only versus intratracheal inhalation • The nose-brain path precedes via nerves, the lungs

  13. Characterization of deposition from nasal spray devices using a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbell, Julia S; Segal, Rebecca A; Asgharian, Bahman; Wong, Brian A; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Southall, Jeremy P; Dickens, Colin J; Brace, Geoff; Miller, Frederick J

    2007-01-01

    Many studies suggest limited effectiveness of spray devices for nasal drug delivery due primarily to high deposition and clearance at the front of the nose. Here, nasal spray behavior was studied using experimental measurements and a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nasal passages constructed from magnetic resonance imaging scans of a healthy adult male. Eighteen commercially available nasal sprays were analyzed for spray characteristics using laser diffraction, high-speed video, and high-speed spark photography. Steadystate, inspiratory airflow (15 L/min) and particle transport were simulated under measured spray conditions. Simulated deposition efficiency and spray behavior were consistent with previous experimental studies, two of which used nasal replica molds based on this nasal geometry. Deposition fractions (numbers of deposited particles divided by the number released) of 20- and 50-microm particles exceeded 90% in the anterior part of the nose for most simulated conditions. Predicted particle penetration past the nasal valve improved when (1) the smaller of two particle sizes or the lower of two spray velocities was used, (2) the simulated nozzle was positioned 1.0 rather than 0.5 or 1.5 cm into the nostril, and (3) inspiratory airflow was present rather than absent. Simulations also predicted that delaying the appearance of normal inspiratory airflow more than 1 sec after the release of particles produced results equivalent to cases in which no inspiratory airflow was present. These predictions contribute to more effective design of drug delivery devices through a better understanding of the effects of nasal airflow and spray characteristics on particle transport in the nose.

  14. Nuclear abnormalities in cells from nasal epithelium: a promising assay to evaluate DNA damage related to air pollution in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Mergener

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study intends to provide a quick, easy, and inexpensive way to assess nuclear abnormalities such as micronuclei and bud frequencies; binucleated, karyorrhectic, karyolytic, pycnotic, and condensed chromatin cells in nasal scrapings of infants, which are particularly important for conducting genotoxic studies related to the inhaled atmosphere in pediatric populations. METHODS: Nasal swab samples were collected from 40 infants under 12 months of age using a small cytobrush. 2,000 cells from each infant sample were analyzed and classified according to the frequency of nuclear abnormalities. RESULTS: Rates of nuclear abnormalities found agree with values reported in other studies of neonates and children. This study found 0.13% of cells with micronuclei; 1.20% karyorrhexis; 0.03% pyknosis; 10.85% karyolysis; 1.11% condensed chromatin; 0.54 binucleated cells; and 0.02% nuclear bud. Differences were not observed between genders or environmental passive smoking, nor was any age correlation found. CONCLUSION: The assay proposed here is suitable for assessing the frequency of nuclear abnormalities from nasal cells in infants.

  15. Functional annotation of the human retinal pigment epithelium transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorgels Theo GMF

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine level, variability and functional annotation of gene expression of the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE, the key tissue involved in retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Macular RPE cells from six selected healthy human donor eyes (aged 63–78 years were laser dissected and used for 22k microarray studies (Agilent technologies. Data were analyzed with Rosetta Resolver, the web tool DAVID and Ingenuity software. Results In total, we identified 19,746 array entries with significant expression in the RPE. Gene expression was analyzed according to expression levels, interindividual variability and functionality. A group of highly (n = 2,194 expressed RPE genes showed an overrepresentation of genes of the oxidative phosphorylation, ATP synthesis and ribosome pathways. In the group of moderately expressed genes (n = 8,776 genes of the phosphatidylinositol signaling system and aminosugars metabolism were overrepresented. As expected, the top 10 percent (n = 2,194 of genes with the highest interindividual differences in expression showed functional overrepresentation of the complement cascade, essential in inflammation in age-related macular degeneration, and other signaling pathways. Surprisingly, this same category also includes the genes involved in Bruch's membrane (BM composition. Among the top 10 percent of genes with low interindividual differences, there was an overrepresentation of genes involved in local glycosaminoglycan turnover. Conclusion Our study expands current knowledge of the RPE transcriptome by assigning new genes, and adding data about expression level and interindividual variation. Functional annotation suggests that the RPE has high levels of protein synthesis, strong energy demands, and is exposed to high levels of oxidative stress and a variable degree of inflammation. Our data sheds new light on the molecular composition of BM, adjacent to the

  16. Unsteady flow characteristics through a human nasal airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Hoon; Na, Yang; Kim, Sung-Kyun; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2010-07-31

    Time-dependent characteristics of the flow in a human nasal airway constructed from the CT image of a healthy volunteer were investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique. To capture the time-varying nature of the flow as well as pressure and temperature fields, the large eddy simulation (LES) technique instead of the RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes) approach was adopted. To make the present analysis more relevant to a real human breathing cycle, the flow was designed to be induced by the pressure difference and the time-varying pressure at the end of trachea was described to reproduce the flow rate data from the measurement. Comparison of the present results with those of typical steady simulations showed that the difference in flow characteristics is magnified in the expiration phase. This fact may suggest that the inertial effect associated with unsteady flow is more important during the expiration period. Also, the fact that the distribution of the flow rate in a given cross-section of the airway changes significantly with time implies the importance of unsteady data for clinical decision. The wall shear stress was found to have relatively high values at the locations near nasopharynx and larynx but the magnitude changes with time during the whole respiratory cycle. Analysis of the temperature field showed that most of the temperature change occurs in the nasal cavity when the air is incoming and thus, the nasal cavity acts as a very efficient heat exchanger during an inspiration period. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human nasal rhinosporidiosis: a case report from Malawi | Sefu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient presented with long standing history of nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis for three years. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and he was successfully treated by complete surgical excision. This was a very unusual cause of nasal masses in our setting. Nasal rhinosporidioss lesions ...

  18. Resident aerobic microbiota of the adult human nasal cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, TT; Kirkeby Nielsen, LP; Poulsen, Knud

    2000-01-01

    Recent evidence strongly suggests that the microbiota of the nasal cavity plays a crucial role in determining the reaction patterns of the mucosal and systemic immune system. However, little is known about the normal microbiota of the nasal cavity. The purpose of this study was to determine...... the microbiota in different parts of the nasal cavity and to develop and evaluate methods for this purpose. Samples were collected from 10 healthy adults by nasal washes and by swabbing of the mucosa through a sterile introduction device. Both methods gave results that were quantitatively and qualitatively...... reproducible, and revealed significant differences in the density of the nasal microbiota between individuals. The study revealed absence of gram-negative bacteria that are regular members of the commensal microbiota of the pharynx. Likewise, viridans type streptococci were sparsely represented. The nasal...

  19. Regional variations of cell surface carbohydrates in human oral stratified epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedtofte, P; Dabelsteen, Erik; Hakomori, S

    1984-01-01

    The distribution of blood group carbohydrate chains with antigen A, B, H type 2 chain (A and B precursor), and N-acetyllactosamine (H type 2 precursor) specificity was studied in human oral epithelium from different anatomical regions. These represented various epithelial differentiation patterns...... epithelium from nine blood group A, two blood group B, and nine blood group O individuals. The blood group carbohydrate chains were examined in tissue sections by immunofluorescence microscopy. The A and B blood group antigens were detected by human blood group sera, and antigen H type 2 chains and N...... antigen H type 2 chains in metaplastically keratinized buccal epithelium was found to differ significantly from that seen in normal non-keratinized buccal epithelium. The regional variations demonstrated in cell surface carbohydrates are suggested to reflect differences in tissue differentiation....

  20. The chronicles of Porphyromonas gingivalis: the microbium, the human oral epithelium and their interplay

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Özlem

    2008-01-01

    The microbiota of the human oral mucosa consists of a myriad of bacterial species that normally exist in commensal harmony with the host. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an aetiological agent in severe forms of periodontitis (a chronic inflammatory disease), is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. This Gram-negative anaerobe can also exist within the host epithelium without the existence of overt disease. Gingival epithelial cells, the oute...

  1. Multi-nucleate retinal pigment epithelium cells of the human macula exhibit a characteristic and highly specific distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Austin C; Huisingh, Carrie; McGwin, Gerald; Sloan, Kenneth R; Ablonczy, Zsolt; Smith, R Theodore; Curcio, Christine A; Ach, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is reportedly 3% bi-nucleated. The importance to human vision of multi-nucleated (MN)-RPE cells could be clarified with more data about their distribution in central retina. Nineteen human RPE-flatmounts (9 ≤ 51 years, 10 > 80 years) were imaged at 12 locations: 3 eccentricities (fovea, perifovea, near periphery) in 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal, nasal). Image stacks of lipofuscin-attributable autofluorescence and phalloidin labeled F-actin cytoskeleton were obtained using a confocal fluorescence microscope. Nuclei were devoid of autofluorescence and were marked using morphometric software. Cell areas were approximated by Voronoi regions. Mean number of nuclei per cell among eccentricity/quadrant groups and by age were compared using Poisson and binominal regression models. A total of 11,403 RPE cells at 200 locations were analyzed: 94.66% mono-, 5.31% bi-, 0.02% tri-nucleate, and 0.01% with 5 nuclei. Age had no effect on number of nuclei. There were significant regional differences: highest frequencies of MN-cells were found at the perifovea (9.9%) and near periphery (6.8%). The fovea lacked MN-cells almost entirely. The nasal quadrant had significantly more MN-cells compared to other quadrants, at all eccentricities. This study demonstrates MN-RPE cells in human macula. MN-cells may arise due to endoreplication, cell fusion, or incomplete cell division. The topography of MN-RPE cells follows the topography of photoreceptors; with near-absence at the fovea (cones only) and high frequency at perifovea (highest rod density). This distribution might reflect specific requirements of retinal metabolism or other mechanisms addressable in further studies.

  2. The effects of human serum to the morphology, proliferation and gene expression level of the respiratory epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Heikal Mohd; Siang, Kan Chan; Hashim, Nurul Izzati; Zhi, Ng Pei; Zamani, Nur Fathurah; Sabri, Primuharsa Putra; Busra, Mohd Fauzi; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Idrus, Ruszymah Binti Haji

    2014-08-01

    The culture of human airway epithelial cells has played an important role in advancing our understanding of the metabolic and molecular mechanisms underlying normal function and disease pathology of airway epithelial cells. The present study focused on investigating the effects of human serum (HS) on the qualitative and quantitative properties of the human respiratory epithelium compared to the fetal bovine serum (FBS), as a supplement in culture. Respiratory epithelial (RE) cells derived from human nasal turbinate were co-cultured with fibroblasts, subsequently separated at 80-90% confluency by differential trypsinization. RE cells were then sub-cultured into 2 different plates containing 5% allogenic HS and FBS supplemented media respectively up to passage 1 (P1). Cell morphology, growth rate, cell viability and population doubling time were assessed under light microscope, and levels of gene expression were measured via real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). RE cells appeared as polygonal shape and expanded when cultured in HS whereas RE cells in FBS were observed to be easily matured thus limit the RE cells expansion. Proliferation rate of RE cells in HS supplemented media (7673.18 ± 1207.15) was 3 times higher compared to RE in FBS supplemented media (2357.68 ± 186.85). Furthermore, RE cells cultured in HS-supplemented media required fewer days (9.15 ± 1.10) to double in numbers compared to cells cultured in FBS-supplemented media (13.66 ± 0.81). Both the differences were significant (p0.05). In conclusion, HS is a comparatively better choice of media supplement in accelerating growth kinetics of RE cells in vitro thus producing a better quality of respiratory epithelium for future tracheal reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Ioannidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. OBJECTIVE: To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6 and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. METHODS: Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. RESULTS: Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4% versus controls (4/38; 10.5%, but the difference did not reach significance (p = 0.06. Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29% versus controls (10/38; 26.32%,p = 0.13. In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%, and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%, versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11. CONCLUSION: Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis.

  4. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannidis, Dimitrios; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Florou, Zoe; Bizakis, John G; Petinaki, Efthymia; Skoulakis, Charalampos E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6) and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4%) versus controls (4/38; 10.5%), but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.06). Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29%) versus controls (10/38; 26.32%, p=0.13). In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%), and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%), versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59) and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11). Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts support in vitro and in vivo growth of human small intestinal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lahar

    Full Text Available The intestinal crypt-niche interaction is thought to be essential to the function, maintenance, and proliferation of progenitor stem cells found at the bases of intestinal crypts. These stem cells are constantly renewing the intestinal epithelium by sending differentiated cells from the base of the crypts of Lieberkühn to the villus tips where they slough off into the intestinal lumen. The intestinal niche consists of various cell types, extracellular matrix, and growth factors and surrounds the intestinal progenitor cells. There have recently been advances in the understanding of the interactions that regulate the behavior of the intestinal epithelium and there is great interest in methods for isolating and expanding viable intestinal epithelium. However, there is no method to maintain primary human small intestinal epithelium in culture over a prolonged period of time. Similarly no method has been published that describes isolation and support of human intestinal epithelium in an in vivo model. We describe a technique to isolate and maintain human small intestinal epithelium in vitro from surgical specimens. We also describe a novel method to maintain human intestinal epithelium subcutaneously in a mouse model for a prolonged period of time. Our methods require various growth factors and the intimate interaction between intestinal sub-epithelial myofibroblasts (ISEMFs and the intestinal epithelial cells to support the epithelial in vitro and in vivo growth. Absence of these myofibroblasts precluded successful maintenance of epithelial cell formation and proliferation beyond just a few days, even in the presence of supportive growth factors. We believe that the methods described here can be used to explore the molecular basis of human intestinal stem cell support, maintenance, and growth.

  6. In vivo deposition of ultrafine aerosols in human nasal and oral airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Swift, D.L. [John Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Simpson, S.Q. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    The extrathoracic airways, including the nasal passage, oral passage, pharynx, and larynx, are the first targets for inhaled particles and provide an important defense for the lung. Understanding the deposition efficiency of the nasal and oral passages is therefore crucial for assessing doses of inhaled particles to the extrathoracic airways and the lung. Significant inter-subject variability in nasal deposition has been shown in recent studies by Rasmussen, T.R. et al, using 2.6 {mu}m particles in 10 human subjects and in our preliminary studies using 0.004-0.15 {mu}m particles in four adult volunteers. No oral deposition was reported in either of these studies. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. The aims of the present study were to measure in vivo the nasal airway dimensions and the deposition of ultrafine aerosols in both the nasal and oral passages, and to determine the relationship between nasal airway dimensions and aerosol deposition. A statistical procedure incorporated with the diffusion theory was used to model the dimensional features of the nasal airways which may be responsible for the biological variability in particle deposition. In summary, we have correlated deposition of particles in the size range of 0.004 to 0.15 {mu}m with the nasal dimensions of each subject.

  7. In vivo deposition of ultrafine aerosols in human nasal and oral airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Swift, D.L.; Simpson, S.Q.

    1995-01-01

    The extrathoracic airways, including the nasal passage, oral passage, pharynx, and larynx, are the first targets for inhaled particles and provide an important defense for the lung. Understanding the deposition efficiency of the nasal and oral passages is therefore crucial for assessing doses of inhaled particles to the extrathoracic airways and the lung. Significant inter-subject variability in nasal deposition has been shown in recent studies by Rasmussen, T.R. et al, using 2.6 μm particles in 10 human subjects and in our preliminary studies using 0.004-0.15 μm particles in four adult volunteers. No oral deposition was reported in either of these studies. Reasons for the intersubject variations have been frequently attributed to the geometry of the nasal passages. The aims of the present study were to measure in vivo the nasal airway dimensions and the deposition of ultrafine aerosols in both the nasal and oral passages, and to determine the relationship between nasal airway dimensions and aerosol deposition. A statistical procedure incorporated with the diffusion theory was used to model the dimensional features of the nasal airways which may be responsible for the biological variability in particle deposition. In summary, we have correlated deposition of particles in the size range of 0.004 to 0.15 μm with the nasal dimensions of each subject

  8. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Wagner, Alex H.; DeLuca, Adam P.; Drack, Arlene V.; Stone, Edwin M.; Tucker, Budd A.; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A.; Mullins, Robert F.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell-types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  9. Transcriptomic analysis across nasal, temporal, and macular regions of human neural retina and RPE/choroid by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, S Scott; Wagner, Alex H; DeLuca, Adam P; Drack, Arlene V; Stone, Edwin M; Tucker, Budd A; Zeng, Shemin; Braun, Terry A; Mullins, Robert F; Scheetz, Todd E

    2014-12-01

    Proper spatial differentiation of retinal cell types is necessary for normal human vision. Many retinal diseases, such as Best disease and male germ cell associated kinase (MAK)-associated retinitis pigmentosa, preferentially affect distinct topographic regions of the retina. While much is known about the distribution of cell types in the retina, the distribution of molecular components across the posterior pole of the eye has not been well-studied. To investigate regional difference in molecular composition of ocular tissues, we assessed differential gene expression across the temporal, macular, and nasal retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid of human eyes using RNA-Seq. RNA from temporal, macular, and nasal retina and RPE/choroid from four human donor eyes was extracted, poly-A selected, fragmented, and sequenced as 100 bp read pairs. Digital read files were mapped to the human genome and analyzed for differential expression using the Tuxedo software suite. Retina and RPE/choroid samples were clearly distinguishable at the transcriptome level. Numerous transcription factors were differentially expressed between regions of the retina and RPE/choroid. Photoreceptor-specific genes were enriched in the peripheral samples, while ganglion cell and amacrine cell genes were enriched in the macula. Within the RPE/choroid, RPE-specific genes were upregulated at the periphery while endothelium associated genes were upregulated in the macula. Consistent with previous studies, BEST1 expression was lower in macular than extramacular regions. The MAK gene was expressed at lower levels in macula than in extramacular regions, but did not exhibit a significant difference between nasal and temporal retina. The regional molecular distinction is greatest between macula and periphery and decreases between different peripheral regions within a tissue. Datasets such as these can be used to prioritize candidate genes for possible involvement in retinal diseases with

  10. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manceur, Aziza P. [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Tseng, Michael [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Holowacz, Tamara [Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Witterick, Ian [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, ON (Canada); Weksberg, Rosanna [Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); McCurdy, Richard D. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Research Institute, Program in Genetics and Genomic Biology, Toronto, Ontario Canada (Canada); Warsh, Jerry J. [Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Pathophysiology, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Audet, Julie, E-mail: julie.audet@utoronto.ca [Institute of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering (IBBME), University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-09-10

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  11. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3 enhances the differentiation and reduces the proliferation of adult human olfactory epithelium neural precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manceur, Aziza P.; Tseng, Michael; Holowacz, Tamara; Witterick, Ian; Weksberg, Rosanna; McCurdy, Richard D.; Warsh, Jerry J.; Audet, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) contains neural precursor cells which can be easily harvested from a minimally invasive nasal biopsy, making them a valuable cell source to study human neural cell lineages in health and disease. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders and also in the regulation of murine neural precursor cell fate in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the impact of decreased GSK-3 activity on the fate of adult human OE neural precursors in vitro. GSK-3 inhibition was achieved using ATP-competitive (6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime and CHIR99021) or substrate-competitive (TAT-eIF2B) inhibitors to eliminate potential confounding effects on cell fate due to off-target kinase inhibition. GSK-3 inhibitors decreased the number of neural precursor cells in OE cell cultures through a reduction in proliferation. Decreased proliferation was not associated with a reduction in cell survival but was accompanied by a reduction in nestin expression and a substantial increase in the expression of the neuronal differentiation markers MAP1B and neurofilament (NF-M) after 10 days in culture. Taken together, these results suggest that GSK-3 inhibition promotes the early stages of neuronal differentiation in cultures of adult human neural precursors and provide insights into the mechanisms by which alterations in GSK-3 signaling affect adult human neurogenesis, a cellular process strongly suspected to play a role in the etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  12. Identification of distinct layers within the stratified squamous epithelium of the adult human true vocal fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdall, Jayme R; Sadow, Peter M; Hartnick, Christopher; Vinarsky, Vladimir; Mou, Hongmei; Zhao, Rui; Song, Phillip C; Franco, Ramon A; Rajagopal, Jayaraj

    2015-09-01

    A precise molecular schema for classifying the different cell types of the normal human vocal fold epithelium is lacking. We hypothesize that the true vocal fold epithelium has a cellular architecture and organization similar to that of other stratified squamous epithelia including the skin, cornea, oral mucosa, and esophagus. In analogy to disorders of the skin and gastrointestinal tract, a molecular definition of the normal cell types within the human vocal fold epithelium and a description of their geometric relationships should serve as a foundation for characterizing cellular changes associated with metaplasia, dysplasia, and cancer. Qualitative study with adult human larynges. Histologic sections of normal human laryngeal tissue were analyzed for morphology (hematoxylin and eosin) and immunohistochemical protein expression profile, including cytokeratins (CK13 and CK14), cornified envelope proteins (involucrin), basal cells (NGFR/p75), and proliferation markers (Ki67). We demonstrated that three distinct cell strata with unique marker profiles are present within the stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. We used these definitions to establish that cell proliferation is restricted to certain cell types and layers within the epithelium. These distinct cell types are reproducible across five normal adult larynges. We have established that three layers of cells are present within the normal adult stratified squamous epithelium of the true vocal fold. Furthermore, replicating cell populations are largely restricted to the parabasal strata within the epithelium. This delineation of distinct cell populations will facilitate future studies of vocal fold regeneration and cancer. N/A. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H M; Rassing, M R; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium. For this purpose, the permeability of water, mannitol and testosterone across the TR146 cell culture model was compared to the permeability across human, monkey...

  14. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck Nielsen, H; Rømer Rassing, M; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck

    2000-01-01

    cell culture model, and human and porcine buccal epithelium were compared. The esterase activity in the intact cell culture model and in the porcine buccal mucosa was compared. Further, the TR146 cell culture model was used to study the permeability rate and metabolism of leu-enkephalin. The activity...... of the three enzymes in the TR146 homogenate supernatants was in the same range as the activity in homogenate supernatants of human buccal epithelium. In the TR146 cell culture model, the activity of aminopeptidase (13.70+/-2.10 nmol/min per mg protein) was approx. four times the activity of carboxypeptidase...

  15. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Verhoef, J C; Ponec, M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability of test substances with different molecular weights (M(w)). For this purpose, the apparent permeability (P(app)) values for mannitol...... and for fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextrans (FD) with various M(w) (4000-40000) were compared to the P(app) values obtained using porcine buccal mucosa as an in vitro model of the human buccal epithelium. The effect of 10 mM sodium glycocholate (GC) on the P(app) values was examined. To identify...

  16. Effects of scaffold composition and architecture on human nasal chondrocyte redifferentiation and cartilaginous matrix deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miot, Sylvie; Woodfield, T.B.F.; Daniels, Alma U.; Suetterlin, Rosemarie; Peterschmitt, Iman; Heberer, Michael; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Riesle, J.U.; Martin, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether the post-expansion redifferentiation and cartilage tissue formation capacity of adult human nasal chondrocytes can be regulated by controlled modifications of scaffold composition and architecture. As a model system, we used poly(ethylene

  17. Muscarinic cholinergic and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the epithelium and muscularis of the human ileum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepor, H.; Rigaud, G.; Shapiro, E.; Baumann, M.; Kodner, I.J.; Fleshman, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the binding and functional properties of muscarinic cholinergic (MCh) and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in the human ileum to provide insight into pharmacologic strategies for managing urinary and fecal incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments. MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic binding sites were characterized in the epithelium and muscularis of eight human ileal segments with 3H-N-methylscopolamine and 3H-rauwolscine, respectively. The dissociation constant for 3H-N-methylscopolamine in the epithelium and muscularis was 0.32 +/- 0.07 nmol/L and 0.45 +/- 0.10 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.32). The MCh receptor content was approximately eightfold greater in the muscularis compared with the epithelium (p = 0.008). The dissociation constant for 3H-rauwolscine in the muscularis and epithelium was 2.55 +/- 0.42 nmol/L and 2.03 +/- 0.19 nmol/L, respectively (p = 0.29). The alpha 2-adrenoceptor density was twofold greater in the epithelium compared with the muscularis (p = 0.05). Noncumulative concentration-response experiments were performed with carbachol, an MCh agonist, and UK-14304, a selective alpha 2-adrenergic agonist. The epithelium did not contract in the presence of high concentrations of carbachol and UK-14304. The muscularis preparations were responsive only to carbachol. The muscularis contains primarily MCh receptors mediating smooth muscle contraction. The alpha 2-adrenoceptors are localized primarily to the epithelium and may regulate water secretion in the intestine. The distribution and functional properties of ileal MCh and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors provide a theoretic basis for the treatment of incontinence after bladder and rectal replacement with intestinal segments

  18. Avian Influenza Virus Glycoproteins Restrict Virus Replication and Spread through Human Airway Epithelium at Temperatures of the Proximal Airways

    OpenAIRE

    Scull, Margaret A.; Gillim-Ross, Laura; Santos, Celia; Roberts, Kim L.; Bordonali, Elena; Subbarao, Kanta; Barclay, Wendy S.; Pickles, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE), we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C), avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human p...

  19. The role of human papilloma virus and herpes viruses in the etiology of nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçoğlu, Mücahide Esra; Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Apuhan, Tayfun; Özsoy, Şeyda; Yilmaz, Beyhan

    2016-02-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological role of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) in the occurrence of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyp samples from 30 patients with nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa from 10 patients without nasal polyps were obtained. DNA was extracted from tissues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for all runs. No HSV-1, HSV-2, or VZV was detected in the samples. Among the patient samples, EBV and HHV-7 DNA were detected in 18 (60%), HHV-6 was detected in 20 (66.7%), and HPV was detected in 4 (13.3%) samples. Among the controls, CMV DNA was positive in one (10%). EBV was positive in 5 (50%), HHV-6 and HHV-7 were positive in 7 (70%), and HPV was positive in 2 (20%) samples. No significant difference was found among the groups with any test in terms of positivity. The association of Herpesviridae and HPV with the pathogenesis of nasal polyps was investigated in this study and no relationship was found. Thus, these viruses do not play a significant role in the formation of nasal polyps.

  20. Expression of insulin signalling components in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degerman, Eva; Rauch, Uwe; Lindberg, Sven

    2013-01-01

    signalling components in the inner ear is sparce. Our immunohistochemistry approach has shown that the insulin receptor, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), protein kinase B (PKB) and insulin-sensitive glucose transporter (GLUT4) are expressed in the sensory epithelium of the human saccule, which also...

  1. TR146 cells grown on filters as a model of human buccal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, M R

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the TR146 cell culture model as an in vitro model of human buccal epithelium with respect to the permeability enhancement by different pH values, different osmolality values or bile salts. For this purpose, the increase in the apparent permeability (P...

  2. Health risks associated with inhaled nasal toxicants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feron, VJ; Arts, JHE; Kuper, CF; Slootweg, PJ; Woutersen, RA

    2001-01-01

    Health risks of inhaled nasal toxicants were reviewed with emphasis on chemically induced nasal lesions in humans, sensory irritation, olfactory and trigeminal nerve toxicity, nasal immunopathology and carcinogenesis, nasal responses to chemical mixtures, in vitro models, and nasal dosimetry- and

  3. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Physiology Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy ...

  4. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  5. Analysis of toxicity produced by inhalation of trichloroethylene within rat and mice`s respiratory epithelium; Comparazione del danno indotto dall`inalazione di tricloroetilene nell`epitelio nasale e tracheobronchiale del ratto e del topo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, M.T.; Fravolini, M.E.; Parasacchi, P.; Lombardi, C.C.; Giovanetti, A. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute

    1994-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the sites of cytotoxicity within the respiratory tract (nasal cavity and tracheobronchial tree) after acute inhalation of trichloroethylene (TCE), an organic solvent requiring metabolic activation by cytochrome P-450 enzymatic system to exert its toxic effects. Two animals species, rats and mice, were exposed to 3500 and 7000 ppm of TCE for 30 minutes. The morphological analysis of the respiratory epithelium has underlined a species-specific difference in the cellular sensitivity after treatment with TCE. This work is a part of ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) INTO program, environmental department, sector of effects on man and ecosystem.

  6. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and human herpes virus types 1-7 in human nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Bizakis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus-1/-2 (HSV-1/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6/-7 (HHV-6/-7) in 23 human nasal polyps by applying PCR. Two types of control tissues were used: adjacent inferior/middle turbinates from the patients and inferior/middle turbinates from 13 patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery. EBV was the virus most frequently detected (35%), followed by HPV (13%), HSV-1 (9%), and CMV (4%). The CMV-positive polyp was simultaneously positive for HSV-1. HPV was also detected in the adjacent turbinates (4%) and the adjacent middle turbinate (4%) of one of the HPV-positive patients. EBV, HSV, and CMV were not detected in the adjacent turbinates of the EBV-, HSV- or CMV-positive patients. All mucosae were negative for the VZV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. This is the first study to deal with the involvement of a comparable group of viruses in human nasal polyposis. The findings support the theory that the presence of viral EBV markedly influences the pathogenesis of these benign nasal tumors. The low incidence of HPV detected confirms the hypothesis that HPV is correlated with infectious mucosal lesions to a lesser extent than it is with proliferative lesions, such as inverted papilloma. The low incidence of HSV-1 and CMV confirms that these two herpes viruses may play a minor role in the development of nasal polyposis. Double infection with HSV-1 and CMV may also play a minor, though causative, role in nasal polyp development. VZV and HHV-6/-7 do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of these mucosal lesions.

  7. IL-13 regulates human nasal epithelial cell differentiation via H3K4me3 modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu L

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lei Yu,1 Na Li,1 Jisheng Zhang,2 Yan Jiang1 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, 2Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao, China Introduction: Epigenetic regulation has been shown to play an important role in the development of inflammatory diseases, including chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. The latter are characterized by epithelial mis-differentiation and infiltration of inflammatory cytokines. H3K4me3 has been shown to be involved in regulating lineage commitment. However, the underlying mechanisms, especially in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEpC, remain underexplored. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of H3K4me3 in HNEpC differentiation treated with the Th2 cytokine IL-13. Patients and methods: The expression levels of mRNA and proteins were investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays and Western blot in nasal polyp tissues and human nasal epithelial cells respectively. We measured these levels of H3K4me3, MLL1 and targeted genes compared with control subjects.Results: We demonstrate that expression of H3K4me3 and its methyltransferase MLL1 was significantly upregulated in IL-13-treated HNEpC. This elevation was also observed in nasal polyps. Expression of cilia-related transcription factors FOXJ1 and DNAI2 decreased, while goblet cell-derived genes CLCA1 and MUC5a increased upon IL-13 treatment. Mechanistically, knockdown of MLL1 restored expression of these four genes induced by IL-13. Conclusion: These findings suggest that H3K4me3 is a critical regulator in control of nasal epithelial cell differentiation. MLL1 may be a potential therapeutic target for nasal inflammatory diseases. Keywords: IL-13, H3K4me3 modification, nasal epithelial cell, differentiation 

  8. Is the human nasal cavity at risk from inhaled radionuclides?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecker, B.B.; Hahn, F.F.; Cuddihy, R.G.; Snipes, M.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    In a series of three life-span studies in which beagle dogs inhaled relatively soluble forms of beta-emitting radionuclides, a number of cancers of the nasal cavity have arisen at long times after the inhalation exposure. No such cancers were observed in the control dogs. Data obtained in other studies involving serial sacrifice of dogs that received these radionuclides in similar forms have shown that high local concentrations of the radionuclides can persist in nasal turbinates for long periods of time, depending on the physical half-life of the radionuclide inhaled. Several nasal carcinomas have also been observed in dogs injected with 137 CsCl in which the relative concentrations of beta activity in the turbinate region were not as pronounced as in the above studies. Similar risks of sinonasal cancer were calculated for dogs in each of these studies regardless of differences in radionuclide, dosimetry, and route of administration. Since sinonasal cancers have occurred in people exposed to alpha-emitting radionuclides, it is reasonable to assume this could occur with beta emitters as well. Radiation protection guidelines should account for the sinonasal region being at risk. 23 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs

  9. Neural influences on human intestinal epithelium in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Dagmar; Michel, Klaus; Zeller, Florian; Demir, Ihsan E; Ceyhan, Güralp O; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Schemann, Michael

    2016-01-15

    We present the first systematic and, up to now, most comprehensive evaluation of the basic features of epithelial functions, such as basal and nerve-evoked secretion, as well as tissue resistance, in over 2200 surgical specimens of human small and large intestine. We found no evidence for impaired nerve-evoked epithelial secretion or tissue resistance with age or disease pathologies (stomach, pancreas or colon cancer, polyps, diverticulitis, stoma reversal). This indicates the validity of future studies on epithelial secretion or resistance that are based on data from a variety of surgical specimens. ACh mainly mediated nerve-evoked and basal secretion in the small intestine, whereas vasoactive intestinal peptide and nitric oxide were the primary pro-secretory transmitters in the large intestine. The results of the present study revealed novel insights into regional differences in nerve-mediated secretion in the human intestine and comprise the basis by which to more specifically target impaired epithelial functions in the diseased gut. Knowledge on basic features of epithelial functions in the human intestine is scarce. We used Ussing chamber techniques to record basal tissue resistance (R-basal) and short circuit currents (ISC; secretion) under basal conditions (ISC-basal) and after electrical field stimulation (ISC-EFS) of nerves in 2221 resectates from 435 patients. ISC-EFS was TTX-sensitive and of comparable magnitude in the small and large intestine. ISC-EFS or R-basal were not influenced by the patients' age, sex or disease pathologies (cancer, polyps, diverticulitis). Ion substitution, bumetanide or adenylate cyclase inhibition studies suggested that ISC-EFS depended on epithelial cAMP-driven chloride and bicarbonate secretion but not on amiloride-sensitive sodium absorption. Although atropine-sensitive cholinergic components prevailed for ISC-EFS of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, PG97-269-sensitive [vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor 1

  10. Distributions of elements in the human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulshafer, R.J.; Allen, C.B.; Rubin, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    Distributions of elements above the atomic number of sodium were mapped in the retinal pigment epithelia of eight human eyes. X-ray energy spectra and maps were collected from cryofixed, freeze-dried, and epoxy-embedded tissues using energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis. All eyes had high concentrations of phosphorus in the nuclei of retinal pigment epithelial cells. Melanosomes were rich in sulfur, zinc, calcium, and iron. Lipofuscin and cytoplasm contained only phosphorus and sulfur in detectable amounts. Drusen, when present, contained phosphorus and calcium. Six eyes had a prominent aluminum peak recorded from melanosomes, nuclei, and Bruch's membrane. In one pair of 90-year-old eyes, small, electron-dense deposits surrounded many melanosomes and contained mercury and selenium. Retinal pigment epithelial melanosomes may bind and accumulate metals and other potentially toxic ions over time, preventing them from reaching the neural retina

  11. Different alpha crystallin expression in human age-related and congenital cataract lens epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Sheng; Guo, Minfei; Li, Yuting; Gu, Jianjun

    2016-05-28

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the different expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in human lens epithelium of age-related and congenital cataracts. The central part of the human anterior lens capsule approximately 5 mm in diameter together with the adhering epithelial cells, were harvested and processed within 6 hours after cataract surgery from age-related and congenital cataract patients or from normal eyes of fresh cadavers. The mRNA and soluble protein levels of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the human lens epithelium were detected by real-time PCR and western blots, respectively. The mRNA and soluble protein expressions of αA-crystallin and αB-crystallin in the lens epithelium were both reduced in age-related and congenital cataract groups when compared with the normal control group. However, the degree of α-crystallin loss in the lens epithelium was highly correlated with different cataract types. The α-crystallin expression of the lens epithelium was greatly reduced in the congenital cataract group but only moderately decreased in the age-related cataract group. The reduction of αA-crystallin soluble protein levels in the congenital cataract group was approximately 2.4 fold decrease compared with that of the age-related cataract group, while an mRNA fold change of 1.67 decrease was observed for the age-related cataract group. Similarly, the reduction of soluble protein levels of αB-crystallin in the congenital cataract group was approximately a 1.57 fold change compared with that of the age-related cataract group. A 1.75 fold change for mRNA levels compared with that of the age-related cataract group was observed. The results suggest that the differential loss of α-crystallin in the human lens epithelium could be associated with the different mechanisms of cataractogenesis in age-related versus congenital cataracts, subsequently resulting in different clinical presentations.

  12. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner...... transport in human pancreatic duct epithelium, Capan-1 cells, is regulated by secretin, VIP, acetylcholine, adenosine, and purinergic P2 receptors; and this human model has a good potential for studies of physiology and pathophysiology of pancreatic duct ion transport....

  13. Yield Strength Testing in Human Cadaver Nasal Septal Cartilage and L-Strut Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan F; Messinger, Kelton; Inman, Jared C

    2017-01-01

    To our knowledge, yield strength testing in human nasal septal cartilage has not been reported to date. An understanding of the basic mechanics of the nasal septum may help surgeons decide how much of an L-strut to preserve and how much grafting is needed. To determine the factors correlated with yield strength of the cartilaginous nasal septum and to explore the association between L-strut width and thickness in determining yield strength. In an anatomy laboratory, yield strength of rectangular pieces of fresh cadaver nasal septal cartilage was measured, and regression was performed to identify the factors correlated with yield strength. To measure yield strength in L-shaped models, 4 bonded paper L-struts models were constructed for every possible combination of the width and thickness, for a total of 240 models. Mathematical modeling using the resultant data with trend lines and surface fitting was performed to quantify the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength. The study dates were November 1, 2015, to April 1, 2016. The factors correlated with nasal cartilage yield strength and the associations among L-strut width, thickness, and yield strength in L-shaped models. Among 95 cartilage pieces from 12 human cadavers (mean [SD] age, 67.7 [12.6] years) and 240 constructed L-strut models, L-strut thickness was the only factor correlated with nasal septal cartilage yield strength (coefficient for thickness, 5.54; 95% CI, 4.08-7.00; P cadaver nasal septal cartilage, L-strut thickness was significantly associated with yield strength. In a bonded paper L-strut model, L-strut thickness had a more important role in determining yield strength than L-strut width. Surgeons should consider the thickness of potential L-struts when determining the amount of cartilaginous septum to harvest and graft. NA.

  14. Characterization of nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue in ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haihong; Yan, Mengfei; Yu, Qinghua; Yang, Qian

    2014-05-01

    The nasal mucosa is involved in immune defense, as it is the first barrier for pathogens entering the body through the respiratory tract. The nasal cavity-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT), which is found in the mucosa of the nasal cavity, is considered to be the main mucosal immune inductive site in the upper respiratory tract. NALT has been found in humans and many mammals, which contributes to local and systemic immune responses after intranasal vaccination. However, there are very few data on NALT in avian species, especially waterfowl. For this study, histological sections of the nasal cavities of Cherry Valley ducks were used to examine the anatomical location and histological characteristics of NALT. The results showed that several lymphoid aggregates are present in the ventral wall of the nasal cavity near the choanal cleft, whereas several more lymphoid aggregates were located on both sides of the nasal septum. In addition, randomly distributed intraepithelial lymphocytes and isolated lymphoid follicles were observed in the regio respiratoria of the nasal cavity. There were also a few lymphoid aggregates located in the lamina propria of the regio vestibularis, which was covered with a stratified squamous epithelium. This study focused on the anatomic and histological characteristics of the nasal cavity of the duck and performed a systemic overview of NALT. This will be beneficial for further understanding of immune mechanisms after nasal vaccination and the development of effective nasal vaccines for waterfowls. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair eWalsham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC A/E lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  16. Lactobacillus reuteri Inhibition of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Adherence to Human Intestinal Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsham, Alistair D S; MacKenzie, Donald A; Cook, Vivienne; Wemyss-Holden, Simon; Hews, Claire L; Juge, Nathalie; Schüller, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is a major cause of diarrheal infant death in developing countries, and probiotic bacteria have been shown to provide health benefits in gastrointestinal infections. In this study, we have investigated the influence of the gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri on EPEC adherence to the human intestinal epithelium. Different host cell model systems including non-mucus-producing HT-29 and mucus-producing LS174T intestinal epithelial cell lines as well as human small intestinal biopsies were used. Adherence of L. reuteri to HT-29 cells was strain-specific, and the mucus-binding proteins CmbA and MUB increased binding to both HT-29 and LS174T cells. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 significantly inhibited EPEC binding to HT-29 but not LS174T cells. While pre-incubation of LS174T cells with ATCC PTA 6475 did not affect EPEC attaching/effacing (A/E) lesion formation, it increased the size of EPEC microcolonies. ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 binding to the mucus layer resulted in decreased EPEC adherence to small intestinal biopsy epithelium. Our findings show that L. reuteri reduction of EPEC adhesion is strain-specific and has the potential to target either the epithelium or the mucus layer, providing further rationale for the selection of probiotic strains.

  17. Spontaneous and cytokine induced expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinases in human colonic epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Saermark, T; Kirkegaard, T

    2009-01-01

    levels in cells from inflamed IBD mucosa. MMP-2 and -8 mRNA were expressed inconsistently and MMP-11, -13 and -14 mRNA undetectable. Proteolytic MMP activity was detected in CEC supernatants and the level was increased significantly in inflamed IBD epithelium. The enzyme activity was inhibited strongly......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in tissue damage associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).As the role of the intestinal epithelium in this process is unknown, we determined MMP expression and enzyme activity in human colonic epithelial cells (CEC). MMP mRNA expression...... was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in HT-29 and DLD-1 cells and in CEC isolated from biopsies from IBD and control patients. Total MMP activity in the cells was measured by a functional assay, based on degradation of a fluorescent synthetic peptide containing the specific bond...

  18. Surface to nuclear distances in human bronchial epithelium: Relationships to penetration by Rn daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, F.; Hovey, A.; McEwen, T.; O'Connor, R.; Unruh, H.; Bowden, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer in U miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of particulate Rn daughters. Since the depth of penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium lining the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the study were to measure the thickness of the epithelium at all levels of the human bronchial tree, to determine the distances of epithelial nuclei from the mucociliary surface, and to compare these parameters in smokers and nonsmokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens were examined; 26 were from smokers. No significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers, allowing us to treat the 29 cases as a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness, and distances of nuclei from the surface are also less in the peripheral bronchi. Allowing for artefacts of tissue preparation, the mean distance from the mucociliary surface to the underlying nuclei varies between 17 and 38 microns

  19. Purification and characterization of factors produced by Aspergillus fumigatus which affect human ciliated respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, R; Taylor, G; Elezis, E N; Llewellyn-Jones, C; Mitchell, J; Kuze, F; Cole, P J; Wilson, R

    1995-09-01

    The mechanisms by which Aspergillus fumigatus colonizes the respiratory mucosa are unknown. Culture filtrates of eight of nine clinical isolates of A. fumigatus slowed ciliary beat frequency and damaged human respiratory epithelium in vitro. These changes appeared to occur concurrently. Culture filtrates of two clinical isolates of Candida albicans had no effect on ciliated epithelium. We have purified and characterized cilioinhibitory factors of a clinical isolate of A. fumigatus. The cilioinhibitory activity was heat labile, reduced by dialysis, and partially extractable into chloroform. The activity was associated with both high- and low-molecular-weight factors, as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-50. A low-molecular-weight cilioinhibitory factor was further purified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and shown by mass spectrometry to be gliotoxin, a known metabolite of A. fumigatus. Gliotoxin significantly slowed ciliary beat frequency in association with epithelial damage at concentrations above 0.2 microgram/ml; other Aspergillus toxins, i.e., fumagillin and helvolic acid, were also cilioinhibitory but at much higher concentrations. High-molecular-weight (> or = 35,000 and 25,000) cilioinhibitory materials had neither elastolytic nor proteolytic activity and remain to be identified. Thus, A. fumigatus produces a number of biologically active substances which slow ciliary beating and damage epithelium and which may influence colonization of the airways.

  20. Geographic variation in nasal cavity form among three human groups from the Japanese Archipelago: Ecogeographic and functional implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukase, Hitoshi; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    Geographic variation in human nasal form has often been interpreted as a climatic adaptation, owing to the nasal air-conditioning function. The aim of this study was to further address morphofunctional issues of the nasal cavity, using three human groups from subarctic, temperate, and subtropical regions of the Japanese Archipelago: prehistoric Okhotsk, early-modern Honshu and Okinawa groups. Using three-dimensional coordinates of craniometric landmarks surrounding the nasal cavity, we compared linear measurements regarding nasal cavity form among the three groups and also conducted 3D geometric morphometrics. Both linear measurements and morphometric analyses corroborate the previously reported covariation pattern of nasal cavity shape with climate, where humans from a cold/dry climate tend to possess a relatively tall, narrow, and deep nasal cavity compared with those from a warm/humid environment. The northern Okhotsk group had overall larger cranial airways, which may be attributable to their large facial skeleton. However, the ratio of nasal/bimaxillary breadth was significantly lower in the Okhotsk group, indicating that maxillary size does not necessarily constrain the nasal breadth. In addition, despite the presence of obvious geographic clines in anterior nasal shape, posterior choanal shape lacked the north-south geographic cline. This suggests a certain level of morphofunctional independence between the anterior and posterior nasal openings. The observed geographic variations must, however, be partly considered as a reflection of different ancestral traits and population histories of the three groups. Nevertheless, the results indicate that intergroup variations in nasal cavity morphology can be largely explained by climatic conditions. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:343-351, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Decellularization of Human Nasal Septal Cartilage for the Novel Filler Material of Vocal Fold Augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dae-Woon; Shin, Sung-Chan; Jang, Jeon-Yeob; Park, Hee-Young; Lee, Jin-Choon; Wang, Soo-Geun; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    The clinical application of allogenic and/or xenogenic cartilage for vocal fold augmentation requires to remove the antigenic cellular component. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization and determine the change in immunogenicity after detergent treatment in human nasal septal cartilage flakes made by the freezing and grinding method. Human nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. The harvested cartilages were treated by the freezing and grinding technique. The obtained cartilage flakes were treated with 1% Triton X-100 or 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for decellularization of the cartilage flakes. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain), surface electric microscopy, immunohistochemical stain for major histocompatibility complex I and II, and ELISA for DNA contents were performed to assess the effect of cartilage decellularization after detergent treatment. A total of 10 nasal septal cartilages were obtained from surgical cases. After detergent treatment, the average size of the cartilage flakes was significantly decreased. With H&E staining, the cell nuclei of decellularized cartilage flakes were not observed. The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I and II antigens was not identified in the decellularized cartilage flakes after treatment with detergent. DNA content was removed almost entirely from the decellularized cartilage flakes. Treatment with 2% SDS or 1% Triton X-100 for 1 hour appears to be a promising method for decellularization of human nasal septal cartilage for vocal fold augmentation. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unsteady Particle Deposition in a Human Nasal Cavity during Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camby M.K. Se

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the deposition efficiency during the unsteady inhalation cycle by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The unsteady inhalation profile was applied at the outlet of nasopharynx, which had a maximum flow rate of 40.3L/min which corresponds to an equivalent steady inhalation tidal volume flow rate of 24.6L/min. Aerodynamic particle sizes of 5μm and 20μm were studied in order to reflect contrasting Stokes numbered particle behaviour. Two particle deposition efficiencies in the nasal cavity versus time are presented. In general, the deposition of 5μm particles was much less than 20μm particles. The first 0.2 second of the inhalation cycle was found to be significant to the particle transport, since the majority of particles were deposited during this period (i.e. its residence time. Comparisons were also made with its equivalent steady inhalation flow rate which found that the unsteady inhalation produced lower deposition efficiency for both particle sizes.

  3. Activated human nasal epithelial cells modulate specific antibody response against bacterial or viral antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiou-Yueh Yeh

    Full Text Available Nasal mucosa is an immune responsive organ evidenced by eliciting both specific local secretory IgA and systemic IgG antibody responses with intra-nasal administration of antigens. Nevertheless, the role of nasal epithelial cells in modulating such responses is unclear. Human nasal epithelial cells (hNECs obtained from sinus mucosa of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were cultured in vitro and firstly were stimulated by Lactococcus lactis bacterium-like particles (BLPs in order to examine their role on antibody production. Secondly, both antigens of immunodominant protein IDG60 from oral Streptococcus mutans and hemagglutinin (HA from influenza virus were tested to evaluate the specific antibody response. Stimulated hNECs by BLPs exhibited a significant increase in the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP. Conditioned medium of stimulated hNECs has effects on enhancing the proliferation of CD4+ T cells together with interferon-γ and IL-5 production, increasing the costimulatory molecules on dendritic cells and augmenting the production of IDG60 specific IgA, HA specific IgG, IgA by human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Such production of antigen specific IgG and IgA is significantly counteracted in the presence of IL-6 and TSLP neutralizing antibodies. In conclusion, properly stimulated hNECs may impart immuno-modulatory effects on the antigen-specific antibody response at least through the production of IL-6 and TSLP.

  4. APR-246/PRIMA-1Met Inhibits and Reverses Squamous Metaplasia in Human Conjunctival Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Cheng; Wang, Guoliang; Liu, Zhen; Chen, Pei; Yang, Qichen; Dong, Nuo; Wu, Huping; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Squamous metaplasia is a common pathologic condition in ocular surface diseases for which there is no therapeutic medication in clinic. In this study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule, APR-246/PRIMA-1(Met), on squamous metaplasia in human conjunctival epithelium. Human conjunctival explants were cultured for up to 12 days under airlifting conditions. Epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation were assessed by Cytokeratin 10 (K10), K14, K19, Pax6, MUC5AC, and p63 immunostaining patterns. β-catenin and TCF-4 immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR characterized Wnt signaling pathway involvement. Pterygium clinical samples were cultured under airlifting conditions with or without APR-246 for 4 days. p63, K10, β-catenin, and TCF-4 expression in pterygial epithelium was determined by immunofluorescent staining and real-time PCR. Airlift conjunctival explants resulted in increased stratification and intrastromal epithelial invagination. Such pathology was accompanied by increases in K10, K14, and p63 expression, whereas K19 and Pax6 levels declined when compared to those in freshly isolated tissue. On the other hand, APR-246 reversed all of these declines in K10, K14, and p63 expression. Furthermore, K19 and Pax6 increased along with rises in goblet cell density. These effects of APR-246 were accompanied by near restoration of normal conjunctival epithelial histology. APR-246 also reversed squamous metaplasia in pterygial epithelium that had developed after 4 days in ex vivo culture. Reductions in squamous metaplasia induced by APR-246 suggest it may provide a novel therapeutic approach in different squamous metaplasia-associated ocular surface diseases.

  5. Studies of blood flow in human nasal mucosa with /sup133/Xe washout technique and laser doppler flowmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, P.

