WorldWideScience

Sample records for human motion capture

  1. Marker-Free Human Motion Capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grest, Daniel

    Human Motion Capture is a widely used technique to obtain motion data for animation of virtual characters. Commercial optical motion capture systems are marker-based. This book is about marker-free motion capture and its possibilities to acquire motion from a single viewing direction. The focus...

  2. Human Motion Capture Data Tailored Transform Coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junhui Hou; Lap-Pui Chau; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Ying He

    2015-07-01

    Human motion capture (mocap) is a widely used technique for digitalizing human movements. With growing usage, compressing mocap data has received increasing attention, since compact data size enables efficient storage and transmission. Our analysis shows that mocap data have some unique characteristics that distinguish themselves from images and videos. Therefore, directly borrowing image or video compression techniques, such as discrete cosine transform, does not work well. In this paper, we propose a novel mocap-tailored transform coding algorithm that takes advantage of these features. Our algorithm segments the input mocap sequences into clips, which are represented in 2D matrices. Then it computes a set of data-dependent orthogonal bases to transform the matrices to frequency domain, in which the transform coefficients have significantly less dependency. Finally, the compression is obtained by entropy coding of the quantized coefficients and the bases. Our method has low computational cost and can be easily extended to compress mocap databases. It also requires neither training nor complicated parameter setting. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of compression performance and speed.

  3. Wearable sensor system for human localization and motion capture

    OpenAIRE

    Zihajehzadeh, Shaghayegh

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in MEMS wearable inertial/magnetic sensors and mobile computing have fostered a dramatic growth of interest for ambulatory human motion capture (MoCap). Compared to traditional optical MoCap systems such as the optical systems, inertial (i.e. accelerometer and gyroscope) and magnetic sensors do not require external fixtures such as cameras. Hence, they do not have in-the-lab measurement limitations and thus are ideal for ambulatory applications. However, due to the manufacturi...

  4. MotionExplorer: exploratory search in human motion capture data based on hierarchical aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jürgen; Wilhelm, Nils; Krüger, Björn; May, Thorsten; Schreck, Tobias; Kohlhammer, Jörn

    2013-12-01

    We present MotionExplorer, an exploratory search and analysis system for sequences of human motion in large motion capture data collections. This special type of multivariate time series data is relevant in many research fields including medicine, sports and animation. Key tasks in working with motion data include analysis of motion states and transitions, and synthesis of motion vectors by interpolation and combination. In the practice of research and application of human motion data, challenges exist in providing visual summaries and drill-down functionality for handling large motion data collections. We find that this domain can benefit from appropriate visual retrieval and analysis support to handle these tasks in presence of large motion data. To address this need, we developed MotionExplorer together with domain experts as an exploratory search system based on interactive aggregation and visualization of motion states as a basis for data navigation, exploration, and search. Based on an overview-first type visualization, users are able to search for interesting sub-sequences of motion based on a query-by-example metaphor, and explore search results by details on demand. We developed MotionExplorer in close collaboration with the targeted users who are researchers working on human motion synthesis and analysis, including a summative field study. Additionally, we conducted a laboratory design study to substantially improve MotionExplorer towards an intuitive, usable and robust design. MotionExplorer enables the search in human motion capture data with only a few mouse clicks. The researchers unanimously confirm that the system can efficiently support their work.

  5. A Survey of Advances in Vision-Based Human Motion Capture and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Hilton, Adrian; Krüger, Volker

    2006-01-01

    This survey reviews advances in human motion capture and analysis from 2000 to 2006, following a previous survey of papers up to 2000 Human motion capture continues to be an increasingly active research area in computer vision with over 350 publications over this period. A number of significant...... actions and behavior. This survey reviews recent trends in video based human capture and analysis, as well as discussing open problems for future research to achieve automatic visual analysis of human movement....

  6. Adding Image Constraints to Inverse Kinematics for Human Motion Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaume-i-Capó, Antoni; Varona, Javier; González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Perales, Francisco J.

    2009-12-01

    In order to study human motion in biomechanical applications, a critical component is to accurately obtain the 3D joint positions of the user's body. Computer vision and inverse kinematics are used to achieve this objective without markers or special devices attached to the body. The problem of these systems is that the inverse kinematics is "blinded" with respect to the projection of body segments into the images used by the computer vision algorithms. In this paper, we present how to add image constraints to inverse kinematics in order to estimate human motion. Specifically, we explain how to define a criterion to use images in order to guide the posture reconstruction of the articulated chain. Tests with synthetic images show how the scheme performs well in an ideal situation. In order to test its potential in real situations, more experiments with task specific image sequences are also presented. By means of a quantitative study of different sequences, the results obtained show how this approach improves the performance of inverse kinematics in this application.

  7. Accuracy of human motion capture systems for sport applications; state-of-the-art review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kruk, Eline; Reijne, Marco M

    2018-05-09

    Sport research often requires human motion capture of an athlete. It can, however, be labour-intensive and difficult to select the right system, while manufacturers report on specifications which are determined in set-ups that largely differ from sport research in terms of volume, environment and motion. The aim of this review is to assist researchers in the selection of a suitable motion capture system for their experimental set-up for sport applications. An open online platform is initiated, to support (sport)researchers in the selection of a system and to enable them to contribute and update the overview. systematic review; Method: Electronic searches in Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar were performed, and the reference lists of the screened articles were scrutinised to determine human motion capture systems used in academically published studies on sport analysis. An overview of 17 human motion capture systems is provided, reporting the general specifications given by the manufacturer (weight and size of the sensors, maximum capture volume, environmental feasibilities), and calibration specifications as determined in peer-reviewed studies. The accuracy of each system is plotted against the measurement range. The overview and chart can assist researchers in the selection of a suitable measurement system. To increase the robustness of the database and to keep up with technological developments, we encourage researchers to perform an accuracy test prior to their experiment and to add to the chart and the system overview (online, open access).

  8. Motion Capturing Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Wood Karen; Cisneros Rosemary E.; Whatley Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The ...

  9. Application of inertial sensors and flux-gate magnetometer to real-time human body motion capture

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, William.

    1996-01-01

    Human body tracking for synthetic environment interface has become a significant human- computer interface challenge. There are several different types of motion capture systems currently available. Inherent problems, most resulting from the use of artificially-generated source signals, plague these systems. A proposed motion capture system is being developed at the Naval Postgraduate School which utilizes a combination of inertial sensors to overcome these difficulties. However, the current ...

  10. Motion Capturing Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Karen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the activities conducted as part of WhoLoDancE: Whole Body Interaction Learning for Dance Education which is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project. In particular, we discuss the motion capture sessions that took place at Motek, Amsterdam as well as the dancers’ experience of being captured and watching themselves or others as varying visual representations through the HoloLens. HoloLens is Microsoft’s first holographic computer that you wear as you would a pair of glasses. The study embraced four dance genres: Ballet, Contemporary, Flamenco and Greek Folk dance. We are specifically interested in the kinesthetic and emotional engagement with the moving body and what new corporeal awareness may be experienced. Positioning the moving, dancing body as fundamental to technological advancements, we discuss the importance of considering the dancer’s experience in the real and virtual space. Some of the artists involved in the project have offered their experiences, which are included, and they form the basis of the discussion. In addition, we discuss the affect of immersive environments, how these environments expand reality and what effect (emotionally and otherwise that has on the body. The research reveals insights into relationships between emotion, movement and technology and what new sensorial knowledge this evokes for the dancer.

  11. A Single Camera Motion Capture System for Human-Computer Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Ryuzo; Stenger, Björn

    This paper presents a method for markerless human motion capture using a single camera. It uses tree-based filtering to efficiently propagate a probability distribution over poses of a 3D body model. The pose vectors and associated shapes are arranged in a tree, which is constructed by hierarchical pairwise clustering, in order to efficiently evaluate the likelihood in each frame. Anew likelihood function based on silhouette matching is proposed that improves the pose estimation of thinner body parts, i. e. the limbs. The dynamic model takes self-occlusion into account by increasing the variance of occluded body-parts, thus allowing for recovery when the body part reappears. We present two applications of our method that work in real-time on a Cell Broadband Engine™: a computer game and a virtual clothing application.

  12. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  13. Study of human body: Kinematics and kinetics of a martial arts (Silat) performers using 3D-motion capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi Awang; Jafri, Mohd Zubir Mat; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2015-04-01

    The Interest in this studies of human kinematics goes back very far in human history drove by curiosity or need for the understanding the complexity of human body motion. To find new and accurate information about the human movement as the advance computing technology became available for human movement that can perform. Martial arts (silat) were chose and multiple type of movement was studied. This project has done by using cutting-edge technology which is 3D motion capture to characterize and to measure the motion done by the performers of martial arts (silat). The camera will detect the markers (infrared reflection by the marker) around the performer body (total of 24 markers) and will show as dot in the computer software. The markers detected were analyzing using kinematic kinetic approach and time as reference. A graph of velocity, acceleration and position at time,t (seconds) of each marker was plot. Then from the information obtain, more parameters were determined such as work done, momentum, center of mass of a body using mathematical approach. This data can be used for development of the effectiveness movement in martial arts which is contributed to the people in arts. More future works can be implemented from this project such as analysis of a martial arts competition.

  14. Dealing with Magnetic Disturbances in Human Motion Capture: A Survey of Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ligorio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic-Inertial Measurement Units (MIMUs based on microelectromechanical (MEMS technologies are widespread in contexts such as human motion tracking. Although they present several advantages (lightweight, size, cost, their orientation estimation accuracy might be poor. Indoor magnetic disturbances represent one of the limiting factors for their accuracy, and, therefore, a variety of work was done to characterize and compensate them. In this paper, the main compensation strategies included within Kalman-based orientation estimators are surveyed and classified according to which degrees of freedom are affected by the magnetic data and to the magnetic disturbance rejection methods implemented. By selecting a representative method from each category, four algorithms were obtained and compared in two different magnetic environments: (1 small workspace with an active magnetic source; (2 large workspace without active magnetic sources. A wrist-worn MIMU was used to acquire data from a healthy subject, whereas a stereophotogrammetric system was adopted to obtain ground-truth data. The results suggested that the model-based approaches represent the best compromise between the two testbeds. This is particularly true when the magnetic data are prevented to affect the estimation of the angles with respect to the vertical direction.

  15. Brownian motion using video capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, Reese; Robbins, Candace; Forinash, Kyle

    2002-01-01

    Although other researchers had previously observed the random motion of pollen grains suspended in water through a microscope, Robert Brown's name is associated with this behaviour based on observations he made in 1828. It was not until Einstein's work in the early 1900s however, that the origin of this irregular motion was established to be the result of collisions with molecules which were so small as to be invisible in a light microscope (Einstein A 1965 Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian Movement ed R Furth (New York: Dover) (transl. Cowper A D) (5 papers)). Jean Perrin in 1908 (Perrin J 1923 Atoms (New York: Van Nostrand-Reinhold) (transl. Hammick D)) was able, through a series of painstaking experiments, to establish the validity of Einstein's equation. We describe here the details of a junior level undergraduate physics laboratory experiment where students used a microscope, a video camera and video capture software to verify Einstein's famous calculation of 1905. (author)

  16. Normal human gait patterns in Peruvian individuals: an exploratory assessment using VICON motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, R.; Moscoso, M.; Callupe, R.; Pajaya, J.; Elías, D.

    2017-11-01

    Gait analysis is of clinical relevance for clinicians. However, normal gait patterns used in foreign literature could be different from local individuals. The aim of this study was to determine the normal gait patterns and parameters of Peruvian individuals in order to have a local referent for clinical assessments and making diagnosis and treatment Peruvian people with lower motor neuron injuries. A descriptive study with 34 subjects was conducted to assess their gait cycle. VICON® cameras were used to capture body movements. For the analyses, we calculated spatiotemporal gait parameters and average angles of displacement of the hip, knee, and ankle joints with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The results showed gait speed was 0.58m/s, cadence was 102.1steps/min, and the angular displacement of the hip, knee and ankle joints were all lower than those described in the literature. In the graphs, gait cycles were close to those reported in previous studies, but the parameters of speed, cadence and angles of displacements are lower than the ones shown in the literature. These results could be used as a better reference pattern in the clinical setting.

  17. Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation

    CERN Document Server

    Menache, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The power of today's motion capture technology has taken animated characters and special effects to amazing new levels of reality. And with the release of blockbusters like Avatar and Tin-Tin, audiences continually expect more from each new release. To live up to these expectations, film and game makers, particularly technical animators and directors, need to be at the forefront of motion capture technology. In this extensively updated edition of Understanding Motion Capture for Computer Animation and Video Games, an industry insider explains the latest research developments in digital design

  18. AMUC: Associated Motion capture User Categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Sally Jane; Lawson, Sian E M; Olivier, Patrick; Watson, Paul; Chan, Anita M-A; Dade-Robertson, Martyn; Dunphy, Paul; Green, Dave; Hiden, Hugo; Hook, Jonathan; Jackson, Daniel G

    2009-07-13

    The AMUC (Associated Motion capture User Categories) project consisted of building a prototype sketch retrieval client for exploring motion capture archives. High-dimensional datasets reflect the dynamic process of motion capture and comprise high-rate sampled data of a performer's joint angles; in response to multiple query criteria, these data can potentially yield different kinds of information. The AMUC prototype harnesses graphic input via an electronic tablet as a query mechanism, time and position signals obtained from the sketch being mapped to the properties of data streams stored in the motion capture repository. As well as proposing a pragmatic solution for exploring motion capture datasets, the project demonstrates the conceptual value of iterative prototyping in innovative interdisciplinary design. The AMUC team was composed of live performance practitioners and theorists conversant with a variety of movement techniques, bioengineers who recorded and processed motion data for integration into the retrieval tool, and computer scientists who designed and implemented the retrieval system and server architecture, scoped for Grid-based applications. Creative input on information system design and navigation, and digital image processing, underpinned implementation of the prototype, which has undergone preliminary trials with diverse users, allowing identification of rich potential development areas.

  19. UMCE-FM: Untethered Motion Capture Evaluation for Flightline Maintenance Support

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kider, Jr., Joseph T; Stocker, Catherine R; Badler, Norman I

    2008-01-01

    .... The primary objective was to determine the potential of untethered motion capture capabilities for real-time human subject motion capture and performance data collection with full-scale physical props...

  20. Mobile Motion Capture--MiMiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, Simeon D; Jaiswal, Tushar; Harley, Linda R; Vaughn, Tyler W; Baranak, Andrew S

    2013-01-01

    The low cost, simple, robust, mobile, and easy to use Mobile Motion Capture (MiMiC) system is presented and the constraints which guided the design of MiMiC are discussed. The MiMiC Android application allows motion data to be captured from kinematic modules such as Shimmer 2r sensors over Bluetooth. MiMiC is cost effective and can be used for an entire day in a person's daily routine without being intrusive. MiMiC is a flexible motion capture system which can be used for many applications including fall detection, detection of fatigue in industry workers, and analysis of individuals' work patterns in various environments.

  1. Virtual Dance and Motion-Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Boucher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A general view of various ways in which virtual dance can be understood is presented in the first part of this article. It then appraises the uses of the term “virtual” in previous studies of digital dance. A more in-depth view of virtual dance as it relates to motion-capture is offered, and key issues are discussed regarding computer animation, digital imaging, motion signature, virtual reality and interactivity. The paper proposes that some forms of virtual dance be defined in relation to both digital technologies and contemporary theories of virtuality.

  2. Example-based human motion denoising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hui; Chai, Jinxiang

    2010-01-01

    With the proliferation of motion capture data, interest in removing noise and outliers from motion capture data has increased. In this paper, we introduce an efficient human motion denoising technique for the simultaneous removal of noise and outliers from input human motion data. The key idea of our approach is to learn a series of filter bases from precaptured motion data and use them along with robust statistics techniques to filter noisy motion data. Mathematically, we formulate the motion denoising process in a nonlinear optimization framework. The objective function measures the distance between the noisy input and the filtered motion in addition to how well the filtered motion preserves spatial-temporal patterns embedded in captured human motion data. Optimizing the objective function produces an optimal filtered motion that keeps spatial-temporal patterns in captured motion data. We also extend the algorithm to fill in the missing values in input motion data. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our system by experimenting with both real and simulated motion data. We also show the superior performance of our algorithm by comparing it with three baseline algorithms and to those in state-of-art motion capture data processing software such as Vicon Blade.

  3. Motion Capture Technique Applied Research in Sports Technique Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu LIU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The motion capture technology system definition is described in the paper, and its components are researched, the key parameters are obtained from motion technique, the quantitative analysis are made on technical movements, the method of motion capture technology is proposed in sport technical diagnosis. That motion capture step includes calibration system, to attached landmarks to the tester; to capture trajectory, and to analyze the collected data.

  4. Inertial Motion Capture Costume Design Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Szczęsna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a scalable, wearable multi-sensor system for motion capture based on inertial measurement units (IMUs. Such a unit is composed of accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer. The final quality of an obtained motion arises from all the individual parts of the described system. The proposed system is a sequence of the following stages: sensor data acquisition, sensor orientation estimation, system calibration, pose estimation and data visualisation. The construction of the system’s architecture with the dataflow programming paradigm makes it easy to add, remove and replace the data processing steps. The modular architecture of the system allows an effortless introduction of a new sensor orientation estimation algorithms. The original contribution of the paper is the design study of the individual components used in the motion capture system. The two key steps of the system design are explored in this paper: the evaluation of sensors and algorithms for the orientation estimation. The three chosen algorithms have been implemented and investigated as part of the experiment. Due to the fact that the selection of the sensor has a significant impact on the final result, the sensor evaluation process is also explained and tested. The experimental results confirmed that the choice of sensor and orientation estimation algorithm affect the quality of the final results.

  5. Inertial motion capture system for biomechanical analysis in pressure suits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua, Massimiliano

    A non-invasive system has been developed at the University of Maryland Space System Laboratory with the goal of providing a new capability for quantifying the motion of the human inside a space suit. Based on an array of six microprocessors and eighteen microelectromechanical (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMUs), the Body Pose Measurement System (BPMS) allows the monitoring of the kinematics of the suit occupant in an unobtrusive, self-contained, lightweight and compact fashion, without requiring any external equipment such as those necessary with modern optical motion capture systems. BPMS measures and stores the accelerations, angular rates and magnetic fields acting upon each IMU, which are mounted on the head, torso, and each segment of each limb. In order to convert the raw data into a more useful form, such as a set of body segment angles quantifying pose and motion, a series of geometrical models and a non-linear complimentary filter were implemented. The first portion of this works focuses on assessing system performance, which was measured by comparing the BPMS filtered data against rigid body angles measured through an external VICON optical motion capture system. This type of system is the industry standard, and is used here for independent measurement of body pose angles. By comparing the two sets of data, performance metrics such as BPMS system operational conditions, accuracy, and drift were evaluated and correlated against VICON data. After the system and models were verified and their capabilities and limitations assessed, a series of pressure suit evaluations were conducted. Three different pressure suits were used to identify the relationship between usable range of motion and internal suit pressure. In addition to addressing range of motion, a series of exploration tasks were also performed, recorded, and analysed in order to identify different motion patterns and trajectories as suit pressure is increased and overall suit mobility is reduced

  6. POD evaluation for joint angles from inertial and optical motion capturing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kai; Kobayashi, Futoshi; Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that advances in preventive maintenance can improve the sustainment of systems, facilities, and infrastructure. Robot technologies have also received attention for maintenance applications. In order to operate delicate tasks, multi-fingered robot hands have been proposed in cases where human capability is deficient. This paper deals with motion capturing systems for controlling the hand/arm robot remotely. Several types of motion capturing systems have been developed so far. However, it is difficult for individual motion capturing systems to measure precise joint angles of a human arm. Therefore, in this paper, we integrate the inertial motion capturing system with the optical motion capturing system to capture a human arm posture. By evaluating the reliability of each motion capturing system, the integration is carried out. The probability of detection (POD) is applied to evaluate and compare the reliability of datasets measured by each motion capturing system. POD is one of the widely used statistical techniques to determine reliability. We apply the â analysis to determine the POD(a) function from the data set. Based on the POD evaluation, two motion capturing systems are integrated. (author)

  7. Capturing Motion and Depth Before Cinematography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Visual representations of biological states have traditionally faced two problems: they lacked motion and depth. Attempts were made to supply these wants over many centuries, but the major advances were made in the early-nineteenth century. Motion was synthesized by sequences of slightly different images presented in rapid succession and depth was added by presenting slightly different images to each eye. Apparent motion and depth were combined some years later, but they tended to be applied separately. The major figures in this early period were Wheatstone, Plateau, Horner, Duboscq, Claudet, and Purkinje. Others later in the century, like Marey and Muybridge, were stimulated to extend the uses to which apparent motion and photography could be applied to examining body movements. These developments occurred before the birth of cinematography, and significant insights were derived from attempts to combine motion and depth.

  8. Auditory capture of visual motion: effects on perception and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCourt, Mark E; Leone, Lynnette M

    2016-09-28

    We asked whether the perceived direction of visual motion and contrast thresholds for motion discrimination are influenced by the concurrent motion of an auditory sound source. Visual motion stimuli were counterphasing Gabor patches, whose net motion energy was manipulated by adjusting the contrast of the leftward-moving and rightward-moving components. The presentation of these visual stimuli was paired with the simultaneous presentation of auditory stimuli, whose apparent motion in 3D auditory space (rightward, leftward, static, no sound) was manipulated using interaural time and intensity differences, and Doppler cues. In experiment 1, observers judged whether the Gabor visual stimulus appeared to move rightward or leftward. In experiment 2, contrast discrimination thresholds for detecting the interval containing unequal (rightward or leftward) visual motion energy were obtained under the same auditory conditions. Experiment 1 showed that the perceived direction of ambiguous visual motion is powerfully influenced by concurrent auditory motion, such that auditory motion 'captured' ambiguous visual motion. Experiment 2 showed that this interaction occurs at a sensory stage of processing as visual contrast discrimination thresholds (a criterion-free measure of sensitivity) were significantly elevated when paired with congruent auditory motion. These results suggest that auditory and visual motion signals are integrated and combined into a supramodal (audiovisual) representation of motion.

  9. Wearable Sensor Networks for Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arsenault

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a full body sensor-based motion tracking system that functions through wearable inertial sensors. The system is comprised of a total of ten wearable sensors and maps the player's motions to an on-screen character in real-time. A hierarchical skeletal model was implemented that allows players to navigate and interact with the virtual world without the need of a hand-held controller. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, a simple virtual reality game was created. As a wearable system, the ability for the users to engage in activities while not being tied to a camera system, or being forced indoors presents a significant opportunity for mobile entertainment, augmented reality and interactive systems that use the body as a significant form of input. This paper outlines the key developments necessary to implement such a system.

  10. Octopus: A Design Methodology for Motion Capture Wearables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Javier; Blanco, Teresa; Marin, Jose J

    2017-08-15

    Human motion capture (MoCap) is widely recognised for its usefulness and application in different fields, such as health, sports, and leisure; therefore, its inclusion in current wearables (MoCap-wearables) is increasing, and it may be very useful in a context of intelligent objects interconnected with each other and to the cloud in the Internet of Things (IoT). However, capturing human movement adequately requires addressing difficult-to-satisfy requirements, which means that the applications that are possible with this technology are held back by a series of accessibility barriers, some technological and some regarding usability. To overcome these barriers and generate products with greater wearability that are more efficient and accessible, factors are compiled through a review of publications and market research. The result of this analysis is a design methodology called Octopus, which ranks these factors and schematises them. Octopus provides a tool that can help define design requirements for multidisciplinary teams, generating a common framework and offering a new method of communication between them.

  11. Scalable Photogrammetric Motion Capture System "mosca": Development and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment) has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  12. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the current missing marker, we propose an improved version of a previous method, where we use the motion of three muscles rather than one to recover the missing data. To reduce the noise, we initially apply preprocessing to eliminate impulsive noise, before our proposed three-order quasi-uniform B-spline-based fitting method is used to reduce the remaining noise. Our experiments showed that the principles that underlie this method are simple and straightforward, and it delivered acceptable precision during reconstruction.

  13. Leveraging Two Kinect Sensors for Accurate Full-Body Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiquan Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate motion capture plays an important role in sports analysis, the medical field and virtual reality. Current methods for motion capture often suffer from occlusions, which limits the accuracy of their pose estimation. In this paper, we propose a complete system to measure the pose parameters of the human body accurately. Different from previous monocular depth camera systems, we leverage two Kinect sensors to acquire more information about human movements, which ensures that we can still get an accurate estimation even when significant occlusion occurs. Because human motion is temporally constant, we adopt a learning analysis to mine the temporal information across the posture variations. Using this information, we estimate human pose parameters accurately, regardless of rapid movement. Our experimental results show that our system can perform an accurate pose estimation of the human body with the constraint of information from the temporal domain.

  14. Augmenting traditional instruments with a motion capture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Vidolin, Alvise; Bernardini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some composition works where the real instruments have been augmented through a motion capture system (Phasespace). While playing his instrument in the traditional way, the player is also controlling some other sound effects by moving his hands: the instrument becomes totally...

  15. A Virtual Reality Dance Training System Using Motion Capture Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, J. C. P.; Leung, H.; Tang, J. K. T.; Komura, T.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new dance training system based on the motion capture and virtual reality (VR) technologies is proposed. Our system is inspired by the traditional way to learn new movements-imitating the teacher's movements and listening to the teacher's feedback. A prototype of our proposed system is implemented, in which a student can imitate…

  16. Predicting kinetics using musculoskeletal modeling and inertial motion capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karatsidis, Angelos; Jung, Moonki; Schepers, H. Martin; Bellusci, Giovanni; de Zee, Mark; Veltink, Peter H.; Andersen, Michael Skipper

    2018-01-01

    Inverse dynamic analysis using musculoskeletal modeling is a powerful tool, which is utilized in a range of applications to estimate forces in ligaments, muscles, and joints, non-invasively. To date, the conventional input used in this analysis is derived from optical motion capture (OMC) and force

  17. Human motion simulation predictive dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Abdel-Malek, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Simulate realistic human motion in a virtual world with an optimization-based approach to motion prediction. With this approach, motion is governed by human performance measures, such as speed and energy, which act as objective functions to be optimized. Constraints on joint torques and angles are imposed quite easily. Predicting motion in this way allows one to use avatars to study how and why humans move the way they do, given specific scenarios. It also enables avatars to react to infinitely many scenarios with substantial autonomy. With this approach it is possible to predict dynamic motion without having to integrate equations of motion -- rather than solving equations of motion, this approach solves for a continuous time-dependent curve characterizing joint variables (also called joint profiles) for every degree of freedom. Introduces rigorous mathematical methods for digital human modelling and simulation Focuses on understanding and representing spatial relationships (3D) of biomechanics Develops an i...

  18. Robotics-based synthesis of human motion

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, O.; Demircan, E.; De Sapio, V.; Sentis, L.; Besier, T.; Delp, S.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of human motion is a complex procedure that involves accurate reconstruction of movement sequences, modeling of musculoskeletal kinematics, dynamics and actuation, and characterization of reliable performance criteria. Many of these processes have much in common with the problems found in robotics research. Task-based methods used in robotics may be leveraged to provide novel musculoskeletal modeling methods and physiologically accurate performance predictions. In this paper, we present (i) a new method for the real-time reconstruction of human motion trajectories using direct marker tracking, (ii) a task-driven muscular effort minimization criterion and (iii) new human performance metrics for dynamic characterization of athletic skills. Dynamic motion reconstruction is achieved through the control of a simulated human model to follow the captured marker trajectories in real-time. The operational space control and real-time simulation provide human dynamics at any configuration of the performance. A new criteria of muscular effort minimization has been introduced to analyze human static postures. Extensive motion capture experiments were conducted to validate the new minimization criterion. Finally, new human performance metrics were introduced to study in details an athletic skill. These metrics include the effort expenditure and the feasible set of operational space accelerations during the performance of the skill. The dynamic characterization takes into account skeletal kinematics as well as muscle routing kinematics and force generating capacities. The developments draw upon an advanced musculoskeletal modeling platform and a task-oriented framework for the effective integration of biomechanics and robotics methods.

  19. Robotics-based synthesis of human motion

    KAUST Repository

    Khatib, O.

    2009-05-01

    The synthesis of human motion is a complex procedure that involves accurate reconstruction of movement sequences, modeling of musculoskeletal kinematics, dynamics and actuation, and characterization of reliable performance criteria. Many of these processes have much in common with the problems found in robotics research. Task-based methods used in robotics may be leveraged to provide novel musculoskeletal modeling methods and physiologically accurate performance predictions. In this paper, we present (i) a new method for the real-time reconstruction of human motion trajectories using direct marker tracking, (ii) a task-driven muscular effort minimization criterion and (iii) new human performance metrics for dynamic characterization of athletic skills. Dynamic motion reconstruction is achieved through the control of a simulated human model to follow the captured marker trajectories in real-time. The operational space control and real-time simulation provide human dynamics at any configuration of the performance. A new criteria of muscular effort minimization has been introduced to analyze human static postures. Extensive motion capture experiments were conducted to validate the new minimization criterion. Finally, new human performance metrics were introduced to study in details an athletic skill. These metrics include the effort expenditure and the feasible set of operational space accelerations during the performance of the skill. The dynamic characterization takes into account skeletal kinematics as well as muscle routing kinematics and force generating capacities. The developments draw upon an advanced musculoskeletal modeling platform and a task-oriented framework for the effective integration of biomechanics and robotics methods.

  20. The development of advanced robotic technology - A study on the development of Motion capturing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Kim, Ki Ho; Lee, Yong Woo; Park, Soo Il; Choi, Jin Sung; Kim, Hae Dong; Park, Chan Yong [System Engineering Research Institute, Taejon= (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Robots are used to perform jobs where the performer are exposed to the radioactivity. Good human-robot-interface is required to operate the robots easily and smoothly. It is believed that virtual reality and 3D graphics technology will be the beat solution for the good human-robot-interface. Using 3D computer graphics, complex human motions can be captured and displayed on the screen. The captured motion data can be used as the input to= control the remote robots using virtual reality technologies. Thus good human-robot-interface can be constructed. The motion capturing system developed in this study are very convenient and easy to be used to operate the robot. And the required time to operate the robot with the developed system is much shorter than to operate the robots without our motion capturing system. Therefore, efficient usage of the robot and related facilities will prolong the life time of them and reduce the manpower of the operators. The 3D data produced by our system will be used to generate commands to control the robot. 6 refs., 60 figs. (author)

  1. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriya Gritsenko

    Full Text Available To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery.Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods.Academic cancer center oncology clinic.20 women (mean age = 60 yrs were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery following mastectomy (n = 4 or lumpectomy (n = 16 for breast cancer.Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle.Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation.Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80, while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more.Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  2. Feasibility of Using Low-Cost Motion Capture for Automated Screening of Shoulder Motion Limitation after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Dailey, Eric; Kyle, Nicholas; Taylor, Matt; Whittacre, Sean; Swisher, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    To determine if a low-cost, automated motion analysis system using Microsoft Kinect could accurately measure shoulder motion and detect motion impairments in women following breast cancer surgery. Descriptive study of motion measured via 2 methods. Academic cancer center oncology clinic. 20 women (mean age = 60 yrs) were assessed for active and passive shoulder motions during a routine post-operative clinic visit (mean = 18 days after surgery) following mastectomy (n = 4) or lumpectomy (n = 16) for breast cancer. Participants performed 3 repetitions of active and passive shoulder motions on the side of the breast surgery. Arm motion was recorded using motion capture by Kinect for Windows sensor and on video. Goniometric values were determined from video recordings, while motion capture data were transformed to joint angles using 2 methods (body angle and projection angle). Correlation of motion capture with goniometry and detection of motion limitation. Active shoulder motion measured with low-cost motion capture agreed well with goniometry (r = 0.70-0.80), while passive shoulder motion measurements did not correlate well. Using motion capture, it was possible to reliably identify participants whose range of shoulder motion was reduced by 40% or more. Low-cost, automated motion analysis may be acceptable to screen for moderate to severe motion impairments in active shoulder motion. Automatic detection of motion limitation may allow quick screening to be performed in an oncologist's office and trigger timely referrals for rehabilitation.

  3. A New Motion Capture System For Automated Gait Analysis Based On Multi Video Sequence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens

    There is an increasing demand for assessing foot mal positions and an interest in monitoring the effect of treatment. In the last decades several different motion capture systems has been used. This abstract describes a new low cost motion capture system.......There is an increasing demand for assessing foot mal positions and an interest in monitoring the effect of treatment. In the last decades several different motion capture systems has been used. This abstract describes a new low cost motion capture system....

  4. MOTION CAPTURE AS A MODERN TECHNOLOGY FOR ANALYSING ERGOMETER ROWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Skublewska-Paszkowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a purpose-built laboratory stand consisting of a Vicon motion capture system with reference video cameras, wireless EMG system, Concept 2 Indoor Rower ergometer, wireless heart rate monitor and the Nexus software. A pilot study of people who exercise on the ergometer helped to create a proper configuration of all the components of the laboratory. Moreover, a procedure for carrying out research was developed, which consists of several steps divided into 4 stages: preparation of the motion acquisition system; preparation of the participant; familiarising participants with the technique of rowing, recording their movements and acquiring other measurement signals. Preliminary analysis of the results obtained from heterogeneous signals from various devices showed that all the components of the research stand are mutually compatible and the received signals do not interfere with one another.

  5. A low cost PSD-based monocular motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Young Kee; Oh, Choonsuk

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes a monocular PSD-based motion capture sensor to employ with commercial video game systems such as Microsoft's XBOX and Sony's Playstation II. The system is compact, low-cost, and only requires a one-time calibration at the factory. The system includes a PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and active infrared (IR) LED markers that are placed on the object to be tracked. The PSD sensor is placed in the focal plane of a wide-angle lens. The micro-controller calculates the 3D position of the markers using only the measured intensity and the 2D position on the PSD. A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the performance of our prototype system. From the experimental results we see that the proposed system has the advantages of the compact size, the low cost, the easy installation, and the high frame rates to be suitable for high speed motion tracking in games.

  6. Validation of the Leap Motion Controller using markered motion capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeragliuolo, Anna H; Hill, N Jeremy; Disla, Luis; Putrino, David

    2016-06-14

    The Leap Motion Controller (LMC) is a low-cost, markerless motion capture device that tracks hand, wrist and forearm position. Integration of this technology into healthcare applications has begun to occur rapidly, making validation of the LMC׳s data output an important research goal. Here, we perform a detailed evaluation of the kinematic data output from the LMC, and validate this output against gold-standard, markered motion capture technology. We instructed subjects to perform three clinically-relevant wrist (flexion/extension, radial/ulnar deviation) and forearm (pronation/supination) movements. The movements were simultaneously tracked using both the LMC and a marker-based motion capture system from Motion Analysis Corporation (MAC). Adjusting for known inconsistencies in the LMC sampling frequency, we compared simultaneously acquired LMC and MAC data by performing Pearson׳s correlation (r) and root mean square error (RMSE). Wrist flexion/extension and radial/ulnar deviation showed good overall agreement (r=0.95; RMSE=11.6°, and r=0.92; RMSE=12.4°, respectively) with the MAC system. However, when tracking forearm pronation/supination, there were serious inconsistencies in reported joint angles (r=0.79; RMSE=38.4°). Hand posture significantly influenced the quality of wrist deviation (P<0.005) and forearm supination/pronation (P<0.001), but not wrist flexion/extension (P=0.29). We conclude that the LMC is capable of providing data that are clinically meaningful for wrist flexion/extension, and perhaps wrist deviation. It cannot yet return clinically meaningful data for measuring forearm pronation/supination. Future studies should continue to validate the LMC as updated versions of their software are developed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An evaluation method on seat comfort based on optical motion capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing TAO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To research the sitting posture comfort evaluation method, through the example of comfort evaluation of the ergonomic seat and standard office seat, a methodology is introduced to evaluate the sitting posture comfort combining ergonomics theory. The proposed method is based on optical motion capture system, pressure sensor and JACK software, and TRC file is acquired by using EVART real-time capture software for identifying the spatial motion trail of human body. Then MATLAB software is used to analyze the human body motion data, and the sitting posture angle difference data for human body in different seats is acquired. TRC file is loaded into JACK software, and with the TAT REPORTER of JACK software, muscle force, moment of force and fatigue data, etc. are output, which are compared with the actual measured data from experiments, and ergonomics method is used for the evaluation. The result shows that the method of considering joint angles combining JACK software for data output is effective for evaluating sitting comfort.

  8. Nearly automatic motion capture system for tracking octopus arm movements in 3D space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelman, Ido; Galun, Meirav; Akselrod-Ballin, Ayelet; Yekutieli, Yoram; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2009-08-30

    Tracking animal movements in 3D space is an essential part of many biomechanical studies. The most popular technique for human motion capture uses markers placed on the skin which are tracked by a dedicated system. However, this technique may be inadequate for tracking animal movements, especially when it is impossible to attach markers to the animal's body either because of its size or shape or because of the environment in which the animal performs its movements. Attaching markers to an animal's body may also alter its behavior. Here we present a nearly automatic markerless motion capture system that overcomes these problems and successfully tracks octopus arm movements in 3D space. The system is based on three successive tracking and processing stages. The first stage uses a recently presented segmentation algorithm to detect the movement in a pair of video sequences recorded by two calibrated cameras. In the second stage, the results of the first stage are processed to produce 2D skeletal representations of the moving arm. Finally, the 2D skeletons are used to reconstruct the octopus arm movement as a sequence of 3D curves varying in time. Motion tracking, segmentation and reconstruction are especially difficult problems in the case of octopus arm movements because of the deformable, non-rigid structure of the octopus arm and the underwater environment in which it moves. Our successful results suggest that the motion-tracking system presented here may be used for tracking other elongated objects.

  9. Development of real-time motion capture system for 3D on-line games linked with virtual character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hyeong; Ryu, Young Kee; Cho, Hyung Suck

    2004-10-01

    Motion tracking method is being issued as essential part of the entertainment, medical, sports, education and industry with the development of 3-D virtual reality. Virtual human character in the digital animation and game application has been controlled by interfacing devices; mouse, joysticks, midi-slider, and so on. Those devices could not enable virtual human character to move smoothly and naturally. Furthermore, high-end human motion capture systems in commercial market are expensive and complicated. In this paper, we proposed a practical and fast motion capturing system consisting of optic sensors, and linked the data with 3-D game character with real time. The prototype experiment setup is successfully applied to a boxing game which requires very fast movement of human character.

  10. Reconstructing 3D Tree Models Using Motion Capture and Particle Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Long

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovering tree shape from motion capture data is a first step toward efficient and accurate animation of trees in wind using motion capture data. Existing algorithms for generating models of tree branching structures for image synthesis in computer graphics are not adapted to the unique data set provided by motion capture. We present a method for tree shape reconstruction using particle flow on input data obtained from a passive optical motion capture system. Initial branch tip positions are estimated from averaged and smoothed motion capture data. Branch tips, as particles, are also generated within a bounding space defined by a stack of bounding boxes or a convex hull. The particle flow, starting at branch tips within the bounding volume under forces, creates tree branches. The forces are composed of gravity, internal force, and external force. The resulting shapes are realistic and similar to the original tree crown shape. Several tunable parameters provide control over branch shape and arrangement.

  11. A Novel Technology for Motion Capture Using Passive UHF RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Although there are several existing methods for human motion capture, they all have important limitations and hence there is the need to explore fundamentally new approaches. Here we present a method based on a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) system with passive Ultra High Frequency (UHF...... walking. The reference joint angles for the validation were obtained by an optoelectronic system. Although the method is in its initial phase of development, the results of the validation are promising and show that the movement information can be extracted from the RFID response signals....

  12. Exercise Sensing and Pose Recovery Inference Tool (ESPRIT) - A Compact Stereo-based Motion Capture Solution For Exercise Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun Wai

    2015-01-01

    Crew exercise is important during long-duration space flight not only for maintaining health and fitness but also for preventing adverse health problems, such as losses in muscle strength and bone density. Monitoring crew exercise via motion capture and kinematic analysis aids understanding of the effects of microgravity on exercise and helps ensure that exercise prescriptions are effective. Intelligent Automation, Inc., has developed ESPRIT to monitor exercise activities, detect body markers, extract image features, and recover three-dimensional (3D) kinematic body poses. The system relies on prior knowledge and modeling of the human body and on advanced statistical inference techniques to achieve robust and accurate motion capture. In Phase I, the company demonstrated motion capture of several exercises, including walking, curling, and dead lifting. Phase II efforts focused on enhancing algorithms and delivering an ESPRIT prototype for testing and demonstration.

  13. Biomechanical model-based displacement estimation in micro-sensor motion capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, X L; Sun, S Y; Wu, J K; Zhang, Z Q; 3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), 02-02-10 I3 Building, 21 Heng Mui Keng Terrace (Singapore))" >Wong, W C

    2012-01-01

    In micro-sensor motion capture systems, the estimation of the body displacement in the global coordinate system remains a challenge due to lack of external references. This paper proposes a self-contained displacement estimation method based on a human biomechanical model to track the position of walking subjects in the global coordinate system without any additional supporting infrastructures. The proposed approach makes use of the biomechanics of the lower body segments and the assumption that during walking there is always at least one foot in contact with the ground. The ground contact joint is detected based on walking gait characteristics and used as the external references of the human body. The relative positions of the other joints are obtained from hierarchical transformations based on the biomechanical model. Anatomical constraints are proposed to apply to some specific joints of the lower body to further improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an optical motion capture system. The method is also demonstrated in outdoor and indoor long distance walking scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate clearly that the biomechanical model improves the displacement accuracy within the proposed framework. (paper)

  14. Energy Optimal Trajectories in Human Arm Motion Aiming for Assistive Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelai Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy expenditure in human arm has been of great interests for seeking optimal human arm trajectories. This paper presents a new way for calculating metabolic energy consumption of human arm motions. The purpose is to reveal the relationship between the energy consumption and the trajectory of arm motion, and further, the acceleration and arm orientation contributions. Human arm motion in horizontal plane is investigated by virtue of Qualisys motion capture system. The motion data is post-processed by a biomechanical model to obtain the metabolic expenditure. Results on the arm motion kinematics, dynamics and metabolic energy consumption, are included.

  15. Markerless motion capture systems for tracking of persons in forensic biomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Sylvia; Christiansen, Martin S.; Larsen, Peter Kastmand

    2014-01-01

    the postures from a sagittal viewpoint. Although integrating all three dimensions (3D) might improve the results considerably. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the 3D multi-view markerless motion capture systems which could be applicable for 3D gait analysis. This paper contains presentation......Markerless motion capture is a pronounced topic in computer vision. In forensic science, markerless motion capture can be an important tool for identification through gait analysis. Recent studies of gait analysis in forensic science have shown that individuals can be identified when analysing...

  16. A new method for synchronization of motion capture and plantar pressure data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam L

    2010-06-01

    A common plantar pressure analysis technique requires dividing the pressure distribution into regions based on key landmarks of the foot. Typically, this is done using visual inspection of the footprint and is subject to error when there is abnormal foot contact. A novel, robust method of synchronizing motion capture and plantar pressure data was created that allows for motion capture markers to be projected onto the plantar pressure mat for accurate subdivision of the foot. Validation studies showed that spatial synchronization of the plantar pressure and motion capture systems was determined to be accurate within 1 sensel. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Filling gaps in visual motion for target capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco eBosco

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable challenge our brain must face constantly when interacting with the environment is represented by ambiguous and, at times, even missing sensory information. This is particularly compelling for visual information, being the main sensory system we rely upon to gather cues about the external world. It is not uncommon, for example, that objects catching our attention may disappear temporarily from view, occluded by visual obstacles in the foreground. Nevertheless, we are often able to keep our gaze on them throughout the occlusion or even catch them on the fly in the face of the transient lack of visual motion information. This implies that the brain can fill the gaps of missing sensory information by extrapolating the object motion through the occlusion. In recent years, much experimental evidence has been accumulated that both perceptual and motor processes exploit visual motion extrapolation mechanisms. Moreover, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions potentially involved in the predictive representation of the occluded target motion. Within this framework, ocular pursuit and manual interceptive behavior have proven to be useful experimental models for investigating visual extrapolation mechanisms. Studies in these fields have pointed out that visual motion extrapolation processes depend on manifold information related to short-term memory representations of the target motion before the occlusion, as well as to longer term representations derived from previous experience with the environment. We will review recent oculomotor and manual interception literature to provide up-to-date views on the neurophysiological underpinnings of visual motion extrapolation.

  18. Filling gaps in visual motion for target capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Delle Monache, Sergio; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable challenge our brain must face constantly when interacting with the environment is represented by ambiguous and, at times, even missing sensory information. This is particularly compelling for visual information, being the main sensory system we rely upon to gather cues about the external world. It is not uncommon, for example, that objects catching our attention may disappear temporarily from view, occluded by visual obstacles in the foreground. Nevertheless, we are often able to keep our gaze on them throughout the occlusion or even catch them on the fly in the face of the transient lack of visual motion information. This implies that the brain can fill the gaps of missing sensory information by extrapolating the object motion through the occlusion. In recent years, much experimental evidence has been accumulated that both perceptual and motor processes exploit visual motion extrapolation mechanisms. Moreover, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions potentially involved in the predictive representation of the occluded target motion. Within this framework, ocular pursuit and manual interceptive behavior have proven to be useful experimental models for investigating visual extrapolation mechanisms. Studies in these fields have pointed out that visual motion extrapolation processes depend on manifold information related to short-term memory representations of the target motion before the occlusion, as well as to longer term representations derived from previous experience with the environment. We will review recent oculomotor and manual interception literature to provide up-to-date views on the neurophysiological underpinnings of visual motion extrapolation. PMID:25755637

  19. Filling gaps in visual motion for target capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosco, Gianfranco; Monache, Sergio Delle; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable challenge our brain must face constantly when interacting with the environment is represented by ambiguous and, at times, even missing sensory information. This is particularly compelling for visual information, being the main sensory system we rely upon to gather cues about the external world. It is not uncommon, for example, that objects catching our attention may disappear temporarily from view, occluded by visual obstacles in the foreground. Nevertheless, we are often able to keep our gaze on them throughout the occlusion or even catch them on the fly in the face of the transient lack of visual motion information. This implies that the brain can fill the gaps of missing sensory information by extrapolating the object motion through the occlusion. In recent years, much experimental evidence has been accumulated that both perceptual and motor processes exploit visual motion extrapolation mechanisms. Moreover, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions potentially involved in the predictive representation of the occluded target motion. Within this framework, ocular pursuit and manual interceptive behavior have proven to be useful experimental models for investigating visual extrapolation mechanisms. Studies in these fields have pointed out that visual motion extrapolation processes depend on manifold information related to short-term memory representations of the target motion before the occlusion, as well as to longer term representations derived from previous experience with the environment. We will review recent oculomotor and manual interception literature to provide up-to-date views on the neurophysiological underpinnings of visual motion extrapolation.

  20. A New Calibration Methodology for Thorax and Upper Limbs Motion Capture in Children Using Magneto and Inertial Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Ricci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in wearable sensor technologies for motion capture have produced devices, mainly based on magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU, that are now suitable for out-of-the-lab use with children. In fact, the reduced size, weight and the wireless connectivity meet the requirement of minimum obtrusivity and give scientists the possibility to analyze children’s motion in daily life contexts. Typical use of magneto and inertial measurement units (M-IMU motion capture systems is based on attaching a sensing unit to each body segment of interest. The correct use of this setup requires a specific calibration methodology that allows mapping measurements from the sensors’ frames of reference into useful kinematic information in the human limbs’ frames of reference. The present work addresses this specific issue, presenting a calibration protocol to capture the kinematics of the upper limbs and thorax in typically developing (TD children. The proposed method allows the construction, on each body segment, of a meaningful system of coordinates that are representative of real physiological motions and that are referred to as functional frames (FFs. We will also present a novel cost function for the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, to retrieve the rotation matrices between each sensor frame (SF and the corresponding FF. Reported results on a group of 40 children suggest that the method is repeatable and reliable, opening the way to the extensive use of this technology for out-of-the-lab motion capture in children.

  1. Hierarchical Aligned Cluster Analysis for Temporal Clustering of Human Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; De la Torre, Fernando; Hodgins, Jessica K

    2013-03-01

    Temporal segmentation of human motion into plausible motion primitives is central to understanding and building computational models of human motion. Several issues contribute to the challenge of discovering motion primitives: the exponential nature of all possible movement combinations, the variability in the temporal scale of human actions, and the complexity of representing articulated motion. We pose the problem of learning motion primitives as one of temporal clustering, and derive an unsupervised hierarchical bottom-up framework called hierarchical aligned cluster analysis (HACA). HACA finds a partition of a given multidimensional time series into m disjoint segments such that each segment belongs to one of k clusters. HACA combines kernel k-means with the generalized dynamic time alignment kernel to cluster time series data. Moreover, it provides a natural framework to find a low-dimensional embedding for time series. HACA is efficiently optimized with a coordinate descent strategy and dynamic programming. Experimental results on motion capture and video data demonstrate the effectiveness of HACA for segmenting complex motions and as a visualization tool. We also compare the performance of HACA to state-of-the-art algorithms for temporal clustering on data of a honey bee dance. The HACA code is available online.

  2. Real-Time 3D Motion capture by monocular vision and virtual rendering

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez Jauregui , David Antonio; Horain , Patrick

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Avatars in networked 3D virtual environments allow users to interact over the Internet and to get some feeling of virtual telepresence. However, avatar control may be tedious. Motion capture systems based on 3D sensors have recently reached the consumer market, but webcams and camera-phones are more widespread and cheaper. The proposed demonstration aims at animating a user's avatar from real time 3D motion capture by monoscopic computer vision, thus allowing virtual t...

  3. Musculoskeletal Simulation Model Generation from MRI Data Sets and Motion Capture Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Jérôme; Sandholm, Anders; Chung, François; Thalmann, Daniel; Delingette, Hervé; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    Today computer models and computer simulations of the musculoskeletal system are widely used to study the mechanisms behind human gait and its disorders. The common way of creating musculoskeletal models is to use a generic musculoskeletal model based on data derived from anatomical and biomechanical studies of cadaverous specimens. To adapt this generic model to a specific subject, the usual approach is to scale it. This scaling has been reported to introduce several errors because it does not always account for subject-specific anatomical differences. As a result, a novel semi-automatic workflow is proposed that creates subject-specific musculoskeletal models from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets and motion capture data. Based on subject-specific medical data and a model-based automatic segmentation approach, an accurate modeling of the anatomy can be produced while avoiding the scaling operation. This anatomical model coupled with motion capture data, joint kinematics information, and muscle-tendon actuators is finally used to create a subject-specific musculoskeletal model.

  4. The eigenmode analysis of human motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Juyong; Lee, Deok-Sun; González, Marta C

    2010-01-01

    Rapid advances in modern communication technology are enabling the accumulation of large-scale, high-resolution observational data of the spatiotemporal movements of humans. Classification and prediction of human mobility based on the analysis of such data has great potential in applications such as urban planning in addition to being a subject of theoretical interest. A robust theoretical framework is therefore required to study and properly understand human motion. Here we perform the eigenmode analysis of human motion data gathered from mobile communication records, which allows us to explore the scaling properties and characteristics of human motion

  5. A Common Framework for the Analysis of Complex Motion? Standstill and Capture Illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Reinhard Dürsteler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of illusions was created by presenting stimuli, which consisted of two overlapping surfaces each defined by textures of independent visual features (i.e. modulation of luminance, color, depth, etc.. When presented concurrently with a stationary 2-D luminance texture, observers often fail to perceive the motion of an overlapping stereoscopically defined depth-texture. This illusory motion standstill arises due to a failure to represent two independent surfaces (one for luminance and one for depth textures and motion transparency (the ability to perceive motion of both surfaces simultaneously. Instead the stimulus is represented as a single non-transparent surface taking on the stationary nature of the luminance-defined texture. By contrast, if it is the 2D-luminance defined texture that is in motion, observers often perceive the stationary depth texture as also moving. In this latter case, the failure to represent the motion transparency of the two textures gives rise to illusionary motion capture. Our past work demonstrated that the illusions of motion standstill and motion capture can occur for depth-textures that are rotating, or expanding / contracting, or else spiraling. Here I extend these findings to include stereo-shearing. More importantly, it is the motion (or lack thereof of the luminance texture that determines how the motion of the depth will be perceived. This observation is strongly in favor of a single pathway for complex motion that operates on luminance-defines texture motion signals only. In addition, these complex motion illusions arise with chromatically-defined textures with smooth, transitions between their colors. This suggests that in respect to color motion perception the complex motions’ pathway is only able to accurately process signals from isoluminant colored textures with sharp transitions between colors, and/or moving at high speeds, which is conceivable if it relies on inputs from a hypothetical dual

  6. Design and development of an upper extremity motion capture system for a rehabilitation robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Pooja; Smith, Alan; Gebregiorgis, Adey; Brown, Edward E

    2009-01-01

    Human robot interaction is a new and rapidly growing field and its application in the realm of rehabilitation and physical care is a major focus area of research worldwide. This paper discusses the development and implementation of a wireless motion capture system for the human arm which can be used for physical therapy or real-time control of a robotic arm, among many other potential applications. The system is comprised of a mechanical brace with rotary potentiometers inserted at the different joints to capture position data. It also contains surface electrodes which acquire electromyographic signals through the CleveMed BioRadio device. The brace interfaces with a software subsystem which displays real time data signals. The software includes a 3D arm model which imitates the actual movement of a subject's arm under testing. This project began as part of the Rochester Institute of Technology's Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Senior Design curriculum and has been integrated into the overall research objectives of the Biomechatronic Learning Laboratory.

  7. Using a Motion Capture System for Spatial Localization of EEG Electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eReis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG is often used in source analysis studies, in which the locations of cortex regions responsible for a signal are determined. For this to be possible, accurate positions of the electrodes at the scalp surface must be determined, otherwise errors in the source estimation will occur. Today, several methods for acquiring these positions exist but they are often not satisfyingly accurate or take a long time to perform. Therefore, in this paper we describe a method capable of determining the positions accurately and fast.This method uses an infrared light motion capture system (IR-MOCAP with 8 cameras arranged around a human participant. It acquires 3D coordinates of each electrode and automatically labels them. Each electrode has a small reflector on top of it thus allowing its detection by the cameras. We tested the accuracy of the presented method by acquiring the electrodes positions on a rigid sphere model and comparing these with measurements from computer tomography (CT. The average Euclidean distance between the sphere model CT measurements and the presented method was 1.23 mm with an average standard deviation of 0.51 mm. We also tested the method with a human participant. The measurement was quickly performed and all positions were captured.These results tell that, with this method, it is possible to acquire electrode positions with minimal error and little time effort for the study participants and investigators.

  8. Using motion capture to assess colonoscopy experience level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Preisler, Louise; Hillingsø, Jens Georg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study technical skills of colonoscopists using a Microsoft Kinect™ for motion analysis to develop a tool to guide colonoscopy education. RESULTS: Ten experienced endoscopists (gastroenterologists, n = 2; colorectal surgeons, n = 8) and 11 novices participated in the study. A Microsoft......) vs 12% for novice endoscopists (SD 9)], the level of the right hand below the sighting line (z-axis) (25 cm for experienced endoscopists vs 36 cm for novice endoscopists, P level of the left hand below the z-axis (6 cm for experienced endoscopists vs 15 cm for novice endoscopists, P...... experienced and novice endoscopists and to provide non-biased feedback. Whether it is possible to use this tool to train novices in a clinical setting requires further study....

