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Sample records for human monocytes activated

  1. Eplerenone promotes alternative activation in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Liber, Sebastian; Bułdak, Łukasz; Machnik, Grzegorz; Liber, Justyna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages to mineralocorticoid axis modulators. Human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with aldosterone alone, eplerenone alone, and the combination of aldosterone and eplerenone. The analyzed variables were nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production, and the gene and protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, arginase I, and mannose receptor. We showed that aldosterone promotes a classic inflammatory response in macrophages, whereas its antagonist, eplerenone, attenuates aldosterone-induced activity. Eplerenone did not quantitatively weaken the response of macrophages to aldosterone but instead qualitatively changed their behavior.

  2. Azithromycin distinctively modulates classical activation of human monocytes in vitro

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    Vrančić, M; Banjanac, M; Nujić, K; Bosnar, M; Murati, T; Munić, V; Stupin Polančec, D; Belamarić, D; Parnham, MJ; Eraković Haber, V

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Azithromycin has been reported to modify activation of macrophages towards the M2 phenotype. Here, we have sought to identify the mechanisms underlying this modulatory effect of azithromycin on human monocytes, classically activated in vitro. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Human blood monocytes were primed with IFN-γ for 24 h and activated with LPS for 24 h. Azithromycin, anti-inflammatory and lysosome-affecting agents were added 2 h before IFN-γ. Cytokine and chemokine expression was determined by quantitative PCR and protein release by ELISA. Signalling molecules were determined by Western blotting and transcription factor activation quantified with a DNA-binding ELISA kit. KEY RESULTS Azithromycin (1.5–50 µM) dose-dependently inhibited gene expression and/or release of M1 macrophage markers (CCR7, CXCL 11 and IL-12p70), but enhanced CCL2, without altering TNF-α or IL-6. Azithromycin also enhanced the gene expression and/or release of M2 macrophage markers (IL-10 and CCL18), and the pan-monocyte marker CD163, but inhibited that of CCL22. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signalling pathway was modulated, down-regulating NF-κB and STAT1 transcription factors. The inhibitory profile of azithromycin differed from that of dexamethasone, the phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast and the p38 kinase inhibitor SB203580 but was similar to that of the lysosomotropic drug chloroquine. Effects of concanamycin and NH4Cl, which also act on lysosomes, differed significantly. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Azithromycin modulated classical activation of human monocytes by inhibition of TLR4-mediated signalling and possible effects on lysosomal function, and generated a mediator expression profile that differs from that of monocyte/macrophage phenotypes so far described. PMID:21726210

  3. An improved monocyte activation test using cryopreserved pooled human mononuclear cells

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    Solati, Shabnam; Aarden, Lucien; Zeerleder, Sacha; Wouters, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The monocyte activation test (MAT) is a promising replacement of the currently used rabbit pyrogen test to detect the presence of pyrogens in injectable drugs. In the MAT, drugs are incubated with a source of human monocytes and production of pyrogenic cytokines used as readout. The best results are

  4. PPARgamma activation primes human monocytes into alternative M2 macrophages with anti-inflammatory properties.

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    Bouhlel, M Amine; Derudas, Bruno; Rigamonti, Elena; Dièvart, Rébecca; Brozek, John; Haulon, Stéphan; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Torpier, Gérard; Marx, Nikolaus; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2007-08-01

    Th1 cytokines promote monocyte differentiation into proatherogenic M1 macrophages, while Th2 cytokines lead to an "alternative" anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Here we show that in human atherosclerotic lesions, the expression of M2 markers and PPARgamma, a nuclear receptor controlling macrophage inflammation, correlate positively. Moreover, PPARgamma activation primes primary human monocytes into M2 differentiation, resulting in a more pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in M1 macrophages. However, PPARgamma activation does not influence M2 marker expression in resting or M1 macrophages, nor does PPARgamma agonist treatment influence the expression of M2 markers in atherosclerotic lesions, indicating that only native monocytes can be primed by PPARgamma activation to an enhanced M2 phenotype. Furthermore, PPARgamma activation significantly increases expression of the M2 marker MR in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data demonstrate that PPARgamma activation skews human monocytes toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype.

  5. Helium-neon and nitrogen laser irradiation accelerates the phagocytic activity of human monocytes.

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    Hemvani, Nanda; Chitnis, Dhananjay Sadashiv; Bhagwanani, Nijram Satramdas

    2005-12-01

    Intracellular survival of mycobacteria within monocytes is a crucial stage in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. The aim was to check intracellular survival of Mycobacterium fortuitum within the human monocytes exposed to He-Ne and nitrogen laser irradiation. Tuberculosis remains one of the most important infectious diseases for developing countries. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been tried to treat tubercular cavitory lung disease with encouraging results. The in vitro photobiological effect of low level laser radiation on the intracellular mycobacteria needs to be evaluated before we could go for large clinical trials. The aliquots of human monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and tuberculosis cases were exposed to He-Ne or nitrogen laser beam. The non-irradiated monocytes from the same source served as controls. The monocytes were then challenged with M. fortuitum, and surviving mycobacteria within monocytes were subjected to viable counts. Enhanced killing of mycobacterial cells was seen among monocytes exposed to He-Ne and nitrogen laser irradiation. He-Ne and nitrogen laser irradiation activates the monocytes to increase intracellular killing of mycobacteria.

  6. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans

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    Thaler, B.; Hohensinner, P.J.; Krychtiuk, K. A.; Matzneller, P.; Koller, L.; M. Brekalo; Maurer, G.; Huber, K.; Zeitlinger, M.; Jilma, B.; Wojta, J; Speidl, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16?), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 ...

  7. Differential Activation of Human Monocytes and Lymphocytes by Distinct Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Magalhães, Luísa M. D.; Viana, Agostinho; Chiari, Egler; Galvão, Lúcia M. C.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi strains are currently classified into six discrete typing units (DTUs) named TcI to VI. It is known that these DTUs have different geographical distribution, as well as biological features. TcI and TcII are major DTUs found in patients from northern and southern Latin America, respectively. Our hypothesis is that upon infection of human peripheral blood cells, Y strain (Tc II) and Col cl1.7 (Tc I), cause distinct immunological changes, which might influence the clinical course of Chagas disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the infectivity of CFSE-stained trypomastigotes of Col cl1.7 and Y strain in human monocytes for 15 and 72 hours, and determined the immunological profile of lymphocytes and monocytes exposed to the different isolates using multiparameter flow cytometry. Our results showed a similar percentage and intensity of monocyte infection by Y and Col cl1.7. We also observed an increased expression of CD80 and CD86 by monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain. IL-10 was significantly higher in monocytes infected with Col cl1.7, as compared to Y strain. Moreover, infection with Col cl1.7, but not Y strain, led to an increased expression of IL-17 by CD8+ T cells. On the other hand, we observed a positive correlation between the expression of TNF-alpha and granzyme A only after infection with Y strain. Conclusion/Significance Our study shows that while Col cl1.7 induces higher monocyte activation and, at the same time, production of IL-10, infection with Y strain leads to a lower monocyte activation but higher inflammatory profile. These results show that TcI and TcII have a distinct immunological impact on human cells during early infection, which might influence disease progression. PMID:26147698

  8. Differential in vivo activation of monocyte subsets during low-grade inflammation through experimental endotoxemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, B; Hohensinner, P J; Krychtiuk, K A; Matzneller, P; Koller, L; Brekalo, M; Maurer, G; Huber, K; Zeitlinger, M; Jilma, B; Wojta, J; Speidl, W S

    2016-07-22

    Human monocytes are a heterogeneous cell population, which can be divided into a classical (CD14++CD16-), a non-classical (CD14+CD16+), and an intermediate (CD14++CD16+) subset. We hypothesized that low-grade inflammation may differentially affect monocyte subsets. We used a human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion model to mimic low-grade inflammation to identify, which monocyte subsets are preferentially activated under these conditions. Monocyte subsets were identified by staining for CD14 and CD16, activation status of monocytes was analyzed by staining for CD11b and a novel in situ mRNA hybridization approach to detect IL-6 and IL-8 specific mRNA at the single-cell level by flow cytometry. After LPS challenge, cell numbers of monocyte subsets dropped after 2 h with cell numbers recovering after 6 h. Distribution of monocyte subsets was skewed dramatically towards the intermediate subset after 24 h. Furthermore, intermediate monocytes displayed the largest increase of CD11b expression after 2 h. Finally, IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA levels increased in intermediate and non-classical monocytes after 6 h whereas these mRNA levels in classical monocytes changed only marginally. In conclusion, our data indicates that the main responding subset of monocytes to standardized low-grade inflammation induced by LPS in humans is the CD14++CD16+ intermediate subset followed by the CD14+CD16+ non-classical monocyte subset. Circulating classical monocytes showed comparably less reaction to LPS challenge in vivo.