    1986-01-01

    The techniques were applied for studies of the influence of environmental temperature on the human nasal mucosa, for studies of mediators in nasal allergy and for studies of the sympathetic neurogenic control of blood flow in the nasal mucosa. The results show that the two techniques are complementary to one another. The /sup133/Xe washout technique is useful for semiquantitative estimations of blood flow in the deeper parts of the mucosa, while the laser doppler technique is especially suited for continuous recordings of relative blood flow changes in the superficial part of the mucosa. Vascular changes may take part in body temperature regulation changes may take part in body temperature regulation as well as in conditioning of respiratory air. The results support the theories that changes in nasal mucosal blood flow are related to body temperature control, while conditioning of inspiratory air may be more dependent on mucosal blood content. The observed dissociation between changes in the resistance and the capacitance vessels also illustrates that these vascular segments are regulated in different ways. The present results indicate that leukotriene D/sub4/ might contribute to an increased blood flow in the nasal mucosa and to blockage of the nasal airway in the acute allergic reaction. Vasomotion is demonstrated to be present in the nasal mucosa, and it appears to be partly dependent on sympathetic neurogenic activity. The development of the present techniques, means that vascular changes involved in normal nasal function and in nasal disease may be evaluated by a new approach. (author)

  6. Interleukin-33 induces mucin gene expression and goblet cell hyperplasia in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishinaga, Hajime; Kitano, Masako; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Gabazza, Esteban C; Shah, Said Ahmad; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2017-02-01

    We investigated whether IL-33 is involved in mucus overproduction and goblet cell hyperplasia in eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS). IL-33 mRNA was significantly higher in the eosinophilic CRS group than in the non-eosinophilic CRS group from human nasal polyps. IL-33 induced MUC5AC mRNA and MUC5AC protein, and also goblet cell hyperplasia at air liquid interface culture in human nasal epithelial cells. In addition to that, IL-33 induced MUC5B and FOXA3, and reduces FOXJmRNA. In conclusion, our present study demonstrated that the direct evidence of IL-33 which lead to increase mucin gene and protein expression, as well as goblet cell hyperplasia. This study provides novel insights into the role of IL-33 on mucus overproduction in eosinophilic inflammation of human airways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The chronicles of Porphyromonas gingivalis: the microbium, the human oral epithelium and their interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ozlem

    2008-10-01

    The microbiota of the human oral mucosa consists of a myriad of bacterial species that normally exist in commensal harmony with the host. Porphyromonas gingivalis, an aetiological agent in severe forms of periodontitis (a chronic inflammatory disease), is a prominent component of the oral microbiome and a successful colonizer of the oral epithelium. This Gram-negative anaerobe can also exist within the host epithelium without the existence of overt disease. Gingival epithelial cells, the outer lining of the gingival mucosa, which function as an important part of the innate immune system, are among the first host cells colonized by P. gingivalis. This review describes recent studies implicating the co-existence and intracellular adaptation of the organism in these target host cells. Specifically, recent findings on the putative mechanisms of persistence, intercellular dissemination and opportunism are highlighted. These new findings may also represent an original and valuable model for mechanistic characterization of other successful host-adapted, self-limiting, persistent intracellular bacteria in human epithelial tissues.

  8. Cytotoxicity of Different Excipients on RPMI 2650 Human Nasal Epithelial Cells

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    Tamás Horváth

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The nasal route receives a great deal of attention as a non-invasive method for the systemic administration of drugs. For nasal delivery, specific formulations containing excipients are used. Because of the sensitive respiratory mucosa, not only the active ingredients, but also additives need to be tested in appropriate models for toxicity. The aim of the study was to measure the cytotoxicity of six pharmaceutical excipients, which could help to reach larger residence time, better permeability, and increased solubility dissolution rate. The following excipients were investigated on RPMI 2650 human nasal septum tumor epithelial cells: β-d-mannitol, sodium hyaluronate, α and β-cyclodextrin, polyvinyl alcohol and methylcellulose. 3-(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT dye conversion assay and real-time impedance analysis were used to investigate cytotoxicity. No excipient showed toxicity at 0.3% (w/v concentration or below while 1% concentration a significantly reduced metabolic activity was measured by MTT assay for methylcellulose and cyclodextrins. Using impedance measurements, only β-cyclodextrin (1% was toxic to cells. Mannitol at 1% concentration had a barrier opening effect on epithelial cells, but caused no cellular damage. Based on the results, all additives at 0.3%, sodium hyaluronate and polyvinyl alcohol at 1% concentrations can be safely used for nasal formulations.

  9. Multilayered epithelium in a rat model and human Barrett's esophagus: Similar expression patterns of transcription factors and differentiation markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chung S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rats, esophagogastroduodenal anastomosis (EGDA without concomitant chemical carcinogen treatment leads to gastroesophageal reflux disease, multilayered epithelium (MLE, a presumed precursor in intestinal metaplasia, columnar-lined esophagus, dysplasia, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Previously we have shown that columnar-lined esophagus in EGDA rats resembled human Barrett's esophagus (BE in its morphology, mucin features and expression of differentiation markers (Lab. Invest. 2004;84:753–765. The purpose of this study was to compare the phenotype of rat MLE with human MLE, in order to gain insight into the nature of MLE and its potential role in the development of BE. Methods Serial sectioning was performed on tissue samples from 32 EGDA rats and 13 patients with established BE. Tissue sections were immunohistochemically stained for a variety of transcription factors and differentiation markers of esophageal squamous epithelium and intestinal columnar epithelium. Results We detected MLE in 56.3% (18/32 of EGDA rats, and in all human samples. As expected, both rat and human squamous epithelium, but not intestinal metaplasia, expressed squamous transcription factors and differentiation markers (p63, Sox2, CK14 and CK4 in all cases. Both rat and human intestinal metaplasia, but not squamous epithelium, expressed intestinal transcription factors and differentiation markers (Cdx2, GATA4, HNF1α, villin and Muc2 in all cases. Rat MLE shared expression patterns of Sox2, CK4, Cdx2, GATA4, villin and Muc2 with human MLE. However, p63 and CK14 were expressed in a higher proportion of rat MLE compared to humans. Conclusion These data indicate that rat MLE shares similar properties to human MLE in its expression pattern of these markers, not withstanding small differences, and support the concept that MLE may be a transitional stage in the metaplastic conversion of squamous to columnar epithelium in BE.

  10. Human Parvovirus 4 in Nasal and Fecal Specimens from Children, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Reber, Ulrike; Muth, Doreen; Herzog, Petra; Annan, Augustina; Ebach, Fabian; Sarpong, Nimarko; Acquah, Samuel; Adlkofer, Julia; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Panning, Marcus; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen; Drosten, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Nonparenteral transmission might contribute to human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) infections in sub-Saharan Africa. PARV4 DNA was detected in 8 (0.83%) of 961 nasal samples and 5 (0.53%) of 943 fecal samples from 1,904 children in Ghana. Virus concentrations ≤6–7 log10 copies/mL suggest respiratory or fecal–oral modes of PARV4 transmission. PMID:23018024

  11. Effects of Endogenous Formaldehyde in Nasal Tissues on Inhaled Formmaldehyde Dosimetry Predictions in the Rat, Monkey, and Human Nasal Passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT Formaldehyde, a nasal carcinogen, is also an endogenous compound that is present in all living cells. Due to its high solubility and reactivity, quantitative risk estimates for inhaled formaldehyde rely on internal dose calculations in the upper respiratory tract which ...

  12. Gene expression and functional annotation of the human and mouse choroid plexus epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Janssen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE is a lobed neuro-epithelial structure that forms the outer blood-brain barrier. The CPE protrudes into the brain ventricles and produces the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, which is crucial for brain homeostasis. Malfunction of the CPE is possibly implicated in disorders like Alzheimer disease, hydrocephalus or glaucoma. To study human genetic diseases and potential new therapies, mouse models are widely used. This requires a detailed knowledge of similarities and differences in gene expression and functional annotation between the species. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare gene expression and functional annotation of healthy human and mouse CPE. METHODS: We performed 44k Agilent microarray hybridizations with RNA derived from laser dissected healthy human and mouse CPE cells. We functionally annotated and compared the gene expression data of human and mouse CPE using the knowledge database Ingenuity. We searched for common and species specific gene expression patterns and function between human and mouse CPE. We also made a comparison with previously published CPE human and mouse gene expression data. RESULTS: Overall, the human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar. Their major functionalities included epithelial junctions, transport, energy production, neuro-endocrine signaling, as well as immunological, neurological and hematological functions and disorders. The mouse CPE presented two additional functions not found in the human CPE: carbohydrate metabolism and a more extensive list of (neural developmental functions. We found three genes specifically expressed in the mouse CPE compared to human CPE, being ACE, PON1 and TRIM3 and no human specifically expressed CPE genes compared to mouse CPE. CONCLUSION: Human and mouse CPE transcriptomes are very similar, and display many common functionalities. Nonetheless, we also identified a few genes and pathways which suggest that the CPE

  13. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  14. Human forniceal region is the stem cell-rich zone of the conjunctival epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Mohd Hairul Nizam; Sepian, Siti Norzalehawati; Chua, Kien-Hui; Ropilah, Abd Rahman; Abd Ghafar, Norzana; Che-Hamzah, Jemaima; Bt Hj Idrus, Ruszymah; Annuar, Faridah Hanom

    2013-03-01

    The anterior surface of the eye is covered by several physically contiguous but histologically distinguishable epithelia overlying the cornea, limbus, bulbar conjunctiva, fornix conjunctiva, and palpebral conjunctiva. The self-renewing nature of the conjunctival epithelia makes their long-term survival ultimately dependent on small populations of stem cells. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the expression of the stem cell genes Sox2, OCT4, NANOG, Rex1, NES, and ABCG2 in cultured human conjunctival epithelium from different conjunctival zones, namely, the bulbar, palpebral and fornix zones. Three samples were taken from patients with primary pterygium and cataract (age range 56-66 years) who presented to our eye clinic at the UKM Medical Centre. The eye was examined with slit lamp to ensure there was no underlying ocular surface diseases and glaucoma. Conjunctival tissue was taken from patients who underwent a standard cataract or pterygium operation as a primary procedure. Tissues were digested, cultured, and propagated until an adequate number of cells was obtained. Total RNA was extracted and subjected to expression analysis of conjunctival epithelium genes (KRT4, KRT13, KRT19) and stem cell genes (Sox2, OCT4, NANOG, Rex1, NES, ABCG2) by reverse transcriptase-PCR and 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The expression of Sox2, OCT4, and NANOG genes were detected in the fornical cells, while bulbar cells only expressed Sox2 and palpebral cells only expressed OCT4. Based on these results, the human forniceal region expresses a higher number of stem cell genes than the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva.

  15. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Debby; den Bakker, Michael A; Leijten, Lonneke M E; Chutinimitkul, Salin; Munster, Vincent J; de Wit, Emmie; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Fouchier, Ron A M; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Kuiken, Thijs

    2010-04-01

    Influenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by virus histochemistry of three human and three avian influenza viruses in human nasal septum, conchae, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and larynx. We found that the human influenza viruses-two seasonal influenza viruses and pandemic H1N1 virus-attached abundantly to ciliated epithelial cells and goblet cells throughout the upper respiratory tract. In contrast, the avian influenza viruses, including the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus, attached only rarely to epithelial cells or goblet cells. Both human and avian viruses attached occasionally to cells of the submucosal glands. The pattern of virus attachment was similar among the different sites of the human upper respiratory tract for each virus tested. We conclude that influenza viruses that are transmitted efficiently among humans attach abundantly to human upper respiratory tract, whereas inefficiently transmitted influenza viruses attach rarely. These results suggest that the ability of an influenza virus to attach to human upper respiratory tract is a critical factor for efficient transmission in the human population.

  16. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, A.; Gorgels, T.G.M.F.; ten Brink, J.B.; van der Spek, P.J.; Bossers, K.; Heine, V.M.; Bergen, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to

  17. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles : Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Ten Brink, Jacoline B; van der Spek, Peter J; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M; Bergen, Arthur A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to

  18. Comparison of Mouse and Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Gene Expression Profiles: Potential Implications for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennis, Anna; Gorgels, Theo G. M. F.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; van der Spek, Peter J.; Bossers, Koen; Heine, Vivi M.; Bergen, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    The human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. There is currently no effective treatment available. Preclinical studies in AMD mouse models are essential to develop new

  19. Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Martin; Hummel, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) constitutes an accessory olfactory organ that receives chemical stimuli, pheromones, which elicit behavioral, reproductive, or neuroendocrine responses among individuals of the same species. In many macrosmatic animals, the morphological substrate constitutes a separate organ system consisting of a vomeronasal duct (ductus vomeronasalis, VND), equipped with chemosensory cells, and a vomeronasal nerve (nervus vomeronasalis, VNN) conducting information into the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent data require that the long-accepted dual functionality of a main olfactory system and the VNO be reexamined, since all species without a VNO are nevertheless sexually active, and species possessing a VNO also can sense other than "vomeronasal" stimuli via the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). The human case constitutes a borderline situation, as its embryonic VNO anlage exerts a developmental track common to most macrosmatics, but later typical structures such as the VNN, AOB, and probably most of the chemoreceptor cells within the still existent VND are lost. This review also presents recent information on the VND including immunohistochemical expression of neuronal markers, intermediate filaments, lectins, integrins, caveolin, CD44, and aquaporins. Further, we will address the issue of human pheromone candidates.

  20. Merkel-like cell distribution in the epithelium of the human vagina. An immunohistochemical and TEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polakovičová, Simona; Csöbönyeiová, Mária; Filova, Barbora; Borovský, Miroslav; Maršík, Ladislav; Kvasilová, Alena; Polák, Štefan

    2018-02-16

    Human Merkel cells (MCs) were first described by Friedrich S. Merkel in 1875 and named "Tastzellen" (touch cells). Merkel cells are primarily localized in the basal layer of the epidermis and concentrated in touch-sensitive areas. In our previous work, we reported on the distribution of MCs in the human esophagus, so therefore we chose other parts of the human body to study them. We selected the human vagina, because it has a similar epithelium as the esophagus and plays very important roles in reproduction and sexual pleasure. Due to the fact that there are very few research studies focusing on the innervation of this region, we decided to investigate the occurrence of MCs in the anterior wall of the vagina. The aim of our research was to identify MCs in the stratified squamous non-keratinized epithelium of the human vagina in 20 patients. For the identification of Merkel cells by light microscopy, we used antibodies against simple-epithelial cytokeratins (especially anti-cytokeratin 20). We also tried to identify them using transmission electron microscopy. Our investigation confirmed that 10 (50 %) of 20 patients had increased number of predominantly intraepithelial CK20 positive "Merkel-like" cells (MLCs) in the human vaginal epithelium. Subepithelial CK20 positive MLCs were observed in only one patient (5%). We tried to identify them also using transmission electron microscopy. Our investigation detected some unique cells that may be MCs. The purpose of vaginal innervation is still unclear. There are no data available concerning the distribution of MCs in the human vagina, so it would be interesting to study the role of MCs in the vaginal epithelium, in the context of innervation and epithelial biology.

  1. A Mouse Model of Hyperproliferative Human Epithelium Validated by Keratin Profiling Shows an Aberrant Cytoskeletal Response to Injury

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    Samal Zhussupbekova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A validated animal model would assist with research on the immunological consequences of the chronic expression of stress keratins KRT6, KRT16, and KRT17, as observed in human pre-malignant hyperproliferative epithelium. Here we examine keratin gene expression profile in skin from mice expressing the E7 oncoprotein of HPV16 (K14E7 demonstrating persistently hyperproliferative epithelium, in nontransgenic mouse skin, and in hyperproliferative actinic keratosis lesions from human skin. We demonstrate that K14E7 mouse skin overexpresses stress keratins in a similar manner to human actinic keratoses, that overexpression is a consequence of epithelial hyperproliferation induced by E7, and that overexpression further increases in response to injury. As stress keratins modify local immunity and epithelial cell function and differentiation, the K14E7 mouse model should permit study of how continued overexpression of stress keratins impacts on epithelial tumor development and on local innate and adaptive immunity.

  2. SMAD4 regulates cell motility through transcription of N-cadherin in human pancreatic ductal epithelium.

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    Ya'an Kang

    Full Text Available Expression of the cellular adhesion protein N-cadherin is a critical event during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. The SMAD4 protein has been identified as a mediator of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily signaling, which regulates EMT, but the mechanisms linking TGF-β signaling to N-cadherin expression remain unclear. When the TGF-β pathway is activated, SMAD proteins, including the common mediator SMAD4, are subsequently translocated into the nucleus, where they influence gene transcription via SMAD binding elements (SBEs. Here we describe a mechanism for control of CDH2, the gene encoding N-cadherin, through the canonical TGFβ-SMAD4 pathway. We first identified four previously undescribed SBEs within the CDH2 promoter. Using telomerase immortalized human pancreatic ductal epithelium, we found that TGF-β stimulation prompted specific SMAD4 binding to all four SBEs. Luciferase reporter and SMAD4-knockdown experiments demonstrated that specific SMAD4 binding to the SBE located at -3790 bp to -3795 bp within the promoter region of CDH2 was necessary for TGF-β-stimulated transcription. Expression of N-cadherin on the surface of epithelial cells facilitates motility and invasion, and we demonstrated that knockdown of SMAD4 causes decreased N-cadherin expression, which results in diminished migration and invasion of human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells. Similar reduction of cell motility was produced after CDH2 knockdown. Together, these findings suggest that SMAD4 is critical for the TGF-β-driven upregulation of N-cadherin and the resultant invasive phenotype of human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells during EMT.

  3. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of bacterial magnetosomes against human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Lei; Lv, Xiujuan; Zhang, Tongwei; Jia, Peina; Yan, Ruiying; Li, Shuli; Zou, Ruitao; Xue, Yuhua; Dai, Liming

    2016-06-01

    A variety of nanomaterials have been developed for ocular diseases. The ability of these nanomaterials to pass through the blood-ocular barrier and their biocompatibility are essential characteristics that must be considered. Bacterial magnetosomes (BMs) are a type of biogenic magnetic nanomaterials synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria. Due to their unique biomolecular membrane shell and narrow size distribution of approximately 30 nm, BMs can pass through the blood-brain barrier. The similarity of the blood-ocular barrier to the blood-brain barrier suggests that BMs have great potential as treatments for ocular diseases. In this work, BMs were isolated from magnetotactic bacteria and evaluated in various cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies in human retinal pigment epithelium (ARPE-19) cells. The BMs entered ARPE-19 cells by endocytosis after a 6-h incubation and displayed much lower cytotoxicity than chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). MNPs exhibited significantly higher genotoxicity than BMs and promoted the expression of Bax (the programmed cell death acceleration protein) and the induction of greater cell necrosis. In BM-treated cells, apoptosis tended to be suppressed via increased expression of the Bcl-2 protein. In conclusion, BMs display excellent biocompatibility and potential for use in the treatment of ocular diseases.

  4. Surfactant Proteins A, B, C and D in the Human Nasal Airway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunsbaek, Maria Q; Kjeldsen, Anette D; Svane-Knudsen, Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the presence of surfactant protein (SP) A, B, C and D in nasal airways and to determine whether the proteins exert their main functions in nasal secretions or in the deeper layers of the nasal mucosa. Methods: Volunteers were recruited from the Department of ENT Head and Neck...

  5. Safety assessment of thiolated polymers: effect on ciliary beat frequency in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberger, Thomas F; Augustijns, Patrick; Vetter, Anja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the nasal safety of gel formulations of thiolated polymers (thiomers) by assessing their effect on ciliary beat frequency (CBF) in human nasal epithelial cells. Poly(acrylic acid) 450 kDa-cysteine (PAA-cys) and alginate-cysteine (alg-cys) were synthesized by covalent attachment of L-cysteine to the polymeric backbone. The cationic polymer chitosan-thiobutylamidine (chito-TBA) was synthesized by attaching iminothiolane to chitosan. CBF using was measured by a photometric system. CBF was measured before incubating the cells with test gels, during incubation and after washing out the polymeric test gels to evaluate reversibility of cilio-inhibition. The influence of viscosity on CBF was determined by using hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-gels of various concentrations. Ciliary beating was observed to be affected by viscosity, but cilia were still beating in the presence of a HEC-gel displaying an apparent viscosity of 25 Pa.s. In case of thiolated polymers and their unmodified control, a concentration-dependent decrease in CBF could be observed. PAA-cys, alg-cys, chito-TBA and their corresponding unmodified controls exhibited a moderate cilio-inhibitory effect, followed by a partial recovery of CBF when used at a concentration of 1%. Alg-cys 2% and chito-TBA 2% (m/v) gels exhibited severe cilio-inhibition, which was partially reversible. L-cysteine and reduced glutathione led to mild cilio-inhibition at concentrations of 3% (m/v). Taking into account that dilution after application and cilio-modifying effects is usually more pronounced under in vitro conditions, thiomers can be considered as suitable excipients for nasal drug delivery systems.

  6. Generation of Distal Airway Epithelium from Multipotent Human Foregut Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Nicholas R F; Sampaziotis, Fotios; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Hanley, Neil A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2015-07-15

    Collectively, lung diseases are one of the largest causes of premature death worldwide and represent a major focus in the field of regenerative medicine. Despite significant progress, only few stem cell platforms are currently available for cell-based therapy, disease modeling, and drug screening in the context of pulmonary disorders. Human foregut stem cells (hFSCs) represent an advantageous progenitor cell type that can be used to amplify large quantities of cells for regenerative medicine applications and can be derived from any human pluripotent stem cell line. Here, we further demonstrate the application of hFSCs by generating a near homogeneous population of early pulmonary endoderm cells coexpressing NKX2.1 and FOXP2. These progenitors are then able to form cells that are representative of distal airway epithelium that express NKX2.1, GATA6, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and secrete SFTPC. This culture system can be applied to hFSCs carrying the CFTR mutation Δf508, enabling the development of an in vitro model for cystic fibrosis. This platform is compatible with drug screening and functional validations of small molecules, which can reverse the phenotype associated with CFTR mutation. This is the first demonstration that multipotent endoderm stem cells can differentiate not only into both liver and pancreatic cells but also into lung endoderm. Furthermore, our study establishes a new approach for the generation of functional lung cells that can be used for disease modeling as well as for drug screening and the study of lung development.

  7. A confocal microscopic study of solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in human airway epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparrow Malcolm P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC are specialized epithelial cells that are thought to play important roles in lung development and airway function. PNEC occur either singly or in clusters called neuroepithelial bodies. Our aim was to characterize the three dimensional morphology of PNEC, their distribution, and their relationship to the epithelial nerves in whole mounts of adult human bronchi using confocal microscopy. Methods Bronchi were resected from non-diseased portions of a lobe of human lung obtained from 8 thoracotomy patients (Table 1 undergoing surgery for the removal of lung tumors. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies to reveal all nerves (PGP 9.5, sensory nerves (calcitonin gene related peptide, CGRP, and PNEC (PGP 9.5, CGRP and gastrin releasing peptide, GRP. The analysis and rendition of the resulting three-dimensional data sets, including side-projections, was performed using NIH-Image software. Images were colorized and super-imposed using Adobe Photoshop. Results PNEC were abundant but not homogenously distributed within the epithelium, with densities ranging from 65/mm2 to denser patches of 250/mm2, depending on the individual wholemount. Rotation of 3-D images revealed a complex morphology; flask-like with the cell body near the basement membrane and a thick stem extending to the lumen. Long processes issued laterally from its base, some lumenal and others with feet-like processes. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was present in about 20% of PNEC, mainly in the processes. CGRP-positive nerves were sparse, with some associated with the apical part of the PNEC. Conclusion Our 3D-data demonstrates that PNEC are numerous and exhibit a heterogeneous peptide content suggesting an active and diverse PNEC population.

  8. Nasal Oxytocin Treatment Biases Dogs’ Visual Attention and Emotional Response toward Positive Human Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Somppi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin plays a critical role in social behavior and emotion regulation in mammals. The aim of this study was to explore how nasal oxytocin administration affects gazing behavior during emotional perception in domestic dogs. Looking patterns of dogs, as a measure of voluntary attention, were recorded during the viewing of human facial expression photographs. The pupil diameters of dogs were also measured as a physiological index of emotional arousal. In a placebo-controlled within-subjects experimental design, 43 dogs, after having received either oxytocin or placebo (saline nasal spray treatment, were presented with pictures of unfamiliar male human faces displaying either a happy or an angry expression. We found that, depending on the facial expression, the dogs’ gaze patterns were affected selectively by oxytocin treatment. After receiving oxytocin, dogs fixated less often on the eye regions of angry faces and revisited (glanced back at more often the eye regions of smiling (happy faces than after the placebo treatment. Furthermore, following the oxytocin treatment dogs fixated and revisited the eyes of happy faces significantly more often than the eyes of angry faces. The analysis of dogs’ pupil diameters during viewing of human facial expressions indicated that oxytocin may also have a modulatory effect on dogs’ emotional arousal. While subjects’ pupil sizes were significantly larger when viewing angry faces than happy faces in the control (placebo treatment condition, oxytocin treatment not only eliminated this effect but caused an opposite pupil response. Overall, these findings suggest that nasal oxytocin administration selectively changes the allocation of attention and emotional arousal in domestic dogs. Oxytocin has the potential to decrease vigilance toward threatening social stimuli and increase the salience of positive social stimuli thus making eye gaze of friendly human faces more salient for dogs. Our

  9. Nasal application of HSV encoding human preproenkephalin blocks craniofacial pain in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Christian Hedemann; Meidahl, Anders Christian Nørgaard; Tzabazis

    2017-01-01

    pain using nasal application of a herpes simplex virus (HSV)-based vector expressing human proenkephalin (SHPE) to target the trigeminal ganglia. Mild TBI was induced in rats by the use of a modified fluid percussion model. Two days after mild TBI, following the development of facial mechanical...... lasting at least 45 days. On the other hand, nasal SHPE application 2 days post-TBI attenuated facial allodynia, reaching significance by day 4–7 and maintaining this effect throughout the duration of the experiment. Immunohistochemical examination revealed strong expression of human proenkephalin...

  10. Computational Modelling of Gas-Particle Flows with Different Particle Morphology in the Human Nasal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiao Inthavong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarises current studies related to numerical gas-particle flows in the human nasal cavity. Of interest are the numerical modelling requirements to consider the effects of particle morphology for a variety of particle shapes and sizes such as very small particles sizes (nanoparticles, elongated shapes (asbestos fibres, rough shapes (pollen, and porous light density particles (drug particles are considered. It was shown that important physical phenomena needed to be addressed for different particle characteristics. This included the Brownian diffusion for submicron particles. Computational results for the nasal capture efficiency for nano-particles and various breathing rates in the laminar regime were found to correlate well with the ratio of particle diffusivity to the breathing rate. For micron particles, particle inertia is the most significant property and the need to use sufficient drag laws is important. Drag correlations for fibrous and rough surfaced particles were investigated to enable particle tracking. Based on the simulated results, semi-empirical correlations for particle deposition were fitted in terms of Peclet number and inertial parameter for nanoparticles and micron particles respectively.

  11. In vitro safety evaluation of human nasal epithelial cell monolayers exposed to carrageenan sinus wash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezanpour, Mahnaz; Murphy, Jae; Smith, Jason L P; Vreugde, Sarah; Psaltis, Alkis James

    2017-12-01

    Carrageenans have shown to reduce the viral load in nasal secretions and lower the incidence of secondary infections in children with common cold. Despite the widespread use of carrageenans in topical applications, the effect of carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier has not been elucidated. We investigate the effect of different carrageenans on the sinonasal epithelial barrier and inflammatory response in vitro. Iota and Kappa carrageenan delivered in saline irrigation solutions applied to air-liquid interface (ALI) cultures of primary human nasal epithelial cells from chronic rhinosinusitis patients and controls. Epithelial barrier structure was assessed by measuring the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and immunolocalization of F actin. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF), toxicity, and inflammatory response was studied. Kappa or Iota carrageenan in the different solutions was not toxic, did not have detrimental effects on epithelial barrier structure and CBF. Rather, application of Kappa carrageenan significantly increased TEER and suppressed interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in ALI cultures from CRS patients. Kappa or Iota carrageenan solution was safe and did not negatively affect epithelial barrier function. Kappa carrageenan increased TEER and decreased IL-6 production in CRS patients, indicating positive effects on epithelial barrier function in vitro. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Correspondence regarding "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuyderduyn Scott D

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the work of Chari et al. entitled "Effect of active smoking on the human bronchial epithelium transcriptome" the authors use SAGE to identify candidate gene expression changes in bronchial brushings from never, former, and current smokers. These gene expression changes are categorized into those that are reversible or irreversible upon smoking cessation. A subset of these identified genes is validated on an independent cohort using RT-PCR. The authors conclude that their results support the notion of gene expression changes in the lungs of smokers which persist even after an individual has quit. Results This correspondence raises questions about the validity of the approach used by the authors to analyze their data. The majority of the reported results suffer deficiencies due to the methods used. The most fundamental of these are explained in detail: biases introduced during data processing, lack of correction for multiple testing, and an incorrect use of clustering for gene discovery. A randomly generated "null" dataset is used to show the consequences of these shortcomings. Conclusion Most of Chari et al.'s findings are consistent with what would be expected by chance alone. Although there is clear evidence of reversible changes in gene expression, the majority of those identified appear to be false positives. However, contrary to the authors' claims, no irreversible changes were identified. There is a broad consensus that genetic change due to smoking persists once an individual has quit smoking; unfortunately, this study lacks sufficient scientific rigour to support or refute this hypothesis or identify any specific candidate genes. The pitfalls of large-scale analysis, as exemplified here, may not be unique to Chari et al.

  13. Transport and Deposition of Welding Fume Agglomerates in a Realistic Human Nasal Airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Inthavong, Kiao; Lidén, Göran; Shang, Yidan; Tu, Jiyuan

    2016-07-01

    Welding fume is a complex mixture containing ultra-fine particles in the nanometer range. Rather than being in the form of a singular sphere, due to the high particle concentration, welding fume particles agglomerate into long straight chains, branches, or other forms of compact shapes. Understanding the transport and deposition of these nano-agglomerates in human respiratory systems is of great interest as welding fumes are a known health hazard. The neurotoxin manganese (Mn) is a common element in welding fumes. Particulate Mn, either as soluble salts or oxides, that has deposited on the olfactory mucosa in human nasal airway is transported along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb within the brain. If this Mn is further transported to the basal ganglia of the brain, it could accumulate at the part of the brain that is the focal point of its neurotoxicity. Accounting for various dynamic shape factors due to particle agglomeration, the current computational study is focused on the exposure route, the deposition pattern, and the deposition efficiency of the inhaled welding fume particles in a realistic human nasal cavity. Particular attention is given to the deposition pattern and deposition efficiency of inhaled welding fume agglomerates in the nasal olfactory region. For particles in the nanoscale, molecular diffusion is the dominant transport mechanism. Therefore, Brownian diffusion, hydrodynamic drag, Saffman lift force, and gravitational force are included in the model study. The deposition efficiencies for single spherical particles, two kinds of agglomerates of primary particles, two-dimensional planar and straight chains, are investigated for a range of primary particle sizes and a range of number of primary particles per agglomerate. A small fraction of the inhaled welding fume agglomerates is deposited on the olfactory mucosa, approximately in the range 0.1-1%, and depends on particle size and morphology. The strong size dependence of the deposition

  14. Analysis of clonal expansions through the normal and premalignant human breast epithelium reveals the presence of luminal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereser, Biancastella; Jansen, Marnix; Austin, Emily; Elia, George; McFarlane, Taneisha; van Deurzen, Carolien Hm; Sieuwerts, Anieta M; Daidone, Maria G; Tadrous, Paul J; Wright, Nicholas A; Jones, Louise; McDonald, Stuart Ac

    2018-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the cell of origin of breast cancer is the adult mammary epithelial stem cell; however, demonstrating the presence and location of tissue stem cells in the human breast has proved difficult. Furthermore, we do not know the clonal architecture of the normal and premalignant mammary epithelium or its cellular hierarchy. Here, we use deficiency in the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), typically caused by somatic mutations in the mitochondrial genome, as a means to perform lineage tracing in the human mammary epithelium. PCR sequencing of laser-capture microdissected cells in combination with immunohistochemistry for markers of lineage differentiation was performed to determine the clonal nature of the mammary epithelium. We have shown that in the normal human breast, clonal expansions (defined here by areas of CCO deficiency) are typically uncommon and of limited size, but can occur at any site within the adult mammary epithelium. The presence of a stem cell population was shown by demonstrating multi-lineage differentiation within CCO-deficient areas. Interestingly, we observed infrequent CCO deficiency that was restricted to luminal cells, suggesting that niche succession, and by inference stem cell location, is located within the luminal layer. CCO-deficient areas appeared large within areas of ductal carcinoma in situ, suggesting that the rate of clonal expansion was altered in the premalignant lesion. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Development of organoids from mouse and human endometrium showing endometrial epithelium physiology and long-term expandability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretto, Matteo; Cox, Benoit; Noben, Manuel; Hendriks, Nikolai; Fassbender, Amelie; Roose, Heleen; Amant, Frédéric; Timmerman, Dirk; Tomassetti, Carla; Vanhie, Arne; Meuleman, Christel; Ferrante, Marc; Vankelecom, Hugo

    2017-05-15

    The endometrium, which is of crucial importance for reproduction, undergoes dynamic cyclic tissue remodeling. Knowledge of its molecular and cellular regulation is poor, primarily owing to a lack of study models. Here, we have established a novel and promising organoid model from both mouse and human endometrium. Dissociated endometrial tissue, embedded in Matrigel under WNT-activating conditions, swiftly formed organoid structures that showed long-term expansion capacity, and reproduced the molecular and histological phenotype of the tissue's epithelium. The supplemented WNT level determined the type of mouse endometrial organoids obtained: high WNT yielded cystic organoids displaying a more differentiated phenotype than the dense organoids obtained in low WNT. The organoids phenocopied physiological responses of endometrial epithelium to hormones, including increased cell proliferation under estrogen and maturation upon progesterone. Moreover, the human endometrial organoids replicated the menstrual cycle under hormonal treatment at both the morpho-histological and molecular levels. Together, we established an organoid culture system for endometrium, reproducing tissue epithelium physiology and allowing long-term expansion. This novel model provides a powerful tool for studying mechanisms underlying the biology as well as the pathology of this key reproductive organ. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. New bioreactor vessel for tissue engineering of human nasal septal chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princz Sascha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of human nasal septal chondrocytes in a self-established automated bioreactor system with a new designed reactor glass vessel and the results of a computational fluid dynamics model are presented. The first results show the effect of a homogeneous fluidic condition of the continuous medium flow and the resulting stresses on the scaffolds’ surface and their influence on the migration of the cells into the scaffold matrix under these conditions. For this purpose computational models, generated with the computational fluid dynamics software STAR-CCM+, and the results of alcian blue staining for newly synthesized sulphated glycosaminoglycans have been compared during cultivation in the new and a first version of the glass reactor vessel with inhomogeneous fluidic conditions, with the same automated bioreactor system and under similar cultivation conditions.

  17. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the human nasal ciliary activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stafanger, G; Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, M

    1987-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent, but the clinical and pharmacological effects of NAC are still unclear. It has recently been claimed in animal studies that NAC will stimulate ciliary beating frequency at low concentrations, while inhibiting beating at higher concentrati......N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely used as a mucolytic agent, but the clinical and pharmacological effects of NAC are still unclear. It has recently been claimed in animal studies that NAC will stimulate ciliary beating frequency at low concentrations, while inhibiting beating at higher...... concentrations. Using a microphoto-oscillographic method combined with microperfusion technique, we studied the direct effect of NAC on human nasal cilia. NAC caused a direct dose- and time-related decrease in ciliary beating frequency, which was detectable at 2 mg/ml and reached statistically significant levels...

  18. Dosimetry of nasal uptake of soluble and reactive gases: A first study of inter-human variability (Journal Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatomically accurate human child and adult nasal tract models will be used in concert with computationally simulated air flow information to investigate the influence of age-related differences in anatomy on inhalation dosimetry in the upper and lower airways. The findings of t...

  19. CriticalSorb: a novel efficient nasal delivery system for human growth hormone based on Solutol HS15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illum, Lisbeth; Jordan, Faron; Lewis, Andrew L

    2012-08-20

    The absorption enhancing efficiency of CriticalSorb for human growth hormone (MW 22 kDa) was investigated in the conscious rat model. The principle absorption enhancing component of CriticalSorb, Solutol HS15, comprises polyglycol mono- and di-esters of 12-hydroxystearic acid combined with free polyethylene glycol. When administering hGH nasally in rats with increasing concentrations of Solutol HS15, it was found that for a 10%w/v solution formulation a bioavailability of 49% was obtained in the first 2h after administration. Furthermore it was shown that the most effective ratio of Solutol HS15 to hGH was 4:1 on a mg to mg basis. Histopathology studies in rats after 5 days repeated nasal administration showed that Solutol HS15 had no toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. These results have been confirmed in a 6 month repeat nasal toxicity study in rats. It can be concluded that the principle absorption enhancing component of CriticalSorb - Solutol HS15 - is a potent and non- toxic nasal absorption enhancer that warrants further development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Quantitative image analysis in pulmonary pathology - digitalization of preneoplastic lesions in human bronchial epithelium (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, T; Müller, K M; Kämper, H

    1979-01-01

    The report concerns the first phase of a quantitative study of normal and abnormal bronchial epithelium with the objective of establishing the digitalization of histologic patterns. Preparative methods, data collecting and handling, and further mathematical analysis are described. In cluster and discriminatory analysis the digitalized histologic features can be used to separate and classify the individual cases into the respective diagnostic groups.

  1. Expression of Toll-like receptor 9 and response to bacterial CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in human intestinal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G; Andresen, Lars; Matthiessen, M W

    2005-01-01

    Recognition of repeat CpG motifs, which are common in bacterial, but not in mammalian, DNA, through Toll-like receptor (TLR)9 is an integral part of the innate immune system. As the role of TLR9 in the human gut is unknown, we determined the spectrum of TLR9 expression in normal and inflamed colo...... in vitro despite spontaneous TLR9 gene expression. This suggests that the human epithelium is able to avoid inappropriate immune responses to luminal bacterial products through modulation of the TLR9 pathway....

  2. Epigenetic silencing of MAL, a putative tumor suppressor gene, can contribute to human epithelium cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify new and useful candidate biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC, we performed a genome-wide survey and found that Myelin and lymphocyte-associated protein (MAL was a gene that was markedly down-regulated in HNSCC. Hence, we investigated the mechanism of MAL silencing and the effects of MAL on the proliferation, invasion, and apoptotic potential in HNSCC. Results MAL was significantly down-regulated in 91.7% of HNSCC specimens at the mRNA level as compared with adjacent normal tissues (P = 0.0004. Moreover, the relative transcript levels of the MAL gene were remarkably decreased by five-fold in nine HNSCC cell lines as compared with normal head and neck epithelium cells. MAL gene expression was restored in 44%, 67%, and 89% in HNSCC cell lines treated with TSA, 5-Aza-dC, and TSA plus 5-Aza-dC, respectively. Furthermore, bisulfate-treated DNA sequencing demonstrated that the two CpG islands (that is, M1 and M2 located in MAL promoter region were completely methylated in the HNSCC cell lines (CpG methylated ratio was more than 90%, and only one CpG island (that is, M1 was partially methylated in HNSCC tissues (CpG methylated ratio between 20% and 90%. A significant reduction in cell proliferation and a change in the cell cycle profile were also observed in MAL transfectants. Matrigel assay demonstrated that the invasiveness of HNSCC cells significantly decreased. A significant increase in the population of apoptotic cells was observed in MAL transfected cells. The exogenous expression of the MAL gene suppressed malignant phenotypes, while the cell death induced by MAL gene transfer was a result of apoptosis as demonstrated by the induction of cleavage of the poly (that is, ADP-ribose polymerase. Additionally, tumor growth was suppressed in cells expressing MAL as compared with cells not expressing MAL. Conclusion Our data suggest that the epigenetic inactivation of MAL, as a candidate tumor

  3. Bioinspired onion epithelium-like structure promotes the maturation of cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cong; Wang, Li; Yu, Yue; Yin, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Jiang, Lei; Qin, Jianhua

    2017-08-22

    Organized cardiomyocyte alignment is critical to maintain the mechanical properties of the heart. In this study, we present a new and simple strategy to fabricate a biomimetic microchip designed with an onion epithelium-like structure and investigate the guided behavior of human induced pluripotent stem cell derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) on the substrate. The hiPSC-CMs were observed to be confined by the three dimensional surficial features morphologically, analogous to the in vivo microenvironment, and exhibited an organized anisotropic alignment on the onion epithelium-like structure with good beating function. The calcium imaging of hiPSC-CMs demonstrated a more mature Ca 2+ spark pattern as well. Furthermore, the expression of sarcomere genes (TNNI3, MYH6 and MYH7), potassium channel genes (KCNE1 and KCNH2), and calcium channel genes (RYR2) was significantly up-regulated on the substrate with an onion epithelium-like structure instead of the surface without the structure, indicating a more matured status of cardiomyocytes induced by this structure. It appears that the biomimetic micropatterned structure, analogous to in vivo cellular organization, is an important factor that might promote the maturation of hiPSC-CMs, providing new biological insights to guide hiPSC-CM maturation by biophysical factors. The established approach may offer an effective in vitro model for investigating cardiomyocyte differentiation, maturation and tissue engineering applications.

  4. Interferon-gamma increased epithelial barrier function via upregulating claudin-7 expression in human submandibular gland duct epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Ayumi; Takano, Kenichi; Kojima, Takashi; Nomura, Kazuaki; Kakuki, Takuya; Kaneko, Yakuto; Yamamoto, Motohisa; Takahashi, Hiroki; Himi, Tetsuo

    2016-06-01

    Tight junctions (TJs) are necessary for salivary gland function and may serve as indicators of salivary gland epithelial dysfunction. IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized fibro-inflammatory condition which disrupts the TJ associated epithelial barrier. The salivary glands are one of the most frequently involved organs in IgG4-RD, however, changes of the TJ associated epithelial barrier in salivary gland duct epithelium is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the regulation and function of TJs in human submandibular gland ductal epithelial cells (HSDECs) in normal and IgG4-RD. We examined submandibular gland (SMG) tissue from eight control individuals and 22 patients with IgG4-RD and established an HSDEC culture system. Immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, western blotting, and measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) were performed. Claudin-4, claudin-7, occludin, and JAM-A were expressed at the apical side of the duct epithelium in submandibular gland (SMG) tissue and at the cell borders in HSDECs of normal and IgG4-RD. The expression and distribution of TJs in SMG tissue were not different in control individuals and patients with IgG4-RD in vivo and in vitro. Although interferon-gamma (IFNγ) generally disrupts the integrity and function of TJs, as manifested by decreased epithelial barrier function, IFNγ markedly increased the epithelial barrier function of HSDECs via upregulation of claudin-7 expression in HSDECs from patients with IgG4-RD. This is the first report showing an IFNγ-dependent increase in epithelial barrier function in the salivary gland duct epithelium. Our results provide insights into the functional significance of TJs in salivary gland duct epithelium in physiological and pathological conditions, including IgG4-RD.

  5. NORMAL NASAL GENE EXPRESSION LEVELS USING CDNA ARRAY TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal Nasal Gene Expression Levels Using cDNA Array Technology. The nasal epithelium is a target site for chemically-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity. To detect and analyze genetic events which contribute to nasal tumor development, we first defined the gene expressi...

  6. Absolute humidity and the human nose: A reanalysis of climate zones and their influence on nasal form and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddux, Scott D; Yokley, Todd R; Svoma, Bohumil M; Franciscus, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Investigations into the selective role of climate on human nasal variation commonly divide climates into four broad adaptive zones (hot-dry, hot-wet, cold-dry, and cold-wet) based on temperature and relative humidity. Yet, absolute humidity-not relative humidity-is physiologically more important during respiration. Here, we investigate the global distribution of absolute humidity to better clarify ecogeographic demands on nasal physiology. We use monthly observations from the Climatic Research Unit Timeseries 3 (CRU TS3) database to construct global maps of average annual temperature, relative humidity and absolute humidity. Further, using data collected by Thomson and Buxton (1923) for over 15,000 globally-distributed individuals, we calculate the actual amount of heat and water that must be transferred to inspired air in different climatic regimes to maintain homeostasis, and investigate the influence of these factors on the nasal index. Our results show that absolute humidity, like temperature, generally decreases with latitude. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that environments typically characterized as "cold-wet" actually exhibit low absolute humidities, with values virtually identical to cold-dry environments and significantly lower than hot-wet and even hot-dry environments. Our results also indicate that strong associations between the nasal index and absolute humidity are, potentially erroneously, predicated on individuals from hot-dry environments possessing intermediate (mesorrhine) nasal indices. We suggest that differentially allocating populations to cold-dry or cold-wet climates is unlikely to reflect different selective pressures on respiratory physiology and nasal morphology-it is cold-dry, and to a lesser degree hot-dry environments, that stress respiratory function. Our study also supports assertions that demands for inspiratory modification are reduced in hot-wet environments, and that expiratory heat elimination for thermoregulation is a

  7. A breakdown in communication? Understanding the effects of aging on the human small intestine epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Mabbott, Neil A.

    2015-01-01

    In the intestine, a single layer of epithelial cells sealed together at their apical surfaces by tight junctions helps to prevent the luminal commensal and pathogenic micro-organisms and their toxins from entering host tissues. The intestinal epithelium also helps to maintain homoeostasis in the mucosal immune system by expressing anti-inflammatory cytokines in the steady state and inflammatory cytokines in response to pathogens. Although the function of the mucosal immune system is impaired ...

  8. Nasal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  9. Nasal Delivery of High Molecular Weight Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Cevher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Nasal drug delivery may be used for either local or systemic effects. Low molecular weight drugs with are rapidly absorbed through nasal mucosa. The main reasons for this are the high permeability, fairly wide absorption area, porous and thin endothelial basement membrane of the nasal epithelium. Despite the many advantages of the nasal route, limitations such as the high molecular weight (HMW of drugs may impede drug absorption through the nasal mucosa. Recent studies have focused particularly on the nasal application of HMW therapeutic agents such as peptide-protein drugs and vaccines intended for systemic effects. Due to their hydrophilic structure, the nasal bioavailability of peptide and protein drugs is normally less than 1%. Besides their weak mucosal membrane permeability and enzymatic degradation in nasal mucosa, these drugs are rapidly cleared from the nasal cavity after administration because of mucociliary clearance. There are many approaches for increasing the residence time of drug formulations in the nasal cavity resulting in enhanced drug absorption. In this review article, nasal route and transport mechanisms across the nasal mucosa will be briefly presented. In the second part, current studies regarding the nasal application of macromolecular drugs and vaccines with nanoand micro-particulate carrier systems will be summarised.

  10. Variations in the ultrastructure of human nasal cilia including abnormalities found in retinitis pigmentosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Arden, G B

    1980-01-01

    The electron microscopic structure of cilia from the inferior turbinate of the nose was studied in 12 adults, four with chronic sinusitis, one with allergic rhinitis, two with bronchiectasis, three with deviated nasal septum, and two normals. The changes are compared with those found in nasal cilia in 14 patients with retinitis pigmentosa. There were compound cilia in the seven cases with chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and bronchiectasis but, apart from this, the structure of the cilia...

  11. Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus intermedius in Humans in Contact with Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, R. G.; Marples, R. R.; Noble, W. C.

    2011-01-01

    A study of staphylococci isolated from the anterior nares of 16 owners of dogs with atopic dermatitis and 13 veterinary practice staff in constant contact with dogs was conducted. There was one persistent nasal carrier and four transient nasal carriers of Staphylococcus intermedius. This carriage rate is higher than previously reported and presumably contributes to the presence of antibodies to S. intermedius in about 20 per cent of the normal population. Thus transfer of S. intermedius from ...

  12. A low percentage of autologous serum can replace bovine serum to engineer human nasal cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Wolf

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available For the generation of cell-based therapeutic products, it would be preferable to avoid the use of animal-derived components. Our study thus aimed at investigating the possibility to replace foetal bovine serum (FBS with autologous serum (AS for the engineering of cartilage grafts using expanded human nasal chondrocytes (HNC. HNC isolated from 7 donors were expanded in medium containing 10% FBS or AS at different concentrations (2%, 5% and 10% and cultured in pellets using serum-free medium or in Hyaff®-11 meshes using medium containing FBS or AS. Tissue forming capacity was assessed histologically (Safranin O, immunohistochemically (type II collagen and biochemically (glycosaminoglycans -GAG- and DNA. Differences among experimental groups were assessed by Mann Whitney tests. HNC expanded under the different serum conditions proliferated at comparable rates and generated cartilaginous pellets with similar histological appearance and amounts of GAG. Tissues generated by HNC from different donors cultured in Hyaff®-11 had variable quality, but the accumulated GAG amounts were comparable among the different serum conditions. Staining intensity for collagen type II was consistent with GAG deposition. Among the different serum conditions tested, the use of 2% AS resulted in the lowest variability in the GAG contents of generated tissues. In conclusion, a low percentage of AS can replace FBS both during the expansion and differentiation of HNC and reduce the variability in the quality of the resulting engineered cartilage tissues.

  13. Effects of wheat germ agglutinin on human gastrointestinal epithelium: Insights from an experimental model of immune/epithelial cell interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrina, Chiara Dalla; Perbellini, Omar; Scupoli, Maria Teresa; Tomelleri, Carlo; Zanetti, Chiara; Zoccatelli, Gianni; Fusi, Marina; Peruffo, Angelo; Rizzi, Corrado; Chignola, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is a plant protein that binds specifically to sugars expressed, among many others, by human gastrointestinal epithelial and immune cells. WGA is a toxic compound and an anti-nutritional factor, but recent works have shown that it may have potential as an anti-tumor drug and as a carrier for oral drugs. To quantitate the toxicity threshold for WGA on normal epithelial cells we previously investigated the effects of the lectin on differentiated Caco2 cells, and showed that in the micromolar range of concentrations WGA could alter the integrity of the epithelium layer and increase its permeability to both mannitol and dextran. WGA was shown to be uptaken by Caco2 cells and only ∼ 0.1% molecules were observed to cross the epithelium layer by transcytosis. Here we show that at nanomolar concentrations WGA is unexpectedly bioactive on immune cells. The supernatants of WGA-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) can alter the integrity of the epithelium layer when administered to the basolateral side of differentiated Caco2 cells and the effects can be partially inhibited by monoclonal antibodies against IL1, IL6 and IL8. At nanomolar concentrations WGA stimulates the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus the biological activity of WGA should be reconsidered by taking into account the effects of WGA on the immune system at the gastrointestinal interface. These results shed new light onto the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset of gastrointestinal disorders observed in vivo upon dietary intake of wheat-based foods.