  9. Capturing Revolute Motion and Revolute Joint Parameters with Optical Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonya, C.

    2017-12-01

    Optical tracking of users and various technical systems are becoming more and more popular. It consists of analysing sequence of recorded images using video capturing devices and image processing algorithms. The returned data contains mainly point-clouds, coordinates of markers or coordinates of point of interest. These data can be used for retrieving information related to the geometry of the objects, but also to extract parameters for the analytical model of the system useful in a variety of computer aided engineering simulations. The parameter identification of joints deals with extraction of physical parameters (mainly geometric parameters) for the purpose of constructing accurate kinematic and dynamic models. The input data are the time-series of the marker’s position. The least square method was used for fitting the data into different geometrical shapes (ellipse, circle, plane) and for obtaining the position and orientation of revolute joins.

  10. SCALABLE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MOTION CAPTURE SYSTEM “MOSCA”: DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Knyaz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Wide variety of applications (from industrial to entertainment has a need for reliable and accurate 3D information about motion of an object and its parts. Very often the process of movement is rather fast as in cases of vehicle movement, sport biomechanics, animation of cartoon characters. Motion capture systems based on different physical principles are used for these purposes. The great potential for obtaining high accuracy and high degree of automation has vision-based system due to progress in image processing and analysis. Scalable inexpensive motion capture system is developed as a convenient and flexible tool for solving various tasks requiring 3D motion analysis. It is based on photogrammetric techniques of 3D measurements and provides high speed image acquisition, high accuracy of 3D measurements and highly automated processing of captured data. Depending on the application the system can be easily modified for different working areas from 100 mm to 10 m. The developed motion capture system uses from 2 to 4 technical vision cameras for video sequences of object motion acquisition. All cameras work in synchronization mode at frame rate up to 100 frames per second under the control of personal computer providing the possibility for accurate calculation of 3D coordinates of interest points. The system was used for a set of different applications fields and demonstrated high accuracy and high level of automation.

  11. MOCA: A Low-Power, Low-Cost Motion Capture System Based on Integrated Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Farella

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human-computer interaction (HCI and virtual reality applications pose the challenge of enabling real-time interfaces for natural interaction. Gesture recognition based on body-mounted accelerometers has been proposed as a viable solution to translate patterns of movements that are associated with user commands, thus substituting point-and-click methods or other cumbersome input devices. On the other hand, cost and power constraints make the implementation of a natural and efficient interface suitable for consumer applications a critical task. Even though several gesture recognition solutions exist, their use in HCI context has been poorly characterized. For this reason, in this paper, we consider a low-cost/low-power wearable motion tracking system based on integrated accelerometers called motion capture with accelerometers (MOCA that we evaluated for navigation in virtual spaces. Recognition is based on a geometric algorithm that enables efficient and robust detection of rotational movements. Our objective is to demonstrate that such a low-cost and a low-power implementation is suitable for HCI applications. To this purpose, we characterized the system from both a quantitative point of view and a qualitative point of view. First, we performed static and dynamic assessment of movement recognition accuracy. Second, we evaluated the effectiveness of user experience using a 3D game application as a test bed.

  12. Centralized Networks to Generate Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakulenko, Sergei; Radulescu, Ovidiu; Morozov, Ivan; Weber, Andres

    2017-12-14

    We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another. Simulations show that this model allows us to simulate complicated motions consisting of many different dynamical primitives. We also use the model for learning human body motion from markers' trajectories. We find that center frequencies can be learned from a small number of markers and can be transferred to other markers, such that our technique seems to be capable of correcting for missing information resulting from sparse control marker settings.

  13. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... to significantly speed up the particle filtering. It should be stressed that the observation part of the system has not been our focus, and as such is described only from a sense of completeness. With our approach it is possible to construct a robust and computationally efficient system for human motion estimation....

  14. Time Capture Tool (TimeCaT): development of a comprehensive application to support data capture for Time Motion Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopetegui, Marcelo; Yen, Po-Yin; Lai, Albert M; Embi, Peter J; Payne, Philip R O

    2012-01-01

    Time Motion Studies (TMS) have proved to be the gold standard method to measure and quantify clinical workflow, and have been widely used to assess the impact of health information systems implementation. Although there are tools available to conduct TMS, they provide different approaches for multitasking, interruptions, inter-observer reliability assessment and task taxonomy, making results across studies not comparable. We postulate that a significant contributing factor towards the standardization and spread of TMS would be the availability and spread of an accessible, scalable and dynamic tool. We present the development of a comprehensive Time Capture Tool (TimeCaT): a web application developed to support data capture for TMS. Ongoing and continuous development of TimeCaT includes the development and validation of a realistic inter-observer reliability scoring algorithm, the creation of an online clinical tasks ontology, and a novel quantitative workflow comparison method.

  15. Multi-Sensor Methods for Mobile Radar Motion Capture and Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Robert

    Remote sensing has many applications, including surveying and mapping, geophysics exploration, military surveillance, search and rescue and counter-terrorism operations. Remote sensor systems typically use visible image, infrared or radar sensors. Camera based image sensors can provide high spatial resolution but are limited to line-of-sight capture during daylight. Infrared sensors have lower resolution but can operate during darkness. Radar sensors can provide high resolution motion measurements, even when obscured by weather, clouds and smoke and can penetrate walls and collapsed structures constructed with non-metallic materials up to 1 m to 2 m in depth depending on the wavelength and transmitter power level. However, any platform motion will degrade the target signal of interest. In this dissertation, we investigate alternative methodologies to capture platform motion, including a Body Area Network (BAN) that doesn't require external fixed location sensors, allowing full mobility of the user. We also investigated platform stabilization and motion compensation techniques to reduce and remove the signal distortion introduced by the platform motion. We evaluated secondary ultrasonic and radar sensors to stabilize the platform resulting in an average 5 dB of Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) improvement. We also implemented a Digital Signal Processing (DSP) motion compensation algorithm that improved the SIR by 18 dB on average. These techniques could be deployed on a quadcopter platform and enable the detection of respiratory motion using an onboard radar sensor.

  16. Learning Silhouette Features for Control of Human Motion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ren, Liu; Shakhnarovich, Gregory; Hodgins, Jessica K; Pfister, Hanspeter; Viola, Paul A

    2004-01-01

    .... The system combines information about the user's motion contained in silhouettes from several viewpoints with domain knowledge contained in a motion capture database to interactively produce a high quality animation...

  17. Estimation of Joint types and Joint Limits from Motion capture data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    2009-01-01

    It is time-consuming for an animator to explicitly model joint types and joint limits of articulated figures. In this paper we describe a simple and fast approach to automated joint estimation from motion capture data of articulated figures. Our method will make the joint modeling more efficient ...

  18. Human Perception of Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-Lu

    2010-01-01

    Human daily activities on Earth involve motions that elicit both tilt and translation components of the head (i.e. gazing and locomotion). With otolith cues alone, tilt and translation can be ambiguous since both motions can potentially displace the otolithic membrane by the same magnitude and direction. Transitions between gravity environments (i.e. Earth, microgravity and lunar) have demonstrated to alter the functions of the vestibular system and exacerbate the ambiguity between tilt and translational motion cues. Symptoms of motion sickness and spatial disorientation can impair human performances during critical mission phases. Specifically, Space Shuttle landing records show that particular cases of tilt-translation illusions have impaired the performance of seasoned commanders. This sensorimotor condition is one of many operational risks that may have dire implications on future human space exploration missions. The neural strategy with which the human central nervous system distinguishes ambiguous inertial motion cues remains the subject of intense research. A prevailing theory in the neuroscience field proposes that the human brain is able to formulate a neural internal model of ambiguous motion cues such that tilt and translation components can be perceptually decomposed in order to elicit the appropriate bodily response. The present work uses this theory, known as the GIF resolution hypothesis, as the framework for experimental hypothesis. Specifically, two novel motion paradigms are employed to validate the neural capacity of ambiguous inertial motion decomposition in ground-based human subjects. The experimental setup involves the Tilt-Translation Sled at Neuroscience Laboratory of NASA JSC. This two degree-of-freedom motion system is able to tilt subjects in the pitch plane and translate the subject along the fore-aft axis. Perception data will be gathered through subject verbal reports. Preliminary analysis of perceptual data does not indicate that

  19. The 3D Human Motion Control Through Refined Video Gesture Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yohan; Suk, Myunghoon; Prabhakaran, B.

    In the beginning of computer and video game industry, simple game controllers consisting of buttons and joysticks were employed, but recently game consoles are replacing joystick buttons with novel interfaces such as the remote controllers with motion sensing technology on the Nintendo Wii [1] Especially video-based human computer interaction (HCI) technique has been applied to games, and the representative game is 'Eyetoy' on the Sony PlayStation 2. Video-based HCI technique has great benefit to release players from the intractable game controller. Moreover, in order to communicate between humans and computers, video-based HCI is very crucial since it is intuitive, easy to get, and inexpensive. On the one hand, extracting semantic low-level features from video human motion data is still a major challenge. The level of accuracy is really dependent on each subject's characteristic and environmental noises. Of late, people have been using 3D motion-capture data for visualizing real human motions in 3D space (e.g, 'Tiger Woods' in EA Sports, 'Angelina Jolie' in Bear-Wolf movie) and analyzing motions for specific performance (e.g, 'golf swing' and 'walking'). 3D motion-capture system ('VICON') generates a matrix for each motion clip. Here, a column is corresponding to a human's sub-body part and row represents time frames of data capture. Thus, we can extract sub-body part's motion only by selecting specific columns. Different from low-level feature values of video human motion, 3D human motion-capture data matrix are not pixel values, but is closer to human level of semantics.

  20. Human motion behavior while interacting with an industrial robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortot, Dino; Ding, Hao; Antonopolous, Alexandros; Bengler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Human workers and industrial robots both have specific strengths within industrial production. Advantageously they complement each other perfectly, which leads to the development of human-robot interaction (HRI) applications. Bringing humans and robots together in the same workspace may lead to potential collisions. The avoidance of such is a central safety requirement. It can be realized with sundry sensor systems, all of them decelerating the robot when the distance to the human decreases alarmingly and applying the emergency stop, when the distance becomes too small. As a consequence, the efficiency of the overall systems suffers, because the robot has high idle times. Optimized path planning algorithms have to be developed to avoid that. The following study investigates human motion behavior in the proximity of an industrial robot. Three different kinds of encounters between the two entities under three robot speed levels are prompted. A motion tracking system is used to capture the motions. Results show, that humans keep an average distance of about 0,5m to the robot, when the encounter occurs. Approximation of the workbenches is influenced by the robot in ten of 15 cases. Furthermore, an increase of participants' walking velocity with higher robot velocities is observed.

  1. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  2. Automatic generation of a subject-specific model for accurate markerless motion capture and biomechanical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Stefano; Gambaretto, Emiliano; Mündermann, Lars; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2010-04-01

    A novel approach for the automatic generation of a subject-specific model consisting of morphological and joint location information is described. The aim is to address the need for efficient and accurate model generation for markerless motion capture (MMC) and biomechanical studies. The algorithm applied and expanded on previous work on human shapes space by embedding location information for ten joint centers in a subject-specific free-form surface. The optimal locations of joint centers in the 3-D mesh were learned through linear regression over a set of nine subjects whose joint centers were known. The model was shown to be sufficiently accurate for both kinematic (joint centers) and morphological (shape of the body) information to allow accurate tracking with MMC systems. The automatic model generation algorithm was applied to 3-D meshes of different quality and resolution such as laser scans and visual hulls. The complete method was tested using nine subjects of different gender, body mass index (BMI), age, and ethnicity. Experimental training error and cross-validation errors were 19 and 25 mm, respectively, on average over the joints of the ten subjects analyzed in the study.

  3. Automated Quantification of the Landing Error Scoring System With a Markerless Motion-Capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauntel, Timothy C; Padua, Darin A; Stanley, Laura E; Frank, Barnett S; DiStefano, Lindsay J; Peck, Karen Y; Cameron, Kenneth L; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-11-01

      The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) can be used to identify individuals with an elevated risk of lower extremity injury. The limitation of the LESS is that raters identify movement errors from video replay, which is time-consuming and, therefore, may limit its use by clinicians. A markerless motion-capture system may be capable of automating LESS scoring, thereby removing this obstacle.   To determine the reliability of an automated markerless motion-capture system for scoring the LESS.   Cross-sectional study.   United States Military Academy.   A total of 57 healthy, physically active individuals (47 men, 10 women; age = 18.6 ± 0.6 years, height = 174.5 ± 6.7 cm, mass = 75.9 ± 9.2 kg).   Participants completed 3 jump-landing trials that were recorded by standard video cameras and a depth camera. Their movement quality was evaluated by expert LESS raters (standard video recording) using the LESS rubric and by software that automates LESS scoring (depth-camera data). We recorded an error for a LESS item if it was present on at least 2 of 3 jump-landing trials. We calculated κ statistics, prevalence- and bias-adjusted κ (PABAK) statistics, and percentage agreement for each LESS item. Interrater reliability was evaluated between the 2 expert rater scores and between a consensus expert score and the markerless motion-capture system score.   We observed reliability between the 2 expert LESS raters (average κ = 0.45 ± 0.35, average PABAK = 0.67 ± 0.34; percentage agreement = 0.83 ± 0.17). The markerless motion-capture system had similar reliability with consensus expert scores (average κ = 0.48 ± 0.40, average PABAK = 0.71 ± 0.27; percentage agreement = 0.85 ± 0.14). However, reliability was poor for 5 LESS items in both LESS score comparisons.   A markerless motion-capture system had the same level of reliability as expert LESS raters, suggesting that an automated system can accurately assess movement. Therefore, clinicians can use

  4. A comparison of accuracy and precision of 5 gait-event detection algorithms from motion capture in horses during over ground walk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Boye, Jenny Katrine; Pfau, Thilo

    2012-01-01

    and use robust and validated algorithms. It is the objective of this study to compare accuracy (bias) and precision (SD) for five published human and equine motion capture foot-on/off and stance phase detection algorithms during walk. Six horses were walked over 8 seamlessly embedded force plates...... of mass generally provides the most accurate and precise results in walk....

  5. Magnetic motion capture system using LC resonant magnetic marker composed of Ni-Zn ferrite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashi, S.; Toyoda, M.; Ohya, M.; Okazaki, Y.; Yabukami, S.; Ishiyama, K.; Arai, K. I.

    2006-01-01

    We have proposed a magnetic motion capture system using an LC resonant magnetic marker. The proposed system is composed of an exciting coil, an LC marker, and a 5x5-matrix search coil array (25 search coils). The LC marker is small and has a minimal circuit with no battery and can be driven wirelessly by the action of electromagnetic induction. It consists of a Ni-Zn ferrite core (3 mmφx10 mm) with a wound coil and a chip capacitor, forming an LC series circuit with a resonant frequency of 186 kHz. The relative position accuracy of the system is less than 1 mm within the area of 100 mm 3 up to 150 mm from the search coil array. Compared with dc magnetic systems, the proposed system is applicable for precision motion capture in optically isolated spaces without magnetic shielding because the system is not greatly influenced by earth field noise

  6. Markerless motion capture can provide reliable 3D gait kinematics in the sagittal and frontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandau, Martin; Koblauch, Henrik; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose of the pr......Estimating 3D joint rotations in the lower extremities accurately and reliably remains unresolved in markerless motion capture, despite extensive studies in the past decades. The main problems have been ascribed to the limited accuracy of the 3D reconstructions. Accordingly, the purpose...... subjects in whom hip, knee and ankle joint were analysed. Flexion/extension angles as well as hip abduction/adduction closely resembled those obtained from the marker based system. However, the internal/external rotations, knee abduction/adduction and ankle inversion/eversion were less reliable....

  7. Biomechanics Analysis of Combat Sport (Silat) By Using Motion Capture System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulhilmi Kaharuddin, Muhammad; Badriah Khairu Razak, Siti; Ikram Kushairi, Muhammad; Syawal Abd. Rahman, Mohamed; An, Wee Chang; Ngali, Z.; Siswanto, W. A.; Salleh, S. M.; Yusup, E. M.

    2017-01-01

    ‘Silat’ is a Malay traditional martial art that is practiced in both amateur and in professional levels. The intensity of the motion spurs the scientific research in biomechanics. The main purpose of this abstract is to present the biomechanics method used in the study of ‘silat’. By using the 3D Depth Camera motion capture system, two subjects are to perform ‘Jurus Satu’ in three repetitions each. One subject is set as the benchmark for the research. The videos are captured and its data is processed using the 3D Depth Camera server system in the form of 16 3D body joint coordinates which then will be transformed into displacement, velocity and acceleration components by using Microsoft excel for data calculation and Matlab software for simulation of the body. The translated data obtained serves as an input to differentiate both subjects’ execution of the ‘Jurus Satu’. Nine primary movements with the addition of five secondary movements are observed visually frame by frame from the simulation obtained to get the exact frame that the movement takes place. Further analysis involves the differentiation of both subjects’ execution by referring to the average mean and standard deviation of joints for each parameter stated. The findings provide useful data for joints kinematic parameters as well as to improve the execution of ‘Jurus Satu’ and to exhibit the process of learning a movement that is relatively unknown by the use of a motion capture system.

  8. Development of esMOCA Biomechanic, Motion Capture Instrumentation for Biomechanics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendra, A.; Akhmad, S.

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to build motion capture instruments using inertial measurement unit sensors to assist in the analysis of biomechanics. Sensors used are accelerometer and gyroscope. Estimation of orientation sensors is done by digital motion processing in each sensor nodes. There are nine sensor nodes attached to the upper limbs. This sensor is connected to the pc via a wireless sensor network. The development of kinematics and inverse dynamamic models of the upper limb is done in simulink simmechanic. The kinematic model receives streaming data of sensor nodes mounted on the limbs. The output of the kinematic model is the pose of each limbs and visualized on display. The dynamic inverse model outputs the reaction force and reaction moment of each joint based on the limb motion input. Model validation in simulink with mathematical model of mechanical analysis showed results that did not differ significantly

  9. Human sensitivity to vertical self-motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesti, Alessandro; Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Macneilage, Paul R; Bülthoff, Heinrich H

    2014-01-01

    Perceiving vertical self-motion is crucial for maintaining balance as well as for controlling an aircraft. Whereas heave absolute thresholds have been exhaustively studied, little work has been done in investigating how vertical sensitivity depends on motion intensity (i.e., differential thresholds). Here we measure human sensitivity for 1-Hz sinusoidal accelerations for 10 participants in darkness. Absolute and differential thresholds are measured for upward and downward translations independently at 5 different peak amplitudes ranging from 0 to 2 m/s(2). Overall vertical differential thresholds are higher than horizontal differential thresholds found in the literature. Psychometric functions are fit in linear and logarithmic space, with goodness of fit being similar in both cases. Differential thresholds are higher for upward as compared to downward motion and increase with stimulus intensity following a trend best described by two power laws. The power laws' exponents of 0.60 and 0.42 for upward and downward motion, respectively, deviate from Weber's Law in that thresholds increase less than expected at high stimulus intensity. We speculate that increased sensitivity at high accelerations and greater sensitivity to downward than upward self-motion may reflect adaptations to avoid falling.

  10. Estimation of Ground Reaction Forces and Moments During Gait Using Only Inertial Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelos Karatsidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ground reaction forces and moments (GRF&M are important measures used as input in biomechanical analysis to estimate joint kinetics, which often are used to infer information for many musculoskeletal diseases. Their assessment is conventionally achieved using laboratory-based equipment that cannot be applied in daily life monitoring. In this study, we propose a method to predict GRF&M during walking, using exclusively kinematic information from fully-ambulatory inertial motion capture (IMC. From the equations of motion, we derive the total external forces and moments. Then, we solve the indeterminacy problem during double stance using a distribution algorithm based on a smooth transition assumption. The agreement between the IMC-predicted and reference GRF&M was categorized over normal walking speed as excellent for the vertical (ρ = 0.992, rRMSE = 5.3%, anterior (ρ = 0.965, rRMSE = 9.4% and sagittal (ρ = 0.933, rRMSE = 12.4% GRF&M components and as strong for the lateral (ρ = 0.862, rRMSE = 13.1%, frontal (ρ = 0.710, rRMSE = 29.6%, and transverse GRF&M (ρ = 0.826, rRMSE = 18.2%. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the effect of the cut-off frequency used in the filtering of the input kinematics, as well as the threshold velocities for the gait event detection algorithm. This study was the first to use only inertial motion capture to estimate 3D GRF&M during gait, providing comparable accuracy with optical motion capture prediction. This approach enables applications that require estimation of the kinetics during walking outside the gait laboratory.

  11. Power estimation of martial arts movement using 3D motion capture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azraai, Nur Zaidi; Awang Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir

    2017-06-01

    Motion capture camera (MOCAP) has been widely used in many areas such as biomechanics, physiology, animation, arts, etc. This project is done by approaching physics mechanics and the extended of MOCAP application through sports. Most researchers will use a force plate, but this will only can measure the force of impact, but for us, we are keen to observe the kinematics of the movement. Martial arts is one of the sports that uses more than one part of the human body. For this project, martial art `Silat' was chosen because of its wide practice in Malaysia. 2 performers have been selected, one of them has an experienced in `Silat' practice and another one have no experience at all so that we can compare the energy and force generated by the performers. Every performer will generate a punching with same posture which in this project, two types of punching move were selected. Before the measuring start, a calibration has been done so the software knows the area covered by the camera and reduce the error when analyze by using the T stick that have been pasted with a marker. A punching bag with mass 60 kg was hung on an iron bar as a target. The use of this punching bag is to determine the impact force of a performer when they punch. This punching bag also will be stuck with the optical marker so we can observe the movement after impact. 8 cameras have been used and placed with 2 cameras at every side of the wall with different angle in a rectangular room 270 ft2 and the camera covered approximately 50 ft2. We covered only a small area so less noise will be detected and make the measurement more accurate. A Marker has been pasted on the limb of the entire hand that we want to observe and measure. A passive marker used in this project has a characteristic to reflect the infrared that being generated by the camera. The infrared will reflected to the camera sensor so the marker position can be detected and show in software. The used of many cameras is to increase the

  12. Stretch sensors for human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Ben; Gisby, Todd; Anderson, Iain A.

    2014-03-01

    Sensing motion of the human body is a difficult task. From an engineers' perspective people are soft highly mobile objects that move in and out of complex environments. As well as the technical challenge of sensing, concepts such as comfort, social intrusion, usability, and aesthetics are paramount in determining whether someone will adopt a sensing solution or not. At the same time the demands for human body motion sensing are growing fast. Athletes want feedback on posture and technique, consumers need new ways to interact with augmented reality devices, and healthcare providers wish to track recovery of a patient. Dielectric elastomer stretch sensors are ideal for bridging this gap. They are soft, flexible, and precise. They are low power, lightweight, and can be easily mounted on the body or embedded into clothing. From a commercialisation point of view stretch sensing is easier than actuation or generation - such sensors can be low voltage and integrated with conventional microelectronics. This paper takes a birds-eye view of the use of these sensors to measure human body motion. A holistic description of sensor operation and guidelines for sensor design will be presented to help technologists and developers in the space.

  13. Mathematical Modeling and Evaluation of Human Motions in Physical Therapy Using Mixture Density Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakanski, A; Ferguson, J M; Lee, S

    2016-12-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to develop a methodology for modeling and evaluation of human motions, which will potentially benefit patients undertaking a physical rehabilitation therapy (e.g., following a stroke or due to other medical conditions). The ultimate aim is to allow patients to perform home-based rehabilitation exercises using a sensory system for capturing the motions, where an algorithm will retrieve the trajectories of a patient's exercises, will perform data analysis by comparing the performed motions to a reference model of prescribed motions, and will send the analysis results to the patient's physician with recommendations for improvement. The modeling approach employs an artificial neural network, consisting of layers of recurrent neuron units and layers of neuron units for estimating a mixture density function over the spatio-temporal dependencies within the human motion sequences. Input data are sequences of motions related to a prescribed exercise by a physiotherapist to a patient, and recorded with a motion capture system. An autoencoder subnet is employed for reducing the dimensionality of captured sequences of human motions, complemented with a mixture density subnet for probabilistic modeling of the motion data using a mixture of Gaussian distributions. The proposed neural network architecture produced a model for sets of human motions represented with a mixture of Gaussian density functions. The mean log-likelihood of observed sequences was employed as a performance metric in evaluating the consistency of a subject's performance relative to the reference dataset of motions. A publically available dataset of human motions captured with Microsoft Kinect was used for validation of the proposed method. The article presents a novel approach for modeling and evaluation of human motions with a potential application in home-based physical therapy and rehabilitation. The described approach employs the recent progress in the field of

  14. Articulated Human Motion Tracking Using Sequential Immune Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We formulate human motion tracking as a high-dimensional constrained optimization problem. A novel generative method is proposed for human motion tracking in the framework of evolutionary computation. The main contribution is that we introduce immune genetic algorithm (IGA for pose optimization in latent space of human motion. Firstly, we perform human motion analysis in the learnt latent space of human motion. As the latent space is low dimensional and contents the prior knowledge of human motion, it makes pose analysis more efficient and accurate. Then, in the search strategy, we apply IGA for pose optimization. Compared with genetic algorithm and other evolutionary methods, its main advantage is the ability to use the prior knowledge of human motion. We design an IGA-based method to estimate human pose from static images for initialization of motion tracking. And we propose a sequential IGA (S-IGA algorithm for motion tracking by incorporating the temporal continuity information into the traditional IGA. Experimental results on different videos of different motion types show that our IGA-based pose estimation method can be used for initialization of motion tracking. The S-IGA-based motion tracking method can achieve accurate and stable tracking of 3D human motion.

  15. Development of a tool to capture of the human movement for biometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Taylor, Marco; Ortiz Cubero, Esteban

    2013-01-01

    A tool is developed for the measurement of stability static and dynamic of people. The Wii Remote TM was chosen as the system to capture body movement. The measurements of the gyroscopes and accelerometers are obtained from the wiimote adhered to a part of the human body. Dynamic stability parameters are calculated using the wiimote. Dynamic stability data are compared between IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and wiimote. The position, orientation, etc. are recreated from measurements of the wiimote. The study of new motion capture techniques is recommended for the analysis of dynamic stability [es

  16. Applied research of embedded WiFi technology in the motion capture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Haixia

    2012-04-01

    Embedded wireless WiFi technology is one of the current wireless hot spots in network applications. This paper firstly introduces the definition and characteristics of WiFi. With the advantages of WiFi such as using no wiring, simple operation and stable transmission, this paper then gives a system design for the application of embedded wireless WiFi technology in the motion capture system. Also, it verifies the effectiveness of design in the WiFi-based wireless sensor hardware and software program.

  17. Mirror neuron activation of musicians and non-musicians in response to motion captured piano performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Jiancheng; Rajmohan, Ravi; Fang, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Mirror neurons (MNs) activate when performing an action and when an observer witnesses the same action performed by another individual. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and presentation of motion captured piano performances were used to identify differences in MN activation...... pronounced in the “Enjoyment” mode. Our findings suggest that activation of MNs is not only initiated by the imagined action of an observed movement, but such activation is modulated by the level of musical expertise and knowledge of associated motor movements that the observer brings to the viewing...

  18. Nonlinear Synchronization for Automatic Learning of 3D Pose Variability in Human Motion Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozerov M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A dense matching algorithm that solves the problem of synchronizing prerecorded human motion sequences, which show different speeds and accelerations, is proposed. The approach is based on minimization of MRF energy and solves the problem by using Dynamic Programming. Additionally, an optimal sequence is automatically selected from the input dataset to be a time-scale pattern for all other sequences. The paper utilizes an action specific model which automatically learns the variability of 3D human postures observed in a set of training sequences. The model is trained using the public CMU motion capture dataset for the walking action, and a mean walking performance is automatically learnt. Additionally, statistics about the observed variability of the postures and motion direction are also computed at each time step. The synchronized motion sequences are used to learn a model of human motion for action recognition and full-body tracking purposes.

  19. Capturing human movement patterns in public spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Zebitz; Gade, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Non-intrusive and non-privacy violating tracking of people by the use of thermal cameras and Computer Vision The video shows examples of data collection of pedestrian tracks in an urban plaza using a thermal camera. The data is used in my PhD project on Human Movement Patterns in Smart Cities....... The recording and analysis of the thermal videos has been made in collaboration with Rikke Gade from the Visual Analytics of People Lab at Aalborg University....

  20. Dielectric polymer: scavenging energy from human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar; Chaillout, Jean-Jacques

    2008-03-01

    More and more sensors are embedded in human body for medical applications, for sport. The short lifetime of the batteries, available on the market, reveals a real problem of autonomy of these systems. A promising alternative is to scavenge the ambient energy such as the mechanical one. Up to now, few scavenging structures have operating frequencies compatible with ambient one. And, most of the developed structures are rigid and use vibration as mechanical source. For these reasons, we developed a scavenger that operates in a large frequency spectrum from quasi-static to dynamic range. This generator is fully flexible, light and does not hamper the human motion. Thus, we report in this paper an analytical model for dielectric generator with news electrical and mechanical characterization, and the development of an innovating application: scavenging energy from human motion. The generator is located on the knee and design to scavenge 0.1mJ per scavenging cycle at a frequency of 1Hz, enough to supply a low consumption system and with a poling voltage as low as possible to facilitate the power management. Our first prototype is a membrane with an area of 5*3cm and 31µm in thickness which scavenge 0.1mJ under 170V at constant charge Q.

  1. Understanding and Visualizing Multitasking and Task Switching Activities: A Time Motion Study to Capture Nursing Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Po-Yin; Kelley, Marjorie; Lopetegui, Marcelo; Rosado, Amber L; Migliore, Elaina M; Chipps, Esther M; Buck, Jacalyn

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of multitasking within nursing workflow is important in today's dynamic and complex healthcare environment. We conducted a time motion study to understand nursing workflow, specifically multitasking and task switching activities. We used TimeCaT, a comprehensive electronic time capture tool, to capture observational data. We established inter-observer reliability prior to data collection. We completed 56 hours of observation of 10 registered nurses. We found, on average, nurses had 124 communications and 208 hands-on tasks per 4-hour block of time. They multitasked (having communication and hands-on tasks simultaneously) 131 times, representing 39.48% of all times; the total multitasking duration ranges from 14.6 minutes to 109 minutes, 44.98 minutes (18.63%) on average. We also reviewed workflow visualization to uncover the multitasking events. Our study design and methods provide a practical and reliable approach to conducting and analyzing time motion studies from both quantitative and qualitative perspectives.

  2. A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousok Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD. By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape with the 3D measurements.

  3. Simultaneous estimation of human and exoskeleton motion: A simplified protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, M T; Torricelli, D; Del-Ama, A J; Pinto, D; Gonzalez-Vargas, J; Moreno, J C; Gil-Agudo, A; Pons, J L

    2017-07-01

    Adequate benchmarking procedures in the area of wearable robots is gaining importance in order to compare different devices on a quantitative basis, improve them and support the standardization and regulation procedures. Performance assessment usually focuses on the execution of locomotion tasks, and is mostly based on kinematic-related measures. Typical drawbacks of marker-based motion capture systems, gold standard for measure of human limb motion, become challenging when measuring limb kinematics, due to the concomitant presence of the robot. This work answers the question of how to reliably assess the subject's body motion by placing markers over the exoskeleton. Focusing on the ankle joint, the proposed methodology showed that it is possible to reconstruct the trajectory of the subject's joint by placing markers on the exoskeleton, although foot flexibility during walking can impact the reconstruction accuracy. More experiments are needed to confirm this hypothesis, and more subjects and walking conditions are needed to better characterize the errors of the proposed methodology, although our results are promising, indicating small errors.

  4. Virtual Character Animation Based on Affordable Motion Capture and Reconfigurable Tangible Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberti, Fabrizio; Paravati, Gianluca; Gatteschi, Valentina; Cannavo, Alberto; Montuschi, Paolo

    2018-05-01

    Software for computer animation is generally characterized by a steep learning curve, due to the entanglement of both sophisticated techniques and interaction methods required to control 3D geometries. This paper proposes a tool designed to support computer animation production processes by leveraging the affordances offered by articulated tangible user interfaces and motion capture retargeting solutions. To this aim, orientations of an instrumented prop are recorded together with animator's motion in the 3D space and used to quickly pose characters in the virtual environment. High-level functionalities of the animation software are made accessible via a speech interface, thus letting the user control the animation pipeline via voice commands while focusing on his or her hands and body motion. The proposed solution exploits both off-the-shelf hardware components (like the Lego Mindstorms EV3 bricks and the Microsoft Kinect, used for building the tangible device and tracking animator's skeleton) and free open-source software (like the Blender animation tool), thus representing an interesting solution also for beginners approaching the world of digital animation for the first time. Experimental results in different usage scenarios show the benefits offered by the designed interaction strategy with respect to a mouse & keyboard-based interface both for expert and non-expert users.

  5. MotionFlow: Visual Abstraction and Aggregation of Sequential Patterns in Human Motion Tracking Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sujin; Elmqvist, Niklas; Ramani, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Pattern analysis of human motions, which is useful in many research areas, requires understanding and comparison of different styles of motion patterns. However, working with human motion tracking data to support such analysis poses great challenges. In this paper, we propose MotionFlow, a visual analytics system that provides an effective overview of various motion patterns based on an interactive flow visualization. This visualization formulates a motion sequence as transitions between static poses, and aggregates these sequences into a tree diagram to construct a set of motion patterns. The system also allows the users to directly reflect the context of data and their perception of pose similarities in generating representative pose states. We provide local and global controls over the partition-based clustering process. To support the users in organizing unstructured motion data into pattern groups, we designed a set of interactions that enables searching for similar motion sequences from the data, detailed exploration of data subsets, and creating and modifying the group of motion patterns. To evaluate the usability of MotionFlow, we conducted a user study with six researchers with expertise in gesture-based interaction design. They used MotionFlow to explore and organize unstructured motion tracking data. Results show that the researchers were able to easily learn how to use MotionFlow, and the system effectively supported their pattern analysis activities, including leveraging their perception and domain knowledge.

  6. Real-time stylistic prediction for whole-body human motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Takamitsu; Hyon, Sang-Ho; Morimoto, Jun

    2012-01-01

    The ability to predict human motion is crucial in several contexts such as human tracking by computer vision and the synthesis of human-like computer graphics. Previous work has focused on off-line processes with well-segmented data; however, many applications such as robotics require real-time control with efficient computation. In this paper, we propose a novel approach called real-time stylistic prediction for whole-body human motions to satisfy these requirements. This approach uses a novel generative model to represent a whole-body human motion including rhythmic motion (e.g., walking) and discrete motion (e.g., jumping). The generative model is composed of a low-dimensional state (phase) dynamics and a two-factor observation model, allowing it to capture the diversity of motion styles in humans. A real-time adaptation algorithm was derived to estimate both state variables and style parameter of the model from non-stationary unlabeled sequential observations. Moreover, with a simple modification, the algorithm allows real-time adaptation even from incomplete (partial) observations. Based on the estimated state and style, a future motion sequence can be accurately predicted. In our implementation, it takes less than 15 ms for both adaptation and prediction at each observation. Our real-time stylistic prediction was evaluated for human walking, running, and jumping behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. An effective attentional set for a specific colour does not prevent capture by infrequently presented motion distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retell, James D; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2016-01-01

    An organism's survival depends on the ability to rapidly orient attention to unanticipated events in the world. Yet, the conditions needed to elicit such involuntary capture remain in doubt. Especially puzzling are spatial cueing experiments, which have consistently shown that involuntary shifts of attention to highly salient distractors are not determined by stimulus properties, but instead are contingent on attentional control settings induced by task demands. Do we always need to be set for an event to be captured by it, or is there a class of events that draw attention involuntarily even when unconnected to task goals? Recent results suggest that a task-irrelevant event will capture attention on first presentation, suggesting that salient stimuli that violate contextual expectations might automatically capture attention. Here, we investigated the role of contextual expectation by examining whether an irrelevant motion cue that was presented only rarely (∼3-6% of trials) would capture attention when observers had an active set for a specific target colour. The motion cue had no effect when presented frequently, but when rare produced a pattern of interference consistent with attentional capture. The critical dependence on the frequency with which the irrelevant motion singleton was presented is consistent with early theories of involuntary orienting to novel stimuli. We suggest that attention will be captured by salient stimuli that violate expectations, whereas top-down goals appear to modulate capture by stimuli that broadly conform to contextual expectations.

  8. Human motion sensing and recognition a fuzzy qualitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Honghai; Ji, Xiaofei; Chan, Chee Seng; Khoury, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the latest exciting advances in human motion sensing and recognition, from the theoretical development of fuzzy approaches to their applications. The topics covered include human motion recognition in 2D and 3D, hand motion analysis with contact sensors, and vision-based view-invariant motion recognition, especially from the perspective of Fuzzy Qualitative techniques. With the rapid development of technologies in microelectronics, computers, networks, and robotics over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on human motion sensing and recognition in many emerging and active disciplines where human motions need to be automatically tracked, analyzed or understood, such as smart surveillance, intelligent human-computer interaction, robot motion learning, and interactive gaming. Current challenges mainly stem from the dynamic environment, data multi-modality, uncertain sensory information, and real-time issues. These techniques are shown to effectively address the ...

  9. Measurement and Quantification of Gross Human Shoulder Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy T. Newkirk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder girdle plays an important role in the large pointing workspace that humans enjoy. The goal of this work was to characterize the human shoulder girdle motion in relation to the arm. The overall motion of the human shoulder girdle was characterized based on motion studies completed on test subjects during voluntary (natural/unforced motion. The collected data from the experiments were used to develop surface fit equations that represent the position and orientation of the glenohumeral joint for a given humeral pointing direction. These equations completely quantify gross human shoulder girdle motion relative to the humerus. The equations are presented along with goodness-of-fit results that indicate the equations well approximate the motion of the human glenohumeral joint. This is the first time the motion has been quantified for the entire workspace, and the equations provide a reference against which to compare future work.

  10. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  11. Discriminative Vision-Based Recovery and Recognition of Human Motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of human motion from images opens up the way for applications in the domains of security and surveillance, human-computer interaction, animation, retrieval and sports motion analysis. In this dissertation, the focus is on robust and fast human pose recovery and action

  12. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2018-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  13. Coupled motions in human and porcine thoracic and lumbar spines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Idsart; Busscher, Iris; van der Veen, Albert J.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Homminga, Jasper; van Dieën, Jaap H.

    2017-01-01

    Coupled motions, i.e., motions along axes other than the loaded axis, have been reported to occur in the human spine, and are likely to be influenced by inclined local axes due to the sagittal plane spine curvature. Furthermore, the role of facet joints in such motions is as yet unclear. Therefore,

  14. Predicting articulated human motion from spatial processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2011-01-01

    recent work where prior models are derived in terms of joint angles. This approach has several advantages. First of all, it allows us to construct motion models in low dimensional spaces, which makes motion estimation more robust. Secondly, as many types of motion are easily expressed in spatial...

  15. Human motion retrieval from hand-drawn sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hung; Assa, Jackie; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of motion capture data increases the importance of motion retrieval. The majority of the existing motion retrieval approaches are based on a labor-intensive step in which the user browses and selects a desired query motion clip from the large motion clip database. In this work, a novel sketching interface for defining the query is presented. This simple approach allows users to define the required motion by sketching several motion strokes over a drawn character, which requires less effort and extends the users’ expressiveness. To support the real-time interface, a specialized encoding of the motions and the hand-drawn query is required. Here, we introduce a novel hierarchical encoding scheme based on a set of orthonormal spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions, which provides a compact representation, and avoids the CPU/processing intensive stage of temporal alignment used by previous solutions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can well retrieve the motions, and is capable of retrieve logically and numerically similar motions, which is superior to previous approaches. The user study shows that the proposed system can be a useful tool to input motion query if the users are familiar with it. Finally, an application of generating a 3D animation from a hand-drawn comics strip is demonstrated.

  16. [An Introduction to A Newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" Based on Optical Motion Capture Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Yan, Xing-Ke; Liu, An-Guo

    2016-12-25

    In the present paper, the authors introduce a newly-developed "Acupuncture Needle Manipulation Training-evaluation System" based on optical motion capture technique. It is composed of two parts, sensor and software, and overcomes some shortages of mechanical motion capture technique. This device is able to analyze the data of operations of the pressing-hand and needle-insertion hand during acupuncture performance and its software contains personal computer (PC) version, Android version, and Internetwork Operating System (IOS) Apple version. It is competent in recording and analyzing information of any ope-rator's needling manipulations, and is quite helpful for teachers in teaching, training and examining students in clinical practice.

  17. Evaluation of a portable markerless finger position capture device: accuracy of the Leap Motion controller in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, James Y; Lulic, Tea; Gonzalez, Dave A; Tran, Johnathan; Dickerson, Clark R; Roy, Eric A

    2015-05-01

    Although motion analysis is frequently employed in upper limb motor assessment (e.g. visually-guided reaching), they are resource-intensive and limited to laboratory settings. This study evaluated the reliability and accuracy of a new markerless motion capture device, the Leap Motion controller, to measure finger position. Testing conditions that influence reliability and agreement between the Leap and a research-grade motion capture system were examined. Nine healthy young adults pointed to 15 targets on a computer screen under two conditions: (1) touching the target (touch) and (2) 4 cm away from the target (no-touch). Leap data was compared to an Optotrak marker attached to the index finger. Across all trials, root mean square (RMS) error of the Leap system was 17.30  ±  9.56 mm (mean ± SD), sampled at 65.47  ±  21.53 Hz. The % viable trials and mean sampling rate were significantly lower in the touch condition (44% versus 64%, p motion capture systems, the Leap Motion controller is sufficiently reliable for measuring motor performance in pointing tasks that do not require high positional accuracy (e.g. reaction time, Fitt's, trails, bimanual coordination).

  18. Automatic Video-based Analysis of Human Motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben

    The human motion contains valuable information in many situations and people frequently perform an unconscious analysis of the motion of other people to understand their actions, intentions, and state of mind. An automatic analysis of human motion will facilitate many applications and thus has...... received great interest from both industry and research communities. The focus of this thesis is on video-based analysis of human motion and the thesis presents work within three overall topics, namely foreground segmentation, action recognition, and human pose estimation. Foreground segmentation is often...... the first important step in the analysis of human motion. By separating foreground from background the subsequent analysis can be focused and efficient. This thesis presents a robust background subtraction method that can be initialized with foreground objects in the scene and is capable of handling...

  19. Comment on 'Finding viscosity of liquids from Brownian motion at students' laboratory' and 'Brownian motion using video capture'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greczylo, Tomasz; Debowska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    The authors make comments and remarks on the papers by Salmon et al (2002 Eur. J. Phys. 23 249-53) and their own (2005 Eur. J. Phys. 26 827-33) concerning Brownian motion in two-dimensional space. New, corrected results of calculations and measurements for students' experiments on finding the viscosity of liquids from Brownian motion are presented. (letters and comments)

  20. 4D computed tomography scans for conformal thoracic treatment planning: is a single scan sufficient to capture thoracic tumor motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Wootton, Landon; Nyflot, Matthew; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Rengan, Ramesh; Bloch, Charles; Sandison, George; St. James, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans are routinely used in radiation therapy to determine the internal treatment volume for targets that are moving (e.g. lung tumors). The use of these studies has allowed clinicians to create target volumes based upon the motion of the tumor during the imaging study. The purpose of this work is to determine if a target volume based on a single 4DCT scan at simulation is sufficient to capture thoracic motion. Phantom studies were performed to determine expected differences between volumes contoured on 4DCT scans and those on the evaluation CT scans (slow scans). Evaluation CT scans acquired during treatment of 11 patients were compared to the 4DCT scans used for treatment planning. The images were assessed to determine if the target remained within the target volume determined during the first 4DCT scan. A total of 55 slow scans were compared to the 11 planning 4DCT scans. Small differences were observed in phantom between the 4DCT volumes and the slow scan volumes, with a maximum of 2.9%, that can be attributed to minor differences in contouring and the ability of the 4DCT scan to adequately capture motion at the apex and base of the motion trajectory. Larger differences were observed in the patients studied, up to a maximum volume difference of 33.4%. These results demonstrate that a single 4DCT scan is not adequate to capture all thoracic motion throughout treatment.

  1. Combining EEG, MIDI, and motion capture techniques for investigating musical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidhof, Clemens; Kästner, Torsten; Makkonen, Tommi

    2014-03-01

    This article describes a setup for the simultaneous recording of electrophysiological data (EEG), musical data (MIDI), and three-dimensional movement data. Previously, each of these three different kinds of measurements, conducted sequentially, has been proven to provide important information about different aspects of music performance as an example of a demanding multisensory motor skill. With the method described here, it is possible to record brain-related activity and movement data simultaneously, with accurate timing resolution and at relatively low costs. EEG and MIDI data were synchronized with a modified version of the FTAP software, sending synchronization signals to the EEG recording device simultaneously with keypress events. Similarly, a motion capture system sent synchronization signals simultaneously with each recorded frame. The setup can be used for studies investigating cognitive and motor processes during music performance and music-like tasks--for example, in the domains of motor control, learning, music therapy, or musical emotions. Thus, this setup offers a promising possibility of a more behaviorally driven analysis of brain activity.

  2. Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Thomas; Albrecht, Anne-Susann; de Melo Costa, Veronica Rodrigues; Sauer, Sascha; Meierhofer, David; Ørom, Ulf Andersson

    2016-04-04

    Novel RNA-guided cellular functions are paralleled by an increasing number of RNA-binding proteins (RBPs). Here we present 'serial RNA interactome capture' (serIC), a multiple purification procedure of ultraviolet-crosslinked poly(A)-RNA-protein complexes that enables global RBP detection with high specificity. We apply serIC to the nuclei of proliferating K562 cells to obtain the first human nuclear RNA interactome. The domain composition of the 382 identified nuclear RBPs markedly differs from previous IC experiments, including few factors without known RNA-binding domains that are in good agreement with computationally predicted RNA binding. serIC extends the number of DNA-RNA-binding proteins (DRBPs), and reveals a network of RBPs involved in p53 signalling and double-strand break repair. serIC is an effective tool to couple global RBP capture with additional selection or labelling steps for specific detection of highly purified RBPs.

  3. Power estimation of martial arts movement with different physical, mood, and behavior using motion capture camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awang Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Azraai, Nur Zaidi

    2017-07-01

    In Malay world, there is a spirit traditional ritual where they use it as healing practices or for normal life. Malay martial arts (silat) also is not exceptional where some branch of silat have spirit traditional ritual where they said can help them in combat. In this paper, we will not use any ritual, instead we will use some medicinal and environment change when they are performing. There will be 2 performers (fighter) selected, one of them have an experience in martial arts training and another performer does not have experience. Motion Capture (MOCAP) camera will help observe and analyze this move. 8 cameras have been placed in the MOCAP room 2 on each side of the wall facing toward the center of the room from every angle. This will help prevent the loss detection of a marker that been stamped on the limb of a performer. Passive marker has been used where it will reflect the infrared to the camera sensor. Infrared is generated by the source around the camera lens. A 60 kg punching bag was hung on the iron bar function as the target for the performer when throws a punch. Markers also have been stamped on the punching bag so we can detect the movement how far can it swing when hit by the performer. 2 performers will perform 2 moves each with the same position and posture. For every 2 moves, we have made the environment change without the performer notice about it. The first 2 punch with normal environment, second part we have played a positive music to change the performer's mood and third part we have put a medicine (cream/oil) on the skin of the performer. This medicine will make the skin feel a little bit hot. This process repeated to another performer with no experience. The position of this marker analyzed by the Cortex Motion Analysis software where from this data, we can estimate the kinetics and kinematics of the performer. It shows that the increase of kinetics for every part because of the change in the environment, and different result for the 2

  4. Development of a universal measure of quadrupedal forelimb-hindlimb coordination using digital motion capture and computerised analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery Nick D

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical spinal cord injury in domestic dogs provides a model population in which to test the efficacy of putative therapeutic interventions for human spinal cord injury. To achieve this potential a robust method of functional analysis is required so that statistical comparison of numerical data derived from treated and control animals can be achieved. Results In this study we describe the use of digital motion capture equipment combined with mathematical analysis to derive a simple quantitative parameter – 'the mean diagonal coupling interval' – to describe coordination between forelimb and hindlimb movement. In normal dogs this parameter is independent of size, conformation, speed of walking or gait pattern. We show here that mean diagonal coupling interval is highly sensitive to alterations in forelimb-hindlimb coordination in dogs that have suffered spinal cord injury, and can be accurately quantified, but is unaffected by orthopaedic perturbations of gait. Conclusion Mean diagonal coupling interval is an easily derived, highly robust measurement that provides an ideal method to compare the functional effect of therapeutic interventions after spinal cord injury in quadrupeds.

  5. Sybar, a human motion analysis system for rehabilition medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautus, E.H.

    1997-01-01

    The Sybar project is a designer's Ph.D project that deals with the development of a motion-analysis system for rehabilitation medicine, at the VU Hospital in Amsterdam. Human motion can be analyzed by biomechanical measurement systems. There are a number of different methods to generate several

  6. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  7. Multi-level human motion analysis for surveillance applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, W.; Han, Jungong; With, de P.H.N.; Rabbani, M.; Stevenson, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study a flexible framework for semantic analysis of human motion from a monocular surveillance video. Successful trajectory estimation and human-body modeling facilitate the semantic analysis of human activities in video sequences. As a first contribution, we propose a flexible

  8. Biodynamics of deformable human body motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, A. M.; Huston, R. L.

    1976-01-01

    The objective is to construct a framework wherein the various models of human biomaterials fit in order to describe the biodynamic response of the human body. The behavior of the human body in various situations, from low frequency, low amplitude vibrations to impact loadings in automobile and aircraft crashes, is very complicated with respect to all aspects of the problem: materials, geometry and dynamics. The materials problem is the primary concern, but the materials problem is intimately connected with geometry and dynamics.

  9. Three-dimensional quantification of cardiac surface motion: a newly developed three-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system for beating heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshiki; Omata, Sadao; Odamura, Motoki; Okada, Masahumi; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate our newly developed 3-dimensional digital motion-capture and reconstruction system in an animal experiment setting and to characterize quantitatively the three regional cardiac surface motions, in the left anterior descending artery, right coronary artery, and left circumflex artery, before and after stabilization using a stabilizer. Six pigs underwent a full sternotomy. Three tiny metallic markers (diameter 2 mm) coated with a reflective material were attached on three regional cardiac surfaces (left anterior descending, right coronary, and left circumflex coronary artery regions). These markers were captured by two high-speed digital video cameras (955 frames per second) as 2-dimensional coordinates and reconstructed to 3-dimensional data points (about 480 xyz-position data per second) by a newly developed computer program. The remaining motion after stabilization ranged from 0.4 to 1.01 mm at the left anterior descending, 0.91 to 1.52 mm at the right coronary artery, and 0.53 to 1.14 mm at the left circumflex regions. Significant differences before and after stabilization were evaluated in maximum moving velocity (left anterior descending 456.7 +/- 178.7 vs 306.5 +/- 207.4 mm/s; right coronary artery 574.9 +/- 161.7 vs 446.9 +/- 170.7 mm/s; left circumflex 578.7 +/- 226.7 vs 398.9 +/- 192.6 mm/s; P heart surface movement. This helps us better understand the complexity of the heart, its motion, and the need for developing a better stabilizer for beating heart surgery.

  10. Vision-based human motion analysis: An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poppe, Ronald Walter

    2007-01-01

    Markerless vision-based human motion analysis has the potential to provide an inexpensive, non-obtrusive solution for the estimation of body poses. The significant research effort in this domain has been motivated by the fact that many application areas, including surveillance, Human-Computer

  11. Human motion estimation with multiple frequency modulated continuous wave radars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dorp, P.; Groen, F.C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Human motion estimation is an important issue in automotive, security or home automation applications. Radar systems are well suited for this because they are robust, are independent of day or night conditions and have accurate range and speed domain. The human response in a radar range-speed-time

  12. Dangerous Animals Capture and Maintain Attention in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Yorzinski

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions. We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors. We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans.

  13. Dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Penkunas, Michael J; Platt, Michael L; Coss, Richard G

    2014-05-28

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous animals (distractors) as well as detected images of a nondangerous animal (target) among arrays of dangerous animals (distractors). We found that participants were quicker to locate targets when the targets were dangerous animals compared with nondangerous animals, even when spatial frequency and luminance were controlled. The participants were slower to locate nondangerous targets because they spent more time looking at dangerous distractors, a process known as delayed disengagement, and looked at a larger number of dangerous distractors. These results indicate that dangerous animals capture and maintain attention in humans, suggesting that historical predation has shaped some facets of visual orienting and its underlying neural architecture in modern humans.

  14. An adaptive approach to human motion tracking from video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lifang; Chen, Chang Wen

    2010-07-01

    Vision based human motion tracking has drawn considerable interests recently because of its extensive applications. In this paper, we propose an approach to tracking the body motion of human balancing on each foot. The ability to balance properly is an important indication of neurological condition. Comparing with many other human motion tracking, there is much less occlusion in human balancing tracking. This less constrained problem allows us to combine a 2D model of human body with image analysis techniques to develop an efficient motion tracking algorithm. First we define a hierarchical 2D model consisting of six components including head, body and four limbs. Each of the four limbs involves primary component (upper arms and legs) and secondary component (lower arms and legs) respectively. In this model, we assume each of the components can be represented by quadrangles and every component is connected to one of others by a joint. By making use of inherent correlation between different components, we design a top-down updating framework and an adaptive algorithm with constraints of foreground regions for robust and efficient tracking. The approach has been tested using the balancing movement in HumanEva-I/II dataset. The average tracking time is under one second, which is much shorter than most of current schemes.

  15. Utilizing Commercial Hardware and Open Source Computer Vision Software to Perform Motion Capture for Reduced Gravity Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the

  16. Capturing complex human behaviors in representative sports contexts with a single camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Ricardo; Araújo, Duarte; Fernandes, Orlando; Fonseca, Cristina; Correia, Vanda; Gazimba, Vítor; Travassos, Bruno; Esteves, Pedro; Vilar, Luís; Lopes, José

    2010-01-01

    In the last years, several motion analysis methods have been developed without considering representative contexts for sports performance. The purpose of this paper was to explain and underscore a straightforward method to measure human behavior in these contexts. Procedures combining manual video tracking (with TACTO device) and bidimensional reconstruction (through direct linear transformation) using a single camera were used in order to capture kinematic data required to compute collective variable(s) and control parameter(s). These procedures were applied to a 1vs1 association football task as an illustrative subphase of team sports and will be presented in a tutorial fashion. Preliminary analysis of distance and velocity data identified a collective variable (difference between the distance of the attacker and the defender to a target defensive area) and two nested control parameters (interpersonal distance and relative velocity). Findings demonstrated that the complementary use of TACTO software and direct linear transformation permit to capture and reconstruct complex human actions in their context in a low dimensional space (information reduction).

  17. A study on validating KinectV2 in comparison of Vicon system as a motion capture system for using in Health Engineering in industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebeli, Mahvash; Bilesan, Alireza; Arshi, Ahmadreza

    2017-06-01

    The currently available commercial motion capture systems are constrained by space requirement and thus pose difficulties when used in developing kinematic description of human movements within the existing manufacturing and production cells. The Kinect sensor does not share similar limitations but it is not as accurate. The proposition made in this article is to adopt the Kinect sensor in to facilitate implementation of Health Engineering concepts to industrial environments. This article is an evaluation of the Kinect sensor accuracy when providing three dimensional kinematic data. The sensor is thus utilized to assist in modeling and simulation of worker performance within an industrial cell. For this purpose, Kinect 3D data was compared to that of Vicon motion capture system in a gait analysis laboratory. Results indicated that the Kinect sensor exhibited a coefficient of determination of 0.9996 on the depth axis and 0.9849 along the horizontal axis and 0.2767 on vertical axis. The results prove the competency of the Kinect sensor to be used in the industrial environments.