  9. Monocytes induce STAT3 activation in human mesenchymal stem cells to promote osteoblast formation.

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    Vicky Nicolaidou

    Full Text Available A major therapeutic challenge is how to replace bone once it is lost. Bone loss is a characteristic of chronic inflammatory and degenerative diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Cells and cytokines of the immune system are known to regulate bone turnover by controlling the differentiation and activity of osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells. However, less is known about the regulation of osteoblasts (OB, the bone forming cells. This study aimed to investigate whether immune cells also regulate OB differentiation. Using in vitro cell cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, it was shown that monocytes/macrophages potently induced MSC differentiation into OBs. This was evident by increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP after 7 days and the formation of mineralised bone nodules at 21 days. This monocyte-induced osteogenic effect was mediated by cell contact with MSCs leading to the production of soluble factor(s by the monocytes. As a consequence of these interactions we observed a rapid activation of STAT3 in the MSCs. Gene profiling of STAT3 constitutively active (STAT3C infected MSCs using Illumina whole human genome arrays showed that Runx2 and ALP were up-regulated whilst DKK1 was down-regulated in response to STAT3 signalling. STAT3C also led to the up-regulation of the oncostatin M (OSM and LIF receptors. In the co-cultures, OSM that was produced by monocytes activated STAT3 in MSCs, and neutralising antibodies to OSM reduced ALP by 50%. These data indicate that OSM, in conjunction with other mediators, can drive MSC differentiation into OB. This study establishes a role for monocyte/macrophages as critical regulators of osteogenic differentiation via OSM production and the induction of STAT3 signalling in MSCs. Inducing the local activation of STAT3 in bone cells may be a valuable tool to increase bone formation in osteoporosis and arthritis, and in localised bone remodelling during fracture repair.

  10. Elastolytic activity of human blood monocytes characterized by a new monoclonal antibody against human leucocyte elastase. Relationship to rheumatoid arthritis

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    Jensen, H S; Christensen, L D

    1990-01-01

    The leucocyte elastase of human blood monocytes was investigated by applying a new monoclonal antibody which did not block the enzyme activity against elastin. In a fixed population of mononuclear cells (MNC) and using fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), the human leucocyte elastase (HLE......) antibody identified a subgroup of CD14+ cells which contained all the elastase activity and which could be blocked by a specific chloromethylketone elastase inhibitor. By anti-CD14 labelling the HLE positive cells were identified as monocytes and amounted to 88% of this cell type (median: range 72...

  11. Monocyte-Derived Signals Activate Human Natural Killer Cells in Response to Leishmania Parasites

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    Helena Messlinger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated natural killer (NK cells release interferon (IFN-γ, which is crucial for the control of intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In contrast to experimental murine leishmaniasis, the human NK cell response to Leishmania is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the interaction of human blood NK cells with promastigotes of different Leishmania species (Leishmania major, Leishmania mexicana, Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania donovani. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells or purified NK cells and monocytes (all derived from healthy blood donors from Germany without a history of leishmaniasis were exposed to promastigotes, NK cells showed increased surface expression of the activation marker CD69. The extent of this effect varied depending on the Leishmania species; differences between dermotropic and viscerotropic L. infantum strains were not observed. Upregulation of CD69 required direct contact between monocytes and Leishmania and was partly inhibitable by anti-interleukin (IL-18. Unexpectedly, IL-18 was undetectable in most of the supernatants (SNs of monocyte/parasite cocultures. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of non-permeabilized cells revealed that Leishmania-infected monocytes trans-presented IL-18 to NK cells. Native, but not heat-treated SNs of monocyte/Leishmania cocultures also induced CD69 on NK cells, indicating the involvement of a soluble heat-labile factor other than IL-18. A role for the NK cell-activating cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, IL-21, and IFN-α/β was excluded. The increase of CD69 was not paralleled by NK cell IFN-γ production or enhanced cytotoxicity. However, prior exposure of NK cells to Leishmania parasites synergistically increased their IFN-γ release in response to IL-12, which was dependent on endogenous IL-18. CD1c+ dendritic cells were identified as possible source of Leishmania-induced IL-12. Finally, we observed that direct contact between Leishmania and NK cells

  12. Interleukin-1α activation and localization in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes and macrophages

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    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Kjærsgaard, Pernille; Jørgensen, Trine Lykke

    2015-01-01

    - 1α in inflammation is only partly understood. Results: Human macrophages/monocytes, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were analyzed for production and localization of IL-1α by use of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) generated against IL-1α pro piece. We found that IL-1α propiece was detected...... being a marker for monocytes. Conclusions: Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, a method to visualize and measure the production of IL-1α in both human monocytes and macrophages....

  13. Continuous treatment with recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP-10-ESAT-6 protein activated human monocyte while deactivated LPS-stimulated macrophage.

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    Feng, Yonghong; Yang, Xin; Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Yaoting; Su, Bo; Ding, Yuansheng; Qin, Lianhua; Yang, Hua; Zheng, Ruijuan; Hu, Zhongyi

    2008-01-18

    Influence of the recombinant culture filtered protein 10 (CFP-10) and early-secreted antigenic target 6kDa protein (ESAT-6) (r-CFP-10-ESAT-6, rCE) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) on human monocyte and macrophage activation was investigated using human monocyte, monocyte like THP-1 cell line and monocyte derived macrophage (MDM). rCE solely enhanced TNF-alpha release from human monocytes and THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. rCE enhanced expression of CD80 and CD40, it also synergized with IFN-gamma in induction of TNF-alpha production and HLA-DR expression. Pharmacological agents that selectively inhibit mitogen activated protein kinase activation markedly suppressed rCE-induced TNF- alpha release. However, continuous presence of rCE (>72h) during monocyte to macrophage differentiation inhibited macrophage response to LPS stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that rCE might have differential influence on monocyte and macrophage activation, which might be correlated with Mtb immune evasion.

  14. Cytotoxicity of activated monocytes on endothelial cells.

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    Peri, G; Chiaffarino, F; Bernasconi, S; Padura, I M; Mantovani, A

    1990-02-15

    Unstimulated human monocytes did not express appreciable levels of cytotoxicity on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) in a 24-48 hr TdR release assay. On activation with IFN-gamma and LPS, monocytes had appreciable cytotoxicity on EC. Monocyte cytotoxicity on EC was not dependent on the presence of contaminating lymphoid cells. Recombinant TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 as well as monocyte supernatants did not exert a cytotoxic effect on EC. Moreover, anti-TNF, anti-IL-1, and anti-IL-6 antibodies, as well as scavengers of reactive oxygen intermediates, did not affect the cytotoxicity of activated monocytes on EC. Antibodies against the beta-chain (CD18) of leukocyte integrins inhibited the adhesion and cytotoxicity of activated monocytes on EC. Pretreatment of EC with IL-1 augmented the adhesion of monocytes on EC. Normal monocytes were not cytotoxic on IL-1-pretreated EC and IL-1 treatment did not increase the susceptibility of EC to activated monocytes. Thus adhesion is necessary but not sufficient for monocyte killing of EC. Anti-alpha L (LFA-1) antibodies markedly reduced monocyte cytotoxicity on EC, although anti-alpha X (p150) antibodies had only a modest effect. Anti-alpha M (Mac-1/CR3) antibodies were intermediate inhibitors of EC killing by activated monocytes. Thus, alpha L, beta 2 (LFA-1), and, to a lesser extent, alpha M, beta 2 (Mac-1/CR3) and alpha X, beta 2 (p 150, 95) integrins are the main adhesive structures involved in the cytotoxic interaction of activated monocytes with EC. Monocyte-mediated damage of EC could play a role as a mechanism of tissue injury under conditions of local or systemic activation of mononuclear phagocytes.

  15. Human Cardiac-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells Fine-Tune Monocyte-Derived Descendants Activities toward Cardiac Repair

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    Noémie Dam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac repair following MI relies on a finely regulated immune response involving sequential recruitment of monocytes to the injured tissue. Monocyte-derived cells are also critical for tissue homeostasis and healing process. Our previous findings demonstrated the interaction of T and natural killer cells with allogeneic human cardiac-derived stem/progenitor cells (hCPC and suggested their beneficial effect in the context of cardiac repair. Therefore, we investigated here whether monocytes and their descendants could be also modulated by allogeneic hCPC toward a repair/anti-inflammatory phenotype. Through experimental in vitro assays, we assessed the impact of allogeneic hCPC on the recruitment, functions and differentiation of monocytes. We found that allogeneic hCPC at steady state or under inflammatory conditions can incite CCL-2/CCR2-dependent recruitment of circulating CD14+CD16− monocytes and fine-tune their activation toward an anti-inflammatory profile. Allogeneic hCPC also promoted CD14+CD16− monocyte polarization into anti-inflammatory/immune-regulatory macrophages with high phagocytic capacity and IL10 secretion. Moreover, hCPC bended the differentiation of CD14+CD16− monocytes to dendritic cells (DCs toward anti-inflammatory macrophage-like features and impaired their antigen-presenting function in favor of immune-modulation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that allogeneic hCPC could reshape monocytes, macrophages as well as DCs responses by favoring their anti-inflammatory/tolerogenic activation/polarization. Thereby, therapeutic allogeneic hCPC might also contribute to post-infarct myocardial healing by modeling the activities of monocytes and their derived descendants.