  14. Avian Influenza virus glycoproteins restrict virus replication and spread through human airway epithelium at temperatures of the proximal airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Scull

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of avian influenza viruses from bird to human is a rare event even though avian influenza viruses infect the ciliated epithelium of human airways in vitro and ex vivo. Using an in vitro model of human ciliated airway epithelium (HAE, we demonstrate that while human and avian influenza viruses efficiently infect at temperatures of the human distal airways (37 degrees C, avian, but not human, influenza viruses are restricted for infection at the cooler temperatures of the human proximal airways (32 degrees C. These data support the hypothesis that avian influenza viruses, ordinarily adapted to the temperature of the avian enteric tract (40 degrees C, rarely infect humans, in part due to differences in host airway regional temperatures. Previously, a critical residue at position 627 in the avian influenza virus polymerase subunit, PB2, was identified as conferring temperature-dependency in mammalian cells. Here, we use reverse genetics to show that avianization of residue 627 attenuates a human virus, but does not account for the different infection between 32 degrees C and 37 degrees C. To determine the mechanism of temperature restriction of avian influenza viruses in HAE at 32 degrees C, we generated recombinant human influenza viruses in either the A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2 or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1 genetic background that contained avian or avian-like glycoproteins. Two of these viruses, A/Victoria/3/75 with L226Q and S228G mutations in hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99 and A/PR/8/34 containing the H7 and N1 from A/Chick/Italy/1347/99, exhibited temperature restriction approaching that of wholly avian influenza viruses. These data suggest that influenza viruses bearing avian or avian-like surface glycoproteins have a reduced capacity to establish productive infection at the temperature of the human proximal airways. This temperature restriction may limit zoonotic transmission of avian influenza viruses and

  15. Accumulation of 8-nitroguanine in human gastric epithelium induced by Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ning; Adachi, Yukihiko; Hiraku, Yusuke; Horiki, Noriyuki; Horiike, Shinichirou; Imoto, Ichiro; Pinlaor, Somchai; Murata, Mariko; Semba, Reiji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic inflammation, which can lead to gastric carcinoma. A double immunofluorescence labeling study demonstrated that the level of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 ' -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) apparent in gastric gland epithelium was significantly higher in gastritis patients with H. pylori infection than in those without infection. A significant accumulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a prognostic factor for gastric cancer, was observed in gastric gland epithelial cells in patients with H. pylori infection as compared to those without infection, and its accumulation was closely correlated with the formation of 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxodG. These results suggest that nitrosative and oxidative DNA damage in gastric epithelial cells and their proliferation by H. pylori infection may lead to gastric carcinoma. 8-Nitroguanine could be not only a promising biomarker for inflammation but also a useful indicator of the risk of gastric cancer development in response to chronic H. pylori infection

  16. Cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on human-derived oral epithelium cell line: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Abassi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have a more surface contact and solubility than conventional hydroxyapatite. Hydroxynanoparticles enhances the biological and mechanical properties of new regenerated tissues. The hydroxyapatite nanoparticles have received attention as a new and effective osseous graft for using as scaffolds in bone regeneration. The reports on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles biocompatibility are controversial. It has been shown that hydroxyapatite nanoparticles induces inflammatory reaction and apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity of nano-hydroxyapatite on the human epithelial cells. Methods: The study was experimental and completed in vitro. The study was carried out in department of Immonulogy, Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in November 2014. The human-derived oral epithelium cell line (KB obtained from Pasteur Institute, Tehran, Iran were exposed to hydroxyapatite nanoparticles at 0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2.5 and 5 mg/ml concentrations in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Rod-shaped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with 99% purity and maximum 100 nm sized particles were used. Methylthiazol tetrazolium bromide (MTT method was employed for cell vitality evaluation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used for assessing the viability of cells. Distilled water and fetal bovine serum (FBS were positive and negative controls. ANOVA and Duncan tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cytotoxicity of different concentrations of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles on human-derived oral epithelium cell line in 24 (P< 0.001, 48 (P< 0.001 and 72 hours (P< 0.001 was significantly different. The nano-hydroxyapatite particles at 0.5 to 1 mg/ml had the highest cytotoxicity effect on human-derived oral epithelium cells in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Lower concentrations than 0.05 mg/ml had the best biocompatibility properties in 24, 48 and 72 hours. Conclusion

  17. Three-dimensional neuroepithelial culture from human embryonic stem cells and its use for quantitative conversion to retinal pigment epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhu

    Full Text Available A goal in human embryonic stem cell (hESC research is the faithful differentiation to given cell types such as neural lineages. During embryonic development, a basement membrane surrounds the neural plate that forms a tight, apico-basolaterally polarized epithelium before closing to form a neural tube with a single lumen. Here we show that the three-dimensional epithelial cyst culture of hESCs in Matrigel combined with neural induction results in a quantitative conversion into neuroepithelial cysts containing a single lumen. Cells attain a defined neuroepithelial identity by 5 days. The neuroepithelial cysts naturally generate retinal epithelium, in part due to IGF-1/insulin signaling. We demonstrate the utility of this epithelial culture approach by achieving a quantitative production of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from hESCs within 30 days. Direct transplantation of this RPE into a rat model of retinal degeneration without any selection or expansion of the cells results in the formation of a donor-derived RPE monolayer that rescues photoreceptor cells. The cyst method for neuroepithelial differentiation of pluripotent stem cells is not only of importance for RPE generation but will also be relevant to the production of other neuronal cell types and for reconstituting complex patterning events from three-dimensional neuroepithelia.

  18. Molecular mechanism of ocular surface damage: application to an in vitro dry eye model on human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Marisa; De Servi, Barbara; Marasco, Daniela; Del Prete, Salvatore

    2011-01-12

    The present study was concerned with the development of a new experimental model of dry eye using human reconstructed in vitro corneal epithelium (HCE). The model is based on the use of adapted culture conditions that induce relevant modifications at the cellular and molecular level thus mimicking dry eye. The HCE model was maintained in a controlled environmental setting (relative humidity eye. The evolution of the dry eye condition was assessed by histology, immunohistochemistry staining, scanning electron microscopy, and gene expression by using TaqMan gene assay technology (mucin-4 [MUC4], matrix metallopeptidase-9 [MMP9], tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α], and defensin β-2 [DEFB2). The effects of different commercially available tear substitutes on the induced dry eye condition were tested. This in vitro dry eye HCE model, that was well established within 24 h, has the characteristic features of a dry eye epithelium and could be satisfactorily used for preliminary assessment of the protective activity of some artificial tears. The transcriptional study of selected biomarkers showed an increase in MUC4, MMP9, TNF-α, and hBD-2 (DEFB2) gene expression. By using a dynamic approach, we were able to define a biomarker gene signature of dry eye-induced effects that could be predictive of corneal damage in vivo and to discriminate the efficacy among different commercial artificial tears.

  19. Determination of ABO blood grouping from human oral squamous epithelium by the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Hiroshi; Yokota, Makoto; Tatsumi, Shinji; Sugiyama, Shizuyuki

    2002-03-01

    Using the highly sensitive immunohistochemical staining method EnVision+, which employs a dextran polymer reagent for the secondary antibody, the detection of the ABH antigens was attempted in the oral squamous epithelium. This new technique uses monoclonal antibody as a primary antibody and it takes about three hours for staining. The time is much shorter than conventional absorption-elution testing or absorption-inhibition testing for the determination of ABO blood grouping. Secretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity by the antibody, which corresponded to its blood group and anti-H. On the one hand, nonsecretor saliva samples were stained at strong intensity only by the antibody that corresponded to its blood group, and at weak intensity only by anti-H. Since human oral squamous epithelium antigens were stained specifically by this method, we can examine the ABO blood group of saliva samples and perform cytodiagnosis at the same time. Our research suggested that the EnVision+ Method is a useful technique for ABO blood grouping of saliva in forensic cases.

  20. Immunoglobulins in nasal secretions of healthy humans: structural integrity of secretory immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) and occurrence of neutralizing antibodies to IgA1 proteases of nasal bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, L; Rasmussen, TT; Reinholdt, Jesper

    2000-01-01

    Certain bacteria, including overt pathogens as well as commensals, produce immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1) proteases. By cleaving IgA1, including secretory IgA1, in the hinge region, these enzymes may interfere with the barrier functions of mucosal IgA antibodies, as indicated by experiments in vitro....... Previous studies have suggested that cleavage of IgA1 in nasal secretions may be associated with the development and perpetuation of atopic disease. To clarify the potential effect of IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal cavity, we have analyzed immunoglobulin isotypes in nasal secretions of 11...... healthy humans, with a focus on IgA, and at the same time have characterized and quantified IgA1 protease-producing bacteria in the nasal flora of the subjects. Samples in the form of nasal wash were collected by using a washing liquid that contained lithium as an internal reference. Dilution factors and...

  1. Progenitor Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty-Santos, Leilani

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-producing β cells within the vertebrate fetal pancreas acquire their fate in a step-wise manner. Whereas the intrinsic factors dictating the transcriptional or epigenetic status of pancreatic lineages have been intensely examined, less is known about cell–cell interactions that might constitute a niche for the developing β cell lineage. It is becoming increasingly clear that understanding and recapitulating these steps may instruct in vitro differentiation of embryonic stem cells and/or therapeutic regeneration. Indeed, directed differentiation techniques have improved since transitioning from 2D to 3D cultures, suggesting that the 3D microenvironment in which β cells are born is critical. However, to date, it remains unknown whether the changing architecture of the pancreatic epithelium impacts the fate of cells therein. An emerging challenge in the field is to elucidate how progenitors are allocated during key events, such as the stratification and subsequent resolution of the pre-pancreatic epithelium, as well as the formation of lumens and branches. Here, we assess the progenitor epithelium and examine how it might influence the emergence of pancreatic multipotent progenitors (MPCs), which give rise to β cells and other pancreatic lineages. PMID:26216134

  2. Levcromakalim- and isoprenaline-induced relaxation of human isolated airways--role of the epithelium and of K+ channel activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, J L; Johnson, P R; McKay, K O; Carey, D; Armour, C L

    1994-06-01

    In this study we have investigated the mechanism of action of levcromakalim and isoprenaline in human isolated airways with respect to the K+ channels they activate and the possibility that these smooth muscle relaxants activate K+ channels on the airway epithelium. Mechanical removal of the epithelial layer (mean percentage of epithelium present 20 +/- 3%, n = 20 tissues) did not affect the relaxation responses to levcromakalim or isoprenaline, either in terms of maximal relaxation or sensitivity. Whilst having no effect on isoprenaline-induced relaxation, studied from basal tone, the ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker BRL 31660 (10, 30 and 50 microM) reduced relaxation responses induced (from basal tone) by levcromakalim from 74 +/- 6% (of the maximal response to isoprenaline) to 48 +/- 12% (n = 7), 9 +/- 9% (n = 4) and 0 (n = 4), respectively. Charybdotoxin, a blocker of high conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, at concentrations of 30 and 100 nM, had no effect on either levcromakalim- or or isoprenaline-induced relaxation responses and yet charybdotoxin was active at KCa channels in outside-out patches of hippocampal granule cells. Moreover, tetraethylammonium (10 mM) inhibited neither isoprenaline- nor levcromakalim-induced relaxation. This study has demonstrated that the relaxation responses elicited in human bronchus to isoprenaline and levcromakalim are likely to be the result of direct effects on the smooth muscle with no contribution from epithelial receptors or K+ channels. The actions of levcromakalim appear to be mediated only via activation of KATP channels. Further, we have made the important observation that, under the experimental conditions of our study, isoprenaline does not activate the KCa channel to produce relaxation in human bronchus.

  3. Caveolin-1 as a novel indicator of wound-healing capacity in aged human corneal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Ji Heon; Kim, Jae Hoon; Yeo, Eui-Ju; Kim, Jae Chan; Park, Sang Chul

    2010-01-01

    Excess caveolin-1 has been reported to play a role in age-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in vitro. Therefore, we hypothesized that caveolin-1-dependent hyporesponsiveness to growth factors in aged corneal epithelial cells might be responsible for delayed wound healing in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated corneal wound-healing time by vital staining using fluorescein after laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK). We compared wound-healing times in young, middle-aged and elderly patients. We also examined caveolin-1 levels and other aging markers, such as p53 and p21, in the corneal epithelium. Elderly patients generally had higher caveolin-1 levels in the corneal epithelia than young patients. There were, however, variations among individuals with increased caveolin-1 in some young patients and decreased levels in some elderly patients. Wound-healing time after LASEK correlated well with the corneal caveolin-1 status. Therefore, we suggest that caveolin-1 status might be responsible for delayed wound healing in elderly patients after LASEK. Caveolin-1 status might be a regulator for wound-healing capacity and a novel target for in vivo adjustment.

  4. Amiodarone increases the accumulation of DEA in a human alveolar epithelium-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Satoru; Itagaki, Shirou; Kobayashi, Masaki; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2008-07-01

    Amiodarone (AMD)-induced pulmonary toxicity (AIPT) is the most life-threatening side-effect of AMD treatment. N-Monodesethylamiodarone (DEA), an active metabolite of AMD, also exhibits cytotoxicity and tends to accumulate in the lung more intensively than AMD. In this study, we characterized the mechanism of DEA accumulation using A549 cells as a model of the alveolar epithelium. Typical ATP-depletion compounds caused an approximately 30% increase in the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells, although these effects were less than those in Caco-2 cells. Triiodothyronine (T(3)), which exhibited an inhibitory effect on DEA efflux in Caco-2 cells, did not affect the accumulation of DEA in A549 cells. On the other hand, 100 microM AMD caused an approximately 200% increase in DEA content in A549 cells, although AMD accumulation was not affected by 100 microM DEA. Since the reducing effect of AMD on cellular ATP levels and that of FCCP were similar, the mechanism by which DEA accumulation is increased by AMD might be different from the ATP-dependent DEA efflux mechanism. The decrease in cell viability by DEA in the presence of AMD (IC(50) value of DEA for A549 cell viability: 25.4+/-2.4 microM) was more pronounced than that by DEA alone (IC(50) value: 11.5+/-3.0 microM). This further DEA accumulation by AMD might be a factor responsible for the greater accumulation of DEA than that of AMD in the lung in long-term AMD-treated patients.

  5. Functional effects of Toll-like receptor (TLR3, 7, 9, RIG-I and MDA-5 stimulation in nasal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Tengroth

    Full Text Available The human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier, and a part of the innate immune defense that protect against pathogens. The epithelial cells recognize microbial components by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs, and thereby trigger an immune response. Even though TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 are all known to respond to viral stimulation, their potential role in chronic airway inflammation triggered by local cytokine release remains to be established.mRNA and corresponding protein expression of TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5 were analyzed in nasal biopsies and various upper airway epithelial cell lines using real-time reverse transcription PCR, immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Ligand induced, cytokine release, was evaluated with ELISA.Nasal biopsies were found to express TLR3, TLR7, TLR9, RIG-I and MDA-5, with the most abundant expression in the surface epithelium. These receptors were verified in primary human nasal epithelial cell (HNEC as well as in the airway epithelial cell lines Detroit-562 and FaDu. Poly(I:C (TLR3 and R-837 (TLR7 stimulation increased secretion of IL-6 and GM-CSF from the nasal mucosa and the epithelial cell lines. CpG (TLR9 stimulation caused release of IL-8 in the nasal mucosa and in FaDu. Poly(I:C/LyoVec (RIG-I/MDA-5 stimulation activated the secretion of IFN-β in the nasal mucosa. A corresponding release was also detected from HNEC and Detroit-562.The nasal epithelium has the ability to recognize viral intrusion through TLR and RLR receptors, and the subsequent response might have a role in exacerbation of inflammatory diseases like allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis.

  6. MicroRNA Expression Profiling of Human Respiratory Epithelium Affected by Invasive Candida Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Aun Muhammad

    Full Text Available Invasive candidiasis is potentially life-threatening systemic fungal infection caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans. Candida enters the blood stream and disseminate throughout the body and it is often observed in hospitalized patients, immunocompromised individuals or those with chronic diseases. This infection is opportunistic and risk starts with the colonization of C. albicans on mucocutaneous surfaces and respiratory epithelium. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs which are involved in the regulation of virtually every cellular process. They regulate and control the levels of mRNA stability and post-transcriptional gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs has been associated in many disease states, and miRNA-based therapies are in progress. In this study, we investigated possible variations of miRNA expression profiles of respiratory epithelial cells infected by invasive Candida species. For this purpose, respiratory epithelial tissues of infected individuals from hospital laboratory were accessed before their treatment. Invasive Candida infection was confirmed by isolation of Candia albicans from the blood cultures of the same infected individuals. The purity of epithelial tissues was assessed by flow cytometry (FACSCalibur cytometer; BD Biosciences, Heidelberg, Germany using statin antibody (S-44. TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR (in a TaqMan Low Density Array format was used for miRNA expression profiling. MiRNAs investigated, the levels of expression of 55 miRNA were significantly altered in infected tissues. Some miRNAs showed dramatic increase (miR-16-1 or decrease of expression (miR-17-3p as compared to control. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these miRNA-targeted genes suggests that Candidal infection affect many important biological pathways. In summary, disturbance in miRNA expression levels indicated the change in cascade of pathological processes and the regulation of respiratory epithelial functions

  7. Variations in the ultrastructure of human nasal cilia including abnormalities found in retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, B; Bull, T B; Arden, G B

    1980-01-01

    The electron microscopic structure of cilia from the inferior turbinate of the nose was studied in 12 adults, four with chronic sinusitis, one with allergic rhinitis, two with bronchiectasis, three with deviated nasal septum, and two normals. The changes are compared with those found in nasal cilia in 14 patients with retinitis pigmentosa. There were compound cilia in the seven cases with chronic sinusitis, allergic rhinitis, and bronchiectasis but, apart from this, the structure of the cilia was similar in all 12 cases. There were variations in the microtubular pattern in about 4% of cilia, dynein arms were not seen in 4%, and in the rest an average of 5-6 dynein arms were seen in each cilium. The orientation of the cilia was 0 to 90 degrees. In the retinitis pigmentosa patients there was a highly significant increase in cilial abnormalities. The establishment on a quantitative basis of the variations in normal structure of nasal cilila facilitated the recognition of an association between cilial abnormalities and retinitis pigmentosa and should help in the identification of associations that may exist between cilial abnormalities and other diseases. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:7400333

  8. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  9. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Abbas; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham; Dinarvand, Peyman; Soleimani, Masoud; Ai, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers

  10. Generation of Functional Thymic Epithelium from Human Embryonic Stem Cells that Supports Host T Cell Development

    OpenAIRE

    Parent, Audrey V.; Russ, Holger A.; Khan, Imran S.; LaFlam, Taylor N.; Metzger, Todd C.; Anderson, Mark S.; Hebrok, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Inducing immune tolerance to prevent rejection is a key step toward successful engraftment of stem-cell-derived tissue in a clinical setting. Using human pluripotent stem cells to generate thymic epithelial cells (TECs) capable of supporting T cell development represents a promising approach to reach this goal; however, progress toward generating functional TECs has been limited. Here, we describe a robust in vitro method to direct differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into th...

  11. Culturing of respiratory viruses in well-differentiated pseudostratified human airway epithelium as a tool to detect unknown viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazaeri Farsani, Seyed Mohammad; Deijs, Martin; Dijkman, Ronald; Molenkamp, Richard; Jeeninga, Rienk E; Ieven, Margareta; Goossens, Herman; van der Hoek, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, virus discovery is mainly based on molecular techniques. Here, we propose a method that relies on virus culturing combined with state-of-the-art sequencing techniques. The most natural ex vivo culture system was used to enable replication of respiratory viruses. Method Three respiratory clinical samples were tested on well-differentiated pseudostratified tracheobronchial human airway epithelial (HAE) cultures grown at an air–liquid interface, which resemble the airway epithelium. Cells were stained with convalescent serum of the patients to identify infected cells and apical washes were analyzed by VIDISCA-454, a next-generation sequencing virus discovery technique. Results Infected cells were observed for all three samples. Sequencing subsequently indicated that the cells were infected by either human coronavirus OC43, influenzavirus B, or influenzavirus A. The sequence reads covered a large part of the genome (52%, 82%, and 57%, respectively). Conclusion We present here a new method for virus discovery that requires a virus culture on primary cells and an antibody detection. The virus in the harvest can be used to characterize the viral genome sequence and cell tropism, but also provides progeny virus to initiate experiments to fulfill the Koch's postulates. PMID:25482367

  12. Long-term expansion of epithelial organoids from human colon, adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Toshiro; Stange, Daniel E; Ferrante, Marc; Vries, Robert G J; Van Es, Johan H; Van den Brink, Stieneke; Van Houdt, Winan J; Pronk, Apollo; Van Gorp, Joost; Siersema, Peter D; Clevers, Hans

    2011-11-01

    We previously established long-term culture conditions under which single crypts or stem cells derived from mouse small intestine expand over long periods. The expanding crypts undergo multiple crypt fission events, simultaneously generating villus-like epithelial domains that contain all differentiated types of cells. We have adapted the culture conditions to grow similar epithelial organoids from mouse colon and human small intestine and colon. Based on the mouse small intestinal culture system, we optimized the mouse and human colon culture systems. Addition of Wnt3A to the combination of growth factors applied to mouse colon crypts allowed them to expand indefinitely. Addition of nicotinamide, along with a small molecule inhibitor of Alk and an inhibitor of p38, were required for long-term culture of human small intestine and colon tissues. The culture system also allowed growth of mouse Apc-deficient adenomas, human colorectal cancer cells, and human metaplastic epithelia from regions of Barrett's esophagus. We developed a technology that can be used to study infected, inflammatory, or neoplastic tissues from the human gastrointestinal tract. These tools might have applications in regenerative biology through ex vivo expansion of the intestinal epithelia. Studies of these cultures indicate that there is no inherent restriction in the replicative potential of adult stem cells (or a Hayflick limit) ex vivo. Copyright © 2011 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Nasal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... shrink polyps, and can reduce swelling and nasal congestion. The effect lasts a few months in most ... this procedure, your doctor uses a thin, lighted tube with instruments at the end. The tube is ...

  14. Langerhans cells from human oral epithelium are more effective at stimulating allogeneic T cells in vitro than Langerhans cells from skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasséus, B; Jontell, M; Bergenholtz, G; Dahlgren, U I

    2004-06-01

    This report is focused on the functional capacity of Langerhans cells (LC) in the epithelium of skin and oral mucosa, which both meet different antigenic challenges. The capacity of LC from human oral and skin epithelium to provide co-stimulatory signals to T cells in vitro was compared. LC in a crude suspension of oral epithelial cells had a significantly enhanced T cell co-stimulatory capacity compared to skin epithelial cells. This applied both to cultures with concanavalin A (con-A)-stimulated syngeneic T cells and to a mixed epithelial cell lymphocyte reaction involving allogeneic T cells. The co-stimulatory capacity of oral and skin epithelial cells was reduced by >70% if monoclonal antibodies against HLA-DR, -DP and -DQ were added to the cultures with allogeneic T cells, indicating the involvement of HLA class II expressing LC. Immunohistochemistry revealed that 6% of the epithelial cells were CD1a + LC in sections from both oral and skin epithelium. Interleukin (IL)-8 production was higher in cultures of oral epithelial cells and con-A stimulated T cells than in corresponding cultures with skin epithelial cells as accessory cells. The results suggest that LC in human oral epithelium are more efficient at stimulating T cells than those of skin.

  15. Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kojima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions.

  16. Regulation of gene expression in human mammary epithelium: effect of breast pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the molecular regulation of human milk production because of limitations in obtaining mammary tissue from lactating women. Our objectives were to evaluate whether RNA isolated from breast milk fat globules (MFGs) could be an alternative to mammary biopsies and to determine whether...

  17. Lactotetraosylceramide, a novel glycosphingolipid receptor for Helicobacter pylori, present in human gastric epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Teneberg, Susann; Leonardsson, Iréne; Karlsson, Hasse; Jovall, Per-Åke; Ångström, Jonas; Danielsson, Dan; Näslund, Ingmar; Ljungh, Åsa; Wadström, Torkel; Karlsson, Karl-Anders

    2002-01-01

    The binding of Helicobacter pylori to glycosphingolipids was examined by binding of 35S-labeled bacteria to glycosphingolipids on thin-layer chromatograms. In addition to previously reported binding specificities, a selective binding to a non-acid tetraglycosylceramide of human meconium was found. This H. pylori binding glycosphingolipid was isolated and, on the basis of mass spectrometry, proton NMR spectroscopy, and degradation studies, were identified as Gal3GlcNAc3Gal4Glc1Cer (lactotetrao...

  18. Anopheles Midgut Epithelium Evades Human Complement Activity by Capturing Factor H from the Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood. PMID:25679788

  19. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  20. Nasal colonization of humans with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA CC398 with and without exposure to pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Cuny

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies in several European countries and in North America revealed a frequent nasal colonization of livestock with MRSA CC398 and also in humans with direct professional exposure to colonized animals. The study presented here addresses the question of further transmission to non exposed humans. METHODS: After selecting 47 farms with colonized pigs in different regions of Germany we sampled the nares of 113 humans working daily with pigs and of their 116 non exposed family members. The same was performed in 18 veterinarians attending pig farms and in 44 of their non exposed family members. For investigating transmission beyond families we samples the nares of 462 pupils attending a secondary school in a high density pig farming area. MRSA were detected by direct culture on selective agar. The isolates were typed by means of spa-sequence typing and classification of SCCmec elements. For attribution of spa sequence types to clonal lineages as defined by multi locus sequence typing we used the BURP algorithm. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by microbroth dilution assay. RESULTS: At the farms investigated 86% of humans exposed and only 4.3% of their family members were found to carry MRSA exhibiting spa-types corresponding to clonal complex CC398. Nasal colonization was also found in 45% of veterinarians caring for pig farms and in 9% of their non exposed family members. Multivariate analysis revealed that antibiotic usage prior to sampling beard no risk with respect to colonization. From 462 pupils only 3 were found colonized, all 3 were living on pig farms. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that so far the dissemination of MRSA CC398 to non exposed humans is infrequent and probably does not reach beyond familial communities.

  1. Generation of corneal epithelial cells from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from human dermal fibroblast and corneal limbal epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuhei Hayashi

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells can be established from somatic cells. However, there is currently no established strategy to generate corneal epithelial cells from iPS cells. In this study, we investigated whether corneal epithelial cells could be differentiated from iPS cells. We tested 2 distinct sources: human adult dermal fibroblast (HDF-derived iPS cells (253G1 and human adult corneal limbal epithelial cells (HLEC-derived iPS cells (L1B41. We first established iPS cells from HLEC by introducing the Yamanaka 4 factors. Corneal epithelial cells were successfully induced from the iPS cells by the stromal cell-derived inducing activity (SDIA differentiation method, as Pax6(+/K12(+ corneal epithelial colonies were observed after prolonged differentiation culture (12 weeks or later in both the L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells following retinal pigment epithelial and lens cell induction. Interestingly, the corneal epithelial differentiation efficiency was higher in L1B41 than in 253G1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that a small proportion of differentially methylated regions still existed between L1B41 and 253G1 iPS cells even though no significant difference in methylation status was detected in the specific corneal epithelium-related genes such as K12, K3, and Pax6. The present study is the first to demonstrate a strategy for corneal epithelial cell differentiation from human iPS cells, and further suggests that the epigenomic status is associated with the propensity of iPS cells to differentiate into corneal epithelial cells.

  2. Poly(I:C) reduces expression of JAM-A and induces secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α via distinct NF-κB pathways in human nasal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuni, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Ogasawara, Noriko; Masaki, Tomoyuki; Fuchimoto, Jun; Kamekura, Ryuta; Koizumi, Jun-ichi; Ichimiya, Shingo; Murata, Masaki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Himi, Tetsuo; Sawada, Norimasa

    2011-01-01

    Human nasal epithelium is an important physical barrier and innate immune defense protecting against inhaled substances and pathogens. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, which plays a key role in the innate immune response, has not been well characterized in human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs), including the epithelial tight junctional barrier. In the present study, mRNAs of TLR1-10 were detected in hTERT-transfected HNECs, which can be used as an indispensable and stable model of normal HNECs, similar to primary cultured HNECs. To investigate the changes of tight junction proteins and the signal transduction pathways via TLRs in HNECs in vitro, hTERT-transfected HNECs were treated with TLR2 ligand P 3 CSK 4 , TLR3 ligand poly(I:C), TLR4 ligand LPS, TLR7/8 ligand CL097, TLR8 ligand ssRNA40/LyoVec, and TLR9 ligand ODN2006. In hTERT-transfected HNECs, treatment with poly(I:C) significantly reduced expression of the tight junction protein JAM-A and induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α. Both the reduction of JAM-A expression and the induction of secretion of IL-8 and TNF-α after treatment with poly(I:C) were modulated by distinct signal transduction pathways via EGFR, PI3K, and p38 MAPK and finally regulated by a TLR3-mediated NF-κB pathway. The control of TLR3-mediated signaling pathways in HNECs may be important not only in infection by viral dsRNA but also in autoimmune diseases caused by endogenous dsRNA released from necrotic cells.

  3. The Pathogenesis of Human Cervical Epithelium Cells Induced by Interacting with Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Chen; Chang, Wei-Ting; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Shin, Jyh-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that occurs in the urogenital-vaginal tract and is the primary causative agent of trichomoniasis, a common sexually transmitted disease in humans. The aggregation of this protozoan tends to destroy epithelial cells and induce pathogenesis. Principal Findings This study cultured T. vaginalis and human cervical epithelial cells (Z172) under the same conditions in the experiments. Following co-culturing for ten hours, the protozoans became attached to Z172, such that the cells presented a round shape and underwent shrinkage. Time-lapse recording and flow cytometry on interacted Z172 revealed that 70% had been disrupted, 18% presented a necrosis-like morphology and 8% showed signs of apoptosis. Gene expression profiling revealed in the seven inflammatory Z172 genes as well as in T. vaginalis genes that code for adhesion proteins 65 and 65-1. Significance These results suggest that cytopathogenic effects progress while Z172 is in contact with T. vaginalis, and the resulting morphological changes can be categorized as disruption. PMID:25901354

  4. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R A; Wolff, R K

    1988-12-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  5. On the relation of nasal cycling with nasal airway dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Wolff, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The size and configuration of the nasal airways of humans change with time as a result of the normal process of congestion/decongestion of the erectile tissue of the nasal mucosa. To determine the extent to which airway areas change in vivo, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantitate both the cross-sectional area and perimeter of coronal sections of the entire nasal airway of a human subject. Changes in airway size or patency were indexed to measured changes in unilateral nasal airway resistance determined by posterior rhino manometry. The results of this study in which two MRI scans were performed for presumed left-side patency and two for right-side patency, showed that changes in nasal airway resistance were difficult to ascribe to systematic changes In the sizes of the airways. (author)

  6. Influence of essential and fatty oils on ciliary beat frequency of human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Andreas; Gstöttner, Michaela; Thaurer, Michael; Augustijns, Patrick; Reinelt, Monika; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    In alternative and complementary medicine, the use of essential and fatty oils has become more and more popular. In addition to conventional medical therapies, self-medication is showing increasing popularity, using agents with unclear compounds and poorly controlled dosages. Among other disorders, these alternative treatments are used in bronchitis and rhinitis, including some topical applications. Thus, the influence on ciliated epithelia should be evaluated, because a disturbance of the ciliary function can lead to recurrent sinusitis and chronic rhinosinusitis. The aim of this study was to test the influence of fatty and essential oils on the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) of nasal mucosa in vivo. The influence of sesame oil, soy oil, peanut oil, Miglyol 840, thyme oil, lavender oil, eucalyptus oil, and menthol on the ciliary activity of nasal brushings was evaluated by digital high-speed imaging. The presence of most fatty oils resulted in an increase in CBF, the effect being highest for peanut oil. Miglyol 840 had no significant influence on CBF. The essential oils were tested at a concentration of 0.2 and 2%. Thyme oil did not affect CBF, whereas the presence of all other essentials oils resulted in an increase in CBF; the effect was higher at 0.2% than at 2%. Except thyme oil and Miglyol 840, all tested oils caused an increase in CBF. Interestingly, the 0.2% concentrations of essential oils resulted in stronger effects when compared with the 2% concentrations.

  7. ANTHROPOMETRIC STUDY OF NASAL INDEX OF EGYPTIANS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelmonem Awad Hegazy

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nasal index determination is one of the most commonly used anthropometric parameters in classifying human races. There are few reports in medical literature concerning nasal index that specifically address particular Egyptian populations. The objective of this study was to determine the normal parameters of external nose (width, height and nasal index) in Egyptians. Methods: The study was conducted randomly on healthy Egyptian subjects of both sexes. Nasal height and width ...

  8. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12 g/mL and 20 kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120 min and 5 M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8 nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Dimethylformamide (DMF) has significant effect on reduction of fibers' diameter. • Having high hydrophilicity by alkaline hydrolysis • Suitable

  9. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh; Tabandeh, Fatemeh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat; Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona

    2017-04-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12g/mL and 20kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120min and 5M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Controlled surface morphology and hydrophilicity of polycaprolactone toward human retinal pigment epithelium cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahmoradi, Saleheh; Yazdian, Fatemeh [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabandeh, Fatemeh, E-mail: taban_f@nigeb.ac.ir [Department of Industrial and Environmental Biotechnology, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soheili, Zahra-Soheila [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (NIGEB), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hatamian Zarami, Ashraf Sadat [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Navaei-Nigjeh, Mona [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-01

    Applying scaffolds as a bed to enhance cell proliferation and even differentiation is one of the treatment of retina diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which deteriorating photoreceptors and finally happening blindness. In this study, aligned polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were electrospun and at different conditions and their characteristics were measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and contact angle. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the diameter of fabricated nanofibers. Two factors as solution concentration and voltage value were considered as independent variables and their effects on nanofibers' diameters were evaluated by central composite design and the optimum conditions were obtained as 0.12 g/mL and 20 kV, respectively. In order to decrease the hydrophobicity of PCL, the surface of the fabricated scaffolds was modified by alkaline hydrolysis method. Contact time of the scaffolds and alkaline solution and concentration of alkaline solution were optimized using Box Behnken design and (120 min and 5 M were the optimal, respectively). Contact angle measurement showed the high hydrophilicity of treated scaffolds (with contact angle 7.48°). Plasma surface treatment was applied to compare the effect of using two kinds of surface modification methods simultaneously on hydrolyzed scaffolds. The RPE cells grown on scaffolds were examined by immunocytochemistry (ICC), MTT and continuous inspection of cellular morphology. Interestingly, Human RPE cells revealed their characteristic morphology on hydrolyzed scaffold well. As a result, we introduced a culture substrate with low diameter (185.8 nm), high porosity (82%) and suitable hydrophilicity (with contact angle 7.48 degree) which can be promising for hRPE cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Dimethylformamide (DMF) has significant effect on reduction of fibers' diameter. • Having high hydrophilicity by alkaline hydrolysis • Suitable

  11. Disease susceptibility of the human macula: differential gene transcription in the retinal pigmented epithelium/choroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeke, Monte J; Peterson, Katie E; Johnson, Lincoln V; Anderson, Don H

    2007-09-01

    The discoveries of gene variants associated with macular diseases have provided valuable insight into their molecular mechanisms, but they have not clarified why the macula is particularly vulnerable to degenerative disease. Its predisposition may be attributable to specialized structural features and/or functional properties of the underlying macular RPE/choroid. To examine the molecular basis for the macula's disease susceptibility, we compared the gene expression profile of the human RPE/choroid in the macula with the profile in the extramacular region using DNA microarrays. Seventy-five candidate genes with differences in macular:extramacular expression levels were identified by microarray analysis, of which 29 were selected for further analysis. Quantitative PCR confirmed that 21 showed statistically significant differences in expression. Five genes were expressed at higher levels in the macula. Two showed significant changes in the macular:extramacular expression ratio; another two exhibited changes in absolute expression level, as a function of age or AMD. Several of the differentially expressed genes have potential relevance to AMD pathobiology. One is an RPE cell growth factor (TFPI2), five are extracellular matrix components (DCN, MYOC, OGN, SMOC2, TFPI2), and six are related to inflammation (CCL19, CCL26, CXCL14, SLIT2) and/or angiogenesis (CXCL14, SLIT2, TFPI2, WFDC1). The identification of regional differences in gene expression in the RPE/choroid is a first step in clarifying the macula's propensity for degeneration. These findings lay the groundwork for further studies into the roles of the corresponding gene products in the normal, aged, and diseased macula.

  12. Seasonal and pandemic human influenza viruses attach better to human upper respiratory tract epithelium than avian influenza viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A.J. van Riel (Debby); M.A. den Bakker (Michael); L.M.E. Leijten (Lonneke); S. Chutinimitkul (Salin); V.J. Munster (Vincent); E. de Wit (Emmie); G.F. Rimmelzwaan (Guus); R.A.M. Fouchier (Ron); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); T. Kuiken (Thijs)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractInfluenza viruses vary markedly in their efficiency of human-to-human transmission. This variation has been speculated to be determined in part by the tropism of influenza virus for the human upper respiratory tract. To study this tropism, we determined the pattern of virus attachment by

  13. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to indoor air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Lagercrantz, L.; Sundell, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) in exhaled and aspirated nasal air was used to objectively assess human response to indoor air pollutants in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured before exposure, after 2, and 4.5 h of exposure, using a chemiluminescence...... by the exposures. The results may indicate an association between polluted indoor air and subclinical inflammation.Measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air is a possible objective marker of subclinical inflammation in healthy adults....... NO analyzer. Sixteen healthy female subjects were exposed to two indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 h. Subjective assessments of the environment were obtained by questionnaires. After exposure (4.5 h) to the two polluted conditions a small increase in NO concentration in exhaled...

  14. Nasal encephaloceles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Eelco W.

    2000-01-01

    Nasal encephaloceles can be divided into frontoethmoidal and basal encephaloceles. Both conditions are very rare, but frontoethmoidal encephaloceles show a relatively high incidence (1:5,000) in Southeast Asia. The pathogenesis of encephaloceles may be explained by a disturbance in separation of

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of rabbit nasal airflows for the development of hybrid CFD/PBPK models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, R A; Minard, K R; Kabilan, S; Einstein, D R; Kuprat, A P; Harkema, J R; Kimbell, J S; Gargas, M L; Kinzell, John H

    2009-05-01

    The percentages of total airflows over the nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelium of female rabbits were calculated from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of steady-state inhalation. These airflow calculations, along with nasal airway geometry determinations, are critical parameters for hybrid CFD/physiologically based pharmacokinetic models that describe the nasal dosimetry of water-soluble or reactive gases and vapors in rabbits. CFD simulations were based upon three-dimensional computational meshes derived from magnetic resonance images of three adult female New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In the anterior portion of the nose, the maxillary turbinates of rabbits are considerably more complex than comparable regions in rats, mice, monkeys, or humans. This leads to a greater surface area to volume ratio in this region and thus the potential for increased extraction of water soluble or reactive gases and vapors in the anterior portion of the nose compared to many other species. Although there was considerable interanimal variability in the fine structures of the nasal turbinates and airflows in the anterior portions of the nose, there was remarkable consistency between rabbits in the percentage of total inspired airflows that reached the ethmoid turbinate region (approximately 50%) that is presumably lined with olfactory epithelium. These latter results (airflows reaching the ethmoid turbinate region) were higher than previous published estimates for the male F344 rat (19%) and human (7%). These differences in regional airflows can have significant implications in interspecies extrapolations of nasal dosimetry.

  16. Responses of primary human nasal epithelial cells to EDIII-DENV stimulation: the first step to intranasal dengue vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantachit, Nattika; Sunintaboon, Panya; Ubol, Sukathida

    2016-08-18

    About half of the world's population are living in the endemic area of dengue viruses implying that a rapid-mass vaccination may be required. In addition, a major target of dengue vaccine are children, thus, a needle-free administration is more attractive. These problems may be overcome by the alternative route of vaccination such as topical, oral and intranasal vaccination. Here, we investigated the possibility to deliver a dengue immunogen intranasally, a painless route of vaccination. The tested immunogen was the domain III of dengue serotype-3 E protein (EDIII-D3) loaded into trimethyl chitosan nanoparticles (EDIII-D3 TMC NPs). The primary human nasal epithelial cells, HNEpCs, were used as an in vitro model for nasal responses. At tested concentrations, EDIII-D3 TMC NPs not only exerted no detectable toxicity toward HNEpC cultures but also efficiently delivered EDIII-D3 immunogens into HNEpCs. Moreover, HNEpCs quickly and strongly produced proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α), type-I IFN, the growth factors (GM-CSF, IL-7), the chemokines (MCP-1, MIP-1β, IL-8), Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IL-12p70, IL-17, IFN-γ) and Th2-related cytokine (IL-4) in response to EDIII-D3 TMC NPs treatment. A potential mucosal delivery system for dengue immunogens was revealed and found to stimulate a strong local innate antiviral response which possibly leading to a systemic adaptive immunity.

  17. Absorption and Clearance of Pharmaceutical Aerosols in the Human Nose: Effects of Nasal Spray Suspension Particle Size and Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygg, Alex; Hindle, Michael; Longest, P Worth

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to use a recently developed nasal dissolution, absorption, and clearance (DAC) model to evaluate the extent to which suspended drug particle size influences nasal epithelial drug absorption for a spray product. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of mucociliary clearance and drug dissolution were used to calculate total and microscale epithelial absorption of drug delivered with a nasal spray pump. Ranges of suspended particle sizes, drug solubilities, and partition coefficients were evaluated. Considering mometasone furoate as an example, suspended drug particle sizes in the range of 1-5 μm did not affect the total nasal epithelial uptake. However, the microscale absorption of suspended drug particles with low solubilities was affected by particle size and this controlled the extent to which the drug penetrated into the distal nasal regions. The nasal-DAC model was demonstrated to be a useful tool in determining the nasal exposure of spray formulations with different drug particle sizes and solubilities. Furthermore, the model illustrated a new strategy for topical nasal drug delivery in which drug particle size is selected to increase the region of epithelial surface exposure using mucociliary clearance while minimizing the drug dose exiting the nasopharynx.

  18. Expression of Pluripotency and Oocyte-Related Genes in Single Putative Stem Cells from Human Adult Ovarian Surface Epithelium Cultured In Vitro in the Presence of Follicular Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Virant-Klun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to trigger the expression of genes related to oocytes in putative ovarian stem cells scraped from the ovarian surface epithelium of women with premature ovarian failure and cultured in vitro in the presence of follicular fluid, rich in substances for oocyte growth and maturation. Ovarian surface epithelium was scraped and cell cultures were set up by scrapings in five women with nonfunctional ovaries and with no naturally present mature follicles or oocytes. In the presence of donated follicular fluid putative stem cells grew and developed into primitive oocyte-like cells. A detailed single-cell gene expression profiling was performed to elucidate their genetic status in comparison to human embryonic stem cells, oocytes, and somatic fibroblasts. The ovarian cell cultures depleted/converted reproductive hormones from the culture medium. Estradiol alone or together with other substances may be involved in development of these primitive oocyte-like cells. The majority of primitive oocyte-like cells was mononuclear and expressed several genes related to pluripotency and oocytes, including genes related to meiosis, although they did not express some important oocyte-specific genes. Our work reveals the presence of putative stem cells in the ovarian surface epithelium of women with premature ovarian failure.

  19. Development of a human corneal epithelium model utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane and the changes of its barrier function induced by exposing eye irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Kazunori; Wang, Pi-Chao

    2011-09-01

    The brief TEER (trans-epithelial electrical resistance) assay after exposing chemicals to corneal epithelium in vivo is known as a suitable method for evaluating corneal irritancy and permeability quantitatively and continuously. A collagen vitrigel membrane we previously developed is a thin (about 20 μm thick) and transparent membrane composed of high density collagen fibrils equivalent to connective tissues in vivo, e.g. corneal Bowman's membrane. To develop such a TEER assay system in vitro utilizing a human corneal epithelial model, HCE-T cells (a human corneal epithelial cell line) were cultured on the collagen vitrigel membrane substratum prepared in a Millicell chamber suitable for TEER measurement. Human corneal epithelium model possessing 5-6 cell layers sufficient for TEER assay was successfully reconstructed on the substratum in the Millicell chamber by culturing the cells in monolayer for 2 days and subsequently in air-liquid interface for 7 days. The exposure of chemicals to the model induced the time-dependent relative changes of TEER in response to the characteristic of each chemical within a few minutes. These results suggest that the TEER assay using the human corneal epithelial model is very useful for an ocular irritancy evaluation as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of nasal spray deposition pattern in a silicone human nose model using a color-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundoor, Vipra; Dalby, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and inexpensive method to visualize and quantify droplet deposition patterns. Deposition pattern was determined by uniformly coating the nose model with Sar-Gel (a paste that changes from white to purple on contact with water) and subsequently discharging sprays into the nose model. The color change was captured using a digital camera and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop. Several tests were conducted to validate the method. Deposition patterns of different nasal sprays (Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam) and different nasal drug delivery devices (Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer) were compared. We also used the method to evaluate the effect of inhaled flow rate on nasal spray deposition. There was a significant difference in the deposition area for Ayr, Afrin, and Zicam. The deposition areas of Afrin nasal spray and PARI Sinustar nasal nebulizer (2 min and 5 min) were significantly different. Inhaled flow rate did not have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. Lower viscosity formulations (Ayr, Afrin) provided greater coverage than the higher viscosity formulation (Zicam). The nebulizer covered a greater surface area than the spray pump we evaluated. Aerosol deposition in the nose model was not affected by air flow conditions.

  1. Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, p21, and p53 expression in sinonasal inverted papilloma, nasal polyp, and hypertrophied turbinate in Hong Kong patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, C L; To, K F; Chan, Paul K S; Lee, Dennis L Y; Tong, Michael C F; van Hasselt, C Andrew

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study of human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), p21, and p53 in sinonasal inverted papilloma (IP) was to help elucidate its pathogenesis. Seventy-three IPs, 48 nasal polyps, and 85 hypertrophied turbinates were subjected to HPV polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study. Seventy-three IPs, 30 nasal polyps, and 32 hypertrophied turbinates were subjected to EBV in situ hybridization (ISH), p21, and p53 immunohistochemical (IHC) studies. HPV was positive in 3 of 73 IPs (4.1%). All specimens were EBV negative. In all, 99% of IPs showed strong and diffuse p21 nuclear reactivity. Most nasal polyps and hypertrophied turbinates showed weak to moderate immunoreactivity of the basal and parabasal cells. Only focal p53 immunoreactivity of the basal and parabasal cells was found in 19% of IPs and 40% of nasal polyps. HPV prevalence of our IP is low. EBV is not present in IP. High p21 and low p53 expression in IP suggests a non-p53-dependent regulation pathway. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Examination of the reticular epithelium of the bovine pharyngeal tonsil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nasopharyngeal tonsil (adenoid), located at the posterior of the nasopharynx is ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular composition of this important epithe...

  3. Nasal Wash Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Alternative Therapies Nasal Wash Treatment Nasal Wash Treatment Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for preparing water used in a nasal wash are listed below. Many ...

  4. The effect of topical benzamil and amiloride on nasal potential difference in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, H C; Knox, A J

    1999-09-01

    The electrochemical defect in the bronchial epithelium in cystic fibrosis (CF) consists of defective chloride secretion and excessive sodium reabsorption. The sodium channel blocker, amiloride, has been shown to reversibly correct the sodium reabsorption in CF subjects, but long term studies of amiloride have been disappointing due to its short duration of action. Benzamil, a benzyl substituted amiloride analogue, has a longer duration of action than amiloride in cultured human nasal epithelium. The results of the first randomized, placebo controlled, double blind, crossover study are reported here comparing the effects of benzamil and amiloride on nasal potential difference (nasal PD) in CF. Ten adults with CF attended on three occasions. At each visit baseline nasal PD was recorded, the drug (amiloride 1 x 10(-3) M, benzamil 1.7 x 10(-3) M, or 0.9% sodium chloride) was administered topically via a nasal spray, and nasal PD was measured at 15, 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h. Results were expressed as maximum change in nasal PD from baseline (PDmax), time for PDmax to return to 50% of baseline (t0.5), and the area under the curve (AUC). PDmax values for benzamil (20.6+/-0.9 mV) and amiloride (20.3+/-1.6 mV), were similar. The duration of effect was much longer for benzamil as measured as either AUC or t0.5 AUC values were 11.8+/-1.6 mV for benzamil, 2.8+/-0.4 mV for amiloride and 0.6+/-0.4 mV for placebo. The AUC value for benzamil was significantly greater than amiloride (95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference 5.3-12.7 mV, p<0.0001). t0.5 values were 4.3+/-0.7 h for benzamil and 0.6+/-0.1 h for amiloride (95% CI for the difference 2.0-5.3 h, p<0.001). It is concluded that benzamil has a similar maximal effect to amiloride but a more prolonged duration of action on nasal potential difference in cystic fibrosis. Benzamil may be a useful sodium channel blocker for the long-term treatment of the biochemical defect in the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis.

  5. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köck, R; Werner, P; Friedrich, A W; Fegeler, C; Becker, K

    The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878

  6. Antibodies against Escherichia coli O24 and O56 O-Specific Polysaccharides Recognize Epitopes in Human Glandular Epithelium and Nervous Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska-Kowal, Agnieszka; Kochman, Agata; Gamian, Elżbieta; Lis-Nawara, Anna; Lipiński, Tomasz; Seweryn, Ewa; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, contains the O-polysaccharide, which is important to classify bacteria into different O-serological types within species. The O-polysaccharides of serotypes O24 and O56 of E. coli contain sialic acid in their structures, already established in our previous studies. Here, we report the isolation of specific antibodies with affinity chromatography using immobilized lipopolysaccharides. Next, we evaluated the reactivity of anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibody on human tissues histologically. The study was conducted under the assumption that the sialic acid based molecular identity of bacterial and tissue structures provides not only an understanding of the mimicry-based bacterial pathogenicity. Cross-reacting antibodies could be used to recognize specific human tissues depending on their histogenesis and differentiation, which might be useful for diagnostic purposes. The results indicate that various human tissues are recognized by anti-O24 and anti-O56 antibodies. Interestingly, only a single specific reactivity could be found in the anti-O56 antibody preparation. Several tissues studied were not reactive with either antibody, thus proving that the presence of cross-reactive antigens was tissue specific. In general, O56 antibody performed better than O24 in staining epithelial and nervous tissues. Positive staining was observed for both normal (ganglia) and tumor tissue (ganglioneuroma). Epithelial tissue showed positive staining, but an epitope recognized by O56 antibody should be considered as a marker of glandular epithelium. The reason is that malignant glandular tumor and its metastasis are stained, and also epithelium of renal tubules and glandular structures of the thyroid gland are stained. Stratified epithelium such as that of skin is definitely not stained. Therefore, the most relevant observation is that the epitope recognized by anti-O56 antibodies is a new marker

  7. The transmission of masticatory forces and nasal septum: structural comparison of the human skull and Gothic cathedral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilloowala, Rumy; Kanth, Hrishi

    2007-07-01

    This study extrapolates the transmission of masticatory forces to the cranium based on the architectural principles of Gothic cathedrals. The most significant finding of the study, obtained by analysis of coronal CT scans, is the role of the hard palate, and especially the vomer and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid in masticatory force transmission. The study also confirms, experimentally, the paths of masticatory forces, cited in literature but based purely on morphological observations. Human skulls and Gothic cathedrals have similar morphological and functional characteristics. The load exerted by the roof of the cathedral is transmitted to the ground by piers and buttresses. These structures also resist the shearing forces exerted by high winds. Similarly, the mid-facial bones of the skull transmit the vertical as well as the lateral masticatory forces from the maxillary dentition to the skull base. The nonload bearing walls and stained glass windows of the cathedral correspond to the translucent wall of the maxilla. The passageway between the aisle and the nave of the cathedral is equivalent to the meatal openings in the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

  8. Role of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in human papillomavirus-associated nasal and sinonasal inverted papilloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongliang; Duan, Lihua; Tian, Jie; Song, Daoliang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Shenlin; Yin, Zhaofu; Xiang, Xinxin; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-12-01

    Nasal and sinonasal inverted papilloma (NSIP) is a benign tumor in which surface epithelial cells grow downward into the underlying supportive tissue with varying degrees of metaplasia. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been proposed as the causal agent in the pathogenesis of this disease. Many studies have shown that HPV can activate the Akt/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway, but the role of this pathway in HPV-associated NSIP is largely unknown. In this study, we enrolled 40 control tissue samples and 80 NSIP tissue samples. HPV genotyping showed that 47 of the 80 examined cases of NSIP were HPV-positive (58.8%), and the most common subtype was HPV11 (20/53, 37.7%). The immunohistochemistry showed statistically significant differences in phosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein staining among control samples, HPV-positive NSIP and HPV-negative NSIP. The HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid increased the proliferation of normal human nasopharyngeal epithelial NP69-SV40T cells and human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE1 cells. Meanwhile, rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, reversed the increased cell proliferation induced by the HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid. Western blot analysis showed that Akt/mTOR/S6 were overexpressed in NP69-SV40T cells and CNE1 cells infected with the HPV11 L1-L2 plasmid. These data demonstrate that HPV promotes cell proliferation through the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in NSIP. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. The Effect of Menstrual Cycle on Nasal Resonance Characteristics in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suman; Basu, Shriya; Sinha, Anisha; Chatterjee, Indranil

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze resonance characteristics (nasality and nasalance values) during the menstrual cycle. Previous studies indicate changes in voice quality and nasal mucosa due to temporary falling estrogen levels in human females during their menstrual cycle. The present study compared the nasality and "nasalance scores"…

  10. Structural Injury after Lithium Treatment in Human and Rat Kidney involves Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β Positive Epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Lithium is reabsorbed by distal nephron segments in sodium depleted states. It was hypothesized that lithium causes permanent injury to the developing kidney particularly in the sodium-retaining phase around weaning through entry into epithelial cells of the distal nephron and inhibition of glyco....... Lithium causes proliferation, structural injury and increases inactive pGSK-3β abundance in these segments. The data are compatible with epithelial entry of lithium and a causal role for GSK-3β in postnatal developing cortical collecting duct epithelium....