  18. Visual gravitational motion and the vestibular system in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eLacquaniti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual system is poorly sensitive to arbitrary accelerations, but accurately detects the effects of gravity on a target motion. Here we review behavioral and neuroimaging data about the neural mechanisms for dealing with object motion and egomotion under gravity. The results from several experiments show that the visual estimates of a target motion under gravity depend on the combination of a prior of gravity effects with on-line visual signals on target position and velocity. These estimates are affected by vestibular inputs, and are encoded in a visual-vestibular network whose core regions lie within or around the Sylvian fissure, and are represented by the posterior insula/retroinsula/temporo-parietal junction. This network responds both to target motions coherent with gravity and to vestibular caloric stimulation in human fMRI studies. Transient inactivation of the temporo-parietal junction selectively disrupts the interception of targets accelerated by gravity.

  19. Visual gravitational motion and the vestibular system in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Moscatelli, Alessandro; Zago, Myrka

    2013-12-26

    The visual system is poorly sensitive to arbitrary accelerations, but accurately detects the effects of gravity on a target motion. Here we review behavioral and neuroimaging data about the neural mechanisms for dealing with object motion and egomotion under gravity. The results from several experiments show that the visual estimates of a target motion under gravity depend on the combination of a prior of gravity effects with on-line visual signals on target position and velocity. These estimates are affected by vestibular inputs, and are encoded in a visual-vestibular network whose core regions lie within or around the Sylvian fissure, and are represented by the posterior insula/retroinsula/temporo-parietal junction. This network responds both to target motions coherent with gravity and to vestibular caloric stimulation in human fMRI studies. Transient inactivation of the temporo-parietal junction selectively disrupts the interception of targets accelerated by gravity.

  20. Using Fuzzy Gaussian Inference and Genetic Programming to Classify 3D Human Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Mehdi; Liu, Honghai

    This research introduces and builds on the concept of Fuzzy Gaussian Inference (FGI) (Khoury and Liu in Proceedings of UKCI, 2008 and IEEE Workshop on Robotic Intelligence in Informationally Structured Space (RiiSS 2009), 2009) as a novel way to build Fuzzy Membership Functions that map to hidden Probability Distributions underlying human motions. This method is now combined with a Genetic Programming Fuzzy rule-based system in order to classify boxing moves from natural human Motion Capture data. In this experiment, FGI alone is able to recognise seven different boxing stances simultaneously with an accuracy superior to a GMM-based classifier. Results seem to indicate that adding an evolutionary Fuzzy Inference Engine on top of FGI improves the accuracy of the classifier in a consistent way.

  1. Benchmarking Close-range Structure from Motion 3D Reconstruction Software under Varying Capturing Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Ivan Adriyanov; Madsen, Claus B.

    2016-01-01

    Structure from Motion 3D reconstruction has become widely used in recent years in a number of fields such as industrial surface in- inspection, archeology, cultural heritage preservation and geomapping. A number of software solutions have been released using variations of this technique. In this ......Structure from Motion 3D reconstruction has become widely used in recent years in a number of fields such as industrial surface in- inspection, archeology, cultural heritage preservation and geomapping. A number of software solutions have been released using variations of this technique...

  2. A Self-Powered Insole for Human Motion Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhou Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biomechanical energy harvesting is a feasible solution for powering wearable sensors by directly driving electronics or acting as wearable self-powered sensors. A wearable insole that not only can harvest energy from foot pressure during walking but also can serve as a self-powered human motion recognition sensor is reported. The insole is designed as a sandwich structure consisting of two wavy silica gel film separated by a flexible piezoelectric foil stave, which has higher performance compared with conventional piezoelectric harvesters with cantilever structure. The energy harvesting insole is capable of driving some common electronics by scavenging energy from human walking. Moreover, it can be used to recognize human motion as the waveforms it generates change when people are in different locomotion modes. It is demonstrated that different types of human motion such as walking and running are clearly classified by the insole without any external power source. This work not only expands the applications of piezoelectric energy harvesters for wearable power supplies and self-powered sensors, but also provides possible approaches for wearable self-powered human motion monitoring that is of great importance in many fields such as rehabilitation and sports science.

  3. Comparison of 3D Joint Angles Measured With the Kinect 2.0 Skeletal Tracker Versus a Marker-Based Motion Capture System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Trent M; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Amirhossein; Skubic, Marjorie; Huo, Zhiyu

    2017-04-01

    The Microsoft Kinect is becoming a widely used tool for inexpensive, portable measurement of human motion, with the potential to support clinical assessments of performance and function. In this study, the relative osteokinematic Cardan joint angles of the hip and knee were calculated using the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker. The pelvis segments of the default skeletal model were reoriented and 3-dimensional joint angles were compared with a marker-based system during a drop vertical jump and a hip abduction motion. Good agreement between the Kinect and marker-based system were found for knee (correlation coefficient = 0.96, cycle RMS error = 11°, peak flexion difference = 3°) and hip (correlation coefficient = 0.97, cycle RMS = 12°, peak flexion difference = 12°) flexion during the landing phase of the drop vertical jump and for hip abduction/adduction (correlation coefficient = 0.99, cycle RMS error = 7°, peak flexion difference = 8°) during isolated hip motion. Nonsagittal hip and knee angles did not correlate well for the drop vertical jump. When limited to activities in the optimal capture volume and with simple modifications to the skeletal model, the Kinect 2.0 skeletal tracker can provide limited 3-dimensional kinematic information of the lower limbs that may be useful for functional movement assessment.

  4. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    -human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab...

  5. Using Human Motion Intensity as Input for Urban Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Gade, Rikke

    2012-01-01

    of a town square, human occupancy and motion intensities are used to generate situated or topologies presenting new adaptive methods for urban design. These methods incorporate local or as design drivers for canopy, pavement and furniture layout. The urban design solution may be congured due to various...

  6. Assessment of congruence and impingement of the hip joint in professional ballet dancers: a motion capture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnier, Caecilia; Kolo, Frank C; Duthon, Victoria B; Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia; Becker, Christoph D; Hoffmeyer, Pierre; Menetrey, Jacques

    2011-03-01

    Early hip osteoarthritis in dancers could be explained by femoroacetabular impingements. However, there is a lack of validated noninvasive methods and dynamic studies to ascertain impingement during motion. Moreover, it is unknown whether the femoral head and acetabulum are congruent in typical dancing positions. The practice of some dancing movements could cause a loss of hip joint congruence and recurrent impingements, which could lead to early osteoarthritis. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven pairs of female dancer's hips were motion captured with an optical tracking system while performing 6 different dancing movements. The resulting computed motions were applied to patient-specific hip joint 3-dimensional models based on magnetic resonance images. While visualizing the dancer's hip in motion, the authors detected impingements using computer-assisted techniques. The range of motion and congruence of the hip joint were also quantified in those 6 recorded dancing movements. The frequency of impingement and subluxation varied with the type of movement. Four dancing movements (développé à la seconde, grand écart facial, grand écart latéral, and grand plié) seem to induce significant stress in the hip joint, according to the observed high frequency of impingement and amount of subluxation. The femoroacetabular translations were high (range, 0.93 to 6.35 mm). For almost all movements, the computed zones of impingement were mainly located in the superior or posterosuperior quadrant of the acetabulum, which was relevant with respect to radiologically diagnosed damaged zones in the labrum. All dancers' hips were morphologically normal. Impingements and subluxations are frequently observed in typical ballet movements, causing cartilage hypercompression. These movements should be limited in frequency. The present study indicates that some dancing movements could damage the hip joint, which could lead to early osteoarthritis.

  7. On the correlation between motion data captured from low-cost gaming controllers and high precision encoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkayastha, Sagar N; Byrne, Michael D; O'Malley, Marcia K

    2012-01-01

    Gaming controllers are attractive devices for research due to their onboard sensing capabilities and low-cost. However, a proper quantitative analysis regarding their suitability for use in motion capture, rehabilitation and as input devices for teleoperation and gesture recognition has yet to be conducted. In this paper, a detailed analysis of the sensors of two of these controllers, the Nintendo Wiimote and the Sony Playstation 3 Sixaxis, is presented. The acceleration and angular velocity data from the sensors of these controllers were compared and correlated with computed acceleration and angular velocity data derived from a high resolution encoder. The results show high correlation between the sensor data from the controllers and the computed data derived from the position data of the encoder. From these results, it can be inferred that the Wiimote is more consistent and better suited for motion capture applications and as an input device than the Sixaxis. The applications of the findings are discussed with respect to potential research ventures.

  8. Coupled motions direct electrons along human microsomal P450 Chains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R Pudney

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein domain motion is often implicated in biological electron transfer, but the general significance of motion is not clear. Motion has been implicated in the transfer of electrons from human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR to all microsomal cytochrome P450s (CYPs. Our hypothesis is that tight coupling of motion with enzyme chemistry can signal "ready and waiting" states for electron transfer from CPR to downstream CYPs and support vectorial electron transfer across complex redox chains. We developed a novel approach to study the time-dependence of dynamical change during catalysis that reports on the changing conformational states of CPR. FRET was linked to stopped-flow studies of electron transfer in CPR that contains donor-acceptor fluorophores on the enzyme surface. Open and closed states of CPR were correlated with key steps in the catalytic cycle which demonstrated how redox chemistry and NADPH binding drive successive opening and closing of the enzyme. Specifically, we provide evidence that reduction of the flavin moieties in CPR induces CPR opening, whereas ligand binding induces CPR closing. A dynamic reaction cycle was created in which CPR optimizes internal electron transfer between flavin cofactors by adopting closed states and signals "ready and waiting" conformations to partner CYP enzymes by adopting more open states. This complex, temporal control of enzyme motion is used to catalyze directional electron transfer from NADPH→FAD→FMN→heme, thereby facilitating all microsomal P450-catalysed reactions. Motions critical to the broader biological functions of CPR are tightly coupled to enzyme chemistry in the human NADPH-CPR-CYP redox chain. That redox chemistry alone is sufficient to drive functionally necessary, large-scale conformational change is remarkable. Rather than relying on stochastic conformational sampling, our study highlights a need for tight coupling of motion to enzyme chemistry to give vectorial electron

  9. Time-frequency analysis of human motion during rhythmic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omkar, S N; Vyas, Khushi; Vikranth, H N

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical signals due to human movements during exercise are represented in time-frequency domain using Wigner Distribution Function (WDF). Analysis based on WDF reveals instantaneous spectral and power changes during a rhythmic exercise. Investigations were carried out on 11 healthy subjects who performed 5 cycles of sun salutation, with a body-mounted Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) as a motion sensor. Variance of Instantaneous Frequency (I.F) and Instantaneous Power (I.P) for performance analysis of the subject is estimated using one-way ANOVA model. Results reveal that joint Time-Frequency analysis of biomechanical signals during motion facilitates a better understanding of grace and consistency during rhythmic exercise.

  10. An Exoskeleton Robot for Human Forearm and Wrist Motion Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunga Arachchilage Ruwan Chandra Gopura; Kiguchi, Kazuo

    The exoskeleton robot is worn by the human operator as an orthotic device. Its joints and links correspond to those of the human body. The same system operated in different modes can be used for different fundamental applications; a human-amplifier, haptic interface, rehabilitation device and assistive device sharing a portion of the external load with the operator. We have been developing exoskeleton robots for assisting the motion of physically weak individuals such as elderly or slightly disabled in daily life. In this paper, we propose a three degree of freedom (3DOF) exoskeleton robot (W-EXOS) for the forearm pronation/ supination motion, wrist flexion/extension motion and ulnar/radial deviation. The paper describes the wrist anatomy toward the development of the exoskeleton robot, the hardware design of the exoskeleton robot and EMG-based control method. The skin surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of muscles in forearm of the exoskeletons' user and the hand force/forearm torque are used as input information for the controller. By applying the skin surface EMG signals as main input signals to the controller, automatic control of the robot can be realized without manipulating any other equipment. Fuzzy control method has been applied to realize the natural and flexible motion assist. Experiments have been performed to evaluate the proposed exoskeleton robot and its control method.

  11. Representation of visual gravitational motion in the human vestibular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Iole; Maffei, Vincenzo; Bosco, Gianfranco; Zago, Myrka; Macaluso, Emiliano; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2005-04-15

    How do we perceive the visual motion of objects that are accelerated by gravity? We propose that, because vision is poorly sensitive to accelerations, an internal model that calculates the effects of gravity is derived from graviceptive information, is stored in the vestibular cortex, and is activated by visual motion that appears to be coherent with natural gravity. The acceleration of visual targets was manipulated while brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. In agreement with the internal model hypothesis, we found that the vestibular network was selectively engaged when acceleration was consistent with natural gravity. These findings demonstrate that predictive mechanisms of physical laws of motion are represented in the human brain.

  12. New human-centered linear and nonlinear motion cueing algorithms for control of simulator motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telban, Robert J.

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input

  13. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jin

    Full Text Available Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3% of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.

  14. Human detection and motion analysis at security points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, I. Burak; Lv, Tiehan; Wolf, Wayne H.

    2003-08-01

    This paper presents a real-time video surveillance system for the recognition of specific human activities. Specifically, the proposed automatic motion analysis is used as an on-line alarm system to detect abnormal situations in a campus environment. A smart multi-camera system developed at Princeton University is extended for use in smart environments in which the camera detects the presence of multiple persons as well as their gestures and their interaction in real-time.

  15. Predictive error detection in pianists: A combined ERP and motion capture study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens eMaidhof

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Performing a piece of music involves the interplay of several cognitive and motor processes and requires extensive training to achieve a high skill level. However, even professional musicians commit errors occasionally. Previous event-related potential (ERP studies have investigated the neurophysiological correlates of pitch errors during piano performance, and reported pre-error negativity already occurring approximately 70-100 ms before the error had been committed and audible. It was assumed that this pre-error negativity reflects predictive control processes that compare predicted consequences with actual consequences of one’s own actions. However, in previous investigations, correct and incorrect pitch events were confounded by their different tempi. In addition, no data about the underlying movements were available. In the present study, we exploratively recorded the ERPs and 3D movement data of pianists’ fingers simultaneously while they performed fingering exercises from memory. Results showed a pre-error negativity for incorrect keystrokes when both correct and incorrect keystrokes were performed with comparable tempi. Interestingly, even correct notes immediately preceding erroneous keystrokes elicited a very similar negativity. In addition, we explored the possibility of computing ERPs time-locked to a kinematic landmark in the finger motion trajectories defined by when a finger makes initial contact with the key surface, that is, at the onset of tactile feedback. Results suggest that incorrect notes elicited a small difference after the onset of tactile feedback, whereas correct notes preceding incorrect ones elicited negativity before the onset of tactile feedback. The results tentatively suggest that tactile feedback plays an important role in error-monitoring during piano performance, because the comparison between predicted and actual sensory (tactile feedback may provide the information necessary for the detection of an

  16. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Momoko; Maeda, Yasuhiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kishimoto, Taishiro

    2017-01-01

    There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smart-phone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years) participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness-eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P sleep state ( R 2 =0.27, P sleep efficiency ( R 2 =0.35, P sleep latency ( R 2 =0.38, P smartphone viewing distances in lying position correlated negatively with subjective sleep status. Therefore, when recommending ideal smartphone use in lying position, one should take into account the viewing distances.

  17. Slippiń and Slidiń: Capturing the Earth in Motion below the Seafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, M.

    2017-12-01

    Since the beginning of ocean drilling, sampling and dating seismically imaged tectono-stratigraphic sections and recovering rocks from active faults of marine plate-boundary systems has advanced our understanding of subduction zone structures and evolution. It further evidenced the dynamic nature of deformation, fluid flow and fluxes within such systems. With the advancement in developing borehole observatories, monitoring data is increasingly becoming available to analyze and quantify the dynamic processes, such as those leading to and resulting from earthquakes, slides and tsunamis. Combined with knowledge gained from seismological studies, IODP drilling efforts at Costa Rica, Hikurangi, Japan Trench, Nankai and Sumatra margins contribute invaluable observatory data and core samples, the analyses and derived research results of which are fundamentally changing the way fault slip behavior, seafloor instability and tsunamigenesis are understood. Short instrumental records, however, limit our perspective of maximum magnitude and recurrence of such submarine geohazard processes. Examining past events expressed as sedimentary or geochemical perturbations preserved in the marine record provides IODP the key to address this challenge: Recent efforts included sampling mass-transport deposits to study causes and consequences of submarine slides. For the Nankai accretionary margin, we documented the submarine landslide history spanning ˜2.5 million years. The modes and scales of slides were linked to the different morphotectonic settings in which they occurred. The timing of major slides hints at climate preconditioning for sediment instability and reveals that margin destabilization does not occur systematically during all megathrust earthquakes. However, new observation after recent earthquakes and studies using lakes as model basins discovered a new mode of dynamic earthquake ground motion response for surficial (<5-10 cm) seafloor sediments. This can trigger

  18. Smartphone viewing distance and sleep: an experimental study utilizing motion capture technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimura M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Yoshimura,1,* Momoko Kitazawa,1–3,* Yasuhiro Maeda,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Kazuo Tsubota,1 Taishiro Kishimoto,4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, Wako, Saitama, 3Department of Nursing, Aino University Junior College, 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: There are studies reporting the negative impact of smartphone utilization on sleep. It is considered that reduction of melatonin secretion under the blue light exposure from smartphone displays is one of the causes. The viewing distance may cause sleep disturbance, because the viewing distance determines the screen illuminance and/or asthenopia. However, to date, there has been no study closely investigating the impact of viewing distance on sleep; therefore, we sought to determine the relationship between smartphone viewing distance and subjective sleep status. Twenty-three nursing students (mean age ± standard deviation of 19.7±3.1 years participated in the study. Subjective sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, morningness–eveningness questionnaire, and the Epworth sleepiness scale. We used the distance between the head and the hand while holding a smartphone to measure the viewing distance while using smartphones in sitting and lying positions. The distance was calculated using the three-dimensional coordinates obtained by a noncontact motion-sensing device. The viewing distance of smartphones in the sitting position ranged from 13.3 to 32.9 cm among participants. In the lying position, it ranged from 9.9 to 21.3cm. The viewing distance was longer in the sitting position than in the lying position (mean ± standard deviation: 20.3±4.7 vs 16.4±2.7, respectively, P<0.01. We found that the short viewing

  19. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  20. Adaptive Human aware Navigation based on Motion Pattern Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Søren; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Respecting people’s social spaces is an important prerequisite for acceptable and natural robot navigation in human environments. In this paper, we describe an adaptive system for mobile robot navigation based on estimates of whether a person seeks to interact with the robot or not. The estimates...... are based on run-time motion pattern analysis compared to stored experience in a database. Using a potential field centered around the person, the robot positions itself at the most appropriate place relative to the person and the interaction status. The system is validated through qualitative tests...

  1. Computer simulation of human motion in sports biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, C L

    1984-01-01

    This chapter has covered some important aspects of the computer simulation of human motion in sports biomechanics. First the definition and the advantages and limitations of computer simulation were discussed; second, research on various sporting activities were reviewed. These activities included basic movements, aquatic sports, track and field athletics, winter sports, gymnastics, and striking sports. This list was not exhaustive and certain material has, of necessity, been omitted. However, it was felt that a sufficiently broad and interesting range of activities was chosen to illustrate both the advantages and the pitfalls of simulation. It is almost a decade since Miller [53] wrote a review chapter similar to this one. One might be tempted to say that things have changed radically since then--that computer simulation is now a widely accepted and readily applied research tool in sports biomechanics. This is simply not true, however. Biomechanics researchers still tend to emphasize the descriptive type of study, often unfortunately, when a little theoretical explanation would have been more helpful [29]. What will the next decade bring? Of one thing we can be certain: The power of computers, particularly the readily accessible and portable microcomputer, will expand beyond all recognition. The memory and storage capacities will increase dramatically on the hardware side, and on the software side the trend will be toward "user-friendliness." It is likely that a number of software simulation packages designed specifically for studying human motion [31, 96] will be extensively tested and could gain wide acceptance in the biomechanics research community. Nevertheless, a familiarity with Newtonian and Lagrangian mechanics, optimization theory, and computers in general, as well as practical biomechanical insight, will still be a prerequisite for successful simulation models of human motion. Above all, the biomechanics researcher will still have to bear in mind that

  2. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Könik, Arda; Johnson, Karen L; Dasari, Paul; Pretorius, P H; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A; Connolly, Caitlin M; Segars, Paul W; Lindsay, Clifford

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  3. Digital anthropomorphic phantoms of non-rigid human respiratory and voluntary body motion for investigating motion correction in emission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könik, Arda; Connolly, Caitlin M.; Johnson, Karen L.; Dasari, Paul; Segars, Paul W.; Pretorius, P. H.; Lindsay, Clifford; Dey, Joyoni; King, Michael A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of methods for correcting patient motion in emission tomography has been receiving increased attention. Often the performance of these methods is evaluated through simulations using digital anthropomorphic phantoms, such as the commonly used extended cardiac torso (XCAT) phantom, which models both respiratory and cardiac motion based on human studies. However, non-rigid body motion, which is frequently seen in clinical studies, is not present in the standard XCAT phantom. In addition, respiratory motion in the standard phantom is limited to a single generic trend. In this work, to obtain a more realistic representation of motion, we developed a series of individual-specific XCAT phantoms, modeling non-rigid respiratory and non-rigid body motions derived from the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisitions of volunteers. Acquisitions were performed in the sagittal orientation using the Navigator methodology. Baseline (no motion) acquisitions at end-expiration were obtained at the beginning of each imaging session for each volunteer. For the body motion studies, MRI was again acquired only at end-expiration for five body motion poses (shoulder stretch, shoulder twist, lateral bend, side roll, and axial slide). For the respiratory motion studies, an MRI was acquired during free/regular breathing. The magnetic resonance slices were then retrospectively sorted into 14 amplitude-binned respiratory states, end-expiration, end-inspiration, six intermediary states during inspiration, and six during expiration using the recorded Navigator signal. XCAT phantoms were then generated based on these MRI data by interactive alignment of the organ contours of the XCAT with the MRI slices using a graphical user interface. Thus far we have created five body motion and five respiratory motion XCAT phantoms from the MRI acquisitions of six healthy volunteers (three males and three females). Non-rigid motion exhibited by the volunteers was reflected in both respiratory

  4. Extract the Relational Information of Static Features and Motion Features for Human Activities Recognition in Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both static features and motion features have shown promising performance in human activities recognition task. However, the information included in these features is insufficient for complex human activities. In this paper, we propose extracting relational information of static features and motion features for human activities recognition. The videos are represented by a classical Bag-of-Word (BoW model which is useful in many works. To get a compact and discriminative codebook with small dimension, we employ the divisive algorithm based on KL-divergence to reconstruct the codebook. After that, to further capture strong relational information, we construct a bipartite graph to model the relationship between words of different feature set. Then we use a k-way partition to create a new codebook in which similar words are getting together. With this new codebook, videos can be represented by a new BoW vector with strong relational information. Moreover, we propose a method to compute new clusters from the divisive algorithm’s projective function. We test our work on the several datasets and obtain very promising results.

  5. Self-Organizing Neural Integration of Pose-Motion Features for Human Action Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Ignacio Parisi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The visual recognition of complex, articulated human movements is fundamental for a wide range of artificial systems oriented towards human-robot communication, action classification, and action-driven perception. These challenging tasks may generally involve the processing of a huge amount of visual information and learning-based mechanisms for generalizing a set of training actions and classifying new samples. To operate in natural environments, a crucial property is the efficient and robust recognition of actions, also under noisy conditions caused by, for instance, systematic sensor errors and temporarily occluded persons. Studies of the mammalian visual system and its outperforming ability to process biological motion information suggest separate neural pathways for the distinct processing of pose and motion features at multiple levels and the subsequent integration of these visual cues for action perception. We present a neurobiologically-motivated approach to achieve noise-tolerant action recognition in real time. Our model consists of self-organizing Growing When Required (GWR networks that obtain progressively generalized representations of sensory inputs and learn inherent spatiotemporal dependencies. During the training, the GWR networks dynamically change their topological structure to better match the input space. We first extract pose and motion features from video sequences and then cluster actions in terms of prototypical pose-motion trajectories. Multi-cue trajectories from matching action frames are subsequently combined to provide action dynamics in the joint feature space. Reported experiments show that our approach outperforms previous results on a dataset of full-body actions captured with a depth sensor, and ranks among the best 21 results for a public benchmark of domestic daily actions.

  6. A new method for automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D motion captured images (4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, T; Khambay, B; Peng, M J; O'Leary, E; Ju, X; Ayoub, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the automatic tracking of facial landmarks in 3D image sequences. 32 subjects (16 males and 16 females) aged 18-35 years were recruited. 23 anthropometric landmarks were marked on the face of each subject with non-permanent ink using a 0.5mm pen. The subjects were asked to perform three facial animations (maximal smile, lip purse and cheek puff) from rest position. Each animation was captured by the 3D imaging system. A single operator manually digitised the landmarks on the 3D facial models and their locations were compared with those of the automatically tracked ones. To investigate the accuracy of manual digitisation, the operator re-digitised the same set of 3D images of 10 subjects (5 male and 5 female) at 1 month interval. The discrepancies in x, y and z coordinates between the 3D position of the manual digitised landmarks and that of the automatic tracked facial landmarks were within 0.17mm. The mean distance between the manually digitised and the automatically tracked landmarks using the tracking software was within 0.55 mm. The automatic tracking of facial landmarks demonstrated satisfactory accuracy which would facilitate the analysis of the dynamic motion during facial animations. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion Learning Based on Bayesian Program Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Meng-Zhen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of virtual human has been highly anticipated since the 1980s. By using computer technology, Human motion simulation could generate authentic visual effect, which could cheat human eyes visually. Bayesian Program Learning train one or few motion data, generate new motion data by decomposing and combining. And the generated motion will be more realistic and natural than the traditional one.In this paper, Motion learning based on Bayesian program learning allows us to quickly generate new motion data, reduce workload, improve work efficiency, reduce the cost of motion capture, and improve the reusability of data.

  8. Dangerous Animals Capture and Maintain Attention in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica L. Yorzinski; Michael J. Penkunas; Michael L. Platt; Richard G. Coss

    2014-01-01

    Predation is a major source of natural selection on primates and may have shaped attentional processes that allow primates to rapidly detect dangerous animals. Because ancestral humans were subjected to predation, a process that continues at very low frequencies, we examined the visual processes by which men and women detect dangerous animals (snakes and lions). We recorded the eye movements of participants as they detected images of a dangerous animal (target) among arrays of nondangerous an...

  9. Electrical Properties of PPy-Coated Conductive Fabrics for Human Joint Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyong Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Body motion signals indicate several pathological features of the human body, and a wearable human motion monitoring system can respond to human joint motion signal in real time, thereby enabling the prevention and treatment of some diseases. Because conductive fabrics can be well integrated with the garment, they are ideal as a sensing element of wearable human motion monitoring systems. This study prepared polypyrrole conductive fabric by in situ polymerization, and the anisotropic property of the conductive fabric resistance, resistance–strain relationship, and the relationship between resistance and the human knee and elbow movements are discussed preliminarily.

  10. Energy harvesting from human motion: exploiting swing and shock excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, K; Hoffmann, D; Willmann, A; Becker, P; Folkmer, B; Manoli, Y

    2015-01-01

    Modern compact and low power sensors and systems are leading towards increasingly integrated wearable systems. One key bottleneck of this technology is the power supply. The use of energy harvesting techniques offers a way of supplying sensor systems without the need for batteries and maintenance. In this work we present the development and characterization of two inductive energy harvesters which exploit different characteristics of the human gait. A multi-coil topology harvester is presented which uses the swing motion of the foot. The second device is a shock-type harvester which is excited into resonance upon heel strike. Both devices were modeled and designed with the key constraint of device height in mind, in order to facilitate the integration into the shoe sole. The devices were characterized under different motion speeds and with two test subjects on a treadmill. An average power output of up to 0.84 mW is achieved with the swing harvester. With a total device volume including the housing of 21 cm 3 a power density of 40 μW cm −3 results. The shock harvester generates an average power output of up to 4.13 mW. The power density amounts to 86 μW cm −3 for the total device volume of 48 cm 3 . Difficulties and potential improvements are discussed briefly. (paper)

  11. Human Action Recognition Using Ordinal Measure of Accumulated Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wonjun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for recognizing human actions from a single query action video. We propose an action recognition scheme based on the ordinal measure of accumulated motion, which is robust to variations of appearances. To this end, we first define the accumulated motion image (AMI using image differences. Then the AMI of the query action video is resized to a subimage by intensity averaging and a rank matrix is generated by ordering the sample values in the sub-image. By computing the distances from the rank matrix of the query action video to the rank matrices of all local windows in the target video, local windows close to the query action are detected as candidates. To find the best match among the candidates, their energy histograms, which are obtained by projecting AMI values in horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, are compared with those of the query action video. The proposed method does not require any preprocessing task such as learning and segmentation. To justify the efficiency and robustness of our approach, the experiments are conducted on various datasets.

  12. Capturing One of the Human Gut Microbiome's Most Wanted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Hernandez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    The role of the microbiome in health and disease is attracting great attention, yet we still know little about some of the most prevalent microorganisms inside our bodies. Several years ago, Human Microbiome Project (HMP) researchers generated a list of "most wanted" taxa: bacteria both prevalent...... the environment, and to lack virulence genes. Thus, the evidence is consistent with a secondary degrader that occupies a host-dependent, nutrient scavenging niche within the gut; its ability to produce butyrate, which is thought to play an anti-inflammatory role, makes it intriguing for the study of diseases...

  13. Development of posture-specific computational phantoms using motion capture technology and application to radiation dose-reconstruction for the 1999 Tokai-Mura nuclear criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Justin A; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2014-01-01

    The majority of existing computational phantoms are designed to represent workers in typical standing anatomical postures with fixed arm and leg positions. However, workers found in accident-related scenarios often assume varied postures. This paper describes the development and application of two phantoms with adjusted postures specified by data acquired from a motion capture system to simulate unique human postures found in a 1999 criticality accident that took place at a JCO facility in Tokai-Mura, Japan. In the course of this accident, two workers were fatally exposed to extremely high levels of radiation. Implementation of the emergent techniques discussed produced more accurate and more detailed dose estimates for the two workers than were reported in previous studies. A total-body dose of 6.43 and 26.38 Gy was estimated for the two workers, who assumed a crouching and a standing posture, respectively. Additionally, organ-specific dose estimates were determined, including a 7.93 Gy dose to the thyroid and 6.11 Gy dose to the stomach for the crouching worker and a 41.71 Gy dose to the liver and a 37.26 Gy dose to the stomach for the standing worker. Implications for the medical prognosis of the workers are discussed, and the results of this study were found to correlate better with the patient outcome than previous estimates, suggesting potential future applications of such methods for improved epidemiological studies involving next-generation computational phantom tools. (paper)

  14. Multi-model approach to characterize human handwriting motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihi, I; Abdelkrim, A; Benrejeb, M

    2016-02-01

    This paper deals with characterization and modelling of human handwriting motion from two forearm muscle activity signals, called electromyography signals (EMG). In this work, an experimental approach was used to record the coordinates of a pen tip moving on the (x, y) plane and EMG signals during the handwriting act. The main purpose is to design a new mathematical model which characterizes this biological process. Based on a multi-model approach, this system was originally developed to generate letters and geometric forms written by different writers. A Recursive Least Squares algorithm is used to estimate the parameters of each sub-model of the multi-model basis. Simulations show good agreement between predicted results and the recorded data.

  15. Scavenging energy from human motion with tubular dielectric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Mistral, Claire; Basrour, Skandar

    2010-04-01

    Scavenging energy from human motion is a challenge to supply low consumption systems for sport or medical applications. A promising solution is to use electroactive polymers and especially dielectric polymers to scavenge mechanical energy during walk. In this paper, we present a tubular dielectric generator which is the first step toward an integration of these structures into textiles. For a 10cm length and under a strain of 100%, the structure is able to scavenge 1.5μJ for a poling voltage of 200V and up to 40μJ for a poling voltage of 1000V. A 30cm length structure is finally compared to our previous planar structure, and the power management module for those structures is discussed.

  16. The role of human ventral visual cortex in motion perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse P.; Lorenzi, Lauren J.; Egan, Ryan; Rees, Geraint; Behrmann, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Visual motion perception is fundamental to many aspects of visual perception. Visual motion perception has long been associated with the dorsal (parietal) pathway and the involvement of the ventral ‘form’ (temporal) visual pathway has not been considered critical for normal motion perception. Here, we evaluated this view by examining whether circumscribed damage to ventral visual cortex impaired motion perception. The perception of motion in basic, non-form tasks (motion coherence and motion detection) and complex structure-from-motion, for a wide range of motion speeds, all centrally displayed, was assessed in five patients with a circumscribed lesion to either the right or left ventral visual pathway. Patients with a right, but not with a left, ventral visual lesion displayed widespread impairments in central motion perception even for non-form motion, for both slow and for fast speeds, and this held true independent of the integrity of areas MT/V5, V3A or parietal regions. In contrast with the traditional view in which only the dorsal visual stream is critical for motion perception, these novel findings implicate a more distributed circuit in which the integrity of the right ventral visual pathway is also necessary even for the perception of non-form motion. PMID:23983030

  17. Motion Segments Decomposition of RGB-D Sequences for Human Behavior Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Devanne , Maxime; Berretti , Stefano; Pala , Pietro; Wannous , Hazem; Daoudi , Mohamed; Bimbo , Alberto ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose a framework for analyzing and understanding human behavior from depth videos. The proposed solution first employs shape analysis of the human pose across time to decompose the full motion into short temporal segments representing elementary motions. Then, each segment is characterized by human motion and depth appearance around hand joints to describe the change in pose of the body and the interaction with objects. Finally , the sequence of te...

  18. Implied motion because of instability in Hokusai Manga activates the human motion-sensitive extrastriate visual cortex: an fMRI study of the impact of visual art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Matsuyoshi, Daisuke; Ikeda, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2010-03-10

    The recent development of cognitive neuroscience has invited inference about the neurosensory events underlying the experience of visual arts involving implied motion. We report functional magnetic resonance imaging study demonstrating activation of the human extrastriate motion-sensitive cortex by static images showing implied motion because of instability. We used static line-drawing cartoons of humans by Hokusai Katsushika (called 'Hokusai Manga'), an outstanding Japanese cartoonist as well as famous Ukiyoe artist. We found 'Hokusai Manga' with implied motion by depicting human bodies that are engaged in challenging tonic posture significantly activated the motion-sensitive visual cortex including MT+ in the human extrastriate cortex, while an illustration that does not imply motion, for either humans or objects, did not activate these areas under the same tasks. We conclude that motion-sensitive extrastriate cortex would be a critical region for perception of implied motion in instability.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigations of human swimming motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Nakashima, Motomu; Sato, Yohei; Matsuuchi, Kazuo; Sanders, Ross H

    2016-08-01

    This paper reviews unsteady flow conditions in human swimming and identifies the limitations and future potential of the current methods of analysing unsteady flow. The capability of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been extended from approaches assuming steady-state conditions to consideration of unsteady/transient conditions associated with the body motion of a swimmer. However, to predict hydrodynamic forces and the swimmer's potential speeds accurately, more robust and efficient numerical methods are necessary, coupled with validation procedures, requiring detailed experimental data reflecting local flow. Experimental data obtained by particle image velocimetry (PIV) in this area are limited, because at present observations are restricted to a two-dimensional 1.0 m(2) area, though this could be improved if the output range of the associated laser sheet increased. Simulations of human swimming are expected to improve competitive swimming, and our review has identified two important advances relating to understanding the flow conditions affecting performance in front crawl swimming: one is a mechanism for generating unsteady fluid forces, and the other is a theory relating to increased speed and efficiency.

  20. Predicting Missing Marker Trajectories in Human Motion Data Using Marker Intercorrelations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gløersen, Øyvind; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Missing information in motion capture data caused by occlusion or detachment of markers is a common problem that is difficult to avoid entirely. The aim of this study was to develop and test an algorithm for reconstruction of corrupted marker trajectories in datasets representing human gait. The reconstruction was facilitated using information of marker inter-correlations obtained from a principal component analysis, combined with a novel weighting procedure. The method was completely data-driven, and did not require any training data. We tested the algorithm on datasets with movement patterns that can be considered both well suited (healthy subject walking on a treadmill) and less suited (transitioning from walking to running and the gait of a subject with cerebral palsy) to reconstruct. Specifically, we created 50 copies of each dataset, and corrupted them with gaps in multiple markers at random temporal and spatial positions. Reconstruction errors, quantified by the average Euclidian distance between predicted and measured marker positions, was ≤ 3 mm for the well suited dataset, even when there were gaps in up to 70% of all time frames. For the less suited datasets, median reconstruction errors were in the range 5-6 mm. However, a few reconstructions had substantially larger errors (up to 29 mm). Our results suggest that the proposed algorithm is a viable alternative both to conventional gap-filling algorithms and state-of-the-art reconstruction algorithms developed for motion capture systems. The strengths of the proposed algorithm are that it can fill gaps anywhere in the dataset, and that the gaps can be considerably longer than when using conventional interpolation techniques. Limitations are that it does not enforce musculoskeletal constraints, and that the reconstruction accuracy declines if applied to datasets with less predictable movement patterns.

  1. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George; Pavan, Andrea; Bellacosa Marotti, Rosilari; Campana, Gianluca; Casco, Clara

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However, recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by "motion-streaks" influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus, form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  2. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eMather

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form processing in the well-known Gestalt principle of common fate; texture elements which share a common motion property are grouped into a single contour or texture region. However recent research in psychophysics and neuroscience indicates that the influence of form signals on motion processing is more extensive than previously thought. First, the salience and apparent direction of moving lines depends on how the local orientation and direction of motion combine to match the receptive field properties of motion-selective neurons. Second, orientation signals generated by ‘motion-streaks’ influence motion processing; motion sensitivity, apparent direction and adaptation are affected by simultaneously present orientation signals. Third, form signals generated by human body shape influence biological motion processing, as revealed by studies using point-light motion stimuli. Thus form-motion integration seems to occur at several different levels of cortical processing, from V1 to STS.

  3. Human torso phantom for imaging of heart with realistic modes of cardiac and respiratory motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutchko, Rostyslav; Balakrishnan, Karthikayan; Gullberg, Grant T; O& #x27; Neil, James P

    2013-09-17

    A human torso phantom and its construction, wherein the phantom mimics respiratory and cardiac cycles in a human allowing acquisition of medical imaging data under conditions simulating patient cardiac and respiratory motion.

  4. Gesture Recognition from Data Streams of Human Motion Sensor Using Accelerated PSO Swarm Search Feature Selection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human motion sensing technology gains tremendous popularity nowadays with practical applications such as video surveillance for security, hand signing, and smart-home and gaming. These applications capture human motions in real-time from video sensors, the data patterns are nonstationary and ever changing. While the hardware technology of such motion sensing devices as well as their data collection process become relatively mature, the computational challenge lies in the real-time analysis of these live feeds. In this paper we argue that traditional data mining methods run short of accurately analyzing the human activity patterns from the sensor data stream. The shortcoming is due to the algorithmic design which is not adaptive to the dynamic changes in the dynamic gesture motions. The successor of these algorithms which is known as data stream mining is evaluated versus traditional data mining, through a case of gesture recognition over motion data by using Microsoft Kinect sensors. Three different subjects were asked to read three comic strips and to tell the stories in front of the sensor. The data stream contains coordinates of articulation points and various positions of the parts of the human body corresponding to the actions that the user performs. In particular, a novel technique of feature selection using swarm search and accelerated PSO is proposed for enabling fast preprocessing for inducing an improved classification model in real-time. Superior result is shown in the experiment that runs on this empirical data stream. The contribution of this paper is on a comparative study between using traditional and data stream mining algorithms and incorporation of the novel improved feature selection technique with a scenario where different gesture patterns are to be recognized from streaming sensor data.

  5. Further development of thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1995-03-01

    This issue is the collection of the papers presented thermal neutron capture therapy for metastatic and deeply-invasive human malignant melanoma. Separate abstracts were prepared for 2 of the papers in this report. The remaining 32 papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS. (J.P.N.)

  6. Analysis of Golf Swing Motion and Applied Loads on the Human Body Using Soft-Golf TM Club

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ki Young; So, Ha Ju; Kim, Sung Hyeon; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Nam Gyun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument on the human body structure. To analyze the kinetic effect of Soft-golf TM instrument, Golf swing using Soft-golf TM instrument and regular golf instrument was captured. And then Upper limbs and lumbar joint torques was calculated via computer simulation. Five man participated this study. Subjects performed golf swing using a regular golf and Soft-golf TM instrument. Golf swing motion was captured using three position sensor, active infrared LED maker and force plate. Golf swing model was generated and simulated using ADAMS/LifeMOD program. As a results, joint torque during Soft-golf swing were lower than regular golf swing. Thus soft-golf swing have joint load lower than regular golf swing and contribute to reduce joint injury

  7. Quantification of human motion: gait analysis-benefits and limitations to its application to clinical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Sheldon R

    2004-12-01

    The technology supporting the analysis of human motion has advanced dramatically. Past decades of locomotion research have provided us with significant knowledge about the accuracy of tests performed, the understanding of the process of human locomotion, and how clinical testing can be used to evaluate medical disorders and affect their treatment. Gait analysis is now recognized as clinically useful and financially reimbursable for some medical conditions. Yet, the routine clinical use of gait analysis has seen very limited growth. The issue of its clinical value is related to many factors, including the applicability of existing technology to addressing clinical problems; the limited use of such tests to address a wide variety of medical disorders; the manner in which gait laboratories are organized, tests are performed, and reports generated; and the clinical understanding and expectations of laboratory results. Clinical use is most hampered by the length of time and costs required for performing a study and interpreting it. A "gait" report is lengthy, its data are not well understood, and it includes a clinical interpretation, all of which do not occur with other clinical tests. Current biotechnology research is seeking to address these problems by creating techniques to capture data rapidly, accurately, and efficiently, and to interpret such data by an assortment of modeling, statistical, wave interpretation, and artificial intelligence methodologies. The success of such efforts rests on both our technical abilities and communication between engineers and clinicians.

  8. The human story of Crew 173- capturing a Mars analog mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Niamh; Musilova, Michaela; Pons Lorente, Arnau; Sisaid, Idriss; Naor, Roy; Blake, Richard

    2017-04-01

    An international crew of six scientists, engineers, artists and entrepreneurs with different space specialisations were selected by the Mars Society to take part in a Martian simulation in January 2017. An ambitious outreach and media strategy was developed, aimed at communicating the benefits of missions to Mars to the public and to capture the public's interest by telling the human story of the crew's mission. Entitled Crew 173 Team PRIMA, they entered the Mars Desert Research Station in the Utah Desert and conducted research in 3D printing, hydroponics, geology and astronomy. Both the scientific and community experience of this mission was documented through still image, video, audio, diary and daily journalling by the resident artist of the mission, Niamh Shaw. The full experience of the crew was documented (before, during and after the expedition), to capture each individual experience of the crew and the human experience of isolation of future human space missions.

  9. Cystatin capture elisa immunodiagnosis of human fasciolosis at Chupaca-Junin Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornejo, W.; Alva, P.; Sevilla, C.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2003-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of human fasciolosis in an endemic area by means of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) using cystatin as a capture agent for the detection of specific antibodies to fasciola hepatica cysteine proteinases. An ELISA plate was sensitized with cystatin, incubated with excretory-secretory products of adult flukes, and followed by standard ELISA procedures. Clinical applicability of the cystatin capture ELISA for the immunodiagnosis of fasciolosis was tested with 200 serum samples of children and adults from an endemic area in Chupaca province, Junin department. Serum samples from the endemic area tested by cystatin capture ELISA showed 27/200 (13,5%) of positive cases. Fasciolosis remains a major health problem at Chupaca province, Junin department

  10. Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

    2007-01-08

    Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval.

  11. Movement Behaviour of Traditionally Managed Cattle in the Eastern Province of Zambia Captured Using Two-Dimensional Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubaba, Caesar H; Hidano, Arata; Welburn, Susan C; Revie, Crawford W; Eisler, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional motion sensors use electronic accelerometers to record the lying, standing and walking activity of cattle. Movement behaviour data collected automatically using these sensors over prolonged periods of time could be of use to stakeholders making management and disease control decisions in rural sub-Saharan Africa leading to potential improvements in animal health and production. Motion sensors were used in this study with the aim of monitoring and quantifying the movement behaviour of traditionally managed Angoni cattle in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. This study was designed to assess whether motion sensors were suitable for use on traditionally managed cattle in two veterinary camps in Petauke District in the Eastern Province of Zambia. In each veterinary camp, twenty cattle were selected for study. Each animal had a motion sensor placed on its hind leg to continuously measure and record its movement behaviour over a two week period. Analysing the sensor data using principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that the majority of variability in behaviour among studied cattle could be attributed to their behaviour at night and in the morning. The behaviour at night was markedly different between veterinary camps; while differences in the morning appeared to reflect varying behaviour across all animals. The study results validate the use of such motion sensors in the chosen setting and highlight the importance of appropriate data summarisation techniques to adequately describe and compare animal movement behaviours if association to other factors, such as location, breed or health status are to be assessed.

  12. Interactions between motion and form processing in the human visual system

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, G.; Pavan, A.; Bellacosa Marotti, R.; Campana, G.; Casco, C.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant view of motion and form processing in the human visual system assumes that these two attributes are handled by separate and independent modules. Motion processing involves filtering by direction-selective sensors, followed by integration to solve the aperture problem. Form processing involves filtering by orientation-selective and size-selective receptive fields, followed by integration to encode object shape. It has long been known that motion signals can influence form proce...

  13. The efficacy of interactive, motion capture-based rehabilitation on functional outcomes in an inpatient stroke population: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannell, John; Jovic, Emelyn; Rathjen, Amy; Lane, Kylie; Tyson, Anna M; Callisaya, Michele L; Smith, Stuart T; Ahuja, Kiran Dk; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-02-01

    To compare the efficacy of novel interactive, motion capture-rehabilitation software to usual care stroke rehabilitation on physical function. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Two subacute hospital rehabilitation units in Australia. In all, 73 people less than six months after stroke with reduced mobility and clinician determined capacity to improve. Both groups received functional retraining and individualized programs for up to an hour, on weekdays for 8-40 sessions (dose matched). For the intervention group, this individualized program used motivating virtual reality rehabilitation and novel gesture controlled interactive motion capture software. For usual care, the individualized program was delivered in a group class on one unit and by rehabilitation assistant 1:1 on the other. Primary outcome was standing balance (functional reach). Secondary outcomes were lateral reach, step test, sitting balance, arm function, and walking. Participants (mean 22 days post-stroke) attended mean 14 sessions. Both groups improved (mean (95% confidence interval)) on primary outcome functional reach (usual care 3.3 (0.6 to 5.9), intervention 4.1 (-3.0 to 5.0) cm) with no difference between groups ( P = 0.69) on this or any secondary measures. No differences between the rehabilitation units were seen except in lateral reach (less affected side) ( P = 0.04). No adverse events were recorded during therapy. Interactive, motion capture rehabilitation for inpatients post stroke produced functional improvements that were similar to those achieved by usual care stroke rehabilitation, safely delivered by either a physical therapist or a rehabilitation assistant.

  14. S3-3: Misbinding of Color and Motion in Human V2 Revealed by Color-Contingent Motion Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wu, Kanai, & Shimojo (2004 Nature 429 262 described a compelling illusion demonstrating a steady-state misbinding of color and motion. Here, we took advantage of the illusion and performed psychophysical and fMRI adaptation experiments to explore the neural mechanism of color-motion misbinding. The stimulus subtended 20 deg by 14 deg of visual angle and contained two sheets of random dots, one sheet moving up and the other moving down. On the upward-moving sheet, dots in the right-end area (4 deg by 14 deg were red, and the rest of the dots were green. On the downward-moving sheet, dots in the right-end area were green, and the rest of the dots were red. When subjects fixated at the center of the stimulus, they bound the color and motion of the dots in the right-end area erroneously–the red dots appeared to move downwards and the green dots appeared to move upwards. In the psychophysical experiment, we measured the color-contingent motion aftereffect in the right-end area after adaptation to the illusory stimulus. A significant aftereffect was observed as if subjects had adapted to the perceived binding of color and motion, rather than the physical binding. For example, after adaptation, stationary red dots appeared to move upwards, and stationary green dots appeared to move downwards. In the fMRI experiment, we measured direction-selective motion adaptation effects in V1, V2, V3, V4, V3A/B, and V5. Relative to other cortical areas, V2 showed a much stronger adaptation effect to the perceived motion direction (rather than the physical direction for both the red and green dots. Significantly, the fMRI adaptation effect in V2 correlated with the color-contingent motion aftereffect across twelve subjects. This study provides the first human evidence that color and motion could be misbound at a very early stage of visual processing.

  15. Data Fusion Research of Triaxial Human Body Motion Gesture based on Decision Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feihong Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development status of human body motion gesture data fusion domestic and overseas has been analyzed. A triaxial accelerometer is adopted to develop a wearable human body motion gesture monitoring system aimed at old people healthcare. On the basis of a brief introduction of decision tree algorithm, the WEKA workbench is adopted to generate a human body motion gesture decision tree. At last, the classification quality of the decision tree has been validated through experiments. The experimental results show that the decision tree algorithm could reach an average predicting accuracy of 97.5 % with lower time cost.

  16. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E; Del-Ama, Antonio J; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton.

  17. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangyi Gong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR. We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate.

  18. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liangyi; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng; Dong, Guozhong; Yu, Miao; Lv, Jiguang

    2015-12-21

    With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR) and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR). We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate.

  19. WiFi-Based Real-Time Calibration-Free Passive Human Motion Detection †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Liangyi; Yang, Wu; Man, Dapeng; Dong, Guozhong; Yu, Miao; Lv, Jiguang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid development of WLAN technology, wireless device-free passive human detection becomes a newly-developing technique and holds more potential to worldwide and ubiquitous smart applications. Recently, indoor fine-grained device-free passive human motion detection based on the PHY layer information is rapidly developed. Previous wireless device-free passive human detection systems either rely on deploying specialized systems with dense transmitter-receiver links or elaborate off-line training process, which blocks rapid deployment and weakens system robustness. In the paper, we explore to research a novel fine-grained real-time calibration-free device-free passive human motion via physical layer information, which is independent of indoor scenarios and needs no prior-calibration and normal profile. We investigate sensitivities of amplitude and phase to human motion, and discover that phase feature is more sensitive to human motion, especially to slow human motion. Aiming at lightweight and robust device-free passive human motion detection, we develop two novel and practical schemes: short-term averaged variance ratio (SVR) and long-term averaged variance ratio (LVR). We realize system design with commercial WiFi devices and evaluate it in typical multipath-rich indoor scenarios. As demonstrated in the experiments, our approach can achieve a high detection rate and low false positive rate. PMID:26703612

  20. Three dimensional monocular human motion analysis in end-effector space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome; Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to three dimensional human motion estimation from monocular video data. We employ a particle filter to perform the motion estimation. The novelty of the method lies in the choice of state space for the particle filter. Using a non-linear inverse kinemati...

  1. Comparison of Flight Simulators Based on Human Motion Perception Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente Pais, Ana R.; Correia Gracio, Bruno J.; Kelly, Lon C.; Houck, Jacob A.

    2015-01-01

    In flight simulation, motion filters are used to transform aircraft motion into simulator motion. When looking for the best match between visual and inertial amplitude in a simulator, researchers have found that there is a range of inertial amplitudes, rather than a single inertial value, that is perceived by subjects as optimal. This zone, hereafter referred to as the optimal zone, seems to correlate to the perceptual coherence zones measured in flight simulators. However, no studies were found in which these two zones were compared. This study investigates the relation between the optimal and the coherence zone measurements within and between different simulators. Results show that for the sway axis, the optimal zone lies within the lower part of the coherence zone. In addition, it was found that, whereas the width of the coherence zone depends on the visual amplitude and frequency, the width of the optimal zone remains constant.

  2. Implicit prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The technology of eye tracker has become the main methods of analyzing the recognition issues in human-computer interaction. Human eye image capture is the key problem of the eye tracking. Based on further research, a new human-computer interaction method introduced to enrich the form of speech synthetic. We propose a method of Implicit Prosody mining based on the human eye image capture technology to extract the parameters from the image of human eyes when reading, control and drive prosody generation in speech synthesis, and establish prosodic model with high simulation accuracy. Duration model is key issues for prosody generation. For the duration model, this paper put forward a new idea for obtaining gaze duration of eyes when reading based on the eye image capture technology, and synchronous controlling this duration and pronunciation duration in speech synthesis. The movement of human eyes during reading is a comprehensive multi-factor interactive process, such as gaze, twitching and backsight. Therefore, how to extract the appropriate information from the image of human eyes need to be considered and the gaze regularity of eyes need to be obtained as references of modeling. Based on the analysis of current three kinds of eye movement control model and the characteristics of the Implicit Prosody reading, relative independence between speech processing system of text and eye movement control system was discussed. It was proved that under the same text familiarity condition, gaze duration of eyes when reading and internal voice pronunciation duration are synchronous. The eye gaze duration model based on the Chinese language level prosodic structure was presented to change previous methods of machine learning and probability forecasting, obtain readers' real internal reading rhythm and to synthesize voice with personalized rhythm. This research will enrich human-computer interactive form, and will be practical significance and application prospect in terms of

  3. A human motion model based on maps for navigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiser Susanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Foot-mounted indoor positioning systems work remarkably well when using additionally the knowledge of floor-plans in the localization algorithm. Walls and other structures naturally restrict the motion of pedestrians. No pedestrian can walk through walls or jump from one floor to another when considering a building with different floor-levels. By incorporating known floor-plans in sequential Bayesian estimation processes such as particle filters (PFs, long-term error stability can be achieved as long as the map is sufficiently accurate and the environment sufficiently constraints pedestrians' motion. In this article, a new motion model based on maps and floor-plans is introduced that is capable of weighting the possible headings of the pedestrian as a function of the local environment. The motion model is derived from a diffusion algorithm that makes use of the principle of a source effusing gas and is used in the weighting step of a PF implementation. The diffusion algorithm is capable of including floor-plans as well as maps with areas of different degrees of accessibility. The motion model more effectively represents the probability density function of possible headings that are restricted by maps and floor-plans than a simple binary weighting of particles (i.e., eliminating those that crossed walls and keeping the rest. We will show that the motion model will help for obtaining better performance in critical navigation scenarios where two or more modes may be competing for some of the time (multi-modal scenarios.