  16. Nanoparticles as Antituberculosis Drugs Carriers: Effect on Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

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    Anisimova, Y.V.; Gelperina, S.I.; Peloquin, C.A.; Heifets, L.B. [National Jewish Medical and Research Center (United States)

    2000-06-15

    This is the first report evaluating the nanoparticle delivery system for three antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. The typical particle size is 250 nm. We studied accumulation of these drugs in human monocytes as well as their antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nanoparticle encapsulation increased the intracellular accumulation (cell-association) of all three tested drugs, but it enhanced the antimicrobial activity of isoniazid and streptomycin only. On the other hand, the activity of encapsulated rifampin against intracellular bacteria was not higher than that of the free drug.

  17. BMP-7 induces TF expression in human monocytes by increasing F3 transcriptional activity.

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    Sovershaev, T A; Egorina, E M; Unruh, D; Bogdanov, V Y; Hansen, J B; Sovershaev, M A

    2015-02-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, a major regulator of bone metabolism, inhibits ectopic calcification in atherosclerotic plaques. We have recently reported that BMP-7 is also a potent inducer of tissue factor (TF) in human mononuclear cells (MNCs). While nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) are the transcription factors essential for inducible expression of human TF gene (F3), the mechanisms responsible for TF induction by BMP-7 are not known. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms governing BMP-7-triggered TF expression in human MNCs. Human blood monocytes were stimulated with BMP-7 and western blotting, qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry studies were carried out to assess F3 expression; promoter studies were also performed using a panel of reporter constructs. Procoagulant TF activity was measured using a validated FXa generation assay. The significance of NF-kB transcriptional activity was verified via pharmacological inhibition. BMP-7 increased TF protein levels, procoagulant activity, surface presentation, and TF mRNA expression. This increase was accompanied by activation of NF-kB as evidenced by reduced IkB-α levels and elevated transcriptional activity of an NF-kB-sensitive reporter in transfected MNCs. Although treatment with BMP-7 also led to a strong phosphorylation of c-Jun, activation of AP-1 alone was not sufficient to induce TF expression: JSH-23, a potent and specific NF-kB inhibitor, completely blocked BMP-7-induced TF expression. We report that BMP-7-dependent activation of TF in human MNCs is mediated via increased activity of NF-kB, leading to enhanced F3 transcription in human MNCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Soluble Form of the Cellular Prion Protein Enhances Phagocytic Activity and Cytokine Production by Human Monocytes Via Activation of ERK and NF-κB

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    Jeon, Jae-Won; Park, Bum-Chan; Jung, Joon-Goo; Jang, Young-Soon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The PrPC is expressed in many types of immune cells including monocytes and macrophages, however, its function in immune regulation remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we examined a role for PrPC in regulation of monocyte function. Specifically, the effect of a soluble form of PrPC was studied in human monocytes. A recombinant fusion protein of soluble human PrPC fused with the Fc portion of human IgG1 (designated as soluble PrPC-Fc) bound to the cell surface of monocytes, induced differentiation to macrophage-like cells, and enhanced adherence and phagocytic activity. In addition, soluble PrPC-Fc stimulated monocytes to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Both ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways were activated in soluble PrPC-treated monocytes, and inhibitors of either pathway abrogated monocyte adherence and cytokine production. Taken together, we conclude that soluble PrPC-Fc enhanced adherence, phagocytosis, and cytokine production of monocytes via activation of the ERK and NF-κB signaling pathways. PMID:24009542

  19. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  20. Differential cytostatic activity of monocyte-derived cytokines against human melanoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, A. A.; vd Wiel-v Kemenade, E.; Figdor, C. G.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of 3 major cytokines secreted by activated monocytes, IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and IL-6, to inhibit growth of melanoma tumor cells. Using neutralizing antibodies against IL-1 beta, TNF alpha and IL-6, we observed that the cytostatic activity against A375 melanoma cells is

  1. Development, validation and applications of the monocyte activation test for pyrogens based on human whole blood.

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    Schindler, Stefanie; von Aulock, Sonja; Daneshian, Mardas; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi contain components that activate the innate immune system. These components, called pyrogens (Greek: pyros=fire), can occur independently of viable microorganisms and are a major safety concern in parenterally administered drugs, since they can cause severe reactions such as fever, organ failure, and shock in the recipient. So far these drugs have been tested by injecting them intravenously into rabbits and measuring their fever reaction or, alternatively, by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate (LAL) test, employing the coagulation of the hemolymph lysate of Limulus polyphemus. Both tests have inherent limitations. A new in vitro monocyte activation test (MAT) based on human whole blood, capable of measuring all pyrogens relevant to the human patient, introduced in this journal in 1995, was validated and recently accepted by European Pharmacopoeia and US FDA. This review describes its principle, development, validation and the wide spectrum of applications, such as for testing of medical devices, blood products, toxic or immunomodulatory drugs, dialysis liquids, lipidic parenterals, and air quality. This alternative method promises to replace the rabbit pyrogen test fully and to overcome several limitations of the LAL assay.

  2. TLR2 ligands induce NF-κB activation from endosomal compartments of human monocytes.

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    Karim J Brandt

    Full Text Available Localization of Toll-like receptors (TLR in subcellular organelles is a major strategy to regulate innate immune responses. While TLR4, a cell-surface receptor, signals from both the plasma membrane and endosomal compartments, less is known about the functional role of endosomal trafficking upon TLR2 signaling. Here we show that the bacterial TLR2 ligands Pam3CSK4 and LTA activate NF-κB-dependent signaling from endosomal compartments in human monocytes and in a NF-κB sensitive reporter cell line, despite the expression of TLR2 at the cell surface. Further analyses indicate that TLR2-induced NF-κB activation is controlled by a clathrin/dynamin-dependent endocytosis mechanism, in which CD14 serves as an important upstream regulator. These findings establish that internalization of cell-surface TLR2 into endosomal compartments is required for NF-κB activation. These observations further demonstrate the need of endocytosis in the activation and regulation of TLR2-dependent signaling pathways.

  3. Immunomodulatory activity of a plant extract containing human papillomavirus 16-E7 protein in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Di Bonito, P; Grasso, F; Mangino, G; Massa, S; Illiano, E; Franconi, R; Fanales-Belasio, E; Falchi, M; Affabris, E; Giorgi, C

    2009-01-01

    This study reports the immunomodulatory activity on human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) of a vaccine preparation shown to be effective against an HPV16-related tumour in an animal model. The vaccine is composed of extract from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves containing HPV16 E7 protein expressed by a potato virus X-derived vector (NbPVX-E7). The effect of the extract was evaluated on MDDC differentiation and maturation by monitoring the phenotypic expression of specific markers. The results show that NbPVX-E7 does not induce monocyte differentiation to dendritic cells, but does induce MDDC maturation. Plant extract does not influence MDDC-uptake of E7-FITC while it significantly improves the Ovalbumin-FITC uptake, considered as a model antigen. Importantly, NbPVX-E7-pulsed MDDCs/PBMCs are able to prime human blood-derived lymphocytes from healthy individuals to induce HPV16 E7-specific cytotoxic activity. This is a propaedeutic study for a possible use of E7-containing plant extract in human immunotherapy of HPV-related lesions.

  4. Expression of monocyte chemotactic protein and interleukin-8 by cytokine-activated human vascular smooth muscle cells.

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    Wang, J M; Sica, A; Peri, G; Walter, S; Padura, I M; Libby, P; Ceska, M; Lindley, I; Colotta, F; Mantovani, A

    1991-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the capacity of human vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) to produce a cytokine chemotactic for monocytes (monocyte chemotactic protein [MCP]) and by way of comparison, a related polypeptide activator of neutrophils (known as interleukin-8 [IL-8] or neutrophil activating protein-1 [NAP-1]. On exposure to IL-1, SMCs released high levels of chemotactic activity for monocytes, which could be removed by absorption with anti-MCP antibodies. MCP production by activated SMCs was comparable to that of IL-1-stimulated umbilical vein endothelial cells. Activated SMCs released appreciable levels of IL-8, as determined by a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but little chemotactic activity for neutrophils. IL-1-treated SMCs expressed high levels of both MCP and IL-8 mRNA transcripts, as assessed by Northern blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor and bacterial lipopolysaccharide but not IL-6 also induced MCP and IL-8 gene expression in SMCs. Nuclear runoff analysis revealed that IL-1 augmented transcription of the MCP and IL-8 genes. The capacity of SMCs to produce a cytokine (MCP) that recruits and activates circulating mononuclear phagocytes may be of considerable importance in the pathogenesis of vascular diseases (e.g., vasculitis and atherosclerosis) that are characterized by monocyte infiltration of the vessel wall.

  5. Activation of NADPH oxidase is essential, but not sufficient, in controlling intracellular multiplication of Burkholderia pseudomallei in primary human monocytes.