  11. Duox2-induced innate immune responses in the respiratory epithelium and intranasal delivery of Duox2 DNA using polymer that mediates immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yung Jin; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2018-05-01

    Respiratory mucosa especially nasal epithelium is well known as the first-line barrier of air-borne pathogens. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are detected in in vitro cultured human epithelial cells and in vivo lung. With identification of NADPH oxidase (Nox) system of respiratory epithelium, the antimicrobial role of ROS has been studied. Duox2 is the most abundant Nox isoform and produces the regulated amount of ROS in respiratory epithelium. Duox2-derived ROS are involved in antiviral innate immune responses but more studies are needed to verify the mechanism. In respiratory epithelium, Duox2-derived ROS is critical for recognition of virus through families retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) at the early stage of antiviral innate immune responses. Various secreted interferons (IFNs) play essential roles for antiviral host defense by downstream cell signaling, and transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is started to suppress viral replication. Type I and type III IFNs are verified more responsible for influenza A virus (IAV) infection in respiratory epithelium and Duox2 is required to regulate IFN-related immune responses. Transient overexpression of Duox2 using cationic polymer polyethylenimine (PEI) induces secretion of type I and type III IFNs and significantly attenuated IAV replication in respiratory epithelium. Here, we discuss Duox2-mediated antiviral innate immune responses and the role of Duox2 as a mucosal vaccine to resist respiratory viral infection.

  12. Decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression in a human retinal pigment epithelium cell line cultured under hypothermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Takeyama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous reports have described a decrease in retinal temperature and clinical improvement of wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD after vitrectomy. We hypothesized that the retinal temperature decrease after vitrectomy plays a part in the suppression of wet AMD development. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the temperature dependence of the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A and in vitro angiogen-esis in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE. RESULTS: We cultured ARPE-19 cells at 37, 35, 33 and 31°C and measured the expression of VEGF-A, VEGF-A splicing variants, and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF. We performed an in vitro tube formation assay. The dehydrogenase activity was also evaluated at each temperature. Expression of VEGF-A significantly decreased with decreased temperature while PEDF expression did not. VEGF165 expression and in vitro angiogenesis also were temperature dependent. The dehydrogenase activity significantly decreased as the culture temperature decreased. CONCLUSIONS: RPE cultured under hypothermia that decreased cellular metabolism also had decreased VEGF-A and sustained PEDF expression, creating an anti-angiogenic environment. This mechanism may be associated with a beneficial effect after vitrectomy in patients with wet AMD.

  13. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Yves-Jacques

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The absorptive and goblet cells are the main cellular types encountered in the intestine epithelium. The cell lineage Caco-2 is a model commonly used to reproduce the features of the bowel epithelium. However, there is a strong debate regarding the value of Caco-2 cell culture to mimick in vivo situation. Indeed, some authors report in Caco-2 a low paracellular permeability and an ease of access of highly diffusible small molecules to the microvilli, due to an almost complete lack of mucus. The HT29-5M21 intestinal cell lineage is a mucin-secreting cellular population. A co-culture system carried out in a serum-free medium and comprising both Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells was developed. The systematic use of a co-culture system requires the characterization of the monolayer under a given experimental procedure. Results In this study, we investigated the activity and localization of the alkaline phosphatase and the expression of IAP and MUC5AC genes to determine a correlation between these markers and the cellular composition of a differentiated monolayer obtained from a mixture of Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells. We observed that the culture conditions used (serum-free medium did not change the phenotype of each cell type, and produced a reproducible model. The alkaline phosphatase expression characterizing Caco-2 cells was influenced by the presence of HT29-5M21 cells. Conclusion The culture formed by 75% Caco-2 and 25% HT29-5M21 produce a monolayer containing the two main cell types of human intestinal epithelium and characterized by a reduced permeability to macromolecules.

  14. Development of a serum-free co-culture of human intestinal epithelium cell-lines (Caco-2/HT29-5M21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nollevaux, Géraldine; Devillé, Christelle; El Moualij, Benaïssa; Zorzi, Willy; Deloyer, Patricia; Schneider, Yves-Jacques; Peulen, Olivier; Dandrifosse, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Background The absorptive and goblet cells are the main cellular types encountered in the intestine epithelium. The cell lineage Caco-2 is a model commonly used to reproduce the features of the bowel epithelium. However, there is a strong debate regarding the value of Caco-2 cell culture to mimick in vivo situation. Indeed, some authors report in Caco-2 a low paracellular permeability and an ease of access of highly diffusible small molecules to the microvilli, due to an almost complete lack of mucus. The HT29-5M21 intestinal cell lineage is a mucin-secreting cellular population. A co-culture system carried out in a serum-free medium and comprising both Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells was developed. The systematic use of a co-culture system requires the characterization of the monolayer under a given experimental procedure. Results In this study, we investigated the activity and localization of the alkaline phosphatase and the expression of IAP and MUC5AC genes to determine a correlation between these markers and the cellular composition of a differentiated monolayer obtained from a mixture of Caco-2 and HT29-5M21 cells. We observed that the culture conditions used (serum-free medium) did not change the phenotype of each cell type, and produced a reproducible model. The alkaline phosphatase expression characterizing Caco-2 cells was influenced by the presence of HT29-5M21 cells. Conclusion The culture formed by 75% Caco-2 and 25% HT29-5M21 produce a monolayer containing the two main cell types of human intestinal epithelium and characterized by a reduced permeability to macromolecules. PMID:16670004

  15. Relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in Gorilla, Pan and the human species from the study of their areas and centres of area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmittbuhl, M; Le Minor, J M; Schaaf, A

    1996-01-01

    In order to quantify the relative position and extent of the nasal and orbital openings in hominoid primates, a new methodology based on image analysis was developed and applied to a series of 134 hominoid skulls (52 Gorilla gorilla; 30 Pan troglodytes; 44 Homo sapiens, and, as comparison material, 8 Pongo pygmaeus). The areas and the centres of area of the orbital and nasal openings were determined automatically. The orbitonasal triangle connecting these three centres of area was then constructed. This triangle was used to quantify the elongation of the face. It was most elongated in gorilla, shortest in the human species and intermediate in Pan; the elongation in Pongo was close to that in Gorilla. The proportions of the areas of the orbital and nasal openings in the face were related to the extent of the bony structures of the midface and were thus used to quantify the facial robustness. A robust face was demonstrated in Gorilla, but a gracile face in the human species. Robusticity in Pan was intermediate.

  16. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Low Prevalence of Oral and Nasal Human Papillomavirus in Employees Performing CO2-laser Evaporation of Genital Warts or Loop Electrode Excision Procedure of Cervical Dysplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Norrbom, Christina; Forslund, Ola

    2014-01-01

    Risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) transmission during laser vaporisation of genital warts or loop electrode excision procedure is controversial. An oral rinse, a nasal swabs, history of HPV related diseases and data on HPV exposure were collected from 287 employees at departments of dermato......, or loop electrode excision procedure compared with those who did not. HPV 6 or 11 were not detected in any samples. Hand warts after the age of 24 years was more common among dermatology than among non-dermatology personnel (18% vs. 8.0%, p = 0.03). Mucosal HPV types are infrequent in the oral and nasal...... cavity of health care personnel, however, employees at departments of dermato-venereology are at risk of acquiring hand warts....

  18. Nitric oxide in exhaled and aspirated nasal air as an objective measure of human response to isopropanol oxidation products and pthtalate esters in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagercrantz, Love Per; Famula, Basia; Sundell, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The use of Nitric Oxide (NO) concentration in exhaled and aspirated nasal air to assess human response to indoor air pollution was tested in a climate chamber exposure experiment. The concentration of NO was measured using a chemiluminescence NO analyser. Sixteen healthy female subjects were...... exposed to 2 commonly occurring indoor air pollutants and to a clean reference condition for 4.5 hours. Assessments of the environment were obtained using questionnaires. The polluted conditions were perceived as worse than the reference condition. After exposure to the two polluted conditions a small...... increase in NO concentration (+2.7% and +7.2%) in exhaled air was observed. After exposure to the reference condition the mean NO concentration was significantly reduced (-14.3%) compared to before exposure. NO in nasal air was unaffected by the exposures. The results indicate an association between...

  19. Esthetic rhinoplasty as an adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adham Farouk

    2016-01-15

    Jan 15, 2016 ... Esthetic rhinoplasty;. Oncoplastic surgery nose;. Basal cell carcinoma;. Squamous cell carcinoma;. Nonmelanoma skin cancer;. Nasal reconstruction ... Conclusions: Esthetic rhinoplasty is a useful adjunctive technique in nasal oncoplastic surgery. .... All procedures performed in the study involving human.

  20. Modulation of epithelial sodium channel trafficking and function by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in human nasal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prulière-Escabasse, Virginie; Planès, Carole; Escudier, Estelle; Fanen, Pascale; Coste, André; Clerici, Christine

    2007-11-23

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) has been shown to correct the cellular trafficking of several mutant or nonmutant plasma membrane proteins such as cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator through the expression of 70-kDa heat shock proteins. The objective of the study was to determine whether 4-PBA may influence the functional expression of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in human nasal epithelial cells (HNEC). Using primary cultures of HNEC, we demonstrate that 4-PBA (5 mm for 6 h) markedly stimulated amiloride-sensitive sodium channel activity and that this was related to an increased abundance of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits in the apical membrane. The increase in ENaC cell surface expression (i) was due to insertion of newly ENaC subunits as determined by brefeldin A experiments and (ii) was not associated with cell surface retention of ENaC subunits because endocytosis of ENaC subunits was unchanged. In addition, we find that ENaC co-immunoprecipitated with the heat shock protein constitutively expressed Hsc70, that has been reported to modulate ENaC trafficking, and that 4-PBA decreased Hsc70 protein level. Finally, we report that in cystic fibrosis HNEC obtained from two cystic fibrosis patients, 4-PBA increased functional expression of ENaC as demonstrated by the increase in amiloride-sensitive sodium transport and in alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunit expression in the apical membrane. Our results suggest that in HNEC, 4-PBA increases the functional expression of ENaC through the insertion of new alpha-, beta-, and gamma-ENaC subunits into the apical membrane and also suggest that 4-PBA could modify ENaC trafficking by reducing Hsc70 protein expression.

  1. The Ability of Human Nasal Inferior Turbinate-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Repair Vocal Fold Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choung-Soo; Choi, Hyunsu; Park, Ki Cheol; Kim, Sung Won; Sun, Dong-Il

    2018-03-01

    Objective This study investigated the ability of implanted human nasal inferior turbinate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs) to repair injured vocal folds. To this end, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze the early phase of wound healing and histopathological analysis to explore the late phase of wound healing in xenograft animal models. Study Design Prospective animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects and Methods The right-side lamina propria of the vocal fold was injured in 20 rabbits and 30 rats. Next, hTMSCs were implanted into half of the injured vocal folds (hTMSC groups). As a control, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was injected into the other half of the injured vocal folds (PBS groups). Rat vocal folds were harvested for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at 1 week after injury. Rabbit vocal folds were evaluated endoscopically and the larynges harvested for histological and immunohistochemical examination at 2 and 8 weeks after injury. Results In the hTMSC group, PCR showed that hyaluronan synthase ( HAS) 1, HAS 2, and transforming growth factor ( TGF)-β1 were significantly upregulated compared with the PBS group. Procollagen type III ( COL III) messenger RNA expression was significantly upregulated in the PBS group compared with the normal group. Histological analyses showed that hTMSC administration afforded more favorable collagen and hyaluronic acid deposition than was evident in the controls. Implanted hTMSCs were observed in injured vocal folds 2 weeks after implantation. Conclusions Our results show that hTMSCs implantation into injured vocal folds facilitated vocal fold regeneration, with presenting antifibrotic effects.

  2. Taurine uptake by human retinal pigment epithelium: implications for the transport of small solutes between the choroid and the outer retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillenkamp, Jost; Hussain, Ali A; Jackson, Timothy L; Cunningham, Joanna R; Marshall, John

    2004-12-01

    To characterize the Michaelis-Menten kinetics of the taurine transporter (TT) in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) freshly isolated from human donor eyes. To identify the rate limiting compartment in the pathway of taurine delivery from the choroidal blood supply to the outer retina composed by Bruch's-choroid (BC) and the RPE in the human older age group. In human donor samples (4 melanoma-affected eyes, and 14 control eyes; age range, 62-93 years), radiochemical techniques were used to determine the RPE taurine accumulation at various exogenous concentrations. The transport capability of human RPE was obtained from a kinetic analysis of the high-affinity carrier over a substrate concentration of 1 to 60 microM taurine. Uptake of taurine into human RPE at a taurine concentration of 1 microM was independent of donor age (P > 0.05) and averaged at 2.83 +/- 0.27 (SEM) pmol/10 minutes per 6-mm trephine. Taurine transport by human RPE was mediated by a high-affinity carrier of K(m) 50 microM and V(max) of 267 pmol/10 minutes per 5-mm disc. In human donor RPE, uptake of taurine remained viable in the age range 62 to 93 years. Taurine transport rates in the RPE were lower than across the isolated BC complex, and thus the data suggest that the former compartment houses the rate-limiting step in the delivery of taurine to the outer retina.

  3. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Sapoznikov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana. Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  4. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana-light and scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapoznikov, Olga; Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas ( Iguana iguana ). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107.

  5. Development of olfactory epithelium and associated structures in the green iguana, Iguana iguana—light and scanning electron microscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizek, Petr; Tichy, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the nasal cavity has been described in many mammalian species. The situation is different with reptiles, despite the fact that they have become relatively common as pets. In this study we focused on the ontogenesis of the olfactory epithelium, as well as other types of epithelia in the nasal cavity of pre-hatched green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Collection of samples began from day 67 of incubation and continued every four days until hatching. Microscopic examination revealed that significant morphological changes in the nasal cavity began approximately at day 91 of ontogenesis. Approximately at this same stage, the nasal cavity epithelium began to differentiate. The cavity was divided into two compartments by a cartilaginous disc. The ventral compartment bulged rostrally and eventually opened up into the external environment. Three clearly demarcated areas of epithelium in the nasal cavity were visible at day 107. PMID:27920949

  6. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan; Yan, Yan; Ravi, Laxmi Iyer; Wong, Puisan; Huong, Tra Nguyen; Li, Chunwei; Tan, Boon Huan; Wang, De Yun; Sugrue, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function

  7. Morphogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus in human primary nasal ciliated epithelial cells occurs at surface membrane microdomains that are distinct from cilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jumat, Muhammad Raihan [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Yan, Yan [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Ravi, Laxmi Iyer [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Wong, Puisan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Huong, Tra Nguyen [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Li, Chunwei [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Tan, Boon Huan [Detection and Diagnostics Laboratory, DSO National Laboratories, 27 Medical Drive, Singapore 117510 (Singapore); Wang, De Yun [Department of Otolaryngology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Health System, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119228 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J., E-mail: rjsugrue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    The distribution of cilia and the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) nucleocapsid (N) protein, fusion (F) protein, attachment (G) protein, and M2-1 protein in human ciliated nasal epithelial cells was examined at between 1 and 5 days post-infection (dpi). All virus structural proteins were localized at cell surface projections that were distinct from cilia. The F protein was also trafficked into the cilia, and while its presence increased as the infection proceeded, the N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time of infection. The presence of the F protein in the cilia correlated with cellular changes in the cilia and reduced cilia function. At 5 dpi extensive cilia loss and further reduced cilia function was noted. These data suggested that although RSV morphogenesis occurs at non-cilia locations on ciliated nasal epithelial cells, RSV infection induces changes in the cilia body that leads to extensive cilia loss. - Highlights: • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects nasal ciliated epithelial cells. • Virus morphogenesis occurs within filamentous projections distinct from cilia. • The RSV N protein was not detected in the cilia at any time during infection. • Trafficking of the F protein into the cilia occurred early in infection. • Presence of the F protein in cilia correlated with impaired cilia function.

  8. Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Naoyo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existing dogma that the former term ovarian "germinal epithelium" resulted from a mistaken belief that it could give rise to new germ cells is now strongly challenged. Discussion Two years ago, a research group of the University of Tennessee led by Antonin Bukovsky successfully demonstrated the oogenic process from the human ovarian covering epithelium now commonly called the ovarian surface epithelium. They showed the new oocyte with zona pellucida and granulosa cells, both originated from the surface epithelium arising from mesenchymal cells in the tunica albuginea, and stressed that the human ovary could form primary follicles throughout the reproductive period. This gives a big impact not only to the field of reproductive medicine, but also to the oncologic area. The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia. Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors. Summary Since the oogenic capability of ovarian surface cells has been proven, it is now believed that the oocytes can originate from them. The term "germinal epithelium", hence, might reasonably be reinstated.

  9. Estimation of the in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust by using reconstituted human corneal epithelium tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Kjærgaard, Søren K

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Eye irritation is a common complaint in indoor environment, but the causes have still not been identified among the multiple exposures in house environments. To identify the potential environmental factors responsible for eye irritation and study the possible mechanisms, an in vitro model...... AND CONCLUSION: LPS and dust showed in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential, and cytokines/chemokines like IL-1β and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanisms of eye irritation. The HCE tissue culture may be used as an in vitro model to study environmental exposure induced eye irritation and inflammation....... for eye irritation is suggested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, reconstituted human corneal epithelium (HCE) tissue cultures were used to study the eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust. HCE tissue cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of LPS...

  10. The spatiotemporal organization of cilia activity drives multiscale circular flows of mucus in reconstituted human bronchial epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, Etienne; Gras, Delphine; Chanez, Pascal; Viallat, Annie

    2017-11-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases affect hundreds of millions of people worldwide. The bronchial epithelium is the first barrier to protect the respiratory tract via an innate mechanism called mucociliary clearance. It consists in the active transport of a sticky fluid, the mucus, via a myriad of cilia at the epithelial surface of the airways. The mucus traps inhaled pathogens and the protective role of the mucociliary clearance relies on the ability of the cilia to self-organize and coordinate their beating to transport the mucus over the full bronchial tree till its elimination through swallowing or expectoration. Despite a rich corpus of clinical studies, chronic respiratory diseases remain poorly understood and quantitative biophysical studies are still missing. Here we will present the physical mechanisms underlying the mucociliary transport. We will show how the cilia self-organize during the ciliogenesis and how the coordination of their beating direction leads to the formation of fluid flow patterns at the macroscopic scale. Finally, we will discuss the role of long range hydrodynamics interactions in this intricate coupled system. ANR MUCOCIL project, Grant ANR-13-BSV5-0015 and European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant agreement n. PCOFUND-GA-2013-609102.

  11. Dioscorin protects tight junction protein expression in A549 human airway epithelium cells from dust mite damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin Shien; Ko, Ying Hsien; Lin, Kuo Wei; Hsu, Jeng Yuan; Chu, Jao Jia; Chi, Chin Shiang

    2009-12-01

    In addition to being an allergen, the trypsin activity of dust mite extract also destroys the tight junctions of bronchial epithelium. Such damage can lead to airway leakage, which increases airway exposure to allergens, irritants, and other pathogens. Dioscorin, the storage protein of yam, demonstrates anti-trypsin activity, as well as other potential anti-inflammatory effects. This study investigated the protective role of dioscorin for tight junctions. The immunofluorescence stains of zonula occludens (ZO-1), E-cadherin (EC) and desmoplakin (DP) proteins were compared. A cultured A549 cell line was used as a control and A549 cells were incubated with mite extract 100 mg/mL for 16 h, with or without dioscorin 100 mg/mL pretreatment for 8 h and with dioscorin 100 mg/mL alone for 16 h. Western blot was performed to detect changes in ZO-1, EC, and DP in the treated A549 cell lines. Loss of tight junction protein expression (ZO-1, EC, DP) was demonstrated after 16-h mite extract incubation. The defect could be restored if cells were pretreated with dioscorin for 8 h. In addition, dioscorin did not cause damage to the A549 cell lines in terms of cell survival or morphology. Western blot showed no change in the amount of tight junction protein under various conditions. Dioscorin is a potential protector of airway damage caused by mite extract.

  12. Tumor suppressor function of Syk in human MCF10A in vitro and normal mouse mammary epithelium in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Me Sung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The normal function of Syk in epithelium of the developing or adult breast is not known, however, Syk suppresses tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis in breast cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that in the mouse mammary gland, loss of one Syk allele profoundly increases proliferation and ductal branching and invasion of epithelial cells through the mammary fat pad during puberty. Mammary carcinomas develop by one year. Syk also suppresses proliferation and invasion in vitro. siRNA or shRNA knockdown of Syk in MCF10A breast epithelial cells dramatically increased proliferation, anchorage independent growth, cellular motility, and invasion, with formation of functional, extracellular matrix-degrading invadopodia. Morphological and gene microarray analysis following Syk knockdown revealed a loss of luminal and differentiated epithelial features with epithelial to mesenchymal transition and a gain in invadopodial cell surface markers CD44, CD49F, and MMP14. These results support the role of Syk in limiting proliferation and invasion of epithelial cells during normal morphogenesis, and emphasize the critical role of Syk as a tumor suppressor for breast cancer. The question of breast cancer risk following systemic anti-Syk therapy is raised since only partial loss of Syk was sufficient to induce mammary carcinomas.

  13. Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma with no nasal symptoms.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Uzomefuna, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The authors present a case of nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) in an 8-year-old boy with a 4-month history of frontal headache and no symptoms of nasal obstruction, rhinorrhoea or postnasal drip. An ENT examination as well as ophthalmology assessment presented normal results. CT scan showed a lesion involving the sphenoid and ethmoid sinuses. The patient had an endoscopic resection of the lesion that was confirmed histologically to be a NCMH. Though NCMH is known to present usually in infants with obstructing nasal mass, an unusual presentation of a patient with throbbing headache without any nasal symptoms is reported here.

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and the ecology of the nasal microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cindy M; Price, Lance B; Hungate, Bruce A

    2015-01-01

    The human microbiome can play a key role in host susceptibility to pathogens, including in the nasal cavity, a site favored by Staphylococcus aureus. However, what determines our resident nasal microbiota-the host or the environment-and can interactions among nasal bacteria determine S. aureus...

  15. Nasal chondrocyte-based engineered autologous cartilage tissue for repair of articular cartilage defects: an observational first-in-human trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Marcus; Barbero, Andrea; Miot, Sylvie; Wixmerten, Anke; Feliciano, Sandra; Wolf, Francine; Asnaghi, Adelaide M; Baumhoer, Daniel; Bieri, Oliver; Kretzschmar, Martin; Pagenstert, Geert; Haug, Martin; Schaefer, Dirk J; Martin, Ivan; Jakob, Marcel

    2016-10-22

    Articular cartilage injuries have poor repair capacity, leading to progressive joint damage, and cannot be restored predictably by either conventional treatments or advanced therapies based on implantation of articular chondrocytes. Compared with articular chondrocytes, chondrocytes derived from the nasal septum have superior and more reproducible capacity to generate hyaline-like cartilage tissues, with the plasticity to adapt to a joint environment. We aimed to assess whether engineered autologous nasal chondrocyte-based cartilage grafts allow safe and functional restoration of knee cartilage defects. In a first-in-human trial, ten patients with symptomatic, post-traumatic, full-thickness cartilage lesions (2-6 cm 2 ) on the femoral condyle or trochlea were treated at University Hospital Basel in Switzerland. Chondrocytes isolated from a 6 mm nasal septum biopsy specimen were expanded and cultured onto collagen membranes to engineer cartilage grafts (30 × 40 × 2 mm). The engineered tissues were implanted into the femoral defects via mini-arthrotomy and assessed up to 24 months after surgery. Primary outcomes were feasibility and safety of the procedure. Secondary outcomes included self-assessed clinical scores and MRI-based estimation of morphological and compositional quality of the repair tissue. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01605201. The study is ongoing, with an approved extension to 25 patients. For every patient, it was feasible to manufacture cartilaginous grafts with nasal chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix rich in glycosaminoglycan and type II collagen. Engineered tissues were stable through handling with forceps and could be secured in the injured joints. No adverse reactions were recorded and self-assessed clinical scores for pain, knee function, and quality of life were improved significantly from before surgery to 24 months after surgery. Radiological assessments indicated variable degrees of

  16. Human nasal turbinates as a viable source of respiratory epithelial cells using co-culture system versus dispase-dissociation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noruddin, Nur Adelina Ahmad; Saim, Aminuddin B; Chua, Kien Hui; Idrus, Ruszymah

    2007-12-01

    To compare a co-culture system with a conventional dispase-dissociation method for obtaining functional human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates for tissue engineering application. Human respiratory epithelial cells were serially passaged using a co-culture system and a conventional dispase-dissociation technique. The growth kinetics and gene expression levels of the cultured respiratory epithelial cells were compared. Four genes were investigated, namely cytokeratin-18, a marker for ciliated and secretory epithelial cells; cytokeratin-14, a marker for basal epithelial cells; MKI67, a proliferation marker; and MUC5B, a marker for mucin secretion. Immunocytochemical analysis was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the high molecular-weight cytokeratin 34 beta E12, cytokeratin 18, and MUC5A to investigate the protein expression from cultured respiratory epithelial cells. Respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both methods maintained polygonal morphology throughout the passages. At passage 1, co-cultured respiratory epithelial showed a 2.6-times higher growth rate compared to conventional dispase dissociation technique, and 7.8 times higher at passage 2. Better basal gene expression was observed by co-cultured respiratory epithelial cells compared to dispase dissociated cells. Immunocytochemical analyses were positive for the respiratory epithelial cells cultured using both techniques. Co-culture system produced superior quality of cultured human respiratory epithelial cells from the nasal turbinates as compared to dispase dissociation technique.

  17. Safety profiles of anti-VEGF drugs: bevacizumab, ranibizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on human retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Deepika; Tarek, Mohamed; Caceres del Carpio, Javier; Ramirez, Claudio; Boyer, David; Kenney, M Cristina; Kuppermann, Baruch D

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the safety profiles of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) drugs ranibizumab, bevacizumab, aflibercept and ziv-aflibercept on retinal pigment epithelium cells in culture. Methods Human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) were exposed for 24 h to four anti-VEGF drugs at 1/2×, 1×, 2× and 10× clinical concentrations. Cell viability and mitochondrial membrane potential assay were performed to evaluate early apoptotic changes and rate of overall cell death. Results Cell viability decreased at 10× concentrations in bevacizumab (82.38%, p=0.0001), aflibercept (82.68%, p=0.0002) and ziv-aflibercept (77.25%, p<0.0001), but not at lower concentrations. However, no changes were seen in cell viability in ranibizumab-treated cells at all concentrations including 10×. Mitochondrial membrane potential was slightly decreased in 10× ranibizumab-treated cells (89.61%, p=0.0006) and 2× and 10× aflibercept-treated cells (88.76%, 81.46%; p<0.01, respectively). A larger reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential was seen at 1×, 2× and 10× concentrations of bevacizumab (86.53%, 74.38%, 66.67%; p<0.01) and ziv-aflibercept (73.50%, 64.83% and 49.65% p<0.01) suggestive of early apoptosis at lower doses, including the clinical doses. Conclusions At clinical doses, neither ranibizumab nor aflibercept produced evidence of mitochondrial toxicity or cell death. However, bevacizumab and ziv-aflibercept showed mild mitochondrial toxicity at clinically relevant doses. PMID:24836865

  18. Nasal septal hematoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001292.htm Nasal septal hematoma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A nasal septal hematoma is a collection of blood within the septum ...

  19. Persistence of nasal colonization with human pathogenic bacteria and associated antimicrobial resistance in the German general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Köck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nares represent an important bacterial reservoir for endogenous infections. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of nasal colonization by different important pathogens, the associated antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors. We performed a prospective cohort study among 1878 nonhospitalized volunteers recruited from the general population in Germany. Participants provided nasal swabs at three time points (each separated by 4–6 months. Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and important nonfermenters were cultured and subjected to susceptibility testing. Factors potentially influencing bacterial colonization patterns were assessed. The overall prevalence of S. aureus, Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermenters was 41.0, 33.4 and 3.7%, respectively. Thirteen participants (0.7% were colonized with methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Enterobacteriaceae were mostly (>99% susceptible against ciprofloxacin and carbapenems (100%. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing isolates were not detected among Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Several lifestyle- and health-related factors (e.g. household size, travel, livestock density of the residential area or occupational livestock contact, atopic dermatitis, antidepressant or anti-infective drugs were associated with colonization by different microorganisms. This study unexpectedly demonstrated high nasal colonization rates with Enterobacteriaceae in the German general population, but rates of antibiotic resistance were low. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus carriage was rare but highly associated with occupational livestock contact.

  20. Comparison of four decontamination treatments on porcine renal decellularized extracellular matrix structure, composition, and support of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornejad, Nafiseh; Nielsen, Jeffery J; Morris, Ryan J; Gassman, Jason R; Reynolds, Paul R; Roeder, Beverly L; Cook, Alonzo D

    2016-03-01

    Engineering whole organs from porcine decellularized extracellular matrix and human cells may lead to a plentiful source of implantable organs. Decontaminating the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds is an essential step prior to introducing human cells. However, decontamination of whole porcine kidneys is a major challenge because the decontamination agent or irradiation needs to diffuse deep into the structure to eliminate all microbial contamination while minimizing damage to the structure and composition of the decellularized extracellular matrix. In this study, we compared four decontamination treatments that could be applicable to whole porcine kidneys: 70% ethanol, 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl, 0.2% peracetic acid in 4% ethanol, and gamma (γ)-irradiation. Porcine kidneys were decellularized by perfusion of 0.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and the four decontamination treatments were optimized using segments (n = 60) of renal tissue to ensure a consistent comparison. Although all four methods were successful in decontamination, γ-irradiation was very damaging to collagen fibers and glycosaminoglycans, leading to less proliferation of human renal cortical tubular epithelium cells within the porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. The effectiveness of the other three optimized solution treatments were then all confirmed using whole decellularized porcine kidneys (n = 3). An aqueous solution of 0.2% peracetic acid in 1 M NaCl was determined to be the best method for decontamination of porcine decellularized extracellular matrix. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Co-Targeting Prostate Cancer Epithelium and Bone Stroma by Human Osteonectin-Promoter-Mediated Suicide Gene Therapy Effectively Inhibits Androgen-Independent Prostate Cancer Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Ying Sung

    Full Text Available Stromal-epithelial interaction has been shown to promote local tumor growth and distant metastasis. We sought to create a promising gene therapy approach that co-targets cancer and its supporting stromal cells for combating castration-resistant prostate tumors. Herein, we demonstrated that human osteonectin is overexpressed in the prostate cancer epithelium and tumor stroma in comparison with their normal counterpart. We designed a novel human osteonectin promoter (hON-522E containing positive transcriptional regulatory elements identified in both the promoter and exon 1 region of the human osteonectin gene. In vitro reporter assays revealed that the hON-522E promoter is highly active in androgen receptor negative and metastatic prostate cancer and bone stromal cells compared to androgen receptor-positive prostate cancer cells. Moreover, in vivo prostate-tumor-promoting activity of the hON-522E promoter was confirmed by intravenous administration of an adenoviral vector containing the hON-522E promoter-driven luciferase gene (Ad-522E-Luc into mice bearing orthotopic human prostate tumor xenografts. In addition, an adenoviral vector with the hON-522E-promoter-driven herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene (Ad-522E-TK was highly effective against the growth of androgen-independent human prostate cancer PC3M and bone stromal cell line in vitro and in pre-established PC3M tumors in vivo upon addition of the prodrug ganciclovir. Because of the heterogeneity of human prostate tumors, hON-522E promoter-mediated gene therapy has the potential for the treatment of hormone refractory and bone metastatic prostate cancers.

  2. Pigment epithelium derived factor inhibits the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei Sun

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis is a prerequisite for the formation and development of endometriosis. Pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF is a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. We previously demonstrated a reduction of PEDF in the peritoneal fluid, serum and endometriotic lesions from women with endometriosis compared with women without endometriosis. Here, we aim to investigate the inhibitory effect of PEDF on human endometriotic cells in vivo and in vitro. We found that PEDF markedly inhibited the growth of human endometrial implants in nude mice and of ovarian endometriotic stromal cells in vitro by up-regulating PEDF expression and down-regulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. Moreover, apoptotic index was significantly increased in endometriotic lesions in vivo and endometriotic stromal cells in vitro when treated with PEDF. In mice treated with PEDF, decreased microvessel density labeled by Von Willebrand factor but not by α-Smooth Muscle Actin was observed in endometriotic lesions. And it showed no increase in PEDF expression of the ovary and uterus tissues. These findings suggest that PEDF gene therapy may be a new treatment for endometriosis.

  3. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  4. Interaction of PHM, PHI and 24-glutamine PHI with human VIP receptors from colonic epithelium: comparison with rat intestinal receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laburthe, M.; Couvineau, A.; Rouyer-Fessard, C.; Moroder, L.

    1985-01-01

    PHM, the human counterpart of porcine Peptide Histidine Isoleucine amide (PHI), is shown to be a VIP agonist with low potency on human VIP receptors located in colonic epithelial cell membranes. Its potency is identical to that of PHI but by 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of VIP itself in inhibiting 125 I-VIP binding and in stimulating adenylate cyclase activity. This contrasts markedly with the behavior of PHI on rat VIP receptors located in intestinal epithelial cell membranes where PHI is a potent agonist with a potency that is 1/5 that of VIP. In another connection, the authors show that 24-glutamine PHI has the same affinity as 24-glutamic acid PHI (the natural peptide) for rat or human VIP receptors. These results indicate that while PHI may exert some physiological function through its interaction with VIP receptors in rodents, its human counterpart PHM is a very poor agonist of VIP in human. Furthermore, they show that the drastic change in position 24 of PHI (neutral versus acid residue) does not affect the activity of PHI, at least on VIP receptors. 21 references, 1 figure

  5. Expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein in passaged primary human nasal epithelial cell monolayers cultured by the air-liquid interface method for nasal drug transport study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Jong; Choi, Min-Koo; Lin, Hongxia; Kim, Jung Sun; Chung, Suk-Jae; Shim, Chang-Koo; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2011-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter encoded by the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), which is also known as the human ABCB1 gene (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily-B). The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression of P-gp in passaged primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cell monolayer, cultured by the air-liquid interface (ALI) method, and to evaluate its feasibility as an in-vitro model for cellular uptake and transport studies of P-gp substrates. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to verify the expression of the MDR1 gene. Transport and cellular uptake studies with P-gp substrate (rhodamine123) and P-gp inhibitors (verapamil and cyclosporin A) were conducted to assess the functional activity of P-gp in HNE cell monolayers cultured by the ALI method. MDR1 gene expression in primary HNE cell monolayers cultured by ALI method was confirmed by RT-PCR. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app) ) of the P-gp substrate (rhodamine123) in the basolateral to apical (B to A) direction was 6.9 times higher than that in the apical to basolateral (A to B) direction. B to A transport was saturated at high rhodamine123 concentration, and the treatment of P-gp inhibitors increased cellular uptake of rhodamine123 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. These results support the MDR1 gene expression and the functional activity of P-gp in primary HNE cell monolayers cultured by the ALI method. © 2011 The Authors. JPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Gene expression profiles of human dendritic cells interacting with Aspergillus fumigatus in a bilayer model of the alveolar epithelium/endothelium interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Oliver Morton

    Full Text Available The initial stages of the interaction between the host and Aspergillus fumigatus at the alveolar surface of the human lung are critical in the establishment of aspergillosis. Using an in vitro bilayer model of the alveolus, including both the epithelium (human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line, A549 and endothelium (human pulmonary artery epithelial cells, HPAEC on transwell membranes, it was possible to closely replicate the in vivo conditions. Two distinct sub-groups of dendritic cells (DC, monocyte-derived DC (moDC and myeloid DC (mDC, were included in the model to examine immune responses to fungal infection at the alveolar surface. RNA in high quantity and quality was extracted from the cell layers on the transwell membrane to allow gene expression analysis using tailored custom-made microarrays, containing probes for 117 immune-relevant genes. This microarray data indicated minimal induction of immune gene expression in A549 alveolar epithelial cells in response to germ tubes of A. fumigatus. In contrast, the addition of DC to the system greatly increased the number of differentially expressed immune genes. moDC exhibited increased expression of genes including CLEC7A, CD209 and CCL18 in the absence of A. fumigatus compared to mDC. In the presence of A. fumigatus, both DC subgroups exhibited up-regulation of genes identified in previous studies as being associated with the exposure of DC to A. fumigatus and exhibiting chemotactic properties for neutrophils, including CXCL2, CXCL5, CCL20, and IL1B. This model closely approximated the human alveolus allowing for an analysis of the host pathogen interface that complements existing animal models of IA.

  7. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  8. The migration and loss of human primordial germ stem cells from the hind gut epithelium towards the gonadal ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Brøchner, Christian Beltoft; Byskov, Anne Grete

    2012-01-01

    system in this process. Sixteen human specimens, 5-14 wpc obtained from legal abortions were included. On serial paraffin sections, PGCs were detected immunohistochemically by expression of OCT4 and c-Kit, nerve fibers by ß-III-tubulin and stem cell factor (SCF) as a possible chemoattractive cue for PGC...

  9. Human testis-expressed sequence 101 is limitedly distributed in germinal epithelium of testis and disappears in seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Cong Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testis-expressed sequence 101 (TEX101 was found to be highly expressed in testis and involved in acrosome reaction in previous studies. Recently, the metastasis suppressor function of TEX101 in cancer was disclosed, but the comprehensive investigation of its expression has rarely been reported. In this study, the expression features of TEX101 in normal human organs and seminoma were systematically analyzed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry demonstrated intense staining of TEX101 in human testis tissues; however, its expression in 27 other types of normal human organs, including the ovary, was negligible. Higher expression of TEX101 was observed in the spermatocytes and spermatids of the testis, but relatively lower staining was detected in spermatogonia. Western blotting showed a single TEX101 band of 38 kDa in human testis, but it did not correspond to the predicted molecular weight of its mature form at 21 KDa. Furthermore, we examined seminoma tissues by immunohistochemistry and found that none of the 36 samples expressed TEX101. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirmed TEX101 to be a testis protein that could be related to the maturation process of male germ cells. The lack of TEX101 in seminoma indicated its potential role in tumor progression. This characteristic expression of TEX101 could provide a valuable reference for understanding its biological functions.

  10. Presence of human papillomavirus in semen of healthy men is firmly associated with HPV infections of the penile epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttmer, Roosmarijn; Dijkstra, Maaike G.; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; King, Audrey J.; Pronk, Divera T. M.; Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Hompes, Peter G. A.; Berkhof, Johannes; Bleeker, Maaike C. G.; Doorbar, John; Heideman, Daniëlle A. M.; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.

    2015-01-01

    To study the source of human papillomavirus (HPV) in semen. Observational study (CCMO-NL3248800010). Academic hospital-based laboratory. Healthy male volunteers (n = 213). One penile scrape and three semen samples were obtained per participant for HPV-DNA testing by both GP5+/6+ polymerase chain

  11. Comparison of Nasal Epithelial Smoking-Induced Gene Expression on Affymetrix Exon 1.0 and Gene 1.0 ST Arrays

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    Xiaoling Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have previously defined the impact of tobacco smoking on nasal epithelium gene expression using Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST arrays. In this paper, we compared the performance of the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST array with the Human Exon 1.0 ST array for detecting nasal smoking-related gene expression changes. RNA collected from the nasal epithelium of five current smokers and five never smokers was hybridized to both arrays. While the intersample correlation within each array platform was relatively higher in the Gene array than that in the Exon array, the majority of the genes most changed by smoking were tightly correlated between platforms. Although neither array dataset was powered to detect differentially expressed genes (DEGs at a false discovery rate (FDR <0.05, we identified more DEGs than expected by chance using the Gene ST array. These findings suggest that while both platforms show a high degree of correlation for detecting smoking-induced differential gene expression changes, the Gene ST array may be a more cost-effective platform in a clinical setting for gene-level genomewide expression profiling and an effective tool for exploring the host response to cigarette smoking and other inhaled toxins.

  12. A new 3D reconstituted human corneal epithelium model as an alternative method for the eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Su-Hyon; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Han, Ju-Hee; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Youngsook; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts are being made to develop new alternative in vitro test methods for the eye irritation test. Here we report a new reconstructed human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE model) prepared from primary-cultured human limbal epithelial cells as a new alternative in vitro eye irritation test method. In histological and immunohistochemical observation, MCTT HCE model displayed a morphology and biomarker expressions similar to intact human cornea. Moreover, the barrier function was well preserved as measured by high transepithelial electrical resistance, effective time-50 for Triton X-100, and corneal thickness. To employ the model as a new alternative method for eye irritation test, protocol refinement was performed and optimum assay condition was determined including treatment time, treatment volume, post-incubation time and rinsing method. Using the refined protocol, 25 reference chemicals with known eye irritation potentials were tested. With the viability cut-off value at 50%, chemicals were classified to irritant or non-irritant. When compared with GHS classification, the MCTT HCE model showed the accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%. These results suggest that the MCTT HCE model might be useful as a new alternative eye irritation test method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Response of exfoliated human buccal epithelium cells to combined gamma radiation, microwaves, and magnetic field exposure estimated by changes in chromatin condensation and cell membrane permeability

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    K. А. Kuznetsov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Modulation of the biological effects produced by ionizing radiation (IR using microwave and magnetic fields has important theoretical and practical applications. Response of human buccal epithelium cells to different physical agents (single and combined exposure to 0.5–5 Gy γ-radiation (60Co; microwaves with the frequency of 36.64 GHz and power densities of 0.1 and 1 W/m2, and static magnetic field with the intensity of 25 mT has been investigated. The stress response of the cells was evaluated by counting heterochromatin granules quantity (HGQ in the cell nuclei stained with orcein. Membrane permeability was assessed by the percentage of cells stained with indigocarmine (cells with damaged membrane. The increase of heterochromatin granules quantity (HGQ, i.e. chromatin condensation was detected at the doses of 2 Gy and higher. Changes in the cell membrane permeability to indigocarmine expressed the threshold effect. Membrane permeability reached the threshold at the doses of 2–3 Gy for the cells of different donors and did not change with the increase of the dose of γ-radiation. Cells obtained from different donors revealed some individual peculiarities in their reaction to γ-radiation. The static magnetic field and microwaves applied before or after γ-radiation decreased its impact, as revealed by means of HGQ assessment.

  14. Effects of cyclic-nucleotide derivatives on the growth of human colonic carcinoma xenografts and on cell production in the rat colonic crypt epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1981-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that various amine hormones are able to influence the growth rate of human colorectal carcinomas propagated as xenografts in immune-deprived mice, and it is now well known that the effects of many amine and other hormones are mediated by cyclic nucleotides, acting as second messengers within cells. In the present study the influence of various derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate on the growth of two different lines of colorectal cancer growing in immune-deprived mice, and on the cell production rate in the colonic crypt epithelium of the rat, was assessed. Growth of each tumour line, as well as crypt-cell production, was suppressed by treatment wit N6O2' dibutyryl and N6 monobutyryl derivatives of cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Dibutyryl cyclic guanosine monophosphate, on the other hand, was found to promote the growth of Tumour HXK4 and to promote crypt cell production, but to have no significant effect on Tumour HXM2.

  15. Estimation of the in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust by using reconstituted human corneal epithelium tissue cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Bindslev, Dorthe A; Kjærgaard, Søren K

    2015-01-01

    Eye irritation is a common complaint in indoor environment, but the causes have still not been identified among the multiple exposures in house environments. To identify the potential environmental factors responsible for eye irritation and study the possible mechanisms, an in vitro model for eye irritation is suggested. In this study, reconstituted human corneal epithelium (HCE) tissue cultures were used to study the eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust. HCE tissue cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of LPS for 6 h and dust for 24 h, respectively. After exposure, viability and secretion of interleukins (IL) IL-1β, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were examined. Histology was used to indicate the morphological changes after dust exposure. Both LPS and dust affected HCE viability. There was an increased level of IL-8 after LPS exposure, while the concentrations of IL-1β and TNFα remained unaffected. Dust exposure resulted in an elevation of both IL-1β and IL-8, but not TNFα. Histology study showed increased vacuolization and reduced thickness after 24 h exposure to 5 mg/mL dust. LPS and dust showed in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential, and cytokines/chemokines like IL-1β and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanisms of eye irritation. The HCE tissue culture may be used as an in vitro model to study environmental exposure induced eye irritation and inflammation.

  16. Risk Factors for Nasal Colonization by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci in Healthy Humans in Professional Daily Contact with Companion Animals in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Catarina; Belas, Adriana; Marques, Cátia; Cruz, Luís; Gama, Luís T; Pomba, Constança

    2018-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS), namely Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), are opportunistic agents of great importance in human and veterinary medicine. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency, persistence, and risk factors associated with nasal colonization by MRS in people in daily contact with animals in Portugal. Seventy-nine out of 129 (61.2%) participants were found to be colonized by, at least, one methicillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci species (MR Staphylococcus epidermidis [n = 68], MRSA [n = 19], MR Staphylococcus haemolyticus [n = 7], MRSP [n = 2], and other coagulase-negative staphylococci [n = 4]). Three lineages were identified among the MRSA isolates (n = 7): the major human healthcare clone in Portugal (ST22-t032-IV, n = 3), the livestock-associated MRSA (ST398-t108-V, n = 3), and the New York-/Japan-related clone (ST105-t002-II, n = 1). MRSP isolates belonged to the European clone ST71-II-III. We identified two risk factors for nasal colonization by MRS in healthy humans: (i) being a veterinary professional (veterinarian and veterinary nurse) (p < 0.0001, odds ratio [OR] = 6.369, 95% confidence interval [CI, 2.683-15.122]) and (ii) have contacted with one MRSA- or MRSP-positive animal (p = 0.0361, OR = 2.742, 95% CI [1.067-7.045]). The follow-up study revealed that the majority (85%) remain colonized. This study shows that MRS in veterinary clinical practice is a professional hazard and highlights the need to implement preventive measures to minimize spread.

  17. Role of yqiC in the pathogenicity of Salmonella and innate immune responses of human intestinal epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Chuan Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The yqiC gene of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium regulates bacterial growth at different temperatures and mice survival after infection. However, the role of yqiC in bacterial colonization and host immunity remains unknown. We infected human LS174T, Caco-2, HeLa, and THP-1 cells with S. Typhimurium wild-type SL1344, its yqiC mutant, and its complemented strain. Bacterial colonization and internalization in the four cell lines significantly reduced on yqiC depletion. Postinfection production of interleukin-8 and human β-defensin-3 in LS174T cells significantly reduced because of yqiC deleted in S. Typhimurium. The phenotype of yqiC mutant exhibited few and short flagella, fimbriae on the cell surface, enhanced biofilm formation, upregulated type-1 fimbriae expression, and reduced bacterial motility. Type-1 fimbriae, flagella, SPI-1, and SPI-2 gene expression was quantified using real-time PCR. The data show that deletion of yqiC upregulated fimA and fimZ expression and downregulated flhD, fliZ, invA, and sseB expression. Furthermore, thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography revealed the absence of menaquinone in the yqiC mutant, thus validating the importance of yqiC in the bacterial electron transport chain. Therefore, YqiC can negatively regulate FimZ for type-1 fimbriae expression and manipulate the functions of its downstream virulence factors including flagella, SPI-1, and SPI-2 effectors.

  18. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1.000: 34-36

  19. Nasal Glioma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Surmelioglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nasal gliomas are rare, benign, congenital tumors that are thought to be result of abnormality in embryonic development. Three types of clinical presentations have been recognized; extranasal, intranasal and combined. Clinically, these masses are non-pulsatile, gray or purple lesions that obstruct the nasal cavity and cause deformity extranasaly. Histologically, they are made up of astrocytic cells, fibrous and vascular connective tissue that is covered with nasal respiratory mucosa. Treatment of the nasal glioma requires a multidisciplinary approach including an radiologist, neurosurgeon and otorhinolaryngologist. Radiological investigation should be performed to describe intracranial extension. In this case, a 2 years old boy with nasal mass that was diagnosed as nasal glioma is reported. . [Cukurova Med J 2011; 36(1: 34-36

  20. RT-PCR detection of Candida albicans ALS gene expression in the reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) model of oral candidiasis and in model biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Clayton B; Cheng, Georgina; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Hoyer, Lois L

    2004-02-01

    An RT-PCR assay was developed to analyse expression patterns of genes in the Candida albicans ALS (agglutinin-like sequence) family. Inoculation of a reconstituted human buccal epithelium (RHE) model of mucocutaneous candidiasis with strain SC5314 showed destruction of the epithelial layer by C. albicans and also formation of an upper fungal layer that had characteristics similar to a biofilm. RT-PCR analysis of total RNA samples extracted from C. albicans-inoculated buccal RHE showed that ALS1, ALS2, ALS3, ALS4, ALS5 and ALS9 were consistently detected over time as destruction of the RHE progressed. Detection of transcripts from ALS7, and particularly from ALS6, was more sporadic, but not associated with a strictly temporal pattern. The expression pattern of ALS genes in C. albicans cultures used to inoculate the RHE was similar to that observed in the RHE model, suggesting that contact of C. albicans with buccal RHE does little to alter ALS gene expression. RT-PCR analysis of RNA samples extracted from model denture and catheter biofilms showed similar gene expression patterns to the buccal RHE specimens. Results from the RT-PCR analysis of biofilm RNA specimens were consistent between various C. albicans strains during biofilm development and were comparable to gene expression patterns in planktonic cells. The RT-PCR assay described here will be useful for analysis of human clinical specimens and samples from other disease models. The method will provide further insight into the role of ALS genes and their encoded proteins in the diverse interactions between C. albicans and its host.

  1. Profile of the genes expressed in the human peripheral retina, macula, and retinal pigment epithelium determined through serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Dror; Blackshaw, Seth; Cepko, Constance L.; Dryja, Thaddeus P.

    2002-01-01

    We used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) technique to catalogue and measure the relative levels of expression of the genes expressed in the human peripheral retina, macula, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) from one or both of two humans, aged 88 and 44 years. The cone photoreceptor contribution to all transcription in the retina was found to be similar in the macula versus the retinal periphery, whereas the rod contribution was greater in the periphery versus the macula. Genes encoding structural proteins for axons were found to be expressed at higher levels in the macula versus the retinal periphery, probably reflecting the large proportion of ganglion cells in the central retina. In comparison with the younger eye, the peripheral retina of the older eye had a substantially higher proportion of mRNAs from genes encoding proteins involved in iron metabolism or protection against oxidative damage and a substantially lower proportion of mRNAs from genes encoding proteins involved in rod phototransduction. These differences may reflect the difference in age between the two donors or merely interindividual variation. The RPE library had numerous previously unencountered tags, suggesting that this cell type has a large, idiosyncratic repertoire of expressed genes. Comparison of these libraries with 100 reported nonocular SAGE libraries revealed 89 retina-specific or enriched genes expressed at substantial levels, of which 14 are known to cause a retinal disease and 53 are RPE-specific genes. We expect that these libraries will serve as a resource for understanding the relative expression levels of genes in the retina and the RPE and for identifying additional disease genes. PMID:11756676

  2. Cadherins in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE revisited: P-cadherin is the highly dominant cadherin expressed in human and mouse RPE in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yang

    Full Text Available The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE supports the health and function of retinal photoreceptors and is essential for normal vision. RPE cells are post-mitotic, terminally differentiated, and polarized epithelial cells. In pathological conditions, however, they lose their epithelial integrity, become dysfunctional, even dedifferentiate, and ultimately die. The integrity of epithelial cells is maintained, in part, by adherens junctions, which are composed of cadherin homodimers and p120-, β-, and α-catenins linking to actin filaments. While E-cadherin is the major cadherin for forming the epithelial phenotype in most epithelial cell types, it has been reported that cadherin expression in RPE cells is different from other epithelial cells based on results with cultured RPE cells. In this study, we revisited the expression of cadherins in the RPE to clarify their relative contribution by measuring the absolute quantity of cDNAs produced from mRNAs of three classical cadherins (E-, N-, and P-cadherins in the RPE in vivo. We found that P-cadherin (CDH3 is highly dominant in both mouse and human RPE in situ. The degree of dominance of P-cadherin is surprisingly large, with mouse Cdh3 and human CDH3 accounting for 82-85% and 92-93% of the total of the three cadherin mRNAs, respectively. We confirmed the expression of P-cadherin protein at the cell-cell border of mouse RPE in situ by immunofluorescence. Furthermore, we found that oxidative stress induces dissociation of P-cadherin and β-catenin from the cell membrane and subsequent translocation of β-catenin into the nucleus, resulting in activation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This is the first report of absolute comparison of the expression of three cadherins in the RPE, and the results suggest that the physiological role of P-cadherin in the RPE needs to be reevaluated.