  4. Real-time 3D human capture system for mixed-reality art and entertainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ta Huynh Duy; Qui, Tran Cong Thien; Xu, Ke; Cheok, Adrian David; Teo, Sze Lee; Zhou, ZhiYing; Mallawaarachchi, Asitha; Lee, Shang Ping; Liu, Wei; Teo, Hui Siang; Thang, Le Nam; Li, Yu; Kato, Hirokazu

    2005-01-01

    A real-time system for capturing humans in 3D and placing them into a mixed reality environment is presented in this paper. The subject is captured by nine cameras surrounding her. Looking through a head-mounted-display with a camera in front pointing at a marker, the user can see the 3D image of this subject overlaid onto a mixed reality scene. The 3D images of the subject viewed from this viewpoint are constructed using a robust and fast shape-from-silhouette algorithm. The paper also presents several techniques to produce good quality and speed up the whole system. The frame rate of our system is around 25 fps using only standard Intel processor-based personal computers. Besides a remote live 3D conferencing and collaborating system, we also describe an application of the system in art and entertainment, named Magic Land, which is a mixed reality environment where captured avatars of human and 3D computer generated virtual animations can form an interactive story and play with each other. This system demonstrates many technologies in human computer interaction: mixed reality, tangible interaction, and 3D communication. The result of the user study not only emphasizes the benefits, but also addresses some issues of these technologies.

  5. Analyzing the effects of human-aware motion planning on close-proximity human-robot collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasota, Przemyslaw A; Shah, Julie A

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this work was to examine human response to motion-level robot adaptation to determine its effect on team fluency, human satisfaction, and perceived safety and comfort. The evaluation of human response to adaptive robotic assistants has been limited, particularly in the realm of motion-level adaptation. The lack of true human-in-the-loop evaluation has made it impossible to determine whether such adaptation would lead to efficient and satisfying human-robot interaction. We conducted an experiment in which participants worked with a robot to perform a collaborative task. Participants worked with an adaptive robot incorporating human-aware motion planning and with a baseline robot using shortest-path motions. Team fluency was evaluated through a set of quantitative metrics, and human satisfaction and perceived safety and comfort were evaluated through questionnaires. When working with the adaptive robot, participants completed the task 5.57% faster, with 19.9% more concurrent motion, 2.96% less human idle time, 17.3% less robot idle time, and a 15.1% greater separation distance. Questionnaire responses indicated that participants felt safer and more comfortable when working with an adaptive robot and were more satisfied with it as a teammate than with the standard robot. People respond well to motion-level robot adaptation, and significant benefits can be achieved from its use in terms of both human-robot team fluency and human worker satisfaction. Our conclusion supports the development of technologies that could be used to implement human-aware motion planning in collaborative robots and the use of this technique for close-proximity human-robot collaboration.

  6. A representação do corpo e do movimento: uma análise da interatividade do motion capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Souza Prim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O Motion Capture (MoCap é um sistema capaz de medir o deslocamento do ser humano. A tecnologia de captura de movimentos pode ser utilizada em produções de entretenimento digital, como os games e as animações 3D. Neste trabalho, busca-se sistematizar os níveis de interatividade possibilitadas a partir do equipamento óptico de captura de movimentos, analisando as variáveis descritas por Steuer (1992 e as definições de interatividade descritas por Lévy (2000, discutindo a interação do homem com o MoCap em termos de possibilidades de apropriação e de personalização, virtualidade, a implicação da imagem do participante e da telepresença. Os resultados permitem uma reflexão sobre o potencial de interatividade do sistema e concluindo com observações do alto potencial de interatividade do equipamento de Motion Capture.

  7. Decoding conjunctions of direction-of-motion and binocular disparity from human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Kiley J; Clifford, Colin W G

    2012-05-01

    Motion and binocular disparity are two features in our environment that share a common correspondence problem. Decades of psychophysical research dedicated to understanding stereopsis suggest that these features interact early in human visual processing to disambiguate depth. Single-unit recordings in the monkey also provide evidence for the joint encoding of motion and disparity across much of the dorsal visual stream. Here, we used functional MRI and multivariate pattern analysis to examine where in the human brain conjunctions of motion and disparity are encoded. Subjects sequentially viewed two stimuli that could be distinguished only by their conjunctions of motion and disparity. Specifically, each stimulus contained the same feature information (leftward and rightward motion and crossed and uncrossed disparity) but differed exclusively in the way these features were paired. Our results revealed that a linear classifier could accurately decode which stimulus a subject was viewing based on voxel activation patterns throughout the dorsal visual areas and as early as V2. This decoding success was conditional on some voxels being individually sensitive to the unique conjunctions comprising each stimulus, thus a classifier could not rely on independent information about motion and binocular disparity to distinguish these conjunctions. This study expands on evidence that disparity and motion interact at many levels of human visual processing, particularly within the dorsal stream. It also lends support to the idea that stereopsis is subserved by early mechanisms also tuned to direction of motion.

  8. Three dimensional motion capture applied to violin playing: A study on feasibility and characterization of the motor strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancillao, Andrea; Savastano, Bernardo; Galli, Manuela; Albertini, Giorgio

    2017-10-01

    Playing string instruments requires advanced motor skills and a long training that is often spent in uncomfortable postures that may lead to injuries or musculoskeletal disorders. Thus, it is interesting to objectively characterize the motor strategy adopted by the players. In this work, we implemented a method for the quantitative analysis of the motor performance of a violin player. The proposed protocol takes advantage of an optoelectronic system and some infra-red reflecting markers in order to track player's motion. The method was tested on a professional violin player performing a legato bowing task. The biomechanical strategy of the upper limb and bow positioning were described by means of quantitative parameters and motion profiles. Measured quantities were: bow trajectory, angles, tracks, velocity, acceleration and jerk. A good repeatability of the bowing motion (CV < 2%) and high smoothness (jerk < 5 m/s 3 ) were observed. Motion profiles of shoulder, elbow and wrist were repeatable (CV < 7%) and comparable to the curves observed in other studies. Jerk and acceleration profiles demonstrated high smoothness in the ascending and descending phases of bowing. High variability was instead observed for the neck angle (CV ∼56%). "Quantitative" measurements, instead of "qualitative" observation, can support the diagnosis of motor disorders and the accurate evaluation of musicians' skills. The proposed protocol is a powerful tool for the description of musician's performance, that may be useful to document improvements in playing abilities and to adjust training strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui Huang; Xian Li; Ye Sun

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this study is to design a novel triboelectric motion sensor in wearable body sensor network for human activity recognition. Physical activity recognition is widely used in well-being management, medical diagnosis and rehabilitation. Other than traditional accelerometers, we design a novel wearable sensor system based on triboelectrification. The triboelectric motion sensor can be easily attached to human body and collect motion signals caused by physical activities. The experiments are conducted to collect five common activity data: sitting and standing, walking, climbing upstairs, downstairs, and running. The k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) clustering algorithm is adopted to recognize these activities and validate the feasibility of this new approach. The results show that our system can perform physical activity recognition with a successful rate over 80% for walking, sitting and standing. The triboelectric structure can also be used as an energy harvester for motion harvesting due to its high output voltage in random low-frequency motion.

  10. Clinically acceptable agreement between the ViMove wireless motion sensor system and the Vicon motion capture system when measuring lumbar region inclination motion in the sagittal and coronal planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mjøsund, Hanne Leirbekk; Boyle, Eleanor; Kjær, Per

    2017-01-01

    . CONCLUSIONS: We found a clinically acceptable level of agreement between these two methods for measuring standing lumbar inclination motion in these two cardinal movement planes. Further research should investigate the ViMove system's ability to measure lumbar motion in more complex 3D functional movements...

  11. Scavenging energy from the motion of human lower limbs via a piezoelectric energy harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kangqi; Yu, Bo; Zhu, Yingmin; Liu, Zhaohui; Wang, Liansong

    2017-03-01

    Scavenging energy from human motion through piezoelectric transduction has been considered as a feasible alternative to batteries for powering portable devices and realizing self-sustained devices. To date, most piezoelectric energy harvesters (PEHs) developed can only collect energy from the uni-directional mechanical vibration. This deficiency severely limits their applicability to human motion energy harvesting because the human motion involves diverse mechanical motions. In this paper, a novel PEH is proposed to harvest energy from the motion of human lower limbs. This PEH is composed of two piezoelectric cantilever beams, a sleeve and a ferromagnetic ball. The two beams are designed to sense the vibration along the tibial axis and conduct piezoelectric conversion. The ball senses the leg swing and actuates the two beams to vibrate via magnetic coupling. Theoretical and experimental studies indicate that the proposed PEH can scavenge energy from both the vibration and the swing. During each stride, the PEH can produce multiple peaks in voltage output, which is attributed to the superposition of different excitations. Moreover, the root-mean-square (RMS) voltage output of the PEH increases when the walking speed ranges from 2 to 8 km/h. In addition, the ultra-low frequencies of human motion are also up-converted by the proposed design.

  12. Human error identification for laparoscopic surgery: Development of a motion economy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Latif; Sevdalis, Nick; Maiping, Tanaphon; Watanachote, Damrongpan; Sengupta, Shomik; Dissaranan, Charuspong

    2015-09-01

    This study postulates that traditional human error identification techniques fail to consider motion economy principles and, accordingly, their applicability in operating theatres may be limited. This study addresses this gap in the literature with a dual aim. First, it identifies the principles of motion economy that suit the operative environment and second, it develops a new error mode taxonomy for human error identification techniques which recognises motion economy deficiencies affecting the performance of surgeons and predisposing them to errors. A total of 30 principles of motion economy were developed and categorised into five areas. A hierarchical task analysis was used to break down main tasks of a urological laparoscopic surgery (hand-assisted laparoscopic nephrectomy) to their elements and the new taxonomy was used to identify errors and their root causes resulting from violation of motion economy principles. The approach was prospectively tested in 12 observed laparoscopic surgeries performed by 5 experienced surgeons. A total of 86 errors were identified and linked to the motion economy deficiencies. Results indicate the developed methodology is promising. Our methodology allows error prevention in surgery and the developed set of motion economy principles could be useful for training surgeons on motion economy principles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring Accurate Body Parameters of Dressed Humans with Large-Scale Motion Using a Kinect Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Du

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact human body measurement plays an important role in surveillance, physical healthcare, on-line business and virtual fitting. Current methods for measuring the human body without physical contact usually cannot handle humans wearing clothes, which limits their applicability in public environments. In this paper, we propose an effective solution that can measure accurate parameters of the human body with large-scale motion from a Kinect sensor, assuming that the people are wearing clothes. Because motion can drive clothes attached to the human body loosely or tightly, we adopt a space-time analysis to mine the information across the posture variations. Using this information, we recover the human body, regardless of the effect of clothes, and measure the human body parameters accurately. Experimental results show that our system can perform more accurate parameter estimation on the human body than state-of-the-art methods.

  14. Evaluation of performance, acceptance, and compliance of an auto-injector in healthy and rheumatoid arthritic subjects measured by a motion capture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Li, Wei; Clawson, Corbin; Karvani, David; Sondag, Perceval; Hahn, James K

    2018-01-01

    The study aimed to develop a motion capture system that can track, visualize, and analyze the entire performance of self-injection with the auto-injector. Each of nine healthy subjects and 29 rheumatoid arthritic (RA) patients with different degrees of hand disability performed two simulated injections into an injection pad while six degrees of freedom (DOF) motions of the auto-injector and the injection pad were captured. We quantitatively measured the performance of the injection by calculating needle displacement from the motion trajectories. The max, mean, and SD of needle displacement were analyzed. Assessments of device acceptance and usability were evaluated by a survey questionnaire and independent observations of compliance with the device instruction for use (IFU). A total of 80 simulated injections were performed. Our results showed a similar level of performance among all the subjects with slightly larger, but not statistically significant, needle displacement in the RA group. In particular, no significant effects regarding previous experience in self-injection, grip method, pain in hand, and Cochin score in the RA group were found to have an impact on the mean needle displacement. Moreover, the analysis of needle displacement for different durations of injections indicated that most of the subjects reached their personal maximum displacement in 15 seconds and remained steady or exhibited a small amount of increase from 15 to 60 seconds. Device acceptance was high for most of the questions (ie, >4; >80%) based on a 0-5-point scale or percentage of acceptance. The overall compliance with the device IFU was high for the first injection (96.05%) and reached 98.02% for the second injection. We demonstrated the feasibility of tracking the motions of injection to measure the performance of simulated self-injection. The comparisons of needle displacement showed that even RA patients with severe hand disability could properly perform self-injection with this

  15. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hassan; Razmjou, Amir; Ebrahimi Warkiani, Majid; Kottapalli, Ajay; Asadnia, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride) nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  16. Sensitive and Flexible Polymeric Strain Sensor for Accurate Human Motion Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Khan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Flexible electronic devices offer the capability to integrate and adapt with human body. These devices are mountable on surfaces with various shapes, which allow us to attach them to clothes or directly onto the body. This paper suggests a facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning to develop a stretchable, and sensitive poly (vinylidene fluoride nanofibrous strain sensor for human motion monitoring. A complete characterization on the single PVDF nano fiber has been performed. The charge generated by PVDF electrospun strain sensor changes was employed as a parameter to control the finger motion of the robotic arm. As a proof of concept, we developed a smart glove with five sensors integrated into it to detect the fingers motion and transfer it to a robotic hand. Our results shows that the proposed strain sensors are able to detect tiny motion of fingers and successfully run the robotic hand.

  17. Motion in Human and Machine: A Virtual Fatigue Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Kostic, D.; Rasic, M.; Djordjevic, G.

    2002-01-01

    Achieving human-like behavior of a robot is a key issue of the paper. Redundancy in the inverse kinematics problem is resolved using a biological analogue. It is shown that by means of "virtual fatigue" functions, it is possible to generate robot movements similar to movements of a human arm subject

  18. The development of human factors experimental evaluation technology - 3-dimensional measurement system for motion analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kyung Soo; Pan, Young Hwan; Lee, Ahn Jae; Lee, Kyung Tae; Lim, Chi Hwan; Chang, Pil Sik; Lee, Seok Woo; Han, Sung Wook; Park, Chul Wook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    Measurement of human motion is important in the application of ergonomics. We developed a system which can measure body movement, especially= hand movement using advanced direct video measurement technology. This system has as dynamic accuracy with 1% error and the sampling rate to 6 - 10 Hz, and can analyse the trajectory and speed of the marker. The use of passive marker obviates the need for a marker telemetry system and minimize motion disruption. 18 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs. (author)

  19. Human-motion energy harvester for autonomous body area sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Gasnier, P.; Willemin, J.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports on a method to optimize an electromagnetic energy harvester converting the low-frequency body motion and aimed at powering wireless body area sensors. This method is based on recorded accelerations, and mechanical and transduction models that enable an efficient joint optimization of the structural parameters. An optimized prototype of 14.8 mmØ × 52 mm, weighting 20 g, has generated up to 4.95 mW in a resistive load when worn at the arm during a run, and 6.57 mW when hand-shaken. Among the inertial electromagnetic energy harvesters reported so far, this one exhibits one of the highest power densities (up to 730 μW cm-3). The energy harvester was finally used to power a bluetooth low energy wireless sensor node with accelerations measurements at 25 Hz.

  20. Music recommendation according to human motion based on kernel CCA-based relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkushi, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Takahiro; Haseyama, Miki

    2011-12-01

    In this article, a method for recommendation of music pieces according to human motions based on their kernel canonical correlation analysis (CCA)-based relationship is proposed. In order to perform the recommendation between different types of multimedia data, i.e., recommendation of music pieces from human motions, the proposed method tries to estimate their relationship. Specifically, the correlation based on kernel CCA is calculated as the relationship in our method. Since human motions and music pieces have various time lengths, it is necessary to calculate the correlation between time series having different lengths. Therefore, new kernel functions for human motions and music pieces, which can provide similarities between data that have different time lengths, are introduced into the calculation of the kernel CCA-based correlation. This approach effectively provides a solution to the conventional problem of not being able to calculate the correlation from multimedia data that have various time lengths. Therefore, the proposed method can perform accurate recommendation of best matched music pieces according to a target human motion from the obtained correlation. Experimental results are shown to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  1. The validity and intra-tester reliability of markerless motion capture to analyse kinematics of the BMX Supercross gate start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, Josephine; Haakonssen, Eric; Rathbone, Evelyne; Orr, Robin; Keogh, Justin W L

    2017-11-13

    The aim of this study was to quantify the validity and intra-tester reliability of a novel method of kinematic measurement. The measurement target was the joint angles of an athlete performing a BMX Supercross (SX) gate start action through the first 1.2 s of movement in situ on a BMX SX ramp using a standard gate start procedure. The method employed GoPro® Hero 4 Silver (GoPro Inc., USA) cameras capturing data at 120 fps 720 p on a 'normal' lens setting. Kinovea 0.8.15 (Kinovea.org, France) was used for analysis. Tracking data was exported and angles computed in Matlab (Mathworks®, USA). The gold standard 3D method for joint angle measurement could not safely be employed in this environment, so a rigid angle was used. Validity was measured to be within 2°. Intra-tester reliability was measured by the same tester performing the analysis twice with an average of 55 days between analyses. Intra-tester reliability was high, with an absolute error <6° and <9 frames (0.075 s) across all angles and time points for key positions, respectively. The methodology is valid within 2° and reliable within 6° for the calculation of joint angles in the first ~1.25 s.

  2. Automated pattern analysis in gesture research : similarity measuring in 3D motion capture models of communicative action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schueller, D.; Beecks, C.; Hassani, M.; Hinnell, J.; Brenger, B.; Seidl, T.; Mittelberg, I.

    2017-01-01

    The question of how to model similarity between gestures plays an important role in current studies in the domain of human communication. Most research into recurrent patterns in co-verbal gestures – manual communicative movements emerging spontaneously during conversation – is driven by qualitative

  3. Real-Time Motion Capture Toolbox (RTMocap): an open-source code for recording 3-D motion kinematics to study action-effect anticipations during motor and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Daniel; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne

    2016-03-01

    We present here a toolbox for the real-time motion capture of biological movements that runs in the cross-platform MATLAB environment (The MathWorks, Inc., Natick, MA). It provides instantaneous processing of the 3-D movement coordinates of up to 20 markers at a single instant. Available functions include (1) the setting of reference positions, areas, and trajectories of interest; (2) recording of the 3-D coordinates for each marker over the trial duration; and (3) the detection of events to use as triggers for external reinforcers (e.g., lights, sounds, or odors). Through fast online communication between the hardware controller and RTMocap, automatic trial selection is possible by means of either a preset or an adaptive criterion. Rapid preprocessing of signals is also provided, which includes artifact rejection, filtering, spline interpolation, and averaging. A key example is detailed, and three typical variations are developed (1) to provide a clear understanding of the importance of real-time control for 3-D motion in cognitive sciences and (2) to present users with simple lines of code that can be used as starting points for customizing experiments using the simple MATLAB syntax. RTMocap is freely available (http://sites.google.com/site/RTMocap/) under the GNU public license for noncommercial use and open-source development, together with sample data and extensive documentation.

  4. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: Human-Centered Linear and Nonlinear Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor); Telban, Robert J.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. Prior research identified viable features from two algorithms: the nonlinear "adaptive algorithm", and the "optimal algorithm" that incorporates human vestibular models. A novel approach to motion cueing, the "nonlinear algorithm" is introduced that combines features from both approaches. This algorithm is formulated by optimal control, and incorporates a new integrated perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. Using a time-varying control law, the matrix Riccati equation is updated in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. The neurocomputing approach was crucial in that the number of presentations of an input vector could be reduced to meet the real time requirement without degrading the quality of the motion cues.

  5. CD133 antibody conjugation to decellularized human heart valves intended for circulating cell capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossler, John D; Min Ju, Young; Williams, J Koudy; Goldstein, Steven; Hamlin, James; Lee, Sang Jin; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2015-09-03

    The long term efficacy of tissue based heart valve grafts may be limited by progressive degeneration characterized by immune mediated inflammation and calcification. To avoid this degeneration, decellularized heart valves with functionalized surfaces capable of rapid in vivo endothelialization have been developed. The aim of this study is to examine the capacity of CD133 antibody-conjugated valve tissue to capture circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Decellularized human pulmonary valve tissue was conjugated with CD133 antibody at varying concentrations and exposed to CD133 expressing NTERA-2 cl.D1 (NT2) cells in a microflow chamber. The amount of CD133 antibody conjugated on the valve tissue surface and the number of NT2 cells captured in the presence of shear stress was measured. Both the amount of CD133 antibody conjugated to the valve leaflet surface and the number of adherent NT2 cells increased as the concentration of CD133 antibody present in the surface immobilization procedure increased. The data presented in this study support the hypothesis that the rate of CD133(+) cell adhesion in the presence of shear stress to decellularized heart valve tissue functionalized by CD133 antibody conjugation increases as the quantity of CD133 antibody conjugated to the tissue surface increases.

  6. A Subject-Specific Kinematic Model to Predict Human Motion in Exoskeleton-Assisted Gait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Diego; Cortés, Camilo; Lete, Nerea; Bertelsen, Álvaro; Gonzalez-Vargas, Jose E.; del-Ama, Antonio J.; Dimbwadyo, Iris; Moreno, Juan C.; Florez, Julian; Pons, Jose L.

    2018-01-01

    The relative motion between human and exoskeleton is a crucial factor that has remarkable consequences on the efficiency, reliability and safety of human-robot interaction. Unfortunately, its quantitative assessment has been largely overlooked in the literature. Here, we present a methodology that allows predicting the motion of the human joints from the knowledge of the angular motion of the exoskeleton frame. Our method combines a subject-specific skeletal model with a kinematic model of a lower limb exoskeleton (H2, Technaid), imposing specific kinematic constraints between them. To calibrate the model and validate its ability to predict the relative motion in a subject-specific way, we performed experiments on seven healthy subjects during treadmill walking tasks. We demonstrate a prediction accuracy lower than 3.5° globally, and around 1.5° at the hip level, which represent an improvement up to 66% compared to the traditional approach assuming no relative motion between the user and the exoskeleton. PMID:29755336

  7. Gene-specific characterization of human histone H2B by electron capture dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuti, Nertila; Roth, Michael J; Mizzen, Craig A; Kelleher, Neil L; Pesavento, James J

    2006-02-01

    The basis set of protein forms expressed by human cells from the H2B gene family was determined by Top Down Mass Spectrometry. Using Electron Capture Dissociation for MS/MS of H2B isoforms, direct evidence for the expression of unmodified H2B.Q, H2B.A, H2B.K/T, H2B.J, H2B.E, H2B.B, H2B.F, and monoacetylated H2B.A was obtained from asynchronous HeLa cells. H2B.A was the most abundant form, with the overall expression profile not changing significantly in cells arrested in mitosis by colchicine or during mid-S, mid-G2, G2/M, and mid-G1 phases of the cell cycle. Modest hyperacetylation of H2B family members was observed after sodium butyrate treatment.

  8. Vortex re-capturing and kinematics in human underwater undulatory swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochstein, Stefan; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    To maximize swimming speed athletes copy fish undulatory swimming during the underwater period after start and turn. The anatomical limitations may lead to deviations and may enforce compensating strategies. This has been investigated by analyzing the kinematics of two national female swimmers while swimming in a still water pool. Additionally, the flow around and behind the swimmers was measured with the aid of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-2D-PIV). As compared to fish, the swimmers used undulatory waves characterized by much higher Strouhal numbers but very similar amplitude distributions along the body and Froude efficiencies. Vortices generated in the region of strongly flexing joints are suitable to be used pedally to enhance propulsion (vortex re-capturing). Complementing studies using numerical and technical modeling will help us to probe the efficiency of observed mechanisms and further improvements of the human strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Capturing specific abilities as a window into human individuality: the example of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, Jeremy B; Germine, Laura; Chabris, Christopher F; Chatterjee, Garga; Gerbasi, Margaret; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Proper characterization of each individual's unique pattern of strengths and weaknesses requires good measures of diverse abilities. Here, we advocate combining our growing understanding of neural and cognitive mechanisms with modern psychometric methods in a renewed effort to capture human individuality through a consideration of specific abilities. We articulate five criteria for the isolation and measurement of specific abilities, then apply these criteria to face recognition. We cleanly dissociate face recognition from more general visual and verbal recognition. This dissociation stretches across ability as well as disability, suggesting that specific developmental face recognition deficits are a special case of a broader specificity that spans the entire spectrum of human face recognition performance. Item-by-item results from 1,471 web-tested participants, included as supplementary information, fuel item analyses, validation, norming, and item response theory (IRT) analyses of our three tests: (a) the widely used Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT); (b) an Abstract Art Memory Test (AAMT), and (c) a Verbal Paired-Associates Memory Test (VPMT). The availability of this data set provides a solid foundation for interpreting future scores on these tests. We argue that the allied fields of experimental psychology, cognitive neuroscience, and vision science could fuel the discovery of additional specific abilities to add to face recognition, thereby providing new perspectives on human individuality.

  10. The Use of Wearable Inertial Motion Sensors in Human Lower Limb Biomechanics Studies: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Yan Chan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Wearable motion sensors consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors are readily available nowadays. The small size and low production costs of motion sensors make them a very good tool for human motions analysis. However, data processing and accuracy of the collected data are important issues for research purposes. In this paper, we aim to review the literature related to usage of inertial sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies. A systematic search was done in the following search engines: ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Thirty nine full papers and conference abstracts with related topics were included in this review. The type of sensor involved, data collection methods, study design, validation methods and its applications were reviewed.

  11. The use of wearable inertial motion sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Chan, Yue-Yan

    2010-01-01

    Wearable motion sensors consisting of accelerometers, gyroscopes and magnetic sensors are readily available nowadays. The small size and low production costs of motion sensors make them a very good tool for human motions analysis. However, data processing and accuracy of the collected data are important issues for research purposes. In this paper, we aim to review the literature related to usage of inertial sensors in human lower limb biomechanics studies. A systematic search was done in the following search engines: ISI Web of Knowledge, Medline, SportDiscus and IEEE Xplore. Thirty nine full papers and conference abstracts with related topics were included in this review. The type of sensor involved, data collection methods, study design, validation methods and its applications were reviewed.

  12. Human upper limb manipulator mass center motion and mass moments of inertia variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolova Gergana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion control is complicated for people having traumas or neurological diseases. An underlying assumption in our work is that the motion of healthy people is optimal with respect to positioning accuracy, movement response, and energy expenditure. In this paper, a new approach for determination of the human upper limb mass-inertial characteristics is presented by using the 3D geometrical mathematical modeling analysis approach. Two examples will be given to illustrate the main features and advantages of the proposed design concepts. The objective of the work presented in this paper is a determination of the mass properties of a two joints human upper limb manipulator. Results are aimed to have application in an exoskeleton design, the design of manipulation system and external manipulation system, serving people with some motion difficulties, as well as in sport and rehabilitation.

  13. Efficient Human Action and Gait Analysis Using Multiresolution Motion Energy Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Chin Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Average Motion Energy (AME image is a good way to describe human motions. However, it has to face the computation efficiency problem with the increasing number of database templates. In this paper, we propose a histogram-based approach to improve the computation efficiency. We convert the human action/gait recognition problem to a histogram matching problem. In order to speed up the recognition process, we adopt a multiresolution structure on the Motion Energy Histogram (MEH. To utilize the multiresolution structure more efficiently, we propose an automated uneven partitioning method which is achieved by utilizing the quadtree decomposition results of MEH. In that case, the computation time is only relevant to the number of partitioned histogram bins, which is much less than the AME method. Two applications, action recognition and gait classification, are conducted in the experiments to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed approach.

  14. Analysis of Human's Motions Based on Local Mean Decomposition in Through-wall Radar Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Liu, Cai; Zeng, Zhaofa; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xuebing

    2016-04-01

    Observation of human motions through a wall is an important issue in security applications and search-and rescue. Radar has advantages in looking through walls where other sensors give low performance or cannot be used at all. Ultrawideband (UWB) radar has high spatial resolution as a result of employment of ultranarrow pulses. It has abilities to distinguish the closely positioned targets and provide time-lapse information of targets. Moreover, the UWB radar shows good performance in wall penetration when the inherently short pulses spread their energy over a broad frequency range. Human's motions show periodic features including respiration, swing arms and legs, fluctuations of the torso. Detection of human targets is based on the fact that there is always periodic motion due to breathing or other body movements like walking. The radar can gain the reflections from each human body parts and add the reflections at each time sample. The periodic movements will cause micro-Doppler modulation in the reflected radar signals. Time-frequency analysis methods are consider as the effective tools to analysis and extract micro-Doppler effects caused by the periodic movements in the reflected radar signal, such as short-time Fourier transform (STFT), wavelet transform (WT), and Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT).The local mean decomposition (LMD), initially developed by Smith (2005), is to decomposed amplitude and frequency modulated signals into a small set of product functions (PFs), each of which is the product of an envelope signal and a frequency modulated signal from which a time-vary instantaneous phase and instantaneous frequency can be derived. As bypassing the Hilbert transform, the LMD has no demodulation error coming from window effect and involves no negative frequency without physical sense. Also, the instantaneous attributes obtained by LMD are more stable and precise than those obtained by the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) because LMD uses smoothed local

  15. Human-like motion planning model for driving in signalized intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Gu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Highly automated and fully autonomous vehicles are much more likely to be accepted if they react in the same way as human drivers do, especially in a hybrid traffic situation, which allows autonomous vehicles and human-driven vehicles to share the same road. This paper proposes a human-like motion planning model to represent how human drivers assess environments and operate vehicles in signalized intersections. The developed model consists of a pedestrian intention detection model, gap detection model, and vehicle control model. These three submodels are individually responsible for situation assessment, decision making, and action, and also depend on each other in the process of motion planning. In addition, these submodels are constructed and learned on the basis of human drivers' data collected from real traffic environments. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed motion planning model, we compared the proposed model with actual human driver and pedestrian data. The experimental results showed that our proposed model and actual human driver behaviors are highly similar with respect to gap acceptance in intersections.

  16. Kinematics design and human motion transfer for a humanoid service robot arm

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dube, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available . Philadelphia: Saunders Col- lege Publishing, 1982. [2] Hamill, J. and Knutzen, K. M., Biomechanical Basis of Human Motion, Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1995. [3] Lenarcˇicˇ, J. and Klopcˇar, N.,“Positional kinematics of hu- manoid arms,” Robotica, vol...

  17. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoaib, M.; Bosch, S.; Durmaz, O.; Scholten, Johan; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The position of on-body motion sensors plays an important role in human activity recognition. Most often, mobile phone sensors at the trouser pocket or an equivalent position are used for this purpose. However, this position is not suitable for recognizing activities that involve hand gestures, such

  18. Human Kinematics of Cochlear Implant Surgery: An Investigation of Insertion Micro-Motions and Speed Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Kyle; Dillon, Neal P; Fichera, Loris; Labadie, Robert F

    2017-09-01

    Objectives Document human motions associated with cochlear implant electrode insertion at different speeds and determine the lower limit of continuous insertion speed by a human. Study Design Observational. Setting Academic medical center. Subjects and Methods Cochlear implant forceps were coupled to a frame containing reflective fiducials, which enabled optical tracking of the forceps' tip position in real time. Otolaryngologists (n = 14) performed mock electrode insertions at different speeds based on recommendations from the literature: "fast" (96 mm/min), "stable" (as slow as possible without stopping), and "slow" (15 mm/min). For each insertion, the following metrics were calculated from the tracked position data: percentage of time at prescribed speed, percentage of time the surgeon stopped moving forward, and number of direction reversals (ie, going from forward to backward motion). Results Fast insertion trials resulted in better adherence to the prescribed speed (45.4% of the overall time), no motion interruptions, and no reversals, as compared with slow insertions (18.6% of time at prescribed speed, 15.7% stopped time, and an average of 18.6 reversals per trial). These differences were statistically significant for all metrics ( P implant electrode at 15 mm/min is not feasible for human operators. The lower limit of continuous forward insertion is 52 mm/min on average. Guidelines on manual insertion kinematics should consider this practical limit of human motion.

  19. One-degree-of-freedom spherical model for the passive motion of the human ankle joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancisi, Nicola; Baldisserri, Benedetta; Parenti-Castelli, Vincenzo; Belvedere, Claudio; Leardini, Alberto

    2014-04-01

    Mathematical modelling of mobility at the human ankle joint is essential for prosthetics and orthotic design. The scope of this study is to show that the ankle joint passive motion can be represented by a one-degree-of-freedom spherical motion. Moreover, this motion is modelled by a one-degree-of-freedom spherical parallel mechanism model, and the optimal pivot-point position is determined. Passive motion and anatomical data were taken from in vitro experiments in nine lower limb specimens. For each of these, a spherical mechanism, including the tibiofibular and talocalcaneal segments connected by a spherical pair and by the calcaneofibular and tibiocalcaneal ligament links, was defined from the corresponding experimental kinematics and geometry. An iterative procedure was used to optimize the geometry of the model, able to predict original experimental motion. The results of the simulations showed a good replication of the original natural motion, despite the numerous model assumptions and simplifications, with mean differences between experiments and predictions smaller than 1.3 mm (average 0.33 mm) for the three joint position components and smaller than 0.7° (average 0.32°) for the two out-of-sagittal plane rotations, once plotted versus the full flexion arc. The relevant pivot-point position after model optimization was found within the tibial mortise, but not exactly in a central location. The present combined experimental and modelling analysis of passive motion at the human ankle joint shows that a one degree-of-freedom spherical mechanism predicts well what is observed in real joints, although its computational complexity is comparable to the standard hinge joint model.

  20. An examination of the degrees of freedom of human jaw motion in speech and mastication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostry, D J; Vatikiotis-Bateson, E; Gribble, P L

    1997-12-01

    The kinematics of human jaw movements were assessed in terms of the three orientation angles and three positions that characterize the motion of the jaw as a rigid body. The analysis focused on the identification of the jaw's independent movement dimensions, and was based on an examination of jaw motion paths that were plotted in various combinations of linear and angular coordinate frames. Overall, both behaviors were characterized by independent motion in four degrees of freedom. In general, when jaw movements were plotted to show orientation in the sagittal plane as a function of horizontal position, relatively straight paths were observed. In speech, the slopes and intercepts of these paths varied depending on the phonetic material. The vertical position of the jaw was observed to shift up or down so as to displace the overall form of the sagittal plane motion path of the jaw. Yaw movements were small but independent of pitch, and vertical and horizontal position. In mastication, the slope and intercept of the relationship between pitch and horizontal position were affected by the type of food and its size. However, the range of variation was less than that observed in speech. When vertical jaw position was plotted as a function of horizontal position, the basic form of the path of the jaw was maintained but could be shifted vertically. In general, larger bolus diameters were associated with lower jaw positions throughout the movement. The timing of pitch and yaw motion differed. The most common pattern involved changes in pitch angle during jaw opening followed by a phase predominated by lateral motion (yaw). Thus, in both behaviors there was evidence of independent motion in pitch, yaw, horizontal position, and vertical position. This is consistent with the idea that motions in these degrees of freedom are independently controlled.

  1. Real-Time Human Detection for Aerial Captured Video Sequences via Deep Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouar AlDahoul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human detection in videos plays an important role in various real life applications. Most of traditional approaches depend on utilizing handcrafted features which are problem-dependent and optimal for specific tasks. Moreover, they are highly susceptible to dynamical events such as illumination changes, camera jitter, and variations in object sizes. On the other hand, the proposed feature learning approaches are cheaper and easier because highly abstract and discriminative features can be produced automatically without the need of expert knowledge. In this paper, we utilize automatic feature learning methods which combine optical flow and three different deep models (i.e., supervised convolutional neural network (S-CNN, pretrained CNN feature extractor, and hierarchical extreme learning machine for human detection in videos captured using a nonstatic camera on an aerial platform with varying altitudes. The models are trained and tested on the publicly available and highly challenging UCF-ARG aerial dataset. The comparison between these models in terms of training, testing accuracy, and learning speed is analyzed. The performance evaluation considers five human actions (digging, waving, throwing, walking, and running. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed methods are successful for human detection task. Pretrained CNN produces an average accuracy of 98.09%. S-CNN produces an average accuracy of 95.6% with soft-max and 91.7% with Support Vector Machines (SVM. H-ELM has an average accuracy of 95.9%. Using a normal Central Processing Unit (CPU, H-ELM’s training time takes 445 seconds. Learning in S-CNN takes 770 seconds with a high performance Graphical Processing Unit (GPU.

  2. Anopheles Midgut Epithelium Evades Human Complement Activity by Capturing Factor H from the Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood. PMID:25679788

  3. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  4. Quantitative anatomical analysis of facial expression using a 3D motion capture system: Application to cosmetic surgery and facial recognition technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Gi; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Hyung-Jin; Seo, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, You-Jin; Bae, Hyun-Sook; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2015-09-01

    The topography of the facial muscles differs between males and females and among individuals of the same gender. To explain the unique expressions that people can make, it is important to define the shapes of the muscle, their associations with the skin, and their relative functions. Three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture analysis, often used to study facial expression, was used in this study to identify characteristic skin movements in males and females when they made six representative basic expressions. The movements of 44 reflective markers (RMs) positioned on anatomical landmarks were measured. Their mean displacement was large in males [ranging from 14.31 mm (fear) to 41.15 mm (anger)], and 3.35-4.76 mm smaller in females [ranging from 9.55 mm (fear) to 37.80 mm (anger)]. The percentages of RMs involved in the ten highest mean maximum displacement values in making at least one expression were 47.6% in males and 61.9% in females. The movements of the RMs were larger in males than females but were more limited. Expanding our understanding of facial expression requires morphological studies of facial muscles and studies of related complex functionality. Conducting these together with quantitative analyses, as in the present study, will yield data valuable for medicine, dentistry, and engineering, for example, for surgical operations on facial regions, software for predicting changes in facial features and expressions after corrective surgery, and the development of face-mimicking robots. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Application Of Three-Dimensional Videography To Human Motion Studies: Constraints, Assumptions, And Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, George T.

    1988-02-01

    Three-dimensional human motion analysis has been used for complex kinematic description of abnormal gait in children with neuromuscular disease. Multiple skin markers estimate skeletal segment position, and a sorting and smoothing routine provides marker trajectories. The position and orientation of the moving skeleton in space are derived mathematically from the marker positions, and joint motions are calculated from the Eulerian transformation matrix between linked proximal and distal skeletal segments. Reproduceability has been excellent, and the technique has proven to be a useful adjunct to surgical planning.

  6. Testing human sperm chemotaxis: how to detect biased motion in population assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Armon

    Full Text Available Biased motion of motile cells in a concentration gradient of a chemoattractant is frequently studied on the population level. This approach has been particularly employed in human sperm chemotactic assays, where the fraction of responsive cells is low and detection of biased motion depends on subtle differences. In these assays, statistical measures such as population odds ratios of swimming directions can be employed to infer chemotactic performance. Here, we report on an improved method to assess statistical significance of experimentally determined odds ratios and discuss the strong impact of data correlations that arise from the directional persistence of sperm swimming.

  7. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhaoyuan; Yuan, Linwang; Luo, Wen; Feng, Linyao; Lv, Guonian

    2015-12-30

    Passive infrared (PIR) motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA)-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  8. Spatio-Temporal Constrained Human Trajectory Generation from the PIR Motion Detector Sensor Network Data: A Geometric Algebra Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyuan Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive infrared (PIR motion detectors, which can support long-term continuous observation, are widely used for human motion analysis. Extracting all possible trajectories from the PIR sensor networks is important. Because the PIR sensor does not log location and individual information, none of the existing methods can generate all possible human motion trajectories that satisfy various spatio-temporal constraints from the sensor activation log data. In this paper, a geometric algebra (GA-based approach is developed to generate all possible human trajectories from the PIR sensor network data. Firstly, the representation of the geographical network, sensor activation response sequences and the human motion are represented as algebraic elements using GA. The human motion status of each sensor activation are labeled using the GA-based trajectory tracking. Then, a matrix multiplication approach is developed to dynamically generate the human trajectories according to the sensor activation log and the spatio-temporal constraints. The method is tested with the MERL motion database. Experiments show that our method can flexibly extract the major statistical pattern of the human motion. Compared with direct statistical analysis and tracklet graph method, our method can effectively extract all possible trajectories of the human motion, which makes it more accurate. Our method is also likely to provides a new way to filter other passive sensor log data in sensor networks.

  9. Dynamics Of Human Motion The Case Study of an Examination Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunjo, Samuel; Ajayi, Oluwaseyi; Fuwape, Ibiyinka; Dansu, Emmanuel

    Human behaviour is difficult to characterize and generalize due to ITS complex nature. Advances in mathematical models have enabled human systems such as love interaction, alcohol abuse, admission problem to be described using models. This study investigates one of such problems, the dynamics of human motion in an examination hall with limited computer systems such that students write their examination in batches. The examination is characterized by time (t) allocated to each students and difficulty level (dl) associated with the examination. A stochastic model based on the difficulty level of the examination was developed for the prediction of student's motion around the examination hall. A good agreement was obtained between theoretical predictions and numerical simulation. The result obtained will help in better planning of examination session to maximize available resources. Furthermore, results obtained in the research can be extended to other areas such as banking hall, customer service points where available resources will be shared amongst many users.

  10. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jeongjin; Ryu, Mun-ho; Yang, Yoonseok

    2015-07-03

    The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM) and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg) and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.

  11. Energy Harvesting from Upper-Limb Pulling Motions for Miniaturized Human-Powered Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongjin Yeo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human-powered self-generator provides the best solution for individuals who need an instantaneous power supply for travel, outdoor, and emergency use, since it is less dependent on weather conditions and occupies less space than other renewable power supplies. However, many commercial portable self-generators that employ hand-cranking are not used as much as expected in daily lives although they have enough output capacity due to their intensive workload. This study proposes a portable human-powered generator which is designed to obtain mechanical energy from an upper limb pulling motion for improved human motion economy as well as efficient human-mechanical power transfer. A coreless axial-flux permanent magnet machine (APMM and a flywheel magnet rotor were used in conjunction with a one-way clutched power transmission system in order to obtain effective power from the pulling motion. The developed prototype showed an average energy conversion efficiency of 30.98% and an average output power of 0.32 W with a maximum of 1.89 W. Its small form factor (50 mm × 32 mm × 43.5 mm, 0.05 kg and the substantial electricity produced verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the utilization of human power. It is expected that the developed generator could provide a mobile power supply.

  12. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-01-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s −1 and 0.1494 m s −2 , respectively

  13. Observation and analysis of high-speed human motion with frequent occlusion in a large area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuru; Liu, Jiafeng; Liu, Guojun; Tang, Xianglong; Liu, Peng

    2009-12-01

    The use of computer vision technology in collecting and analyzing statistics during sports matches or training sessions is expected to provide valuable information for tactics improvement. However, the measurements published in the literature so far are either unreliably documented to be used in training planning due to their limitations or unsuitable for studying high-speed motion in large area with frequent occlusions. A sports annotation system is introduced in this paper for tracking high-speed non-rigid human motion over a large playing area with the aid of motion camera, taking short track speed skating competitions as an example. The proposed system is composed of two sub-systems: precise camera motion compensation and accurate motion acquisition. In the video registration step, a distinctive invariant point feature detector (probability density grads detector) and a global parallax based matching points filter are used, to provide reliable and robust matching across a large range of affine distortion and illumination change. In the motion acquisition step, a two regions' relationship constrained joint color model and Markov chain Monte Carlo based joint particle filter are emphasized, by dividing the human body into two relative key regions. Several field tests are performed to assess measurement errors, including comparison to popular algorithms. With the help of the system presented, the system obtains position data on a 30 m × 60 m large rink with root-mean-square error better than 0.3975 m, velocity and acceleration data with absolute error better than 1.2579 m s-1 and 0.1494 m s-2, respectively.

  14. Human Classification Based on Gestural Motions by Using Components of PCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Azri A; Wan, Khairunizam; Za'aba, S K; Shahriman A B; Asyekin H; Zuradzman M R; Adnan, Nazrul H

    2013-01-01

    Lately, a study of human capabilities with the aim to be integrated into machine is the famous topic to be discussed. Moreover, human are bless with special abilities that they can hear, see, sense, speak, think and understand each other. Giving such abilities to machine for improvement of human life is researcher's aim for better quality of life in the future. This research was concentrating on human gesture, specifically arm motions for differencing the individuality which lead to the development of the hand gesture database. We try to differentiate the human physical characteristic based on hand gesture represented by arm trajectories. Subjects are selected from different type of the body sizes, and then acquired data undergo resampling process. The results discuss the classification of human based on arm trajectories by using Principle Component Analysis (PCA)

  15. The human cytochrome P450 3A locus. Gene evolution by capture of downstream exons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finta, C; Zaphiropoulos, P G

    2000-12-30

    Using a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone, we have mapped the human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) locus containing the genes encoding for CYP3A4, CYP3A5 and CYP3A7. The genes lie in a head-to-tail orientation in the order of 3A4, 3A7 and 3A5. In both intergenic regions (3A4-3A7 and 3A7-3A5), we have detected several additional cytochrome P450 3A exons, forming two CYP3A pseudogenes. These pseudogenes have the same orientation as the CYP3A genes. To our surprise, a 3A7 mRNA species has been detected in which the exons 2 and 13 of one of the pseudogenes (the one that is downstream of 3A7) are spliced after the 3A7 terminal exon. This results in an mRNA molecule that consists of the 13 3A7 exons and two additional exons at the 3' end. The additional two exons originating from the pseudogene are in an altered reading frame and consequently have the capability to code a completely different amino acid sequence than the canonical CYP3A exons 2 and 13. These findings may represent a generalized evolutionary process with genes having the potential to capture neighboring sequences and use them as functional exons.

  16. Detection of human papillomavirus in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma by hybrid capture II and PCR assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Y; Kubo, E; Tsuzuki, S; Akagi, Y

    2008-11-01

    To elucidate the putative role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pterygium and conjunctival papilloma. Hybrid capture II (HC-II) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were performed to detect HPV in pterygium (42 samples obtained from 40 patients) and conjunctival papilloma (8 samples from 6 patients). The amount of HPV DNA was evaluated by measurement of relative light units (RLUs) on a luminometer. All papilloma samples were positive for HPV DNA by PCR and HC-II. The RLU values for specimens of recurrent and re-recurrent papilloma were markedly higher than those for specimens of primary lesions. HPV was detected by PCR in 2 of 42 (4.8%) beta-globin-positive pterygium specimens, whereas HC-II showed that HPV was negative in all pterygium samples. Our results support the hypothesis that HPV DNA is associated with the pathogenesis of conjunctival papilloma, but not pterygium. RLU measurement by HC-II may serve as a marker for evaluating the activity of HPV in conjunctival tumours.

  17. Self-adapted and tunable graphene strain sensors for detecting both subtle and large human motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lu-Qi; Wang, Dan-Yang; Tian, He; Ju, Zhen-Yi; Liu, Ying; Pang, Yu; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2017-06-22

    Conventional strain sensors rarely have both a high gauge factor and a large strain range simultaneously, so they can only be used in specific situations where only a high sensitivity or a large strain range is required. However, for detecting human motions that include both subtle and large motions, these strain sensors can't meet the diverse demands simultaneously. Here, we come up with laser patterned graphene strain sensors with self-adapted and tunable performance for the first time. A series of strain sensors with either an ultrahigh gauge factor or a preferable strain range can be fabricated simultaneously via one-step laser patterning, and are suitable for detecting all human motions. The strain sensors have a GF of up to 457 with a strain range of 35%, or have a strain range of up to 100% with a GF of 268. Most importantly, the performance of the strain sensors can be easily tuned by adjusting the patterns of the graphene, so that the sensors can meet diverse demands in both subtle and large motion situations. The graphene strain sensors show significant potential in applications such as wearable electronics, health monitoring and intelligent robots. Furthermore, the facile, fast and low-cost fabrication method will make them possible and practical to be used for commercial applications in the future.

  18. Myosin content of individual human muscle fibers isolated by laser capture microdissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Charles A; Stone, William L; Howell, Mary E A; Brannon, Marianne F; Hall, H Kenton; Gibson, Andrew L; Stone, Michael H

    2016-03-01

    Muscle fiber composition correlates with insulin resistance, and exercise training can increase slow-twitch (type I) fibers and, thereby, mitigate diabetes risk. Human skeletal muscle is made up of three distinct fiber types, but muscle contains many more isoforms of myosin heavy and light chains, which are coded by 15 and 11 different genes, respectively. Laser capture microdissection techniques allow assessment of mRNA and protein content in individual fibers. We found that specific human fiber types contain different mixtures of myosin heavy and light chains. Fast-twitch (type IIx) fibers consistently contained myosin heavy chains 1, 2, and 4 and myosin light chain 1. Type I fibers always contained myosin heavy chains 6 and 7 (MYH6 and MYH7) and myosin light chain 3 (MYL3), whereas MYH6, MYH7, and MYL3 were nearly absent from type IIx fibers. In contrast to cardiomyocytes, where MYH6 (also known as α-myosin heavy chain) is seen solely in fast-twitch cells, only slow-twitch fibers of skeletal muscle contained MYH6. Classical fast myosin heavy chains (MHC1, MHC2, and MHC4) were present in variable proportions in all fiber types, but significant MYH6 and MYH7 expression indicated slow-twitch phenotype, and the absence of these two isoforms determined a fast-twitch phenotype. The mixed myosin heavy and light chain content of type IIa fibers was consistent with its role as a transition between fast and slow phenotypes. These new observations suggest that the presence or absence of MYH6 and MYH7 proteins dictates the slow- or fast-twitch phenotype in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion: theory, state of the art, design guidelines, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer, Raziel; Shapiro, Amir

    2011-04-26

    Biomechanical energy harvesting from human motion presents a promising clean alternative to electrical power supplied by batteries for portable electronic devices and for computerized and motorized prosthetics. We present the theory of energy harvesting from the human body and describe the amount of energy that can be harvested from body heat and from motions of various parts of the body during walking, such as heel strike; ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, and elbow joint motion; and center of mass vertical motion. We evaluated major motions performed during walking and identified the amount of work the body expends and the portion of recoverable energy. During walking, there are phases of the motion at the joints where muscles act as brakes and energy is lost to the surroundings. During those phases of motion, the required braking force or torque can be replaced by an electrical generator, allowing energy to be harvested at the cost of only minimal additional effort. The amount of energy that can be harvested was estimated experimentally and from literature data. Recommendations for future directions are made on the basis of our results in combination with a review of state-of-the-art biomechanical energy harvesting devices and energy conversion methods. For a device that uses center of mass motion, the maximum amount of energy that can be harvested is approximately 1 W per kilogram of device weight. For a person weighing 80 kg and walking at approximately 4 km/h, the power generation from the heel strike is approximately 2 W. For a joint-mounted device based on generative braking, the joints generating the most power are the knees (34 W) and the ankles (20 W). Our theoretical calculations align well with current device performance data. Our results suggest that the most energy can be harvested from the lower limb joints, but to do so efficiently, an innovative and light-weight mechanical design is needed. We also compared the option of carrying batteries to the

  20. Development of a quantitative bead capture assay for soluble IL-7 receptor alpha in human plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Faucher

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: IL-7 is an essential cytokine in T-cell development and homeostasis. It binds to the IL-7R receptor, a complex of the IL-7Ralpha (CD127 and common gamma (CD132 chains. There is significant interest in evaluating the expression of CD127 on human T-cells as it often decreased in medical conditions leading to lymphopenia. Previous reports showed the usefulness of CD127 as a prognostic marker in viral infections such as HIV, CMV, EBV and HCV. A soluble CD127 (sCD127 is released in plasma and may contribute to disease pathogenesis through its control on IL-7 activities. Measuring sCD127 is important to define its role and may complement existing markers used in lymphopenic disease management. We describe a new quantitative assay for the measurement of sCD127 in plasma and report sCD127 concentrations in healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a quantitative bead-based sCD127 capture assay. Polyclonal CD127-specific antibodies were chosen for capture and a biotinylated monoclonal anti-CD127 antibody was selected for detection. The assay can detect native sCD127 and recombinant sCD127 which served as the calibrator. The analytical performance of the assay was characterized and the concentration and stability of plasma sCD127 in healthy adults was determined. The assay's range was 3.2-1000 ng/mL. The concentration of plasma sCD127 was 164+/-104 ng/mL with over a log variation between subjects. Individual sCD127 concentrations remained stable when measured serially during a period of up to one year. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report on the quantification of plasma sCD127 in a population of healthy adults. Soluble CD127 plasma concentrations remained stable over time in a given individual and sCD127 immunoreactivity was resistant to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. This quantitative sCD127 assay is a valuable tool for defining the potential role of sCD127 in lymphopenic diseases.

  1. Wearable Stretch Sensors for Motion Measurement of the Wrist Joint Based on Dielectric Elastomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Mingyu; Mei, Tao; McCoul, David; Qin, Shihao; Zhao, Zhanfeng; Zhao, Jianwen

    2017-11-23

    Motion capture of the human body potentially holds great significance for exoskeleton robots, human-computer interaction, sports analysis, rehabilitation research, and many other areas. Dielectric elastomer sensors (DESs) are excellent candidates for wearable human motion capture systems because of their intrinsic characteristics of softness, light weight, and compliance. In this paper, DESs were applied to measure all component motions of the wrist joints. Five sensors were mounted to different positions on the wrist, and each one is for one component motion. To find the best position to mount the sensors, the distribution of the muscles is analyzed. Even so, the component motions and the deformation of the sensors are coupled; therefore, a decoupling method was developed. By the decoupling algorithm, all component motions can be measured with a precision of 5°, which meets the requirements of general motion capture systems.

  2. Visual motion transforms visual space representations similarly throughout the human visual hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben M; Dumoulin, Serge O

    2016-02-15

    Several studies demonstrate that visual stimulus motion affects neural receptive fields and fMRI response amplitudes. Here we unite results of these two approaches and extend them by examining the effects of visual motion on neural position preferences throughout the hierarchy of human visual field maps. We measured population receptive field (pRF) properties using high-field fMRI (7T), characterizing position preferences simultaneously over large regions of the visual cortex. We measured pRFs properties using sine wave gratings in stationary apertures, moving at various speeds in either the direction of pRF measurement or the orthogonal direction. We find direction- and speed-dependent changes in pRF preferred position and size in all visual field maps examined, including V1, V3A, and the MT+ map TO1. These effects on pRF properties increase up the hierarchy of visual field maps. However, both within and between visual field maps the extent of pRF changes was approximately proportional to pRF size. This suggests that visual motion transforms the representation of visual space similarly throughout the visual hierarchy. Visual motion can also produce an illusory displacement of perceived stimulus position. We demonstrate perceptual displacements using the same stimulus configuration. In contrast to effects on pRF properties, perceptual displacements show only weak effects of motion speed, with far larger speed-independent effects. We describe a model where low-level mechanisms could underlie the observed effects on neural position preferences. We conclude that visual motion induces similar transformations of visuo-spatial representations throughout the visual hierarchy, which may arise through low-level mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Flexible and multi-directional piezoelectric energy harvester for self-powered human motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ook; Pyo, Soonjae; Oh, Yongkeun; Kang, Yunsung; Cho, Kyung-Ho; Choi, Jungwook; Kim, Jongbaeg

    2018-03-01

    A flexible piezoelectric strain energy harvester that is responsive to multi-directional input forces produced by various human motions is proposed. The structure of the harvester, which includes a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) bump, facilitates the effective conversion of strain energy, produced by input forces applied in random directions, into electrical energy. The structural design of the PDMS bump and frame as well as the slits in the piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film provide mechanical flexibility and enhance the strain induced in the PVDF film under input forces applied at various angles. The amount and direction of the strain induced in PVDF can be changed by the direction of the applied force; thus, the generated output power can be varied. The measured maximum output peak voltage is 1.75, 1.29, and 0.98 V when an input force of 4 N (2 Hz) is applied at angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, and the corresponding maximum output power is 0.064, 0.026, and 0.02 μW, respectively. Moreover, the harvester stably generates output voltage over 1.4 × 104 cycles. Thus, the proposed harvester successfully identifies and converts strain energy produced by multi-directional input forces by various human motions into electrical energy. We demonstrate the potential utility of the proposed flexible energy harvester as a self-powered human motion sensor for wireless healthcare systems.