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    Wikraiphat, Chanthiwa; Pudla, Matsayapan; Baral, Pankaj; Kitthawee, Sangvorn; Utaisincharoen, Pongsak

    2014-06-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of melioidosis. Innate immune mechanisms against this pathogen, which might contribute to outcomes of melioidosis, are little known. We demonstrated here that B. pseudomallei could activate NADPH oxidase in primary human monocytes as judged by production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p40(phox) phosphorylation after infection. However, as similar to other intracellular bacteria, this bacterium was able to resist and multiply inside monocytes despite being able to activate NADPH oxidase. In the presence of NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium or apocynin, intracellular multiplication of B. pseudomallei was significantly increased, suggesting that NADPH oxidase-mediated ROS production is essential in suppressing intracellular multiplication of B. pseudomallei. Additionally, interferon-γ (IFN-γ)-mediated intracellular killing of B. pseudomallei requires NADPH oxidase activity, even though ROS level was not detected at higher levels in IFN-γ-treated infected monocytes. Altogether, these results imply that the activation of NADPH plays an essential role in suppressing intracellular multiplication of B. pseudomallei in human monocytes, although this enzyme is not sufficient to stop intracellular multiplication. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Unsaturated fatty acids prevent activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'homme, Laurent; Esser, Nathalie; Riva, Laura; Scheen, André; Paquot, Nicolas; Piette, Jacques; Legrand-Poels, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in many obesity-associated diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and gouty arthritis, through its ability to induce interleukin (IL)-1β release. The molecular link between obesity and inflammasome activation is still unclear, but free fatty acids have been proposed as one triggering event. Here we reported opposite effects of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) compared with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) on NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes/macrophages. Palmitate and stearate, both SFAs, triggered IL-1β secretion in a caspase-1/ASC/NLRP3-dependent pathway. Unlike SFAs, the UFAs oleate and linoleate did not lead to IL-1β secretion. In addition, they totally prevented the IL-1β release induced by SFAs and, with less efficiency, by a broad range of NLRP3 inducers, including nigericin, alum, and monosodium urate. UFAs did not affect the transcriptional effect of SFAs, suggesting a specific effect on the NLRP3 activation. These results provide a new anti-inflammatory mechanism of UFAs by preventing the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and, therefore, IL-1β processing. By this way, UFAs might play a protective role in NLRP3-associated diseases. PMID:24006511

  7. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin activates the NLRP3-inflammasome in human and mouse monocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin R Craven

    Full Text Available Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA causes severe necrotizing infections of the skin, soft tissues, and lungs. Staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin is an essential virulence factor in mouse models of CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin has long been known to induce inflammatory signaling and cell death in host organisms, however the mechanism underlying these signaling events were not well understood. Using highly purified recombinant alpha-hemolysin, we now demonstrate that alpha-hemolysin activates the Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 protein (NLRP3-inflammasome, a host inflammatory signaling complex involved in responses to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Non-cytolytic mutant alpha-hemolysin molecules fail to elicit NLRP3-inflammasome signaling, demonstrating that the responses are not due to non-specific activation of this innate immune signaling system by bacterially derived proteins. In monocyte-derived cells from humans and mice, inflammasome assembly in response to alpha-hemolysin results in activation of the cysteine proteinase, caspase-1. We also show that inflammasome activation by alpha-hemolysin works in conjunction with signaling by other CA-MRSA-derived Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs to induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. Additionally, alpha-hemolysin induces cell death in these cells through an NLRP3-dependent program of cellular necrosis, resulting in the release of endogenous pro-inflammatory molecules, like the chromatin-associated protein, High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1. These studies link the activity of a major S. aureus virulence factor to a specific host signaling pathway. The cellular events linked to inflammasome activity have clear relevance to the disease processes associated with CA-MRSA including tissue necrosis and inflammation.

  8. Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin Activates the NLRP3-Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Monocytic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Robin R.; Gao, Xi; Allen, Irving C.; Gris, Denis; Wardenburg, Juliane Bubeck; McElvania-TeKippe, Erin; Ting, Jenny P.; Duncan, Joseph A.

    2009-01-01

    Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) causes severe necrotizing infections of the skin, soft tissues, and lungs. Staphylococcal α-hemolysin is an essential virulence factor in mouse models of CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia. S. aureus α-hemolysin has long been known to induce inflammatory signaling and cell death in host organisms, however the mechanism underlying these signaling events were not well understood. Using highly purified recombinant α-hemolysin, we now demonstrate that α-hemolysin activates the Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 protein (NLRP3)-inflammasome, a host inflammatory signaling complex involved in responses to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Non-cytolytic mutant α-hemolysin molecules fail to elicit NLRP3-inflammasome signaling, demonstrating that the responses are not due to non-specific activation of this innate immune signaling system by bacterially derived proteins. In monocyte-derived cells from humans and mice, inflammasome assembly in response to α-hemolysin results in activation of the cysteine proteinase, caspase-1. We also show that inflammasome activation by α-hemolysin works in conjunction with signaling by other CA-MRSA-derived Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) to induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, α-hemolysin induces cell death in these cells through an NLRP3-dependent program of cellular necrosis, resulting in the release of endogenous pro-inflammatory molecules, like the chromatin-associated protein, High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). These studies link the activity of a major S. aureus virulence factor to a specific host signaling pathway. The cellular events linked to inflammasome activity have clear relevance to the disease processes associated with CA-MRSA including tissue necrosis and inflammation. PMID:19826485

  9. Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin activates the NLRP3-inflammasome in human and mouse monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Robin R; Gao, Xi; Allen, Irving C; Gris, Denis; Bubeck Wardenburg, Juliane; McElvania-Tekippe, Erin; Ting, Jenny P; Duncan, Joseph A

    2009-10-14

    Community Acquired Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) causes severe necrotizing infections of the skin, soft tissues, and lungs. Staphylococcal alpha-hemolysin is an essential virulence factor in mouse models of CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia. S. aureus alpha-hemolysin has long been known to induce inflammatory signaling and cell death in host organisms, however the mechanism underlying these signaling events were not well understood. Using highly purified recombinant alpha-hemolysin, we now demonstrate that alpha-hemolysin activates the Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 protein (NLRP3)-inflammasome, a host inflammatory signaling complex involved in responses to pathogens and endogenous danger signals. Non-cytolytic mutant alpha-hemolysin molecules fail to elicit NLRP3-inflammasome signaling, demonstrating that the responses are not due to non-specific activation of this innate immune signaling system by bacterially derived proteins. In monocyte-derived cells from humans and mice, inflammasome assembly in response to alpha-hemolysin results in activation of the cysteine proteinase, caspase-1. We also show that inflammasome activation by alpha-hemolysin works in conjunction with signaling by other CA-MRSA-derived Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) to induce secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18. Additionally, alpha-hemolysin induces cell death in these cells through an NLRP3-dependent program of cellular necrosis, resulting in the release of endogenous pro-inflammatory molecules, like the chromatin-associated protein, High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). These studies link the activity of a major S. aureus virulence factor to a specific host signaling pathway. The cellular events linked to inflammasome activity have clear relevance to the disease processes associated with CA-MRSA including tissue necrosis and inflammation.

  10. Ocimum sanctum leaf extracts attenuate human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sudhansu S; Bashyam, Leena; Manthapuram, Nalini; Bitla, Prasanth; Kollipara, Padmasree; Tetali, Sarada D

    2014-05-28

    Ocimum sanctum (OS), commonly known as Holy basil/Tulsi, has been traditionally used to treat cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and manage general cardiac health. The present study is designed to evaluate the antiinflammatory effect of O. sanctum and its phenolic compound and eugenol (EUG) in human monocytic (THP-1) cells and validate its traditional use for treating cardiovascular diseases. The phytochemical analysis of alcoholic and water extracts of OS-dry leaves (OSAE and OSWE) was done using LC-QTOF-MS. A phenolic compound, EUG was quantified in both OSAE and OSWE by an LC-MS technique using a mass hunter work station software quantitative analysis system. The effect of both OSAE, OSWE, pure compound EUG and positive control imatinib (IMT) was investigated in THP-1 cells by studying the following markers: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretion by ELISA, gene expression of inflammatory markers (TNF-α, IL-6, MIP-1α and MCP-1) by real time PCR and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by confocol microscopy. Furthermore, the effect of the extracts, EUG and IMT, was studied on phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4. The LC-MS analysis of OSAE and OSWE revealed the presence of several bioactive compounds including eugenol. Quantitative analysis revealed that OSAE and OSWE had EUG of 12 ng/mgdwt and 19 ng/mgdwt respectively. OSAE, OSWE (1 mg dwt/mL) pure compound EUG (60 µg/mL) and positive control IMT (20 µg/mL) showed marked inhibition on LPS induced TNF-α secretion by THP-1 cells. At the selected concentration, the plant extracts, EUG and IMT inhibited gene expression of cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α, MCP-1) and translocation of NF-κB-p65 to the nuclei. In addition, they showed significant inhibition on PMA induced monocyte to macrophage differentiation and the gene expression of CD14, TLR2 and TLR4

  11. Arachidonic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid Suppress Osteoclast Formation and Activity in Human CD14+ Monocytes, In vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonga, Abe E.; Deepak, Vishwa; Kruger, Marlena C.; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    An unbalanced diet can have adverse effects on health. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) have been the focus of research owing to their necessity of inclusion in a healthy diet. However, the effects of LCPUFAs on human osteoclast formation and function have not been explored before. A human CD14+ monocyte differentiation model was used to elucidate the effects of an ω-3 LCPUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and an ω-6 LCPUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), on osteoclast formation and activity. CD14+ monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors and stimulated with macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand to generate osteoclasts. Data from this study revealed that both the LCPUFAs decreased osteoclast formation potential of CD14+ monocytes in a dose-dependent manner when treated at an early stage of differentiation. Moreover, when exposed at a late stage of osteoclast differentiation AA and DHA impaired the bone resorptive potential of mature osteoclasts without affecting osteoclast numbers. AA and DHA abrogated vitronectin receptor expression in differentiating as well as mature osteoclasts. In contrast, the degree of inhibition for calcitonin receptor expression varied between the LCPUFAs with only AA causing inhibition during osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, AA and DHA down regulated the expression of key osteoclast-specific genes in differentiating as well as mature osteoclasts. This study demonstrates for the first time that LCPUFAs can modulate osteoclast formation and function in a human primary osteoclast cell line. PMID:25867515