  3. Telomere shortening impairs regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in response to injury but not under homeostatic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masami Watabe-Rudolph

    Full Text Available Atrophy of the olfactory epithelium (OE associated with impaired olfaction and dry nose represents one of the most common phenotypes of human aging. Impairment in regeneration of a functional olfactory epithelium can also occur in response to injury due to infection or nasal surgery. These complications occur more frequently in aged patients. Although age is the most unifying risk factor for atrophic changes and functional decline of the olfactory epithelium, little is known about molecular mechanisms that could influence maintenance and repair of the olfactory epithelium. Here, we analyzed the influence of telomere shortening (a basic mechanism of cellular aging on homeostasis and regenerative reserve in response to chemical induced injury of the OE in late generation telomere knockout mice (G3 mTerc(-/- with short telomeres compared to wild type mice (mTerc(+/+ with long telomeres. The study revealed no significant influence of telomere shortening on homeostatic maintenance of the OE during mouse aging. In contrast, the regenerative response to chemical induced injury of the OE was significantly impaired in G3 mTerc(-/- mice compared to mTerc(+/+ mice. Seven days after chemical induced damage, G3 mTerc(-/- mice exhibited significantly enlarged areas of persisting atrophy compared to mTerc(+/+ mice (p = 0.031. Telomere dysfunction was associated with impairments in cell proliferation in the regenerating epithelium. Deletion of the cell cycle inhibitor, Cdkn1a (p21 rescued defects in OE regeneration in telomere dysfunctional mice. Together, these data indicate that telomere shortening impairs the regenerative capacity of the OE by impairing cell cycle progression in a p21-dependent manner. These findings could be relevant for the impairment in OE function in elderly people.

  4. CON4EI: SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, A R; Alépée, N; Nardelli, L; Hollanders, K; Leblanc, V; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Adriaens, E

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement and a necessary step in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as a stand-alone assay. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed with the goal of assessing the reliability of eight in vitro/alternative test methods as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One of the in vitro assays selected was the validated SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test method (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT). The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT has already demonstrated its capacity to correctly identify chemicals (both substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage (No Category). The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method in terms of the important in vivo drivers of classification. For the performance with respect to the drivers all in vivo Cat 1 and No Cat chemicals were 100% correctly identified. For Cat 2 chemicals the liquids and the solids had a sensitivity of 100% and 85.7%, respectively. For the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method, 100% concordance in predictions (No Cat versus No prediction can be made) between the two participating laboratories was obtained. The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT was 97.5% with 100% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity. The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT confirms its excellent results of the validation studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. [An observation of the effect of sulfur dioxide on rat nasal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z Q

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the effect of SO2 on rat nasal mucosa. The rats were forced to inhale SO2 and the effect on the nasal mucosa observed. The rats were divided into four groups. The first group inhaled 10ppm SO2; the second group 20ppm; the third group 40 ppm and the fourth group served as control. The observation lasted for 6 months. It was found that the nasal mucosa in the control group remained columnar ciliated. In the experimental groups, during the early stage (groups I, II) of exposure, there was no significant morphological change in epithelium. Then (groups I, II) the epithelium changed into cuboidal with complete disappearance of cilia, only some short and slender microvilli remained. While in the late stage (group III), the epithelium had transformed into squamous stratified and the amount of mucosal glands reduced.

  6. Cyanocobalamin Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to supply extra vitamin B12 to people who need unusually large amounts of this vitamin because they are pregnant or have certain diseases. ... Cyanocobalamin nasal gel will supply you with enough vitamin B12 only as ... it regularly. You may need to use cyanocobalamin nasal gel every week for ...

  7. Nasal dermoid sinus cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauchois, R; Laccourreye, O; Bremond, D; Testud, R; Küffer, R; Monteil, J P

    1994-08-01

    Nasal dermoid sinus cyst is one of the diagnoses of midline nasal masses in children. This retrospective study analyzes the various theories regarding the origin of this congenital abnormality, the differential diagnosis, and the value of magnetic resonance imaging, as well as the various surgical options available.

  8. [The effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhifeng; Xu, Yu; Ou, Jin; Xiang, Rong; Tao, Zezhang

    2014-12-01

    To study the effect of hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater for nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis mice model, and explore the possible mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis. We used Der pl to make allergic rhinitis model of BALB/c mice, and divided them into three groups randomly. Nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater (HS) or isotonic seawater (IS) in the treatment group 1-14 days after modeling, and black control (BC) group was given no treatment after modeling. Normal control (NC) group was given no treatment, the number of rubs and sneezings in each group were counted in 30 min after the last nasal irrigation. Mice were then killed 24 h after the last therapy. The noses of mice from each group were removed and fixed, then the slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, the others were observed by transmission electron microscope. Mice with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater were significantly improved in rubs and sneezings compared to the black control group (P 0. 05); Ciliated columnar epithelium cells in mucosal tissues of HS group and IS group were arranged trimly, better than that in the black control group. Morphology and microstructure in nasal mucosal of HS group was closer to the normal group than in IS group. The injury of nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium was significantly improved by nasal irrigation with hypertonic seawater and isotonic seawater, and the former is better than the latter, the mechanism of nasal irrigation with seawater in treatment of allergic rhinitis may rely on repairing the injured nasal mucosa ciliated epithelium, thereby the symptoms of nasal was reduced.

  9. The effects of gas humidification with high-flow nasal cannula on cultured human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidekel, Aaron; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Jordan; Mosko, John J; Rodriguez, Elena; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2012-01-01

    Humidification of inspired gas is important for patients receiving respiratory support. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) effectively provides temperature and humidity-controlled gas to the airway. We hypothesized that various levels of gas humidification would have differential effects on airway epithelial monolayers. Calu-3 monolayers were placed in environmental chambers at 37°C with relative humidity (RH) 90% (HFNC) for 4 and 8 hours with 10 L/min of room air. At 4 and 8 hours, cell viability and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed, apical surface fluid was collected and assayed for indices of cell inflammation and function, and cells were harvested for histology (n = 6/condition). Transepithelial resistance and cell viability decreased over time (P < 0.001) between HFNC and dry groups (P < 0.001). Total protein secretion increased at 8 hours in the dry group (P < 0.001). Secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in the dry group was greater than the other groups at 8 hours (P < 0.001). Histological analysis showed increasing injury over time for the dry group. These data demonstrate that exposure to low humidity results in reduced epithelial cell function and increased inflammation.

  10. The Effects of Gas Humidification with High-Flow Nasal Cannula on Cultured Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Chidekel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Humidification of inspired gas is important for patients receiving respiratory support. High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC effectively provides temperature and humidity-controlled gas to the airway. We hypothesized that various levels of gas humidification would have differential effects on airway epithelial monolayers. Calu-3 monolayers were placed in environmental chambers at 37°C with relative humidity (RH 90% (HFNC for 4 and 8 hours with 10 L/min of room air. At 4 and 8 hours, cell viability and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed, apical surface fluid was collected and assayed for indices of cell inflammation and function, and cells were harvested for histology (n=6/condition. Transepithelial resistance and cell viability decreased over time (P<0.001 between HFNC and dry groups (P<0.001. Total protein secretion increased at 8 hours in the dry group (P<0.001. Secretion of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in the dry group was greater than the other groups at 8 hours (P<0.001. Histological analysis showed increasing injury over time for the dry group. These data demonstrate that exposure to low humidity results in reduced epithelial cell function and increased inflammation.

  11. The Nasal Route as a Potential Pathway for Delivery of Erythropoietin in the Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar García-Rodríguez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method of bypassing the blood-brain barrier (BBB in order to deliver therapeutic agents to the brain. This method allows drugs that do not cross the BBB to be delivered to the central nervous system in a few minutes. With this technology, it will be possible to eliminate systemic administration and its potential side effects. Using the intranasal delivery system, researchers have demonstrated neuroprotective effects in different animal models of stroke using erythropoietin (EPO as a neuroprotector or other different types of EPO without erythropoiesis-stimulating activity. These new molecules retain their ability to protect neural tissue against injury and they include Asialoerythropoietin (asialoEPO carbamylated EPO (CEPO, and rHu-EPO with low sialic acid content (Neuro-EPO. Contrary to the other EPO variants, Neuro-EPO is not chemically modified, making it biologically similar to endogenous EPO, with the advantage of less adverse reactions when this molecule is applied chronically. This constitutes a potential benefit of Neuro-EPO over other variants of EPO for the chronic treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses. Nasal administration of EPO is a potential, novel, neurotherapeutic approach. However, it will be necessary to initiate clinical trials in stroke patients using intranasal delivery in order to obtain the clinical evidence of its neuroprotectant capacity in the treatment of patients with acute stroke and other neurodegenerative disorders. This new therapeutic approach could revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders in the 21st century.

  12. Histology, Immunohistochemistry and Ultrastructure of the Bovine Palatine Tonsil with Special Emphasis on Reticular Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paired palatine tonsils are located at the junction of the nasopharynx and oropharynx; ideally positioned to sample antigens entering through either the nasal cavity or oral cavity. Entering antigens will first contact tonsilar epithelium. To better understand the cellular and functional composi...

  13. A dimensionless ordered pull-through model of the mammalian lens epithelium evidences scaling across species and explains the age-dependent changes in cell density in the human lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun Jie; Wu, Weiju; Tholozan, Frederique M.; Saunter, Christopher D.; Girkin, John M.; Quinlan, Roy A.

    2015-01-01

    We present a mathematical (ordered pull-through; OPT) model of the cell-density profile for the mammalian lens epithelium together with new experimental data. The model is based upon dimensionless parameters, an important criterion for inter-species comparisons where lens sizes can vary greatly (e.g. bovine (approx. 18 mm); mouse (approx. 2 mm)) and confirms that mammalian lenses scale with size. The validated model includes two parameters: β/α, which is the ratio of the proliferation rate in the peripheral and in the central region of the lens; and γGZ, a dimensionless pull-through parameter that accounts for the cell transition and exit from the epithelium into the lens body. Best-fit values were determined for mouse, rat, rabbit, bovine and human lens epithelia. The OPT model accounts for the peak in cell density at the periphery of the lens epithelium, a region where cell proliferation is concentrated and reaches a maximum coincident with the germinative zone. The β/α ratio correlates with the measured FGF-2 gradient, a morphogen critical to lens cell survival, proliferation and differentiation. As proliferation declines with age, the OPT model predicted age-dependent changes in cell-density profiles, which we observed in mouse and human lenses. PMID:26236824

  14. Objective Measure of Nasal Air Emission Using Nasal Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cler, Meredith J.; Lien, Yu-An, S.; Braden, Maia N.; Mittleman, Talia; Downing, Kerri; Stepp, Cara, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article describes the development and initial validation of an objective measure of nasal air emission (NAE) using nasal accelerometry. Method: Nasal acceleration and nasal airflow signals were simultaneously recorded while an expert speech language pathologist modeled NAEs at a variety of severity levels. In addition, microphone and…

  15. Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Thomas E; Böttger, Bärbel; Hansen, Anne; Anderson, Karl T; Alimohammadi, Hessamedin; Silver, Wayne L

    2003-07-22

    Inhalation of irritating substances leads to activation of the trigeminal nerve, triggering protective reflexes that include apnea or sneezing. Receptors for trigeminal irritants are generally assumed to be located exclusively on free nerve endings within the nasal epithelium, requiring that trigeminal irritants diffuse through the junctional barrier at the epithelial surface to activate receptors. We find, in both rats and mice, an extensive population of chemosensory cells that reach the surface of the nasal epithelium and form synaptic contacts with trigeminal afferent nerve fibers. These chemosensory cells express T2R "bitter-taste" receptors and alpha-gustducin, a G protein involved in chemosensory transduction. Functional studies indicate that bitter substances applied to the nasal epithelium activate the trigeminal nerve and evoke changes in respiratory rate. By extending to the surface of the nasal epithelium, these chemosensory cells serve to expand the repertoire of compounds that can activate trigeminal protective reflexes. The trigeminal chemoreceptor cells are likely to be remnants of the phylogenetically ancient population of solitary chemoreceptor cells found in the epithelium of all anamniote aquatic vertebrates.

  16. A Rare Nasal Bone Fracture: Anterior Nasal Spine Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egemen Kucuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anterior nasal spine fractures are a quite rare type of nasal bone fractures. Associated cervical spine injuries are more dangerous than the nasal bone fracture. A case of the anterior nasal spine fracture, in a 18-year-old male was presented. Fracture of the anterior nasal spine, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the midface injuries and also accompanying cervical spine injury should not be ignored.

  17. In vivo microvascular imaging of human oral and nasal cavities using swept-source optical coherence tomography with a single forward/side viewing probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    We report three-dimensional (3D) imaging of microcirculation within human cavity tissues in vivo using a high-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.3 μm with a modified probe interface. Volumetric structural OCT images of the inner tissues of oral and nasal cavities are acquired with a field of view of 2 mm x 2 mm. Two types of disposable and detachable probe attachments are devised and applied to the port of the imaging probe of OCT system, enabling forward and side imaging scans for selective and easy access to specific cavity tissue sites. Blood perfusion is mapped with OCT-based microangiography from 3D structural OCT images, in which a novel vessel extraction algorithm is used to decouple dynamic light scattering signals, due to moving blood cells, from the background scattering signals due to static tissue elements. Characteristic tissue anatomy and microvessel architectures of various cavity tissue regions of a healthy human volunteer are identified with the 3D OCT images and the corresponding 3D vascular perfusion maps at a level approaching capillary resolution. The initial finding suggests that the proposed method may be engineered into a promising tool for evaluating and monitoring tissue microcirculation and its alteration within a wide-range of cavity tissues in the patients with various pathological conditions.

  18. Nasal capillariasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Greiner, E.C.; Ackerman, N.; Woodard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations. Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area

  19. Study of USH1 splicing variants through minigenes and transcript analysis from nasal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aparisi

    Full Text Available Usher syndrome type I (USH1 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital profound deafness, vestibular areflexia and prepubertal retinitis pigmentosa. The first purpose of this study was to determine the pathologic nature of eighteen USH1 putative splicing variants found in our series and their effect in the splicing process by minigene assays. These variants were selected according to bioinformatic analysis. The second aim was to analyze the USH1 transcripts, obtained from nasal epithelial cells samples of our patients, in order to corroborate the observed effect of mutations by minigenes in patient's tissues. The last objective was to evaluate the nasal ciliary beat frequency in patients with USH1 and compare it with control subjects. In silico analysis were performed using four bioinformatic programs: NNSplice, Human Splicing Finder, NetGene2 and Spliceview. Afterward, minigenes based on the pSPL3 vector were used to investigate the implication of selected changes in the mRNA processing. To observe the effect of mutations in the patient's tissues, RNA was extracted from nasal epithelial cells and RT-PCR analyses were performed. Four MYO7A (c.470G>A, c.1342_1343delAG, c.5856G>A and c.3652G>A, three CDH23 (c.2289+1G>A, c.6049G>A and c.8722+1delG and one PCDH15 (c.3717+2dupTT variants were observed to affect the splicing process by minigene assays and/or transcripts analysis obtained from nasal cells. Based on our results, minigenes are a good approach to determine the implication of identified variants in the mRNA processing, and the analysis of RNA obtained from nasal epithelial cells is an alternative method to discriminate neutral Usher variants from those with a pathogenic effect on the splicing process. In addition, we could observe that the nasal ciliated epithelium of USH1 patients shows a lower ciliary beat frequency than control subjects.

  20. PLGA/DPPC/trimethylchitosan spray-dried microparticles for the nasal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride: in vitro, ex vivo and cytocompatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karavasili, Christina [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece); Bouropoulos, Nikolaos [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, 26504 Rio, Patras (Greece); Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Sygellou, Lamprini [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas-Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature, P.O. Box 1414, 26504 Patras (Greece); Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S. [Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR-54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Fatouros, Dimitrios G., E-mail: dfatouro@pharm.auth.gr [Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmacy, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 (Greece)

    2016-02-01

    In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH 5.5 at 35 °C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09 μm to 2.41 μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH. - Highlights: • Development of microparticles comprising PLGA/DPPC/TMC for nasal drug delivery. • Physicochemical characterization showed that DPPC dominated microparticles' surface. • Microparticles enhanced permeation of ropinirole across sheep nasal epithelium. • The cytotoxicity assay with Calu-3 cells demonstrated satisfactory cell viability.

  1. PLGA/DPPC/trimethylchitosan spray-dried microparticles for the nasal delivery of ropinirole hydrochloride: in vitro, ex vivo and cytocompatibility assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karavasili, Christina; Bouropoulos, Nikolaos; Sygellou, Lamprini; Amanatiadou, Elsa P.; Vizirianakis, Ioannis S.; Fatouros, Dimitrios G.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated polymer-lipid microparticles loaded with ropinirole hydrochloride (RH) for nasal delivery. RH microparticles were further evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ζ-potential measurements, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). In vitro release studies were performed in simulated nasal electrolyte solution (SNES) pH 5.5 at 35 °C. Ex vivo permeation studies were conducted across sheep nasal mucosa. Cytocompatibility was tested in cultured human airway epithelial cells (Calu-3). SEM studies revealed spheroid microparticles in the range of 2.09 μm to 2.41 μm. The presence of trimethylchitosan (TMC) induced a slight shift towards less negative ζ-potential values. Surface chemistry (XPS) revealed the presence of dipalmitoylphospatidylcholine (DPPC) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) onto microparticles' surface, further corroborating the FT-IR and XRD findings. In vitro release studies showed that the microparticle composition can partly modulate the release of RH. Ex vivo studies demonstrated a 2.35-folded enhancement of RH permeation when RH was co-formulated with TMC of low molecular weight, compared to the control. All formulations tested were found to be non-toxic to cells. The results suggest that polymer-lipid microparticles may be a promising carrier for the nasal delivery of RH. - Highlights: • Development of microparticles comprising PLGA/DPPC/TMC for nasal drug delivery. • Physicochemical characterization showed that DPPC dominated microparticles' surface. • Microparticles enhanced permeation of ropinirole across sheep nasal epithelium. • The cytotoxicity assay with Calu-3 cells demonstrated satisfactory cell viability.

  2. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with a smoking cessation program, which may include support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal ... and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or ...

  3. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 ppm ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of the rat nasal cavity and nasopharynx after short-term ozone exposure. Rats were exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate, but no change within the epithelium of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within the transitional and respiratory epithelia lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway, and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within the epithelium of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates and nasopharynx. We conclude that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days after cessation of exposure

  4. Ultrastructural nasal pathology in children chronically and sequentially exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Valencia-Salazar, G; Rodríguez-Alcaraz, A; Gambling, T M; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Carson, J L

    2001-02-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) children are repeatedly exposed to a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Nasal biopsies taken from these children exhibit a wide range of histopathologic alterations: marked changes in ciliated and goblet cell populations, basal cell hyperplasia, squamous metaplasia, and mild dysplasias. We studied the ultrastructural features of 15 nasal biopsies obtained from clinically healthy children 4 to 15 yr of age, growing up in SWMMC. The results were compared with nasal biopsies from 11 children growing up in Veracruz and exposed to low pollutant levels. Ultrathin sections of nasal biopsies revealed an unremarkable mucociliary epithelium in control children, whereas SWMMC children showed an epithelium comprised of variable numbers of basal, ciliated, goblet, and squamous metaplastic as well as intermediate cells. Nascent ciliated cells, as evidenced by the presence of migratory kinetosomes, were common, as were ciliary abnormalities, including absent central microtubules, supernumerary central and peripheral tubules, ciliary microtubular discontinuities, and compound cilia. Dyskinesia associated with these abnormal cilia was suggested by the altered orientation of the central microtubules in closely adjacent cilia. A transudate was evident between epithelial cells, suggesting potential deficiencies in epithelial junction integrity. Particulate matter was present in heterolysosomal bodies in epithelial cells and it was also deposited in intercellular spaces. The severe structural alteration of the nasal epithelium together with the prominent acquired ciliary defects are likely the result of chronic airway injury in which ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes are thought to play a crucial role. The nasal epithelium in SWMMC children is fundamentally disordered, and their mucociliary defense mechanisms are no longer intact. A compromised nasal epithelium has less ability to

  5. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  6. Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci in healthy humans is associated with occupational pig contact in a dose-response manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Chen, Zhiyao; Guo, Dan; Li, Shunming; Huang, Jingya; Wang, Xiaolin; Yao, Zhenjiang; Chen, Sidong; Ye, Xiaohua

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between occupational pig contact and human methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) carriage. We conducted a cross-sectional study of pig exposed participants and controls in Guangdong, China, using a multi-stage sampling design. Participants provided a nasal swab for MRCoNS analysis and resulting isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility. The dose-response relation was examined using log binomial regression or Poisson regression models. The adjusted prevalence of MRCoNS carriage in pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.32-2.11) higher than in controls. The adjusted average number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS isolates from pig exposed participants was 1.67 times (95% CI: 1.46-1.91) higher than those from controls. Notably, we found the frequency and duration of occupational pig contact was associated with increased prevalence and increased number of resistance to different antibiotic classes of MRCoNS in a dose-response manner. When examining these relations by MRCoNS species, there was still evidence of similar exposure-response relations. Additionally, the proportion of tetracycline-resistant and tet(M)-containing MRCoNS isolates was significantly higher in pig exposed participants than in controls. These findings suggested a potential transmission of MRCoNS from livestock to humans by occupational livestock contact, and the presence of phenotypic and genotypic tetracycline resistance may aid in the differentiation of animal origins of MRCoNS isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Disposition of nasal, intravenous, and oral methadone in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Ola; Hoffer, Christine; Sheffels, Pamela; Kharasch, Evan D

    2002-11-01

    Nasal administration of many opioids demonstrates rapid uptake and fast onset of action. Nasal administration may be an alternative to intravenous and oral administration of methadone and was therefore studied in human volunteers. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Washington, Seattle. Eight healthy volunteers (6 men and 2 women) aged 19 to 33 years were enrolled after informed written consent was obtained. Subjects received 10 mg methadone hydrochloride nasally, orally, or intravenously on 3 separate occasions in a crossover design. Nasal methadone (50 mg/mL in aqueous solution) was given as a 100-microL spray in each nostril (Pfeiffer BiDose sprayer). Blood samples for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of methadone and the metabolite 2-ethyl-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolinium were drawn for up to 96 hours. The methadone effect was measured by noninvasive infrared pupilometry coincident with blood sampling. Nasal uptake of methadone was rapid, with maximum plasma concentrations occurring within 7 minutes. The maximum effects of intravenous, nasal, and oral methadone, on the basis of dark-adapted pupil diameter, were reached in about 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 2 hours, respectively. The respective durations were 24, 10, and 8 hours. Both nasal and oral bioavailabilities were 0.85. Subjects reported that nasal methadone caused a burning sensation. Nasal administration of methadone results in rapid absorption and onset of effect and high bioavailability, which was greater than that reported for other nasal opioids, with a similar duration of effect. Nasal administration may be an alternative route of methadone administration; however, improved formulations are desirable to reduce nasal irritation.

  8. Resveratrol enhances airway surface liquid depth in sinonasal epithelium by increasing cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator open probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyan Zhang

    Full Text Available Chronic rhinosinusitis engenders enormous morbidity in the general population, and is often refractory to medical intervention. Compounds that augment mucociliary clearance in airway epithelia represent a novel treatment strategy for diseases of mucus stasis. A dominant fluid and electrolyte secretory pathway in the nasal airways is governed by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR. The objectives of the present study were to test resveratrol, a strong potentiator of CFTR channel open probability, in preparation for a clinical trial of mucociliary activators in human sinus disease.Primary sinonasal epithelial cells, immortalized bronchoepithelial cells (wild type and F508del CFTR, and HEK293 cells expressing exogenous human CFTR were investigated by Ussing chamber as well as patch clamp technique under non-phosphorylating conditions. Effects on airway surface liquid depth were measured using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Impact on CFTR gene expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction.Resveratrol is a robust CFTR channel potentiator in numerous mammalian species. The compound also activated temperature corrected F508del CFTR and enhanced CFTR-dependent chloride secretion in human sinus epithelium ex vivo to an extent comparable to the recently approved CFTR potentiator, ivacaftor. Using inside out patches from apical membranes of murine cells, resveratrol stimulated an ~8 picosiemens chloride channel consistent with CFTR. This observation was confirmed in HEK293 cells expressing exogenous CFTR. Treatment of sinonasal epithelium resulted in a significant increase in airway surface liquid depth (in µm: 8.08+/-1.68 vs. 6.11+/-0.47,control,p<0.05. There was no increase CFTR mRNA.Resveratrol is a potent chloride secretagogue from the mucosal surface of sinonasal epithelium, and hydrates airway surface liquid by increasing CFTR channel open probability. The foundation for a

  9. Nasal septum extramedullary plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belić Branislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plasmacytomas are malignant tumors characterized by abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells. They originate in either bone - solitary osseous plasmacytoma, or in soft tissue - extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP. EMP represents less than 1% of all head and neck malignancies. Case report. We presented a case of EMP of the nasal septum in a 44-year-old male who had progressive difficulty in breathing through the nose and frequent heavy epistaxis on the right side. Nasal endoscopy showed dark red, soft, polypoid tumor in the last third of the right nasal cavity arising from the nasal septum. The biopsy showed that it was plasmacytoma. Bence Jones protein in the urine, serum electrophoresis, bone marrow biopsy, skeletal survey and other screening tests failed to detect multiple myeloma. This confirmed the diagnosis of EMP. The mass was completely removed via an endoscopic approach, and then, 4 week later, radiotherapy was conducted with a radiation dose of 50 Gray. No recurrence was noted in a 3-year follow- up period. Conclusion. EMP of the nasal cavity, being rare and having long natural history, represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for any ear, nose and throat surgeon. Depending on the resectability of the lesion, a combined therapy is the accepted treatment.

  10. Effects of radiation on nasal mucosa of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Hu Sunhong; Liu Yuehui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study histopathological changes in nasal mucosa of guinea pigs following a series of irradiation. Methods: A total of 60 healthy guinea pigs were divided into two groups randomly: the irradiation group (n=30) and the control group (n=30). The animals of the irradiation group were exposed nasally to linear accelerator X-rays at 5.0 Gy once a week for three weeks. At 1 d, 1 w, 2 w, 4 w, 10 w and half year after X-irradiation five animals per one group were sacrificed randomly, at each time point. Their middle nasal turbinate mucosa was observed under optical microscope and electron microscope, and were analysed by image analysis for histopathological transformation. Results: In the irradiation group, the early histopathological transformation was acute inflammatory reaction, at the fourth week the mucosa began to repair, which ended at the sixth month. But after repaired, some parts of the repaired mucosa were lined with squamous epithelium instead of the normal nasal mucosa. The rate of the cilia-covered area was only 52.9% at the sixth month. Conclusion: The nasal mucosa injury and the squamous metaplasia could form a pathological basis of dysfunction after irradiation

  11. [Nasal septal abscess].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barril, María F; Ferolla, Fausto M; José, Pablo; Echave, Cecilia; Tomezzoli, Silvana; Fiorini, Sandra; López, Eduardo Luis

    2008-12-01

    A nasal septal abscess (NA) is defined as a collection of pus between the cartilage or bony septum and its normally applied mucoperichondrium or mucoperiostium. It is an uncommon disease which should be suspected in a patient with acute onset of nasal obstruction and recent history of nasal trauma, periodontal infection or an inflammatory process of the rhinosinusal region. We report a case of an 8-year-old boy with bilateral NA caused by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MR-CO) in order to emphasize the importance of prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment to prevent the potentially dangerous spread of infection and the development of severe functional and cosmetic sequelae.

  12. The nasal cavity microbiota of healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bassis, Christine M; Tang, Alice L; Young, Vincent B; Pynnonen, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Background The microbiota of the nares has been widely studied. However, relatively few studies have investigated the microbiota of the nasal cavity posterior to the nares. This distinct environment has the potential to contain a distinct microbiota and play an important role in health. Results We obtained 35,142 high-quality bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene sequence reads from the nasal cavity and oral cavity (the dorsum of the tongue and the buccal mucosa) of 12 healthy adult humans and dep...

  13. Kinetics of naphthalene metabolism in target and non-target tissues of rodents and in nasal and airway microsomes from the Rhesus monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckpitt, Alan, E-mail: arbuckpitt@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Morin, Dexter [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Murphy, Shannon; Edwards, Patricia; Van Winkle, Laura [Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Center for Health and the Environment, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 United States (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Naphthalene produces species and cell selective injury to respiratory tract epithelial cells of rodents. In these studies we determined the apparent K{sub m}, V{sub max}, and catalytic efficiency (V{sub max}/K{sub m}) for naphthalene metabolism in microsomal preparations from subcompartments of the respiratory tract of rodents and non-human primates. In tissues with high substrate turnover, major metabolites were derived directly from naphthalene oxide with smaller amounts from conjugates of diol epoxide, diepoxide, and 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones. In some tissues, different enzymes with dissimilar K{sub m} and V{sub max} appeared to metabolize naphthalene. The rank order of V{sub max} (rat olfactory epithelium > mouse olfactory epithelium > murine airways ≫ rat airways) correlated well with tissue susceptibility to naphthalene. The V{sub max} in monkey alveolar subcompartment was 2% that in rat nasal olfactory epithelium. Rates of metabolism in nasal compartments of the monkey were low. The catalytic efficiencies of microsomes from known susceptible tissues/subcompartments are 10 and 250 fold higher than in rat airway and monkey alveolar subcompartments, respectively. Although the strong correlations between catalytic efficiencies and tissue susceptibility suggest that non-human primate tissues are unlikely to generate metabolites at a rate sufficient to produce cellular injury, other studies showing high levels of formation of protein adducts support the need for additional studies. - Highlights: • Naphthalene is metabolized with high catalytic efficiency in susceptible tissue. • Naphthalene is metabolized at low catalytic efficiency in non-susceptible tissue. • Respiratory tissues of the non human primate metabolize naphthalene slowly.

  14. Characterization of the human nasal embryonic LHRH factor gene, NELF, and a mutation screening among 65 patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kiyonori; Acierno, James S; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2004-01-01

    As the mouse nasal embryonic LHRH factor gene (Nelf) encodes a guidance molecule for the migration of the olfactory axon and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons, its human homolog, NELF, is a candidate gene for Kallmann syndrome, a disease of idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) with anosmia or hyposmia. We report here characterization of NELF and results of mutation analysis in 65 IHH patients. Assembling EST clones, RACE, and sequencing showed that NELF mapped to 9q34.3 is composed of 16 exons and 15 introns with a 1,590-bp ORF encoding 530 amino acids. RT-PCR on a fetal brain cDNA library revealed five alternatively spliced variants. Among them, NELF-v1 has 93-94% identity at the amino acid level to mouse/rat Nelf, and four other transcripts are also highly conserved among the three species. A 3.0-kb transcript is expressed most highly in the adult and fetal brain, testis, and kidney, indicating that NELF plays a role in the function of these tissues. Mutation screening detected in a patient with IHH one novel heterozygous missense mutation (1438A>G, T480A) at the donor-splice site in exon 15 of NELF. As this mutation was not found in 100 normal control individuals, T480A may be associated with IHH. Four other novel SNPs (102C > T and 1029C > T within the coding region, and two IVS14+47C > T and IVS15+41G > A) were also identified in NELF.

  15. Impact of airborne particle size, acoustic airflow and breathing pattern on delivery of nebulized antibiotic into the maxillary sinuses using a realistic human nasal replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Pourchez, Jérémie; Aubert, Gérald; Leguellec, Sandrine; Vecellio, Laurent; Cottier, Michèle; Durand, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Improvement of clinical outcome in patients with sinuses disorders involves targeting delivery of nebulized drug into the maxillary sinuses. We investigated the impact of nebulization conditions (with and without 100 Hz acoustic airflow), particle size (9.9 μm, 2.8 μm, 550 nm and 230 nm) and breathing pattern (nasal vs. no nasal breathing) on enhancement of aerosol delivery into the sinuses using a realistic nasal replica developed by our team. After segmentation of the airways by means of high-resolution computed tomography scans, a well-characterized nasal replica was created using a rapid prototyping technology. A total of 168 intrasinus aerosol depositions were performed with changes of aerosol particle size and breathing patterns under different nebulization conditions using gentamicin as a marker. The results demonstrate that the fraction of aerosol deposited in the maxillary sinuses is enhanced by use of submicrometric aerosols, e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 mg/L of gentamicin in the left maxillary sinus for the 2.8 μm particles vs. 2.056 ± 0.0474 for the 550 nm particles. Utilization of 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization also produced a 2- to 3-fold increase in drug deposition in the maxillary sinuses (e.g. 8.155 ± 1.476 vs. 3.990 ± 1.690 for the 2.8 μm particles). Our study clearly shows that optimum deposition was achieved using submicrometric particles and 100-Hz acoustic airflow nebulization with no nasal breathing. It is hoped that our new respiratory nasal replica will greatly facilitate the development of more effective delivery systems in the future.

  16. Cosmetic and Functional Nasal Deformities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...

  17. Differential expression pattern of antimicrobial peptides in nasal mucosa and secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudien, Martin; Dressel, Stefanie; Harder, Jürgen; Gläser, Regine

    2011-03-01

    The intact nasal barrier is a prerequisite for a functioning defense of the upper airway system, in particular the permanent threat by inhaled potentially harmful microorganisms. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) play an important role in maintaining barrier function. There is few data about AMP in respect of nasal mucosa. This study is addressed to gain further insight into the differential AMP expression and secretion pattern according to defined anatomical regions of the vestibulum nasi and turbinates. ELISA was applied to quantify concentrations of AMP RNase-7, psoriasin, hBD-2, hBD-3 and LL-37 in nasal secretions of 20 healthy volunteers. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the local cellular sources of AMP in the vestibulum nasi (squamous epithelium) and compared to the mucosa of the turbinates (pseudostratified epithelium) in 10 healthy volunteers. Expression of RNase 7 and psoriasin was detected in all nasal secretion specimens, whereas LL-37 was detected in 16, hBD-2 in 5 and hBD-3 in 6 specimens. In the vestibulum nasi, luminal cell layers were demonstrated as local cellular sources for hBD-3 and RNase 7, whereas psoriasin was found in all layers of the stratified squamous epithelium. LL-37 was detected in 1 stroma cells sample, whereas hBD-2 was not detected at all. In turbinate biopsie,s hBD-3 and LL-37 were detectable in the epithelium, stroma cells and submucosal glands. RNase 7 was only present in submucosal glands. HBD-2 and psoriasin were not detected. These data demonstrate that the nasal epithelium contains a chemical defense shield through the expression and secretion of various AMP.

  18. Nasal insulin changes peripheral insulin sensitivity simultaneously with altered activity in homeostatic and reward-related human brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heni, M; Kullmann, S; Ketterer, C; Guthoff, M; Linder, K; Wagner, R; Stingl, K T; Veit, R; Staiger, H; Häring, H-U; Preissl, H; Fritsche, A

    2012-06-01

    Impaired insulin sensitivity is a major factor leading to type 2 diabetes. Animal studies suggest that the brain is involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether insulin action in the human brain regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and examined which brain areas are involved. Insulin and placebo were given intranasally. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were measured in 103 participants at 0, 30 and 60 min. A subgroup (n = 12) was also studied with functional MRI, and blood sampling at 0, 30 and 120 min. For each time-point, the HOMA of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated as an inverse estimate of peripheral insulin sensitivity. Plasma insulin increased and subsequently decreased. This excursion was accompanied by slightly decreased plasma glucose, resulting in an initially increased HOMA-IR. At 1 h after insulin spray, the HOMA-IR subsequently decreased and remained lower up to 120 min. An increase in hypothalamic activity was observed, which correlated with the increased HOMA-IR at 30 min post-spray. Activity in the putamen, right insula and orbitofrontal cortex correlated with the decreased HOMA-IR at 120 min post-spray. Central insulin action in specific brain areas, including the hypothalamus, may time-dependently regulate peripheral insulin sensitivity. This introduces a potential novel mechanism for the regulation of peripheral insulin sensitivity and underlines the importance of cerebral insulin action for the whole organism.

  19. Barrier properties of cultured retinal pigment epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. EGR-1 and DUSP-1 are important negative regulators of pro-allergic responses in airway epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golebski, Korneliusz; van Egmond, Danielle; de Groot, Esther J.; Roschmann, Kristina I. L.; Fokkens, Wytske J.; van Drunen, Cornelis M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Primary nasal epithelium of house dust mite allergic individuals is in a permanently activated inflammatory transcriptional state. Objective: To investigate whether a deregulated expression of EGR-1 and/or DUSP-1, two potential negative regulators of pro-inflammatory responses, could

  1. [The identification of viruses of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk and evaluation of physical status of viral DNA using technique of polymerase-chain reaction under affection of cervical epithelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viazovaia, A A; Kuevda, D A; Trofimova, O B; Shipulina, O Iu; Ershov, V A; Lialina, L V; Narvskaia, O V

    2013-08-01

    The DNA of virus of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk was detected in 116 cervical samples. At that, the morphological symptoms of background processes are detected in 19 samples, CIN 1 in 9, CIN 2 in 23, CIN 3 in 54 (and out of them carcinoma in situ in 13), epidermoid cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) in 11 cases. The viral load of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk in all samples of DNA exceeded threshold of clinical value (3 lg copies of DNA of human papilloma/105 cells). The genetic typing of human papilloma of high carcinogenic risk revealed the dominance of human papilloma of type 16 in 49.7%, type 33 in 15.3%, type 31 in 12.3% and type 45 in 5.5%. In women with background processes in cervix of the uterus DNA of human papilloma type 16 was detected more often in episome form. In case of dysplastic alterations of epithelium and cervical cancer DNA of human papilloma type 16 is detected in mixt form with different degree of integration into cell genome.

  2. Expression profiling and functional analysis of Toll-like receptors in primary healthy human nasal epithelial cells shows no correlation and a refractory LPS response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tongeren, J.; Röschmann, K. I. L.; Reinartz, S. M.; Luiten, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; de Jong, E. C.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Innate immune recognition via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on barrier cells like epithelial cells has been shown to influence the regulation of local immune responses. Here we determine expression level variations and functionality of TLRs in nasal epithelial cells from healthy donors.

  3. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  4. Surgical management of nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moche, Jason A; Palmer, Orville

    2012-05-01

    The proper evaluation of the patient with nasal obstruction relies on a comprehensive history and physical examination. Once the site of obstruction is accurately identified, the patient may benefit from a trial of medical management. At times however, the definitive treatment of nasal obstruction relies on surgical management. Recognizing the nasal septum, nasal valve, and turbinates as possible sites of obstruction and addressing them accordingly can dramatically improve a patient's nasal breathing. Conservative resection of septal cartilage, submucous reduction of the inferior turbinate, and structural grafting of the nasal valve when appropriate will provide the optimal improvement in nasal airflow and allow for the most stable results. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of 0.12 and 0.80 PPM ozone on rat nasal and nasopharyngeal epithelial mucosubstances: Quantitative histochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkema, J.R.; Hotchkiss, J.A.; Henderson, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize changes in the quantity of mucosubstances in surface epithelia of rat nasal airways after short- term ozone exposure. Rats were exposed for 7 days (6 h/day) to 0.0, 0.12, or 0.8 ppm ozone, and killed immediately or 7 days after the last exposure. Nasal cavities were processed for morphometric analysis of intraepithelial mucosubstances. Compared to controls, rats exposed to 0.12 ppm ozone had increased amounts of stored mucosubstances within epithelium lining the medial aspect of the nasal turbinate immediately after exposure, but no change within epithelia of the nasopharynx. Rats exposed to 0.8 ppm ozone had increased quantities of stored mucosubstances within transitional and respiratory epithelium lining turbinates and lateral walls of the anterior nasal airway and significant decreases in stored mucosubstances within epithelia of the nasal septum at the end of exposure. Seven days after the end of exposure, the amounts of intraepithelial mucosubstances returned to control levels along the septum, but remained greater than those of controls along the turbinates. We demonstrated that exposures to ambient levels of ozone induce significant changes in the stored secretory product of nasal epithelium in the rat, and that these changes persist for at least 7 days post-exposure. (author)

  6. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  7. Nasal packing with ventilated nasal packs; a comparison with traditional vaseline nasal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance

  8. Effects of ionizing radiation on glycerolated amniotic membranes as a substract for cultured human epithelium; Efeitos da radiacao ionizante em membranas amnioticas gliceroladas empregadas como substrato ao cultivo de epitelio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paggiaro, Andre Oliveira

    2011-07-01

    The amniotic membrane (AM) is a biomaterial with biological properties that are beneficial to tissue repair. It has been used as a temporary coverage to threat burns and chronic wounds. Recently, it has been served as a substrate for keratinocytes culture to construct a living skin equivalent. However, MA is a biological material, and its transplantation could cause infectious disease for receptors. So, it must be preserved and sterilized before clinical use. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiation effects on glycerol-preserved MA, considering its compatibility to support human keratinocytes culture. Four MA were stored in high concentrations of glycerol (> 85%) and half of them were radio sterilized with a dose of 25 kGy. Then, we established two groups: nonirradiated MA (MA-ni) and irradiated MA (MA-i). Both groups was deepithelialized by a standardized protocol and was investigated morphologically, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural. Subsequently human keratinocytes were cultivated immersed and in air-liquid interface on denuded surface of MA-i and MA-ni. The results were compared at 14 and 21 days of culture by light and electron microscopy. After epithelial denudation, analyses demonstrated the continuity of the basement membrane in MA-ni group, whereas in the irradiated group, there was no indication of the basement membrane’s presence on the surface of MA. The cell cultures showed that in the non-irradiated group, there was growth of a multi-layered and differentiated epithelium, with a stratum corneum’s formation in air-liquid interface. In the irradiated group, the epithelium had only two or three layer, little cell differentiation, with the same results immersed or air-liquid interface system. Glycerol-preserved MA was biocompatible with the growth of a cultivated epithelium, showing its potential as a skin substitute. Irradiation at 25 kGy cause structural damage to the tissue, making changes in basement membrane, that facilitates

  9. 重组人表皮生长因子对植皮创面成活的影响%Effect of recombinant human epithelium growth factor on livability of skin graft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙剑虹; 张明华; 谢庭鸿; 杨兴华; 黄晓元; 周捷

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of recombinant human epithelium growth factor (rhEGF) applied to skin graft. METHODS: 96 cases between February 2000 and December 2001, were treated. During the operation, After scar removed and skin grafted, the rhEGF was injected under the skin graft. 80 cases without injection of rhEGF were made as contrast. Ten days later, the area of survived skin was measured and the livability of skin was calculated. RESULTS: The skin livability of cases with injection of rhEGF was (90.67 ± 10.02)% and the skin livability of contrast cases was(76. 85 ± 8.35)%. There axisted evident differences between them( P < 0. 01) . CONCLUSION: The rhEGF was an effective method for increasing livability of skin graft.

  10. Lesion of the olfactory epithelium accelerates prion neuroinvasion and disease onset when prion replication is restricted to neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Crowell

    Full Text Available Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain.

  11. Lesion of the Olfactory Epithelium Accelerates Prion Neuroinvasion and Disease Onset when Prion Replication Is Restricted to Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, Jenna; Wiley, James A.; Bessen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Natural prion diseases of ruminants are moderately contagious and while the gastrointestinal tract is the primary site of prion agent entry, other mucosae may be entry sites in a subset of infections. In the current study we examined prion neuroinvasion and disease induction following disruption of the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucosa since this site contains environmentally exposed olfactory sensory neurons that project directly into the central nervous system. Here we provide evidence for accelerated prion neuroinvasion and clinical onset from the olfactory mucosa after disruption and regeneration of the olfactory epithelium and when prion replication is restricted to neurons. In transgenic mice with neuron restricted replication of prions, there was a reduction in survival when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation and there was >25% decrease in the prion incubation period. In a second model, the neurotropic DY strain of transmissible mink encephalopathy was not pathogenic in hamsters by the nasal route, but 50% of animals exhibited brain infection and/or disease when the olfactory epithelium was disrupted prior to intranasal inoculation. A time course analysis of prion deposition in the brain following loss of the olfactory epithelium in models of neuron-restricted prion replication suggests that neuroinvasion from the olfactory mucosa is via the olfactory nerve or brain stem associated cranial nerves. We propose that induction of neurogenesis after damage to the olfactory epithelium can lead to prion infection of immature olfactory sensory neurons and accelerate prion spread to the brain. PMID:25822718

  12. Down-regulation of EMP1 is associated with epithelial hyperplasia and metaplasia in nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue Min; Li, Chun Wei; Li, Ying Ying; Liu, Jing; Lin, Zhi Bin; Li, Tian Ying; Zhao, Li; Pan, Xin Liang; Shi, Li; Wang, De Yun

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess protein and mRNA expression of epithelial membrane protein 1 (EMP1) in the nasal mucosa of patients with nasal polyps (NP), and to determine what changes occur in response to glucocorticosteroid (GC) treatment. NP tissue was obtained from 55 patients, 18 of whom were treated with nasal GCs (i.e. these 18 patients had NP biopsies taken before and after treatment). Biopsies of inferior turbinate mucosa from 30 healthy subjects were used as controls. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine the expression levels of EMP1. EMP1 mRNA expression was significantly lower (2.77-fold) in tissues from NP patients before GC treatment when compared to controls, but was increased in these patients after GC treatment. EMP1 staining in nasal epithelium co-localized with both basal (p63(+)) and differentiated (CK18(+)) epithelial cells. Their immunoreactivity was significantly greater in controls than NP patients. EMP1 mRNA levels were lower in the epithelium with severe hyperplasia (1.79-fold) or with metaplasia (1.85-fold) as compared to those with mild to moderate hyperplasia or non-metaplastic epithelium, respectively. Positive correlations between EMP1 and other epithelial cell-related gene (e.g. JUN, PTGS2, AREG etc.) mRNAs were observed. EMP1 could be a biomarker for aberrant epithelial remodelling and metaplasia in chronic inflammatory upper airway mucosa (e.g. NP). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  15. A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D; Bongianni, Matilde; Tonoli, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Hughson, Andrew G; Groveman, Bradley R; Fiorini, Michele; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Monaco, Salvatore; Caughey, Byron; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2014-08-07

    Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrP(CJD)), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients. We collected olfactory epithelium brushings and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with and patients without sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and tested them using RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive, multiwell plate-based fluorescence assay involving PrP(CJD)-seeded polymerization of recombinant PrP into amyloid fibrils. The RT-QuIC assays seeded with nasal brushings were positive in 30 of 31 patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (15 of 15 with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 13 of 14 with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and 2 of 2 with inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) but were negative in 43 of 43 patients without Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicating a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 100) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100) for the detection of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. By comparison, testing of cerebrospinal fluid samples from the same group of patients had a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 57 to 89) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100). Nasal brushings elicited stronger and faster RT-QuIC responses than cerebrospinal fluid (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease and indicated substantial prion seeding activity lining the nasal vault. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.).

  16. A Test for Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease Using Nasal Brushings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D.; Bongianni, Matilde; Tonoli, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Hughson, Andrew G.; Groveman, Bradley R.; Fiorini, Michele; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Monaco, Salvatore; Caughey, Byron; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrPCJD), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt– Jakob disease in living patients. METHODS We collected olfactory epithelium brushings and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with and patients without sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and tested them using RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive, multiwell plate–based fluorescence assay involving PrPCJD-seeded polymerization of recombinant PrP into amyloid fibrils. RESULTS The RT-QuIC assays seeded with nasal brushings were positive in 30 of 31 patients with Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (15 of 15 with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, 13 of 14 with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, and 2 of 2 with inherited Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease) but were negative in 43 of 43 patients without Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, indicating a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 100) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100) for the detection of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. By comparison, testing of cerebrospinal fluid samples from the same group of patients had a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 57 to 89) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100). Nasal brushings elicited stronger and faster RT-QuIC responses than cerebrospinal fluid (PCreutzfeldt–Jakob disease and indicated substantial prion seeding activity lining the nasal vault. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.) PMID:25099576

  17. Nasal deposition of ciclesonide nasal aerosol and mometasone aqueous nasal spray in allergic rhinitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ivor A; Blaiss, Michael S; Meltzer, Eli O; Evans, Philip; Connor, Alyson

    2014-01-01

    Sensory attributes of intranasal corticosteroids, such as rundown to the back of the throat, may influence patient treatment preferences. This study compares the nasal deposition and nasal retention of a radiolabeled solution of ciclesonide nasal aerosol (CIC-hydrofluoroalkane [HFA]) with a radiolabeled suspension of mometasone furoate monohydrate aqueous nasal spray (MFNS) in subjects with either perennial allergic rhinitis (AR) or seasonal AR. In this open-label, single-dose, randomized, crossover scintigraphy study, 14 subjects with symptomatic AR received a single dose of radiolabeled 74-μg CIC-HFA (37 μg/spray, 1 spray/each nostril) via a nasal metered-dose inhaler or a single dose of radiolabeled 200-μg MFNS (50 μg/spray, 2 sprays/each nostril), with a minimum 5-day washout period between treatments. Initial deposition (2 minutes postdose) of radiolabeled CIC-HFA and MFNS in the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and on nasal wipes, and retention of radioactivity in the nasal cavity and nasal run-out on nasal wipes at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose were quantified with scintigraphy. At 2 and 10 minutes postdose, deposition of radiolabeled CIC-HFA was significantly higher in the nasal cavity versus radiolabeled MFNS (99.42% versus 86.50% at 2 minutes, p = 0.0046; and 81.10% versus 54.31% at 10 minutes, p Deposition of radioactivity on nasal wipes was significantly higher with MFNS versus CIC-HFA at all five time points, and posterior losses of radiolabeled formulation were significantly higher with MFNS at 6, 8, and 10 minutes postdose. In this scintigraphic study, significantly higher nasal deposition and retention of radiolabeled aerosol CIC-HFA were observed versus radiolabeled aqueous MFNS in subjects with AR.