  4. Frequency of gamma oscillations in humans is modulated by velocity of visual motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butorina, Anna V.; Sysoeva, Olga V.; Prokofyev, Andrey O.; Nikolaeva, Anastasia Yu.; Stroganova, Tatiana A.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma oscillations are generated in networks of inhibitory fast-spiking (FS) parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons and pyramidal cells. In animals, gamma frequency is modulated by the velocity of visual motion; the effect of velocity has not been evaluated in humans. In this work, we have studied velocity-related modulations of gamma frequency in children using MEG/EEG. We also investigated whether such modulations predict the prominence of the “spatial suppression” effect (Tadin D, Lappin JS, Gilroy LA, Blake R. Nature 424: 312-315, 2003) that is thought to depend on cortical center-surround inhibitory mechanisms. MEG/EEG was recorded in 27 normal boys aged 8–15 yr while they watched high-contrast black-and-white annular gratings drifting with velocities of 1.2, 3.6, and 6.0°/s and performed a simple detection task. The spatial suppression effect was assessed in a separate psychophysical experiment. MEG gamma oscillation frequency increased while power decreased with increasing velocity of visual motion. In EEG, the effects were less reliable. The frequencies of the velocity-specific gamma peaks were 64.9, 74.8, and 87.1 Hz for the slow, medium, and fast motions, respectively. The frequency of the gamma response elicited during slow and medium velocity of visual motion decreased with subject age, whereas the range of gamma frequency modulation by velocity increased with age. The frequency modulation range predicted spatial suppression even after controlling for the effect of age. We suggest that the modulation of the MEG gamma frequency by velocity of visual motion reflects excitability of cortical inhibitory circuits and can be used to investigate their normal and pathological development in the human brain. PMID:25925324

  5. Combination of Accumulated Motion and Color Segmentation for Human Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briassouli Alexia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The automated analysis of activity in digital multimedia, and especially video, is gaining more and more importance due to the evolution of higher-level video processing systems and the development of relevant applications such as surveillance and sports. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the recognition and classification of human activities, which employs motion and color characteristics in a complementary manner, so as to extract the most information from both sources, and overcome their individual limitations. The proposed method accumulates the flow estimates in a video, and extracts "regions of activity" by processing their higher-order statistics. The shape of these activity areas can be used for the classification of the human activities and events taking place in a video and the subsequent extraction of higher-level semantics. Color segmentation of the active and static areas of each video frame is performed to complement this information. The color layers in the activity and background areas are compared using the earth mover's distance, in order to achieve accurate object segmentation. Thus, unlike much existing work on human activity analysis, the proposed approach is based on general color and motion processing methods, and not on specific models of the human body and its kinematics. The combined use of color and motion information increases the method robustness to illumination variations and measurement noise. Consequently, the proposed approach can lead to higher-level information about human activities, but its applicability is not limited to specific human actions. We present experiments with various real video sequences, from sports and surveillance domains, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  6. Combination of Accumulated Motion and Color Segmentation for Human Activity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Kompatsiaris

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The automated analysis of activity in digital multimedia, and especially video, is gaining more and more importance due to the evolution of higher-level video processing systems and the development of relevant applications such as surveillance and sports. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the recognition and classification of human activities, which employs motion and color characteristics in a complementary manner, so as to extract the most information from both sources, and overcome their individual limitations. The proposed method accumulates the flow estimates in a video, and extracts “regions of activity” by processing their higher-order statistics. The shape of these activity areas can be used for the classification of the human activities and events taking place in a video and the subsequent extraction of higher-level semantics. Color segmentation of the active and static areas of each video frame is performed to complement this information. The color layers in the activity and background areas are compared using the earth mover's distance, in order to achieve accurate object segmentation. Thus, unlike much existing work on human activity analysis, the proposed approach is based on general color and motion processing methods, and not on specific models of the human body and its kinematics. The combined use of color and motion information increases the method robustness to illumination variations and measurement noise. Consequently, the proposed approach can lead to higher-level information about human activities, but its applicability is not limited to specific human actions. We present experiments with various real video sequences, from sports and surveillance domains, to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  7. Using Temporal Covariance of Motion and Geometric Features via Boosting for Human Fall Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Farooq; Khan, Reamsha; Mahmood, Arif; Hassan, Malik Tahir; Jeon, And Moongu

    2018-06-12

    Fall induced damages are serious incidences for aged as well as young persons. A real-time automatic and accurate fall detection system can play a vital role in timely medication care which will ultimately help to decrease the damages and complications. In this paper, we propose a fast and more accurate real-time system which can detect people falling in videos captured by surveillance cameras. Novel temporal and spatial variance-based features are proposed which comprise the discriminatory motion, geometric orientation and location of the person. These features are used along with ensemble learning strategy of boosting with J48 and Adaboost classifiers. Experiments have been conducted on publicly available standard datasets including Multiple Cameras Fall ( with 2 classes and 3 classes ) and UR Fall Detection achieving percentage accuracies of 99.2, 99.25 and 99.0, respectively. Comparisons with nine state-of-the-art methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach on both datasets.

  8. Optical imaging of human cone photoreceptors directly following the capture of light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Bedggood

    Full Text Available Capture of light in the photoreceptor outer segment initiates a cascade of chemical events that inhibit neurotransmitter release, ultimately resulting in vision. The massed response of the photoreceptor population can be measured non-invasively by electrical recordings, but responses from individual cells cannot be measured without dissecting the retina. Here we used optical imaging to observe individual human cones in the living eye as they underwent bleaching of photopigment and associated phototransduction. The retina was simultaneously stimulated and observed with high intensity visible light at 1 kHz, using adaptive optics. There was marked variability between individual cones in both photosensitivity and pigment optical density, challenging the conventional assumption that photoreceptors act as identical subunits (coefficient of variation in rate of photoisomerization = 23%. There was also a pronounced inverse correlation between these two parameters (p<10(-7; the temporal evolution of image statistics revealed this to be a dynamic relationship, with cone waveguiding efficiency beginning a dramatic increase within 3 ms of light onset. Beginning as early as 2 ms after light onset and including half of cells by ∼7 ms, cone intensity showed reversals characteristic of interference phenomena, with greater delays in reversal corresponding to cones with more photopigment (p<10(-3. The timing of these changes is argued to best correspond with either the cessation of dark current, or to related events such as changes in intracellular cGMP. Cone intensity also showed fluctuations of high frequency (332±25 Hz and low amplitude (3.0±0.85%. Other groups have shown similar fluctuations that were directly evoked by light; if this corresponds to the same phenomenon, we propose that the amplitude of fluctuation may be increased by the use of a bright flash followed by a brief pause, to allow recovery of cone circulating current.

  9. Compression of Human Motion Animation Using the Reduction of Interjoint Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyu Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose two compression methods for the human motion in 3D space, based on the forward and inverse kinematics. In a motion chain, a movement of each joint is represented by a series of vector signals in 3D space. In general, specific types of joints such as end effectors often require higher precision than other general types of joints in, for example, CG animation and robot manipulation. The first method, which combines wavelet transform and forward kinematics, enables users to reconstruct the end effectors more precisely. Moreover, progressive decoding can be realized. The distortion of parent joint coming from quantization affects its child joint in turn and is accumulated to the end effector. To address this problem and to control the movement of the whole body, we propose a prediction method further based on the inverse kinematics. This method achieves efficient compression with a higher compression ratio and higher quality of the motion data. By comparing with some conventional methods, we demonstrate the advantage of ours with typical motions.

  10. Compression of Human Motion Animation Using the Reduction of Interjoint Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shiyu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We propose two compression methods for the human motion in 3D space, based on the forward and inverse kinematics. In a motion chain, a movement of each joint is represented by a series of vector signals in 3D space. In general, specific types of joints such as end effectors often require higher precision than other general types of joints in, for example, CG animation and robot manipulation. The first method, which combines wavelet transform and forward kinematics, enables users to reconstruct the end effectors more precisely. Moreover, progressive decoding can be realized. The distortion of parent joint coming from quantization affects its child joint in turn and is accumulated to the end effector. To address this problem and to control the movement of the whole body, we propose a prediction method further based on the inverse kinematics. This method achieves efficient compression with a higher compression ratio and higher quality of the motion data. By comparing with some conventional methods, we demonstrate the advantage of ours with typical motions.

  11. Neural Integration of Information Specifying Human Structure from Form, Motion, and Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stuart; Blake, Randolph

    2010-01-01

    Recent computational models of biological motion perception operate on ambiguous two-dimensional representations of the body (e.g., snapshots, posture templates) and contain no explicit means for disambiguating the three-dimensional orientation of a perceived human figure. Are there neural mechanisms in the visual system that represent a moving human figure’s orientation in three dimensions? To isolate and characterize the neural mechanisms mediating perception of biological motion, we used an adaptation paradigm together with bistable point-light (PL) animations whose perceived direction of heading fluctuates over time. After exposure to a PL walker with a particular stereoscopically defined heading direction, observers experienced a consistent aftereffect: a bistable PL walker, which could be perceived in the adapted orientation or reversed in depth, was perceived predominantly reversed in depth. A phase-scrambled adaptor produced no aftereffect, yet when adapting and test walkers differed in size or appeared on opposite sides of fixation aftereffects did occur. Thus, this heading direction aftereffect cannot be explained by local, disparity-specific motion adaptation, and the properties of scale and position invariance imply higher-level origins of neural adaptation. Nor is disparity essential for producing adaptation: when suspended on top of a stereoscopically defined, rotating globe, a context-disambiguated “globetrotter” was sufficient to bias the bistable walker’s direction, as were full-body adaptors. In sum, these results imply that the neural signals supporting biomotion perception integrate information on the form, motion, and three-dimensional depth orientation of the moving human figure. Models of biomotion perception should incorporate mechanisms to disambiguate depth ambiguities in two-dimensional body representations. PMID:20089892

  12. Robotic Assistance of Human Motion Using Active-Backdrivability on a Geared Electromagnetic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jorge Claros

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we describe an actuation and control system designed for geared electromagnetic motors, which is characterized by its simple implementation, fast response to external input loads, reliable human-machine interaction features, no need for previous set-up or calibration from user to user and high portability due to the reduction of weight and space used. By the implementation of the proposed system, an electromagnetic motor can become a multitasking, wearable actuation system capable of: detecting the user's intentions regarding motion, tracking the limbs with minimal force interaction within a wide bandwidth and also providing controllable assistance and resistance forces to the user's movements, without the use of any biological signal. Validation of the proposed approach is shown by the construction of a powered orthosis for the knee, used to test the system's performance under real human motion conditions. The proposed system was tested on one healthy subject by measuring electromyographic levels both with and without the orthosis, under controlled flexion and extension cycles. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in detecting the user's intentions regarding motion, reducing and increasing muscular activity when configured for assistance and resistance, respectively, and also increasing the transparency of the actuation system when perfect tracking of the limbs is needed.

  13. Shared sensory estimates for human motion perception and pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Trishna; Battifarano, Matthew; Simoncini, Claudio; Osborne, Leslie C

    2015-06-03

    Are sensory estimates formed centrally in the brain and then shared between perceptual and motor pathways or is centrally represented sensory activity decoded independently to drive awareness and action? Questions about the brain's information flow pose a challenge because systems-level estimates of environmental signals are only accessible indirectly as behavior. Assessing whether sensory estimates are shared between perceptual and motor circuits requires comparing perceptual reports with motor behavior arising from the same sensory activity. Extrastriate visual cortex both mediates the perception of visual motion and provides the visual inputs for behaviors such as smooth pursuit eye movements. Pursuit has been a valuable testing ground for theories of sensory information processing because the neural circuits and physiological response properties of motion-responsive cortical areas are well studied, sensory estimates of visual motion signals are formed quickly, and the initiation of pursuit is closely coupled to sensory estimates of target motion. Here, we analyzed variability in visually driven smooth pursuit and perceptual reports of target direction and speed in human subjects while we manipulated the signal-to-noise level of motion estimates. Comparable levels of variability throughout viewing time and across conditions provide evidence for shared noise sources in the perception and action pathways arising from a common sensory estimate. We found that conditions that create poor, low-gain pursuit create a discrepancy between the precision of perception and that of pursuit. Differences in pursuit gain arising from differences in optic flow strength in the stimulus reconcile much of the controversy on this topic. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/358515-16$15.00/0.

  14. Controlling Urban Lighting by Human Motion Patterns results from a full Scale Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Esben Skouboe; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a full-scale experiment investigating the use of human motion intensities as input for interactive illumination of a town square in the city of Aalborg in Denmark. As illuminators sixteen 3.5 meter high RGB LED lamps were used. The activity on the square was monitored by three...... thermal cameras and analysed by computer vision software from which motion intensity maps and peoples trajectories were estimated and used as input to control the interactive illumination. The paper introduces a 2-layered interactive light strategy addressing ambient and effect illumination criteria...... totally four light scenarios were designed and tested. The result shows that in general people immersed in the street lighting did not notice that the light changed according to their presence or actions, but people watching from the edge of the square noticed the interaction between the illumination...

  15. Magnetic navigation system for the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot in human blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, S. M.; Jang, G. H.; Choi, H. C.; Park, S. H.; Park, J. O.

    2012-04-01

    Different magnetic navigation systems (MNSs) have been investigated for the wireless manipulation of microrobots in human blood vessels. Here we propose a MNS and methodology for generation of both the precise helical and translational motions of a microrobot to improve its maneuverability in complex human blood vessel. We then present experiments demonstrating the helical and translational motions of a spiral-type microrobot to verify the proposed MNS.

  16. An Approach to Sensorless Detection of Human Input Torque and Its Application to Power Assist Motion in Electric Wheelchair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaida, Yukiko; Murakami, Toshiyuki

    A wheelchair is an important apparatus of mobility for people with disability. Power-assist motion in an electric wheelchair is to expand the operator's field of activities. This paper describes force sensorless detection of human input torque. Reaction torque estimation observer calculates the total disturbance torque first. Then, the human input torque is extracted from the estimated disturbance. In power-assist motion, assist torque is synthesized according to the product of assist gain and the average torque of the right and left input torque. Finally, the proposed method is verified through the experiments of power-assist motion.

  17. Gravity Cues Embedded in the Kinematics of Human Motion Are Detected in Form-from-Motion Areas of the Visual System and in Motor-Related Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Chabeauti, Pierre-Yves; Menant, Jasmine; Anton, Jean-Luc J J; Schmitz, Christina; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices). These findings suggest that compliance of observed movements with normal gravity was carried out by mapping them onto the observer's motor system and by extracting their overall form from local motion of the moving light points. We propose that judgment on graviceptive information embedded in BM can be established based on motor resonance and visual familiarity mechanisms and not necessarily by accessing the internal model of gravitational motion stored in the vestibular cortex.

  18. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  19. Analyzing the Effects of Human-Aware Motion Planning on Close-Proximity Human–Robot Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this work was to examine human response to motion-level robot adaptation to determine its effect on team fluency, human satisfaction, and perceived safety and comfort. Background: The evaluation of human response to adaptive robotic assistants has been limited, particularly in the realm of motion-level adaptation. The lack of true human-in-the-loop evaluation has made it impossible to determine whether such adaptation would lead to efficient and satisfying human–robot interaction. Method: We conducted an experiment in which participants worked with a robot to perform a collaborative task. Participants worked with an adaptive robot incorporating human-aware motion planning and with a baseline robot using shortest-path motions. Team fluency was evaluated through a set of quantitative metrics, and human satisfaction and perceived safety and comfort were evaluated through questionnaires. Results: When working with the adaptive robot, participants completed the task 5.57% faster, with 19.9% more concurrent motion, 2.96% less human idle time, 17.3% less robot idle time, and a 15.1% greater separation distance. Questionnaire responses indicated that participants felt safer and more comfortable when working with an adaptive robot and were more satisfied with it as a teammate than with the standard robot. Conclusion: People respond well to motion-level robot adaptation, and significant benefits can be achieved from its use in terms of both human–robot team fluency and human worker satisfaction. Application: Our conclusion supports the development of technologies that could be used to implement human-aware motion planning in collaborative robots and the use of this technique for close-proximity human–robot collaboration. PMID:25790568

  20. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  1. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Bosch, Stephan; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J M

    2016-03-24

    The position of on-body motion sensors plays an important role in human activity recognition. Most often, mobile phone sensors at the trouser pocket or an equivalent position are used for this purpose. However, this position is not suitable for recognizing activities that involve hand gestures, such as smoking, eating, drinking coffee and giving a talk. To recognize such activities, wrist-worn motion sensors are used. However, these two positions are mainly used in isolation. To use richer context information, we evaluate three motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope and linear acceleration sensor) at both wrist and pocket positions. Using three classifiers, we show that the combination of these two positions outperforms the wrist position alone, mainly at smaller segmentation windows. Another problem is that less-repetitive activities, such as smoking, eating, giving a talk and drinking coffee, cannot be recognized easily at smaller segmentation windows unlike repetitive activities, like walking, jogging and biking. For this purpose, we evaluate the effect of seven window sizes (2-30 s) on thirteen activities and show how increasing window size affects these various activities in different ways. We also propose various optimizations to further improve the recognition of these activities. For reproducibility, we make our dataset publicly available.

  2. Ultrasensitive, passive and wearable sensors for monitoring human muscle motion and physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng; Yi, Changrui; Liu, Shichang; Wang, Yan; Liu, Lacheng; Liu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Xuming; Wang, Li

    2016-03-15

    Flexible sensors have attracted more and more attention as a fundamental part of anthropomorphic robot research, medical diagnosis and physical health monitoring. Here, we constructed an ultrasensitive and passive flexible sensor with the advantages of low cost, lightness and wearability, electric safety and reliability. The fundamental mechanism of the sensor is based on triboelectric effect inducing electrostatic charges on the surfaces between two different materials. Just like a plate capacitor, current will be generated while the distance or size of the parallel capacitors changes caused by the small mechanical disturbance upon it and therefore the output current/voltage will be produced. Typically, the passive sensor unambiguously monitors muscle motions including hand motion from stretch-clench-stretch, mouth motion from open-bite-open, blink and respiration. Moreover, this sensor records the details of the consecutive phases in a cardiac cycle of the apex cardiogram, and identify the peaks including percussion wave, tidal wave and diastolic wave of the radial pulse wave. To record subtle human physiological signals including radial pulsilogram and apex cardiogram with excellent signal/noise ratio, stability and reproducibility, the sensor shows great potential in the applications of medical diagnosis and daily health monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Signal Quality Improvement Algorithms for MEMS Gyroscope-Based Human Motion Analysis Systems: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Du

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Motion sensors such as MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers are characterized by a small size, light weight, high sensitivity, and low cost. They are used in an increasing number of applications. However, they are easily influenced by environmental effects such as temperature change, shock, and vibration. Thus, signal processing is essential for minimizing errors and improving signal quality and system stability. The aim of this work is to investigate and present a systematic review of different signal error reduction algorithms that are used for MEMS gyroscope-based motion analysis systems for human motion analysis or have the potential to be used in this area. A systematic search was performed with the search engines/databases of the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, and Scopus. Sixteen papers that focus on MEMS gyroscope-related signal processing and were published in journals or conference proceedings in the past 10 years were found and fully reviewed. Seventeen algorithms were categorized into four main groups: Kalman-filter-based algorithms, adaptive-based algorithms, simple filter algorithms, and compensation-based algorithms. The algorithms were analyzed and presented along with their characteristics such as advantages, disadvantages, and time limitations. A user guide to the most suitable signal processing algorithms within this area is presented.

  4. Signal Quality Improvement Algorithms for MEMS Gyroscope-Based Human Motion Analysis Systems: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jiaying; Gerdtman, Christer; Lindén, Maria

    2018-04-06

    Motion sensors such as MEMS gyroscopes and accelerometers are characterized by a small size, light weight, high sensitivity, and low cost. They are used in an increasing number of applications. However, they are easily influenced by environmental effects such as temperature change, shock, and vibration. Thus, signal processing is essential for minimizing errors and improving signal quality and system stability. The aim of this work is to investigate and present a systematic review of different signal error reduction algorithms that are used for MEMS gyroscope-based motion analysis systems for human motion analysis or have the potential to be used in this area. A systematic search was performed with the search engines/databases of the ACM Digital Library, IEEE Xplore, PubMed, and Scopus. Sixteen papers that focus on MEMS gyroscope-related signal processing and were published in journals or conference proceedings in the past 10 years were found and fully reviewed. Seventeen algorithms were categorized into four main groups: Kalman-filter-based algorithms, adaptive-based algorithms, simple filter algorithms, and compensation-based algorithms. The algorithms were analyzed and presented along with their characteristics such as advantages, disadvantages, and time limitations. A user guide to the most suitable signal processing algorithms within this area is presented.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using fast neutrons: Effects in two human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerwein, W.; Ziegler, W.; Szypniewski, H.; Streffer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The results demonstrate that the effect of fast neutrons on cell survival in cell culture can be enhanced by boron neutron capture reaction. Even with lower enhancement ratios, the concept of NCT assisted fast neutron therapy may successfully be applied for tumor treatment with the Essen cyclotron. (orig.)

  6. Isolation of bacterial extrachromosomal DNA from human dental plaque associated with periodontal disease, using transposon-aided capture (TRACA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Philip J; Allan, Elaine; Hunter, Stephanie; Ward, John; Booth, Veronica; Wade, William G; Mullany, Peter

    2011-11-01

    The human oral cavity is host to a complex microbial community estimated to comprise >700 bacterial species, of which at least half are thought to be not yet cultivable in vitro. To investigate the plasmids present in this community, we used a transposon-aided capture system, which allowed the isolation of plasmids from human oral supra- and subgingival plaque samples. Thirty-two novel plasmids and a circular molecule that could be an integrase-generated circular intermediate were isolated. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane measured with stroboscopic holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jeffrey Tao; Aarnisalo, Antti A.; Harrington, Ellery; Hernandez-Montes, Maria del Socorro; Furlong, Cosme; Merchant, Saumil N.; Rosowski, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Sound-induced motion of the surface of the human tympanic membrane (TM) was studied by stroboscopic holographic interferometery, which measures the amplitude and phase of the displacement at each of about 40000 points on the surface of the TM. Measurements were made with tonal stimuli of 0.5, 1, 4 and 8 kHz. The magnitude and phase of the sinusoidal displacement of the TM at each driven frequency were derived from the fundamental Fourier component of the raw displacement data computed from stroboscopic holograms of the TM recorded at eight stimulus phases. The correlation between the Fourier estimates and measured motion data was generally above 0.9 over the entire TM surface. We used three data presentations: (i) Plots of the phasic displacements along a single chord across the surface of the TM, (ii) Phasic surface maps of the displacement of the entire TM surface, and (iii) Plots of the Fourier derived amplitude and phase-angle of the surface displacement along four diameter lines that define and bisect each of the four quadrants of the TM. These displays led to some common conclusions: At 0.5 and 1 kHz, the entire TM moved roughly in-phase with some small phase delay apparent between local areas of maximal displacement in the posterior half of the TM. At 4 and 8 kHz, the motion of the TM became more complicated with multiple local displacement maxima arranged in rings around the manubrium. The displacements at most of these maxima were roughly in-phase, while some moved out-of-phase. Superposed on this in- and out-of-phase behavior were significant cyclic variations in phase with location of less than 0.2 cycles or occasionally rapid half-cycle step-like changes in phase. The high frequency displacement amplitude and phase maps discovered in this study can not be explained by any single wave motion, but are consistent with a combination of low and higher order modal motions plus some small traveling-wave-like components. The observations of the dynamics of TM

  8. Cross-sensory facilitation reveals neural interactions between visual and tactile motion in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eGori

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies show that the human brain integrates information across the different senses and that stimuli of one sensory modality can enhance the perception of other modalities. Here we study the processes that mediate cross-modal facilitation and summation between visual and tactile motion. We find that while summation produced a generic, non-specific improvement of thresholds, probably reflecting higher-order interaction of decision signals, facilitation reveals a strong, direction-specific interaction, which we believe reflects sensory interactions. We measured visual and tactile velocity discrimination thresholds over a wide range of base velocities and conditions. Thresholds for both visual and tactile stimuli showed the characteristic dipper function, with the minimum thresholds occurring at a given pedestal speed. When visual and tactile coherent stimuli were combined (summation condition the thresholds for these multi-sensory stimuli also showed a dipper function with the minimum thresholds occurring in a similar range to that for unisensory signals. However, the improvement of multisensory thresholds was weak and not directionally specific, well predicted by the maximum likelihood estimation model (agreeing with previous research. A different technique (facilitation did, however, reveal direction-specific enhancement. Adding a non-informative pedestal motion stimulus in one sensory modality (vision or touch selectively lowered thresholds in the other, by the same amount as pedestals in the same modality. Facilitation did not occur for neutral stimuli like sounds (that would also have reduced temporal uncertainty, nor for motion in opposite direction, even in blocked trials where the subjects knew that the motion was in the opposite direction showing that the facilitation was not under subject control. Cross-sensory facilitation is strong evidence for functionally relevant cross-sensory integration at early levels of sensory

  9. Human-directed local autonomy for motion guidance and coordination in an intelligent manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, W. A.; Kawamura, Kazuhiko; Wilkes, Don M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the problem of integrating human intelligence and skills into an intelligent manufacturing system. Our center has jointed the Holonic Manufacturing Systems (HMS) Project, an international consortium dedicated to developing holonic systems technologies. One of our contributions to this effort is in Work Package 6: flexible human integration. This paper focuses on one activity, namely, human integration into motion guidance and coordination. Much research on intelligent systems focuses on creating totally autonomous agents. At the Center for Intelligent Systems (CIS), we design robots that interact directly with a human user. We focus on using the natural intelligence of the user to simplify the design of a robotic system. The problem is finding ways for the user to interact with the robot that are efficient and comfortable for the user. Manufacturing applications impose the additional constraint that the manufacturing process should not be disturbed; that is, frequent interacting with the user could degrade real-time performance. Our research in human-robot interaction is based on a concept called human directed local autonomy (HuDL). Under this paradigm, the intelligent agent selects and executes a behavior or skill, based upon directions from a human user. The user interacts with the robot via speech, gestures, or other media. Our control software is based on the intelligent machine architecture (IMA), an object-oriented architecture which facilitates cooperation and communication among intelligent agents. In this paper we describe our research testbed, a dual-arm humanoid robot and human user, and the use of this testbed for a human directed sorting task. We also discuss some proposed experiments for evaluating the integration of the human into the robot system. At the time of this writing, the experiments have not been completed.

  10. Laser Capture and Deep Sequencing Reveals the Transcriptomic Programmes Regulating the Onset of Pancreas and Liver Differentiation in Human Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Jennings

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To interrogate the alternative fates of pancreas and liver in the earliest stages of human organogenesis, we developed laser capture, RNA amplification, and computational analysis of deep sequencing. Pancreas-enriched gene expression was less conserved between human and mouse than for liver. The dorsal pancreatic bud was enriched for components of Notch, Wnt, BMP, and FGF signaling, almost all genes known to cause pancreatic agenesis or hypoplasia, and over 30 unexplored transcription factors. SOX9 and RORA were imputed as key regulators in pancreas compared with EP300, HNF4A, and FOXA family members in liver. Analyses implied that current in vitro human stem cell differentiation follows a dorsal rather than a ventral pancreatic program and pointed to additional factors for hepatic differentiation. In summary, we provide the transcriptional codes regulating the start of human liver and pancreas development to facilitate stem cell research and clinical interpretation without inter-species extrapolation.

  11. Modeling and experimental investigation of an impact-driven piezoelectric energy harvester from human motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Sheng; Hu, Hong; He, Siyuan

    2013-01-01

    An impact-driven piezoelectric energy harvester from human motion is proposed in this paper. A high-frequency PZT-5A bimorph cantilever beam with attached proof mass at the free end was selected. A frequency up-conversion strategy was realized using impulse force generated by human motion. An aluminum prototype was attached to the leg of a person on a treadmill and measurements taken of the dissipated electric energy across multiple resistances over a range of walking speeds. The outer dimensions of this prototype are 90 mm × 40 mm × 24 mm. It has been shown that the average output voltage generated by the piezoelectric bimorph increases sequentially with a faster walking speed, the power varies with the external resistances and maximum levels occur at the optimal resistance, which is consistent with the simulation result. An open circuit voltage of 2.47 V and maximum average power of 51 μW can be achieved across a 20 kΩ external load resistance and 5 km h −1 walking speed. Experimental results reveal that the impact-driven piezoelectric energy harvesting system mounted on a person’s leg has the potential for driving wearable devices. (paper)

  12. Significant Change Spotting for Periodic Human Motion Segmentation of Cleaning Tasks Using Wearable Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of the aging population is rapidly increasing around the world, which will cause stress on society and healthcare systems. In recent years, advances in technology have created new opportunities for automatic activities of daily living (ADL monitoring to improve the quality of life and provide adequate medical service for the elderly. Such automatic ADL monitoring requires reliable ADL information on a fine-grained level, especially for the status of interaction between body gestures and the environment in the real-world. In this work, we propose a significant change spotting mechanism for periodic human motion segmentation during cleaning task performance. A novel approach is proposed based on the search for a significant change of gestures, which can manage critical technical issues in activity recognition, such as continuous data segmentation, individual variance, and category ambiguity. Three typical machine learning classification algorithms are utilized for the identification of the significant change candidate, including a Support Vector Machine (SVM, k-Nearest Neighbors (kNN, and Naive Bayesian (NB algorithm. Overall, the proposed approach achieves 96.41% in the F1-score by using the SVM classifier. The results show that the proposed approach can fulfill the requirement of fine-grained human motion segmentation for automatic ADL monitoring.

  13. Real World Testing Of A Piezoelectric Rotational Energy Harvester For Human Motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillatsch, P; Yeatman, E M; Holmes, A S

    2013-01-01

    Harvesting energy from human motion is challenging because the frequencies are generally low and random compared to industrial machinery that vibrates at much higher frequencies. One of the most promising and popular strategies to overcome this is frequency up-conversion. The transducing element is actuated at its optimal frequency of operation, higher than the source excitation frequency, through some kind of catch and release mechanism. This is beneficial for efficient power generation. Such devices have now been investigated for a few years and this paper takes a previously introduced piezoelectric rotational harvester, relying on beam plucking for the energy conversion, to the next step by testing the device during a half marathon race. The prototype and data acquisition system are described in detail and the experimental results presented. A comparison of the input excitation, based on an accelerometer readout, and the output voltage of the piezoelectric beam, recorded at the same time, confirm the successful implementation of the system. For a device functional volume of 1.85 cm 3 , a maximum power output of 7 μW was achieved when the system was worn on the upper arm. However, degradation of the piezoelectric material meant that the performance dropped rapidly from this initial level; this requires further research. Furthermore, the need for intermediate energy storage solutions is discussed, as human motion harvesters only generate power as long as the wearer is actually moving

  14. Spherical, rolling magnet generators for passive energy harvesting from human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Benjamin J.; Arnold, David P.

    2009-09-01

    In this work, non-resonant, vibrational energy harvester architectures intended for human-motion energy scavenging are researched. The basic design employs a spherical, unidirectionally magnetized permanent magnet (NdFeB) ball that is allowed to move arbitrarily in a spherical cavity wrapped with copper coil windings. As the ball rotates and translates within the cage, the time-varying magnetic flux induces a voltage in the coil according to Faraday's Law. Devices ranging from 1.5 cm3 to 4 cm3 in size were tested under human activity scenarios—held in the user's hand or placed in the user's pocket while walking (4 km h-1) and running (14.5 km h-1). These harvesters have demonstrated rms voltages ranging from ~80 mV to 700 mV and time-averaged power densities up to 0.5 mW cm-3.

  15. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni

    2004-01-01

    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...

  16. Evaluating Effectiveness of Modeling Motion System Feedback in the Enhanced Hess Structural Model of the Human Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaychik, Kirill; Cardullo, Frank; George, Gary; Kelly, Lon C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to use the Hess Structural Model to predict the need for certain cueing systems, George and Cardullo significantly expanded it by adding motion feedback to the model and incorporating models of the motion system dynamics, motion cueing algorithm and a vestibular system. This paper proposes a methodology to evaluate effectiveness of these innovations by performing a comparison analysis of the model performance with and without the expanded motion feedback. The proposed methodology is composed of two stages. The first stage involves fine-tuning parameters of the original Hess structural model in order to match the actual control behavior recorded during the experiments at NASA Visual Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The parameter tuning procedure utilizes a new automated parameter identification technique, which was developed at the Man-Machine Systems Lab at SUNY Binghamton. In the second stage of the proposed methodology, an expanded motion feedback is added to the structural model. The resulting performance of the model is then compared to that of the original one. As proposed by Hess, metrics to evaluate the performance of the models include comparison against the crossover models standards imposed on the crossover frequency and phase margin of the overall man-machine system. Preliminary results indicate the advantage of having the model of the motion system and motion cueing incorporated into the model of the human operator. It is also demonstrated that the crossover frequency and the phase margin of the expanded model are well within the limits imposed by the crossover model.

  17. Automatic Human Movement Assessment With Switching Linear Dynamic System: Motion Segmentation and Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Baptista, Roberto; Bo, Antonio P L; Hayashibe, Mitsuhiro

    2017-06-01

    Performance assessment of human movement is critical in diagnosis and motor-control rehabilitation. Recent developments in portable sensor technology enable clinicians to measure spatiotemporal aspects to aid in the neurological assessment. However, the extraction of quantitative information from such measurements is usually done manually through visual inspection. This paper presents a novel framework for automatic human movement assessment that executes segmentation and motor performance parameter extraction in time-series of measurements from a sequence of human movements. We use the elements of a Switching Linear Dynamic System model as building blocks to translate formal definitions and procedures from human movement analysis. Our approach provides a method for users with no expertise in signal processing to create models for movements using labeled dataset and later use it for automatic assessment. We validated our framework on preliminary tests involving six healthy adult subjects that executed common movements in functional tests and rehabilitation exercise sessions, such as sit-to-stand and lateral elevation of the arms and five elderly subjects, two of which with limited mobility, that executed the sit-to-stand movement. The proposed method worked on random motion sequences for the dual purpose of movement segmentation (accuracy of 72%-100%) and motor performance assessment (mean error of 0%-12%).

  18. Differential bacterial capture and transport preferences facilitate co-growth on dietary xylan in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Maria Louise; Ejby, Morten; Workman, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    Metabolism of dietary glycans is pivotal in shaping the human gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms that promote competition for glycans among gut commensals remain unclear. Roseburia intestinalis, an abundant butyrate-producing Firmicute, is a key degrader of the major dietary fibre xylan...... of capture and transport preferences as a possible strategy to facilitate co-growth on abundant dietary fibres and may offer a unique route to manipulate the microbiota based on glycan transport preferences in therapeutic interventions to boost distinct taxa....

  19. Structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins. A 31P NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenske, D.B.; Chana, R.S.; Parmar, Y.I.; Treleaven, W.D.; Cushley, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The structure and motion of phospholipids in human plasma lipoproteins have been studied by using 31 P NMR. Lateral diffusion coefficients, D T , obtained from the viscosity dependence of the 31 P NMR line widths, were obtained for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoproteins (HDL 2 , HDL 3 ), and egg PC/TO microemulsions at 25 degree C, for VLDL at 40 degree C, and for LDL at 45 degree C. In order to prove the orientation and/or order of the phospholipid head-group, estimates of the residual chemical shift anistropy, Δσ, have been obtained for all the lipoproteins and the microemulsions from the viscosity and field dependence for the 31 P NMR line widths. These results suggest differences in the orientation and/or ordering of the head-group in the HDLs. The dynamic behavior of the phosphate moiety in LDL and HDL 3 has been obtained from the temperature dependence of the 31 P spin-lattice relaxation rates. Values of the correlation time for phosphate group reorientation and the activation energy for the motion are nearly identical in LDL and HDL 3 and are similar to values obtained for phospholipid bilayers. This argues against long-lived protein-lipid interactions being the source of either the slow diffusion in LDL or the altered head-group orientation in the HDLs

  20. Capturing community context of human response to forest disturbance by insects: a multi-method assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua Qin; Courtney G. Flint

    2010-01-01

    The socioeconomic and environmental features of local places (community context) influence the relationship between humans and their physical environment. In times of environmental disturbance, this community context is expected to influence human perceptual and behavioral responses. Residents from nine Colorado communities experiencing a large outbreak of mountain...

  1. Establishment of optimal thermal neutron capture therapy for 5 types of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yutaka

    1993-03-01

    A series of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) studies has already germinated in 1972, with a view to establishing the BNCT particularly suited for the treatment of various types of malignant melanoma, and has been succeeded by research teams comprised of multi-disciplinary members. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women, aged from 50 to 85 years) with malignant melanoma have been treated with BNCT; among them, six patients were completely cured, four had extremely reduced tumors, and two were still in the clinical process. The present Progress Report is a compilation of 39 research presentations for the recent two years. In this report, three patients are described. Of these, one patient had deep-seated lesions in right and left lymph nodes. These lesions were cured by the use of D 2 O that allowed neutron beams to reach them. Application of positron emission tomography to the diagnosis of melanoma is a highlight in this Report. (N.K.)

  2. Identification of a Novel Human Rhinovirus C Type by Antibody Capture VIDISCA-454

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri Farsani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causative agents for more than 30 percent of respiratory infections remain unidentified, suggesting that unknown respiratory pathogens might be involved. In this study, antibody capture VIDISCA-454 (virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing resulted in the discovery of a novel type of rhinovirus C (RV-C. The virus has an RNA genome of at least 7054 nt and carries the characteristics of rhinovirus C species. The gene encoding viral protein 1, which is used for typing, has only 81% nucleotide sequence identity with the closest known RV-C type, and, therefore, the virus represents the first member of a novel type, named RV-C54.

  3. Hierarchy of transcriptomic specialization across human cortex captured by myelin map topography

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, John; Martin, William; Bernacchia, Alberto; Anticevic, Alan; Ji, Jie; Navejar, Natasha; Eckner, William; Demirtas, Murat; Burt, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Hierarchy provides a unifying principle for the macroscale organization of anatomical and functional properties across primate cortex, yet the microscale bases of hierarchical specialization across human cortex are poorly understood. Anatomical hierarchy is conventionally informed by invasively measured laminar patterns of long-range cortico-cortical projections, creating the need for a principled proxy measure of hierarchy in humans. Moreover, cortex exhibits a transcriptional architecture c...

  4. Capturing Human Naïve Pluripotency in the Embryo and in the Dish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Park, Tea Soon; Zambidis, Elias T

    2017-08-15

    Although human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were first derived almost 20 years ago, it was only recently acknowledged that they share closer molecular and functional identity to postimplantation lineage-primed murine epiblast stem cells than to naïve preimplantation inner cell mass-derived mouse ESCs (mESCs). A myriad of transcriptional, epigenetic, biochemical, and metabolic attributes have now been described that distinguish naïve and primed pluripotent states in both rodents and humans. Conventional hESCs and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) appear to lack many of the defining hallmarks of naïve mESCs. These include important features of the naïve ground state murine epiblast, such as an open epigenetic architecture, reduced lineage-primed gene expression, and chimera and germline competence following injection into a recipient blastocyst-stage embryo. Several transgenic and chemical methods were recently reported that appear to revert conventional human PSCs to mESC-like ground states. However, it remains unclear if subtle deviations in global transcription, cell signaling dependencies, and extent of epigenetic/metabolic shifts in these various human naïve-reverted pluripotent states represent true functional differences or alternatively the existence of distinct human pluripotent states along a spectrum. In this study, we review the current understanding and developmental features of various human pluripotency-associated phenotypes and discuss potential biological mechanisms that may support stable maintenance of an authentic epiblast-like ground state of human pluripotency.

  5. Envelope statistics of self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities: Implications for vestibular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriot, Jérome; Jamali, Mohsen; Cullen, Kathleen E; Chacron, Maurice J

    2017-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that the brain's neural coding strategies are constrained by natural stimulus statistics. Here we investigated the statistics of the time varying envelope (i.e. a second-order stimulus attribute that is related to variance) of rotational and translational self-motion signals experienced by human subjects during everyday activities. We found that envelopes can reach large values across all six motion dimensions (~450 deg/s for rotations and ~4 G for translations). Unlike results obtained in other sensory modalities, the spectral power of envelope signals decreased slowly for low (2 Hz) temporal frequencies and thus was not well-fit by a power law. We next compared the spectral properties of envelope signals resulting from active and passive self-motion, as well as those resulting from signals obtained when the subject is absent (i.e. external stimuli). Our data suggest that different mechanisms underlie deviation from scale invariance in rotational and translational self-motion envelopes. Specifically, active self-motion and filtering by the human body cause deviation from scale invariance primarily for translational and rotational envelope signals, respectively. Finally, we used well-established models in order to predict the responses of peripheral vestibular afferents to natural envelope stimuli. We found that irregular afferents responded more strongly to envelopes than their regular counterparts. Our findings have important consequences for understanding the coding strategies used by the vestibular system to process natural second-order self-motion signals.

  6. Integration of emerging motion capture technologies and videogames for human upper-limb telerehabilitation: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Callejas-Cuervo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La integración de nuevas tecnolog ías ha mostrado tener el poten cial de mejorar el acceso a servicios de rehabilitación y la ad herencia de los pacientes a la terapia físic a cuando éstas son usadas en se rvicios bajo la modalidad de telemedicina. Esta revisión sistem ática busca explorar sistemas de telerehabi litación que usan nuevas tecnolo gías de captura de movimiento y video juegos para rehabilitació n de miembro superior, haciendo énfasis en la captura de movimiento que fusiona información de sensore s inerciales y otras tecnolog ías. La búsqueda fue realizada entre 2010 y 2013, encontrando 667 artíc ulos; que se redujeron a 57 artículos con texto completo, luego de un proceso de remoción de artículos r epetidos. Finalmente, solo tr es de ellos fueron seleccionados por abordar el tema de este es tudio. Esta revisión nos permite concluir qu e se presenta una tendencia en usar la fusión de información proveniente de sensores inerciale s y otras tecnologías de captura de movimi ento para monitorear procesos d e rehabilitación motora. Sin em bargo, la integración de estas tecnologías con video juegos ac tivos en programas de fisioterap ia es apenas un campo emergente de investigación con resultados prometedores.

  7. Cross-reactivity profiles of hybrid capture II, cobas, and APTIMA human papillomavirus assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Sarah Nørgaard; Rebolj, Matejka; Ejegod, Ditte Møller

    2016-01-01

    evaluated to what extent these can be explained by cross-reactivity, i.e. positive test results without evidence of high-risk HPV genotypes. The patterns of cross-reactivity have been thoroughly studied for hybrid capture II (HC2) but not yet for newer HPV assays although the manufacturers claimed...... no or limited frequency of cross-reactivity. In this independent study we evaluated the frequency of cross-reactivity for HC2, cobas, and APTIMA assays. Methods Consecutive routine cervical screening samples from 5022 Danish women, including 2859 from women attending primary screening, were tested...... with normal cytology and positive high-risk HPV test results were invited for repeated testing in 18 months. Results Cross-reactivity to low-risk genotypes was detected in 109 (2.2 %) out of 5022 samples on HC2, 62 (1.2 %) on cobas, and 35 (0.7 %) on APTIMA with only 10 of the samples cross-reacting on all 3...

  8. Integration of visual and non-visual self-motion cues during voluntary head movements in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2018-05-15

    Our phenomenological experience of the stable world is maintained by continuous integration of visual self-motion with extra-retinal signals. However, due to conventional constraints of fMRI acquisition in humans, neural responses to visuo-vestibular integration have only been studied using artificial stimuli, in the absence of voluntary head-motion. We here circumvented these limitations and let participants to move their heads during scanning. The slow dynamics of the BOLD signal allowed us to acquire neural signal related to head motion after the observer's head was stabilized by inflatable aircushions. Visual stimuli were presented on head-fixed display goggles and updated in real time as a function of head-motion that was tracked using an external camera. Two conditions simulated forward translation of the participant. During physical head rotation, the congruent condition simulated a stable world, whereas the incongruent condition added arbitrary lateral motion. Importantly, both conditions were precisely matched in visual properties and head-rotation. By comparing congruent with incongruent conditions we found evidence consistent with the multi-modal integration of visual cues with head motion into a coherent "stable world" percept in the parietal operculum and in an anterior part of parieto-insular cortex (aPIC). In the visual motion network, human regions MST, a dorsal part of VIP, the cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) and a region in precuneus (Pc) showed differential responses to the same contrast. The results demonstrate for the first time neural multimodal interactions between precisely matched congruent versus incongruent visual and non-visual cues during physical head-movement in the human brain. The methodological approach opens the path to a new class of fMRI studies with unprecedented temporal and spatial control over visuo-vestibular stimulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Online sparse Gaussian process based human motion intent learning for an electrically actuated lower extremity exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yi; Du, Zhi-Jiang; Chen, Chao-Feng; Dong, Wei; Wang, Wei-Dong

    2017-07-01

    The most important step for lower extremity exoskeleton is to infer human motion intent (HMI), which contributes to achieve human exoskeleton collaboration. Since the user is in the control loop, the relationship between human robot interaction (HRI) information and HMI is nonlinear and complicated, which is difficult to be modeled by using mathematical approaches. The nonlinear approximation can be learned by using machine learning approaches. Gaussian Process (GP) regression is suitable for high-dimensional and small-sample nonlinear regression problems. GP regression is restrictive for large data sets due to its computation complexity. In this paper, an online sparse GP algorithm is constructed to learn the HMI. The original training dataset is collected when the user wears the exoskeleton system with friction compensation to perform unconstrained movement as far as possible. The dataset has two kinds of data, i.e., (1) physical HRI, which is collected by torque sensors placed at the interaction cuffs for the active joints, i.e., knee joints; (2) joint angular position, which is measured by optical position sensors. To reduce the computation complexity of GP, grey relational analysis (GRA) is utilized to specify the original dataset and provide the final training dataset. Those hyper-parameters are optimized offline by maximizing marginal likelihood and will be applied into online GP regression algorithm. The HMI, i.e., angular position of human joints, will be regarded as the reference trajectory for the mechanical legs. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, experiments are performed on a subject at a natural speed. The experimental results show the HMI can be obtained in real time, which can be extended and employed in the similar exoskeleton systems.

  10. Collaborative real-time motion video analysis by human observer and image exploitation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2015-05-01

    Motion video analysis is a challenging task, especially in real-time applications. In most safety and security critical applications, a human observer is an obligatory part of the overall analysis system. Over the last years, substantial progress has been made in the development of automated image exploitation algorithms. Hence, we investigate how the benefits of automated video analysis can be integrated suitably into the current video exploitation systems. In this paper, a system design is introduced which strives to combine both the qualities of the human observer's perception and the automated algorithms, thus aiming to improve the overall performance of a real-time video analysis system. The system design builds on prior work where we showed the benefits for the human observer by means of a user interface which utilizes the human visual focus of attention revealed by the eye gaze direction for interaction with the image exploitation system; eye tracker-based interaction allows much faster, more convenient, and equally precise moving target acquisition in video images than traditional computer mouse selection. The system design also builds on prior work we did on automated target detection, segmentation, and tracking algorithms. Beside the system design, a first pilot study is presented, where we investigated how the participants (all non-experts in video analysis) performed in initializing an object tracking subsystem by selecting a target for tracking. Preliminary results show that the gaze + key press technique is an effective, efficient, and easy to use interaction technique when performing selection operations on moving targets in videos in order to initialize an object tracking function.

  11. Markerless human motion tracking using hierarchical multi-swarm cooperative particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Sanjay; Zakaria, Nordin; Rambli, Dayang Rohaya Awang; Sulaiman, Suziah

    2015-01-01

    The high-dimensional search space involved in markerless full-body articulated human motion tracking from multiple-views video sequences has led to a number of solutions based on metaheuristics, the most recent form of which is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). However, the classical PSO suffers from premature convergence and it is trapped easily into local optima, significantly affecting the tracking accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, we have developed a method for the problem based on Hierarchical Multi-Swarm Cooperative Particle Swarm Optimization (H-MCPSO). The tracking problem is formulated as a non-linear 34-dimensional function optimization problem where the fitness function quantifies the difference between the observed image and a projection of the model configuration. Both the silhouette and edge likelihoods are used in the fitness function. Experiments using Brown and HumanEva-II dataset demonstrated that H-MCPSO performance is better than two leading alternative approaches-Annealed Particle Filter (APF) and Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization (HPSO). Further, the proposed tracking method is capable of automatic initialization and self-recovery from temporary tracking failures. Comprehensive experimental results are presented to support the claims.

  12. Measurement of Myocardial T1ρ with a Motion Corrected, Parametric Mapping Sequence in Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Berisha

    Full Text Available To develop a robust T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI sequence for assessment of myocardial disease in humans.We developed a breath-held T1ρ mapping method using a single-shot, T1ρ-prepared balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP sequence. The magnetization trajectory was simulated to identify sources of T1ρ error. To limit motion artifacts, an optical flow-based image registration method was used to align T1ρ images. The reproducibility and accuracy of these methods was assessed in phantoms and 10 healthy subjects. Results are shown in 1 patient with pre-ventricular contractions (PVCs, 1 patient with chronic myocardial infarction (MI and 2 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM.In phantoms, the mean bias was 1.0 ± 2.7 msec (100 msec phantom and 0.9 ± 0.9 msec (60 msec phantom at 60 bpm and 2.2 ± 3.2 msec (100 msec and 1.4 ± 0.9 msec (60 msec at 80 bpm. The coefficient of variation (COV was 2.2 (100 msec and 1.3 (60 msec at 60 bpm and 2.6 (100 msec and 1.4 (60 msec at 80 bpm. Motion correction improved the alignment of T1ρ images in subjects, as determined by the increase in Dice Score Coefficient (DSC from 0.76 to 0.88. T1ρ reproducibility was high (COV < 0.05, intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.85-0.97. Mean myocardial T1ρ value in healthy subjects was 63.5 ± 4.6 msec. There was good correspondence between late-gadolinium enhanced (LGE MRI and increased T1ρ relaxation times in patients.Single-shot, motion corrected, spin echo, spin lock MRI permits 2D T1ρ mapping in a breath-hold with good accuracy and precision.

  13. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-01-01

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species. PMID:29538491

  14. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Miraglia, Fabiana; Loureiro, Ana P; Kremer, Frederico S; Eslabao, Marcus R; Dellagostin, Odir A; Lilenbaum, Walter; Vasconcellos, Silvio A; Heinemann, Marcos B; Moreno, Andrea M

    2018-03-12

    Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  15. Genomic characterisation of Leptospira inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rat in Brazil and comparative analysis with human reference strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Z Moreno

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptospira inadai is classified as a species of the Leptospira intermediate group that has been poorly studied due to its apparent insignificance to human and animal health. Nevertheless, over the last two decades the species has been described in human cases in India and in carrier animals in Ecuador. Here, we present the first identification and genomic characterisation of L. inadai serogroup Lyme isolated from captured rodent in Brazil. Even though the M34/99 strain was not pathogenic for hamsters, it was able to establish renal colonisation. The M34/99 strain presented high similarity with L. inadai serogroup Lyme human reference indicating that animal strain could also infect humans, although it does not represent high risk of severe disease. An extrachromosomal sequence was also identified in M34/99 strain and presented high identity with previously described L. inadai phage LinZ_10, suggesting that phage-like extrachromosomal sequence may be another feature of this understudied species.

  16. A Novel Kalman Filter for Human Motion Tracking With an Inertial-Based Dynamic Inclinometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligorio, Gabriele; Sabatini, Angelo M

    2015-08-01

    Design and development of a linear Kalman filter to create an inertial-based inclinometer targeted to dynamic conditions of motion. The estimation of the body attitude (i.e., the inclination with respect to the vertical) was treated as a source separation problem to discriminate the gravity and the body acceleration from the specific force measured by a triaxial accelerometer. The sensor fusion between triaxial gyroscope and triaxial accelerometer data was performed using a linear Kalman filter. Wrist-worn inertial measurement unit data from ten participants were acquired while performing two dynamic tasks: 60-s sequence of seven manual activities and 90 s of walking at natural speed. Stereophotogrammetric data were used as a reference. A statistical analysis was performed to assess the significance of the accuracy improvement over state-of-the-art approaches. The proposed method achieved, on an average, a root mean square attitude error of 3.6° and 1.8° in manual activities and locomotion tasks (respectively). The statistical analysis showed that, when compared to few competing methods, the proposed method improved the attitude estimation accuracy. A novel Kalman filter for inertial-based attitude estimation was presented in this study. A significant accuracy improvement was achieved over state-of-the-art approaches, due to a filter design that better matched the basic optimality assumptions of Kalman filtering. Human motion tracking is the main application field of the proposed method. Accurately discriminating the two components present in the triaxial accelerometer signal is well suited for studying both the rotational and the linear body kinematics.

  17. Using Specification and Description Language (SDL) for capturing and reusing human experts' knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Far, B.H.; Koono, Zenya

    1994-01-01

    Conventional knowledge engineering techniques for acquiring experts' knowledge can not produce quality knowledge due to improper knowledge documentation and informal knowledge acquisition method. We propose a new method for knowledge documentation and acquisition using Specification and Description Language (SDL). SDL is used to describe both the target system and the reasoning process. The main idea is to follow deterministic problem solving behavior of human experts and document it. Then knowledge can be extracted by comparing documents of the successive steps. This knowledge is recorded and reused in similar or novel cases. We present an implementation of this method in a tool for software design. The implemented system consists of a SDL CASE tool and an expert system for applying the design knowledge. This system serves as an experimental platform for the study of human design by simulating the design at the lowest level. However, we have found that by acquiring enough domain knowledge, this system can simulate general problem solving of human experts. (author)

  18. Full-motion video analysis for improved gender classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Jeffrey B.; Lochtefeld, Darrell F.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2014-06-01

    The ability of computer systems to perform gender classification using the dynamic motion of the human subject has important applications in medicine, human factors, and human-computer interface systems. Previous works in motion analysis have used data from sensors (including gyroscopes, accelerometers, and force plates), radar signatures, and video. However, full-motion video, motion capture, range data provides a higher resolution time and spatial dataset for the analysis of dynamic motion. Works using motion capture data have been limited by small datasets in a controlled environment. In this paper, we explore machine learning techniques to a new dataset that has a larger number of subjects. Additionally, these subjects move unrestricted through a capture volume, representing a more realistic, less controlled environment. We conclude that existing linear classification methods are insufficient for the gender classification for larger dataset captured in relatively uncontrolled environment. A method based on a nonlinear support vector machine classifier is proposed to obtain gender classification for the larger dataset. In experimental testing with a dataset consisting of 98 trials (49 subjects, 2 trials per subject), classification rates using leave-one-out cross-validation are improved from 73% using linear discriminant analysis to 88% using the nonlinear support vector machine classifier.