  12. Gum resin of Boswellia serrata inhibited human monocytic (THP-1) cell activation and platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkiripati, Praveen K; Bhakshu, Lepakshi Md; Marri, Swathi; Padmasree, K; Row, Anupama T; Raghavendra, Agepati S; Tetali, Sarada D

    2011-09-01

    Stem bark gum resin extract of Boswellia serrata is traditionally used in India for its hemostatic, antiinflammatory and cardiovascular health effects and it is named as Śallakī in Ayurvedic medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative and antithrombotic properties of stem bark gum resin extracts of Boswellia serrata (BS). The inhibitory activity of the BSWE and BSAE on FeCl(3) induced lipid peroxidation (in vitro) in rat liver and heart homogenates was measured spectrophotometrically. Their effect on H(2)O(2) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in human monocytic (THP-1) cells was investigated by tracking intensity of a cell permeable fluorescent dye, H(2)DCFDA and subjecting the cell samples to confocal microscopy. Further, the effect of BSAE and BSWE on ADP-induced platelet aggregation was assessed using a multimode detection plate reader, plasma coagulation times using an automated blood coagulation analyzer and on human blood clotting factors Xa and XIa using chromogenic substrate. Phytomarker analysis of the water (BSWE) and hydroalcoholic (BSAE) extracts of BS-gum resin was done through HPLC using a standard compound AKβBA. BSAE and BSWE inhibited, to varied extents, the lipid peroxidation in liver (80%) and heart (50%) tissue homogenates of male Wistar rats. Further, BSAE (30 μg dwt/mL) and BSWE (300 μg dwt/mL) attenuated ≥ 60% of H(2)O(2) mediated ROS generation in THP-1 cells. In case of standard compounds, ascorbate (20 μg dwt/mL) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) (10 μg dwt/mL) completely scavenged ROS in the cells. BSAE and BSWE at 3 mg dwt/mL completely inhibited ADP induced platelet aggregation and activities were comparable to 20 μg/mL of heparin. The extracts also showed very high activity in prolonging coagulation time periods. Both types of extracts extended prothrombin time (PT) from ∼13 to >60s and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) from ∼32s to >90s. BSAE inhibited clotting factors Xa

  13. Unlike PPARgamma, PPARalpha or PPARbeta/delta activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an "alternative" anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPARgamma promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPARbeta/delta in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPARalpha. Here, we show that in contrast to PPARgamma, expression of PPARalpha and PPARbeta/delta overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPARgamma, PPARalpha or PPARbeta/delta activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPARalpha and PPARbeta/delta do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  14. The Pelargonium sidoides Extract EPs 7630 Drives the Innate Immune Defense by Activating Selected MAP Kinase Pathways in Human Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Katrin; Koch, Egon; Volk, Hans-Dieter; Wolk, Kerstin; Sabat, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Pelargonium sidoides is a medical herb and respective extracts are used very frequently for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. However, the effects of Pelargonium sidoides and a special extract prepared from its roots (EPs 7630) on human immune cells are not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that EPs 7630 induced a rapid and dose-dependent production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 by human blood immune cells. This EPs 7630-induced cytokine profile was more pro-inflammatory in comparison with the profile induced by viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. The search for EPs 7630 target cells revealed that T-cells did not respond to EPs 7630 stimulation by production of TNF-α, IL-6, or IL-10. Furthermore, pretreatment of T-cells with EPs 7630 did not modulate their TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion during subsequent activation. In contrast to lymphocytes, monocytes showed clear intracellular TNF-α staining after EPs 7630 treatment. Accordingly, EPs 7630 predominantly provoked activation of MAP kinases and inhibition of p38 strongly reduced the monocyte TNF-α production. The pretreatment of blood immune cells with EPs 7630 lowered their secretion of TNF-α and IL-10 and caused an IL-6 dominant response during second stimulation with viral or bacterial infection-mimicking agents. In summary, we demonstrate that EPs 7630 activates human monocytes, induces MAP kinase-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokines in these cells, and specifically modulates their production capacity of mediators known to lead to an increase of acute phase protein production in the liver, neutrophil generation in the bone marrow, and the generation of adaptive Th17 and Th22 cells.

  15. IL-33 stimulates the release of procoagulant microvesicles from human monocytes and differentially increases tissue factor in human monocyte subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkovic, Stefan; Thulin, Åsa; Hell, Lena; Thaler, Barbara; Rauscher, Sabine; Baumgartner, Johanna; Gröger, Marion; Ay, Cihan; Demyanets, Svitlana; Neumayer, Christoph; Huk, Ihor; Spittler, Andreas; Huber, Kurt; Wojta, Johann; Siegbahn, Agneta; Åberg, Mikael

    2017-06-28

    Monocytes and monocyte-derived microvesicles (MVs) are the main source of circulating tissue factor (TF). Increased monocyte TF expression and increased circulating levels of procoagulant MVs contribute to the formation of a prothrombotic state in patients with cardiovascular disease. Interleukin (IL)-33 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in atherosclerosis and other inflammatory diseases, but its role in regulating thrombosis is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of IL-33 on the procoagulant properties of human monocytes and monocyte-derived MVs. IL-33 induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase of monocyte TF mRNA and protein levels via binding to the ST2-receptor and activation of the NF-κB-pathway. The IL-33 treated monocytes also released CD14+TF+ MVs and IL-33 was found to increase the TF activity of both the isolated monocytes and monocyte-derived MVs. The monocytes were classified into subsets according to their CD14 and CD16 expression. Intermediate monocytes (IM) showed the highest ST2 receptor expression, followed by non-classical monocytes (NCM), and classical monocytes (CM). IL-33 induced a significant increase of TF only in the IM (p<0.01), with a tendency in NCM (p=0.06), but no increase was observed in CM. Finally, plasma levels of IL-33 were positively correlated with CD14+TF+ MVs in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (r=0.480; p=0.032; n=20). We hereby provide novel evidence that the proinflammatory cytokine IL-33 induces differential TF expression and activity in monocyte subsets, as well as the release of procoagulant MVs. In this manner, IL-33 may contribute to the formation of a prothrombotic state characteristic for cardiovascular disease.

  16. Mortality in Severe Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Tuberculosis Associates With Innate Immune Activation and Dysfunction of Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Saskia; Schutz, Charlotte; Ward, Amy; Nemes, Elisa; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Scriven, James; Huson, Mischa A; Aben, Nanne; Maartens, Gary; Burton, Rosie; Wilkinson, Robert J; Grobusch, Martin P; Van der Poll, Tom; Meintjes, Graeme

    2017-07-01

    Case fatality rates among hospitalized patients diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis remain high, and tuberculosis mycobacteremia is common. Our aim was to define the nature of innate immune responses associated with 12-week mortality in this population. This prospective cohort study was conducted at Khayelitsha Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. Hospitalized HIV-infected tuberculosis patients with CD4 counts active tuberculosis were recruited as controls. Whole blood was stimulated with Escherichia coli derived lipopolysaccharide, heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biomarkers of inflammation and sepsis, intracellular (flow cytometry) and secreted cytokines (Luminex), were assessed for associations with 12-week mortality using Cox proportional hazard models. Second, we investigated associations of these immune markers with tuberculosis mycobacteremia. Sixty patients were included (median CD4 count 53 cells/µL (interquartile range [IQR], 22-132); 16 (27%) died after a median of 12 (IQR, 0-24) days. Thirty-one (52%) grew M. tuberculosis on blood culture. Mortality was associated with higher concentrations of procalcitonin, activation of the innate immune system (% CD16+CD14+ monocytes, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-ɑ and colony-stimulating factor 3), and antiinflammatory markers (increased interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and lower monocyte and neutrophil responses to bacterial stimuli). Tuberculosis mycobacteremia was not associated with mortality, nor with biomarkers of sepsis. Twelve-week mortality was associated with greater pro- and antiinflammatory alterations of the innate immune system, similar to those reported in severe bacterial sepsis.

  17. Statins attenuate polymethylmethacrylate-mediated monocyte activation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Laing, Alan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic osteolysis precipitates aseptic loosening of components, increases the risk of periprosthetic fracture and, through massive bone loss, complicates revision surgery and ultimately is the primary cause for failure of joint arthroplasty. The anti-inflammatory properties of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors belonging to the statin family are well recognized. We investigated a possible role for status in initiating the first stage of the osteolytic cycle, namely monocytic activation. METHODS: We used an in vitro model of the human monocyte\\/macrophage inflammatory response to poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles after pretreat-ing cells with cerivastatin, a potent member of the statin family. Cell activation based upon production of TNF-alpha and MCP-1 cytokines was analyzed and the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK signal transduction pathway was evaluated using western blot analysis, to identify its role in cell activation and in any cerivastatin effects observed. RESULTS: We found that pretreatment with cerivastatin significantly abrogates the production of inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and MCP-1 by human monocytes in response to polymethylmethacrylate particle activation. This inflammatory activation and attenuation appear to be mediated through the intracellular Raf-MEK-ERK pathway. INTERPRETATION: We propose that by intervening at the upstream activation stage, subsequent osteoclast activation and osteolysis can be suppressed. We believe that the anti-inflammatory properties of statins may potentially play a prophylactic role in the setting of aseptic loosening, and in so doing increase implant longevity.