  18. Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cell pigment epithelium-derived factor cytotherapy modifies genetic and epigenetic profiles of prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolochevska, Olga; Shearer, Joseph; Ellis, Jayne; Fokina, Valentina; Shah, Forum; Gimble, Jeffrey M; Figueiredo, Marxa L

    2014-03-01

    Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ASCs) are promising tools for delivery of cytotherapy against cancer. However, ASCs can exert profound effects on biological behavior of tumor cells. Our study aimed to examine the influence of ASCs on gene expression and epigenetic methylation profiles of prostate cancer cells as well as the impact of expressing a therapeutic gene on modifying the interaction between ASCs and prostate cancer cells. ASCs were modified by lentiviral transduction to express either green fluorescent protein as a control or pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) as a therapeutic molecule. PC3 prostate cancer cells were cultured in the presence of ASC culture-conditioned media (CCM), and effects on PC3 or DU145. Ras cells were examined by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, EpiTect methyl prostate cancer-focused real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays, and luciferase reporter assays. ASCs transduced with lentiviral vectors were able to mediate expression of several tumor-inhibitory genes, some of which correlated with epigenetic methylation changes on cocultured PC3 prostate cancer cells. When PC3 cells were cultured with ASC-PEDF CCM, we observed a shift in the balance of gene expression toward tumor inhibition, which suggests that PEDF reduces the potential tumor-promoting activity of unmodified ASCs. These results suggest that ASC-PEDF CCM can promote reprogramming of tumor cells in a paracrine manner. An improved understanding of genetic and epigenetic events in prostate cancer growth in response to PEDF paracrine therapy would enable a more effective use of ASC-PEDF, with the goal of achieving safer yet more potent anti-tumor effects. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is there any relationship between right and left hand dominance and right and left nasal airflow dominance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A; Eccles, R

    2017-10-01

    Left- or right-handedness is a common human trait, and it has been previously reported that human nasal airflow dominance correlates with hand dominance. Any relationship between hand dominance and nasal airflow dominance would be unusual. This study aimed to measure nasal airflow and look for any relationship to handedness. The modified Glatzel mirror was used to record the dominant nasal passage at 15-minute intervals over a 6-hour period in 29 healthy participants consisting of 15 left-handers and 14 right-handers. In left-handers, the percentage of time that the left nasal passage was dominant ranged from 0 to 100 per cent. In right-handers, the percentage of time that the right nasal passage was dominant ranged from 4.2 to 95.8 per cent. No correlation between nasal airflow dominance and hand dominance was identified. The results do not support the hypothesis that nasal airflow and handedness are related.

  20. Nasal biopsies of children exposed to air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, L; Rodriguez-Alcaraz, A; Valencia-Salazar, G; Mora-Tascareño, A; García, R; Osnaya, N; Villarreal-Calderón, A; Devlin, R B; Van Dyke, T

    2001-01-01

    Southwest Metropolitan Mexico City (SWMMC) atmosphere is a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Children in SWMMC are exposed chronically and sequentially to numerous toxicants, and they exhibit significant nasal damage. The objective of this study was to assess p53 accumulation by immunohistochemistry in nasal biopsies of SWMMC children. We evaluated 111 biopsies from 107 children (83 exposed SWMMC children and 24 control children residents in a pollutant-compliant Caribbean island). Complete clinical histories and physical examinations, including an ear-nose-throat (ENT) exam were done. There was a significant statistical difference in the upper and lower respiratory symptomatology and ENT findings between control and exposed children (p < 0.001). Control children gave no respiratory symptomatology in the 3 months prior to the study; their biopsies exhibited normal ciliated respiratory epithelium and were p53-negative. SWMMC children complained of epistaxis, nasal obstruction. and crusting. Irregular areas of whitish-gray recessed mucosa over the inferior and middle turbinates were seen in 25% of SWMMC children, and their nasal biopsies displayed basal cell hyperplasia, decreased numbers of ciliated and goblet cells, neutrophilic epithelial infiltrates, squamous metaplasia. and mild dysplasia. Four of 21 SWMMC children with grossly abnormal mucosal changes exhibited strong transmural nuclear p53 staining in their nasal biopsies (p 0.005, odds ratio 26). In the context of lifetime exposures to toxic and potentially carcinogenic air pollutants, p53 nasal induction in children could potentially represent. a) a checkpoint response to toxic exposures, setting up a selective condition for p53 mutation, or b) a p53 mutation has already occurred as a result of such selection. Because the biological significance of p53 nuclear accumulation in the nasal biopsies of these children is not clear at this point, we strongly

  1. Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research ...

  2. E-cigarette use results in suppression of immune and inflammatory-response genes in nasal epithelial cells similar to cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth M; Clapp, Phillip W; Rebuli, Meghan E; Pawlak, Erica A; Glista-Baker, Ellen; Benowitz, Neal L; Fry, Rebecca C; Jaspers, Ilona

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to cigarette smoke is known to result in impaired host defense responses and immune suppressive effects. However, the effects of new and emerging tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, on the immune status of the respiratory epithelium are largely unknown. We conducted a clinical study collecting superficial nasal scrape biopsies, nasal lavage, urine, and serum from nonsmokers, cigarette smokers, and e-cigarette users and assessed them for changes in immune gene expression profiles. Smoking status was determined based on a smoking history and a 3- to 4-wk smoking diary and confirmed using serum cotinine and urine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) levels. Total RNA from nasal scrape biopsies was analyzed using the nCounter Human Immunology v2 Expression panel. Smoking cigarettes or vaping e-cigarettes resulted in decreased expression of immune-related genes. All genes with decreased expression in cigarette smokers (n = 53) were also decreased in e-cigarette smokers. Additionally, vaping e-cigarettes was associated with suppression of a large number of unique genes (n = 305). Furthermore, the e-cigarette users showed a greater suppression of genes common with those changed in cigarette smokers. This was particularly apparent for suppressed expression of transcription factors, such as EGR1, which was functionally associated with decreased expression of 5 target genes in cigarette smokers and 18 target genes in e-cigarette users. Taken together, these data indicate that vaping e-cigarettes is associated with decreased expression of a large number of immune-related genes, which are consistent with immune suppression at the level of the nasal mucosa. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Prevalence of ciliated epithelium in apical periodontitis lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricucci, Domenico; Loghin, Simona; Siqueira, José F; Abdelsayed, Rafik A

    2014-04-01

    This article reports on the morphologic features and the frequency of ciliated epithelium in apical cysts and discusses its origin. The study material consisted of 167 human apical periodontitis lesions obtained consecutively from patients presenting for treatment during a period of 12 years in a dental practice operated by one of the authors. All of the lesions were obtained still attached to the root apices of teeth with untreated (93 lesions) or treated canals (74 lesions). The former were obtained by extraction and the latter by extraction or apical surgery. Specimens were processed for histopathologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Lesions were classified, and the type of epithelium, if present, was recorded. Of the lesions analyzed, 49 (29%) were diagnosed as cysts. Of these, 26 (53%) were found in untreated teeth, and 23 (47%) related to root canal-treated teeth. Ciliated columnar epithelium was observed partially or completely lining the cyst wall in 4 cysts, and all of them occurred in untreated maxillary molars. Three of these lesions were categorized as pocket cysts, and the other was a true cyst. Ciliated columnar epithelium-lined cysts corresponded to approximately 2% of the apical periodontitis lesions and 8% of the cysts of endodontic origin in the population studied. This epithelium is highly likely to have a sinus origin in the majority of cases. However, the possibility of prosoplasia or upgraded differentiation into ciliated epithelium from the typical cystic lining squamous epithelium may also be considered. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome sequencing and analysis reveals possible determinants of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cole Alexander M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus is a major risk factor in clinical and community settings due to the range of etiologies caused by the organism. We have identified unique immunological and ultrastructural properties associated with nasal carriage isolates denoting a role for bacterial factors in nasal carriage. However, despite extensive molecular level characterizations by several groups suggesting factors necessary for colonization on nasal epithelium, genetic determinants of nasal carriage are unknown. Herein, we have set a genomic foundation for unraveling the bacterial determinants of nasal carriage in S. aureus. Results MLST analysis revealed no lineage specific differences between carrier and non-carrier strains suggesting a role for mobile genetic elements. We completely sequenced a model carrier isolate (D30 and a model non-carrier strain (930918-3 to identify differential gene content. Comparison revealed the presence of 84 genes unique to the carrier strain and strongly suggests a role for Type VII secretion systems in nasal carriage. These genes, along with a putative pathogenicity island (SaPIBov present uniquely in the carrier strains are likely important in affecting carriage. Further, PCR-based genotyping of other clinical isolates for a specific subset of these 84 genes raise the possibility of nasal carriage being caused by multiple gene sets. Conclusion Our data suggest that carriage is likely a heterogeneic phenotypic trait and implies a role for nucleotide level polymorphism in carriage. Complete genome level analyses of multiple carriage strains of S. aureus will be important in clarifying molecular determinants of S. aureus nasal carriage.

  5. Carboxylesterase-dependent cytotoxicity of dibasic esters (DBE) in rat nasal explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, B A; Bogdanffy, M S

    1991-02-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are a solvent mixture of dimethyl adipate (DMA), dimethyl glutarate (DMG), and dimethyl succinate (DMS) used in the paint and coating industry. Subchronic inhalation toxicity studies have demonstrated that DBE induce a mild degeneration of the olfactory, but not the respiratory, epithelium of the rat nasal cavity. Carboxylesterase-mediated hydrolysis of the individual dibasic esters is more efficient in olfactory than in respiratory mucosal homogenates. In the present study, an in vitro system of cultured rat nasal explants was utilized to determine if DBE toxicity is dependent on a metabolic activation by nonspecific carboxylesterase. Explants from both the olfactory and the respiratory regions of the female rat nasal cavity were incubated for 2 hr in Williams' medium E containing 10-100 mM DMA, DMG, or DMS. DBE caused a dose-related increase in nasal explant acid phosphatase release, a biochemical index of cytotoxicity. HPLC analysis demonstrated parallel increases in the carboxylesterase-mediated formation of monomethyl ester metabolites. Diacid metabolite production in the nasal explant system was not entirely concentration-dependent. Metabolite concentrations and acid phosphatase release were generally greater in olfactory than respiratory tissues. DBE-induced cytotoxicity and acid metabolite production were markedly attenuated in nasal tissue excised from rats which were pretreated with bis(p-nitrophenyl)phosphate, a carboxylesterase inhibitor. This study presents a viable in vitro method for assessing organic ester cytotoxicity in the rat nasal cavity. It was shown that DBE are weak nasal toxicants under the conditions of this system. It was further demonstrated that DBE toxicity is dependent on a carboxylesterase-mediated activation. A similar mechanism was proposed for the nasal toxicity induced by other organic esters following inhalation exposure.

  6. Adhesion of Porphyromonas gingivalis serotypes to pocket epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierickx, K; Pauwels, M; Laine, ML; Van Eldere, J; Cassiman, JJ; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van Steenberghe, D; Quirynen, M

    Background: Porphyromonas gingivalis, a key pathogen in periodontitis, is able to adhere to and invade the pocket epithelium. Different capsular antigens of P gingivalis have been identified (K-serotyping). These P gingivalis capsular types show differences in adhesion capacity to human cell lines

  7. Case report: Detection of the Middle East respiratory syndrome corona virus (MERS-CoV in nasal secretions of a dead human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed H. Mahallawi, PhD

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available الملخص: يُعرف فيروس ”كورونا“ المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية على أنه فيروس شديد العدوى يصيب الجهاز التنفسي مع معدلات مرتفعة في المضاعفات والوفيات. يُحمِّل فيروس كورونا المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية عبئا كبيرا على مرافق الرعاية الصحية في المملكة العربية السعودية بنسبة وفيات تقارب الـ ٤٠٪. ولا يزال انتقال الفيروس غير مفهوم بشكل جيد. ولذلك، فإن منع أي طريق للانتقال هو أفضل وسيلة لمنع انتشار هذا المرض. تم باستخدام تفاعل البوليميرايز المتسلسل الآني، الكشف عن فيروس كورونا المسبب لمتلازمة الشرق الأوسط التنفسية في الافرازات الأنفية لجثة. لذا ينبغي تطبيق الاحتياطات الكاملة ومتابعتها لمنع انتقال الفيروس، خاصة بين العاملين في مجال الرعاية الصحية. Abstract: The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus that infects the human respiratory tract and has high morbidity and mortality. The MERS-CoV is a huge burden on Saudi Arabian health-care facilities, causing approximately 40% mortality. The transmission mechanism of the virus is still not well understood. Therefore, the prevention of any route of transmission is the best measure to arrest the spread of this disease. Using the real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, MERS-CoV was detected in the nasal secretions of a human cadaver. Full precautions should be applied and carefully followed to prevent the transmission of the virus, especially among health care workers. الكلمات

  8. Developmental origin of the posterior pigmented epithelium of iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Xiong, Kai; Lu, Lei; Gu, Dandan; Wang, Songtao; Chen, Jing; Xiao, Honglei; Zhou, Guomin

    2015-03-01

    Iris epithelium is a double-layered pigmented cuboidal epithelium. According to the current model, the neural retina and the posterior iris pigment epithelium (IPE) are derived from the inner wall of the optic cup, while the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the anterior IPE are derived from the outer wall of the optic cup during development. Our current study shows evidence, contradicting this model of fetal iris development. We demonstrate that human fetal iris expression patterns of Otx2 and Mitf transcription factors are similar, while the expressions of Otx2 and Sox2 are complementary. Furthermore, IPE and RPE exhibit identical morphologic development during the early embryonic period. Our results suggest that the outer layer of the optic cup forms two layers of the iris epithelium, and the posterior IPE is the inward-curling anterior rim of the outer layer of the optic cup. These findings provide a reasonable explanation of how IPE cells can be used as an appropriate substitute for RPE cells.

  9. Solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal cavity serve as sentinels of respiration

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, Thomas E.; Böttger, Bärbel; Hansen, Anne; Anderson, Karl T.; Alimohammadi, Hessamedin; Silver, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Inhalation of irritating substances leads to activation of the trigeminal nerve, triggering protective reflexes that include apnea or sneezing. Receptors for trigeminal irritants are generally assumed to be located exclusively on free nerve endings within the nasal epithelium, requiring that trigeminal irritants diffuse through the junctional barrier at the epithelial surface to activate receptors. We find, in both rats and mice, an extensive population of chemosensory...

  10. Reconstituted human corneal epithelium: a new alternative to the Draize eye test for the assessment of the eye irritation potential of chemicals and cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, O; Lanvin, M; Thillou, C; Linossier, C; Pupat, C; Merlin, B; Zastrow, L

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the interest of a new three-dimensional epithelial model cultivated from human corneal cells to replace animal testing in the assessment of eye tolerance. To this end, 65 formulated cosmetic products and 36 chemicals were tested by means of this in vitro model using a simplified toxicokinetic approach. The chemicals were selected from the ECETOC data bank and the EC/HO International validation study list. Very satisfactory results were obtained in terms of concordance with the Draize test data for the formulated cosmetic products. Moreover, the response of the corneal model appeared predictive of human ocular response clinically observed by ophthalmologists. The in vitro scores for the chemicals tested strongly correlated with their respective scores in vivo. For all the compounds tested, the response of the corneal model to irritants was similar regardless of their chemical structure, suggesting a good robustness of the prediction model proposed. We concluded that this new three-dimensional epithelial model, developed from human corneal cells, could be promising for the prediction of eye irritation induced by chemicals and complex formulated products, and that these two types of materials should be tested using a similar protocol. A simple shortening of the exposure period was required for the chemicals assumed to be more aggressively irritant to the epithelial tissues than the cosmetic formulae.

  11. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiji; Motoori, Ken; Ueda, Takuya; Osaka, Iwao; Takano, Hideyuki; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The nasal septum is a particularly rare site of origin of chondrosarcoma. Cranial base invasion may be at hand, with such lesions making complete tumor removal difficult. MRI techniques allow precise definition of tumor extent. In the described case, CT and Dynamic MR imaging were performed in a case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum. Imaging clearly illustrated size and extent of the mass with central regions of internal calcification. Dynamic MRI was additionally performed, which helped to define the presumed origin of the lesion from the nasal septum. (orig.)

  12. Nasal Glial Heterotopia with Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Sudhir; Mehta, Milind A; Kulkarni, Abhishek Kishore

    2018-01-01

    Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  13. Nasal glial heterotopia with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir Chandna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital midline nasal masses are rare anomalies of which nasal glial heterotopia represents an even rarer subset. We report a case of a 25-day-old male child with nasal glial heterotopia along with cleft palate suggesting embryonic fusion anomaly which was treated with excision and primary closure for nasal mass followed by palatal repair at later date.

  14. Localized nasal cavity, sinus, and massive bilateral orbital involvement by human T cell leukemia virus 1 adult T cell lymphoma, with epidermal hypertrophy due to mite infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Laveaux

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available HTLV1 adult T cell lymphoma occurs tends to be widely disseminated and aggressive, with only brief responses to chemotherapy. Aside from cervical adenopathy, involvement of head and neck structures is uncommon and orbital involvement rare. We report a case of nasal cavity HTLV lymphoma with massive bilateral orbital involvement and proptosis, resulting in complete left and partial right eye amaurosis. No other sites of disease were found. Response to chemotherapy was rapid and complete, with almost complete restoration of vision and oculo-motor function; the patient has remained in remission for one year. An associated problem was striking bilateral hypertrophic, hyperkeratotic eyelid and breast lesions due to mite infestation. 

  15. Intranasal administration of a proteosome-influenza vaccine is well-tolerated and induces serum and nasal secretion influenza antibodies in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treanor, John; Nolan, Carrie; O'Brien, Diane; Burt, David; Lowell, George; Linden, Janine; Fries, Louis

    2006-01-16

    Two randomized, blinded, active comparator-controlled trials of a prototype monovalent A/Beijing/262/95 (H1N1) - proteosome vaccine delivered by intranasal spray were performed in healthy adults. Overall, the intranasal proteosome-adjuvanted vaccine was well-tolerated with only mild stuffy nose and rhinorrhea seen more frequently in recipients of vaccine than in recipients of intranasal saline, and there were no serious adverse events. The intranasal proteosome-adjuvanted vaccine induced serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) and nasal secretory IgA (sIgA) responses specific for the influenza antigen. Serum HAI responses were most influenced by the dosage level, whereas mucosal sIgA responses, although demonstrable with both single-dose and two-dose vaccine regimens, appeared to be greater in response to two-dose regimens (regardless of dose level). Further evaluation of mucosal influenza immunization using the proteosome adjuvant/delivery system is clearly warranted.

  16. Stratum corneum lipid liposome-encapsulated panomycocin: preparation, characterization, and the determination of antimycotic efficacy against Candida spp. isolated from patients with vulvovaginitis in an in vitro human vaginal epithelium tissue model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzgü, Fatih; Bayram, Günce; Tosun, Kübra; İzgü, Demet

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a liposomal lyophilized powder formulation of panomycocin was developed for therapeutic purposes against vulvovaginal candidiasis which affects 80% of women worldwide. Panomycocin is a potent antimycotic protein secreted by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus NCYC 434. This study involved the preparation of panomycocin-loaded stratum corneum lipid liposomes (SCLLs), characterization of the SCLLs, and determination of antimycotic efficacy of the formulation against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata clinical vaginal isolates in a human vaginal epithelium tissue model. The encapsulation and loading efficiencies of SCLLs were 73% and 76.8%, respectively. In transmission electron microscopy images, the SCLLs appeared in the submicron size range. Dynamic light scattering analyses showed that the SCLLs had uniform size distribution. Zeta potential measurements revealed stable and positively charged SCLLs. In Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, no irreversible interactions between the encapsulated panomycocin and the SCLLs were detected. The SCLLs retained >98% of encapsulated panomycocin in aqueous solution up to 12 hours. The formulation was fungicidal at the same minimum fungicidal concentration values for non-formulated pure panomycocin when tested on an in vitro model of vaginal candidiasis. This is the first study in which SCLLs and a protein as an active ingredient have been utilized together in a formulation. The results obtained in this study led us to conduct further preclinical trials of this formulation for the development of an effective topical anti-candidal drug with improved safety.

  17. Keratoacanthoma of the Nasal Septum Secondary to Ranibizumab Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Cohn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Keratoacanthoma (KA is a benign epithelial tumor that typically presents as a firm, cone-shaped, flesh-colored nodule with a central horn-filled crater. KA is considered to be a low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. We report a rare case of a 72-year-old male who presented with a KA involving the nasal septum, possibly related to ranibizumab use. A flesh-colored lesion on the right anterior nasal septum lesion was visualized on examination. Histologic examination revealed a well-circumscribed, dome-shaped central crater filled with keratin, well-differentiated squamous epithelium with ground-glass cytoplasm with pushing margins, and intraepithelial microabscesses establishing the diagnosis of KA. KA of the nasal septum has only been reported once in the literature. This case is unusual because it normally presents on sun-exposed areas. Additionally, this patient was taking ranibizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF inhibitor for macular degeneration. Despite ranibizumab not being directly linked to precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, agents in this medication class have been. Although it is difficult to prove associations in this isolated case, the role of ranibizumab causing cutaneous lesions should be further investigated.

  18. Competitive fitness of influenza B viruses with neuraminidase inhibitor-resistant substitutions in a coinfection model of the human airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew J; Armstrong, Jianling; Lowen, Anice C; Webster, Robert G; Govorkova, Elena A

    2015-04-01

    Influenza A and B viruses are human pathogens that are regarded to cause almost equally significant disease burdens. Neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors (NAIs) are the only class of drugs available to treat influenza A and B virus infections, so the development of NAI-resistant viruses with superior fitness is a public health concern. The fitness of NAI-resistant influenza B viruses has not been widely studied. Here we examined the replicative capacity and relative fitness in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells of recombinant influenza B/Yamanashi/166/1998 viruses containing a single amino acid substitution in NA generated by reverse genetics (rg) that is associated with NAI resistance. The replication in NHBE cells of viruses with reduced inhibition by oseltamivir (recombinant virus with the E119A mutation generated by reverse genetics [rg-E119A], rg-D198E, rg-I222T, rg-H274Y, rg-N294S, and rg-R371K, N2 numbering) or zanamivir (rg-E119A and rg-R371K) failed to be inhibited by the presence of the respective NAI. In a fluorescence-based assay, detection of rg-E119A was easily masked by the presence of NAI-susceptible virus. We coinfected NHBE cells with NAI-susceptible and -resistant viruses and used next-generation deep sequencing to reveal the order of relative fitness compared to that of recombinant wild-type (WT) virus generated by reverse genetics (rg-WT): rg-H274Y > rg-WT > rg-I222T > rg-N294S > rg-D198E > rg-E119A ≫ rg-R371K. Based on the lack of attenuated replication of rg-E119A in NHBE cells in the presence of oseltamivir or zanamivir and the fitness advantage of rg-H274Y over rg-WT, we emphasize the importance of these substitutions in the NA glycoprotein. Human infections with influenza B viruses carrying the E119A or H274Y substitution could limit the therapeutic options for those infected; the emergence of such viruses should be closely monitored. Influenza B viruses are important human respiratory pathogens contributing to a significant portion

  19. Nasal Foreign Bodies: A Sweet Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopard, D C; Williams, R G

    2015-10-01

    It is generally accepted that paediatric intranasal foreign bodies should be removed in the emergency setting. In the case of a difficult to access dissolvable foreign body in an uncooperative child, the question must be raised regarding whether or not a watch and wait strategy is more appropriate. We ask: How long does it take for popular sweets (candy) to dissolve in the human nose? Five popular UK sweets were placed in the right nasal cavity of a 29-year-old male (the author) with no sino-nasal disease. Time taken to dissolve was recorded. All five sweets were completely dissolved in under one hour. A watch and wait strategy in favour of examination under anaesthetic may be a viable option in some cases. Limitations of the study include the age of the participant and size of the sweets. It is also important in practice that the clinician is able to elicit an accurate history regarding the exact nature of the foreign body. It remains prudent to perform an examination under anaesthetic of an uncooperative child with a solid or unknown nasal foreign body. However, if the clinician can be certain the foreign body is a small sugar or chocolate based sweet only, a watch and wait strategy may be a reasonable choice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Automated method for structural segmentation of nasal airways based on cone beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymkovych, Maksym Yu.; Avrunin, Oleg G.; Paliy, Victor G.; Filzow, Maksim; Gryshkov, Oleksandr; Glasmacher, Birgit; Omiotek, Zbigniew; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Smailova, Saule; Kozbekova, Ainur

    2017-08-01

    The work is dedicated to the segmentation problem of human nasal airways using Cone Beam Computed Tomography. During research, we propose a specialized approach of structured segmentation of nasal airways. That approach use spatial information, symmetrisation of the structures. The proposed stages can be used for construction a virtual three dimensional model of nasal airways and for production full-scale personalized atlases. During research we build the virtual model of nasal airways, which can be used for construction specialized medical atlases and aerodynamics researches.

  1. Differential responses of cells from human skin keratinocyte and bovine mammary epithelium to attack by pore-forming Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyaphol, Gunnaporn; Sarikaputi, Meena; Suriyaphol, Prapat

    2009-11-01

    Human skin keratinocytes HaCat attacked by Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin showed a transient drop of cellular ATP levels whereas in toxin-perforated bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC), the ATP levels dropped more slowly. Morphologically, during the ATP level depletion, HaCat cell developed a spacious intracellular vacuole together with the transient influx of trypan blue. WST-1 signal, which tested the function of mitochondrial enzyme in viable cells, also decreased concomitantly. On the other hand, BMEC excluded trypan blue and vacuolation was not observed throughout the experiment. We conclude that mammary epithelial cells resist the toxin better than keratinocytes. This is the first report showing that alpha-toxin enhances transient membrane permeability to large molecules, temporary vacuole formation and the transient defect of mitochondrial enzyme in viable cells without cell lysis.

  2. Streptococcus pneumoniae Colonization Is Required To Alter the Nasal Microbiota in Cigarette Smoke-Exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Pamela; Whelan, Fiona J; Schenck, L Patrick; McGrath, Joshua J C; Vanderstocken, Gilles; Bowdish, Dawn M E; Surette, Michael G; Stämpfli, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Smokers have nasal microbiota dysbiosis, with an increased frequency of colonizing bacterial pathogens. It is possible that cigarette smoke increases pathogen acquisition by perturbing the microbiota and decreasing colonization resistance. However, it is difficult to disentangle microbiota dysbiosis due to cigarette smoke exposure from microbiota changes caused by increased pathogen acquisition in human smokers. Using an experimental mouse model, we investigated the impact of cigarette smoke on the nasal microbiota in the absence and presence of nasal pneumococcal colonization. We observed that cigarette smoke exposure alone did not alter the nasal microbiota composition. The microbiota composition was also unchanged at 12 h following low-dose nasal pneumococcal inoculation, suggesting that the ability of the microbiota to resist initial nasal pneumococcal acquisition was not impaired in smoke-exposed mice. However, nasal microbiota dysbiosis occurred as a consequence of established high-dose nasal pneumococcal colonization at day 3 in smoke-exposed mice. Similar to clinical reports on human smokers, an enrichment of potentially pathogenic bacterial genera such as Fusobacterium , Gemella , and Neisseria was observed. Our findings suggest that cigarette smoke exposure predisposes to pneumococcal colonization independent of changes to the nasal microbiota and that microbiota dysbiosis observed in smokers may occur as a consequence of established pathogen colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Early remodeling of nasal mucosa in rat model after radiation injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Mang; Tang Jianguo; Luo Baozhen; Zhao Li'na; Shi Guozhi

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feature of nasal mucosa remodeling in experimental radiation injury. Methods: Fourty male rats were randomly divided into five groups, as control group and radiation injury groups (radiation dose were 20 Gy, 30 Gy, 40 Gy and 50 Gy). Each group had 8 rats. Two weeks after the last irradiation, the rats were killed and the nasal middle turbinates of the animals were removed. The tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin. The paraffin sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), alcian blue- periodic acid-Schif (AB-PAS), and Masson Trichrome (MT). The infiltrating eosinophils in nasal mucosa were examined. AB-PAS positive cells in the surface epithelium in nasal mucosa were counted. The percentage of area in MT stained extracellular matrix in nasal mucosa and damage of epithelium were determined by an image analyzer. Results: The control group only presented a few eosinophils. Significant eosinophil infiltration was observed in the radiation injury groups, especially for the 30 Gy radiation injury group. Compared with the control group, there was no significant epithelial damage in 20 Gy radiation injury group. Significant epithelial damage were observed in the rest of radiation injury groups. The epithelial damage became more severe as the radiation dose increasing. A little but not significant increase in AB-PAS positive cells was observed in the mucos of the 20 Gy radiation injury group and significant increase in the 30 and 40 Gy groups. But in the 50 Gy radiation injury group, the AB-PAS positive cells were decreased compared with control group. The collagen fibrils in the mucosa of nasal middle turbinate in 20 Gy radiation injury group did not significantly increase.. But in the other groups, the increase was significant compared with that of control group. Furthermore, collagen fibrils increased as the radiation dose increased. Conclusions: Epithelial damage, goblet cells hyperplasia and extracellular matrix deposition are the

  4. R5 HIV-1 envelope attracts dendritic cells to cross the human intestinal epithelium and sample luminal virions via engagement of the CCR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarelli, Mariangela; Foglieni, Chiara; Rescigno, Maria; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2013-05-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is a principal route of entry and site of persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The intestinal mucosa, being rich of cells that are the main target of the virus, represents a primary site of viral replication and CD4(+) T-cell depletion. Here, we show both in vitro and ex vivo that HIV-1 of R5 but not X4 phenotype is capable of selectively triggering dendritic cells (DCs) to migrate within 30 min between intestinal epithelial cells to sample virions and transfer infection to target cells. The engagement of the chemokine receptor 5 on DCs and the viral envelope, regardless of the genetic subtype, drive DC migration. Viruses penetrating through transient opening of the tight junctions likely create a paracellular gradient to attract DCs. The formation of junctions with epithelial cells may initiate a haptotactic process of DCs and at the same time favour cell-to-cell viral transmission. Our findings indicate that HIV-1 translocation across the intestinal mucosa occurs through the selective engagement of DCs by R5 viruses, and may guide the design of new prevention strategies. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd on behalf of EMBO.

  5. Specificity of tumor necrosis factor toxicity for human mammary carcinomas relative to normal mammary epithelium and correlation with response to doxorubicin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dollbaum, C.; Creasey, A.A.; Dairkee, S.H.; Hiller, A.J.; Rudolph, A.R.; Lin, L.; Vitt, C.; Smith, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    By using a unique short-term culture system capable of growing both normal and malignant breast epithelial tissue, human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) showed preferential cytotoxicity to malignant cells as compared to the corresponding nonmalignant cells. Most of the malignant specimens were sensitive to TNF with 13 of 18 specimens showing 90% inhibition of clonal growth (ID 90 ). In contrast, all 13 nonmalignant specimens tested clustered at the resistant end of the TNF response spectrum. This differential sensitivity to TNF was seen in three cases in which malignant and nonmalignant breast epithelial tissues from the same patient were studied. To investigate the mechanism of resistance to TNF by normal cells, the presence of receptors for TNF was determined. Five of six cultures showed specific binding of 125 I-labeled TNF and there was no relationship between the degree of resistance and the degree of specific binding. Simultaneous comparison of tumor responsiveness to doxorubicin and TNF revealed a positive correlation in ID 90 values; these results may have important implications for the clinical use of TNF in cancer patients heavily pretreated with doxorubicin

  6. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxing; Kanako, Nakajima; Zhang, Yanqiu; Xiao, Xulang; Gao, Qipin; Tetsuya, Konishi

    2017-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (HE) has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS) extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  7. Characterization of epithelial domains in the nasal passages of chick embryos: spatial and temporal mapping of a range of extracellular matrix and cell surface molecules during development of the nasal placode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croucher, S J; Tickle, C

    1989-07-01

    The formation of the nasal passages involves complex morphogenesis and their lining develops a spatially ordered pattern of differentiation, with distinct domains of olfactory and respiratory epithelium. Using antibodies to the neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM), keratan sulphate and heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) and a panel of lectins (agglutinins of Canavalia ensiformis (ConA), Dolichos biflorus (DBA), peanut (PNA), Ricinis communis (RCA1), soybean (SBA), Ulex europaeus (UEA1), and wheatgerm (WGA], we have documented cell surface characteristics of each epithelial domain. Binding of antibodies to N-CAM and to keratan sulphate, and the lectins ConA, PNA, RCA1, SBA and WGA marks the olfactory epithelial domain only. The restriction of N-CAM to the sensory region of the epithelium has also been reported in the developing ear. This striking similarity is consistent with the idea that N-CAM may be involved in the division of functionally and histologically distinct cell groups within an epithelium. We traced the olfactory-specific cell markers during development to gain insights into the origin of the epithelial lining of the nasal passages. All reagents bind at early stages to the thickened nasal placode and surrounding head ectoderm and then become progressively restricted to the olfactory domain. The expression of these characteristics appears to be modulated during development rather than being cell autonomous. The distribution of keratan sulphate was compared with collagen type II in relation to the specification of the chondrocranium. Keratan sulphate and collagen type II are only colocalized at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface during early nasal development. At later stages, only collagen type II is expressed at the interface throughout the nasal passages, whereas keratan sulphate is absent beneath the respiratory epithelium.

  8. Assessment of the proliferative, apoptotic and cellular renovation indices of the human mammary epithelium during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarrete, Maria Alicia H; Maier, Carolina M; Falzoni, Roberto; Quadros, Luiz Gerk de Azevedo; Lima, Geraldo R; Baracat, Edmund C; Nazário, Afonso CP

    2005-01-01

    During the menstrual cycle, the mammary gland goes through sequential waves of proliferation and apoptosis. In mammary epithelial cells, hormonal and non-hormonal factors regulate apoptosis. To determine the cyclical effects of gonadal steroids on breast homeostasis, we evaluated the apoptotic index (AI) determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining in human mammary epithelial cells during the spontaneous menstrual cycle and correlated it with cellular proliferation as determined by the expression of Ki-67 during the same period. Normal breast tissue samples were obtained from 42 randomly selected patients in the proliferative (n = 21) and luteal (n = 21) phases. Menstrual cycle phase characterization was based on the date of the last and subsequent menses, and on progesterone serum levels obtained at the time of biopsy. The proliferation index (PI), defined as the number of Ki-67-positive nuclei per 1,000 epithelial cells, was significantly larger in the luteal phase (30.46) than in the follicular phase (13.45; P = 0.0033). The AI was defined as the number of TUNEL-positive cells per 1,000 epithelial cells. The average AI values in both phases of the menstrual cycle were not statistically significant (P = 0.21). However, the cell renewal index (CRI = PI/AI) was significantly higher in the luteal phase (P = 0.033). A significant cyclical variation of PI, AI and CRI was observed. PI and AI peaks occurred on about the 24th day of the menstrual cycle, whereas the CRI reached higher values on the 28th day. We conclude that proliferative activity is dependent mainly on hormonal fluctuations, whereas apoptotic activity is probably regulated by hormonal and non-hormonal factors

  9. The effect of culture density and proliferation rate on the expression of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, J.M.; Jaffe, G.J.; Brzeski, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    The number and activity of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps expressed by many cell types in vitro, including human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), have been shown to decline with increasing culture density. Cell proliferation also declined as cultures became dense so it was unclear if pump number was modulated by cell proliferation or culture confluency. By exposing RPE cultures to various feeding regimens, using culture medium containing or lacking serum, it was possible to produce RPE cultures with a range of culture densities and growth rates. These were analyzed for proliferative activity by quantifying [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation and for Na/K ATPase pump number by measuring specific [ 3 H]ouabain binding. The results suggest that pump number is modulated by culture density and, further, that the density-dependent regulation of pump number requires serum. Although density-dependent modulation of culture growth is also serum requiring, cell proliferation and pump number did not appear to be related; cultures of similar density which differed significantly in growth rate had similar numbers of pumps. The view that elevated numbers of pumps were not necessarily found in proliferating cells was further supported by qualitative examination of radioautographs of cells dually labeled with [ 3 H]thymidine and [ 3 H]ouabain. Cycling cells which had [ 3 H]thymidine-labeled nuclei did not have notably higher labeling with [ 3 H]ouabain. However, [ 3 H]ouabain labeling, as an indicator of pump site number and distribution, did vary among cells in an RPE population and also within individual cells. This latter observation suggests that unpolarized RPE cells in sparse cultures may have regionally different requirements for ionic regulation

  10. Sterigmatocystin-induced DNA damage triggers G2 arrest via an ATM/p53-related pathway in human gastric epithelium GES-1 cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Zhang

    Full Text Available Sterigmatocystin (ST, which is commonly detected in food and feed commodities, is a mutagenic and carcinogenic mycotoxin that has been recognized as a possible human carcinogen. Our previous study showed that ST can induce G2 phase arrest in GES-1 cells in vitro and that the MAPK and PI3K signaling pathways are involved in the ST-induced G2 arrest. It is now widely accepted that DNA damage plays a critical role in the regulation of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In response to DNA damage, a complex signaling network is activated in eukaryotic cells to trigger cell cycle arrest and facilitate DNA repair. To further explore the molecular mechanism through which ST induces G2 arrest, the current study was designed to precisely dissect the role of DNA damage and the DNA damage sensor ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM/p53-dependent pathway in the ST-induced G2 arrest in GES-1 cells. Using the comet assay, we determined that ST induces DNA damage, as evidenced by the formation of DNA comet tails, in GES-1 cells. We also found that ST induces the activation of ATM and its downstream molecules, Chk2 and p53, in GES-1 cells. The ATM pharmacological inhibitor caffeine was found to effectively inhibit the activation of the ATM-dependent pathways and to rescue the ST-induced G2 arrest in GES-1 cells, which indicating its ATM-dependent characteristic. Moreover, the silencing of the p53 expression with siRNA effectively attenuated the ST-induced G2 arrest in GES-1 cells. We also found that ST induces apoptosis in GES-1 cells. Thus, our results show that the ST-induced DNA damage activates the ATM/53-dependent signaling pathway, which contributes to the induction of G2 arrest in GES-1 cells.

  11. The effect of culture density and proliferation rate on the expression of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J.M.; Jaffe, G.J.; Brzeski, C.M. (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The number and activity of ouabain-sensitive Na/K ATPase pumps expressed by many cell types in vitro, including human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), have been shown to decline with increasing culture density. Cell proliferation also declined as cultures became dense so it was unclear if pump number was modulated by cell proliferation or culture confluency. By exposing RPE cultures to various feeding regimens, using culture medium containing or lacking serum, it was possible to produce RPE cultures with a range of culture densities and growth rates. These were analyzed for proliferative activity by quantifying ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation and for Na/K ATPase pump number by measuring specific ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding. The results suggest that pump number is modulated by culture density and, further, that the density-dependent regulation of pump number requires serum. Although density-dependent modulation of culture growth is also serum requiring, cell proliferation and pump number did not appear to be related; cultures of similar density which differed significantly in growth rate had similar numbers of pumps. The view that elevated numbers of pumps were not necessarily found in proliferating cells was further supported by qualitative examination of radioautographs of cells dually labeled with ({sup 3}H)thymidine and ({sup 3}H)ouabain. Cycling cells which had ({sup 3}H)thymidine-labeled nuclei did not have notably higher labeling with ({sup 3}H)ouabain. However, ({sup 3}H)ouabain labeling, as an indicator of pump site number and distribution, did vary among cells in an RPE population and also within individual cells. This latter observation suggests that unpolarized RPE cells in sparse cultures may have regionally different requirements for ionic regulation.

  12. A unique polysaccharide purified from Hericium erinaceus mycelium prevents oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in human gastric mucosa epithelium cell.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Wang

    Full Text Available Hericium erinaceus (HE has been used both as a traditional Chinese medicine and home remedy for treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastritis. EP-1, a purified polysaccharide isolated from HE mycelium, has recently been identified as the active component responsible for HE anti-gastritis activity. Because oxidative stress has been implicated as a pathogenic cause of gastritis and gastric ulcers, EP-1 antioxidant properties were systematically examined in vitro using the human gastric mucosal epithelial cell line, GES-1. Results showed that EP-1 possessed higher oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC and 2-3 times higher ability to scavenge 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals than a hot water extract of commercially available HE fruiting body. A crude mycelial polysaccharide (CMPS extract of HE, from which EP-1 was purified, showed slightly stronger radical scavenging activity and ORAC than EP-1, with the exception of DPPH-scavenging activity. Antioxidant activities of these extracts were further studied using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-abused GES-1 cells; EP-1 dose-dependently preserved cell viability of abused cells as assessed via MTT assay. Moreover, FACS analysis revealed that EP-1 prevented H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting activation of apoptotic cellular signals within mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathways. CMPS also prevented H2O2-induced oxidative stress, but to a lesser degree than did EP-1, even though CMPS exhibited comparable or stronger in vitro antioxidant activity than did EP-1.

  13. Internal nasal floor configuration in Homo with special reference to the evolution of Neandertal facial form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franciscus, Robert G

    2003-06-01

    The presence of a steeply sloping or depressed nasal floor within the nasal cavity of Neandertals is frequently mentioned as a likely specialization or autapomorphy. The depressed nasal floor has also been seen as contributing to a relatively more capacious nasal cavity in Neandertals, which is tied to cold-climate respiratory adaptation and energetics. These observations have been limited largely to a relatively few intact crania, and the character states associated with this trait have not been as precisely codified or analyzed as those published for Plio-Pleistocene hominins (McCollum et al., 1993, J. Hum. Evol. 24, 87; McCollum, 2000, Am. J. Phys. Anthrop. 112, 275). This study examines the internal nasal floor topography in complete crania and isolated maxillae in European, west Asian, and African fossil Homo (n=158) including 25 Neandertals, and a wide range of recent humans from Europe, the Near East, and Africa (n=522). The configuration of the internal nasal floor relative to the nasal cavity entrance is codified as: 1) level, forming a smooth continuous plane; 2) sloped or mildly stepped; or 3) bilevel with a pronounced vertical depression. The frequency of these nasal floor configurations, and their relationship to both nasal margin cresting patterning and a comprehensive set of nasofacial metrics is examined. Neandertals show a high frequency of the bilevel (depressed) configuration in both adults and subadults (80%), but this configuration is also present in lower frequencies in Middle Pleistocene African, Late Pleistocene non-Neandertal (Skhul, Qafzeh), and European Later Upper Paleolithic samples (15%-50%). The bilevel configuration is also present in lower frequencies (ca. 10%) in all recent human samples, but attains nearly 20% in some sub-Saharan African samples. Across extinct and extant Homo (excluding Neandertals), internal nasal floor configuration is not associated with piriform aperture nasal margin patterning, but the two are strongly

  14. Fetal-juvenile origins of point mutations in the adult human tracheal-bronchial epithelium: Absence of detectable effects of age, gender or smoking status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Hiroko [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Toray Industries, Inc., New Frontiers Research Laboratories 10-1, Tebiro 6-chome, Kamakura, Kanagawa 248-8555 (Japan); Li-Sucholeiki, Xiao-Cheng [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Agencourt Bioscience Corp., 500 Cummings Center, Suite 2450, Beverly, MA 01915 (United States); Marcelino, Luisa A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Biomedical Engineering Department, Northwestern University, 633 Clark Street, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Gruhl, Amanda N. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Herrero-Jimenez, Pablo [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Biological Engineering, 21 Ames St., 16-743 Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); SLC Ontario, 690 Dorval Drive, Suite 200, Oakville, Ontario L6K 3W7 Canada (Canada); Zarbl, Helmut [UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, 170 Freylinghuysen Road, Room 426, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Willey, James C. [Medical College of Ohio, 3120 Glendale Avenue, Room 12, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Furth, Emma E. [University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 3400 Spruce Street, 6 Founders Building, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Morgenthaler, Stephan [Institute of Applied Mathematics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), SB/IMA, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] (and others)

    2008-11-10

    Allele-specific mismatch amplification mutation assays (MAMA) of anatomically distinct sectors of the upper bronchial tracts of nine nonsmokers revealed many numerically dispersed clusters of the point mutations C742T, G746T, G747T of the TP53 gene, G35T of the KRAS gene and G508A of the HPRT1 gene. Assays of these five mutations in six smokers have yielded quantitatively similar results. One hundred and eighty four micro-anatomical sectors of 0.5-6 x 10{sup 6} tracheal-bronchial epithelial cells represented en toto the equivalent of approximately 1.7 human smokers' bronchial trees to the fifth bifurcation. Statistically significant mutant copy numbers above the 95% upper confidence limits of historical background controls were found in 198 of 425 sector assays. No significant differences (P = 0.1) for negative sector fractions, mutant fractions, distributions of mutant cluster size or anatomical positions were observed for smoking status, gender or age (38-76 year). Based on the modal cluster size of mitochondrial point mutants, the size of the adult bronchial epithelial maintenance turnover unit was estimated to be about 32 cells. When data from all 15 lungs were combined the log 2 of nuclear mutant cluster size plotted against log 2 of the number of clusters of a given cluster size displayed a slope of {approx}1.1 over a range of cluster sizes from {approx}2{sup 6} to 2{sup 15} mutant copies. A parsimonious interpretation of these nuclear and previously reported data for lung epithelial mitochondrial point mutant clusters is that they arose from mutations in stem cells at a high but constant rate per stem cell doubling during at least ten stem cell doublings of the later fetal-juvenile period. The upper and lower decile range of summed point mutant fractions among lungs was about 7.5-fold, suggesting an important source of stratification in the population with regard to risk of tumor initiation.

  15. Image diagnosis of nasal bone fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yoshiharu; Shimizu, Yayoi; Iinuma, Toshitaka.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty cases of nasal bone fractures were evaluated as to the types of fractures based upon HRCT findings. Conventional X-Ray films for nasal bones were analyzed and compared with HRCT findings. Nasal bone fractures were classified into lateral and frontal fractures. HRCT images were evaluated in three planes including upper, middle and lower portions of the nasal bone. Fractures favored males of teens. Lateral fracture gave rise to the fractures of the nasal bone opposite to the external force, loosening of the ipsilateral nasomaxillary sutures and fractures of the frontal process of the maxilla. Conventional X-Ray films were reevaluated after HRCT evaluation and indications of nasal bone fractures were determined. In addition to the discontinuity of the nasal dorsum, fracture lines parallel to and beneath the nasal dorsum and indistinct fracture lines along the nasomaxillary sutures are the indication of nasal bone fractures by conventional X-Ray films. (author)

  16. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Arun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it′s management both at the time of cleft lip repair

  17. Intraganglionic signaling as a novel nasal-meningeal pathway for TRPA1-dependent trigeminovascular activation by inhaled environmental irritants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Edward Kunkler

    Full Text Available Headache is the most common symptom associated with air pollution, but little is understood about the underlying mechanism. Nasal administration of environmental irritants activates the trigeminovascular system by a TRPA1-dependent process. This report addresses questions about the anatomical pathway involved and the function of TRP channels in this pathway. TRPV1 and TRPA1 are frequently co-localized and interact to modulate function in sensory neurons. We demonstrate here that resiniferatoxin ablation of TRPV1 expressing neurons significantly reduces meningeal blood flow responses to nasal administration of both TRPV1 and TRPA1 agonists. Accordingly resiniferatoxin also significantly reduces TRPV1 and CGRP immunostaining and TRPV1 and TRPA1 message levels in trigeminal ganglia. Sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia innervate the nasal epithelium and the meninges, but the mechanism and anatomical route by which nasal administration evokes meningeal vasodilatation is unclear. Double retrograde labeling from the nose and meninges reveals no co-localization of fluorescent label, however nasal and meningeal labeled cells are located in close proximity to each other within the trigeminal ganglion. Our data demonstrate that TRPV1 expressing neurons are important for TRPA1 responses in the nasal-meningeal pathway. Our data also suggest that the nasal-meningeal pathway is not primarily by axon reflex, but may instead result from intraganglionic transmission.

  18. Sensitivity and specificity of hypopnoea detection using nasal pressure in the presence of a nasal expiratory resistive device (Provent®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, Stephen; Amis, Terence C; Wheatley, John R; Kairaitis, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Nasal expiratory resistive valves (Provent ® ) have been proposed as novel therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. We compared pressure measurements from a standard nasal pressure catheter used to assess nasal airflow during sleep with those from nasal expiratory resistive device with attached proprietary nasal pressure cannula. Nasal pressure cannula or Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula were attached to a bench model of human anterior nares and nasal passages, and pressure measured (P). Respiratory airflows generated by a subject breathing were applied to rear of model and airflow ( V-dot ) measured via pneumotachograph. Airflow amplitude (Δ V-dot ) was plotted against pressure amplitude (ΔP). Hypopnoea detection (<50% Δ V-dot ) sensitivity and specificity was tested by expressing ΔP in terms of two reference breaths: reference breath 1, Δ V-dot 0.55 L s −1  = 100%; and reference breath 2, Δ V-dot 0.45 L s −1  = 100%. ΔP/Δ V-dot relationships were linear for Δ V-dot  ≤ 0.55 L s −1 ; ΔP = 0.37ΔV + 0.16 (nasal pressure cannula), ΔP = 2.7ΔV + 0.12 (Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula); both R 2  > 0.65, p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001 for between slope difference). For nasal pressure cannula, specificity of hypopnoea detection differed between reference breaths one and two (80.2% and 40.0%, respectively), and Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula (30.3% and 74.2%, respectively). Quantification of airflow obstruction in the presence of Provent ® + proprietary nasal pressure cannula is greatly influenced by the reference breath chosen to determine a reduction in nasal airflow. Reported variability in therapeutic response to nasal expiratory resistive devices may relate to differences in measurement technique specificity used to quantify the severity of sleep disordered breathing. (paper)

  19. LC-MS/MS Based Quantitation of ABC and SLC Transporter Proteins in Plasma Membranes of Cultured Primary Human Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Immortalized ARPE19 Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkonen, Laura; Sato, Kazuki; Reinisalo, Mika; Kidron, Heidi; Tachikawa, Masanori; Watanabe, Michitoshi; Uchida, Yasuo; Urtti, Arto; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2017-03-06

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) forms the outer blood-retinal barrier between neural retina and choroid. The RPE has several important vision supporting functions, such as transport mechanisms that may also modify pharmacokinetics in the posterior eye segment. Expression of plasma membrane transporters in the RPE cells has not been quantitated. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare transporter protein expression in the ARPE19 cell line and hfRPE (human fetal RPE) cells by using quantitative targeted absolute proteomics (QTAP). Among 41 studied transporters, 16 proteins were expressed in hfRPE and 13 in ARPE19 cells. MRP1, MRP5, GLUT1, 4F2hc, TAUT, CAT1, LAT1, and MATE1 proteins were detected in both cell lines within 4-fold differences. MPR7, OAT2 and RFC1 were detected in the hfRPE cells, but their expression levels were below the limit of quantification in ARPE19 cells. PCFT was detected in both studied cell lines, but the expression was over 4-fold higher in hfRPE cells. MCT1, MCT4, MRP4, and Na + /K + ATPase were upregulated in the ARPE19 cell line showing over 4-fold differences in the quantitative expression values. Expression levels of 25 transporters were below the limit of quantification in both cell models. In conclusion, we present the first systematic and quantitative study on transporter protein expression in the plasma membranes of ARPE19 and hfRPE cells. Overall, transporter expression in the ARPE19 and hfRPE cells correlated well and the absolute expression levels were similar, but not identical. The presented quantitative expression levels could be a useful basis for further studies on drug permeation in the outer blood-retinal barrier.

  20. Structure-based virtual screening toward the discovery of novel inhibitors for impeding the protein-protein interaction between HIV-1 integrase and human lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panwar, Umesh; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2017-10-23

    HIV-1 integrase is a unique promising component of the viral replication cycle, catalyzing the integration of reverse transcribed viral cDNA into the host cell genome. Generally, IN activity requires both viral as well as a cellular co-factor in the processing replication cycle. Among them, the human lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) represented as promising cellular co-factor which supports the viral replication by tethering IN to the chromatin. Due to its major importance in the early steps of HIV replication, the interaction between IN and LEDGF/p75 has become a pleasing target for anti-HIV drug discovery. The present study involves the finding of novel inhibitor based on the information of dimeric CCD of IN in complex with known inhibitor, which were carried out by applying a structure-based virtual screening concept with molecular docking. Additionally, Free binding energy, ADME properties, PAINS analysis, Density Functional Theory, and Enrichment Calculations were performed on selected compounds for getting a best lead molecule. On the basis of these analyses, the current study proposes top 3 compounds: Enamine-Z742267384, Maybridge-HTS02400, and Specs-AE-848/37125099 with acceptable pharmacological properties and enhanced binding affinity to inhibit the interaction between IN and LEDGF/p75. Furthermore, Simulation studies were carried out on these molecules to expose their dynamics behavior and stability. We expect that the findings obtained here could be future therapeutic agents and may provide an outline for the experimental studies to stimulate the innovative strategy for research community.