  19. Can the Functional Movement Screen™ be used to capture changes in spine and knee motion control following 12 weeks of training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Campbell, Troy L; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2017-01-01

    To examine whether objective measures of spine and frontal plane knee motion exhibited during Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS) task performance changed following a movement-guided fitness (MOV) and conventional fitness (FIT) exercise intervention. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled experiment. Before and after 12 weeks of exercise, participants' kinematics were quantified while performing the FMS and a series of general whole-body movement tasks. Biomechanics laboratory. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to MOV, FIT, or a control (CON) group. Peak lumbar spine flexion/extension, lateral bend and axial twist, and frontal plane knee motion. The post-training kinematic changes exhibited by trainees while performing the FMS tasks were similar in magnitude (effect size  0.5). Whether graded qualitatively, or quantitatively via kinematic analyses, the FMS may not be a viable tool to detect movement-based exercise adaptations. Amendments to the FMS tasks and/or scoring method are needed before it can be used for reasons beyond appraising the ability to move freely, symmetrically, and without pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid Capture 2 and cobas human papillomavirus assays perform similarly on SurePath samples from women with abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornari, D; Rebolj, M; Bjerregaard, B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In two laboratories (Departments of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospitals of Herlev and Hvidovre), we compared cobas and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) assays using SurePath® samples from women with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS......) at ≥30 years and women after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). METHODS: Samples from 566 women with ASCUS and 411 women after treatment were routinely tested with HC2 and, thereafter, with cobas. Histological outcomes were retrieved from the Danish Pathology Data Base. We calculated...... the overall agreement between the assays, and compared their sensitivity and specificity for ≥CIN2. RESULTS: In women with ASCUS, HC2 and cobas testing results were similar in the two laboratories. The overall agreement was 91% (95% CI, 88-93). After CIN treatment, the overall agreement was 87% (95% CI, 82...

  1. Remote sensing captures varying temporal patterns of vegetation between human-altered and natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Misha; Roderick, George K

    2015-01-01

    Global change has led to shifts in phenology, potentially disrupting species interactions such as plant-pollinator relationships. Advances in remote sensing techniques allow one to detect vegetation phenological diversity between different land use types, but it is not clear how this translates to other communities in the ecosystem. Here, we investigated the phenological diversity of the vegetation across a human-altered landscape including urban, agricultural, and natural land use types. We found that the patterns of change in the vegetation indices (EVI and NDVI) of human-altered landscapes are out of synchronization with the phenology in neighboring natural California grassland habitat. Comparing these findings to a spatio-temporal pollinator distribution dataset, EVI and NDVI were significant predictors of total bee abundance, a relationship that improved with time lags. This evidence supports the importance of differences in temporal dynamics between land use types. These findings also highlight the potential to utilize remote sensing data to make predictions for components of biodiversity that have tight vegetation associations, such as pollinators.

  2. Proteomic analysis of cellular response induced by boron neutron capture reaction in human squamous cell carcinoma SAS cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Itoh, Tasuku; Imamichi, Shoji; Kikuhara, Sota; Fujimori, Hiroaki; Hirai, Takahisa; Saito, Soichiro; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of cell death induced by boron neutron capture reaction (BNCR), we performed proteome analyses of human squamous tumor SAS cells after BNCR. Cells were irradiated with thermal neutron beam at KUR after incubation under boronophenylalanine (BPA)(+) and BPA(−) conditions. BNCR mainly induced typical apoptosis in SAS cells 24 h post-irradiation. Proteomic analysis in SAS cells suggested that proteins functioning in endoplasmic reticulum, DNA repair, and RNA processing showed dynamic changes at early phase after BNCR and could be involved in the regulation of cellular response to BNCR. We found that the BNCR induces fragments of endoplasmic reticulum-localized lymphoid-restricted protein (LRMP). The fragmentation of LRMP was also observed in the rat tumor graft model 20 hours after BNCT treatment carried out at the National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan. These data suggest that dynamic changes of LRMP could be involved during cellular response to BNCR. - Highlights: • BNCR in human squamous carcinoma cells caused typical apoptotic features. • BNCR induced fragments of LRMP, in human squamous carcinoma and rat tumor model. • The fragmentation of LRMP could be involved in cellular response to BNCR.

  3. Compensation of Wave-Induced Motion and Force Phenomena for Ship-Based High Performance Robotic and Human Amplifying Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, LJL

    2003-09-24

    The decrease in manpower and increase in material handling needs on many Naval vessels provides the motivation to explore the modeling and control of Naval robotic and robotic assistive devices. This report addresses the design, modeling, control and analysis of position and force controlled robotic systems operating on the deck of a moving ship. First we provide background information that quantifies the motion of the ship, both in terms of frequency and amplitude. We then formulate the motion of the ship in terms of homogeneous transforms. This transformation provides a link between the motion of the ship and the base of a manipulator. We model the kinematics of a manipulator as a serial extension of the ship motion. We then show how to use these transforms to formulate the kinetic and potential energy of a general, multi-degree of freedom manipulator moving on a ship. As a demonstration, we consider two examples: a one degree-of-freedom system experiencing three sea states operating in a plane to verify the methodology and a 3 degree of freedom system experiencing all six degrees of ship motion to illustrate the ease of computation and complexity of the solution. The first series of simulations explore the impact wave motion has on tracking performance of a position controlled robot. We provide a preliminary comparison between conventional linear control and Repetitive Learning Control (RLC) and show how fixed time delay RLC breaks down due to the varying nature wave disturbance frequency. Next, we explore the impact wave motion disturbances have on Human Amplification Technology (HAT). We begin with a description of the traditional HAT control methodology. Simulations show that the motion of the base of the robot, due to ship motion, generates disturbances forces reflected to the operator that significantly degrade the positioning accuracy and resolution at higher sea states. As with position-controlled manipulators, augmenting the control with a Repetitive

  4. Electrophysiological correlates of learning-induced modulation of visual motion processing in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Gál

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Training on a visual task leads to increased perceptual and neural responses to visual features that were attended during training as well as decreased responses to neglected distractor features. However, the time course of these attention-based modulations of neural sensitivity for visual features has not been investigated before. Here we measured event related potentials (ERP in response to motion stimuli with different coherence levels before and after training on a speed discrimination task requiring object-based attentional selection of one of the two competing motion stimuli. We found that two peaks on the ERP waveform were modulated by the strength of the coherent motion signal; the response amplitude associated with motion directions that were neglected during training was smaller than the response amplitude associated with motion directions that were attended during training. The first peak of motion coherence-dependent modulation of the ERP responses was at 300 ms after stimulus onset and it was most pronounced over the occipitotemporal cortex. The second peak was around 500 ms and was focused over the parietal cortex. A control experiment suggests that the earlier motion coherence-related response modulation reflects the extraction of the coherent motion signal whereas the later peak might index accumulation and readout of motion signals by parietal decision mechanisms. These findings suggest that attention-based learning affects neural responses both at the sensory and decision processing stages.

  5. Man-systems evaluation of moving base vehicle simulation motion cues. [human acceleration perception involving visual feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, M.; Brye, R. G.

    1974-01-01

    A motion cue investigation program is reported that deals with human factor aspects of high fidelity vehicle simulation. General data on non-visual motion thresholds and specific threshold values are established for use as washout parameters in vehicle simulation. A general purpose similator is used to test the contradictory cue hypothesis that acceleration sensitivity is reduced during a vehicle control task involving visual feedback. The simulator provides varying acceleration levels. The method of forced choice is based on the theory of signal detect ability.

  6. A comparative cepstral based analysis of simulated and measured S-band and X-band radar Doppler spectra of human motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Eeden, WD

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available targets. It is also shown that, whereas the motion of most body parts of a human target can be observed in the X-band data, only the main torso sway can be observed at S-band. This implies that X-band data is well suited to cepstrum based human motion...

  7. Transparent and stretchable strain sensors based on metal nanowire microgrids for human motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji Hwan; Ha, Sung-Hun; Kim, Jong-Man

    2018-04-01

    Optical transparency is increasingly considered as one of the most important characteristics required in advanced stretchable strain sensors for application in body-attachable systems. In this paper, we present an entirely solution-processed fabrication route to highly transparent and stretchable resistive strain sensors based on silver nanowire microgrids (AgNW-MGs). The AgNW-MG strain sensors are readily prepared by patterning the AgNWs on a stretchable substrate into a MG geometry via a mesh-template-assisted contact-transfer printing. The MG has a unique architecture comprising the AgNWs and can be stretched to ɛ = 35%, with high gauge factors of ˜6.9 for ɛ = 0%-30% and ˜41.1 for ɛ = 30%-35%. The sensor also shows a high optical transmittance of 77.1% ± 1.5% (at 550 nm) and stably maintains the remarkable optical performance even at high strains. In addition, the sensor responses are found to be highly reversible with negligible hysteresis and are reliable even under repetitive stretching-releasing cycles (1000 cycles at ɛ = 10%). The practicality of the AgNW-MG strain sensor is confirmed by successfully monitoring a wide range of human motions in real time after firmly laminating the device onto various body parts.

  8. Highly Stretchable and Transparent Microfluidic Strain Sensors for Monitoring Human Body Motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sun Geun; Koo, Hyung-Jun; Chang, Suk Tai

    2015-12-16

    We report a new class of simple microfluidic strain sensors with high stretchability, transparency, sensitivity, and long-term stability with no considerable hysteresis and a fast response to various deformations by combining the merits of microfluidic techniques and ionic liquids. The high optical transparency of the strain sensors was achieved by introducing refractive-index matched ionic liquids into microfluidic networks or channels embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The microfluidic strain sensors offer the outstanding sensor performance under a variety of deformations induced by stretching, bending, pressing, and twisting of the microfluidic strain sensors. The principle of our microfluidic strain sensor is explained by a theoretical model based on the elastic channel deformation. In order to demonstrate its capability of practical usage, the simple-structured microfluidic strain sensors were performed onto a finger, wrist, and arm. The highly stretchable and transparent microfluidic strain sensors were successfully applied as potential platforms for distinctively monitoring a wide range of human body motions in real time. Our novel microfluidic strain sensors show great promise for making future stretchable electronic devices.

  9. Capturing cognitive causal paths in human reliability analysis with Bayesian network models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirglmaier, Kilian; Straub, Daniel; Groth, Katrina M.

    2017-01-01

    reIn the last decade, Bayesian networks (BNs) have been identified as a powerful tool for human reliability analysis (HRA), with multiple advantages over traditional HRA methods. In this paper we illustrate how BNs can be used to include additional, qualitative causal paths to provide traceability. The proposed framework provides the foundation to resolve several needs frequently expressed by the HRA community. First, the developed extended BN structure reflects the causal paths found in cognitive psychology literature, thereby addressing the need for causal traceability and strong scientific basis in HRA. Secondly, the use of node reduction algorithms allows the BN to be condensed to a level of detail at which quantification is as straightforward as the techniques used in existing HRA. We illustrate the framework by developing a BN version of the critical data misperceived crew failure mode in the IDHEAS HRA method, which is currently under development at the US NRC . We illustrate how the model could be quantified with a combination of expert-probabilities and information from operator performance databases such as SACADA. This paper lays the foundations necessary to expand the cognitive and quantitative foundations of HRA. - Highlights: • A framework for building traceable BNs for HRA, based on cognitive causal paths. • A qualitative BN structure, directly showing these causal paths is developed. • Node reduction algorithms are used for making the BN structure quantifiable. • BN quantified through expert estimates and observed data (Bayesian updating). • The framework is illustrated for a crew failure mode of IDHEAS.

  10. System analysis of sagittal plane human motion wearing an exoskeleton using marker technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatsun Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses various methods of obtaining time functions for joint angle that describe a exoskeleton’s motion during sit-to-stand motion. This article demonstrates that functions obtained by solving the inverse kinematics problem can be effectively used as inputs to the control system of the robot. Comparison with experimentally data obtained using marker technology is done.

  11. Biological Motion Preference in Humans at Birth: Role of Dynamic and Configural Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Regolin, Lucia; Simion, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The present study addresses the hypothesis that detection of biological motion is an intrinsic capacity of the visual system guided by a non-species-specific predisposition for the pattern of vertebrate movement and investigates the role of global vs. local information in biological motion detection. Two-day-old babies exposed to a biological…

  12. 3D pose estimation and motion analysis of the articulated human hand-forearm limb in an industrial production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz

    2010-09-01

    This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Human-Like Behavior of Robot Arms: General Considerations and the Handwriting Task-Part I: Mathematical Description of Human-Like Motion: Distributed Positioning and Virtual Fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potkonjak, V.; Tzafestas, S.; Kostic, D.; Djordjevic, G.

    2001-01-01

    This two-part paper is concerned with the analysis and achievement of human-like behavior by robot arms (manipulators). The analysis involves three issues: (i) the resolution of the inverse kinematics problem of redundant robots, (ii) the separation of the end-effector's motion into two components,

  14. Comprehensive mapping of the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA integration sites in cervical carcinomas by HPV capture technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Lu, Zheming; Xu, Ruiping; Ke, Yang

    2016-02-02

    Integration of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA into the host genome can be a driver mutation in cervical carcinoma. Identification of HPV integration at base resolution has been a longstanding technical challenge, largely due to sensitivity masking by HPV in episomes or concatenated forms. The aim was to enhance the understanding of the precise localization of HPV integration sites using an innovative strategy. Using HPV capture technology combined with next generation sequencing, HPV prevalence and the exact integration sites of the HPV DNA in 47 primary cervical cancer samples and 2 cell lines were investigated. A total of 117 unique HPV integration sites were identified, including HPV16 (n = 101), HPV18 (n = 7), and HPV58 (n = 9). We observed that the HPV16 integration sites were broadly located across the whole viral genome. In addition, either single or multiple integration events could occur frequently for HPV16, ranging from 1 to 19 per sample. The viral integration sites were distributed across almost all the chromosomes, except chromosome 22. All the cervical cancer cases harboring more than four HPV16 integration sites showed clinical diagnosis of stage III carcinoma. A significant enrichment of overlapping nucleotides shared between the human genome and HPV genome at integration breakpoints was observed, indicating that it may play an important role in the HPV integration process. The results expand on knowledge from previous findings on HPV16 and HPV18 integration sites and allow a better understanding of the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of cervical carcinoma.

  15. Detection of human papillomavirus by hybrid capture and real time PCR methods in patients with chronic cervicitis and cervical intraepithelial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisha Khandker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives:Cervical cancer due to Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women. Testing of HPV can identify women who are at risk of cervical cancer. Nowadays, molecular methods like real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR and hybrid capture technique are applied for detecting HPV in cervical specimens. The objective of the present study was to determine the rate of HPV infection in women with chronic cervicitis and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN by a commercial real time polymerase chain reaction test kit and by a hybrid capture HPV DNA test. Methods:Women aged between 20 to 55 years with chronic cervicitis and CIN were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. Cervical specimen was collected by using cervical brush and stored in transport medium until used. HPV was detected by High Risk Screen Real-TM Quant 2x (Sacace, Biotechnologies SrI, Italy real time PCR kit (HR RT-PCR and by Hybrid Capture-2 High-Risk HPV DNA (Hc-2; Digene Corporation, USA test. Results: Total 72 women with chronic cervicitis and CIN of different grades were included in the study. Out of this, HPV infection detected by HR RT-PCR was 31 (43% and by Hc-2 was 14 (19.4%. Both the tests were able to detect HPV infection in all the CIN 3 cases and in most of the CIN 2 cases. However, HR RT-PCR detected higher number of HPV in chronic cervicitis and CIN1 cases. Conclusion:The study has shown that HR RT-PCR and Hc-2 tests are equally effective in detecting HPV infection in patients with CIN 2 and CIN 3 lesions. However, HR RT-PCR is more sensitive test for detecting HPV in chronic cervicitis and early CIN lesions and, therefore can be used in epidemiological study to detect presence of HPV in general population. IMC J Med Sci 2016; 10(2: 45-48

  16. Laser Capture Microdissection and Multiplex-Tandem PCR Analysis of Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cell Signaling in Human Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ray; Wang, Xiangju; Kassianos, Andrew J.; Zuryn, Steven; Roper, Kathrein E.; Osborne, Andrew; Sampangi, Sandeep; Francis, Leo; Raghunath, Vishwas; Healy, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial fibrosis, a histological process common to many kidney diseases, is the precursor state to end stage kidney disease, a devastating and costly outcome for the patient and the health system. Fibrosis is historically associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) but emerging evidence is now linking many forms of acute kidney disease (AKD) with the development of CKD. Indeed, we and others have observed at least some degree of fibrosis in up to 50% of clinically defined cases of AKD. Epithelial cells of the proximal tubule (PTEC) are central in the development of kidney interstitial fibrosis. We combine the novel techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR to identify and quantitate “real time” gene transcription profiles of purified PTEC isolated from human kidney biopsies that describe signaling pathways associated with this pathological fibrotic process. Our results: (i) confirm previous in-vitro and animal model studies; kidney injury molecule-1 is up-regulated in patients with acute tubular injury, inflammation, neutrophil infiltration and a range of chronic disease diagnoses, (ii) provide data to inform treatment; complement component 3 expression correlates with inflammation and acute tubular injury, (iii) identify potential new biomarkers; proline 4-hydroxylase transcription is down-regulated and vimentin is up-regulated across kidney diseases, (iv) describe previously unrecognized feedback mechanisms within PTEC; Smad-3 is down-regulated in many kidney diseases suggesting a possible negative feedback loop for TGF-β in the disease state, whilst tight junction protein-1 is up-regulated in many kidney diseases, suggesting feedback interactions with vimentin expression. These data demonstrate that the combined techniques of laser capture microdissection and multiplex-tandem PCR have the power to study molecular signaling within single cell populations derived from clinically sourced tissue. PMID:24475278

  17. Model-Based Description of Human Body Motions for Ergonomics Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Sayaka

    This paper presents modeling of Working Process and Working Simulation factory works. I focus on an example work (motion), its actual work(motion) and reference between them. An example work and its actual work can be analyzed and described as a sequence of atomic action. In order to describe workers' motion, some concepts of Atomic Unit, Model Events and Mediator are introduced. By using these concepts, we can analyze a workers' action and evaluate their works. Also, we consider it as a possible way for unifying all the data used in various applications (CAD/CAM, etc) during the design process and evaluating all subsystems in a virtual Factory.

  18. Human motion characteristics in relation to feeling familiar or frightened during an announced short interaction with a proactive humanoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddoura, Ritta; Venture, Gentiane

    2014-01-01

    During an unannounced encounter between two humans and a proactive humanoid (NAO, Aldebaran Robotics), we study the dependencies between the human partners' affective experience (measured via the answers to a questionnaire) particularly regarding feeling familiar and feeling frightened, and their arm and head motion [frequency and smoothness using Inertial Measurement Units (IMU)]. NAO starts and ends its interaction with its partners by non-verbally greeting them hello (bowing) and goodbye (moving its arm). The robot is invested with a real and useful task to perform: handing each participant an envelope containing a questionnaire they need to answer. NAO's behavior varies from one partner to the other (Smooth with X vs. Resisting with Y). The results show high positive correlations between feeling familiar while interacting with the robot and: the frequency and smoothness of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye, as well as the smoothness of the head during the whole encounter. Results also show a negative dependency between feeling frightened and the frequency of the human arm movement when waving back goodbye. The principal component analysis (PCA) suggests that, in regards to the various motion measures examined in this paper, the head smoothness and the goodbye gesture frequency are the most reliable measures when it comes to considering the familiar experienced by the participants. The PCA also points out the irrelevance of the goodbye motion frequency when investigating the participants' experience of fear in its relation to their motion characteristics. The results are discussed in light of the major findings of studies on body movements and postures accompanying specific emotions.

  19. Optimization of voltage output of energy harvesters with continuous mechanical rotation extracted from human motion (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Evan; Hamidi, Armita; Tadesse, Yonas

    2017-04-01

    With increasing popularity of portable devices for outdoor activities, portable energy harvesting devices are coming into spot light. The next generation energy harvester which is called hybrid energy harvester can employ more than one mechanism in a single device to optimize portion of the energy that can be harvested from any source of waste energy namely motion, vibration, heat and etc. In spite of few recent attempts for creating hybrid portable devices, the level of output energy still needs to be improved with the intention of employing them in commercial electronic systems or further applications. Moreover, implementing a practical hybrid energy harvester in different application for further investigation is still challenging. This proposal is projected to incorporate a novel approach to maximize and optimize the voltage output of hybrid energy harvesters to achieve a greater conversion efficiency normalized by the total mass of the hybrid device than the simple arithmetic sum of the individual harvesting mechanisms. The energy harvester model previously proposed by Larkin and Tadesse [1] is used as a baseline and a continuous unidirectional rotation is incorporated to maximize and optimize the output. The device harvest mechanical energy from oscillatory motion and convert it to electrical energy through electromagnetic and piezoelectric systems. The new designed mechanism upgrades the device in a way that can harvest energy from both rotational and linear motions by using magnets. Likewise, the piezoelectric section optimized to harvest at least 10% more energy. To the end, the device scaled down for tested with different sources of vibrations in the immediate environment, including machinery operation, bicycle, door motion while opening and closing and finally, human motions. Comparing the results from literature proved that current device has capability to be employed in commercial small electronic devices for enhancement of battery usage or as a backup

  20. Pilot study on real-time motion detection in UAS video data by human observer and image exploitation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Jutta; Krüger, Wolfgang; Brüstle, Stefan; Trantelle, Patrick; Unmüßig, Gabriel; Voit, Michael; Heinze, Norbert; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth; Beyerer, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    Real-time motion video analysis is a challenging and exhausting task for the human observer, particularly in safety and security critical domains. Hence, customized video analysis systems providing functions for the analysis of subtasks like motion detection or target tracking are welcome. While such automated algorithms relieve the human operators from performing basic subtasks, they impose additional interaction duties on them. Prior work shows that, e.g., for interaction with target tracking algorithms, a gaze-enhanced user interface is beneficial. In this contribution, we present an investigation on interaction with an independent motion detection (IDM) algorithm. Besides identifying an appropriate interaction technique for the user interface - again, we compare gaze-based and traditional mouse-based interaction - we focus on the benefit an IDM algorithm might provide for an UAS video analyst. In a pilot study, we exposed ten subjects to the task of moving target detection in UAS video data twice, once performing with automatic support, once performing without it. We compare the two conditions considering performance in terms of effectiveness (correct target selections). Additionally, we report perceived workload (measured using the NASA-TLX questionnaire) and user satisfaction (measured using the ISO 9241-411 questionnaire). The results show that a combination of gaze input and automated IDM algorithm provides valuable support for the human observer, increasing the number of correct target selections up to 62% and reducing workload at the same time.

  1. Inhibition of growth of human breast cancer cells in culture by neutron capture using liposomes containing 10B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagië, H; Kobayashi, H; Takeda, Y; Yoshizaki, I; Nonaka, Y; Naka, S; Nojiri, A; Shinnkawa, H; Furuya, Y; Niwa, H; Ariki, K; Yasuhara, H; Eriguchi, M

    2002-03-01

    Cell destruction in boron neutron capture therapy is effected by nuclear reaction between 10B and thermal neutrons with the release of alpha-particles (4He) and lithium-7 ions (7Li). 4He kills cells within 10 microm of the site of 4He generation, therefore it is theoretically possible to destroy tumour cells without affecting adjacent healthy tissue, given selective delivery of compounds containing 10B. Liposomes wore prepared by vortex dispersion of solutions containing 10B compounds with dried lipid films and the effects of those compounds on human breast cancer cells in culture were examined after thermal neutral irradiation. [3H]-TdR incorporation by MRKnu/nu-1 cells treated with 10B-containing liposomes showed 40% suppression compared with liposomes without 10B, at 2 x 1012 n/cm2 thermal neutron fluence. Inhibition of tumour cell growth with liposomes prepared with 100 mm 10B-compound was as significant as with those made with 500 ppm 10B solution. The concentration of 10B in liposomes was 76.5 +/- 3.4 microg/mL. Boronated liposomes can thus deliver sufficient 10B atoms to this line of breast cancer cells in culture to effect cytotoxicity and suppression of growth after thermal neutron irradiation.

  2. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  3. Exit from Synchrony in Joint Improvised Motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assi Dahan

    Full Text Available Motion synchrony correlates with effective and well-rated human interaction. However, people do not remain locked in synchrony; Instead, they repeatedly enter and exit synchrony. In many important interactions, such as therapy, marriage and parent-infant communication, it is the ability to exit and then re-enter synchrony that is thought to build strong relationship. The phenomenon of entry into zero-phase synchrony is well-studied experimentally and in terms of mathematical modeling. In contrast, exit-from-synchrony is under-studied. Here, we focus on human motion coordination, and examine the exit-from-synchrony phenomenon using experimental data from the mirror game paradigm, in which people perform joint improvised motion, and from human tracking of computer-generated stimuli. We present a mathematical mechanism that captures aspects of exit-from-synchrony in human motion. The mechanism adds a random motion component when the accumulated velocity error between the players is small. We introduce this mechanism to several models for human coordinated motion, including the widely studied HKB model, and the predictor-corrector model of Noy, Dekel and Alon. In all models, the new mechanism produces realistic simulated behavior when compared to experimental data from the mirror game and from tracking of computer generated stimuli, including repeated entry and exit from zero-phase synchrony that generates a complexity of motion similar to that of human players. We hope that these results can inform future research on exit-from-synchrony, to better understand the dynamics of coordinated action of people and to enhance human-computer and human-robot interaction.

  4. 3D for the people: multi-camera motion capture in the field with consumer-grade cameras and open source software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon E. Jackson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecological, behavioral and biomechanical studies often need to quantify animal movement and behavior in three dimensions. In laboratory studies, a common tool to accomplish these measurements is the use of multiple, calibrated high-speed cameras. Until very recently, the complexity, weight and cost of such cameras have made their deployment in field situations risky; furthermore, such cameras are not affordable to many researchers. Here, we show how inexpensive, consumer-grade cameras can adequately accomplish these measurements both within the laboratory and in the field. Combined with our methods and open source software, the availability of inexpensive, portable and rugged cameras will open up new areas of biological study by providing precise 3D tracking and quantification of animal and human movement to researchers in a wide variety of field and laboratory contexts.

  5. [Basic laws of blood screw motion in human common carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, V P; Kirsanov, R I

    2008-08-01

    The basic laws of blood screw motion in common carotid arteries in people were determined by means of modern ultrasound techniques for the first time. 92 healthy adults, aged 18-30, were examined. The blood flow in the middle one-third of common carotid arteries was registered by means of Color Doppler Imaging and impulse Doppler with the help of ultrasound Medison 8000EX scanner by linear transducer of 5-9 MHz. The steady registration of blood screw motion in both common carotid arteries in Color Doppler Imaging regimen was observed in 54.3 % of cases. The direction of screw stream rotation in most cases (54%) was multi-directed: in the right common carotid artery it was right, in the left common carotid artery--left (48%), and in 6% of cases it was reverse. For 46% of cases blood rotation in both common carotid arteries was one-directed (26%--right, 20%--left). The velocity parameters of rotation component of blood motion were determined, maximum velocity being 19.68 +/- 5.84 cm/sec, minimum--4.57 +/- 2.89 cm/sec, average--7.48 +/- 2.49 cm/sec, angular--10.7 +/- 2.49 sec(-1). The rated velocity of blood cells motion in screw motion with regard of screw current lines to the vessel vertical axis makes up from 158.67 +/- 32.79 to 224.39 +/- 46.37 cm/sec.

  6. Capture by colour: evidence for dimension-specific singleton capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Becker, Stefanie I; Remington, Roger W

    2015-10-01

    Previous work on attentional capture has shown the attentional system to be quite flexible in the stimulus properties it can be set to respond to. Several different attentional "modes" have been identified. Feature search mode allows attention to be set for specific features of a target (e.g., red). Singleton detection mode sets attention to respond to any discrepant item ("singleton") in the display. Relational search sets attention for the relative properties of the target in relation to the distractors (e.g., redder, larger). Recently, a new attentional mode was proposed that sets attention to respond to any singleton within a particular feature dimension (e.g., colour; Folk & Anderson, 2010). We tested this proposal against the predictions of previously established attentional modes. In a spatial cueing paradigm, participants searched for a colour target that was randomly either red or green. The nature of the attentional control setting was probed by presenting an irrelevant singleton cue prior to the target display and assessing whether it attracted attention. In all experiments, the cues were red, green, blue, or a white stimulus rapidly rotated (motion cue). The results of three experiments support the existence of a "colour singleton set," finding that all colour cues captured attention strongly, while motion cues captured attention only weakly or not at all. Notably, we also found that capture by motion cues in search for colour targets was moderated by their frequency; rare motion cues captured attention (weakly), while frequent motion cues did not.

  7. Comparison between low-cost marker-less and high-end marker-based motion capture systems for the computer-aided assessment of working ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrizi, Alfredo; Pennestrì, Ettore; Valentini, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with the comparison between a high-end marker-based acquisition system and a low-cost marker-less methodology for the assessment of the human posture during working tasks. The low-cost methodology is based on the use of a single Microsoft Kinect V1 device. The high-end acquisition system is the BTS SMART that requires the use of reflective markers to be placed on the subject's body. Three practical working activities involving object lifting and displacement have been investigated. The operational risk has been evaluated according to the lifting equation proposed by the American National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The results of the study show that the risk multipliers computed from the two acquisition methodologies are very close for all the analysed activities. In agreement to this outcome, the marker-less methodology based on the Microsoft Kinect V1 device seems very promising to promote the dissemination of computer-aided assessment of ergonomics while maintaining good accuracy and affordable costs. PRACTITIONER’S SUMMARY: The study is motivated by the increasing interest for on-site working ergonomics assessment. We compared a low-cost marker-less methodology with a high-end marker-based system. We tested them on three different working tasks, assessing the working risk of lifting loads. The two methodologies showed comparable precision in all the investigations.

  8. Impact of Sliding Window Length in Indoor Human Motion Modes and Pose Pattern Recognition Based on Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojing Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is essential for understanding people’s habits and behaviors, providing an important data source for precise marketing and research in psychology and sociology. Different approaches have been proposed and applied to HAR. Data segmentation using a sliding window is a basic step during the HAR procedure, wherein the window length directly affects recognition performance. However, the window length is generally randomly selected without systematic study. In this study, we examined the impact of window length on smartphone sensor-based human motion and pose pattern recognition. With data collected from smartphone sensors, we tested a range of window lengths on five popular machine-learning methods: decision tree, support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, Gaussian naïve Bayesian, and adaptive boosting. From the results, we provide recommendations for choosing the appropriate window length. Results corroborate that the influence of window length on the recognition of motion modes is significant but largely limited to pose pattern recognition. For motion mode recognition, a window length between 2.5–3.5 s can provide an optimal tradeoff between recognition performance and speed. Adaptive boosting outperformed the other methods. For pose pattern recognition, 0.5 s was enough to obtain a satisfactory result. In addition, all of the tested methods performed well.

  9. Biomechanical analysis of range of motion and failure characteristics of osteoporotic spinal compression fractures in human cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Heary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vertebroplasty is a treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The optimal location of needle placement for cement injection remains a topic of debate. As such, the authors assessed the effects of location of two types of cement instillations. In addition, the motion and failure modes at the index and adjacent segments were measured. Materials and Methods: Seven human osteoporotic cadaver spines (T1-L4, cut into four consecutive vertebral segments, were utilized. Of these, following the exclusion of four specimens not suitable to utilize for analysis, a total of 24 specimens were evaluable. Segments were randomly assigned into four treatment groups: unipedicular and bipedicular injections into the superior quartile or the anatomic center of the vertebra using confidence (Confidence Spinal Cement System®, DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA or polymethyl methacrylate. The specimens were subjected to nondestructive pure moments of 5 Nm, in 2.5 Nm increments, using pulleys and weights to simulate six degrees of physiological motion. A follower preload of 200 N was applied in flexion extension. Testing sequence: range of motion (ROM of intact specimen, fracture creation, cement injection, ROM after cement, and compression testing until failure. Nonconstrained motion was measured at the index and adjacent levels. Results: At the index level, no significant differences were observed in ROM in all treatment groups (P > 0.05. There was a significant increase in adjacent level motion only for the treatment group that received a unipedicular cement injection at the anatomic center. Conclusion: The location of the needle (superior or central and treatment type (unipedicular or bipedicular had no significant effect on the ROM at the index site. At the adjacent levels, a significant increase occurred with therapy through a unipedicular approach into the centrum of the vertebra at the treated segment.

  10. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  11. Mapping the organization of axis of motion selective features in human area MT using high-field fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zimmermann

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at high magnetic fields has made it possible to investigate the columnar organization of the human brain in vivo with high degrees of accuracy and sensitivity. Until now, these results have been limited to the organization principles of early visual cortex (V1. While the middle temporal area (MT has been the first identified extra-striate visual area shown to exhibit a columnar organization in monkeys, evidence of MT's columnar response properties and topographic layout in humans has remained elusive. Research using various approaches suggests similar response properties as in monkeys but failed to provide direct evidence for direction or axis of motion selectivity in human area MT. By combining state of the art pulse sequence design, high spatial resolution in all three dimensions (0.8 mm isotropic, optimized coil design, ultrahigh field magnets (7 Tesla and novel high resolution cortical grid sampling analysis tools, we provide the first direct evidence for large-scale axis of motion selective feature organization in human area MT closely matching predictions from topographic columnar-level simulations.

  12. Comparison of the cobas Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Test with the Hybrid Capture 2 and Linear Array HPV DNA Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadorra, Mark; LaMere, Brandon J.; Kail, Randi; Aldrich, Carrie; Kinney, Walter; Fetterman, Barbara; Lorey, Thomas; Schiffman, Mark; Castle, Philip E.

    2012-01-01

    The cobas human papillomavirus (HPV) test (cobas) was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and identifies HPV16 and HPV18 separately as well as detecting a pool of 11 HR-HPV genotypes (HPV31, -33, -35, -39, -45, -51, -52, -56, -58, -59, -68) and also HPV66. We compared cobas, Linear Array (LA), and Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) assays for detection of carcinogenic HPV DNA, and cobas and LA for detection of HPV16 and HPV18 DNA, among the first 1,852 women enrolled in the HPV Persistence and Progression Cohort (PaP Cohort) study. Specimens were tested by all 3 assays 1 year after an HC2-positive result. In 1,824 specimens with cobas results, cobas had an 85.9% agreement with HC2 and 91.0% agreement with LA for carcinogenic HPV detection. When results between cobas and HC2 disagreed, cobas tended to call more women HPV positive (P < 0.01). Categorizing cobas and LA results hierarchically according to cancer risk (HPV16, HPV18, other carcinogenic HPV genotypes, or carcinogen negative), there was a 90% agreement for all categories of HPV (n = 1,824). We found good agreement between the two U.S. FDA-approved HPV tests, with discrepancies between the two assays due to specific characteristics of the individual assays. Additional studies are needed to compare HC2 and cobas for detecting and predicting CIN3 to understand the clinical implications of the discrepant test results between the two tests. PMID:22075592

  13. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  14. A single theoretical framework for circular features processing in humans: orientation and direction of motion compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzvetomir eTzvetanov

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Common computational principles underly processing of various visual features in the cortex. They are considered to create similar patterns of contextual modulations in behavioral studies for different features as orientation and direction of motion. Here, I studied the possibility that a single theoretical framework, implemented in different visual areas, of circular feature coding and processing could explain these similarities in observations. Stimuli were created that allowed direct comparison of the contextual effects on orientation and motion direction with two different psychophysical probes: changes in weak and strong signal perception. One unique simplified theoretical model of circular feature coding including only inhibitory interactions, and decoding through standard vector average, successfully predicted the similarities in the two domains, while different feature population characteristics explained well the differences in modulation on both experimental probes. These results demonstrate how a single computational principle underlies processing of various features across the cortices.

  15. RGO-coated elastic fibres as wearable strain sensors for full-scale detection of human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Mao, Guoming; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we chose highly-elastic fabric fibres as the functional carrier and then simply coated the fibres with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) using plasma treatment, dip coating and hydrothermal reduction steps, finally making a wearable strain sensor. As a result, the full-scale detection of human motions, ranging from bending joints to the pulse beat, has been achieved by these sensors. Moreover, high sensitivity, good stability and excellent repeatability were realized. The good sensing performances and economical fabrication process of this wearable strain sensor have strengthened our confidence in practical applications in smart clothing, smart fabrics, healthcare, and entertainment fields.

  16. Human body motion tracking based on quantum-inspired immune cloning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hong; Yue, Lichuan; Jiao, Licheng; Wu, Xing

    2009-10-01

    In a static monocular camera system, to gain a perfect 3D human body posture is a great challenge for Computer Vision technology now. This paper presented human postures recognition from video sequences using the Quantum-Inspired Immune Cloning Algorithm (QICA). The algorithm included three parts. Firstly, prior knowledge of human beings was used, the key joint points of human could be detected automatically from the human contours and skeletons which could be thinning from the contours; And due to the complexity of human movement, a forecasting mechanism of occlusion joint points was addressed to get optimum 2D key joint points of human body; And then pose estimation recovered by optimizing between the 2D projection of 3D human key joint points and 2D detection key joint points using QICA, which recovered the movement of human body perfectly, because this algorithm could acquire not only the global optimal solution, but the local optimal solution.

  17. Breathing, Laughing, Sneezing, Coughing: Model and Control of an Anatomically Inspired, Physically-Based Human Torso Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    DiLorenzo, Paul Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Breathing, laughing, sneezing and coughing are all important human behaviors that are generated in the torso. Yet, when these behaviors are animated, the movement of the human torso is often simplified and stylized. Recent work aiming to depict the movement of the torso has focused on pure data-driven approaches such as a skin capture of an actor using a motion capture system. Although this generates impressive results to recreate the captured motion, it does not provide control to an animato...

  18. Example-Based Automatic Music-Driven Conventional Dance Motion Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Songhua [ORNL; Fan, Rukun [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Geng, Weidong [Zhejiang University

    2011-04-21

    We introduce a novel method for synthesizing dance motions that follow the emotions and contents of a piece of music. Our method employs a learning-based approach to model the music to motion mapping relationship embodied in example dance motions along with those motions' accompanying background music. A key step in our method is to train a music to motion matching quality rating function through learning the music to motion mapping relationship exhibited in synchronized music and dance motion data, which were captured from professional human dance performance. To generate an optimal sequence of dance motion segments to match with a piece of music, we introduce a constraint-based dynamic programming procedure. This procedure considers both music to motion matching quality and visual smoothness of a resultant dance motion sequence. We also introduce a two-way evaluation strategy, coupled with a GPU-based implementation, through which we can execute the dynamic programming process in parallel, resulting in significant speedup. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we quantitatively compare the dance motions synthesized by our method with motion synthesis results by several peer methods using the motions captured from professional human dancers' performance as the gold standard. We also conducted several medium-scale user studies to explore how perceptually our dance motion synthesis method can outperform existing methods in synthesizing dance motions to match with a piece of music. These user studies produced very positive results on our music-driven dance motion synthesis experiments for several Asian dance genres, confirming the advantages of our method.

  19. Example-based automatic music-driven conventional dance motion synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rukun; Xu, Songhua; Geng, Weidong

    2012-03-01

    We introduce a novel method for synthesizing dance motions that follow the emotions and contents of a piece of music. Our method employs a learning-based approach to model the music to motion mapping relationship embodied in example dance motions along with those motions' accompanying background music. A key step in our method is to train a music to motion matching quality rating function through learning the music to motion mapping relationship exhibited in synchronized music and dance motion data, which were captured from professional human dance performance. To generate an optimal sequence of dance motion segments to match with a piece of music, we introduce a constraint-based dynamic programming procedure. This procedure considers both music to motion matching quality and visual smoothness of a resultant dance motion sequence. We also introduce a two-way evaluation strategy, coupled with a GPU-based implementation, through which we can execute the dynamic programming process in parallel, resulting in significant speedup. To evaluate the effectiveness of our method, we quantitatively compare the dance motions synthesized by our method with motion synthesis results by several peer methods using the motions captured from professional human dancers' performance as the gold standard. We also conducted several medium-scale user studies to explore how perceptually our dance motion synthesis method can outperform existing methods in synthesizing dance motions to match with a piece of music. These user studies produced very positive results on our music-driven dance motion synthesis experiments for several Asian dance genres, confirming the advantages of our method.

  20. First evaluation of the biologic effectiveness factors of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in a human colon carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martín; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ((10)BPA) and for 2,4-bis (α,β-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ((10)BOPP). Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm (10)B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ((60)Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy (±10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10(9) n/cm(2) sec). The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 ± 1.1 and 2.4 ± 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 ± 2.2 and 2.0 ± 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 ± 3.7 and 3.5 ± 1.3. BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a biologic model and could be useful for future experimental studies for the application of BNCT to colon carcinoma

  1. Velocity storage contribution to vestibular self-motion perception in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, G; Ramat, S; Laurens, J; Bockisch, C J; Marti, S; Straumann, D; Palla, A

    2011-01-01

    Self-motion perception after a sudden stop from a sustained rotation in darkness lasts approximately as long as reflexive eye movements. We hypothesized that, after an angular velocity step, self-motion perception and reflexive eye movements are driven by the same vestibular pathways. In 16 healthy subjects (25-71 years of age), perceived rotational velocity (PRV) and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (rVOR) after sudden decelerations (90°/s(2)) from constant-velocity (90°/s) earth-vertical axis rotations were simultaneously measured (PRV reported by hand-lever turning; rVOR recorded by search coils). Subjects were upright (yaw) or 90° left-ear-down (pitch). After both yaw and pitch decelerations, PRV rose rapidly and showed a plateau before decaying. In contrast, slow-phase eye velocity (SPV) decayed immediately after the initial increase. SPV and PRV were fitted with the sum of two exponentials: one time constant accounting for the semicircular canal (SCC) dynamics and one time constant accounting for a central process, known as velocity storage mechanism (VSM). Parameters were constrained by requiring equal SCC time constant and VSM time constant for SPV and PRV. The gains weighting the two exponential functions were free to change. SPV were accurately fitted (variance-accounted-for: 0.85 ± 0.10) and PRV (variance-accounted-for: 0.86 ± 0.07), showing that SPV and PRV curve differences can be explained by a greater relative weight of VSM in PRV compared with SPV (twofold for yaw, threefold for pitch). These results support our hypothesis that self-motion perception after angular velocity steps is be driven by the same central vestibular processes as reflexive eye movements and that no additional mechanisms are required to explain the perceptual dynamics.

  2. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  3. A general-purpose framework to simulate musculoskeletal system of human body: using a motion tracking approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Hossein; Rostami, Mostafa; Gudarzi, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    Computation of muscle force patterns that produce specified movements of muscle-actuated dynamic models is an important and challenging problem. This problem is an undetermined one, and then a proper optimization is required to calculate muscle forces. The purpose of this paper is to develop a general model for calculating all muscle activation and force patterns in an arbitrary human body movement. For this aim, the equations of a multibody system forward dynamics, which is considered for skeletal system of the human body model, is derived using Lagrange-Euler formulation. Next, muscle contraction dynamics is added to this model and forward dynamics of an arbitrary musculoskeletal system is obtained. For optimization purpose, the obtained model is used in computed muscle control algorithm, and a closed-loop system for tracking desired motions is derived. Finally, a popular sport exercise, biceps curl, is simulated by using this algorithm and the validity of the obtained results is evaluated via EMG signals.

  4. Recognizing human actions by learning and matching shape-motion prototype trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhuolin; Lin, Zhe; Davis, Larry S

    2012-03-01

    A shape-motion prototype-based approach is introduced for action recognition. The approach represents an action as a sequence of prototypes for efficient and flexible action matching in long video sequences. During training, an action prototype tree is learned in a joint shape and motion space via hierarchical K-means clustering and each training sequence is represented as a labeled prototype sequence; then a look-up table of prototype-to-prototype distances is generated. During testing, based on a joint probability model of the actor location and action prototype, the actor is tracked while a frame-to-prototype correspondence is established by maximizing the joint probability, which is efficiently performed by searching the learned prototype tree; then actions are recognized using dynamic prototype sequence matching. Distance measures used for sequence matching are rapidly obtained by look-up table indexing, which is an order of magnitude faster than brute-force computation of frame-to-frame distances. Our approach enables robust action matching in challenging situations (such as moving cameras, dynamic backgrounds) and allows automatic alignment of action sequences. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach achieves recognition rates of 92.86 percent on a large gesture data set (with dynamic backgrounds), 100 percent on the Weizmann action data set, 95.77 percent on the KTH action data set, 88 percent on the UCF sports data set, and 87.27 percent on the CMU action data set.

  5. Methods for Motion Correction Evaluation Using 18F-FDG Human Brain Scans on a High-Resolution PET Scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Sune H.; Sibomana, Merence; Olesen, Oline Vinter

    2012-01-01

    Many authors have reported the importance of motion correction (MC) for PET. Patient motion during scanning disturbs kinetic analysis and degrades resolution. In addition, using misaligned transmission for attenuation and scatter correction may produce regional quantification bias in the reconstr......Many authors have reported the importance of motion correction (MC) for PET. Patient motion during scanning disturbs kinetic analysis and degrades resolution. In addition, using misaligned transmission for attenuation and scatter correction may produce regional quantification bias...... in the reconstructed emission images. The purpose of this work was the development of quality control (QC) methods for MC procedures based on external motion tracking (EMT) for human scanning using an optical motion tracking system. Methods: Two scans with minor motion and 5 with major motion (as reported...... (automated image registration) software. The following 3 QC methods were used to evaluate the EMT and AIR MC: a method using the ratio between 2 regions of interest with gray matter voxels (GM) and white matter voxels (WM), called GM/WM; mutual information; and cross correlation. Results: The results...

  6. Optimal Threshold for a Positive Hybrid Capture 2 Test for Detection of Human Papillomavirus: Data from the ARTISTIC Trial▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, A.; Bailey, A.; Turner, A.; Almonte, M.; Gilham, C.; Baysson, H.; Peto, J.; Roberts, C.; Thomson, C.; Desai, M.; Mather, J.; Kitchener, H.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the use of the Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) test for the detection of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) with different thresholds for positivity within a primary screening setting and as a method of triage for low-grade cytology. In the ARTISTIC population-based trial, 18,386 women were screened by cytology and for HPV. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions of grade two and higher (CIN2+ lesions) were identified for 453 women within 30 months of an abnormal baseline sample. When a relative light unit/cutoff (RLU/Co) ratio of ≥1 was used as the threshold for considering an HC2 result positive, 15.6% of results were positive, and the proportion of CIN2+ lesions in this group was 14.7%. The relative sensitivity for CIN2+ lesion detection was 93.4%. When an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2 was used as the threshold, there was a 2.5% reduction in positivity, with an increase in the proportion of CIN2+ lesions detected. The relative sensitivity decreased slightly, to 90.3%. Among women with low-grade cytology, HPV prevalences were 43.7% and 40.3% at RLU/Co ratios of ≥1 and ≥2, respectively. The proportions of CIN2+ lesions detected were 17.3% and 18.0%, with relative sensitivities of 87.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 84.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. At an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, 68.3% of HC2-positive results were confirmed by the Roche line blot assay, compared to 77.2% of those at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2. Fewer HC2-positive results were confirmed for 35- to 64-year-olds (50.3% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 63.2% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2) than for 20- to 34-year-olds (78.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of ≥1 and 83.7% at an RLU/Co ratio of >2). If the HC2 test is used for routine screening as an initial test or as a method of triage for low-grade cytology, we would suggest increasing the threshold for positivity from the RLU/Co ratio of ≥1, recommended by the manufacturer, to an RLU/Co ratio of ≥2, since this study has shown that a beneficial balance

  7. A rotary multimodal hybrid energy harvesting device powered by human motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Miles R.

    This thesis presents a novel hybrid multimodal energy harvesting device consisting of an unbalanced rotary disk that supports two transduction methods, piezoelectric and electromagnetic. The device generates electrical energy from oscillatory motion either orthogonal or parallel to the rotary axis to power electronic devices. Analytical models of the device were developed, from which numerical simulations were performed for several different generator sizes. Two prototypes, 180 mm and 100 mm in diameter, respectively, were fabricated and characterized experimentally with a modal shaker. The 180 mm prototype generated 120 mW from the electromagnetic system at 5 Hz and 0.8g, and 4.23 mW from the piezoelectric system at 20.2 Hz and 0.4g excitation acceleration. Finally, the power generation capabilities of the two prototypes were compared to other similar devices.

  8. Biomechanical Analysis and Evaluation Technology Using Human Multi-Body Dynamic Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Shin, June Ho; Khurelbaatar, Tsolmonbaatar [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents the biomechanical analysis and evaluation technology of musculoskeletal system by multi-body human dynamic model and 3-D motion capture data. First, medical image based geometric model and material properties of tissue were used to develop the human dynamic model and 3-D motion capture data based motion analysis techniques were develop to quantify the in-vivo joint kinematics, joint moment, joint force, and muscle force. Walking and push-up motion was investigated using the developed model. The present model and technologies would be useful to apply the biomechanical analysis and evaluation of human activities.

  9. A motion sensing-based framework for robotic manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hao; Xia, Zeyang; Weng, Shaokui; Gan, Yangzhou; Fang, Peng; Xiong, Jing

    2016-01-01

    To data, outside of the controlled environments, robots normally perform manipulation tasks operating with human. This pattern requires the robot operators with high technical skills training for varied teach-pendant operating system. Motion sensing technology, which enables human-machine interaction in a novel and natural interface using gestures, has crucially inspired us to adopt this user-friendly and straightforward operation mode on robotic manipulation. Thus, in this paper, we presented a motion sensing-based framework for robotic manipulation, which recognizes gesture commands captured from motion sensing input device and drives the action of robots. For compatibility, a general hardware interface layer was also developed in the framework. Simulation and physical experiments have been conducted for preliminary validation. The results have shown that the proposed framework is an effective approach for general robotic manipulation with motion sensing control.

  10. Harvesting energy from the motion of human limbs: the design and analysis of an impact-based piezoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Michael; Fiorini, Paolo; Van Hoof, Chris; Van Schaijk, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can replace batteries and serve as clean and renewable energy sources in low-consumption wireless applications. Harvesters delivering sufficient power for sensors operating in an industrial environment have been developed, but difficulties are encountered when the devices to be powered are located on the human body. In this case, classical harvester designs (resonant systems) are not adapted to the low-frequency and high-amplitude characteristics of the motion. For this reason, we propose in this paper an alternative design based on the impact of a moving mass on piezoelectric bending structures. A model of the system is presented and analysed in order to determine the parameters influencing the device performances in terms of energy harvesting. A prototype of the impact harvester is experimentally characterized: for a generator occupying approximately 25 cm 3 and weighing 60 g, an output power of 47 µW was measured across a resistive load when the device was rotated by 180° each second. 600 µW were obtained for a 10 Hz frequency and 10 cm amplitude linear motion. Further optimization of the piezoelectric transducer is possible, allowing a large increase in these values, bringing the power density for the two cases respectively to 10 and 120 µW cm −3

  11. Harvesting energy from the motion of human limbs: the design and analysis of an impact-based piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Michael; Fiorini, Paolo; van Schaijk, Rob; van Hoof, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Vibration energy harvesters can replace batteries and serve as clean and renewable energy sources in low-consumption wireless applications. Harvesters delivering sufficient power for sensors operating in an industrial environment have been developed, but difficulties are encountered when the devices to be powered are located on the human body. In this case, classical harvester designs (resonant systems) are not adapted to the low-frequency and high-amplitude characteristics of the motion. For this reason, we propose in this paper an alternative design based on the impact of a moving mass on piezoelectric bending structures. A model of the system is presented and analysed in order to determine the parameters influencing the device performances in terms of energy harvesting. A prototype of the impact harvester is experimentally characterized: for a generator occupying approximately 25 cm3 and weighing 60 g, an output power of 47 µW was measured across a resistive load when the device was rotated by 180° each second. 600 µW were obtained for a 10 Hz frequency and 10 cm amplitude linear motion. Further optimization of the piezoelectric transducer is possible, allowing a large increase in these values, bringing the power density for the two cases respectively to 10 and 120 µW cm-3.

  12. Segmenting Continuous Motions with Hidden Semi-markov Models and Gaussian Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Nakamura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans divide perceived continuous information into segments to facilitate recognition. For example, humans can segment speech waves into recognizable morphemes. Analogously, continuous motions are segmented into recognizable unit actions. People can divide continuous information into segments without using explicit segment points. This capacity for unsupervised segmentation is also useful for robots, because it enables them to flexibly learn languages, gestures, and actions. In this paper, we propose a Gaussian process-hidden semi-Markov model (GP-HSMM that can divide continuous time series data into segments in an unsupervised manner. Our proposed method consists of a generative model based on the hidden semi-Markov model (HSMM, the emission distributions of which are Gaussian processes (GPs. Continuous time series data is generated by connecting segments generated by the GP. Segmentation can be achieved by using forward filtering-backward sampling to estimate the model's parameters, including the lengths and classes of the segments. In an experiment using the CMU motion capture dataset, we tested GP-HSMM with motion capture data containing simple exercise motions; the results of this experiment showed that the proposed GP-HSMM was comparable with other methods. We also conducted an experiment using karate motion capture data, which is more complex than exercise motion capture data; in this experiment, the segmentation accuracy of GP-HSMM was 0.92, which outperformed other methods.

  13. Estimation of Seismic Ground Motions and Attendant Potential Human Fatalities from Scenario Earthquakes on the Chishan Fault in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Sung Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to estimate maximum ground motions in southern Taiwan as well as to assess potential human fatalities from scenario earthquakes on the Chishan active faults in this area. The resultant Shake Map patterns of maximum ground motion in a case of Mw 7.2 show the areas of PGA above 400 gals are located in the northeastern, central and northern parts of southwestern Kaohsiung as well as the southern part of central Tainan, as shown in the regions inside the yellow lines in the corresponding figure. Comparing cities with similar distances located in Tainan, Kaohsiung, and Pingtung to the Chishan fault, the cities in Tainan area have relatively greater PGA and PGV, due to large site response factors in Tainan area. Furthermore, seismic hazards in terms of PGA and PGV in the vicinity of the Chishan fault are not completely dominated by the Chishan fault. The main reason is that some areas located in the vicinity of the Chishan fault are marked with low site response amplification values from 0.55 - 1.1 and 0.67 - 1.22 for PGA and PGV, respectively. Finally, from estimation of potential human fatalities from scenario earthquakes on the Chishan active fault, it is noted that potential fatalities increase rapidly in people above age 45. Total fatalities reach a high peak in age groups of 55 - 64. Another to pay special attention is Kaohsiung City has more than 540 thousand households whose residences over 50 years old. In light of the results of this study, I urge both the municipal and central governments to take effective seismic hazard mitigation measures in the highly urbanized areas with a large number of old buildings in southern Taiwan.

  14. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  15. Medical application of neutron capture γ-ray spectroscopy: measurement of cadmium and nitrogen in living human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vartsky, D.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    In-vivo measurement of small quantities of Cd is possible due to the high radiative neutron-capture cross-section of 113 Cd (12.3%, 20000 b). Under slow neutron capture in 113 Cd, the excited 114 Cd decays by prompt emission of cascade of gamma-rays of which the most intense is the 559 keV transition from the first excited state to the ground state. For a total kidney or liver dose of 670 mrem, the detection limits are 2.5 mg or 1.5 μg/g respectively. A table shows the results of a study on normal subjects with smoking and non-smoking history. The study indicates higher cadmium levels in the group of smokers. The method of measuring body N utilizes the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction. The total energy available on slow neutron capture is 10.83 MeV and approximately 15% of the de-excitations take place directly to the ground state of 15 N. The irradiation facility is basically the same as that described for measurement of Cd. The Cd collimator, however is replaced by a second collimator designed to provide a wide beam 13 x 60 cm at the level of the bed. During the irradiation the subject lies on a motorized bed which moves across the neutron beam. The precision or reproducibility of the measurements was performed using an Alderson phantom. For a standard 70 kg man having 2000 g of N, the accuracy of the measurement is +-2% with an error of 1.3% for reproducibility, based on several measurements over a 6-month period. The total radiation dose for a bilateral irradiation is 45 mrem. Initial clinical studies will concentrate on sequential measurements of body N

  16. Clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy [in humans] [at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center][at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of research records of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center using the Code of Federal Regulations, FDA Regulations and Good Clinical Practice Guidelines. Clinical data were collected FR-om subjects' research charts, and differences in conduct of studies at both centers were examined. Records maintained at Brookhaven National Laboratory were not in compliance with regulatory standards. Beth Israel's records followed federal regulations. Deficiencies discovered at both sites are discussed in the reports

  17. Two eyes, one vision: binocular motion perception in human visual cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, M.