  18. A novel hybrid aspirin-NO-releasing compound inhibits TNFalpha release from LPS-activated human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Sarah

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cytoprotective nature of nitric oxide (NO led to development of NO-aspirins in the hope of overcoming the gastric side-effects of aspirin. However, the NO moiety gives these hybrids potential for actions further to their aspirin-mediated anti-platelet and anti-inflammatory effects. Having previously shown that novel NO-aspirin hybrids containing a furoxan NO-releasing group have potent anti-platelet effects, here we investigate their anti-inflammatory properties. Here we examine their effects upon TNFα release from lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated human monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and investigate a potential mechanism of action through effects on LPS-stimulated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation. Methods Peripheral venous blood was drawn from the antecubital fossa of human volunteers. Mononuclear cells were isolated and cultured. The resultant differentiated macrophages were treated with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of either a furoxan-aspirin (B8, B7; 10 μM, their respective furazan NO-free counterparts (B16, B15; 10 μM, aspirin (10 μM, existing nitroaspirin (NCX4016; 10 μM, an NO donor (DEA/NO; 10 μM or dexamethasone (1 μM, in the presence and absence of LPS (10 ng/ml; 4 h. Parallel experiments were conducted on undifferentiated fresh monocytes. Supernatants were assessed by specific ELISA for TNFα release and by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay for cell necrosis. To assess NF-κB activation, the effects of the compounds on the loss of cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB, IκBα (assessed by western blotting and nuclear localisation (assessed by immunofluorescence of the p65 subunit of NF-κB were determined. Results B8 significantly reduced TNFα release from LPS-treated macrophages to 36 ± 10% of the LPS control. B8 and B16 significantly inhibited monocyte TNFα release to 28 ± 5, and 49 ± 9% of control, respectively. The B8 effect was equivalent in magnitude to that of

  19. Human monocyte elastolytic activity, the propeptides of types I and III procollagen, proteoglycans, and interleukin-6 in synovial fluid from patients with arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H S; Jensen, L T; Saxne, T

    1991-01-01

    Elastolytic activity by live human monocytes (M phi) is mainly caused by cell surface related leucocyte elastase, capable of degrading matrix components. In order to examine the possible correlation between enzyme activity and tissue turnover in the joint, we examined 24 synovial fluids for M phi...

  20. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes induce an inflammatory response in human primary monocytes through oxidative stress and NF-{kappa}B activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Shefang, E-mail: yeshefang@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang Honggang; Wang Yifang; Jiao Fei; Lin Cuilin; Zhang Qiqing, E-mail: zhangqiq@xmu.edu.cn [Xiamen University, Department of Biomaterials, Research Center of Biomedical Engineering, Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering of Fujian Province, College of Materials (China)

    2011-09-15

    A mechanistic understanding of interactions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and living systems has become imperative owing to the growing nanomedicine applications and the mounting societal concerns on nanosafety. The addition of different chemical groups leads to a significant change in the properties of CNTs, and the resulting functionalized CNTs are generating great interest in many biological applications, such as biosensors and transporters. This study aimed to assess the toxicity exhibited by carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) (with a diameter of 1-2 nm and mean length of 500 nm) and to elucidate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the biological effects of carboxylated SWCNTs in human primary monocytes. The results demonstrated that carboxylated SWCNTs were cytotoxic, triggering apoptosis and G{sub 2}/M phase arrest in human primary monocytes. Flow cytometric and confocal microscopic analysis indicated that internalized carboxylated SWCNTs were mainly accumulated in the cytoplasm. Exposure of human primary monocytes to carboxylated SWCNTs led to interleukin-8 (IL-8) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) activation in human primary monocytes. Pretreatment of human primary monocytes with antioxidants or NF-{kappa}B-specific inhibitor before exposure to carboxylated SWCNTs significantly abolished carboxylated SWCNTs-induced IL-8 and IL-6 expression. These results provide novel insights into the carboxylated SWCNTs-mediated chemokine induction and inflammatory responses in vitro.

  1. Stimulation of the Angiotensin II AT2 Receptor is Anti-inflammatory in Human Lipopolysaccharide-Activated Monocytic Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menk, Mario; Graw, Jan Adriaan; von Haefen, Clarissa

    2015-01-01

    Recently, AT2 receptors have been discovered on the surface of human immunocompetent cells such as monocytes. Data on regulative properties of this receptor on the cellular immune response are poor. We hypothesized that direct stimulation of the AT2 receptor mediates anti-inflammatory responses...... in these cells. Human monocytic THP-1 and U937 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the selective AT2 receptor agonist Compound 21 (C21). Expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and IL-1β were analyzed on both the transcriptional...... and the translational level over course of time. Treatment with C21 attenuated the expression of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-10 after LPS challenge in both cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. We conclude that selective AT2 receptor stimulation acts anti-inflammatory in human monocytes. Modulation of cytokine...

  2. Levamisole enhances immune response by affecting the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-Y; Lin, Y-L; Chiang, B-L

    2008-01-01

    Levamisole is a synthetic phenylimidazolthiazole that was first introduced in 1966 as an anti-helmintic agent. Current studies have been focused upon its effect on immune response and on cancer treatment. We examined the molecular mechanisms of levamisole in the activation and maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) and human T cells. Treatment of DC with levamisole increased the presentation of CD80, CD86, CD83 and human leucocyte antigen D-related (HLA-DR) molecules on the cell membrane, as well as the production of interleukin (IL)-12 p40 and IL-10. Levamisole-treated human DC also enhanced T cell activation towards type 1 T helper immune response by inducing interferon-γ secretion. Neutralization with antibodies against Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 inhibited levamisole-induced production of IL-12 p40 and IL-10, suggesting a vital role for TLR-2 in signalling DC upon incubation with levamisole. The inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 or c-Jun N-terminal kinases pathways also prevented the effects of levamisole on DC in producing IL-12 p40 or IL-10. Taken together, levamisole could enhance immune response towards T helper 1 development through the activation of dendritic cells or T cell aspects. PMID:18005262

  3. Sex differences in monocyte activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jiang

    Full Text Available TLR7/8 and TLR9 signaling pathways have been extensively studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE as possible mediators of disease. Monocytes are a major source of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are understudied in SLE. In the current project, we investigated sex differences in monocyte activation and its implications in SLE disease pathogenesis.Human blood samples from 27 healthy male controls, 32 healthy female controls, and 25 female patients with SLE matched for age and race were studied. Monocyte activation was tested by flow cytometry and ELISA, including subset proportions, CD14, CD80 and CD86 expression, the percentage of IL-6-producing monocytes, plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-6, and urine levels of creatinine.Monocytes were significantly more activated in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls in vivo. We observed increased proportions of non-classic monocytes, decreased proportions of classic monocytes, elevated levels of plasma sCD14 as well as reduced surface expression of CD14 on monocytes comparing women to men and lupus patients to controls. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively related to sCD14 and serum creatinine.Monocyte activation and TLR4 responsiveness are altered in women compared to men and in patients with SLE compared to controls. These sex differences may allow persistent systemic inflammation and resultant enhanced SLE susceptibility.

  4. Epigallocatechin gallate reduces human monocyte mobility and adhesion in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo, Esther; Medina, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca; Urdiales, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are an important population of immune inflammatory cells that have diverse effector functions in which their mobility and adhesion play a very relevant role. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea, has been reported to have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities, but its effects on monocytes remain to be determined. Here we investigated the effects of EGCG on the migration and adhesion of monocytes. We used a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) to analyse the effects of treatment with EGCG under non-cytotoxic conditions on the expression levels of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and of the MCP-1 receptor (CCR2) and on the activation of beta1 integrin. A functional validation was carried out by evaluating the inhibitory effect of EGCG on monocyte adhesiveness and migration in vitro. Treatment of THP-1 cells with EGCG decreased MCP-1 and CCR2 gene expression, together with MCP-1 secretion and CCR2 expression at the cell surface. EGCG also inhibited beta1 integrin activation. The effects on these molecular targets were in agreement with the EGCG-induced inhibition of THP-1 migration in response to MCP-1 and adhesion to fibronectin. Under our experimental conditions, EGCG treatment inhibited the migration and adhesion of monocytes. These inhibitory effects of EGCG on monocyte function should be considered as a promising new anti-inflammatory response with a potential therapeutic role in the treatment of inflammation-dependent diseases.