  1. Regulation of ion transport via apical purinergic receptors in intact rabbit airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Asser Nyander; Klausen, Thomas Levin; Pedersen, Peter Steen

    2005-01-01

    and unidirectional Cl- fluxes decreased significantly. The results suggest that nucleotides released to the airway surface liquid exert an autocrine regulation of epithelial NaCl absorption mainly by inhibiting the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) and paracellular anion conductance via a P2Y......We investigated purinergic receptors involved in ion transport regulation in the intact rabbit nasal airway epithelium. Stimulation of apical membrane P2Y receptors with ATP or UTP (200 microM) induced transient increases in short-circuit current (Isc) of 13 and 6% followed by sustained inhibitions...

  2. Morphological evaluation of normal human corneal epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlers, Niels; Heegaard, Steffen; Hjortdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    of corneas from 100 consecutively selected paraffin-embedded eyes were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS). All specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. The eyes were enucleated from patients with choroidal melanoma. Corneas were considered to be normal. RESULTS: Ninety of 100...

  3. Cosmetic reconstruction of a nasal plane and rostral nasal skin defect using a modified nasal rotation flap in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Haar, G.; Buiks, S.C.; Kirpensteijn, J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report reconstruction of a defect of the nasal plane and the rostral dorsum of the nose in a dog using a nasal rotation flap with Burow's triangles. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical report. ANIMALS: Mixed-breed dog (1.5 years, 8.6 kg). METHODS: A nasal defect caused by chronic

  4. Experimental investigation of nasal airflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorly, D; Taylor, D J; Franke, P; Schroter, R C

    2008-05-01

    The airway geometry of the nasal cavity is manifestly complex, and the manner in which it controls the airflow to accomplish its various physiological functions is not fully understood. Since the complex morphology and inaccessibility of the nasal passageways precludes detailed in-vivo measurements, either computational simulation or in-vitro experiments are needed to determine how anatomical form and function are related. The fabrication of a replica model of the nasal cavity, of a high optical clarity and derived from in-vivo scan data is described here, together with characteristics of the flow field investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and flow visualization. Flow visualization is shown to be a capable and convenient technique for identifying key phenomena. Specifically the emergence of the jet from the internal nasal valve into the main cavity, how it impacts on the middle turbinate, and the large enhancement of dispersion that accompanies the initial appearance of flow instability are revealed as particularly significant features. The findings from the visualization experiments are complemented by PIV imaging, which provides quantitative detail on the variations in velocity in different regions of the nasal cavity. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of the cavity geometry in partitioning the flow into high shear zones, which facilitate rapid heat transfer and humidification from the nasal mucosa, and slower zones affording greater residence times to facilitate olfactory sensing. The experimental results not only provide a basis for comparison with other computational modelling but also demonstrate an alternative and flexible means to investigate complex flows, relevant to studies in different parts of the respiratory or cardiovascular systems.

  5. Nasal mophormetric pattern of the Abakaliki ethnic group of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nose is an important feature of the face involved in the description of human morphology, identification of individuals and classification of races and sex. The aim of this study is to document the nasal morphometric values of Igbo people of South-Eastern Nigeria resident in Abakaliki Area of Ebonyi State. The subjects ...

  6. Nasal myiasis: report of a case and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyes-Romero, Karen Eliana

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infection of animal or human tissues or organs by larvae of Diptera. It may affect individuals of any age, but is more common in middle-aged and elderly patients. Nasal myiasis, an infection of the nasal and paranasal cavities by such larvae, is a common disease in tropical and developing countries. Reported cases of nasal myiasis have been caused by several different species, such as Lucilia sericata in Korea and Iran, Estro ovis in Algeria and France, Lucilia cuprina and Phaenicia sericata in Malaysia, Cochliomyia hominivorax in French Guiana, Drosophila melanogaster in Turkey, Eristalis tenax in Iran and Oestrus ovis in Israel. Signs and symptoms are related to the presence and movement of the larvae, and include foreign body sensation, bloody or muco-purulent nasal discharge. Prevention may be done with insect repellent. Treatment is based on antiparasitic drugs and techniques for removal of larvae, but may include the use of prophylactic topical or systemic antibiotics for possible secondary infections. We report a case of nasal and left maxillary sinus myiasis in an elderly woman, who responded favorably to treatment.

  7. Nasal Inserts for Drug Delivery: An Overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the benefits, limitations and absorption mechanisms of the nasal route, as well ... molecules including peptide and proteins for ... (Mw) drugs, rapid and fast onset of action due to ... while the former act by disrupting the nasal.

  8. Neuronal NOS localises to human airway cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Claire L; Lucas, Jane S; Walker, Woolf T; Owen, Holly; Premadeva, Irnthu; Lackie, Peter M

    2015-01-30

    Airway NO synthase (NOS) isoenzymes are responsible for rapid and localised nitric oxide (NO) production and are expressed in airway epithelium. We sought to determine the localisation of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in airway epithelium due to the paucity of evidence. Sections of healthy human bronchial tissue in glycol methacrylate resin and human nasal polyps in paraffin wax were immunohistochemically labelled and reproducibly demonstrated nNOS immunoreactivity, particularly at the proximal portion of cilia; this immunoreactivity was blocked by a specific nNOS peptide fragment. Healthy human epithelial cells differentiated at an air-liquid interface (ALI) confirmed the presence of all three NOS isoenzymes by immunofluorescence labelling. Only nNOS immunoreactivity was specific to the ciliary axonemeand co-localised with the cilia marker β-tubulin in the proximal part of the ciliary axoneme. We report a novel localisation of nNOS at the proximal portion of cilia in airway epithelium and conclude that its independent and local regulation of NO levels is crucial for normal cilia function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Haemangiopericytoma of the nasal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.; Henkes, H.; Berg-Dammer, E.; Kuehne, D. [Alfred Krupp Krankenhaus, Essen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Metz, K.A. [Inst. fuer Pathologie, Universitaetsklinikum der Universitaets-Gesamthochschule Essen (Germany)

    2001-02-01

    Haemangiopericytomas (HPC) are rare vascular tumours originating from a pericytes, a term coined by Zimmermann to refer to the main location of this cell line in the pericapillary connective tissue. HPC may arise in any part of the body. We report a 29-year-old man with a histologically proven nasal haemangiopericytoma-like tumour. The lesion was embolised through the ophthalmic artery before it was removed surgically. The main symptoms of nasal HPC are epistaxis and obstruction of the nose. Malignant and benign clinical courses have been described. Local recurrence and metastases may be observed years after initial diagnosis. (orig.)

  10. Histamine and tryptase in nasal lavage fluid after allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobi, H H; Skov, P S; Poulsen, L K

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antihistamines (H1-receptor antagonists) act by competitive antagonism of histamine at H1-receptors. In addition, high concentrations of some antihistamines inhibit allergen-induced histamine release from mast cells in vitro. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine...... the effect of intranasal azelastine or systemic cetirizine (both potent antihistamines) on the allergen-induced release of mast-cell mediators from the human nasal mucosa in vivo. METHODS: Patients allergic to birch pollen (n = 11) and control subjects not allergic to birch pollen (n = 5) were included......, nasal allergen challenges were performed, and the number of sneezes were counted. In addition, nasal lavage fluid was collected, and the levels of mast-cell mediators (histamine and tryptase) were measured. RESULTS: The allergen challenge of patients allergic to pollen produced sneezing...

  11. Alkaline phosphatase in nasal secretion of cattle: biochemical and molecular characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M Faizal; Koh-Tan, H H Caline; McLaughlin, Mark; Montague, Paul; Jonsson, Nicholas N; Eckersall, P David

    2014-09-05

    Nasal secretion (NS) was investigated as a source of information regarding the mucosal and systemic immune status of cattle challenged by respiratory disease. A method for the collection of substantial volumes (~12 ml) of NS from cattle was developed to establish a reference range of analytes that are present in the NS of healthy cattle. Biochemical profiles of NS from a group of 38 healthy Holstein-Friesian cows revealed high alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity of up to 2392 IU/L. The character and source of the high activity of AP in bovine NS was investigated. Histochemical analysis confirmed the localization of the AP enzyme activity to epithelial cells and serous glands of the nasal respiratory mucosa. Analysis of mRNA levels from nasal mucosa by end point RT-PCR and PCR product sequencing confirmed that the AP was locally produced and is identical at the nucleotide level to the non-specific AP splice variant found in bovine liver, bone and kidney. Analysis by isoelectric focussing confirmed that AP was produced locally at a high level in nasal epithelium demonstrating that AP from nasal secretion and nasal mucosa had similar pI bands, though differing from those of the liver, kidney, bone and intestine, suggesting different post-translational modification (PTM) of AP in these tissues. A nasal isozyme of AP has been identified that is present at a high activity in NS, resulting from local production and showing distinctive PTM and may be active in NS as an anti-endotoxin mediator.

  12. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  13. Biological safety of nasal thallium-201 administration. A preclinical study for olfacto-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washiyama, Kohshin; Shiga, Hideaki; Hirota, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Nasal administration of thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) has previously been shown to be useful for the assessment of olfactory nerve connectivity in vivo. We assessed the biological effects of nasal 201 Tl administration in mice to determine its safety before conducting clinical trials on humans. 201 Tl uptake was evaluated in normal mice (n=5) in vivo by using a high-resolution gamma camera and radiography 15 min, 1, 2 and 9 d after administration of 201 TlCl to the right side of the nasal cavity (10 μl 201 TlCl per nostril, 74 MBq/ml). Murine olfactory epithelial thickness (n=5) was measured 9 d following nasal administration of 201 TlCl. We assessed the odor detection ability of normal mice (n=8) following nasal administration of 201 TlCl to both sides of the nasal cavity, by observing cycloheximide solution avoidance behavior. We subsequently administrated 201 TlCl (n=4) or saline (n=4) to both nostrils to assess the odor detection ability of mice following bilateral olfactory nerve transection. 201 Tl uptake by the nasal cavity decreased immediately following nasal administration of 201 Tl in normal mice. Nasal administration of 201 Tl did not affect the olfactory epithelial thickness or the odor detection ability of normal mice. Recovery of odor detection ability following olfactory nerve transection was not significantly different between mice nasally administered with 201 Tl, and mice administered with saline. Thus, nasal administration of 201 Tl for the diagnosis of traumatic olfactory impairment did not produce harmful biological effects in vivo. (author)

  14. Immunophenotype Heterogeneity in Nasal Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Handra-Luca

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal glomangiopericytoma is rare. The immunophenotype is heterogeneous, more frequently smooth-muscle-actin and CD34-positive. We report expression patterns for several vascular-related proteins such as CD99, CD146, Bcl2, and WT1 as well as for treatment-related proteins such as mTOR and EGFR in a nasal glomangiopericytoma. The patient (woman, 86 years presented with a left nasal tumefaction. The resected specimen (1.5-cm showed a glomangiopericytoma. Tumor cells expressed smooth-muscle-actin, CD31, CD34, and progesterone receptor. They also expressed the vascular-cell-related proteins Bcl2, CD99, CD146, and WT1, as well as mTOR and EGFR. Nasal glomangiopericytomas show immunohistochemical heterogeneity for vascular-related markers, suggesting a possible extensive pericytic differentiation. The expression of potential targets for drug treatments such as mTOR and EGFR may impact on the clinical follow-up of these tumors occurring at advanced ages, which may require complex surgery.

  15. Calcitonin Salmon Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon is used to treat osteoporosis in women who are at least 5 years past menopause and cannot ... a human hormone that is also found in salmon. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ...

  16. Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, M; Raghavan, U

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333

  17. Nasal Septum Perforation due to Methamphetamine abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Bakhshaee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spontaneous Perforation of the nasal septum is an uncommon condition. Nasal inhalation of substances such as cocaine has long been linked to this Perforation. Case Report: This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who was addicted to methamphetamine and who presented with perforation of the nasal septum.This is the first reported case of nasal septal necrosis linked to nasal inhalation of methamphetamine. Conclusions: Patient history and assurance regardingillegal drug consumption and abuse is a key point for fast and accurate diagnosis. The pathophysiology of drug-induced sinunasal disease and a review of the literature are also presented.

  18. Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage could be a risk for development of clinical infections in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although nasal carriage has been described as a risk factor for Staphylococcus aureus infections in humans, there is a scarcity of studies about S. aureus nasal carriers in animals. In rabbits, S. aureus is one of the most important pathogens responsible for a number of different types of infections. This study was designed to determine the extent of staphylococcal nasal carriage and to establish whether a relationship exists between nasal carriage and development of lesions. One hundred and sixteen rabbits with and without chronic signs of staphylococcosis from 6 industrial rabbitries were monitored. Nasal swabs for microbiological assessments were obtained from all animals. Microbiological results showed that 56% of the animals carried S. aureus in their nasal cavities with significantly higher incidence in animals with staphylococcal-related lesions (84.2% compared to apparently healthy animals (28.8%. Additionally, the S. aureus strains isolated from the nasal cavity and lesions were clonally related in 91.7% of animals. This suggests that nasal carriage of S. aureus in rabbits could be a risk for development of clinical infections.

  19. Appraisal of transverse nasal groove: a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Belagola D; Basavaraj, Halevoor B; Nischal, Kuchangi C; Swaroop, Mukunda R; Umashankar, Puttagangu N; Agrawal, Dhruv P; Swamy, Suchetha S; Okram, Sarda

    2012-01-01

    Transverse nasal groove is a condition of cosmetic concern which awaits due recognition and has been widely described as a shallow groove that extends transversely over the dorsum of nose. However, we observed variations in the clinical presentations of this entity, hitherto undescribed in literature. We conducted a clinicoepidemiological study of transverse nasal lesions in patients attending our outpatient department. We conducted a prospective observational study. We screened all patients attending our out-patient department for presence of transverse nasal lesions, signs of any dermatosis and associated other skin conditions. One hundred patients were recruited in the study. Females (80%) predominated over males. Most patients were of 15-45 years age group (70%). Majority of the transverse nasal lesions were classical transverse nasal groove (39%) and others included transverse nasal line (28%), strip (28%), ridge (4%) and loop (1%). Seborrhoeic diathesis was the most common condition associated with transverse nasal lesion. Occurrence of transverse nasal line, strip, ridge and loop, in addition to classical transverse nasal groove implies that latter is actually a subset of transverse nasal lesions. Common association of this entity with seborrheic dermatitis, seborrhea and dandruff raises a possibility of whether transverse nasal lesion is a manifestation of seborrheic diathesis.

  20. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... as marker molecule, since only negligible amounts were absorbed or adsorbed to the mucosa during the nasal lavage. 3. Labelling of the albumin with 99mTc ensured an accuracy of measurements only limited by the precision of the weighing. The isotope allowed for the determination of the amount of admixed...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  1. Measurement of secretion in nasal lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Krogsgaard, O W; Mygind, N

    1987-01-01

    1. The amount of admixture in nasal lavage fluids was determined by addition of 99mTc labelled albumin, providing a correction factor for measurements of cellular material and humoral substances in nasal lavage return as well as a quantitative measure of nasal secretions. 2. Albumin was chosen...... secretion to be carried out on the whole sample of lavage fluid, thereby avoiding the necessity of complete admixture between marker and lavage fluid which would be pertinent to marker molecules measured chemically. The radiation from a nasal lavage is minimal and the procedure is fully acceptable...... of the nose, yet not the oropharynx. 5. A dose related increase in nasal secretion harvested by the nasal lavage in 10 persons challenged with histamine chloride could be demonstrated by this technique. 6. It is concluded that the use of 99mTc-albumin in a nasal washing provides a safe, simple and quick...

  2. Rhinoplasty via the midface degloving approach for nasal deformity due to nasal polyps: A case report of Woakes’ syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misato Ueda, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nasal polyps are inflammatory proliferative tumors arising from the mucosa of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Although many cases concerning nasal polyps have been reported, those involving external nasal deformities are rare. We report a case of nasal polyposis filling the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, leading to external nasal and facial deformities. The condition above is known as Woakes’ syndrome, which is characterized by severe recurrent nasal polyps with deformity of the nasal pyramid, leading to broadening of the nose. We performed nasal osteotomy and facial bone-shaving via the midface degloving approach, which improved the patient’s facial appearance.

  3. The junctional epithelium originates from the odontogenic epithelium of an erupted tooth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima-Himuro, Sara; Oshima, Masamitsu; Yamamoto, Gou; Ogawa, Miho; Furuya, Madoka; Tanaka, Junichi; Nishii, Kousuke; Mishima, Kenji; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Tsuji, Takashi; Yamamoto, Matsuo

    2014-05-02

    The junctional epithelium (JE) is an epithelial component that is directly attached to the tooth surface and has a protective function against periodontal diseases. In this study, we determined the origin of the JE using a bioengineered tooth technique. We transplanted the bioengineered tooth germ into the alveolar bone with an epithelial component that expressed green fluorescence protein. The reduced enamel epithelium from the bioengineered tooth fused with the oral epithelium, and the JE was apparently formed around the bioengineered tooth 50 days after transplantation. Importantly, the JE exhibited green fluorescence for at least 140 days after transplantation, suggesting that the JE was not replaced by oral epithelium. Therefore, our results demonstrated that the origin of the JE was the odontogenic epithelium, and odontogenic epithelium-derived JE was maintained for a relatively long period.

  4. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus...... is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature......, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system...

  5. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishimura

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more

  6. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coskun, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) that are crucial in maintaining intestinal...... of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets....

  7. Atrophic rhinitis and other nasal lesions induced by a 1-month exposure of F344 rats to 0.25 or 0.5 ppm ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Harkema, J.R.; Wacnik, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    Ozone, the principal oxidant pollutant of photochemical smog, is a common inhaled toxicant for metropolitan area residents. The effects of acute and chronic ozone exposure on inflammatory cell influx, hyperplasia, and secretory cell metaplasia within the surface epithelium lining rat nasal airways have previously been reported. On the other hand, there is a paucity of data describing the effects of ozone exposure on the subepithelial tissues (i.e., lamina propria and bone) of nasal turbinates. However, recently, a significant decrease in nasal turbinate bone area in rats chronically exposed (20 mo) to 1 ppm ozone was reported. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 1-mo ozone exposure on subepithelial tissue compartments of maxilloturbinates in the anterior nasal cavity of rats

  8. Nasal avulsion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denneny, J C

    1987-11-01

    The nose is the most frequently traumatized portion of the human face. High-speed motor vehicle accidents and interpersonal violence commonly produce bony pyramid and septal damage and occasional minor soft-tissue damage. Major soft-tissue injuries are much less commonly encountered. Avulsion injuries of this type may involve skin only or the bony and cartilaginous framework as well. The severity of these injuries can range from total avulsion to minor skin loss and anywhere within the spectrum between. My experience is reviewed, management guidelines and options are detailed, and selected cases are presented.

  9. Lectin histochemical study on the olfactory organ of the newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, revealed heterogeneous mucous environments in a single nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shouichiro; Matsui, Toshiyasu; Kobayashi, Naoto; Wakisaka, Hiroyuki; Mominoki, Katsumi; Matsuda, Seiji; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2003-04-01

    Expression patterns of glycoconjugates were examined by lectin histochemistry in the nasal cavity of the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Its nasal cavity consisted of two components, a flattened chamber, which was the main nasal chamber (MNC), and a lateral diverticulum called the lateral nasal sinus (LNS), which communicated medially with the MNC. The MNC was lined with the olfactory epithelium (OE), while the diverticulum constituting the LNS was lined with the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). Nasal glands were observed beneath the OE but not beneath the VNE. In addition, a secretory epithelium was revealed on the dorsal boundary between the MNC and the LNS, which we refer to as the boundary secretory epithelium (BSE) in this study. The BSE seemed to play an important role in the construction of the mucous composition of the VNE. Among 21 lectins used in this study, DBA, SBA and Jacalin showed different staining patterns between the OE and the VNE. DBA staining showed remarkable differences between the OE and the VNE; there was intense staining in the free border and the supporting cells of the VNE, whereas there was no staining or weak staining in the cells of the OE. SBA and Jacalin showed different stainings in the receptor neurons for the OE and the VNE. Furthermore, UEA-I and Con A showed different stainings for the nasal glands. UEA-I showed intense staining in the BSE and in the nasal glands located in the ventral wall of the MNC (VNG), whereas Con A showed intense staining in the BSE and in the nasal glands located in the dorsal and medial wall of the MNC (DMNG). The DMNG were observed to send their excretory ducts into the OE, whereas no excretory ducts were observed from the VNG to the OE or the VNE. These results suggested that the secretion by the supporting cells as well as the BSE and the DMNG establishes that there are heterogeneous mucous environments in the OE and the VNE, although both epithelia are situated in the same nasal cavity.

  10. Smart Polymers in Nasal Drug Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonkar, Ankita; Nayak, Usha; Udupa, N

    2015-01-01

    Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several temperature responsive, pH responsive and ion responsive polymers used in nasal delivery, their gelling mechanisms have been discussed. Smart polymers not only able to enhance the retention of the drug in nasal cavity but also provide controlled release, ease of administration, enhanced permeation of the drug and protection of the drug from mucosal enzymes. Thus smart polymeric approach can be effectively used for nasal delivery of peptide drugs, central nervous system dugs and hormones.

  11. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females, aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in the nasal parameters between male and female subjects. The nasal breadth was 34.72 mm in females, and in the male population it was 36.7 mm. The mean values of nasal height were 52.6 mm and 54.32 mm in females and males, respectively. The nasal index in females and males was 66.01 and 67.56, respectively, and the mean value of the nasal index of all respondents was 66.78. After conducting the research it was concluded that the dominant nasal type in the population of the central part of Serbia is leptorrhine. The present study showed the existence of sexual dimorphism in nasal morphology. The data obtained in our study may be useful in anthropological and forensic research, as well as in cosmetic planning and reconstructive surgery.

  12. Chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indudharan, R; Das, P K; Azman, A A; Suhaiza, S

    1998-08-01

    A case of chondrosarcoma of the nasal septum is presented with the result of treatment. The patient was admitted for a growth in the nose of four years' duration. Fine needle aspiration for cytological examination was suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma. She was treated with lateral rhinotomy and wide excision followed by septorhinoplasty. Histological examination showed that the lesion was chondrosarcoma. The patient remained free of disease 26 months after surgery.

  13. Ozone-Induced Nasal Type 2 Immunity in Mice Is Dependent on Innate Lymphoid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Kazuyoshi; Lewandowski, Ryan; Jackson-Humbles, Daven N; Li, Ning; Van Dyken, Steven J; Wagner, James G; Harkema, Jack R

    2016-06-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that elevated ambient concentrations of ozone are associated with activation of eosinophils in the nasal airways of atopic and nonatopic children. Mice repeatedly exposed to ozone develop eosinophilic rhinitis and type 2 immune responses. In this study, we determined the role of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in the pathogenesis of ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis by using lymphoid-sufficient C57BL/6 mice, Rag2(-/-) mice that are devoid of T cells and B cells, and Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice that are depleted of all lymphoid cells including ILCs. The animals were exposed to 0 or 0.8 ppm ozone for 9 consecutive weekdays (4 h/d). Mice were killed 24 hours after exposure, and nasal tissues were selected for histopathology and gene expression analysis. ILC-sufficient C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice exposed to ozone developed marked eosinophilic rhinitis and epithelial remodeling (e.g., epithelial hyperplasia and mucous cell metaplasia). Chitinase-like proteins and alarmins (IL-33, IL-25, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) were also increased morphometrically in the nasal epithelium of ozone-exposed C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. Ozone exposure elicited increased expression of Il4, Il5, Il13, St2, eotaxin, MCP-2, Gob5, Arg1, Fizz1, and Ym2 mRNA in C57BL/6 and Rag2(-/-) mice. In contrast, ozone-exposed ILC-deficient Rag2(-/-)Il2rg(-/-) mice had no nasal lesions or overexpression of Th2- or ILC2-related transcripts. These results indicate that ozone-induced eosinophilic rhinitis, nasal epithelial remodeling, and type 2 immune activation are dependent on ILCs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that ILCs play an important role in the nasal pathology induced by repeated ozone exposure.

  14. Shigella infection of intestinal epithelium and circumvention of the host innate defense system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2009-01-01

    Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.

  15. In vivo effects of dexamethasone and indomethacin on neutrophil-induced alterations of nasal epithelial mucosubstances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotchkiss, J.A.; Portereiko, J.V.; Harkema, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that neutrophils migrating through rat nasal mucosal epithelium, in response to intranasal instillation of endotoxin, induce a transient decrease in stored epithelial mucosubstances. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes can either increase or decrease mucous secretion of airway epithelia in vitro. In this study, rats were treated with indomethacin a specific inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, or with dexamethasone, a general inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, and challenged with intranasally instilled endotoxin. Dexamethasone alone or in combination with indomethacin, but not indomethacin alone, significantly altered the neutrophil response to intranasally instilled endotoxin and may have inhibited the neutrophil-induced decrease in stored mucosubstances. These data suggest that leukotrienes and possibly prostaglandins play a significant role in the coordinated response of the nasal mucosal epitholium to an acute inflammatory stimulus. (author)

  16. In vivo effects of dexamethasone and indomethacin on neutrophil-induced alterations of nasal epithelial mucosubstances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotchkiss, J A; Portereiko, J V; Harkema, J R

    1988-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that neutrophils migrating through rat nasal mucosal epithelium, in response to intranasal instillation of endotoxin, induce a transient decrease in stored epithelial mucosubstances. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes can either increase or decrease mucous secretion of airway epithelia in vitro. In this study, rats were treated with indomethacin a specific inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, or with dexamethasone, a general inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism, and challenged with intranasally instilled endotoxin. Dexamethasone alone or in combination with indomethacin, but not indomethacin alone, significantly altered the neutrophil response to intranasally instilled endotoxin and may have inhibited the neutrophil-induced decrease in stored mucosubstances. These data suggest that leukotrienes and possibly prostaglandins play a significant role in the coordinated response of the nasal mucosal epitholium to an acute inflammatory stimulus. (author)

  17. Measurement of the thickness of the bronchial epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, D.H.; Baldwin, F.

    1989-02-01

    Cancer of the lung in uranium miners is thought to be related to the inhalation of gaseous radon daughters which become attached to molecules of water vapour or to dust particles. Since, the depth of tissue penetration by alpha particles is short, the thickness of the epithelium that lines the bronchial tree may be a critical factor in the development of cancers at specific sites in the lung. The objectives of the present study were: 1) to measure the thickness of human bronchial epithelium; 2) to determine the distribution and depth of the nuclei of basal cells in the bronchial epithelium; and 3) to compare these parameters in groups of smokers and non-smokers. Twenty-nine surgically removed specimens of the lung were examined (26 smokers, 3 non-smokers). The specimens were fixed and prepared for examination by light and electron microscopy. Blocks of tissue were oriented so that the maximum number of bronchi were cut in cross-section; measurements included bronchi of all sizes from bronchial generations (1≥ 9.01 mm) diameter to the smallest bronchioles, generations 7 - 16 (0.26 - 2.0 mm). Comparison of measurements in smokers and non-smokers show no significant differences, so that the 29 cases are considered to represent a homogeneous group. With progressive divisions of the bronchi, the epithelium decreases in thickness. Of more importance are the figures relating to the distance from the cell surface to the underlying nucleus. Here too, with the exception of goblet cells, the measurements are significantly smaller in generations 7 - 16 than in generation 1

  18. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of −0.55

  19. Primary nasal tuberculosis following blunt trauma nose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary nasal tuberculosis is a rare disease with nearly 40 cases reported. Our patient was a young male presented with left sided nasal obstruction, anosmia and occasional epistaxis for last 7 weeks after 6 months of blunt trauma nose. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the para nasal sinuses showed increased soft-tissue density with contrast enhancement in the left maxillary antrum with extension through left osteomeatal foramen to the left nasal cavity along with further extension through choana to nasopharynx resulting in partial obliteration of the nasopharyngeal airway. Nasal endoscopy revealed a sessile polypoidal pinkish mass arising from the left osteomeatal foramen. Histopathological examination of excisional biopsy of that area showed caseating granuloma. Our patient diagnosed as primary nasal tuberculosis following trauma and treated with anti-tubercular chemotherapy.

  20. Nasal morphological characteristics of the Serbian population

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović J.; Jeremić D.; Jovanović B.; Vulović Maja; Sazdanović P.; Sazdanović Maja; Ognjanović Neda; Stojadinović D.; Jeremić Katarina; Marković N.; Živanović-Mačužić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nasal parameters in the population of central Serbia and to compare them with those determined in earlier studies in different populations. The research was conducted on 496 randomly selected persons (262 males and 234 females), aged 18-65 years. The measured parameters were nasal height and nasal breadth and the standard spreading caliper with scale was used for measurements. There were significant differences in ...

  1. Nasal Myiasis in Hinduism and Contemporary Otorhinolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Zimmermann, Terence M; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Shane Tubbs, R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2017-08-01

    Various case reports on nasal myiasis written during the 1990s and 2000s state that nasal myiasis, which is known as peenash among South Asian natives, is a form of divine punishment in Hindu mythology, but do not provide citations from Hindu scriptures that would suggest this interpretation. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of peenash in a historical context by examining medical literature written during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to identify Hindu texts contributing to the belief of some Hindus that nasal myiasis is a form of divine punishment, and to provide an overview of contemporary treatment for and management of nasal myiasis.

  2. Visualization of nasal airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis using particle image velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, G J M [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, NC (United States); Mitchell, G [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Bailie, N [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Thornhill, D [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Watterson, J [The Queens University of Belfast, Belfast (United Kingdom); Kimbell, J S [Hamner Institutes for Health Sciences, NC (United States)

    2007-10-15

    The relationship between airflow patterns in the nasal cavity and nasal function is poorly understood. This paper reports an experimental study of the interplay between symptoms and airflow patterns in a patient affected with atrophic rhinitis. This pathology is characterized by mucosal dryness, fetor, progressive atrophy of anatomical structures, a spacious nasal cavity, and a paradoxical sensation of nasal congestion. A physical replica of the patient's nasal geometry was made and particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to visualize and measure the flow field. The nasal replica was based on computed tomography (CT) scans of the patient and was built in three steps: three-dimensional reconstruction of the CT scans; rapid prototyping of a cast; and sacrificial use of the cast to form a model of the nasal passage in clear silicone. Flow patterns were measured by running a water-glycerol mixture through the replica and evaluating the displacement of particles dispersed in the liquid using PIV. The water-glycerol flow rate used corresponded to an air flow rate representative of a human breathing at rest. The trajectory of the flow observed in the left passage of the nose (more affected by atrophic rhinitis) differed markedly from what is considered normal, and was consistent with patterns of epithelial damage observed in cases of the condition. The data are also useful for validation of computational fluid dynamics predictions.

  3. Optical properties of nasal septum cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagratashvili, Nodar V.; Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Kitai, Moishe S.

    1998-05-01

    Optical parameters (scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g) of hyaline cartilage were studied for the first time. Optical properties of human and pig nasal septum cartilage, and of bovine ear cartilage were examined using a spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere, and an Optical Multi-Channel Analyser. We measured total transmission Tt, total reflection Rt, and on-axis transmission Ta for light propagating through cartilage sample, over the visible spectral range (14000 - 28000 cm-1). It is shown that transmission and reflection spectra of human, pig and bovine cartilage are rather similar. It allows us to conclude that the pig cartilage can be used for in-vivo studies instead of human cartilage. The data obtained were treated by means of the one-dimensional diffusion approximation solution of the optical transport equation. We have found scattering coefficient s, absorption coefficient k and scattering anisotropy coefficient g by the iterative comparison of measured and calculated Tt, Rt and Ta values for human and pig cartilage. We found, in particular, that for 500 nm irradiation s equals 37,6 plus or minus 3.5 cm-1, g equals 0,56 plus or minus 0.05, k approximately equals 0,5 plus or minus 0.3 cm-1. The above data were used in Monte Carlo simulation for spatial intensity profile of light scattered by a cartilage sample. The computed profile was very similar to the profile measured using an Optical Multi-Channel Analyzer (OMA).

  4. Desloratadine citrate disodium injection, a potent histamine H(1) receptor antagonist, inhibits chemokine production in ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinitis guinea pig model and histamine-induced human nasal epithelial cells via inhibiting the ERK1/2 and NF-kappa B signal cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiling; Xu, Shuhong; Zhou, Peipei; He, Guangwei; Jie, Qiong; Wu, Yulin

    2015-11-15

    Chemokines have chemotactic properties on leukocyte subsets whose modulation plays a pivotal role in allergic inflammatory processes. Our present study was designed to investigate the anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties of desloratadine citrate disodium injection (DLC) and elucidate the molecular mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory properties. The anti-allergic effects of DLC were evaluated based on allergic symptoms, serological marker production and histological changes of the nasal mucosa in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis. The anti-inflammatory properties and molecular mechanisms of DLC were explored by studying the regulation of a set of chemokines and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways, after DLC treatment in guinea pigs model of allergic rhinitis in vivo and histamine-activated human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs) in vitro. In vivo model in guinea pigs, DLC alleviated the rhinitis symptoms, inhibited inflammatory cells infiltration in nasal lavage fluid (NLF) and histamine, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, regulated on activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTEs) and interleukin (IL)-8 release in sera and P-ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation in nasal mucosa. In vitro, DLC markedly inhibited histamine-induced production of MCP-1, RANTEs and IL-8 and suppressed c-Raf, mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK1/2 activation in HNECs. These results provide evidence that DLC possesses potent anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism of action underlying DLC in allergic inflammation appears to be inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, in addition to blocking of the NF-κB pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cartilage grafting in nasal reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immerman, Sara; White, W Matthew; Constantinides, Minas

    2011-02-01

    Nasal reconstruction after resection for cutaneous malignancies poses a unique challenge to facial plastic surgeons. The nose, a unique 3-D structure, not only must remain functional but also be aesthetically pleasing to patients. A complete understanding of all the layers of the nose and knowledge of available cartilage grafting material is necessary. Autogenous material, namely septal, auricular, and costal cartilage, is the most favored material in a free cartilage graft or a composite cartilage graft. All types of material have advantages and disadvantages that should guide the most appropriate selection to maximize the functional and cosmetic outcomes for patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distilled water nasal provocation in hyperreactive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, T; Anzic, S A; Kalogjera, L

    1999-01-01

    Nonisotonic aerosol may act as a provocation agent in the upper and lower airways of hyperreactive individuals. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of nasal challenge with distilled water in patients with allergic rhinitis to those with noninfective nonallergic rhinitis (NINAR), with respect to the potential clinical use of the obtained data. A group of 68 ambulatory patients with allergic rhinitis or NINAR (39 perennial allergic, 6 seasonal, 23 NINAR) were challenged with 10 mL of distilled water aerosol after the baseline active anterior rhinomanometry. Patients with nasal polyposis at endoscopy, significant unilateral septal deviation, positive bacteriologic swab, recent nasal surgery, and uncertain anamnestic data about the medication taken 6 weeks before the provocation were excluded from the study. After 10 minutes of nasal provocation, rhinomanometry was repeated to assess the response. In 15 patients of the perennial allergic group, the same measurements were performed after a 2-week oral antihistamine and topical steroid therapy. Nasal resistance was significantly increased on the more patent side of the nose after nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol in allergic patients in comparison to the nasal resistance before provocation. In the patients with NINAR, the provocation resulted in a significant rise on the more patent side, but the total nasal airway resistance (NAR) levels were also significantly increased. The systemic antihistamine and topical steroid 2-week therapy in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis significantly reduced the response to nasal distilled water provocation. Nasal provocation with distilled water aerosol is a cheap, simple, and acceptable method that provides useful clinical data on the level of nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity and the therapy success.

  7. Comparative Morphology and Histology of the Nasal Fossa in Four Mammals: Gray Squirrel, Bobcat, Coyote, and White-Tailed Deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Karen K; Craven, Brent A; Wysocki, Charles J; Van Valkenburgh, Blaire

    2016-07-01

    Although the anatomy of the nasal fossa is broadly similar among terrestrial mammals, differences are evident in the intricacies of nasal turbinal architecture, which varies from simple scroll-like to complex branching forms, and in the extent of nonsensory and olfactory epithelium covering the turbinals. In this study, detailed morphological and immunohistochemical examinations and quantitative measurements of the turbinals and epithelial lining of the nasal fossa were conducted in an array of species that include the gray squirrel, bobcat, coyote, and white-tailed deer. Results show that much more of the nose is lined with olfactory epithelium in the smallest species (gray squirrel) than in the larger species. In two species with similar body masses, bobcat and coyote, the foreshortened felid snout influences turbinal size and results in a decrease of olfactory epithelium on the ethmoturbinals relative to the longer canine snout. Ethmoturbinal surface area exceeds that of the maxilloturbinals in all four sampled animals, except the white-tailed deer, in which the two are similar in size. Combining our results with published data from a broader array of mammalian noses, it is apparent that olfactory epithelial surface area is influenced by body mass, but is also affected by aspects of life history, such as diet and habitat, as well as skull morphology, itself a product of multiple compromises between various functions, such as feeding, vision, and cognition. The results of this study warrant further examination of other mammalian noses to broaden our evolutionary understanding of nasal fossa anatomy. Anat Rec, 299:840-852, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Degeneration and recovery of rat olfactory epithelium following inhalation of dibasic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, C M; Kelly, D P; Bogdanffy, M S

    1990-08-01

    Dibasic esters (DBE) are solvent mixtures used in the paint and coating industry. To evaluate the potential subchronic toxicity of DBE, groups of male and female rats were exposed for periods of up to 13 weeks to DBE concentrations of 0, 20, 76, or 390 mg/m3. After approximately 7 and 13 weeks of exposure, 10 rats per sex per group were subjected to clinical chemical, hematological, and urine analyses. Following 7 or 13 weeks of exposure, 10 or 20 rats per sex per group, respectively, were euthanized. An additional 10 rats were euthanized following a 6-week recovery period. A standard profile of tissues, including four levels of nasal cavity, was evaluated histopathologically. After 7 weeks of exposure, slight degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was observed in both male and female rats at 76 and 390 mg/m3. After 13 weeks, degeneration of the olfactory epithelium was present at all DBE concentrations in female rats, but only at the mid and high concentrations in male rats. The severity and incidence of the lesions were concentration related for both sexes with female rats being more sensitive than males. Following the recovery period, histological changes compatible with repair in the olfactory mucosa included an absence of degeneration, focal disorganization of the olfactory epithelium, and respiratory metaplasia. All other tissues were macroscopically normal. No other signs of toxicity were indicated by the other parameters evaluated. Inhalation studies of other esters demonstrate similar pathology in the olfactory epithelium. Since olfactory mucosa is rich in carboxylesterase activity, acids may be the toxic metabolites of these compounds. This hypothetical mechanism may explain the sensitivity of olfactory tissue to the effects of DBE.

  9. Comparison of vectorial ion transport in primary murine airway and human sinonasal air-liquid interface cultures, models for studies of cystic fibrosis, and other airway diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shaoyan; Fortenberry, James A; Cohen, Noam A; Sorscher, Eric J; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare vectorial ion transport within murine trachea, murine nasal septa, and human sinonasal cultured epithelium. Our hypothesis is that murine septal epithelium, rather than trachea, will more closely mimic the electrophysiology properties of human sinonasal epithelium. Epithelium from murine trachea, murine septa, and human sinonasal tissue were cultured at an air-liquid interface to confluence and full differentiation. A limited number of homozygous dF508 epithelia were also cultured. Monolayers were mounted in modified Ussing chambers to investigate pharmacologic manipulation of ion transport. The change in forskolin-stimulated current (delta-I(SC), expressed as micro-A/cm(2)) in murine septal (n = 19; 16.84 +/- 2.09) and human sinonasal (n = 18; 12.15 +/- 1.93) cultures was significantly increased over murine tracheal cultures (n = 15; 6.75 +/- 1.35; p = 0.035 and 0.0005, respectively). Forskolin-stimulated I(SC) was inhibited by the specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) inhibitor INH-172 (5 microM). No forskolin-stimulated I(SC) was shown in cultures of dF508 homozygous murine septal epithelium (n = 3). Murine septal I(SC) was largely inhibited by amiloride (12.03 +/- 0.66), whereas human sinonasal cultures had a very limited response (0.70 +/- 0.47; p < 0.0001). The contribution of CFTR to stimulated chloride current as measured by INH-172 was highly significantly different between all groups (murine septa, 19.51 +/- 1.28; human sinonasal, 11.12 +/- 1.58; murine trachea, 4.85 +/- 0.49; p < 0.0001). Human sinonasal and murine septal epithelial cultures represent a useful model for studying CFTR activity and may provide significant advantages over lower airway tissues for investigating upper and lower respiratory pathophysiology.

  10. Effect of the nasal cycle on congestive response during bilateral nasal allergen provocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Gotlib

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bilateral nasal allergen provocation usually produces more pronounced obstruction of one nasal passage. It was found that this could be related to the stage of the nasal cycle before the provocation. objective. To discover whether the stage of the nasal cycle is decisive for asymmetry in congestive response observed during bilateral allergen nasal provocation. methods. Two bilateral nasal allergen provocations were performed in a group of 26 pollen-sensitive volunteers. Acoustic rhinometry measurements were taken during the nasal cycle, and then after the provocation. A cross-sectional area at the level of the inferior turbinate (CSA-2 was measured. Consecutive challenges were performed in the opposite phase of the nasal cycle: the side which had been wide just before the first challenge, was narrow before the second provocation. results. Asymmetry in CSA-2 reduction between the nasal passages was observed in most cases. Significant difference was observed between mean CSA-2 reduction rate (reactivity of the side that responded with greater congestion, and the opposite side. No significant difference was found in mean CSA-2 reduction rate between the side which was narrow, and the side which was wide before provocation. conclusions. Asymmetry of congestive response during bilateral nasal allergen provocation is not dependent on the stage of the nasal cycle preceding the challenge.

  11. NASAL INVERTED PAPILLOMA OF UNUSUAL ORIGIN

    OpenAIRE

    kasim s. kasim; Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman; BALWANT SINGH GENDEH

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of Schneiderian papilloma of the nasal septum are presented. The condition is rare, as indicated by a review of previously published cases. The clinical course of the lesion suggests that it behaves like Schneiderian papillomas elsewhere in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The need for aggressive surgical management and careful follow-up is emphasized.

  12. Nasal mucociliary transport in laryngectomees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavia, J.; Garcia, A.; Abello, R.; Herranz, R.; Franch, M.; Espana, R. de

    1986-01-01

    A study has been carried out to assess the mucociliary function of nasal mucosa in 30 patients: 16 had undergone surgery due to larynx malignancy and the remaining 14 were divided in two groups. The first group was composed of seven patients suffering from larynx cancer but not operated, and the second group of seven had pathology not related to the airways (control group). The method used a sup(99m)technetium sulphur colloid drop deposited on the nasal mucosa of one nostril. To calculate the rate of transport, a new method of quantification has been introduced, based on the formation of a parametric image. The mean velocity in laryngectomees was 3.6 mm/min (range 1.1-6.4). It was compared with the group of 14 patients without tracheostomy (mean 5.3, range 3.3-8.2). An impaired student's-t-test gave a significant difference between both groups (P<0.005). The comparison between patients with nonoperated larynx cancer and normals have a nonsignificant difference. The 16 operated patients were arbitrarily divided into two groups as per the time elapsed from laryngectomy; seven were studied within the first 3 years of operation and seven other patients after this term. The comparison between them was not significant. (orig.)

  13. Esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollen, Tyler R; Morris, Christopher G; Kirwan, Jessica M; Amdur, Robert J; Werning, John W; Vaysberg, Mikhail; Mendenhall, William M

    2015-06-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is an uncommon cancer of the nasal cavity. We describe the outcomes for 26 patients treated with curative intent with photon radiotherapy (RT) at the University of Florida. Between May 1972 and June 2007, 26 patients received RT for previously untreated esthesioneuroblastoma of the nasal cavity. Sixteen patients were males and 10 were females with a median age of 55 years (range, 3 to 82 y). The modified Kadish stage distribution was: B, 7 patients; C, 17 patients; and D, 2 patients. Treatment modalities included the following: definitive RT, 5 patients; preoperative RT, 2 patients; and postoperative RT after resection, 19 patients. Elective neck irradiation (ENI) was performed in 17 (71%) of 24 N0 patients. Rates of local control, cause-specific survival, and absolute overall survival at 5 years were 79%, 72%, and 69%, respectively. Overall survival among patients treated with definitive RT was 20% at 5 years, compared with 81% among those who underwent surgery and adjuvant RT (P=0.01). One (6%) of 17 patients who received ENI developed a recurrence in the neck and was successfully salvaged. Ultimate neck control was 100% at 5 years for patients who received ENI versus 69% among those not receiving ENI (P=0.0173). Resection combined with adjuvant RT is more effective than surgery or RT alone in the treatment of esthesioneuroblastoma. ENI reduces the risk of regional relapse in patients with Kadish stage B and C cancers.

  14. [Clinical and anatomical characteristic of nasal injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surikov, E V; Ivanets, I V

    2009-01-01

    A fracture of nasal bones is becoming a very common injury due to the increasingly greater number of car accidents and aggravated criminal situation. A total of 500 cases of nasal fracture associated with external deformities were included in the present study. The following kinds of deformities were identified: unilateral retraction, lateral displacement of the entire dorsum of the nose, and depressed comminuted fracture. Rhinoscopy revealed in addition such abnormalities associated with septal fracture as submucous hemorrhage, pathological mobility of the pyramid, deflection of the nasal septum at an acute angle. All in all, four types of nasal septum fractures were distinguished depending on the shape and localization of the fracture line. Two of them resulted in marked impairment of nasal breathing while two others required surgical intervention in the acute period after the injury.

  15. deltaNp63 has a role in maintaining epithelial integrity in airway epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arason, Ari Jon; Jonsdottir, Hulda R; Halldorsson, Skarphedinn; Benediktsdottir, Berglind Eva; Bergthorsson, Jon Thor; Ingthorsson, Saevar; Baldursson, Olafur; Sinha, Satrajit; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Magnusson, Magnus K

    2014-01-01

    The upper airways are lined with a pseudostratified bronchial epithelium that forms a barrier against unwanted substances in breathing air. The transcription factor p63, which is important for stratification of skin epithelium, has been shown to be expressed in basal cells of the lungs and its ΔN isoform is recognized as a key player in squamous cell lung cancer. However, the role of p63 in formation and maintenance of bronchial epithelia is largely unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the expression pattern of the ΔN and TA isoforms of p63 and the role of p63 in the development and maintenance of pseudostratified lung epithelium in situ and in culture. We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line with basal cell characteristics (VA10) to model bronchial epithelium in an air-liquid interface culture (ALI) and performed a lentiviral-based silencing of p63 to characterize the functional and phenotypic consequences of p63 loss. We demonstrate that ΔNp63 is the major isoform in the human lung and its expression was exclusively found in the basal cells lining the basement membrane of the bronchial epithelium. Knockdown of p63 affected proliferation and migration of VA10 cells and facilitated cellular senescence. Expression of p63 is critical for epithelial repair as demonstrated by wound healing assays. Importantly, generation of pseudostratified VA10 epithelium in the ALI setup depended on p63 expression and goblet cell differentiation, which can be induced by IL-13 stimulation, was abolished by the p63 knockdown. After knockdown of p63 in primary bronchial epithelial cells they did not proliferate and showed marked senescence. We conclude that these results strongly implicate p63 in the formation and maintenance of differentiated pseudostratified bronchial epithelium.

  16. Effect of vehicle on the nasal absorption of epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleske, B E; Rice, T L; Warren, E W; Giacherio, D A; Gilligan, L J; Massey, K D; Chrisp, C E; Tait, A R

    1996-01-01

    We have shown in previous studies that epinephrine administered intranasally is a feasible route of administration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). To promote the absorption of epinephrine we administered phentolamine prior to epinephrine and used a bile salt as a vehicle to dissolve the epinephrine. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different vehicles (bile salt vs surfactant) in promoting the absorption of nasally administered epinephrine during CPR and to determine their effects on the nasal mucosa. A randomized, blinded study. A controlled laboratory environment. Eleven mongrel dogs. Each dog underwent 3 minutes of unassisted ventricular fibrillation (VF) followed by 7 minutes of VF with CPR. Five minutes after the start of VF, 10 dogs received intranasal phentolamine 0.25 mg/kg/nostril followed 1 minute later by intranasal epinephrine 7.5 mg/kg/nostril. The epinephrine was dissolved in a randomly assigned vehicle consisting of either taurodeoxycholic acid (group A, bile salt) or polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether (group B, surfactant). One animal acted as a control and received 0.9% sodium chloride nasally. Data from eight dogs (one control) were included for analysis. Histology of the nasal cavity demonstrated severe multifocal erosion and ulceration of the respiratory epithelium for groups A and B compared with the control. The severity was similar between the two groups. In addition, no significant differences in plasma epinephrine concentrations or blood pressure responses were seen between the groups. Based on histology, polyoxyethylene-9-lauryl ether offered no advantage over taurodeoxycholic acid in its effect on the nasal mucosa. The data available for changes in epinephrine concentration and pressure also suggest no difference between the two vehicles in promoting the absorption of epinephrine during CPR in an animal model.

  17. Velocity Measurements in Nasal Cavities by Means of Stereoscopic Piv - Preliminary Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Fabio; Felisati, Giovanni; Quadrio, Maurizio

    2017-08-01

    The prediction of detailed flow patterns in human nasal cavities using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can provide essential information on the potential relationship between patient-specific geometrical characteristics of the nasal anatomy and health problems, and ultimately led to improved surgery. The complex flow structure and the intricate geometry of the nasal cavities make achieving such goals a challenge for CFD specialists. The need for experimental data to validate and improve the numerical simulations is particularly crucial. To this aim an experimental set-up based on Stereo PIV and a silicon phantom of nasal cavities have been designed and realized at Politecnico di Milano. This work describes the main features and challenges of the set-up along with some preliminary results.

  18. Expressions of TRPVs in the cholesteatoma epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ba Hung; Koizumi, Hiroki; Ohbuchi, Toyoaki; Kawaguchi, Rintaro; Suzuki, Hideaki

    2017-10-01

    We have recently proposed a hypothesis that acid leakage through the cholesteatoma epithelium mediates bone resorption in middle ear cholesteatoma. In the present study, we investigated the expressions of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels, which have been shown to play roles in the regulation of epidermal barrier function, in the cholesteatoma epithelium in comparison with the normal skin. Cholesteatoma epithelium and postauricular skin were collected from 17 patients with primary acquired middle ear cholesteatoma who underwent tympanomastoidectomy. Expressions of TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 were explored by fluorescence immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPV4, and TRPV6 mRNAs were all detected by qRT-PCR both in the skin and cholesteatoma tissue. Immunohistochemical staining showed that TRPV1 and TRPV3 were positive in the viable cell layers of the epidermis of the skin, and only TRPV3 was positive in those of the cholesteatoma epithelium. The immunoreactivity for TRPV3 was significantly weaker in cholesteatoma than in the skin. The lower expression of TRPV3 in cholesteatoma may be one of the mechanisms underlying the increased permeability of this tissue. On the other hand, TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPV6 are unlikely to be involved in the regulation of epithelial permeability in cholesteatoma.