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human vision is the fact that it is binocular, i.e. that we have two eyes. As a result, the brain nearly always receives two slightly different images of the same visual scene. Yet, we only perceive a single image and thus our brain has to actively combine the binocular visual

  18. Finite element analysis of high modal dynamic responses of a composite floor subjected to human motion under passive live load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Behnia

    Full Text Available Light weight and long span composite floors are common place in modern construction. A critical consequence of this application is undesired vibration which may cause excessive discomfort to occupants. This work investigates the composite floor vibration behavior of an existing building based on a comprehensive study of high modal dynamic responses, the range of which has been absent in previous studies and major analytical templates, of different panels under the influence of loads induced by human motion. The resulting fundamental natural frequency and vibration modes are first validated with respect to experimental and numerical evidences from literature. Departing from close correlation established in comparison, this study explores in detail the effects of intensity of passive live load as additional stationary mass due to crowd jumping as well as considering human structure interaction. From observation, a new approach in the simulation of passive live load through the consideration of human structure interaction and human body characteristics is proposed. It is concluded that higher vibration modes are essential to determine the minimum required modes and mass participation ratio in the case of vertical vibration. The results indicate the need to consider 30 modes of vibration to obtain all possible important excitations and thereby making third harmonic of load frequency available to excite the critical modes. In addition, presence of different intensities of passive live load on the composite floor showed completely different behavior in each particular panel associated with load location of panel and passive live load intensity. Furthermore, implementing human body characteristics in simulation causes an obvious increase in modal damping and hence better practicality and economical presentation can be achieved in structural dynamic behavior.

  19. Histaminergic and cholinergic neuron systems in the impairment of human thermoregulation during motion sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobel, Gerard; Tribukait, Arne; Mekjavic, Igor B; Eiken, Ola

    2010-05-31

    Motion sickness (MS) exaggerates body cooling during cold-water immersion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether such MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is influenced by two anti-MS drugs: the histamine-receptor blocker dimenhydrinate (DMH) and the muscarine-receptor blocker scopolamine (Scop). Nine healthy male subjects were immersed in 15 degrees C water for a maximum of 90min in five conditions: (1) control (CN): no medication, no MS provocation; (2) MS-control (MS-CN): no medication, MS provocation; (3) MS-placebo (MS-P): placebo DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (4) MS-DMH: DMH and placebo Scop, MS provocation; (5) MS-Scop: Scop and placebo DMH, MS provocation. MS was induced by use of a rotating chair. Throughout the experiments rectal temperature (T(re)), the difference in temperature between the non-immersed right forearm and third finger (T(ff)) as an index of peripheral vasoconstriction, and oxygen uptake (VO(2)) as a measure of shivering thermogenesis, were recorded. DMH and Scop were similarly efficacious in ameliorating nausea. The fall in T(re) was greater in the MS-CN and MS-P conditions than in the CN condition. DMH, but not Scop, prevented the MS-induced increase in body-core cooling. MS attenuated the cold-induced vasoconstriction, an effect which was fully prevented by DMH but only partially by Scop. MS provocation did not affect VO(2) in any condition. The results suggest that the MS-induced predisposition to hypothermia is predominantly mediated by histaminergic mechanisms and that DMH might be useful in conjunction with maritime accidents or other scenarios where exposure to cold and MS are imminent features. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of hybrid capture and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods in terms of diagnosing human cytomegalovirus infection in patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsal, Arif S.; Ozsan, M.; Dolapci, I.; Tekeli, A.; Becksac, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a life threatening cause of infection among hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Developing reliable methods in detecting the CMV infection is important to identify the patients at risk of CMV infection and disease. The aim of this study was to compare the 2 tests- hybrid capture test, which is routinely used in the diagnosis of CMV infection among hematopoietic stem cell recipients, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting UL21.5 mRNA transcripts of the active virus. In this prospective study, a total of 178 blood samples obtained 35 patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit of the Hematology Department, Ibn-i-Sina Hospital of Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey between January 2003 and September 2003 were analyzed. Hybrid capture and RT-PCR using UL21.5 gene transcript method to investigate HCMV in blood samples were performed at the department of Microbiology and Clinic Microbiology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey. When Hybrid capture test was accepted as the golden standard, the sensitivity of Rt-PCR was 3%, specificity 100%, false negativity 67%, false positivity 0%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 74%, and accuracy was 77%. Improving this test by quantification, and application of additional gene transcripts, primarily the late gene transcripts can help increase the sensitivity and feasibility. (author)

  1. Recent progress of flexible and wearable strain sensors for human-motion monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gang; Huang, Wei; Shao, Jinjun; Dong, Xiaochen

    2018-01-01

    With the rapid development of human artificial intelligence and the inevitably expanding markets, the past two decades have witnessed an urgent demand for the flexible and wearable devices, especially the flexible strain sensors. Flexible strain sensors, incorporated the merits of stretchability, high sensitivity and skin-mountable, are emerging as an extremely charming domain in virtue of their promising applications in artificial intelligent realms, human-machine systems and health-care devices. In this review, we concentrate on the transduction mechanisms, building blocks of flexible physical sensors, subsequently property optimization in terms of device structures and sensing materials in the direction of practical applications. Perspectives on the existing challenges are also highlighted in the end. Project supported by the NNSF of China (Nos. 61525402, 61604071), the Key University Science Research Project of Jiangsu Province (No. 15KJA430006), and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20161012).

  2. Markerless Motion Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis; Czarowicz, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the Associated Technologies aspect of the ICDVRAT event. Two industry leading markerless motion capture systems are examined that offer advancement in the field of rehabilitation. Residing at each end of the cost continuum, technical differences such as 3D versus 360 ...

  3. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of the STAS Domains of Rat Prestin and Human Pendrin Reveal Conformational Motions in Conserved Flexible Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok K. Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Molecular dynamics (MD simulations provide valuable information on the conformational changes that accompany time-dependent motions in proteins. The reported crystal structure of rat prestin (PDB 3LLO is remarkable for an α1-α2 inter-helical angle that differs substantially from those observed in bacterial STAS domains of SulP anion transporters and anti-sigma factor antagonists. However, NMR data on the rat prestin STAS domain in solution suggests dynamic features at or near the α1-α2 helical region (Pasqualetto et al JMB, 2010. We therefore performed a 100 ns 300K MD simulation study comparing the STAS domains of rat prestin and (modeled human pendrin, to explore possible conformational flexibility in the region of the α1 and α2 helices. Methods: The conformation of the loop missing in the crystal structure of rat prestin STAS (11 amino acids between helix α1 and strand β3 was built using Modeller. MD simulations were performed with GROMACSv4.6 using GROMOS96 53a6 all-atom force field. Results: A subset of secondary structured elements of the STAS domains exhibits significant conformational changes during the simulation time course. The conformationally perturbed segments include the majority of loop regions, as well as the α1 and α2 helices. A significant decrease in the α1-α2 inter-helical angle observed across the simulation trajectory leads to closer helical packing at their C-termini. The end-simulation conformations of the prestin and pendrin STAS domains, including their decreased α1-α2 inter-helical angles, resemble more closely the packing of corresponding helices in the STAS structures of bacterial SulP transporters Rv1739c and ychM, as well as those of the anti-sigma factor antagonists. Several structural segments of the modeled human pendrin STAS domain exhibit larger atomic motions and greater conformational deviations than the corresponding regions of rat prestin, predicting that the human pendrin STAS

  4. Open source platform for collaborative construction of wearable sensor datasets for human motion analysis and an application for gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, César; González, Manuel A; Hernández, Carmen; Vegas, Jesús

    2016-10-01

    Nearly every practical improvement in modeling human motion is well founded in a properly designed collection of data or datasets. These datasets must be made publicly available for the community could validate and accept them. It is reasonable to concede that a collective, guided enterprise could serve to devise solid and substantial datasets, as a result of a collaborative effort, in the same sense as the open software community does. In this way datasets could be complemented, extended and expanded in size with, for example, more individuals, samples and human actions. For this to be possible some commitments must be made by the collaborators, being one of them sharing the same data acquisition platform. In this paper, we offer an affordable open source hardware and software platform based on inertial wearable sensors in a way that several groups could cooperate in the construction of datasets through common software suitable for collaboration. Some experimental results about the throughput of the overall system are reported showing the feasibility of acquiring data from up to 6 sensors with a sampling frequency no less than 118Hz. Also, a proof-of-concept dataset is provided comprising sampled data from 12 subjects suitable for gait analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-04

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  6. Highly flexible self-powered sensors based on printed circuit board technology for human motion detection and gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Yiin-Kuen; Ho, Hsi-Chun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new integration of printed circuit board (PCB) technology-based self-powered sensors (PSSs) and direct-write, near-field electrospinning (NFES) with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) micro/nano fibers (MNFs) as source materials. Integration with PCB technology is highly desirable for affordable mass production. In addition, we systematically investigate the effects of electrodes with intervals in the range of 0.15 mm to 0.40 mm on the resultant PSS output voltage and current. The results show that at a strain of 0.5% and 5 Hz, a PSS with a gap interval 0.15 mm produces a maximum output voltage of 3 V and a maximum output current of 220 nA. Under the same dimensional constraints, the MNFs are massively connected in series (via accumulation of continuous MNFs across the gaps ) and in parallel (via accumulation of parallel MNFs on the same gap) simultaneously. Finally, encapsulation in a flexible polymer with different interval electrodes demonstrated that electrical superposition can be realized by connecting MNFs collectively and effectively in serial/parallel patterns to achieve a high current and high voltage output, respectively. Further improvement in PSSs based on the effect of cooperativity was experimentally realized by rolling-up the device into a cylindrical shape, resulting in a 130% increase in power output due to the cooperative effect. We assembled the piezoelectric MNF sensors on gloves, bandages and stockings to fabricate devices that can detect different types of human motion, including finger motion and various flexing and extensions of an ankle. The firmly glued PSSs were tested on the glove and ankle respectively to detect and harvest the various movements and the output voltage was recorded as ∼1.5 V under jumping movement (one PSS) and ∼4.5 V for the clenched fist with five fingers bent concurrently (five PSSs). This research shows that piezoelectric MNFs not only have a huge impact on harvesting various external

  7. Nanotexture Optimization by Oxygen Plasma of Mesoporous Silica Thin Film for Enrichment of Low Molecular Weight Peptides Captured from Human Serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ye; Peng, Yang; Brousseau, Louis; Bouamrani, Ali; Liu, Xuewu; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the optimization of mesoporous silica thin films by nanotexturing using oxygen plasma versus thermal oxidation. Calcination in oxygen plasma provides superior control over pore formation with regard to the pore surface and higher fidelity to the structure of the polymer template. The resulting porous film offers an ideal substrate for the selective partitioning of peptides from complex mixtures. The improved chemico-physical characteristics of porous thin films (pore size distribution, nanostructure, surface properties and pore connectivity) were systematically characterized with XRD, Ellipsometry, FTIR, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption. The enrichment of low molecular weight proteins captured from human serum on mesoporous silica thin films fabricated by both methodologies were investigated by comparison of their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. This novel on-chip fractionation technology offers advantages in recovering the low molecular weight peptides from human serum, which has been recognized as an informative resource for early diagnosis of cancer and other diseases. PMID:21179395

  8. Capturing public interest toward new tools for controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection exploiting data from Google Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahroum, Naim; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Brigo, Francesco; Waknin, Roy; Sharif, Kassem; Mahagna, Hussein; Amital, Howard; Watad, Abdulla

    2018-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus vaccination and pre-exposure prophylaxis represent two different emerging preventive tools. Google Trends was used to assess the public interest toward these tools in terms of digital activities. Worldwide web searches concerning the human immunodeficiency virus vaccine represented 0.34 percent, 0.03 percent, and 46.97 percent of human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment-related Google Trends queries, respectively. Concerning temporal trends, digital activities were shown to increase from 0 percent as of 1 January 2004 percent to 46 percent as of 8 October 2017 with two spikes observed in May and July 2012, coinciding with the US Food and Drug Administration approval. Bursts in search number and volume were recorded as human immunodeficiency virus vaccine trials emerged. This search topic has decreased in the past decade in parallel to the increase in Truvada-related topics. Concentrated searches were noticed among African countries with high human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome prevalence. Stakeholders should take advantage of public interest especially in preventive medicine in high disease burden countries.

  9. Lubrication of the Human Anklejoint in Walking with the Synovial Fluid Filtrated by the Cartilage with the Surface Zone Worn-out:Steady Pure Sliding Motion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlaváček, Miroslav

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 10 (1999), s. 1059-1069 ISSN 0021-9290 Keywords : biphasic articular cartilage * biphasic synovial fluid * boooundary lubrication * human ankle joint * sliding motion Subject RIV: FI - Traumatology, Orthopedics Impact factor: 1.536, year: 1999

  10. Human Motion Tracking and Glove-Based User Interfaces for Virtual Environments in ANVIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Joseph D., II

    2002-01-01

    The Army/NASA Virtual Innovations Laboratory (ANVIL) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an environment where engineers and other personnel can investigate novel applications of computer simulation and Virtual Reality (VR) technologies. Among the many hardware and software resources in ANVIL are several high-performance Silicon Graphics computer systems and a number of commercial software packages, such as Division MockUp by Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC) and Jack by Unigraphics Solutions, Inc. These hardware and software platforms are used in conjunction with various VR peripheral I/O (input / output) devices, CAD (computer aided design) models, etc. to support the objectives of the MSFC Engineering Systems Department/Systems Engineering Support Group (ED42) by studying engineering designs, chiefly from the standpoint of human factors and ergonomics. One of the more time-consuming tasks facing ANVIL personnel involves the testing and evaluation of peripheral I/O devices and the integration of new devices with existing hardware and software platforms. Another important challenge is the development of innovative user interfaces to allow efficient, intuitive interaction between simulation users and the virtual environments they are investigating. As part of his Summer Faculty Fellowship, the author was tasked with verifying the operation of some recently acquired peripheral interface devices and developing new, easy-to-use interfaces that could be used with existing VR hardware and software to better support ANVIL projects.

  11. A methodology of the assessment of environmental and human health risks from amine emissions from post combustion CO2 capture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korre, Anna; Manzoor, Saba; Simperler, Alexandra

    2015-04-01

    Post combustion CO2 capture (PCCC) technology in power plants using amines as solvent for CO2 capture, is one of the reduction technologies employed to combat escalating levels of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, amine solvents used for capturing CO2 produce negative emissions such as, nitrosamines and nitramines, which are suspected to be potent carcinogens. It is therefore essential to assess the atmospheric fate of these amine emissions in the atmosphere by studying their atmospheric chemistry, dispersion and transport pathways away from the source and deposition in the environment, so as to be able to assess accurately the risk posed to human health and the natural environment. An important knowledge gap until recently has been the consideration of the atmospheric chemistry of these amine emissions simultaneously with dispersion and deposition studies so as to perform reliable human health and environmental risk assessments. The authors have developed a methodology to assess the distribution of such emissions away from a post-combustion facility by studying the atmospheric chemistry of monoethanolamine, the most commonly used solvent for CO2 capture, and those of the resulting degradation amines, methylamine and dimethylamine. This was coupled with dispersion modeling calculations (Manzoor, et al., 2014; Manzoor et al,2015). Rate coefficients describing the entire atmospheric chemistry schemes of the amines studied were evaluated employing quantum chemical theoretical and kinetic modeling calculations. These coefficients were used to solve the advection-dispersion-chemical equation using an atmospheric dispersion model, ADMS 5. This methodology is applicable to any size of a power plant and at any geographical location. In this paper, the humman health risk assessment is integrated in the modelling study. The methodology is demonstrated on a case study on the UK's largest capture pilot plant, Ferrybridge CCPilot 100+, to estimate the dispersion, chemical

  12. In Situ CaptureRT-qPCR: A new simple and sensitive method to detect human norovirus in oysters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the major cause for the non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. RT-qPCR is a widely used method to detect HuNoVs. However, the method is unable to discriminate between infectious and non-infectious viruses. Previously, we reported that the receptor mediated in s...

  13. Perceptual learning of motion direction discrimination with suppressed and unsuppressed MT in humans: an fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Thompson

    Full Text Available The middle temporal area of the extrastriate visual cortex (area MT is integral to motion perception and is thought to play a key role in the perceptual learning of motion tasks. We have previously found, however, that perceptual learning of a motion discrimination task is possible even when the training stimulus contains locally balanced, motion opponent signals that putatively suppress the response of MT. Assuming at least partial suppression of MT, possible explanations for this learning are that 1 training made MT more responsive by reducing motion opponency, 2 MT remained suppressed and alternative visual areas such as V1 enabled learning and/or 3 suppression of MT increased with training, possibly to reduce noise. Here we used fMRI to test these possibilities. We first confirmed that the motion opponent stimulus did indeed suppress the BOLD response within hMT+ compared to an almost identical stimulus without locally balanced motion signals. We then trained participants on motion opponent or non-opponent stimuli. Training with the motion opponent stimulus reduced the BOLD response within hMT+ and greater reductions in BOLD response were correlated with greater amounts of learning. The opposite relationship between BOLD and behaviour was found at V1 for the group trained on the motion-opponent stimulus and at both V1 and hMT+ for the group trained on the non-opponent motion stimulus. As the average response of many cells within MT to motion opponent stimuli is the same as their response to non-directional flickering noise, the reduced activation of hMT+ after training may reflect noise reduction.

  14. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  15. Mechanical properties and motion of the cupula of the human semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Pierre; Oman, Charles M; Stone, Howard A

    2009-01-01

    The mathematical model for the dynamics of the cupula-endolymph system of the inner ear semicircular canal, as elaborated by numerous investigators, remains a foundational tool in all of vestibular physiology. Most models represent the cupula as a linear spring-like element of stiffness K=DeltaP/DeltaV, where DeltaV is the volume displaced upon application of a pressure difference DeltaP. The parameter K directly influences the long time constant of the cupula-endolymph system. Given estimates of K based on experiments, we use thick and thin bending membrane theory, and also finite-element simulations based on more realistic cupula morphologies, to estimate the human cupula's Young's modulus E approximately 5.4 Pa. We show that for a model morphology, thick bending membrane theory and finite-element predictions are in good agreement, and conclude that the morphology of the attachment of the cupula to the slope of the crista should not greatly influence the volume displacement. We note, however, that other biological materials with very low E are hydrogels that have significant viscoelastic properties. Experiments to directly measure E and investigate potential viscoelastic behavior ultimately may be needed. In addition, based on experimental images we study two other different shapes for the cupula and quantify their impact on the deflection of the cupula. We also use a three-dimensional finite-element model to analyze both the shear strain distribution and its time evolution near the sensory epithelium. We conclude that stimulation of sensory hair cells probably begins at the centre of the crista and spreads toward the periphery of the cupula and down the sides of the crista. Thus, spatio-temporal variations in the shearing stimulus are predicted to impact subsequent transduction and encoding. Finally, modeling the fluid-filled vertical channels believed to lie within the cupula, we investigate the impact of different tube diameters on the transverse displacement

  16. Hybrid capture vs. PCR screening of cervical human papilloma virus infections. Cytological and histological associations in 1270 women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiodras, Sotirios; Georgoulakis, John; Chranioti, Aikaterini; Voulgaris, Zanis; Psyrri, Amanda; Tsivilika, Angeliki; Panayiotides, John; Karakitsos, Petros

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated two molecular methods of HPV detection and their correlation with cytological and histological diagnosis in a large sample of Greek women. All women with liquid-based cytology performed at a University Hospital between 2000 and 2003 were included. The Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) kit and in house Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were used for HPV DNA detection. Cervical biopsy was performed for women with ASCUS+ cytology, HPV detection, or abnormal colposcopy. Positive (PLR) and negative (NLR) likelihood ratios were calculated for cytology and HPV molecular testing for the prediction of CIN2 and greater histology. Of the 1270 women evaluated 241 (18.5%) had abnormal cytology. Cytology diagnosed high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or invasive carcinoma in 21(1.7%) cases whereas 26 (2%) women had CIN2+ or greater histology. PCR detected HPV in 397/1270 (31.3%) and HC2 in 260/1270 (20.4%) samples. Both molecular tests exhibited high reproducibility (Cohen's kappa value 0.691, 95% CI: 0.664 - 0.718). Positive likelihood ratios (PLR) of 9.4, 3.8 and 3.4 and negative likelihood ratios of 0.13, 0.21, and 0 were noted for ≥ LSIL, any positive HC2 or any positive PCR-HPV testing, for predicting CIN2+ histology, respectively. All CIN 3+ lesions harbored high risk oncogenic HPV type infections. HPV infection was found in a large proportion of this population and was associated with CIN 2/3 lesions and infiltrating carcinomas. Thin prep testing and HPV detection by HC2 or PCR performed very well with regards to identifying high grade lesions in an environment with experienced examiners

  17. Fixation not required: characterizing oculomotor attention capture for looming stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Joanna E; Neider, Mark B

    2015-10-01

    A stimulus moving toward us, such as a ball being thrown in our direction or a vehicle braking suddenly in front of ours, often represents a stimulus that requires a rapid response. Using a visual search task in which target and distractor items were systematically associated with a looming object, we explored whether this sort of looming motion captures attention, the nature of such capture using eye movement measures (overt/covert), and the extent to which such capture effects are more closely tied to motion onset or the motion itself. We replicated previous findings indicating that looming motion induces response time benefits and costs during visual search Lin, Franconeri, & Enns(Psychological Science 19(7): 686-693, 2008). These differences in response times were independent of fixation, indicating that these capture effects did not necessitate overt attentional shifts to a looming object for search benefits or costs to occur. Interestingly, we found no differences in capture benefits and costs associated with differences in looming motion type. Combined, our results suggest that capture effects associated with looming motion are more likely subserved by covert attentional mechanisms rather than overt mechanisms, and attention capture for looming motion is likely related to motion itself rather than the onset of motion.

  18. US Spacesuit Knowledge Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chullen, Cinda; Thomas, Ken; McMann, Joe; Dolan, Kristi; Bitterly, Rose; Lewis, Cathleen

    2011-01-01

    The ability to learn from both the mistakes and successes of the past is vital to assuring success in the future. Due to the close physical interaction between spacesuit systems and human beings as users, spacesuit technology and usage lends itself rather uniquely to the benefits realized from the skillful organization of historical information; its dissemination; the collection and identification of artifacts; and the education of those in the field. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), other organizations and individuals have been performing United States (U.S.) Spacesuit Knowledge Capture since the beginning of space exploration. Avenues used to capture the knowledge have included publication of reports; conference presentations; specialized seminars; and classes usually given by veterans in the field. More recently the effort has been more concentrated and formalized whereby a new avenue of spacesuit knowledge capture has been added to the archives in which videotaping occurs engaging both current and retired specialists in the field presenting technical scope specifically for education and preservation of knowledge. With video archiving, all these avenues of learning can now be brought to life with the real experts presenting their wealth of knowledge on screen for future learners to enjoy. Scope and topics of U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture have included lessons learned in spacesuit technology, experience from the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab and Shuttle programs, hardware certification, design, development and other program components, spacesuit evolution and experience, failure analysis and resolution, and aspects of program management. Concurrently, U.S. spacesuit knowledge capture activities have progressed to a level where NASA, the National Air and Space Museum (NASM), Hamilton Sundstrand (HS) and the spacesuit community are now working together to provide a comprehensive closed-looped spacesuit knowledge capture system which includes

  19. Automatic motion correction for in vivo human skin optical coherence tomography angiography through combined rigid and nonrigid registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, David Wei; Deegan, Anthony J.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-06-01

    When using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), the development of artifacts due to involuntary movements can severely compromise the visualization and subsequent quantitation of tissue microvasculatures. To correct such an occurrence, we propose a motion compensation method to eliminate artifacts from human skin OCTA by means of step-by-step rigid affine registration, rigid subpixel registration, and nonrigid B-spline registration. To accommodate this remedial process, OCTA is conducted using two matching all-depth volume scans. Affine transformation is first performed on the large vessels of the deep reticular dermis, and then the resulting affine parameters are applied to all-depth vasculatures with a further subpixel registration to refine the alignment between superficial smaller vessels. Finally, the coregistration of both volumes is carried out to result in the final artifact-free composite image via an algorithm based upon cubic B-spline free-form deformation. We demonstrate that the proposed method can provide a considerable improvement to the final en face OCTA images with substantial artifact removal. In addition, the correlation coefficients and peak signal-to-noise ratios of the corrected images are evaluated and compared with those of the original images, further validating the effectiveness of the proposed method. We expect that the proposed method can be useful in improving qualitative and quantitative assessment of the OCTA images of scanned tissue beds.

  20. Development of the BG-Malaria trap as an alternative to human-landing catches for the capture of Anopheles darlingi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Antonaci Gama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the human-landing catch (HLC method is the most effective for collecting anthropophilic anophelines, it has been increasingly abandoned, primarily for ethical considerations. The objective of the present study was to develop a new trap for the collection of Anopheles darlingi . The initial trials were conducted using the BG-Sentinel trap as a standard for further trap development based on colour, airflow direction and illumination. The performance of the trap was then compared with those of the CDC, Fay-Prince, counterflow geometry trap (CFG and HLC. All trials were conducted outdoors between 06:00 pm-08:00 pm. Female specimens of An. darlingi were dissected to determine their parity. A total of 8,334 anophelines were captured, of which 4,945 were identified as An. darlingi . The best trap configuration was an all-white version, with an upward airflow and no required light source. This configuration was subsequently named BG-Malaria (BGM. The BGM captured significantly more anophelines than any of the other traps tested and was similar to HLC with respect to the number and parity of anophelines. The BGM trap can be used as an alternative to HLC for collecting anophelines.

  1. Motion dazzle and camouflage as distinct anti-predator defenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Camouflage patterns that hinder detection and/or recognition by antagonists are widely studied in both human and animal contexts. Patterns of contrasting stripes that purportedly degrade an observer's ability to judge the speed and direction of moving prey ('motion dazzle' are, however, rarely investigated. This is despite motion dazzle having been fundamental to the appearance of warships in both world wars and often postulated as the selective agent leading to repeated patterns on many animals (such as zebra and many fish, snake, and invertebrate species. Such patterns often appear conspicuous, suggesting that protection while moving by motion dazzle might impair camouflage when stationary. However, the relationship between motion dazzle and camouflage is unclear because disruptive camouflage relies on high-contrast markings. In this study, we used a computer game with human subjects detecting and capturing either moving or stationary targets with different patterns, in order to provide the first empirical exploration of the interaction of these two protective coloration mechanisms. Results Moving targets with stripes were caught significantly less often and missed more often than targets with camouflage patterns. However, when stationary, targets with camouflage markings were captured less often and caused more false detections than those with striped patterns, which were readily detected. Conclusions Our study provides the clearest evidence to date that some patterns inhibit the capture of moving targets, but that camouflage and motion dazzle are not complementary strategies. Therefore, the specific coloration that evolves in animals will depend on how the life history and ontogeny of each species influence the trade-off between the costs and benefits of motion dazzle and camouflage.

  2. Motion dazzle and camouflage as distinct anti-predator defenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Martin; Searle, W Tom L; Seymour, Jenny E; Marshall, Kate L A; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2011-11-25

    Camouflage patterns that hinder detection and/or recognition by antagonists are widely studied in both human and animal contexts. Patterns of contrasting stripes that purportedly degrade an observer's ability to judge the speed and direction of moving prey ('motion dazzle') are, however, rarely investigated. This is despite motion dazzle having been fundamental to the appearance of warships in both world wars and often postulated as the selective agent leading to repeated patterns on many animals (such as zebra and many fish, snake, and invertebrate species). Such patterns often appear conspicuous, suggesting that protection while moving by motion dazzle might impair camouflage when stationary. However, the relationship between motion dazzle and camouflage is unclear because disruptive camouflage relies on high-contrast markings. In this study, we used a computer game with human subjects detecting and capturing either moving or stationary targets with different patterns, in order to provide the first empirical exploration of the interaction of these two protective coloration mechanisms. Moving targets with stripes were caught significantly less often and missed more often than targets with camouflage patterns. However, when stationary, targets with camouflage markings were captured less often and caused more false detections than those with striped patterns, which were readily detected. Our study provides the clearest evidence to date that some patterns inhibit the capture of moving targets, but that camouflage and motion dazzle are not complementary strategies. Therefore, the specific coloration that evolves in animals will depend on how the life history and ontogeny of each species influence the trade-off between the costs and benefits of motion dazzle and camouflage.

  3. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting...

  4. Leap Motion Device Used to Control a Real Anthropomorphic Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Staretu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents for the first time the use of the Leap Motion device to control an anthropomorphic gripper with five fingers. First, a description of the Leap Motion device is presented, highlighting its main functional characteristics, followed by testing of its use for capturing the movements of a human hand's fingers in different configurations. Next, the HandCommander soft module and the Interface Controller application are described. The HandCommander is a software module created to facilitate interaction between a human hand and the GraspIT virtual environment, and the Interface Controller application is required to send motion data to the virtual environment and to test the communication protocol. For the test, a prototype of an anthropomorphic gripper with five fingers was made, including a proper hardware system of command and control, which is briefly presented in this paper. Following the creation of the prototype, the command system performance test was conducted under real conditions, evaluating the recognition efficiency of the objects to be gripped and the efficiency of the command and control strategies for the gripping process. The gripping test is exemplified by the gripping of an object, such as a screw spanner. It was found that the command system, both in terms of capturing human hand gestures with the Leap Motion device and effective object gripping, is operational. Suggestive figures are presented as examples.

  5. PREVALENCE OF SOME HELMINTHS IN RODENTS CAPTURED FROM DIFFERENT CITY STRUCTURES INCLUDING POULTRY FARMS AND HUMAN POPULATION OF FAISALABAD, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAFIQUE, S. A. RANA, H. A. KHAN AND A. SOHAIL1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate prevalence of zoonotic helminths from human, Rattus rattus (R. rattus, Rattus norvegicus (R. norvegicus and Mus musculus of eight different structures, namely grain shops in grain market, departmental stores, railway godowns, food processing plants (bakeries, poultry farms, houses in kachi-abadies, houses in departmental colonies and posh residences and banglows in Faisalabad city. All the structures were sampled for 2 months each and completed in 16 months. Highest prevalence (70% of Vsmpirolepis spp. was observed in R. rattus sampled from poultry farms, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than the prevalence of all the helminths recovered from other structures. Hymenolepis nana (H. nana was observed in 60% of the sampled Mus musculus collected from kachi-abadies, which was significantly higher (P<0.05 than all other structures studies for H. nana, except R. rattus from kachi-abadies (55% and R. norvegicus from grain shops in grain market (55%. The rodent’s endo-parasites viz., Hymenolepis nana, Teania taenaeformis, Entrobius spps and Trichuiris spps observed in R. rattus, R. norvegicus and M. musculus at different percentages were also recorded in human stool samples with an incidence of 48, 21, 76 and 10%, respectively.

  6. In vivo classification of human skin burns using machine learning and quantitative features captured by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Neeru; Srivastava, Vishal; Singh Mehta, Dalip

    2018-02-01

    We report the first fully automated detection of human skin burn injuries in vivo, with the goal of automatic surgical margin assessment based on optical coherence tomography (OCT) images. Our proposed automated procedure entails building a machine-learning-based classifier by extracting quantitative features from normal and burn tissue images recorded by OCT. In this study, 56 samples (28 normal, 28 burned) were imaged by OCT and eight features were extracted. A linear model classifier was trained using 34 samples and 22 samples were used to test the model. Sensitivity of 91.6% and specificity of 90% were obtained. Our results demonstrate the capability of a computer-aided technique for accurately and automatically identifying burn tissue resection margins during surgical treatment.

  7. Glycation of human cortical and cancellous bone captures differences in the formation of Maillard reaction products between glucose and ribose.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna E Sroga

    Full Text Available To better understand some aspects of bone matrix glycation, we used an in vitro glycation approach. Within two weeks, our glycation procedures led to the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs at the levels that corresponded to approx. 25-30 years of the natural in vivo glycation. Cortical and cancellous bones from human tibias were glycated in vitro using either glucose (glucosylation or ribose (ribosylation. Both glucosylation and ribosylation led to the formation of higher levels of AGEs and pentosidine (PEN in cancellous than cortical bone dissected from all tested donors (young, middle-age and elderly men and women. More efficient glycation of bone matrix proteins in cancellous bone most likely depended on the higher porosity of this tissue, which facilitated better accessibility of the sugars to the matrix proteins. Notably, glycation of cortical bone from older donors led to much higher AGEs levels as compared to young donors. Such efficient in vitro glycation of older cortical bone could result from aging-related increase in porosity caused by the loss of mineral content. In addition, more pronounced glycation in vivo would be driven by elevated oxidation processes. Interestingly, the levels of PEN formation differed pronouncedly between glucosylation and ribosylation. Ribosylation generated very high levels of PEN (approx. 6- vs. 2.5-fold higher PEN level than in glucosylated samples. Kinetic studies of AGEs and PEN formation in human cortical and cancellous bone matrix confirmed higher accumulation of fluorescent crosslinks for ribosylation. Our results suggest that in vitro glycation of bone using glucose leads to the formation of lower levels of AGEs including PEN, whereas ribosylation appears to support a pathway toward PEN formation. Our studies may help to understand differences in the progression of bone pathologies related to protein glycation by different sugars, and raise awareness for excessive sugar

  8. Simulated self-motion in a visual gravity field: sensitivity to vertical and horizontal heading in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indovina, Iole; Maffei, Vincenzo; Pauwels, Karl; Macaluso, Emiliano; Orban, Guy A; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2013-05-01

    Multiple visual signals are relevant to perception of heading direction. While the role of optic flow and depth cues has been studied extensively, little is known about the visual effects of gravity on heading perception. We used fMRI to investigate the contribution of gravity-related visual cues on the processing of vertical versus horizontal apparent self-motion. Participants experienced virtual roller-coaster rides in different scenarios, at constant speed or 1g-acceleration/deceleration. Imaging results showed that vertical self-motion coherent with gravity engaged the posterior insula and other brain regions that have been previously associated with vertical object motion under gravity. This selective pattern of activation was also found in a second experiment that included rectilinear motion in tunnels, whose direction was cued by the preceding open-air curves only. We argue that the posterior insula might perform high-order computations on visual motion patterns, combining different sensory cues and prior information about the effects of gravity. Medial-temporal regions including para-hippocampus and hippocampus were more activated by horizontal motion, preferably at constant speed, consistent with a role in inertial navigation. Overall, the results suggest partially distinct neural representations of the cardinal axes of self-motion (horizontal and vertical). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Susanne M.; Keller, Lani C.; Alberts, Jonathan B.; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2011-04-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713-22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed.

  10. Apparent diffusive motion of centrin foci in living cells: implications for diffusion-based motion in centriole duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, Susanne M; Keller, Lani C; Marshall, Wallace F; Alberts, Jonathan B

    2011-01-01

    The degree to which diffusion contributes to positioning cellular structures is an open question. Here we investigate the question of whether diffusive motion of centrin granules would allow them to interact with the mother centriole. The role of centrin granules in centriole duplication remains unclear, but some proposed functions of these granules, for example, in providing pre-assembled centriole subunits, or by acting as unstable 'pre-centrioles' that need to be captured by the mother centriole (La Terra et al 2005 J. Cell Biol. 168 713–22), require the centrin foci to reach the mother. To test whether diffusive motion could permit such interactions in the necessary time scale, we measured the motion of centrin-containing foci in living human U2OS cells. We found that these centrin foci display apparently diffusive undirected motion. Using the apparent diffusion constant obtained from these measurements, we calculated the time scale required for diffusion to capture by the mother centrioles and found that it would greatly exceed the time available in the cell cycle. We conclude that mechanisms invoking centrin foci capture by the mother, whether as a pre-centriole or as a source of components to support later assembly, would require a form of directed motility of centrin foci that has not yet been observed

  11. Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, Using an Enhanced Spatiotemporal Surveillance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen J.; Aldstadt, Jared; Jarman, Richard G.; Buddhari, Darunee; Yoon, In-Kyu; Richardson, Jason H.; Ponlawat, Alongkot; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Scott, Thomas W.; Rothman, Alan L.; Gibbons, Robert V.; Lambrechts, Louis; Endy, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV) transmission dynamics was studied in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, using an enhanced spatiotemporal surveillance of 93 hospitalized subjects with confirmed dengue (initiates) and associated cluster individuals (associates) with entomologic sampling. A total of 438 associates were enrolled from 208 houses with household members with a history of fever, located within a 200-m radius of an initiate case. Of 409 associates, 86 (21%) had laboratory-confirmed DENV infection. A total of 63 (1.8%) of the 3,565 mosquitoes collected were dengue polymerase chain reaction positive (PCR+). There was a significant relationship between spatial proximity to the initiate case and likelihood of detecting DENV from associate cases and Aedes mosquitoes. The viral detection rate from human hosts and mosquito vectors in this study was higher than previously observed by the study team in the same geographic area using different methodologies. We propose that the sampling strategy used in this study could support surveillance of DENV transmission and vector interactions. PMID:25986580

  12. Processing of targets in smooth or apparent motion along the vertical in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Vincenzo; Macaluso, Emiliano; Indovina, Iole; Orban, Guy; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Neural substrates for processing constant speed visual motion have been extensively studied. Less is known about the brain activity patterns when the target speed changes continuously, for instance under the influence of gravity. Using functional MRI (fMRI), here we compared brain responses to accelerating/decelerating targets with the responses to constant speed targets. The target could move along the vertical under gravity (1g), under reversed gravity (-1g), or at constant speed (0g). In the first experiment, subjects observed targets moving in smooth motion and responded to a GO signal delivered at a random time after target arrival. As expected, we found that the timing of the motor responses did not depend significantly on the specific motion law. Therefore brain activity in the contrast between different motion laws was not related to motor timing responses. Average BOLD signals were significantly greater for 1g targets than either 0g or -1g targets in a distributed network including bilateral insulae, left lingual gyrus, and brain stem. Moreover, in these regions, the mean activity decreased monotonically from 1g to 0g and to -1g. In the second experiment, subjects intercepted 1g, 0g, and -1g targets either in smooth motion (RM) or in long-range apparent motion (LAM). We found that the sites in the right insula and left lingual gyrus, which were selectively engaged by 1g targets in the first experiment, were also significantly more active during 1g trials than during -1g trials both in RM and LAM. The activity in 0g trials was again intermediate between that in 1g trials and that in -1g trials. Therefore in these regions the global activity modulation with the law of vertical motion appears to hold for both RM and LAM. Instead, a region in the inferior parietal lobule showed a preference for visual gravitational motion only in LAM but not RM.

  13. Custom-designed motion-based games for older adults: a review of literature in human-computer interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Gerling, Kathrin; Mandryk, Regan

    2014-01-01

    Many older adults, particularly persons living in senior residences and care homes, lead sedentary lifestyles, which reduces their life expectancy. Motion-based video games encourage physical activity and might be an opportunity for these adults to remain active and engaged; however, research efforts in the field have frequently focused on younger audiences and little is known about the requirements and benefits of motion-based games for elderly players. In this paper, we present an overview ...

  14. Negative meson capture in hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10 -3 Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs

  15. An integrated tool to assess the role of new planting in PM10 capture and the human health benefits: A case study in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, Abhishek; Sinnett, Danielle; Peachey, Christopher; Chalabi, Zaid; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fletcher, Tony; Leonardi, Giovanni; Grundy, Chris; Azapagic, Adisa; Hutchings, Tony R.

    2009-01-01

    The role of vegetation in mitigating the effects of PM 10 pollution has been highlighted as one potential benefit of urban greenspace. An integrated modelling approach is presented which utilises air dispersion (ADMS-Urban) and particulate interception (UFORE) to predict the PM 10 concentrations both before and after greenspace establishment, using a 10 x 10 km area of East London Green Grid (ELGG) as a case study. The corresponding health benefits, in terms of premature mortality and respiratory hospital admissions, as a result of the reduced exposure of the local population are also modelled. PM 10 capture from the scenario comprising 75% grassland, 20% sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and 5% Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) was estimated to be 90.41 t yr -1 , equating to 0.009 t ha -1 yr -1 over the whole study area. The human health modelling estimated that 2 deaths and 2 hospital admissions would be averted per year. - A combination of models can be used to estimate particulate matter concentrations before and after greenspace establishment and the resulting benefits to human health.

  16. Industrial case study: evaluation of a mixed-mode resin for selective capture of a human growth factor recombinantly expressed in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleas, Kimberly A; Schmelzer, Charles H; Pizarro, Shelly A

    2010-01-08

    Mixed-mode chromatography resins are gaining popularity as effective purification tools for challenging feedstocks. This study presents the development of an industrial application to selectively capture recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF) on Capto MMC from an alkaline feedstock. Capto MMC resin contains a ligand that has the potential to participate in ionic, hydrophobic, and hydrogen boding interactions with proteins and is coupled to a highly cross-linked agarose bead matrix. VEGF is a key growth factor involved in angiogenesis and has therapeutic applications for wound healing. In this process, it is expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies. Solids are harvested from the cell lysate, and the rhVEGF is solubilized and refolded at pH 9.8 in the presence of urea and redox reagents. The unique mixed-mode characteristics of Capto MMC enabled capture of this basic protein with minimal load conditioning and delivered a concentrated pool for downstream processing with >95% yields while reducing host cell protein content to study explores the impact of loading conditions and residence time on the dynamic binding capacity as well as the development of elution conditions for optimal purification performance. After evaluating various elution buffers, l-arginine HCl was shown to be an effective eluting agent for rhVEGF desorption from the Capto MMC mixed-mode resin since it successfully disrupted the multiple interactions between the resin and rhVEGF. The lab scale effort produced a robust chromatography step that was successfully implemented at commercial manufacturing scale. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. CHAOTIC CAPTURE OF NEPTUNE TROJANS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvorny, David; Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-01-01

    Neptune Trojans (NTs) are swarms of outer solar system objects that lead/trail planet Neptune during its revolutions around the Sun. Observations indicate that NTs form a thick cloud of objects with a population perhaps ∼10 times more numerous than that of Jupiter Trojans and orbital inclinations reaching ∼25 deg. The high inclinations of NTs are indicative of capture instead of in situ formation. Here we study a model in which NTs were captured by Neptune during planetary migration when secondary resonances associated with the mean-motion commensurabilities between Uranus and Neptune swept over Neptune's Lagrangian points. This process, known as chaotic capture, is similar to that previously proposed to explain the origin of Jupiter's Trojans. We show that chaotic capture of planetesimals from an ∼35 Earth-mass planetesimal disk can produce a population of NTs that is at least comparable in number to that inferred from current observations. The large orbital inclinations of NTs are a natural outcome of chaotic capture. To obtain the ∼4:1 ratio between high- and low-inclination populations suggested by observations, planetary migration into a dynamically excited planetesimal disk may be required. The required stirring could have been induced by Pluto-sized and larger objects that have formed in the disk.

  18. Research on Three-dimensional Motion History Image Model and Extreme Learning Machine for Human Body Movement Trajectory Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Chang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the traditional machine vision recognition technology and traditional artificial neural networks about body movement trajectory, this paper finds out the shortcomings of the traditional recognition technology. By combining the invariant moments of the three-dimensional motion history image (computed as the eigenvector of body movements and the extreme learning machine (constructed as the classification artificial neural network of body movements, the paper applies the method to the machine vision of the body movement trajectory. In detail, the paper gives a detailed introduction about the algorithm and realization scheme of the body movement trajectory recognition based on the three-dimensional motion history image and the extreme learning machine. Finally, by comparing with the results of the recognition experiments, it attempts to verify that the method of body movement trajectory recognition technology based on the three-dimensional motion history image and extreme learning machine has a more accurate recognition rate and better robustness.

  19. Hand interception of occluded motion in humans: a test of model-based vs. on-line control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Two control schemes have been hypothesized for the manual interception of fast visual targets. In the model-free on-line control, extrapolation of target motion is based on continuous visual information, without resorting to physical models. In the model-based control, instead, a prior model of target motion predicts the future spatiotemporal trajectory. To distinguish between the two hypotheses in the case of projectile motion, we asked participants to hit a ball that rolled down an incline at 0.2 g and then fell in air at 1 g along a parabola. By varying starting position, ball velocity and trajectory differed between trials. Motion on the incline was always visible, whereas parabolic motion was either visible or occluded. We found that participants were equally successful at hitting the falling ball in both visible and occluded conditions. Moreover, in different trials the intersection points were distributed along the parabolic trajectories of the ball, indicating that subjects were able to extrapolate an extended segment of the target trajectory. Remarkably, this trend was observed even at the very first repetition of movements. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of model-based control, but not with on-line control. Indeed, ball path and speed during the occlusion could not be extrapolated solely from the kinematic information obtained during the preceding visible phase. The only way to extrapolate ball motion correctly during the occlusion was to assume that the ball would fall under gravity and air drag when hidden from view. Such an assumption had to be derived from prior experience. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. List-Mode PET Motion Correction Using Markerless Head Tracking: Proof-of-Concept With Scans of Human Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Sullivan, Jenna M.; Mulnix, Tim

    2013-01-01

    A custom designed markerless tracking system was demonstrated to be applicable for positron emission tomography (PET) brain imaging. Precise head motion registration is crucial for accurate motion correction (MC) in PET imaging. State-of-the-art tracking systems applied with PET brain imaging rely...... on markers attached to the patient's head. The marker attachment is the main weakness of these systems. A healthy volunteer participating in a cigarette smoking study to image dopamine release was scanned twice for 2 h with $^{11}{\\rm C}$-racolopride on the high resolution research tomograph (HRRT) PET...... in contrast recovery of small structures....

  1. A wearable 3D motion sensing system integrated with a Bluetooth smart phone application: A system level overview

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram

    2018-01-02

    An era of ubiquitous motion sensing has just begun. All electronic gadgets ranging from game consoles to mobile phones have some sort of motion sensors in them. In contrast to rigid motion sensing systems, this paper presents a system level description of a wearable 3D motion sensor. The sensing mechanism is based upon well-established magnetic and inertial measurement unit (MIMU), which integrates accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer data. Two sensor boards have been integrated within a wearable arm sleeve to capture 3D orientation of the human arm. The sensors have been interfaced with a Bluetooth transceiver chip, which transmits data to a mobile phone app using standard Bluetooth protocol. An android mobile phone app has been developed to display the human arm motion in real time.

  2. Detection of high-risk subtypes of human papillomavirus in cervical swabs: routine use of the Digene Hybrid Capture assay and polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brennan, M M

    2012-02-03

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major causative agents in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and more than twenty types are associated with its development. With the introduction of liquid-based preparation systems, it is envisaged that large-scale HPV testing will be established in the near future. Preliminary studies demonstrate the accessibility of these samples for DNA testing using both the Digene Hybrid Capture assay (DHCA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. This study aims to assess the validity and sensitivity of the DHCA system to detect high-risk HPV DNA, using two sets of HPV consensus primers (Gp5+\\/Gp6+ and MY09\\/MY11) in tandem with routine assessment of cervical smear and biopsy samples. Results indicate that the combination of DHCA and PCR detects more high-grade lesions than does the DHCA alone. DHCA-negative cases were categorised by subsequent PCR amplification into low-grade HPV-negative (12\\/16) cervical lesions and high-grade HPV-positive (7\\/9) cervical lesions. Gp5+\\/Gp6+ primers were less sensitive in detecting HPV-positive samples than was the MY09\\/MY11 primer set. These results support the use of high-risk HPV testing by DHCA, with subsequent analysis of DHCA-negative samples by PCR using the MY09\\/MY11 primers.

  3. Neuro-genetic multioptimization of the determination of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in human milk by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann Kowalski, Claudia; Silva, Gilmare Antonia da; Poppi, Ronei Jesus; Teixeira Godoy, Helena; Augusto, Fabio

    2007-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) can eventually contaminate breast milk, which is a serious issue to the newborn due to their high vulnerability. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) can be a very convenient technique for their isolation and pre-concentration prior chromatographic analysis. Here, a simultaneous multioptimization strategy based on a neuro-genetic approach was applied to a headspace SPME method for determination of 12 PCB in human milk. Gas chromatography with electron capture detection (ECD) was adopted for the separation and detection of the analytes. Experiments according to a Doehlert design were carried out with varied extraction time and temperature, media ionic strength and concentration of the methanol (co-solvent). To find the best model that simultaneously correlate all PCB peak areas and SPME extraction conditions, a multivariate calibration method based on a Bayesian Neural Network (BNN) was applied. The net output from the neural network was used as input in a genetic algorithm (GA) optimization operation (neuro-genetic approach). The GA pointed out that the best values of the overall SPME operational conditions were the saturation of the media with NaCl, extraction temperature of 95 deg. C, extraction time of 60 min and addition of 5% (v/v) methanol to the media. These optimized parameters resulted in the decrease of the detection limits and increase on the sensitivity for all tested analytes, showing that the use of neuro-genetic approach can be a promising way for optimization of SPME methods

  4. Optimization-based human motion prediction using an inverse-inverse dynamics technique implemented in the AnyBody Modeling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farahani, Saeed Davoudabadi; Andersen, Michael Skipper; de Zee, Mark

    2012-01-01

    derived from the detailed musculoskeletal analysis. The technique is demonstrated on a human model pedaling a bicycle. We use a physiology-based cost function expressing the mean square of all muscle activities over the cycle to predict a realistic motion pattern. Posture and motion prediction...... on a physics model including dynamic effects and a high level of anatomical realism. First, a musculoskeletal model comprising several hundred muscles is built in AMS. The movement is then parameterized by means of time functions controlling selected degrees of freedom of the model. Subsequently......, the parameters of these functions are optimized to produce an optimum posture or movement according to a user-defined cost function and constraints. The cost function and the constraints are typically express performance, comfort, injury risk, fatigue, muscle load, joint forces and other physiological properties...

  5. 3D Data Acquisition Platform for Human Activity Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-02

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: In this project, we incorporated motion capture devices, 3D vision sensors, and EMG sensors to cross validate...multimodality data acquisition, and address fundamental research problems of representation and invariant description of 3D data, human motion modeling and...applications of human activity analysis, and computational optimization of large-scale 3D data. The support for the acquisition of such research

  6. Relighting Character Motion for Photoreal Simulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamond, Bruce; Chabert, Charles-Felix; Einarsson, Per; Jones, Andrew; Ma, Wan-Chun; Hawkins, Tim; Bolas, Mark; Sylwan, Sebastian; Debevec, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The known rotation of the treadmill, repeatability of the actor's motion, timing of the lighting pattern and capture rate of the cameras are all carefully synchronized so that the actor is imaged in (approximately...

  7. Senescent vs. non-senescent cells in the human annulus in vivo: Cell harvest with laser capture microdissection and gene expression studies with microarray analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingram Jane A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Senescent cells are well-recognized in the aging/degenerating human disc. Senescent cells are viable, cannot divide, remain metabolically active and accumulate within the disc over time. Molecular analysis of senescent cells in tissue offers a special challenge since there are no cell surface markers for senescence which would let one use fluorescence-activated cell sorting as a method for separating out senescent cells. Methods We employed a novel laser capture microdissection (LCM design to selectively harvest senescent and non-senescent annulus cells in paraffin-embedded tissue, and compared their gene expression with microarray analysis. LCM was used to separately harvest senescent and non-senescent cells from 11 human annulus specimens. Results Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in expression levels in senescent cells vs non-senescent cells: 292 genes were upregulated, and 321 downregulated. Genes with established relationships to senescence were found to be significantly upregulated in senescent cells vs. non-senescent cells: p38 (MPAK14, RB-Associated KRAB zinc finger, Discoidin, CUB and LCCL domain, growth arrest and DNA-damage inducible beta, p28ING5, sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 and somatostatin receptor 3; cyclin-dependent kinase 8 showed significant downregulation in senescent cells. Nitric oxidase synthase 1, and heat shock 70 kDa protein 6, both of which were significantly down-regulated in senescent cells, also showed significant changes. Additional genes related to cytokines, cell proliferation, and other processes were also identified. Conclusions Our LCM-microarray analyses identified a set of genes associated with senescence which were significantly upregulated in senescent vs non-senescent cells in the human annulus. These genes include p38 MAP kinase, discoidin, inhibitor of growth family member 5, and growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible beta. Other genes, including genes

  8. Flexible and Compressible PEDOT:PSS@Melamine Conductive Sponge Prepared via One-Step Dip Coating as Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor for Human Motion Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yichun; Yang, Jack; Tolle, Charles R; Zhu, Zhengtao

    2018-05-09

    Flexible and wearable pressure sensor may offer convenient, timely, and portable solutions to human motion detection, yet it is a challenge to develop cost-effective materials for pressure sensor with high compressibility and sensitivity. Herein, a cost-efficient and scalable approach is reported to prepare a highly flexible and compressible conductive sponge for piezoresistive pressure sensor. The conductive sponge, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)@melamine sponge (MS), is prepared by one-step dip coating the commercial melamine sponge (MS) in an aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). Due to the interconnected porous structure of MS, the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS has a high compressibility and a stable piezoresistive response at the compressive strain up to 80%, as well as good reproducibility over 1000 cycles. Thereafter, versatile pressure sensors fabricated using the conductive PEDOT:PSS@MS sponges are attached to the different parts of human body; the capabilities of these devices to detect a variety of human motions including speaking, finger bending, elbow bending, and walking are evaluated. Furthermore, prototype tactile sensory array based on these pressure sensors is demonstrated.

  9. Dynamics and control of robot for capturing objects in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Panfeng

    . After capturing the object, the space robot must complete the following two tasks: one is to berth the object, and the other is to re-orientate the attitude of the whole robot system for communication and power supply. Therefore, I propose a method to accomplish these two tasks simultaneously using manipulator motion only. The ultimate goal of space services is to realize the capture and manipulation autonomously. Therefore, I propose an affective approach based on learning human skill to track and capture the objects automatically in space. With human-teaching demonstration, the space robot is able to learn and abstract human tracking and capturing skill using an efficient neural-network learning architecture that combines flexible Cascade Neural Networks with Node Decoupled Extended Kalman Filtering (CNN-NDEKF). The simulation results attest that this approach is useful and feasible in tracking trajectory planning and capturing of space robot. Finally I propose a novel approach based on Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to optimize the approach trajectory of space robots in order to realize effective and stable operations. I complete the minimum-torque path planning in order to save the limited energy in space, and design the minimum jerk trajectory for the stabilization of the space manipulator and its space base. These optimal algorithms are very important and useful for the application of space robot.

  10. Multifunctional devices based on SnO2@rGO-coated fibers for human motion monitoring, ethanol detection, and photo response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Qing; Wang, Qi; Zang, Siyao; Chai, Zhaoer; Zhang, Jinnan; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we developed a multifunctional device based on SnO2@rGO-coated fibers utilizing plasma treatment, dip coating, and microwave irradiation in sequence, and finally realized highly sensitive human motion monitoring, relatively good ethanol detection, and an obvious photo response. Moreover, the high level of comfort and compactness derived from highly elastic and comfortable fabrics contributes to the long-term availability and test accuracy. As an attempt at multifunctional integration of smart clothing, this work provides an attractive and relatively practical research direction.