  5. Pregnancy and preeclampsia affect monocyte subsets in humans and rats.

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    Barbro N Melgert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Both nonclassical and intermediate monocytes have been implicated in different inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that these monocytes would increase during pregnancy, a condition associated with generalized activation of inflammatory responses and that they would increase even more during preeclampsia, in which inflammatory responses are further stimulated. In the present study we investigated changes in monocyte subsets during healthy pregnancy and preeclampsia in humans and rats. METHODS: Blood monocyte subsets of nonpregnant, preeclamptic and healthy pregnant women were identified with CD14 and CD16. In nonpregnant and pregnant rats, blood monocytes were identified with CD172a and CD43, as well as in rats infused with adenosine triphosphate (ATP, a pro-inflammatory stimulus known to induce preeclampsia-like symptoms. Total and CD206-positive macrophages were quantified in placentas of these animals. RESULTS: Lower percentages of classical monocytes were found in pregnant women (91%-[83-98%] compared to nonpregnant women (94%-[90-98%] and even less in preeclamptic patients (90%-[61-92%]. In contrast, the percentage of combined nonclassical/intermediate monocytes was higher in pregnant women (8.5%-[2.3-16.6%] vs. 5.6%-[1.9-9.5%] and even higher in preeclamptic patients (9.9%-[7.8-38.7%], which was caused by a selective increase of intermediate monocytes. In rats, we also found lower percentages of classical monocytes and higher percentages of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant versus nonpregnant rats. ATP infusion increased the percentage of nonclassical monocytes in pregnant rats even further but not in nonpregnant rats. These nonclassical monocytes showed a more activated phenotype in pregnant ATP-infused rats only. Mesometrial triangles of ATP-infused rats had less CD206-positive macrophages as compared to those of saline-infused rats. CONCLUSION: The higher percentage of nonclassical/intermediate monocytes found in

  6. Epstein-Barr virus interferes with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion by activating suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in primary human monocytes.

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    François Michaud

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus is recognized to cause lymphoproliferative disorders and is also associated with cancer. Evidence suggests that monocytes are likely to be involved in EBV pathogenesis, especially due to a number of cellular functions altered in EBV-infected monocytes, a process that may affect efficient host defense. Because type I interferons (IFNs are crucial mediators of host defense against viruses, we investigated the effect of EBV infection on the IFNalpha pathway in primary human monocytes.Infection of monocytes with EBV induced IFNalpha secretion but inhibited the positive feedback loop for the amplification of IFNalpha. We showed that EBV infection induced the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3 and, to a lesser extent, SOCS1, two proteins known to interfere with the amplification of IFNalpha secretion mediated by the JAK/STAT signal transduction pathway. EBV infection correlated with a blockage in the activation of JAK/STAT pathway members and affected the level of phosphorylated IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7. Depletion of SOCS3, but not SOCS1, by small interfering RNA (siRNA abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBV on JAK/STAT pathway activation and significantly restored IFNalpha secretion. Finally, transfection of monocytes with the viral protein Zta caused the upregulation of SOCS3, an event that could not be recapitulated with mutated Zta.We propose that EBV protein Zta activates SOCS3 protein as an immune escape mechanism that both suppresses optimal IFNalpha secretion by human monocytes and favors a state of type I IFN irresponsiveness in these cells. This immunomodulatory effect is important to better understand the aspects of the immune response to EBV.

  7. ADAM10 Cell Surface Expression but Not Activity Is Critical for Staphylococcus aureus α-Hemolysin-Mediated Activation of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human Monocytes.

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    Ezekwe, Ejiofor A D; Weng, Chengyu; Duncan, Joseph A

    2016-03-30

    The Staphylococcus aureus toxin, α-hemolysin, is an important and well-studied virulence factor in staphylococcal infection. It is a soluble monomeric protein that, once secreted by the bacterium, forms a heptameric pore in the membrane of a broad range of host cell types. Hemolysin was recently discovered to bind and activate a disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10). In epithelial and endothelial cells, ADAM10 activation is required for the toxin's activity against these cells. In host monocytic cells, α-hemolysin activates the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome leading to production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cell death. We now show that ADAM10 is critical for α-hemolysin-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human monocytes as siRNA knockdown or chemical blockade of ADAM10-α-hemolysin interaction leads to diminished inflammasome activation and cell death by reducing the available ADAM10 on the cell surface. Unlike epithelial cell and endothelial cell damage, which requires α-hemolysin induced ADAM10 activation, ADAM10 protease activity was not required for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. This work confirms the importance of ADAM10 in immune activation by α-hemolysin, but indicates that host cell signal induction by the toxin is different between host cell types.

  8. Phagocytosis of haemozoin (malarial pigment enhances metalloproteinase-9 activity in human adherent monocytes: Role of IL-1beta and 15-HETE

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    Giribaldi Giuliana

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown previously that human monocytes fed with haemozoin (HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs displayed increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 enzyme activity and protein/mRNA expression and increased TNF production, and showed higher matrix invasion ability. The present study utilized the same experimental model to analyse the effect of phagocytosis of: HZ, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ and trophozoites on production of IL-1beta and MMP-9 activity and expression. The second aim was to find out which component of HZ was responsible for the effects. Methods Native HZ freshly isolated from Plasmodium falciparum (Palo Alto strain, Mycoplasma-free, delipidized HZ, beta-haematin (lipid-free synthetic HZ, trophozoites and control meals such as opsonized non-parasitized RBCs and inert latex particles, were fed to human monocytes. The production of IL-1beta by differently fed monocytes, in presence or absence of specific MMP-9 inhibitor or anti-hIL-1beta antibodies, was quantified in supernatants by ELISA. Expression of IL-1beta was analysed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. MMP-9 activity and protein expression were quantified by gelatin zymography and Western blotting. Results Monocytes fed with HZ or trophozoite-parasitized RBCs generated increased amounts of IL-1beta and enhanced enzyme activity (in cell supernatants and protein/mRNA expression (in cell lysates of monocyte MMP-9. The latter appears to be causally related to enhanced IL-1beta production, as enhancement of both expression and enzyme activity were abrogated by anti-hIL-1beta Abs. Upregulation of IL-1beta and MMP-9 were absent in monocytes fed with beta-haematin or delipidized HZ, indicating a role for HZ-attached or HZ-generated lipid components. 15-HETE (15(S,R-hydroxy-6,8,11,13-eicosatetraenoic acid a potent lipoperoxidation derivative generated by HZ from arachidonic acid via haem-catalysis was identified as one mediator

  9. Diminished hematopoietic activity associated with alterations in innate and adaptive immunity in a mouse model of human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Katherine C; Racine, Rachael; Chatterjee, Madhumouli; Borjesson, Dori; Winslow, Gary M

    2009-09-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a tick-borne disease caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Patients exhibit diagnostically important hematological changes, including anemia and thrombocytopenia, although the basis of the abnormalities is unknown. To begin to understand these changes, we used a mouse model of ehrlichiosis to determine whether the observed hematological changes induced by infection are associated with altered hematopoietic activity. Infection with Ehrlichia muris, a pathogen closely related to E. chaffeensis, resulted in anemia, thrombocytopenia, and a marked reduction in bone marrow cellularity. CFU assays, conducted on days 10 and 15 postinfection, revealed a striking decrease in multipotential myeloid and erythroid progenitors. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the frequency of immature granulocytes in the bone marrow and a decrease in the frequency of B lymphocytes. Equally striking changes were observed in spleen cellularity and architecture, and infected mice exhibited extensive extramedullary hematopoiesis. Splenomegaly, a characteristic feature of E. muris infection, was associated with an expanded and disorganized marginal zone and a nearly 66-fold increase in the level of Ter119(+) erythroid cells, indicative of splenic erythropoiesis. We hypothesize that inflammation associated with ehrlichia infection suppresses bone marrow function, induces the emigration of B cells, and establishes hematopoietic activity in the spleen. We propose that these changes, which may be essential for providing the innate and acquired immune cells to fight infection, are also responsible in part for blood cytopenias and other clinical features of HME.

  10. Distinct functional programming of human fetal and adult monocytes.

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    Krow-Lucal, Elisabeth R; Kim, Charles C; Burt, Trevor D; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-03-20

    Preterm birth affects 1 out of 9 infants in the United States and is the leading cause of long-term neurologic handicap and infant mortality, accounting for 35% of all infant deaths in 2008. Although cytokines including interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-6, and IL-1 are produced in response to in utero infection and are strongly associated with preterm labor, little is known about how human fetal immune cells respond to these cytokines. We demonstrate that fetal and adult CD14(+)CD16(-) classical monocytes are distinct in terms of basal transcriptional profiles and in phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) in response to cytokines. Fetal monocytes phosphorylate canonical and noncanonical STATs and respond more strongly to IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-4 than adult monocytes. We demonstrate a higher ratio of SOCS3 to IL-6 receptor in adult monocytes than in fetal monocytes, potentially explaining differences in STAT phosphorylation. Additionally, IFN-γ signaling results in upregulation of antigen presentation and costimulatory machinery in adult, but not fetal, monocytes. These findings represent the first evidence that primary human fetal and adult monocytes are functionally distinct, potentially explaining how these cells respond differentially to cytokines implicated in development, in utero infections, and the pathogenesis of preterm labor.

  11. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

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    Peter, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peter@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Rehli, Michael, E-mail: michael.rehli@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Singer, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.singer@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Renner-Sattler, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.renner-sattler@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kreutz, Marina, E-mail: marina.kreutz@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors.