  19. Transport across the choroid plexus epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praetorius, Jeppe; Damkier, Helle Hasager

    2017-06-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium is a secretory epithelium par excellence. However, this is perhaps not the most prominent reason for the massive interest in this modest-sized tissue residing inside the brain ventricles. Most likely, the dominant reason for extensive studies of the choroid plexus is the identification of this epithelium as the source of the majority of intraventricular cerebrospinal fluid. This finding has direct relevance for studies of diseases and conditions with deranged central fluid volume or ionic balance. While the concept is supported by the vast majority of the literature, the implication of the choroid plexus in secretion of the cerebrospinal fluid was recently challenged once again. Three newer and promising areas of current choroid plexus-related investigations are as follows: 1 ) the choroid plexus epithelium as the source of mediators necessary for central nervous system development, 2 ) the choroid plexus as a route for microorganisms and immune cells into the central nervous system, and 3 ) the choroid plexus as a potential route for drug delivery into the central nervous system, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Thus, the purpose of this review is to highlight current active areas of research in the choroid plexus physiology and a few matters of continuous controversy. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  1. Effects of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae on porcine nasal cavity dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yumeng; Hu, Weiwei; Wei, Yanna; Feng, Zhixin; Yang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhp) is the primary etiological agent responsible for swine enzootic pneumonia (EP), a disease that cause tremendous economic losses all over the swine industry. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most effective antigen-presenting cells, are widely distributed beneath respiratory epithelium. DCs uptake and present antigens to T cells, to initiate protective immune responses or generate immune-mediated pathology in different infections. In this study, we investigated the changes in the different DCs subpopulations, T cells and SIgA positive cells counts in porcine nasal cavity after long time Mhp infection. We further evaluated the role of porcine DCs in Mhp exposure. Our results showed that the number of SLA-II-DR + SWC3a + DCs, SLA-II-DR + CD11b + DCs, T cells, SIgA positive cells in nasal cavity were decreased after Mhp 28 days infection in vivo experiment. The antigen presenting ability of DCs were inhibited by Mhp exposure. DCs couldn't activate T-cell proliferation by down-regulating the antigen presenting molecule CD1a expression and promoting high level of IL-10 production. Further more, the expression levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ in DCs were decreased, suggesting that DCs favour for Th2 immune response development after Mhp exposure in vitro. Taken together, Mhp infection impairs the immune function which allows the persistence of Mhp and cause predispose pigs to secondary infections. The decline of DCs presentation ability is the reason why dysfunction and persistence in Mhp infection. These findings are benefit for exploring the pathogenic mechanisms of Mhp in pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Climatic effects on the nasal complex: a CT imaging, comparative anatomical, and morphometric investigation of Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Samuel; Laitman, Jeffrey T

    2008-11-01

    Previous studies exploring the effects of climate on the nasal region have largely focused on external craniofacial linear parameters, using dry crania of modern human populations. This investigation augments traditional craniofacial morphometrics with internal linear and volumetric measures of the anatomic units comprising the nasal complex (i.e., internal nasal cavity depth, maxillary sinus volumes). The study focuses on macaques (i.e., Macaca mulatta and Macaca fascicularis) living at high and low altitudes, rather than on humans, since the short residency of migratory human populations may preclude using them as reliable models to test the long-term relationship of climate to nasal morphology. It is hypothesized that there will be significant differences in nasal complex morphology among macaques inhabiting different climates. This study integrated three different approaches: CT imaging, comparative anatomy, and morphometrics-in an effort to better understand the morphological structure and adaptive nature of the nasal complex. Results showed statistically significant differences when subsets of splanchnocranial and neurocranial variables were regressed against total maxillary sinus volume for particular taxa. For example, basion-hormion was significant for M. fascicularis, whereas choanal dimensions were significant only for M. mulatta. Both taxa revealed strong correlation between sinus volume and prosthion to staphylion distance, which essentially represents the length of the nasal cavity floor-and is by extension an indicator of the air conditioning capacity of the nasal region. These results clearly show that climatic effects play a major role in shaping the anatomy of the nasal complex in closely related species. The major influence upon these differing structures appears to be related to respiratory-related adaptations subserving differing climatic factors. In addition, the interdependence of the paranasal sinuses with other parts of the complex strongly

  3. Neoplasia versus hyperplasia of the retinal pigment epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen; Larsen, J.N.B.; Fledelius, Hans C.

    2001-01-01

    ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography......ophthalmology, retinal pigment epithelium, adenoma, tumor-like hyperplasia, histology, immunohistochemistry, tumor, neoplasm, ultrasonography...

  4. The Structure of Urethral Epithelium in Merinos Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile RUS

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate by histological techniques the structure of urethral epithelium in lambs. In this study, we harvested several fragments (prostatic, membranous and cavernous from urethra from 5 merino’s lambs of 3 months old. The first anatomical segment, the prostatic urethra, is lined by a urinary epithelium. The intermediary layer of this epithelium is formed of 5-6 rows of oval cells. The second segment of urethra has the same type of epithelium but the intermediary layer is formed of 6-7 rows of oval cells. In the last anatomical segment, the penile urethra, the epithelium is the same, but the intermediary layer has 3-4 rows of oval cells. In lambs, the urethra is lined by urinary epithelium. The urethral epithelium does not have the same thickness in all segments. The thinner epithelium it is in the cavernous urethra, the ticker is the membranous urethra.

  5. Embryo-epithelium interactions during implantation at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Ruane, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    At implantation, with the acquisition of a receptive phenotype in the uterine epithelium, an initial tenuous attachment of embryonic trophectoderm initiates reorganisation of epithelial polarity to enable stable embryo attachment and the differentiation of invasive trophoblasts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we describe cellular and molecular events during the epithelial phase of implantation in rodent, drawing on morphological studies both in vivo and in vitro, and genetic models. Evidence is emerging for a repertoire of transcription factors downstream of the master steroidal regulators estrogen and progesterone that coordinate alterations in epithelial polarity, delivery of signals to the stroma and epithelial cell death or displacement. We discuss what is known of the cell interactions that occur during implantation, before considering specific adhesion molecules. We compare the rodent data with our much more limited knowledge of the human system, where direct mechanistic evidence is hard to obtain. In the accompanying poster, we represent the embryo-epithelium interactions in humans and laboratory rodents, highlighting similarities and differences, as well as depict some of the key cell biological events that enable interstitial implantation to occur. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Comparison of Early-period Results of Nasal Splint and Merocel Nasal Packs in Septoplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingöl, Fatih; Budak, Ali; Şimşek, Eda; Kılıç, Korhan; Bingöl, Buket Özel

    2017-01-01

    Objective Several types of nasal packs are used postoperatively in septoplasty. In this study, we compared two commonly used nasal packing materials, the intranasal septal splint with airway and Merocel tampon, in terms of pain, bleeding, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, discomfort in sleep, and pain and bleeding during removal of packing in the early period. Methods The study group included 60 patients undergoing septoplasty. Patients were divided into two groups (n=30 in each group). An intranasal splint with airway was used for the patients in the first group after septoplasty, while Merocel nasal packing was used for the second group. Patients were investigated in terms of seven different factors - pain, bleeding while the tampon was in place, nasal obstruction, eating difficulties, night sleep, pain during removal of the nasal packing, and bleeding after removal of packing. Results There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of pain 24 hours after operation (p=0.05), while visual analog scale (VAS) scores for nasal obstruction, night sleep, eating difficulties, and pain during packing removal were lower in the nasal splint group with a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of postoperative bleeding (p=0.23). Significantly less bleeding occurred during removal of the packing in the nasal splint group (p<0.05). Conclusion Our study indicates that the nasal splint was more comfortable and effective in terms of causing lesser bleeding and pain during removal of packing. PMID:29392071

  7. Involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor in nasal obstruction in patients with nasal allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Yamashita

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF enhances vascular permeability and that mast cells produce VEGF, suggesting the involvement of VEGF in allergic diseases. In the present study we quantitatively analyzed VEGF in the nasal lavage fluid of patients with nasal allergy. We performed nasal antigen challenge with Japanese cedar pollen antigen in 10 healthy adult volunteers and in 10 cedar pollen IgE-positive patients with nasal allergy. In all patients with nasal allergy, VEGF and histamine levels in the nasal lavage fluid reached a peak 30 min after antigen challenge, then returned to prechallenge values 2 h after antigen challenge. In these patients, the histamine level increased three-fold, while the VEGF level increased 10-fold. However, in all healthy adult volunteers, VEGF and histamine levels did not increase. A stronger correlation was noted between the ratio of decreased nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased VEGF levels (R = 0.823; P < 0.001 than between the ratio of nasal cavity volume and the ratio of increased histamine levels (R = 0.660; P < 0.01. These results suggest that VEGF may contribute to the pathogenesis of nasal obstruction in the early phase of nasal allergy as a new factor involved in increasing vascular permeability.

  8. Low dose oxytocin delivered intranasally with Breath Powered device affects social-cognitive behavior: a randomized 4-way crossover trial with nasal cavity dimension assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana, Daniel; Westlye, Lars Tjelta; Rustan, Øyvind; Tesli, Natalia; Poppy, Claire; Smevik, Hanne; Tesli, Martin Steen; Røine, Marianne; Mahmoud, Ramy; Smerud, Knut Terje; Djupesland, Per G.; Andreassen, Ole Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the promise of intranasal oxytocin (OT) for modulating social behavior, recent work has provided mixed results. This may relate to suboptimal drug deposition achieved with conventional nasal sprays, inter-individual differences in nasal physiology and a poor understanding of how intranasal OT is delivered to the brain in humans. Delivering OT using a novel ?Breath Powered' nasal device previously shown to enhance deposition in intranasal sites targeted for nose-to-brain transport, we ...

  9. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Lamwers, Stephanie; Tepel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is linked to increased cardiovascular risk. This risk can be reduced by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) treatment. As OSA is associated with an increase of several vasoconstrictive factors, we investigated whether nCPAP influences the digital volume...... pulse wave. We performed digital photoplethysmography during sleep at night in 94 consecutive patients who underwent polysomnography and 29 patients treated with nCPAP. Digital volume pulse waves were obtained independently of an investigator and were quantified using an algorithm for continuous.......01; n = 94) and the arousal index (Spearman correlation, r = 0.21; p CPAP treatment, the AHI was significantly reduced from 27 ± 3 events · h(-1) to 4 ± 2 events · h(-1) (each n = 29; p

  10. Spectral features of nasals in Standard Latvian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Taperte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the acoustic features of nasals in Standard Latvian are investigated. The aim of the study is to examine whether some of the spectral properties of nasal murmur (namely anti-formant frequency, as well as frequency and bandwidth of the first nasal formant can be considered as efficient cues for distinguishing between nasal places of articulation.Speech recordings from 10 native speakers of Standard Latvian, five male and five female, aged 19–39, without any disorders or dialectal traces in their pronunciation, were used for the analysis. Prevocalic nasals [m; n; ɲ] were analyzed in isolated CVC syllables, where C is one of the nasals and V is one of the vowels [i(ː; e(ː; æ(ː; ɑ(ː; ɔ(ː; u(ː]. The velar [ŋ] — the allophone of the phoneme /n/ — was recorded in postvocalic position in [k]V[ŋks] structure units. 1260 items were analyzed in total.According to the results, the nasals of Standard Latvian can be distinguished by anti-formant frequencies rather efficiently, and the results generally agree with those obtained in previous research of Latvian as well as data reported for other languages. The frequencies and the bandwidths of the first nasal formant are less informative regarding nasal place of articulation and can be used only for distinguishing between [ŋ] and [m; n; ɲ]. Conducting perception tests to assess the auditory relevance of these acoustic features is necessary.

  11. Omalizumab a new prospective: a nasal polyposis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, C; Begvarfaj, E; Frati, F; Masieri, S

    2018-01-01

    Omalizumab, a monoclonal antibody against IgE, may be effective on nasal polyps, but its use is not currently authorized to treat that disease. We report the cases of three patients who were given omalizumab for asthma after undergoing nasal surgical polypectomy. Although such procedure is frequently followed by polyp recurrence, none of the three patients developed this complication, and in one subject the regression of initial polyp return was registered after starting omalizumab. Our data support the hypothesis that omalizumab may be useful to treat nasal polyposis.

  12. Angiomatous nasal polyp: Clinical diagnostic dilemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiomatous polyp (Angiectatic nasal polyps is rare and its incidence is 4-5% of all nasal polyps. As it occurs with variable clinical features and there is no confirmatory preoperative investigation, clinical diagnosis can be a dilemma. Clinical picture of angiofibroma, simple antrochoanal polyp and inverted papilloma may resemble with each other. As polyps invade surrounding bone, these should be distinguished from a malignant mass. We present an interesting case of an infarcted angiectatic nasal polyp with extensive surrounding bony destruction. Correct preoperative radiological diagnosis is important to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. Histopathological evaluation of polyps is mandatory since they require different treatment due to difference in the prognosis.

  13. Repeated measurement of nasal lavage fluid chemokines in school-age children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Terry L; Tudor, Gail E; Ivins, Sally S; Murphy, Paula C; Peden, David B; Henderson, Frederick W

    2006-02-01

    Inflammatory processes at the mucosal surface may play a role in maintenance of asthma pathophysiology. Cross-sectional studies in asthmatic patients suggest that chemokines such as interleukin 8 (IL-8) are overproduced by respiratory epithelium. To test the hypothesis that chemokine levels are persistently elevated in the respiratory secretions of asthmatic children at a stable baseline. We measured nasal lavage fluid (NLF) levels of chemokines and other mediators at 3- to 4-month intervals in a longitudinal study of asthmatic children, with nonasthmatic siblings as controls. In a linear mixed-model analysis, both family and day of visit had significant effects on nasal mediators. Thus, data for 12 asthmatic-nonasthmatic sibling pairs who had 3 or more same-day visits were analyzed separately. For sibling pairs, median eosinophil cationic protein levels derived from serial measurements in NLF were elevated in asthmatic patients compared with nonasthmatic patients, with a near-significant tendency for elevation of total protein and eotaxin levels as well. However, no significant differences were found for IL-8 or several other chemokines. Ratios of IL-13 or IL-5 to interferon-gamma released by house dust mite antigen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, tested on a single occasion, were significantly increased for asthmatic patients. Substantial temporal and family-related variability exists in nasal inflammation in asthmatic children. Although higher levels of eosinophil cationic protein are usually present in NLF of patients with stable asthma compared with patients without asthma, chemokines other than eotaxin are not consistently increased. Eosinophil activation at the mucosal surface is a more consistent predictor of asthmatic symptoms than nonspecific elevation of epithelium-derived inflammatory chemokine levels.

  14. Controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan for modulated bioadhesion and nasal membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V; Belgamwar, Veena S

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment to explore the bioadhesion, biocompatibility, and membrane permeation properties, the controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was carried out by two-step reductive methylation of chitosan (CHT). Methylation was confirmed by (1)H NMR (δ=3.1 ppm) and FTIR analysis (CH stretch at 1,485 cm(-1)). The TMC was further characterized by DSC, TGA, XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, and elemental analysis. Findings revealed improved solubility, enhanced viscosity, increased swelling index and higher molecular weight of TMC over CHT. Comparative evaluation validated increased bioadhesion potential, and improved ex vivo biocompatibility of TMC compared to CHT. Increased bioadhesion of TMC NPs over CHT NPs can be attributed to the strong electrostatic interactions between cationic amino groups with anionic sialic and sulfonic acid moieties contained in the mucin of the nasal mucus. Ex vivo biocompatibility studies suggested that the NP formulations of both biopolymers were biocompatible and could be applied safely on the nasal epithelium. Ex vivo permeation studies executed on excised cattle nasal mucosa illustrated improved permeability of TMC NPs over CHT NPs. In the author's opinion, two-step reductive methylation of CHT could be an attractive strategy to improve its solubility, bioadhesion, and permeation characteristics without affecting biocompatibility across the mucosal surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Apical serine protease activity is necessary for assembly of a high-resistance renal collecting duct epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Mette; Svenningsen, Per; Tinning, Anne R

    2010-01-01

    Abstract AIM: We hypothesized that the serine protease prostasin is necessary for differentiation of a high resistance renal collecting duct epithelium governed by glucocorticoid. METHODS: Postnatal rat kidney and adult human kidney was used to study expression and localization of prostasin......-cadherin distribution did not change. CONCLUSION: Apical, GPI-anchored, lipid raft-associated serine protease activity, compatible with prostasin, is necessary for development of a high-resistance collecting duct epithelium....

  16. Nasal mass removal in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercier, Marjorie; Wynne, Janna; Klause, Stephen; Stadler, Cynthia K; Gorow, April; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2012-12-01

    Nasal masses in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) are not uncommon and can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Differential diagnoses for nasal masses in the koala are cryptococcal granulomas, nasal polyps, nasal adenocarcinoma, and osteochondromatosis. This report describes successful surgical approaches for two adult koalas with nasal masses and includes photodocumentation and description of the anatomy of the koala nasal passages from the postmortem transverse sectioning of a normal koala head. Surgical removal of the nasal masses in these koalas resulted in a rapid resolution of clinical signs.

  17. Prostaglandin E2 release from dermis regulates sodium permeability of frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytved, Klaus A.; Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium.......Arachidonic acid, cAMP, epithelium, frog skin, intracellular calcium, prostaglandin E*U2, sodium transport, tight epithelium....

  18. Intestinal epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet eCoskun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium has a strategic position as a protective physical barrier to luminal microbiota and actively contributes to the mucosal immune system. This barrier is mainly formed by a monolayer of specialized intestinal epithelial cells (IECs that are crucial in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. Therefore, dysregulation within the epithelial layer can increase intestinal permeability, lead to abnormalities in interactions between IECs and immune cells in underlying lamina propria, and disturb the intestinal immune homeostasis, all of which are linked to the clinical disease course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Understanding the role of the intestinal epithelium in IBD pathogenesis might contribute to an improved knowledge of the inflammatory processes and the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

  19. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  20. Radiobiology of intestinal epithelium stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplyannikova, O.A.

    1988-01-01

    After a single or three-fold whole body irradiation of mice with a dose of 4 Gy and the time interval for the proliferation to be restored (5 days or 3 weeks) the survival curve for stem cells of small intestine epithelium with regard to radiation dose was the same as that for non-preirradiated mice. This indicated that the proliferative potential of stem cells in these experimental conditions was not reduced

  1. Effect of Local Nasal Immunotherapy on Nasal Blockage in Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nabe

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Local nasal immunotherapy may be clinically useful for allergic nasal blockage associated with nasal hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms responsible for this effectiveness might not be related to IgE production. Additionally, the effectiveness for nasal tissue was dissociated from that seen for the ocular tissue.

  2. Perceiving nasal patency through mucosal cooling rather than air temperature or nasal resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhao

    Full Text Available Adequate perception of nasal airflow (i.e., nasal patency is an important consideration for patients with nasal sinus diseases. The perception of a lack of nasal patency becomes the primary symptom that drives these patients to seek medical treatment. However, clinical assessment of nasal patency remains a challenge because we lack objective measurements that correlate well with what patients perceive. The current study examined factors that may influence perceived patency, including air temperature, humidity, mucosal cooling, nasal resistance, and trigeminal sensitivity. Forty-four healthy subjects rated nasal patency while sampling air from three facial exposure boxes that were ventilated with untreated room air, cold air, and dry air, respectively. In all conditions, air temperature and relative humidity inside each box were recorded with sensors connected to a computer. Nasal resistance and minimum airway cross-sectional area (MCA were measured using rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry, respectively. General trigeminal sensitivity was assessed through lateralization thresholds to butanol. No significant correlation was found between perceived patency and nasal resistance or MCA. In contrast, air temperature, humidity, and butanol threshold combined significantly contributed to the ratings of patency, with mucosal cooling (heat loss being the most heavily weighted predictor. Air humidity significantly influences perceived patency, suggesting that mucosal cooling rather than air temperature alone provides the trigeminal sensation that results in perception of patency. The dynamic cooling between the airstream and the mucosal wall may be quantified experimentally or computationally and could potentially lead to a new clinical evaluation tool.

  3. Unilateral nasal pain with migraine features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Mónica; Montojo, Teresa; de la Casa, Beatriz; Vela, Lydia; Pareja, Juan A

    2013-09-01

    Migraine attacks exclusively felt in the face are very rare, the pain involving the territories supplied by the second and third branches of the trigeminal nerve. Two patients suffering from heminasal pain attacks accompanied with typical migrainous features and responsive to oral or intranasal triptans - but not to intranasal lidocaine or oxymetazoline. In one patient, the attacks could be precipitated upon slight touching on the tip of the nose, in the other attacks were preceded by the nasal sensation typically heralding sneezing. Migraine pain mostly develops within the innervation territory of the first branch of the trigeminal nerve, which includes the nose. Therefore, episodes of unilateral nasal pain with migrainous features could be considered a migraine with unusual topography (nasal migraine). Painful nasal attacks occasionally preceded by stimulation of trigeminal afferents in the nose, could be conceived of as migraine-tic syndrome.

  4. Periapical Infection Masquerading as a Nasal Pustule

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Endodontic treatment, Maxillary central incisor, Nasal pustule, Periapical infection,. Root length ... back under copious irrigation. Non‑setting calcium ... of working length. Figure 4: Obturated root canal of maxillary right central incisor ...

  5. Nasal Chondromesenchymal Hamartoma in a Child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finitsis, Stefanos; Giavroglou, Constantinos; Potsi, Stamatia; Constantinidis, Ioannis; Mpaltatzidis, Angelos; Rachovitsas, Dimitrios; Tzioufa, Valentini

    2009-01-01

    Nasal chondromesenchymal hamartoma (NCMH) is a benign tumor that was described in 1998. The occurrence of this lesion in the nasal cavity of infants and children is especially rare, with only 21 cases reported in the international literature. We report a 12-month-old boy with respiratory distress due to nasal obstruction. Computed tomographic scan and magnetic resonance imaging examination demonstrated a soft-tissue mass obstructing the left nasal cavity. Digital subtraction angiography and preoperative superselective embolization with microparticles were also performed. The tumor was completely resected surgically. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analyses of the tumor disclosed a NCMH. The imaging characteristics of the tumor are described and the radiology literature is reviewed.

  6. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-01-01

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50 ± 6 mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Ethanol impedes embryo transport and impairs oviduct epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tonghui; Yang, Qiuhong; Liu, Ruoxi; Wang, Wenfu; Wang, Shuanglian; Liu, Chuanyong; Li, Jingxin

    2016-05-16

    Most studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased fertility. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of alcohol on pre-implantation embryo transport and/or early embryo development in the oviduct. We reported here that ethanol concentration-dependently suppressed the spontaneous motility of isolated human oviduct strips (EC50 50±6mM), which was largely attenuated in the present of L-NAME, a classical nitric oxide synthase(NOS) competitive inhibitor. Notably, either acute or chronic alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the mouse oviduct, which was largely rescued by co-administration of L-NAME in a acute alcohol intake group but not in chronic alcohol intake group. It is worth mentioning that the oviductal epithelium destruction was verified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations in chronic alcohol intake group. In conclusion, alcohol intake delayed egg transport and retarded early development of the embryo in the oviduct by suppressing the spontaneous motility of oviduct and/or impairing oviductal epithelium. These findings suggested that alcohol abuse increases the incident of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nasal manifestations in chromium industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, R G; Kumar, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    People working in mines, plating factories, cement industries are mainly exposed to chrome substances, IIexavalent chromium has been implicated for its toxic effect on the nasal mucosa. Hereby we present a rare study of 28 patients who attended out patient department of Otorhinolaryngology at SSG Hospital, Baroda from a nearby chromium industry. This study aims to present various nasal manifestations of toxic effects of prolonged chromium exposure.

  9. The effects of the stem cell on ciliary regeneration of injured rabbit sinonasal epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuzlu, Ali; Tatar, Emel Çadallı; Karagöz, Tuğba; Pınarlı, Ferda Alpaslan; Tatar, İlkan; Bayır, Ömer; Korkmaz, Mehmet Hakan

    2017-08-01

    Defects in mucosal healing after sinonasal surgery cause infection, scar formation causing obstruction, relapse of the disease within a shorter period and revision surgery. The present study aimed to create a functional ciliated epithelium using a stem cell and stem cell sheet of adipose tissue origin and to show such regeneration ultra-structurally on experimentally injured rabbit nasal epithelium. This was an experimental animal study and basic research. A total of 18 white New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. The medial wall of the maxillary sinus of the subjects was peeled off bilaterally. No additional procedure was applied to the subjects in Group 1. In Group 2, adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell was implanted on the wound edges of the subjects. In Group 3, a stem cell sheet of three layers was laid onto the defect area. All subjects were killed after 3 weeks. The presence of the stem cell stained with bromo-deoxyuridine was assessed with a light microscope, whereas cilia density, ciliated orientation and cilia structure were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Ciliary densities in Group 2 and Group 3 were statistically superior compared to the control group (p stem cell increased the healing of the injured maxillary sinus mucosa of the rabbits in terms of cilia presence, density and morphology regardless of the implementation technique. Level of evidence NA.

  10. CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Kyung Ah; Choi, Kyu Ho; Yu, Won Jong; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Park, Seog Hee; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of malignant nasal cavity tumors. Retrospective analysis was performed on 20 patients with pathologically-proven malignant nasal cavity tumors. Using CT, we analysed their location, extent of bone destruction and of involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancing pattern. A total of 20 cases included nine squamous cell carcinomas, three olfactory neuroblastomas, three lymphomas, two polymorphic reticulosis, one adenoid cystic carcinoma, one undifferentiated carcinoma and one metastasis from renal cell carcinoma. All cases except one adenoid cystic carcinoma and one squamous cell carcinoma revealed bone destruction or erosion. Aggressive bone destruction and irregular enhancement were seen in eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma, seven cases of which showed involvement of the adjacent paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx, and orbit. Olfactory neuroblastomas were centered in the superior nasal cavity and the adjacent ethmoid sinus, and erosion or destruction of the cribriform plate had occurred. Lymphomas showed bilateral involvement, with uniform contrast enhancement. Polymorphic reticuloses showed perforation or erosion of the nasal septum, with bilateral involvement of the nasal cavity. The location, presence of bone destruction, involvement of adjacent structures, and enhancement pattern of tumor on CT can be helpful for the differential diagnosis of malignant nasal cavity tumors

  11. Eosinophilic Angiocentric Fibrosis of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchuan Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis (EAF is a rare benign condition of unknown aetiology that causes stenosis of the upper respiratory tract. It is most commonly found at the nasal septum and sinus mucosa causing mucosal thickening and nasal obstructive symptoms. The diagnosis is mainly based on characteristic histologic findings. Case Report. A 27-year-old young woman presented with a slow growing mass at her anterior nasal septum for over eight years. She complained of persistent nasal obstruction, epistaxis, sometimes diffused facial pain, and chronic headache. 3 years ago, the tumor was partially resected for ventilation and a nasal septum perforation was left. Imaging findings indicated soft-tissue thickening of the anterior part of septum and adjacent lateral nasal walls. Pathological examination showed numerous inflammatory cells infiltrates containing eosinophils, fibroinflammatory lesion with a whorled appearance fibrosis which typically surrounded vessels. A diagnosis of eosinophilic angiocentric fibrosis was made. All laboratory tests were unremarkable. Skin prick test was positive. The tumor-like lesion was totally resected. Conclusions. EAF is a rare benign and progressive disorder causing destruction. Combined with radiological imaging of EAF historical findings contribute to the diagnosis. It is important to prevent tumor from recurrence by total resection of the lesion.

  12. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  13. Acoustic rhinometry (AR): An Alternative Method to Image Nasal Airway Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straszek, Sune; Pedersen, O.F.

      ACOUSTIC RHINOMETRY (AR): AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD TO IMAGE NASAL AIRWAY GEOMETRY.  INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND:  In human studies the acoustic reflection technique was first applied to describe the area-distance relationship of the lower airways, but later the acoustic reflection technique appeared...... to be of more use in the description of nasal cavity geometry. Applied to human subjects AR has been applied to monitor the effect of corrective surgery and mucosal effects of pharmacological interventions. In recent years, however, AR has found use also in pharmacological studies in animals ranging in size...

  14. Nasal obstruction and smell impairment in nasal polyp disease: correlation between objective and subjective parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Bobic, S.; Callebaux, I.; Jorissen, M.; Hellings, P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (NP) represents an invalidating disorder that causes mainly nasal blockage and loss of smell. The aim of this study is to investigate correlations between individual subjective and objective parameters of stable NP disease. 65 NP patients scored their

  15. Nasal endotracheal intubation in a premature infant with a nasal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, C M; Kashab, M; Dagestani, H; Placzek, M

    1993-01-01

    After a difficult nasal intubation a premature infant leaked cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from one nostril. After developing bacterial meningitis, the baby was referred for neurosurgical management of the CSF fistula. Transaxial computed tomograms demonstrated a nasal encephalocele, but coronal scans were needed to show the defect in the cribriform plate. Images PMID:8346963

  16. Clinical aspects of patients with nasal polyposis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo, Cassio Caldini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nasal Polyposis is a non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory process of the nasal mucosa. It causes a large impact to the patients' life quality. Objective: To analyze the characteristics of patients with polyposis in the Brazilian population. Method: 50 records of patients followed up in a tertiary hospital and submitted to surgical treatment of nasal polyposis were reviewed. The following variables were analyzed: age, sex, smoking, presence of asthma, presence of AAS intolerance and also the clinical manifestations: anterior and posterior rhinorrhea, nasal obstruction, hyposmia, sneezing and pruritus. The tomographic evaluation system applied was that of Lund-McKay. For statistical analysis we applied the chi-square test with p<0.05. Results: Out of 50 patients evaluated, 28 were male and 22 were female. The mean age range was of 40.8 years. The main clinical manifestation was nasal obstruction in 100% of the patients. In the tomographic evaluation, according to the Lund-McKay system, the average scoring was of 10.9. Discussion: No statistically significant difference was obtained in the patients' general symptoms compared to the patients with asthma or AAS intolerance. The difference in the Lund-McKay score was statistically significant in the populations studied. The symptoms were similar to the frequency of symptoms of other works. Conclusion: We concluded that the main complaint of the patients with nasal polyposis is nasal obstruction, the most affected age is of about 40 years old, without preference of sex. The severity of tomographic findings is higher in patients with asthma and AAS intolerance.

  17. Production of active pigment epithelium-derived factor inE. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Guan, Ming; Lu, Yuan

    2005-03-01

    Human pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a neurotrophic factor, is the most potent natural inhibitor of angiogenesis. To produce the active PEDF, the gene coding for the human PEDF protein was expressed in E. coli. The rPEDF protein was expressed at 457 mg l-1 as a soluble protein. The yield of purified GST fusion protein was 14 mg l-1. Purified rPEDF inhibited tube formation in endothelial cells.

  18. DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øsnes-Ringen, Oyvind; Azqueta, Amaia O; Moe, Morten C; Zetterström, Charlotta; Røger, Magnus; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Collins, Andrew R

    2013-11-01

    DNA damage has been described in the human cataractous lens epithelium, and oxidative stress generated by UV radiation and endogenous metabolic processes has been suggested to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of cataract. In this study, the aim was to explore the quality and relative quantity of DNA damage in lens epithelium of cataract patients in vivo and after incubation in a cell culture system. Capsulotomy specimens were analysed, before and after 1 week of ex vivo cultivation, using the comet assay to measure DNA strand breaks, oxidized purine and pyrimidine bases and UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. DNA strand breaks were barely detectable, oxidized pyrimidines and pyrimidine dimers were present at low levels, whereas there was a relatively high level of oxidized purines, which further increased after cultivation. The observed levels of oxidized purines in cataractous lens epithelium may support a theory consistent with light damage and oxidative stress as mediators of molecular damage to the human lens epithelium. Damage commonly associated with UV-B irradiation was relatively low. The levels of oxidized purines increased further in a commonly used culture system. This is of interest considering the importance and versatility of ex vivo systems in studies exploring the pathogenesis of cataract. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  19. Nasal obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing: the effect of supine body position on nasal measurements in snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkkula, Paula; Maasilta, Paula; Hytönen, Maija; Salmi, Tapani; Malmberg, Henrik

    2003-06-01

    Nasal obstruction is considered to be a potential etiological factor in sleep-disordered breathing. However, a significant correlation between nasal measurements and obstructive sleep apnea has not been demonstrated so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between nasal resistance, nasal volumes and selected sleep parameters using nasal measurements performed in both seated and supine positions. We also investigated whether snoring patients in our clinical sample showed increased positional or decongestive nasal mucosal changes. Forty-one snoring men on a waiting list for correction of nasal obstruction underwent polysomnography, anterior rhinomanometry and acoustic rhinometry. Nineteen non-snoring control subjects were also recruited. Nasal measurements were performed in a seated position, after lying down in a supine position and, after decongestion of nasal mucosa, in a seated position again. In the overall patient group, nasal volume at a distance 2-4 cm from the nares in the supine position correlated inversely with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (r = -0.32, p patients, total nasal resistance measured in a supine position correlated with AHI (r = 0.50, p position and sleep parameters. Postural or decongestive changes in nasal measurements were not increased in snoring patients compared with control subjects. The relationship found between nasal measurements and sleep parameters suggests that nasal obstruction does augment airway collapse.

  20. Cytokeratin expression in mouse lacrimal gland germ epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Masatoshi; Liu, Ying; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Shimmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-05-01

    The lacrimal gland secretes tear fluids that protect the ocular surface epithelium, and its dysfunction leads to dry eye disease (DED). The functional restoration of the lacrimal gland by engraftment of a bioengineered lacrimal gland using lacrimal gland germ epithelial cells has been proposed to cure DED in mice. Here, we investigate the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium to clarify their unique characteristics. We performed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis to clarify the expression profile of cytokeratin in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. The mRNA expression of keratin (KRT) 5, KRT8, KRT14, KRT15, and KRT18 in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was increased compared with that in mouse embryonic stem cells and the lacrimal gland germ mesenchyme, as analyzed by Q-PCR. The expression level of KRT15 increased in the transition from stem cells to lacrimal gland germ epithelium, then decreased as the lacrimal gland matured. IHC revealed that the expression set of these cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium was different from that in the adult lacrimal gland. The expression of KRT15 was observed in the lacrimal gland germ epithelium, and it segmentalized into some of the basal cells in the intercanulated duct in mature gland. We determined the expression profile of cytokeratins in the lacrimal gland epithelium, and identified KRT15 as a candidate unique cellular marker for the lacrimal gland germ epithelium. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Nasal mucosa in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maciej; Betlejewski, Stanisław

    2003-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is the most common endocrinologic disease all over the world. 150 million people suffer from this disease, in Poland about 2 million. The disease on the basis of the onset and pathophysiology may be divided into type I and type II. Pathophysiologic changes include diabetic microangiopathy, macroangiopathy and neuropathy. The most common presentations in head and neck are otitis externa, hypoacusis, vertigo, disequilibrium, xerostomia, dysphagia, fungal and recurrent infections. The changes in nasal mucosa are not very well known. Only few papers concerned the problem. The main complaints of patients regarding the nose are xeromycteria, hyposmia and various degree of decreased patency of the nose. Chronic atrophic rhinitis, septal perforation, ulceration of nasal mucosa, alar necrosis, symptoms of staphylococcal or fungal infection can be found during otolaryngologic examination. The treatment in this group of patients should consist of systemic therapy of diabetes mellitus and on the other hand focal therapy with the use of a solution to moisten the nasal mucosa.

  2. Nasal and oral masses in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Esther; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Saridomichelakis, Manolis N; Polizopoulou, Zoe S; Psychogios, Vassilios; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2006-03-01

    A 5-year-old, intact male, stray dog was presented in poor body condition, with pallor, muzzle deformity, multiple oozing fistulas with grass awns, bilateral sanguinopurulent nasal discharge and a fleshy friable mass occupying part of the hard palate. A friable mass occupying both nasal cavities was found on rhinoscopy. The dog had moderate nonregenerative normochromic-microcytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and hypoalbuminemia. Cytologic preparations of the nasal and oral masses contained a neoplastic population of round cells with intracytoplasmic and extracellular vacuoles. Leishmania amastigotes also were observed, in the cytoplasm of macrophages and, occasionally, within neoplastic cells. A diagnosis of transmissible venereal tumor and concurrent leishmaniosis was made. Treatment with vincristine and allopurinol resulted in complete resolution of clinical signs and disappearance of the masses. The presence of amastigotes in neoplastic TVT cells may suggest an alternative mode of transmission of canine leishmaniosis where these diseases co-exist.

  3. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor of the Nasal Septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Okumura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare case of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of the posterior edge of the nasal septum. An 11-year-old boy presented with frequent epistaxis and nasal obstruction persisting for one year. Based on the clinical presentation and imaging studies, juvenile angiofibroma was suspected, but angiography suggested the possibility of another type of tumor. Transnasal endoscopic surgery found that the tumor protruded into the nasopharynx from the posterior end of the nasal septum. Histological examination identified spindle cells with immunoreaction for vimentin, smooth muscle actin, and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK, but not for desmin and cytokeratin. This is a report of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor mimicking juvenile angiofibroma. This case suggests that angiography is helpful in the differential diagnosis of epipharyngeal tumor in adolescence.

  4. Silver nasal sprays: misleading Internet marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaslin, Michael T; Rubin, Cory; Pribitkin, Edmund A

    2008-04-01

    Long-term use of silver-containing products is associated with a permanent bluish-gray discoloration of the skin known as argyria, but they remain widely available despite several measures by the FDA to regulate them. Several recent case reports have described the occurrence of argyria as a result of using these "natural" products. We used the five most common Internet search engines to find Web sites providing information on silver-containing nasal sprays. Of 49 Web sites analyzed, only 2 (4%) mentioned argyria as a possible complication, although 30 (61%) did caution against long-term use. Eight sites (16%) made specific claims about the health benefits of the product. All 49 sites (100%) provided direct or indirect links to buy silver-containing nasal sprays. We conclude that information about silver-containing nasal sprays on the Internet is misleading and inaccurate. Therefore, otolaryngologists should be aware of the misinformation their patients may be receiving about these products.

  5. Bacillus licheniformis in geogenic dust induces inflammation in respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Janessa; Teo, Teck Hui; Thornton, Ruth B; Kirkham, Lea-Ann; Zosky, Graeme R; Clifford, Holly D

    2018-07-01

    Exposure to environmental geogenic (or earth-derived) dust can lead to more frequent and severe infections in the human airway. Particulate matter respiratory diseases. We have previously demonstrated that mice exposed to geogenic dust PM 10 experienced an exacerbation of inflammatory responses to influenza A virus. Whether geogenic dust PM 10 also exacerbates respiratory bacterial infection is not yet known, nor are the components of the dust that drive these responses. We treated airway bronchial epithelial cells (NuLi-1) with UV-irradiated geogenic dust PM 10 from six remote Western Australian towns. High levels of IL-6 and IL-8 production were observed, as well as persistent microbial growth. 16 S rRNA sequencing of the growth identified the microbe as Bacillus licheniformis, a spore-forming, environmentally abundant bacterium. We next investigated the interaction of B. licheniformis with respiratory epithelium in vitro to determine whether this exacerbated infection with a bacterial respiratory pathogen (non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, NTHi). Heat treatment (100 °C) of all PM 10 samples eliminated B. licheniformis contamination and reduced epithelial inflammatory responses, suggesting that heat-labile and/or microbial factors were involved in the host response to geogenic dust PM 10 . We then exposed NuLi-1 epithelium to increasing doses of the isolated Bacillus licheniformis (multiplicity of infection of 10:1, 1:1 or 0.1:1 bacteria: cells) for 1, 3, and 24 h. B. licheniformis and NTHi infection (association and invasion) was assessed using a standard gentamicin survival assay, and epithelial release of IL-6 and IL-8 was measured using a bead based immunoassay. B. licheniformis was cytotoxic to NuLi-1 cells at 24 h. At 3 h post-challenge, B. licheniformis elicited high IL-6 and IL-8 inflammatory responses from NuLi-1 cells compared with cells treated with heat-treated geogenic dust PM 10 (p respiratory epithelium. The impact on respiratory

  6. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  7. Nasal budesonide offers superior symptom relief in perennial allergic rhinitis in comparison to nasal azelastine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, M A; Wade, A G; Ridout, S M; Cambell, L M

    1998-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis is usually treated with oral antihistamines or nasal steroids. Topically active nasal antihistamine is a new treatment modality for allergic rhinitis. The efficacy in comparison to well established topical treatment alternatives is not fully known. To compare the efficacy of intranasally administered azelastine to budesonide, at their respectively recommended dosage, on the symptoms of perennial rhinitis patients. A placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension (256 microg once daily) with azelastine hydrochloride nasal spray (280 microg twice daily (560 microg/day)) and with placebo in the treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis. The 195 patients (with at least a 2-year history of perennial allergic rhinitis) recorded individual nasal symptom scores, the degree of symptom control achieved and any adverse events experienced over a 2-week baseline period and a 6-week treatment period. Following treatment, the reductions in mean combined and individual nasal symptom scores from baseline values were significantly greater in the budesonide group compared with the placebo group (P < .0001 for all variables except runny nose P = .01). In patients treated with budesonide, there were also significantly larger reductions from baseline values in combined nasal symptom scores (P < .01) and in scores for all individual nasal symptoms (P < or = .05) compared with those treated with azelastine. The reductions from baseline in both combined and individual nasal symptom scores did not differ between azelastine and placebo. The study medications were well tolerated, producing no unexpected or serious treatment-related adverse events. A once-daily dose of 256 microg of intranasal budesonide aqueous suspension is significantly more effective at relieving the symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis compared with a twice daily dose of 280 microg of azelastine

  8. Nasal Carriage of 200 Patients with Nasal Bone Fracture in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wook Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPathogens in the nasal cavity during nasal surgery could lead to a systemic infectious condition, such as bacteremia, nosocomial infection, or toxic shock syndrome. However, there is no research about the prevalence of nasal carriage in patients with nasal bone fracture.MethodsThis was a prospective, double-blind, randomized study about the rate of nasal carriage in 200 patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea. Nasal secretions were taken from both the middle nasal meatus and colonized. All analyses were carried out using SPSS software.ResultsPathogens were identified in 178 of the 200 cases. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were the most cultured bacteria in 127 (66.84% of the 190 total patients after excluding 10 cases of contaminated samples, and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCNS were found in 48 (25.26%. Staphylococcus aureus was the second most identified pathogen, found in 36 (18.95%, followed by 7 cases (3.68% of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. The prevalence rate of MRSA in the females was higher than that in the males (RR=4.70; 95% CI, 1.09-20.18, but other demographic factors had no effect on the prevalence rate of MRSA and MRCNS.ConclusionsThe prevalence rate of these pathogens in patients with nasal bone fracture in Korea was similar to other reports. However, few studies have addressed the prevalence rate of CNS and MRCNS in accordance with risk factors or the change in prevalence according to specific prophylaxis against infectious complications. Additional research is needed on the potential connections between clinical factors and microbiological data.

  9. Viral respiratory infections and the maturation of nasal immune responses in infants: the VIGALL study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J. van Benten (Inesz)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe human body has an extensive defence mechanism (immune system) for coping with pathogens. It is regulated by signalling molecules called cytokines. Cytokines are produced by various cells of the immune system such as leucocytes (e.g. T-cells and macrophages) but also by nasal and

  10. Nasal aerodynamics protects brain and lung from inhaled dust in subterranean diggers, Ellobius talpinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Moshkin; D.V. Petrovski; A.E. Akulov; A.V. Romashchenko; L.A. Gerlinskaya; V.L. Ganimedov; M.I. Muchnaya; A.S. Sadovsky; I.V. Koptyug; A.A. Savelov; S. Yu Troitsky; Y.M. Moshkn; V.I. Bukhtiyarov; N.A. Kolchanov; R.Z. Sagdeev; V.M. Fomin

    2014-01-01

    textabstractInhalation of air-dispersed sub-micrometre and nano-sized particles presents a risk factor for animal and human health. Here, we show that nasal aerodynamics plays a pivotal role in the protection of the subterranean mole vole Ellobius talpinus from an increased exposure to

  11. Toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein mixtures : in vitro studies using nasal epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Stenhuis, W.S.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    In vitro studies with human and rat nasal epithelial cells were carried out to investigate the combined toxicity of formaldehyde and acrolein and the role of aldehyde dehydrogenases in this process. These studies showed that the toxic effect of mixtures of aldehydes was additive. In addition,

  12. Influence of deposition and spray pattern of nasal powders on insulin bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringels, E; Callens, C; Vervaet, C; Dumont, F; Slegers, G; Foreman, P; Remon, J P

    2006-03-09

    The influence of the deposition pattern and spray characteristics of nasal powder formulations on the insulin bioavailability was investigated in rabbits. The formulations were prepared by freeze drying a dispersion containing a physical mixture of drum dried waxy maize starch (DDWM)/Carbopol 974P (90/10, w/w) or a spray-dried mixture of Amioca starch/Carbopol 974P (25/75, w/w). The deposition in the nasal cavity of rabbits and in a silicone human nose model after actuation of three nasal delivery devices (Monopowder, Pfeiffer and experimental system) was compared and related to the insulin bioavailability. Posterior deposition of the powder formulation in the nasal cavity lowered the insulin bioavailability. To study the spray pattern, the shape and cross-section of the emitted powder cloud were analysed. It was concluded that the powder bulk density of the formulation influenced the spray pattern. Consequently, powders of different bulk density were prepared by changing the solid fraction of the freeze dried dispersion and by changing the freezing rate during freeze drying. After nasal delivery of these powder formulations no influence of the powder bulk density and of the spray pattern on the insulin bioavailability was observed.

  13. Transnasal endoscopic resection of vascular leiomyomas of the nasal septum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The endoscope technique offers simple, rapid access to the nasal septum, and excellent visualization; it is a safe, minimally invasive, efficient procedure for removing benign nasal septum tumors that leaves no scar on the face.

  14. Nasal Osteogenic Chondrosarcoma: A Case Report | Adeniji | West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At emergency tracheostomy, examination under anaesthesia, meticulous nasal and nasopharyngeal tumour clearance was done. Histopathological examination of the mass revealed osteogenic chondrosarcoma. CONCLUSION: Though rare, osteogenic chondrosarcoma affects nasal bones. Clinically the tumour mimicks ...

  15. A study of Staphylococcus aureus nasal carriage, antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-30

    Dec 30, 2014 ... substantially enhancing nasal colonization, lung disease and abscess formation and promoting mechanisms of immune evasion.[7]. Antimicrobial ... nasal carriage, investigation of risk factors, and virulence traits among ...

  16. Nasal birth trauma: a review of appropriate treatment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cashman, E C

    2012-02-01

    The aetiology of nasal deformity has frequently included birth trauma. There is no consensus in the literature as to whether nasal surgery, in the form of closed reduction, is indicated in neonates. The majority of studies in the literature that advocate intervention have inadequate followup periods and there is a paucity of evidence for the adverse effects of conservative management. This case highlights the therapeutic dilemma posed by such nasal injuries in the neonate and, to the best of the authors\\' knowledge, at the time of writing, represents the earliest reported case in the literature of nasal deformity in the neonate. The term nasal deformity is used to denote deformity of the nasal pyramid, soft tissue, and septum. Three main aspects of neonatal nasal deformity are addressed including, firstly, if nasal deformity at birth needs to be addressed, secondly, if left unaltered, what the long-term effects are and, finally, if intervention alters the normal course of midfacial development.

  17. Nasal prosthesis rehabilitation: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Sumeet; Maru, Kavita; Shukla, Jyotsana

    2011-01-01

    Facial defects resulting from neoplasm, congenital malformation or trauma can be restored with facial prosthesis using different materials and retention methods to achieve life-like look and function. A nasal prosthesis can re-establish esthetic form and anatomic contours for mid-facial defects...... the non-surgical rehabilitation, with polymethyl meth-acrylate resin, nasal prosthesis for a patient who received partial rhinectomy as a result of squamous cell carcinoma of the nose. The prosthesis was made to restore the esthetic appearance of the patient with a mechanical retained design using...

  18. A Rare Tumor of Nasal Cavity: Glomangiopericytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Verim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomangiopericytoma is a rare vascular neoplasm characterized by a pattern of prominent perivascular growth. A 72-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic complaining of nasal obstruction, frequent epistaxis, and facial pain. A reddish tumor filling the left nasal cavity was observed on endoscopy and treated with endoscopic excision. Microscopically, closely packed cells interspersed with numerous thin-walled, branching staghorn vessels were seen. Glomangiopericytoma is categorized as a borderline low malignancy tumor by WHO classification. Long-term follow-up with systemic examination is necessary due to high risk of recurrence.

  19. [Nasal glial heterotopia: Clinical and morphological characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykova, V P; Bakhtin, A A; Polyakov, D P; Yunusov, A S; Daikhes, N A

    The paper describes a case of nasal glial heterotopia in a 10-month-old girl with a mixed (intranasal and subcutaneous) localization, which is accompanied by the divergence of the nasal bones. Histological examination supplemented by immunohistochemical reactions with antibodies to vimentin, S100 protein, neuron-specific enolase, as well as Ki-67 and smooth muscle actin confirmed the neural nature of the tumor. Fields of mature astrocytic glia including individual cells with neuronal differentiation were found among the fibrous and fibrovascular tissues. The paper provides a brief overview of the discussed pathology.

  20. Fluid mechanics based classification of the respiratory efficiency of several nasal cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintermann, Andreas; Meinke, Matthias; Schröder, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    The flow in the human nasal cavity is of great importance to understand rhinologic pathologies like impaired respiration or heating capabilities, a diminished sense of taste and smell, and the presence of dry mucous membranes. To numerically analyze this flow problem a highly efficient and scalable Thermal Lattice-BGK (TLBGK) solver is used, which is very well suited for flows in intricate geometries. The generation of the computational mesh is completely automatic and highly parallelized such that it can be executed efficiently on High Performance Computers (HPCs). An evaluation of the functionality of nasal cavities is based on an analysis of pressure drop, secondary flow structures, wall-shear stress distributions, and temperature variations from the nostrils to the pharynx. The results of the flow fields of three completely different nasal cavities allow their classification into ability groups and support the a priori decision process on surgical interventions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. STRATEGIES AND PROSPECTS OF NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gannu Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The recent advancement of nasal drug delivery systems has increased enormously and is gaining significant importance. Intranasal therapy has been an accepted form of treatment in the Ayurvedic system of Indian Medicine. The non-invasive delivery of nasal drug delivery systems made to exploit for the development of successful treatment. The advantages, disadvantages, mechanism of action and application of nasal drug delivery system in local delivery, systematic delivery, nasal vaccines and CNS...

  2. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  3. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  4. Epithelium-innate immune cell axis in mucosal responses to SIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, L; Duan, L; Perkey, K E; Wietgrefe, S; Zupancic, M; Smith, A J; Southern, P J; Johnson, R P; Haase, A T

    2017-03-01

    In the SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus)-rhesus macaque model of HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type I) transmission to women, one hallmark of the mucosal response to exposure to high doses of SIV is CD4 T-cell recruitment that fuels local virus expansion in early infection. In this study, we systematically analyzed the cellular events and chemoattractant profiles in cervical tissues that precede CD4 T-cell recruitment. We show that vaginal exposure to the SIV inoculum rapidly induces chemokine expression in cervical epithelium including CCL3, CCL20, and CXCL8. The chemokine expression is associated with early recruitment of macrophages and plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are co-clustered underneath the cervical epithelium. Production of chemokines CCL3 and CXCL8 by these cells in turn generates a chemokine gradient that is spatially correlated with the recruitment of CD4 T cells. We further show that the protection of SIVmac239Δnef vaccination against vaginal challenge is correlated with the absence of this epithelium-innate immune cell-CD4 T-cell axis response in the cervical mucosa. Our results reveal a critical role for cervical epithelium in initiating early mucosal responses to vaginal infection, highlight an important role for macrophages in target cell recruitment, and provide further evidence of a paradoxical dampening effect of a protective vaccine on these early mucosal responses.

  5. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considera