  11. [A new human machine interface in neurosurgery: The Leap Motion(®). Technical note regarding a new touchless interface].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tommaso, L; Aubry, S; Godard, J; Katranji, H; Pauchot, J

    2016-06-01

    Currently, cross-sectional imaging viewing is used in routine practice whereas the surgical procedure requires physical contact with an interface (mouse or touch-sensitive screen). This type of contact results in a risk of lack of aseptic control and causes loss of time. The recent appearance of devices such as the Leap Motion(®) (Leap Motion society, San Francisco, USA) a sensor which enables to interact with the computer without any physical contact is of major interest in the field of surgery. However, its configuration and ergonomics produce key challenges in order to adapt to the practitioner's requirements, the imaging software as well as the surgical environment. This article aims to suggest an easy configuration of the Leap Motion(®) in neurosurgery on a PC for an optimized utilization with Carestream(®) Vue PACS v11.3.4 (Carestream Health, Inc., Rochester, USA) using a plug-in (to download at: https://drive.google.com/?usp=chrome_app#folders/0B_F4eBeBQc3ybElEeEhqME5DQkU) and a video tutorial (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yVPTgxg-SIk). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. In matrix derivatization of trichloroethylene metabolites in human plasma with methyl chloroformate and their determination by solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiam, Mohana Krishna Reddy; Jain, Rajeev; Varshney, Meenu; Ch, Ratnasekhar; Chauhan, Abhishek; Goyal, Sudhir Kumar; Khan, Haider A; Murthy, R C

    2013-04-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a common industrial chemical that has been widely used as metal degreaser and for many industrial purposes. In humans, TCE is metabolized into dichloroacetic acid (DCA), trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and trichloroethanol (TCOH). A simple and rapid method has been developed for the quantitative determination of TCE metabolites. The procedure involves the in situ derivatization of TCE metabolites with methyl chloroformate (MCF) directly in diluted plasma samples followed by extraction and analysis with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Factors which can influence the efficiency of derivatization such as amount of MCF and pyridine (PYR), ratio of water/methanol were optimized. The factors which can affect the extraction efficiencies of SPME were screened using 2(7-4) Placket-Burman Design (PBD). A central composite design (CCD) was then applied to further optimize the most significant factors for optimum SPME extraction. The optimum factors for the SPME extraction were found to be 562.5mg of NaCl, pH at 1 and an extraction time of 22 min. Recoveries and detection limits of all three analytes in plasma were found to be in the range of 92.69-97.55% and 0.036-0.068 μg mL(-1) of plasma, respectively. The correlation coefficients were found to be in the range of 0.990-0.995. The intra- and inter-day precisions for TCE metabolites were found to be in the range of 2.37-4.81% and 5.13-7.61%, respectively. The major advantage of this method is that MCF derivatization allows conversion of TCE metabolites into their methyl esters in very short time (≤30 s) at room temperature directly in the plasma samples, thus makes it a solventless analysis. The method developed was successfully applied to the plasma samples of humans exposed to TCE. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Contingent capture of visual-spatial attention depends on capacity-limited central mechanisms: evidence from human electrophysiology and the psychological refractory period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Benoit; Leblanc, Emilie; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2009-02-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that a lateralized distractor that matches the individual's top-down control settings elicits an N2pc wave, an electrophysiological index of the focus of visual-spatial attention, indicating that contingent capture has a visual-spatial locus. Here, we investigated whether contingent capture required capacity-limited central resources by incorporating a contingent capture task as the second task of a psychological refractory period (PRP) dual-task paradigm. The N2pc was used to monitor where observers were attending while they performed concurrent central processing known to cause the PRP effect. The N2pc elicited by the lateralized distractor that matched the top-down control settings was attenuated in high concurrent central load conditions, indicating that although involuntary, the deployment of visual-spatial attention occurring during contingent capture depends on capacity-limited central resources.

  14. Restoration of motion blurred images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaxiola, Leopoldo N.; Juarez-Salazar, Rigoberto; Diaz-Ramirez, Victor H.

    2017-08-01

    Image restoration is a classic problem in image processing. Image degradations can occur due to several reasons, for instance, imperfections of imaging systems, quantization errors, atmospheric turbulence, relative motion between camera or objects, among others. Motion blur is a typical degradation in dynamic imaging systems. In this work, we present a method to estimate the parameters of linear motion blur degradation from a captured blurred image. The proposed method is based on analyzing the frequency spectrum of a captured image in order to firstly estimate the degradation parameters, and then, to restore the image with a linear filter. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by processing synthetic and real-life images. The obtained results are characterized in terms of accuracy of image restoration given by an objective criterion.

  15. Robust automated knowledge capture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie; Abbott, Robert G.; Forsythe, James Chris; Trumbo, Michael Christopher Stefan; Haass, Michael Joseph; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2011-10-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Robust Automated Knowledge Capture Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding of the influence of individual cognitive attributes on decision making. The project has developed a quantitative model known as RumRunner that has proven effective in predicting the propensity of an individual to shift strategies on the basis of task and experience related parameters. Three separate studies are described which have validated the basic RumRunner model. This work provides a basis for better understanding human decision making in high consequent national security applications, and in particular, the individual characteristics that underlie adaptive thinking.

  16. Capturing the Daylight Dividend

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Boyce; Claudia Hunter; Owen Howlett

    2006-04-30

    Capturing the Daylight Dividend conducted activities to build market demand for daylight as a means of improving indoor environmental quality, overcoming technological barriers to effective daylighting, and informing and assisting state and regional market transformation and resource acquisition program implementation efforts. The program clarified the benefits of daylight by examining whole building systems energy interactions between windows, lighting, heating, and air conditioning in daylit buildings, and daylighting's effect on the human circadian system and productivity. The project undertook work to advance photosensors, dimming systems, and ballasts, and provided technical training in specifying and operating daylighting controls in buildings. Future daylighting work is recommended in metric development, technology development, testing, training, education, and outreach.

  17. Are light traps baited with kairomones effective in the capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia intermedia? An evaluation of synthetic human odor as an attractant for phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Andrey J; Andrade, Mateus R; Dias, Edelberto S; Pinto, Mara C; Eiras, Alvaro E

    2008-06-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are often captured with human bait and/or light traps, either with or without an animal bait. More recently, synthetic attractants have been used as bait in traps to improve the capture of phlebotomine sand flies as well as other insects of medical and veterinary importance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the kairomone 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and the synthetic human odor BG-Mesh Lure (BGML--lactic acid, caproic acid and ammonia) baited in modified CDC light traps on the capture of phlebotomine sand flies. The experiments followed the 5x5 Latin square design. Among the species caught, Lutzomyia intermedia apparently presented a dose-dependent response to octenol. The response obtained with the BGML, alone or in combination with octenol (5 mg/h), indicated some degree of attractiveness of these baits to different phlebotomine sand fly species. Octenol seems to be more attractive to L. intermedia than to Lutzomyia longipalpis, while the BGML presented a higher success in capturing L. longipalpis. When the components of the BGML were used separately, there was no increase in catching the female of L. intermedia. Apparently, there was no synergistic effect between the octenol and the BGML. In conclusion, the octenol and the BGML were demonstrated to be possible baits to attract some phlebotomine sand fly species.

  18. Radiative electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggerstaff, J.A.; Appleton, B.R.; Datz, S.; Moak, C.D.; Neelavathi, V.N.; Noggle, T.S.; Ritchie, R.H.; VerBeek, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some data are presented for radiative electron capture by fast moving ions. The radiative electron capture spectrum is shown for O 8+ in Ag, along with the energy dependence of the capture cross-section. A discrepancy between earlier data, theoretical prediction, and the present data is pointed out. (3 figs) (U.S.)

  19. On Integral Invariants for Effective 3-D Motion Trajectory Matching and Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhanpeng; Li, Youfu

    2016-02-01

    Motion trajectories tracked from the motions of human, robots, and moving objects can provide an important clue for motion analysis, classification, and recognition. This paper defines some new integral invariants for a 3-D motion trajectory. Based on two typical kernel functions, we design two integral invariants, the distance and area integral invariants. The area integral invariants are estimated based on the blurred segment of noisy discrete curve to avoid the computation of high-order derivatives. Such integral invariants for a motion trajectory enjoy some desirable properties, such as computational locality, uniqueness of representation, and noise insensitivity. Moreover, our formulation allows the analysis of motion trajectories at a range of scales by varying the scale of kernel function. The features of motion trajectories can thus be perceived at multiscale levels in a coarse-to-fine manner. Finally, we define a distance function to measure the trajectory similarity to find similar trajectories. Through the experiments, we examine the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed integral invariants and find that they can capture the motion cues in trajectory matching and sign recognition satisfactorily.

  20. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging in identifying the vascular and avascular zones of human meniscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tan; Chen, Juan; Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan; Jiao, Sheng; Song, Yan; Chen, Min

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging may depict microcirculation of meniscus and the perfusion changes in meniscal disorder. Fifty patients received diffusion-weighted MRI with multiple b-values ranging from 0 to 400 s/mm 2 . The four horns of the menisci were divided into normal, degenerated, and torn groups. IVIM parameters including perfusion fraction (f), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), true diffusion coefficient (D), and the product of f and D* (f D*) of normal meniscal red zone and white zone were derived and compared for microcirculation changes of normal, degenerated, and torn posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PMM). The parameters between red and white zones among the groups were compared. Significant differences were considered when P meniscus and the perfusion changes in meniscal disorder. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:1090-1096. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  1. Capture of circulatory endothelial progenitor cells and accelerated re-endothelialization of a bio-engineered stent in human ex vivo shunt and rabbit denudation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Larsen (Katarína); C. Cheng (Caroline (Ka Lai)); D. Tempel (Dennie); S. Parker (Sherry); S. Yazdani (Saami); W.K. den Dekker (Wijnand); H.J. Houtgraaf (Jaco); R. de Jong (Renate); S. Swager-ten Hoor (Stijn); E. Ligtenberg (Erik); S.R. Hanson (Stephen); R. Rowland (Steve); F. Kolodgie (Frank); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); R. Virmani (Renu); H.J. Duckers (Henricus)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Genous™ Bio-engineered R™ stent (GS) aims to promote vascular healing by capture of circulatory endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) to the surface of the stent struts, resulting in accelerated re-endothelialization. Here, we assessed the function of the GS in comparison to bare-metal

  2. Local Dynamic Stability Assessment of Motion Impaired Elderly Using Electronic Textile Pants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Jones, Mark; Martin, Tom

    2008-10-01

    A clear association has been demonstrated between gait stability and falls in the elderly. Integration of wearable computing and human dynamic stability measures into home automation systems may help differentiate fall-prone individuals in a residential environment. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the capability of a pair of electronic textile (e-textile) pants system to assess local dynamic stability and to differentiate motion-impaired elderly from their healthy counterparts. A pair of e-textile pants comprised of numerous e-TAGs at locations corresponding to lower extremity joints was developed to collect acceleration, angular velocity and piezoelectric data. Four motion-impaired elderly together with nine healthy individuals (both young and old) participated in treadmill walking with a motion capture system simultaneously collecting kinematic data. Local dynamic stability, characterized by maximum Lyapunov exponent, was computed based on vertical acceleration and angular velocity at lower extremity joints for the measurements from both e-textile and motion capture systems. Results indicated that the motion-impaired elderly had significantly higher maximum Lyapunov exponents (computed from vertical acceleration data) than healthy individuals at the right ankle and hip joints. In addition, maximum Lyapunov exponents assessed by the motion capture system were found to be significantly higher than those assessed by the e-textile system. Despite the difference between these measurement techniques, attaching accelerometers at the ankle and hip joints was shown to be an effective sensor configuration. It was concluded that the e-textile pants system, via dynamic stability assessment, has the potential to identify motion-impaired elderly.

  3. Motion Analysis Based on Invertible Rapid Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turan

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the use of invertible rapid transform (IRT for the motion estimation in a sequence of images. Motion estimation algorithms based on the analysis of the matrix of states (produced in the IRT calculation are described. The new method was used experimentally to estimate crowd and traffic motion from the image data sequences captured at railway stations and at high ways in large cities. The motion vectors may be used to devise a polar plot (showing velocity magnitude and direction for moving objects where the dominant motion tendency can be seen. The experimental results of comparison of the new motion estimation methods with other well known block matching methods (full search, 2D-log, method based on conventional (cross correlation (CC function or phase correlation (PC function for application of crowd motion estimation are also presented.

  4. Human otolith-ocular reflexes during off-vertical axis rotation: effect of frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity and motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how the modulation of tilt and translation otolith-ocular responses during constant velocity off-vertical axis rotation varies as a function of stimulus frequency. Eighteen human subjects were rotated in darkness about their longitudinal axis 30 degrees off-vertical at stimulus frequencies between 0.05 and 0.8 Hz. The modulation of torsion decreased while the modulation of horizontal slow phase velocity (SPV) increased with increasing frequency. It is inferred that the ambiguity of otolith afferent information is greatest in the frequency region where tilt (torsion) and translational (horizontal SPV) otolith-ocular responses crossover. It is postulated that the previously demonstrated peak in motion sickness susceptibility during linear accelerations around 0.3 Hz is the result of frequency segregation of ambiguous otolith information being inadequate to distinguish between tilt and translation.

  5. Stimulus-driven capture and contingent capture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theeuwes, J.; Olivers, C.N.L.; Belopolsky, A.V.

    2010-01-01

    Whether or not certain physical events can capture attention has been one of the most debated issues in the study of attention. This discussion is concerned with how goal-directed and stimulus-driven processes interact in perception and cognition. On one extreme of the spectrum is the idea that

  6. Capture ready study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minchener, A.

    2007-07-15

    There are a large number of ways in which the capture of carbon as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) can be integrated into fossil fuel power stations, most being applicable for both gas and coal feedstocks. To add to the choice of technology is the question of whether an existing plant should be retrofitted for capture, or whether it is more attractive to build totally new. This miscellany of choices adds considerably to the commercial risk of investing in a large power station. An intermediate stage between the non-capture and full capture state would be advantageous in helping to determine the best way forward and hence reduce those risks. In recent years the term 'carbon capture ready' or 'capture ready' has been coined to describe such an intermediate stage plant and is now widely used. However a detailed and all-encompassing definition of this term has never been published. All fossil fuel consuming plant produce a carbon dioxide gas byproduct. There is a possibility of scrubbing it with an appropriate CO{sub 2} solvent. Hence it could be said that all fossil fuel plant is in a condition for removal of its CO{sub 2} effluent and therefore already in a 'capture ready' state. Evidently, the practical reality of solvent scrubbing could cost more than the rewards offered by such as the ETS (European Trading Scheme). In which case, it can be said that although the possibility exists of capturing CO{sub 2}, it is not a commercially viable option and therefore the plant could not be described as ready for CO{sub 2} capture. The boundary between a capture ready and a non-capture ready condition using this definition cannot be determined in an objective and therefore universally acceptable way and criteria must be found which are less onerous and less potentially contentious to assess. 16 refs., 2 annexes.

  7. Carbon Capture and Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, S.M.; Bennaceur, K.; Cook, P.; Davison, J.; Coninck, H. de; Farhat, K.; Ramirez, C.A.; Simbeck, D.; Surles, T.; Verma, P.; Wright, I.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, the most important long-lived anthropogenic greenhouse gas, can be reduced by Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). CCS involves the integration of four elements: CO 2 capture, compression of the CO2 from a gas to a liquid or a denser gas, transportation of pressurized CO 2

  8. CAPTURED India Country Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Donoghue, R.; Brouwers, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    This report provides the findings of the India Country Evaluation and is produced as part of the overall CAPTURED End Evaluation. After five years of support by the CAPTURED project the End Evaluation has assessed that results are commendable. I-AIM was able to design an approach in which health

  9. Interatomic Coulombic electron capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gokhberg, K.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    In a previous publication [K. Gokhberg and L. S. Cederbaum, J. Phys. B 42, 231001 (2009)] we presented the interatomic Coulombic electron capture process--an efficient electron capture mechanism by atoms and ions in the presence of an environment. In the present work we derive and discuss the mechanism in detail. We demonstrate thereby that this mechanism belongs to a family of interatomic electron capture processes driven by electron correlation. In these processes the excess energy released in the capture event is transferred to the environment and used to ionize (or to excite) it. This family includes the processes where the capture is into the lowest or into an excited unoccupied orbital of an atom or ion and proceeds in step with the ionization (or excitation) of the environment, as well as the process where an intermediate autoionizing excited resonance state is formed in the capturing center which subsequently deexcites to a stable state transferring its excess energy to the environment. Detailed derivation of the asymptotic cross sections of these processes is presented. The derived expressions make clear that the environment assisted capture processes can be important for many systems. Illustrative examples are presented for a number of model systems for which the data needed to construct the various capture cross sections are available in the literature.

  10. Highly stretchable strain sensor based on polyurethane substrate using hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure for monitoring of tiny human motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Zhao, Yunong; Wang, Yang; Guo, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yangyang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia; Zhang, Yugang

    2018-03-01

    Strain sensors used as flexible and wearable electronic devices have improved prospects in the fields of artificial skin, robotics, human-machine interfaces, and healthcare. This work introduces a highly stretchable fiber-based strain sensor with a laminated structure made up of a graphene nanoplatelet layer and a carbon black/single-walled carbon nanotube synergetic conductive network layer. An ultrathin, flexible, and elastic two-layer polyurethane (PU) yarn substrate was successively deposited by a novel chemical bonding-based layered dip-coating process. These strain sensors demonstrated high stretchability (˜350%), little hysteresis, and long-term durability (over 2400 cycles) due to the favorable tensile properties of the PU substrate. The linearity of the strain sensor could reach an adjusted R-squared of 0.990 at 100% strain, which is better than most of the recently reported strain sensors. Meanwhile, the strain sensor exhibited good sensibility, rapid response, and a lower detection limit. The lower detection limit benefited from the hydrogen bond-assisted laminated structure and continuous conductive path. Finally, a series of experiments were carried out based on the special features of the PU strain sensor to show its capacity of detecting and monitoring tiny human motions.

  11. A four-dimensional motion field atlas of the tongue from tagged and cine magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fangxu; Prince, Jerry L.; Stone, Maureen; Wedeen, Van J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Woo, Jonghye

    2017-02-01

    Representation of human tongue motion using three-dimensional vector fields over time can be used to better understand tongue function during speech, swallowing, and other lingual behaviors. To characterize the inter-subject variability of the tongue's shape and motion of a population carrying out one of these functions it is desirable to build a statistical model of the four-dimensional (4D) tongue. In this paper, we propose a method to construct a spatio-temporal atlas of tongue motion using magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired from fourteen healthy human subjects. First, cine MR images revealing the anatomical features of the tongue are used to construct a 4D intensity image atlas. Second, tagged MR images acquired to capture internal motion are used to compute a dense motion field at each time frame using a phase-based motion tracking method. Third, motion fields from each subject are pulled back to the cine atlas space using the deformation fields computed during the cine atlas construction. Finally, a spatio-temporal motion field atlas is created to show a sequence of mean motion fields and their inter-subject variation. The quality of the atlas was evaluated by deforming cine images in the atlas space. Comparison between deformed and original cine images showed high correspondence. The proposed method provides a quantitative representation to observe the commonality and variability of the tongue motion field for the first time, and shows potential in evaluation of common properties such as strains and other tensors based on motion fields.

  12. Study of cyclic and steady particle motion in a realistic human airway model using phase-Doppler anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedelský, Jan; Lízal, František; Jícha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Transport and deposition of particles in human airways has been of research interest for many years. Various experimental methods such as constant temperature anemometry, particle image velocimetry and laser-Doppler based techniques were employed for study of aerosol transport in the past. We use Phase-Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA) for time resolved size and velocity measurement of liquid aerosol particles in a size range 1 to 8 μm. The di-2ethylhexyl sabacate (DEHS) particles were produced by condensation monodisperse aerosol generator. A thin-wall transparent model of human airways with non-symmetric bifurcations and non-planar geometry containing parts from throat to 3rd-4th generation of bronchi was fabricated for the study. Several cyclic (sinusoidal) breathing regimes were simulated using pneumatic breathing mechanism. Analogous steady-flow regimes were also investigated and used for comparison. An analysis of the particle velocity data was performed with aim to gain deeper understanding of the transport phenomena in the realistic bifurcating airway system. Flows of particles of different sizes in range 1 - 10 μm was found to slightly differ for extremely high Stokes numbers. Differences in steady and cyclic turbulence intensities were documented in the paper. Systematically higher turbulence intensity was found for cyclic flows and mainly in the expiration breathing phase. Negligible differences were found for behaviour of different particle size classes in the inspected range 1 to 8 μm. Possibility of velocity spectra estimation of air flow using the P/DPA data is discussed.

  13. Study of cyclic and steady particle motion in a realistic human airway model using phase-Doppler anemometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jícha Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transport and deposition of particles in human airways has been of research interest for many years. Various experimental methods such as constant temperature anemometry, particle image velocimetry and laser-Doppler based techniques were employed for study of aerosol transport in the past. We use Phase-Doppler Particle Analyser (P/DPA for time resolved size and velocity measurement of liquid aerosol particles in a size range 1 to 8 μm. The di-2ethylhexyl sabacate (DEHS particles were produced by condensation monodisperse aerosol generator. A thin-wall transparent model of human airways with non-symmetric bifurcations and non-planar geometry containing parts from throat to 3rd-4th generation of bronchi was fabricated for the study. Several cyclic (sinusoidal breathing regimes were simulated using pneumatic breathing mechanism. Analogous steady-flow regimes were also investigated and used for comparison. An analysis of the particle velocity data was performed with aim to gain deeper understanding of the transport phenomena in the realistic bifurcating airway system. Flows of particles of different sizes in range 1 – 10 μm was found to slightly differ for extremely high Stokes numbers. Differences in steady and cyclic turbulence intensities were documented in the paper. Systematically higher turbulence intensity was found for cyclic flows and mainly in the expiration breathing phase. Negligible differences were found for behaviour of different particle size classes in the inspected range 1 to 8 μm. Possibility of velocity spectra estimation of air flow using the P/DPA data is discussed.

  14. Efficacy of laser capture microdissection plus RT-PCR technique in analyzing gene expression levels in human gastric cancer and colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makino, Hiroshi; Uetake, Hiroyuki; Danenberg, Kathleen; Danenberg, Peter V; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase gene expressions are reported to be valid predictive markers for 5-fluorouracil sensitivity to gastrointestinal cancer. For more reliable predictability, their expressions in cancer cells and stromal cells in the cancerous tissue (cancerous stroma) have been separately investigated using laser capture microdissection. Thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase, thymidine phosphorylase, and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mRNA in cancer cells and cancerous stroma from samples of 47 gastric and 43 colon cancers were separately quantified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction after laser capture microdissection. In both gastric and colon cancers, thymidylate synthase and orotate phosphoribosyltransferase mRNA expressions were higher (p < 0.0001, p <0.0001 respectively in gastric cancer and P = 0.0002, p < 0.0001 respectively in colon cancer) and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase mRNA expressions were lower in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma (P = 0.0136 in gastric cancer and p < 0.0001 in colon cancer). In contrast, thymidine phosphorylase mRNA was higher in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma in gastric cancer (p < 0.0001) and lower in cancer cells than in cancerous stroma in colon cancer (P = 0.0055). By using this method, we could estimate gene expressions separately in cancer cells and stromal cells from colon and gastric cancers, in spite of the amount of stromal tissue. Our method is thought to be useful for accurately evaluating intratumoral gene expressions

  15. Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Lab Study Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J.

    2014-01-01

    The HEMAP (Human Engineering Modeling and Performance) Lab is a joint effort between the Industrial and Human Engineering group and the KAVE (Kennedy Advanced Visualiations Environment) group. The lab consists of sixteen camera system that is used to capture human motions and operational tasks, through te use of a Velcro suit equipped with sensors, and then simulate these tasks in an ergonomic software package know as Jac, The Jack software is able to identify the potential risk hazards.

  16. Visualization system of swirl motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, K.; Umeda, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Nagano, T.; Sakata, H.

    2004-01-01

    The instrumentation of a system composed of an experimental device and numerical analysis is presented to visualize flow and identify swirling motion. Experiment is performed with transparent material and PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) instrumentation, by which velocity vector field is obtained. This vector field is then analyzed numerically by 'swirling flow analysis', which estimates its velocity gradient tensor and the corresponding eigenvalue (swirling function). Since an instantaneous flow field in steady/unsteady states is captured by PIV, the flow field is analyzed, and existence of vortices or swirling motions and their locations are identified in spite of their size. In addition, intensity of swirling is evaluated. The analysis enables swirling motion to emerge, even though it is hidden in uniform flow and velocity filed does not indicate any swirling. This visualization system can be applied to investigate condition to control flow or design flow. (authors)

  17. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    OpenAIRE

    William Irvin Sellers; Eishi Hirasaki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional na...

  18. Captured by Motion: Dance, Action Understanding, and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevdalis, Vassilis; Keller, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    In this review article, we summarize the main findings from empirical studies that used dance-related forms of rhythmical full body movement as a research tool for investigating action understanding and social cognition. This work has proven to be informative about behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate links between perceptual and motor…

  19. Markerless 3D motion capture for animal locomotion studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Irvin Sellers

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining quantitative data describing the movements of animals is an essential step in understanding their locomotor biology. Outside the laboratory, measuring animal locomotion often relies on video-based approaches and analysis is hampered because of difficulties in calibration and often the limited availability of possible camera positions. It is also usually restricted to two dimensions, which is often an undesirable over-simplification given the essentially three-dimensional nature of many locomotor performances. In this paper we demonstrate a fully three-dimensional approach based on 3D photogrammetric reconstruction using multiple, synchronised video cameras. This approach allows full calibration based on the separation of the individual cameras and will work fully automatically with completely unmarked and undisturbed animals. As such it has the potential to revolutionise work carried out on free-ranging animals in sanctuaries and zoological gardens where ad hoc approaches are essential and access within enclosures often severely restricted. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of video-based 3D photogrammetry with examples from primates and birds, as well as discussing the current limitations of this technique and illustrating the accuracies that can be obtained. All the software required is open source so this can be a very cost effective approach and provides a methodology of obtaining data in situations where other approaches would be completely ineffective.

  20. Exploiting motion capture to enhance avoidance behaviour in games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basten, B.J.H. van; Jansen, S.E.M.; Karamouzas, I.

    2009-01-01

    Realistic simulation of interacting virtual characters is essential in computer games, training and simulation applications. The problem is very challenging since people are accustomed to real-world situations and thus, they can easily detect inconsistencies and artifacts in the simulations. Over

  1. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Displacement of the medial meniscus within the passive motion characteristics of the human knee joint: an RSA study in human cadaver knees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tienen, T. van; Buma, P.; Scholten, J.G.; Kampen, A. van; Veth, R.P.H.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an in vitro human cadaver knee-joint model for the evaluation of the meniscal movement during knee-joint flexion. The question was whether our model showed comparable meniscal displacements to those found in earlier meniscal movement studies in vivo.

  3. Motion sensing energy controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saphir, M.E.; Reed, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    A moving object sensing processor responsive to slowly varying motions of a human being or other moving object in a zone of interest employs high frequency pulse modulated non-visible radiation generated by a radiation generating source, such as an LED, and detected by a detector sensitive to radiation of a preselected wavelength which generates electrical signals representative of the reflected radiation received from the zone of interest. The detectorsignals are processed to normalize the base level and remove variations due to background level changes, and slowly varying changes in the signals are detected by a bi-polar threshold detector. The control signals generated by the threshold detector in response to slowly varying motion are used to control the application of power to a utilization device, such as a set of fluoroescent lights in a room, the power being applied in response to detection of such motion and being automatically terminated in the absence of such motion after a predetermined time period established by a settable incrementable counter

  4. Asynchronous beating of cilia enhances particle capture rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yang; Kanso, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Many aquatic micro-organisms use beating cilia to generate feeding currents and capture particles in surrounding fluids. One of the capture strategies is to ``catch up'' with particles when a cilium is beating towards the overall flow direction (effective stroke) and intercept particles on the downstream side of the cilium. Here, we developed a 3D computational model of a cilia band with prescribed motion in a viscous fluid and calculated the trajectories of the particles with different sizes in the fluid. We found an optimal particle diameter that maximizes the capture rate. The flow field and particle motion indicate that the low capture rate of smaller particles is due to the laminar flow in the neighbor of the cilia, whereas larger particles have to move above the cilia tips to get advected downstream which decreases their capture rate. We then analyzed the effect of beating coordination between neighboring cilia on the capture rate. Interestingly, we found that asynchrony of the beating of the cilia can enhance the relative motion between a cilium and the particles near it and hence increase the capture rate.

  5. Audiovisual Capture with Ambiguous Audiovisual Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Hupé

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Audiovisual capture happens when information across modalities get fused into a coherent percept. Ambiguous multi-modal stimuli have the potential to be powerful tools to observe such effects. We used such stimuli made of temporally synchronized and spatially co-localized visual flashes and auditory tones. The flashes produced bistable apparent motion and the tones produced ambiguous streaming. We measured strong interferences between perceptual decisions in each modality, a case of audiovisual capture. However, does this mean that audiovisual capture occurs before bistable decision? We argue that this is not the case, as the interference had a slow temporal dynamics and was modulated by audiovisual congruence, suggestive of high-level factors such as attention or intention. We propose a framework to integrate bistability and audiovisual capture, which distinguishes between “what” competes and “how” it competes (Hupé et al., 2008. The audiovisual interactions may be the result of contextual influences on neural representations (“what” competes, quite independent from the causal mechanisms of perceptual switches (“how” it competes. This framework predicts that audiovisual capture can bias bistability especially if modalities are congruent (Sato et al., 2007, but that is fundamentally distinct in nature from the bistable competition mechanism.

  6. Capture of a quantum particle by a moving trapping potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shegelski, Mark R A; Poole, Tyler; Thompson, Cole

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the capture of a quantum particle in free space by a moving trapping potential. The capture is investigated for various initial conditions. We examine the dependence of the probability of capture on the shape and depth of the trapping potential, initial speed and mass of the particle, and other parameters. We take the trapping potential to move with an initial speed v 0 and to decelerate with constant acceleration a c until the well stops moving. We study the motion during the time the well is moving and after the well has stopped. We compare the probability of capture to the probability that the particle is in a stationary state (while the well is moving) and the probability the particle is in a bound state (after the well's motion has stopped). Our work could be of interest to instructors and students in upper-year undergraduate quantum mechanics courses. (paper)

  7. Roughing in Human Replumbing of the Water Cycle: Challenges, Opportunities, and Progress in Capturing the Influence of Water Management in Regional Models of Hydrology and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A. N.; Kaiser, K. E.; Steimke, A.; Leonard, A.; FitzGerald, K.; Benner, S. G.; Vache, K. B.; Hillis, V.; Bolte, J.; Han, B.

    2017-12-01

    Humans exert tremendous influence on the redistribution of water in space and time. Humans have developed substantial infrastructure to provide water in adequate quantity and quality for production of food and energy, while seeking to maintain landscape processes and properties giving rise to ecosystem services on which humans rely (even when and if they are not well understood). Cyber-physical infrastructure includes dams, distributary canal networks, ditches to manage return flow, and networks of sensors to monitor environmental conditions. Social infrastructure includes legal frameworks for water rights, governance networks, and land management policies aimed at maintaining water quality. Changes in regional climate, land use and its intensity, and land cover in source areas exert pressures on this infrastructure, requiring models to characterize system-wide vulnerability and resilience. Here we present a synthesis of several ongoing and completed studies aimed at advancing our fundamental understanding of and ability to numerically model a system in which biophysical and human components cannot be separated. These studies are set within the Boise and Snake River Basin in the US Pacific Northwest and are organized around the aims of: (1) developing improved understanding and models of the ways that humans interact with each other and with biophysical processes at a range of spatiotemporal scales, and (2) using those models to predict how changes in climate and societal drivers, including in-migration and shifts in agricultural practices, will impact regional hydroclimate and associated ecosystem services. Key findings indicate differential pressures on water availability based on water rights seniority within the Lower Boise River basin under historical conditions, the potential for significantly earlier curtailment of water rights in future decades, and potential changes in agricultural practices in anticipation of future climate changes. This ongoing suite of

  8. Tandem mass spectrometry of human tryptic blood peptides calculated by a statistical algorithm and captured by a relational database with exploration by a general statistical analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Peter; Beavis, Ron; Marshall, John

    2009-11-02

    A goodness of fit test may be used to assign tandem mass spectra of peptides to amino acid sequences and to directly calculate the expected probability of mis-identification. The product of the peptide expectation values directly yields the probability that the parent protein has been mis-identified. A relational database could capture the mass spectral data, the best fit results, and permit subsequent calculations by a general statistical analysis system. The many files of the Hupo blood protein data correlated by X!TANDEM against the proteins of ENSEMBL were collected into a relational database. A redundant set of 247,077 proteins and peptides were correlated by X!TANDEM, and that was collapsed to a set of 34,956 peptides from 13,379 distinct proteins. About 6875 distinct proteins were only represented by a single distinct peptide, 2866 proteins showed 2 distinct peptides, and 3454 proteins showed at least three distinct peptides by X!TANDEM. More than 99% of the peptides were associated with proteins that had cumulative expectation values, i.e. probability of false positive identification, of one in one hundred or less. The distribution of peptides per protein from X!TANDEM was significantly different than those expected from random assignment of peptides.

  9. Study comparing human papillomavirus (HPV) real-time multiplex PCR and Hybrid Capture II INNO-LiPA v2 HPV genotyping PCR assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftner, Thomas; Germ, Liesje; Swoyer, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    methods has not been well characterized. Clinically, cytology is used to establish possible HPV infection. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of HPV multiplex PCR assays compared to those of the testing scheme of the Hybrid Capture II (HCII) assay followed by an HPV PCR/line hybridization assay...... (HCII-LiPA v2). SurePath residual samples were split into two aliquots. One aliquot was subjected to HCII testing followed by DNA extraction and LiPA v2 genotyping. The second aliquot was shipped to a second laboratory, where DNA was extracted and HPV multiplex PCR testing was performed. Comparisons...... were evaluated for 15 HPV types common in both assays. A slightly higher proportion of samples tested positive by the HPV multiplex PCR than by the HCII-LiPA v2 assay. The sensitivities of the multiplex PCR assay relative to those of the HCII-LiPA v2 assay for HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, for example...

  10. The direct, not V1-mediated, functional influence between the thalamus and middle temporal complex in the human brain is modulated by the speed of visual motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaglianese, A; Costagli, M; Ueno, K; Ricciardi, E; Bernardi, G; Pietrini, P; Cheng, K

    2015-01-22

    The main visual pathway that conveys motion information to the middle temporal complex (hMT+) originates from the primary visual cortex (V1), which, in turn, receives spatial and temporal features of the perceived stimuli from the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). In addition, visual motion information reaches hMT+ directly from the thalamus, bypassing the V1, through a direct pathway. We aimed at elucidating whether this direct route between LGN and hMT+ represents a 'fast lane' reserved to high-speed motion, as proposed previously, or it is merely involved in processing motion information irrespective of speeds. We evaluated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses elicited by moving visual stimuli and applied connectivity analyses to investigate the effect of motion speed on the causal influence between LGN and hMT+, independent of V1, using the Conditional Granger Causality (CGC) in the presence of slow and fast visual stimuli. Our results showed that at least part of the visual motion information from LGN reaches hMT+, bypassing V1, in response to both slow and fast motion speeds of the perceived stimuli. We also investigated whether motion speeds have different effects on the connections between LGN and functional subdivisions within hMT+: direct connections between LGN and MT-proper carry mainly slow motion information, while connections between LGN and MST carry mainly fast motion information. The existence of a parallel pathway that connects the LGN directly to hMT+ in response to both slow and fast speeds may explain why MT and MST can still respond in the presence of V1 lesions. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  12. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  13. Kinesthetic information disambiguates visual motion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Knill, David C

    2010-05-25

    Numerous studies have shown that extra-retinal signals can disambiguate motion information created by movements of the eye or head. We report a new form of cross-modal sensory integration in which the kinesthetic information generated by active hand movements essentially captures ambiguous visual motion information. Several previous studies have shown that active movement can bias observers' percepts of bi-stable stimuli; however, these effects seem to be best explained by attentional mechanisms. We show that kinesthetic information can change an otherwise stable perception of motion, providing evidence of genuine fusion between visual and kinesthetic information. The experiments take advantage of the aperture problem, in which the motion of a one-dimensional grating pattern behind an aperture, while geometrically ambiguous, appears to move stably in the grating normal direction. When actively moving the pattern, however, the observer sees the motion to be in the hand movement direction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Adiabatic capture and debunching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    2012-01-01

    In the study of beam preparation for the g-2 experiment, adiabatic debunching and adiabatic capture are revisited. The voltage programs for these adiabbatic processes are derived and their properties discussed. Comparison is made with some other form of adiabatic capture program. The muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab calls for intense proton bunches for the creation of muons. A booster batch of 84 bunches is injected into the Recycler Ring, where it is debunched and captured into 4 intense bunches with the 2.5-MHz rf. The experiment requires short bunches with total width less than 100 ns. The transport line from the Recycler to the muon-production target has a low momentum aperture of ∼ ±22 MeV. Thus each of the 4 intense proton bunches required to have an emittance less than ∼ 3.46 eVs. The incoming booster bunches have total emittance ∼ 8.4 eVs, or each one with an emittance ∼ 0.1 eVs. However, there is always emittance increase when the 84 booster bunches are debunched. There will be even larger emittance increase during adiabatic capture into the buckets of the 2.5-MHz rf. In addition, the incoming booster bunches may have emittances larger than 0.1 eVs. In this article, we will concentrate on the analysis of the adiabatic capture process with the intention of preserving the beam emittance as much as possible. At this moment, beam preparation experiment is being performed at the Main Injector. Since the Main Injector and the Recycler Ring have roughly the same lattice properties, we are referring to adiabatic capture in the Main Injector instead in our discussions.

  15. Nuclear muon capture

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, N C

    1977-01-01

    Our present knowledge of the nuclear muon capture reactions is surveyed. Starting from the formation of the muonic atom, various phenomena, having a bearing on the nuclear capture, are reviewed. The nuclear reactions are then studied from two angles-to learn about the basic muon+nucleon weak interaction process, and to obtain new insights on the nuclear dynamics. Future experimental prospects with the newer generation muon 'factories' are critically examined. Possible modification of the muon+nucleon weak interaction in complex nuclei remains the most important open problem in this field. (380 refs).

  16. Proton capture resonance studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, G.E. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bilpuch, E.G. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Bybee, C.R. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Cox, J.M.; Fittje, L.M. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Labonte, M.A.; Moore, E.F.; Shriner, J.D. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Shriner, J.F. Jr. [Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee (United States) 38505]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Vavrina, G.A. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina (United States) 27695]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708; Wallace, P.M. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina (United States) 27708

    1997-02-01

    The fluctuation properties of quantum systems now are used as a signature of quantum chaos. The analyses require data of extremely high quality. The {sup 29}Si(p,{gamma}) reaction is being used to establish a complete level scheme of {sup 30}P to study chaos and isospin breaking in this nuclide. Determination of the angular momentum J, the parity {pi}, and the isospin T from resonance capture data is considered. Special emphasis is placed on the capture angular distributions and on a geometric description of these angular distributions. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Concentrations and human health implications of heavy metals in wild aquatic organisms captured from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yang-Guang; Huang, Hong-Hui; Lin, Qin

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metal concentrations in edible organisms from the core area of Daya Bay's Fishery Resource Reserve, South China Sea, were determined. Samples of 14 crustacean, fish, and shellfish species were collected and analyzed. The As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were 0.18-1.16, 0.002-0.919, 0.40-2.85, 0.07-4.10, 0.004-0.055, 0.14-1.19, 0.014-0.070, and 4.57-15.94μg/g wet weight, respectively. The As concentrations were higher than the Chinese maximum permissible levels in all of the fish and shellfish species and two crustacean species, indicating that consumption of these wild species by humans may pose health risks. However, calculations of the health risks posed to humans indicated that no significant adverse health effects would be associated with consuming these species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Visual Motion, Suggestion, and Illusory Motion on Self-Motion Perception in the Horizontal Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Steven David; Crane, Benjamin Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A moving visual field can induce the feeling of self-motion or vection. Illusory motion from static repeated asymmetric patterns creates a compelling visual motion stimulus, but it is unclear if such illusory motion can induce a feeling of self-motion or alter self-motion perception. In these experiments, human subjects reported the perceived direction of self-motion for sway translation and yaw rotation at the end of a period of viewing set visual stimuli coordinated with varying inertial stimuli. This tested the hypothesis that illusory visual motion would influence self-motion perception in the horizontal plane. Trials were arranged into 5 blocks based on stimulus type: moving star field with yaw rotation, moving star field with sway translation, illusory motion with yaw, illusory motion with sway, and static arrows with sway. Static arrows were used to evaluate the effect of cognitive suggestion on self-motion perception. Each trial had a control condition; the illusory motion controls were altered versions of the experimental image, which removed the illusory motion effect. For the moving visual stimulus, controls were carried out in a dark room. With the arrow visual stimulus, controls were a gray screen. In blocks containing a visual stimulus there was an 8s viewing interval with the inertial stimulus occurring over the final 1s. This allowed measurement of the visual illusion perception using objective methods. When no visual stimulus was present, only the 1s motion stimulus was presented. Eight women and five men (mean age 37) participated. To assess for a shift in self-motion perception, the effect of each visual stimulus on the self-motion stimulus (cm/s) at which subjects were equally likely to report motion in either direction was measured. Significant effects were seen for moving star fields for both translation (p = 0.001) and rotation (pperception was shifted in the direction consistent with the visual stimulus. Arrows had a small effect on self-motion

  19. Captured ‘Realities’ of Human Trafficking: Analysis of photographs illustrating stories on trafficking into the sex industry in Serbian media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Krsmanovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has looked at how the media frames human trafficking, but has seldom included analysis of visual representations. To bridge this gap, this paper scrutinises stereotypical representations of persons trafficked into the sex industry in photographs published in Serbian online media from 2011 to 2014. To uncover characteristics of dominant tropes in this sample, a method of semiotic analysis is applied. The analysis argues that images are dominated by portrayals of trafficked persons that fit into one of two frames: powerless victim or unworthy prostitute. Male figures are rarely presented in these photographs, but when present, they are shown to hurt or control the women depicted alongside them. Chains, padlocks, barcodes, whip marks, and other symbols associated with slavery are present to a lesser extent. However, they testify to the tendency to link human trafficking to slavery and to use the moral potential of the anti-slavery rhetoric. Photographs are too easily seen as authentic, factual transcripts of reality. This paper suggests that these images tell us more about societal fear of insecurity, ideas about gender, erotic obsessions and morality than about human trafficking itself. It also argues that the meaning of trafficking is shaped by the deeply embedded codes of patriarchy and hidden misogyny present in Serbian society.

  20. Multiplex zymography captures stage-specific activity profiles of cathepsins K, L, and S in human breast, lung, and cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Platt, Manu O

    2011-07-14

    Cathepsins K, L, and S are cysteine proteases upregulated in cancer and proteolyze extracellular matrix to facilitate metastasis, but difficulty distinguishing specific cathepsin activity in complex tissue extracts confounds scientific studies and employing them for use in clinical diagnoses. Here, we have developed multiplex cathepsin zymography to profile cathepsins K, L, and S activity in 10 μg human breast, lung, and cervical tumors by exploiting unique electrophoretic mobility and renaturation properties. Frozen breast, lung, and cervix cancer tissue lysates and normal organ tissue lysates from the same human patients were obtained (28 breast tissues, 23 lung tissues, and 23 cervix tissues), minced and homogenized prior to loading for cathepsin gelatin zymography to determine enzymatic activity. Cleared bands of cathepsin activity were identified and validated in tumor extracts and detected organ- and stage-specific differences in activity. Cathepsin K was unique compared to cathepsins L and S. It was significantly higher for all cancers even at the earliest stage tested (stage I for lung and cervix (n = 6, p zymography, yielded 100% sensitivity and specificity for 20 breast tissue samples tested (10 normal; 10 tumor) in part due to the consistent absence of cathepsin K in normal breast tissue across all patients. To summarize, this sensitive assay provides quantitative outputs of cathepsins K, L, and S activities from mere micrograms of tissue and has potential use as a supplement to histological methods of clinical diagnoses of biopsied human tissue.

  1. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  2. Teasing Apart Complex Motions using VideoPoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Mark

    2002-10-01

    Using video analysis software such as VideoPoint, it is possible to explore the physics of any phenomenon that can be captured on videotape. The good news is that complex motions can be filmed and analyzed. The bad news is that the motions can become very complex very quickly. An example of such a complicated motion, the 2-dimensional motion of an object as filmed by a camera that is moving and rotating in the same plane will be discussed. Methods for extracting the desired object motion will be given as well as suggestions for shooting more easily analyzable video clips.

  3. Muon capture in deuterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ricci, P.; Truhlík, Emil; Mosconi, B.; Smejkal, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 837, - (2010), s. 110-144 ISSN 0375-9474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Negative muon capture * Deuteron * Potential models Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2010

  4. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  5. Capacitance for carbon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landskron, Kai

    2018-01-01

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO 2 into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. Capacitance for carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landskron, Kai [Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Metal recycling: A sustainable, capacitance-assisted carbon capture and sequestration method (Supercapacitive Swing Adsorption) can turn scrap metal and CO{sub 2} into metal carbonates at an attractive energy cost. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Embedded enzymes catalyse capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Membrane technologies for carbon capture can offer economic and environmental advantages over conventional amine-based absorption, but can suffer from limited gas flux and selectivity to CO2. Now, a membrane based on enzymes embedded in hydrophilic pores is shown to exhibit combined flux and selectivity that challenges the state of the art.

  8. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  9. Motion sickness: a negative reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowins, Brad

    2010-01-15

    Theories pertaining to the "why" of motion sickness are in short supply relative to those detailing the "how." Considering the profoundly disturbing and dysfunctional symptoms of motion sickness, it is difficult to conceive of why this condition is so strongly biologically based in humans and most other mammalian and primate species. It is posited that motion sickness evolved as a potent negative reinforcement system designed to terminate motion involving sensory conflict or postural instability. During our evolution and that of many other species, motion of this type would have impaired evolutionary fitness via injury and/or signaling weakness and vulnerability to predators. The symptoms of motion sickness strongly motivate the individual to terminate the offending motion by early avoidance, cessation of movement, or removal of oneself from the source. The motion sickness negative reinforcement mechanism functions much like pain to strongly motivate evolutionary fitness preserving behavior. Alternative why theories focusing on the elimination of neurotoxins and the discouragement of motion programs yielding vestibular conflict suffer from several problems, foremost that neither can account for the rarity of motion sickness in infants and toddlers. The negative reinforcement model proposed here readily accounts for the absence of motion sickness in infants and toddlers, in that providing strong motivation to terminate aberrant motion does not make sense until a child is old enough to act on this motivation.

  10. Differences between clinical "snap-shot" and "real-life" assessments of lumbar spine alignment and motion - What is the "real" lumbar lordosis of a human being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischarf, Marcel; Pries, Esther; Bashkuev, Maxim; Putzier, Michael; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-03-21

    The individual lumbar lordosis and lumbar motion have been identified to play an important role in pathogenesis of low back pain and are essential references for preoperative planning and postoperative evaluation. The clinical "gold-standard" for measuring lumbar lordosis and its motion are radiological "snap-shots" taken while standing and during upper-body flexion and extension. The extent to which these clinically assessed values characterise lumbar alignment and its motion in daily life merits discussion. A non-invasive measurement-system was employed to measure lumbar lordosis and lumbar motion in 208 volunteers (age: 20-74yrs; ♀/♂: 115/93). For an initial short-term measurement, comparable with the clinical "snap-shot", lumbar lordosis and its motion were assessed while standing and during flexion and extension. Subsequently, volunteers were released to their daily lives while wearing the device, and measurements were performed during the following 24h. The average lumbar lordosis during 24h (8.0°) differed significantly from the standardised measurement while standing (33.3°). Ranges of motion were significantly different throughout the day compared to standing measurements. The influence of the factors age and gender on lordosis and its motion resulted in conflicting results between long- and short-term-measurements. In conclusion, results of short-term examinations differ considerably from the average values during real-life. These findings might be important for surgical planning and increase the awareness of the biomechanical challenges that spinal structures and implants face in real-life. Furthermore, long-term assessments of spinal alignment and motion during daily life can provide valid data on spinal function and can reveal the importance of influential factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dust grain resonant capture: A statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzari, F.; Vanzani, V.; Weidenschilling, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical approach, based on a large number of simultaneous numerical integrations, is adopted to study the capture in external mean motion resonances with the Earth of micron size dust grains perturbed by solar radiation and wind forces. We explore the dependence of the resonant capture phenomenon on the initial eccentricity e(sub 0) and perihelion argument w(sub 0) of the dust particle orbit. The intensity of both the resonant and dissipative (Poynting-Robertson and wind drag) perturbations strongly depends on the eccentricity of the particle while the perihelion argument determines, for low inclination, the mutual geometrical configuration of the particle's orbit with respect to the Earth's orbit. We present results for three j:j+1 commensurabilities (2:3, 4:5 and 6:7) and also for particle sizes s = 15, 30 microns. This study extends our previous work on the long term orbital evolution of single dust particles trapped into resonances with the Earth.

  12. Sensing Movement: Microsensors for Body Motion Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Zeng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of body posture and motion is an important physiological function that can keep the body in balance. Man-made motion sensors have also been widely applied for a broad array of biomedical applications including diagnosis of balance disorders and evaluation of energy expenditure. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art sensing components utilized for body motion measurement. The anatomy and working principles of a natural body motion sensor, the human vestibular system, are first described. Various man-made inertial sensors are then elaborated based on their distinctive sensing mechanisms. In particular, both the conventional solid-state motion sensors and the emerging non solid-state motion sensors are depicted. With their lower cost and increased intelligence, man-made motion sensors are expected to play an increasingly important role in biomedical systems for basic research as well as clinical diagnostics.

  13. Data Fusion Based on Optical Technology for Observation of Human Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, Pietro; De Maria, Giuseppe; Natale, Ciro; Pirozzi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The adoption of human observation is becoming more and more frequent within imitation learning and programming by demonstration approaches (PbD) to robot programming. For robotic systems equipped with anthropomorphic hands, the observation phase is very challenging and no ultimate solution exists. This work proposes a novel mechatronic approach to the observation of human hand motion during manipulation tasks. The strategy is based on the combined use of an optical motion capture system and a low-cost data glove equipped with novel joint angle sensors, based on optoelectronic technology. The combination of the two information sources is obtained through a sensor fusion algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF) suitably modified to tackle the problem of marker occlusions, typical of optical motion capture systems. This approach requires a kinematic model of the human hand. Another key contribution of this work is a new method to calibrate this model.

  14. The relationship between action-effect monitoring and attention capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Neeraj; Manjaly, Jaison A; Sunny, Meera Mary

    2015-02-01

    Many recent findings suggest that stimuli that are perceived to be the consequence of one's own actions are processed with priority. According to the preactivation account of intentional binding, predicted consequences are preactivated and hence receive a temporal advantage in processing. The implications of the preactivation account are important for theories of attention capture, as temporal advantage often translates to attention capture. Hence, action might modulate attention capture by feature singletons. Experiment 1 showed that a motion onset and color change captured attention only when it was preceded by an action. Experiment 2 showed that the capture occurs only with predictable, but not with unpredictable, consequences of action. Experiment 3 showed that even when half the display changed color at display transition, they were all prioritized. The results suggest that action modulates attentional control.

  15. Evaluation of Human Body Tracking System for Gesture-based Programming of Industrial Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høilund, Carsten; Krüger, Volker; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Is low-cost tracking precise enough for recognition of pointing actions? We investigate the quality of the human body tracking available with a Kinect camera by comparing it to a state-of-the-art motion capture system. The application is action recognition with parametric hidden Markov Models...

  16. Procedure to describe clavicular motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Guivey; De Beule, Matthieu; Ortega Cardentey, Dolgis R; Segers, Patrick; Iznaga Benítez, Arsenio M; Rodríguez Moliner, Tania; Verhegghe, Benedict; Palmans, Tanneke; Van Hoof, Tom; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    For many years, researchers have attempted to describe shoulder motions by using different mathematical methods. The aim of this study was to describe a procedure to quantify clavicular motion. The procedure proposed for the kinematic analysis consists of 4 main processes: 3 transcortical pins in the clavicle, motion capture, obtaining 3-dimensional bone models, and data processing. Clavicular motion by abduction (30° to 150°) and flexion (55° to 165°) were characterized by an increment of retraction of 27° to 33°, elevation of 25° to 28°, and posterior rotation of 14° to 15°, respectively. In circumduction, clavicular movement described an ellipse, which was reflected by retraction and elevation. Kinematic analysis shows that the articular surfaces move by simultaneously rolling and sliding on the convex surface of the sternum for the 3 movements of abduction, flexion, and circumduction. The use of 3 body landmarks in the clavicle and the direct measurement of bone allowed description of the osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement of the clavicle. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Sensory-Driven Trade-Off between Coordinated Motion in Social Prey and a Predator's Visual Confusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand H Lemasson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social animals are capable of enhancing their awareness by paying attention to their neighbors, and prey found in groups can also confuse their predators. Both sides of these sensory benefits have long been appreciated, yet less is known of how the perception of events from the perspectives of both prey and predator can interact to influence their encounters. Here we examined how a visual sensory mechanism impacts the collective motion of prey and, subsequently, how their resulting movements influenced predator confusion and capture ability. We presented virtual prey to human players in a targeting game and measured the speed and accuracy with which participants caught designated prey. As prey paid more attention to neighbor movements their collective coordination increased, yet increases in prey coordination were positively associated with increases in the speed and accuracy of attacks. However, while attack speed was unaffected by the initial state of the prey, accuracy dropped significantly if the prey were already organized at the start of the attack, rather than in the process of self-organizing. By repeating attack scenarios and masking the targeted prey's neighbors we were able to visually isolate them and conclusively demonstrate how visual confusion impacted capture ability. Delays in capture caused by decreased coordination amongst the prey depended upon the collection motion of neighboring prey, while it was primarily the motion of the targets themselves that determined capture accuracy. Interestingly, while a complete loss of coordination in the prey (e.g., a flash expansion caused the greatest delay in capture, such behavior had little effect on capture accuracy. Lastly, while increases in collective coordination in prey enhanced personal risk, traveling in coordinated groups was still better than appearing alone. These findings demonstrate a trade-off between the sensory mechanisms that can enhance the collective properties that

  18. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  19. Reconstruction and EMG-informed control, simulation and analysis of human movement for athletics: Performance improvement and injury prevention

    KAUST Repository

    Demircan, E.

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we present methods to track and characterize human dynamic skills using motion capture and electromographic sensing. These methods are based on task-space control to obtain the joint kinematics and extract the key physiological parameters and on computed muscle control to solve the muscle force distribution problem. We also present a dynamic control and analysis framework that integrates these metrics for the purpose of reconstructing and analyzing sports motions in real-time.

  20. Reconstruction and EMG-informed control, simulation and analysis of human movement for athletics: Performance improvement and injury prevention