  12. Acute stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of ex vivo isolated human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Ulrike Kuebler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM, and (b that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35 ± 13 years were randomly assigned to either a stress or stress-control group. While the stress group underwent a standardized short-term psychological stress task after catheter-induced wound infliction, stress-controls did not. Catheter insertion was controlled. Assessing the microbicidal potential, we investigated PMA-activated superoxide anion production by HMDM immediately before and 1, 10 and 60 min after stress/rest. Moreover, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and salivary cortisol were repeatedly measured. In subsequent in vitro studies, whole blood was incubated with norepinephrine in the presence or absence of phentolamine (norepinephrine blocker before assessing HMDM microbicidal potential. RESULTS: Compared with stress-controls, HMDM of the stressed subjects displayed decreased superoxide anion-responses after stress (p's <.05. Higher plasma norepinephrine levels statistically mediated lower amounts of superoxide anion-responses (indirect effect 95% CI: 4.14-44.72. Norepinephrine-treated HMDM showed reduced superoxide anion-production (p<.001. This effect was blocked by prior incubation with phentolamine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of HMDM and that this reduction is mediated by norepinephrine. This might have implications for stress-induced impairment in wound healing.

  13. Inhibitory activity of 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol) on cytokine production in cultured human lymphocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juergens, Uwe R; Engelen, Tanja; Racké, Kurt; Stöber, Meinolf; Gillissen, Adrian; Vetter, Hans

    2004-01-01

    The therapeutic value of secretolytic agents in COPD and asthma is still disputed. For this reason, in a preclinical study we aimed to test the potential anti-inflammatory efficacy of 1,8-cineol (eucalyptol) in inhibiting polyclonal stimulated cytokine production by human unselected lymphocytes and LPS-stimulated monocytes. Cytokine production was determined following 20 h of incubation cells with 1,8-cineol simultaneously with the stimuli in culture supernatants by enzyme immunoassay. Therapeutic concentrations of 1,8-cineol (1.5 microg/ml=10(-5)M) inhibited significantly (n=13-19, p=0.0001) cytokine production in lymphocytes of TNF-alpha > IL-1beta> IL-4> IL-5 by 92, 84, 70, and 65%, respectively. Cytokine production in monocytes of TNF-alpha > IL-1beta> IL-6> IL-8 was also significantly (n=7-16, pcineol (0.15 microg/ml=10(-6)M) production of TNF-alpha>IL-1beta by monocytes and of IL-1beta> TNF-alpha by lymph-ocytes was significantly inhibited by 77, 61 and by 36, 16%, respectively. 1,8-cineol (10(-6)M) had a larger impact on TNF-alpha and IL-1beta-production in monocytes compared to lymphocytes (p0.59) at therapeutically relevant concentrations of 1,8-Cineol (10(-5)M). These results characterize 1,8-cineol as strong inhibitor of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta and suggest smaller effects on chemotactic cytokines. This is increasing evidence for the role of 1,8-cineol to control airway mucus hypersecretion by cytokine inhibition, suggesting long-term treatment to reduce exacerbations in asthma, sinusitis and COPD.

  14. The involvement of CD14 in the activation of human monocytes by peptidoglycan monomers

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    Damir Muhvic

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cell-wall components of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria induce the production of cytokines in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These cytokines are the main mediators of local or systemic inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the development of innate immunity.

  15. The Effect of Regular Intake of Dry-Cured Ham Rich in Bioactive Peptides on Inflammation, Platelet and Monocyte Activation Markers in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sánchez, Sara María; Minguela, Alfredo; Prieto-Merino, David; Zafrilla-Rentero, María Pilar; Abellán-Alemán, José; Montoro-García, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: Dietary studies have shown that active biopeptides provide protective health benefits, although the mediating pathways are somewhat uncertain. To throw light on this situation, we studied the effects of consuming Spanish dry-cured ham on platelet function, monocyte activation markers and the inflammatory status of healthy humans with pre-hypertension. Methods: Thirty-eight healthy volunteers with systolic blood pressure of >125 mmHg were enrolled in a two-arm crossover randomized controlled trial. Participants received 80 g/day dry-cured pork ham of >11 months proteolysis or 100 g/day cooked ham (control product) for 4 weeks followed by a 2-week washout before “crossing over” to the other treatment for 4 more weeks. Soluble markers and cytokines were analyzed by ELISA. Platelet function was assessed by measuring P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding after ADP (adenosine diphosphate) stimulation using whole blood flow cytometry. Monocyte markers of the pathological status (adhesion, inflammatory and scavenging receptors) were also measured by flow cytometry in the three monocyte subsets after the interventional period. Results: The mean differences between dry-cured ham and cooked ham followed by a time period adjustment for plasmatic P-selectin and interleukin 6 proteins slightly failed (p = 0.062 and p = 0.049, respectively), notably increased for MCP-1 levels (p = 0.023) while VCAM-1 was not affected. Platelet function also decreased after ADP stimulation. The expression of adhesion and scavenging markers (ICAM1R, CXCR4 and TLR4) in the three subsets of monocytes was significantly higher (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: The regular consumption of biopeptides contained in the dry-cured ham but absent in cooked ham impaired platelet and monocyte activation and the levels of plasmatic P-selectin, MCP-1 and interleukin 6 in healthy subjects. This study strongly suggests the existence of a mechanism that links dietary biopeptides and beneficial

  16. Development, validation and applications of the monocyte activation test for pyrogens based on human whole blood

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Stefanie; Aulock, Sonja von; Daneshian, Mardas; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms such as Gram-negative or Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi contain components that activate the innate immune system. These components, called pyrogens (Greek: pyros=fire), can occur independently of viable microorganisms and are a major safety concern in parenterally administered drugs, since they can cause severe reactions such as fever, organ failure, and shock in the recipient. So far these drugs have been tested by injecting them intravenously into rabbits and meas...

  17. Ability of Interleukin-33- and Immune Complex-Triggered Activation of Human Mast Cells to Down-Regulate Monocyte-Mediated Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivellese, Felice; Suurmond, Jolien; Habets, Kim; Dorjée, Annemarie L; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; Townsend, Michael J; de Paulis, Amato; Marone, Gianni; Huizinga, Tom W J; Pitzalis, Costantino; Toes, René E M

    2015-09-01

    Mast cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In particular, their activation by interleukin-33 (IL-33) has been linked to the development of arthritis in animal models. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functional responses of human mast cells to IL-33 in the context of RA. Human mast cells were stimulated with IL-33 combined with plate-bound IgG or IgG anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs), and their effects on monocyte activation were evaluated. Cellular interactions of mast cells in RA synovium were assessed by immunofluorescence analysis, and the expression of messenger RNA (mRNA) for mast cell-specific genes was evaluated in synovial biopsy tissue from patients with early RA who were naive to treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. IL-33 induced the up-regulation of Fcγ receptor type IIa and enhanced the activation of mast cells by IgG, including IgG ACPAs, as indicated by the production of CXCL8/IL-8. Intriguingly, mast cell activation triggered with IL-33 and IgG led to the release of mediators such as histamine and IL-10, which inhibited monocyte activation. Synovial mast cells were found in contact with CD14+ monocyte/macrophages. Finally, mRNA levels of mast cell-specific genes were inversely associated with disease severity, and IL-33 mRNA levels showed an inverse correlation with the levels of proinflammatory markers. When human mast cells are activated by IL-33, an immunomodulatory phenotype develops, with human mast cells gaining the ability to suppress monocyte activation via the release of IL-10 and histamine. These findings, together with the presence of synovial mast cell-monocyte interactions and the inverse association between the expression of mast cell genes at the synovial level and disease activity, suggest that these newly described mast cell-mediated inhibitory pathways might have a functional relevance in the pathogenesis of RA. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  18. A Synergistic Role for IL-1β and TNFα in Monocyte Derived IFNγ Inducing Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Raices, Raquel M.; Kannan, Yashaswini; Sarkar, Anasuya; Bellamkonda-Athmaram, Vedavathi; Wewers, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Although much is known about classic IFNγ inducers, little is known about the IFNγ inducing capability of inflammasome-activated monocytes. In this study, supernatants from LPS/ATP-stimulated human monocytes were analyzed for their ability to induce IFNγ production by KG-1 cells. Unexpectedly, monocyte-derived IFNγ inducing activity was detected, but it was completely inhibited by IL-1β, not IL-18 blockade. Moreover, size-fractionation of the monocyte conditioned media dramatically reduced th...

  19. Tiotropium bromide inhibits human monocyte chemotaxis

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    Kurai M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tiotropium bromide (Spiriva® is used as a bronchodilator in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. However, clinical evidence suggests that tiotropium bromide may improve COPD by mechanisms beyond bronchodilation. We hypothesized that tiotropium bromide may act as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting monocyte chemotaxis, a process that plays an important role in the lung inflammation of COPD. To test this hypothesis monocytes were pretreated with tiotropium bromide prior to exposure to chemotactic agents and monocyte chemotactic activity (MCA was evaluated with a blind chamber technique. Tiotropium bromide inhibited MCA in a dose- and time- dependent manner (respectively, p< 0.01 by directly acting on the monocyte. Acetylcholine (ACh challenge increased MCA (p< 0.01, and tiotropium bromide effectively reduced (p< 0.01 the increase in MCA by ACh. The inhibition of MCA by tiotropium bromide was reversed by a muscarinic type 3 (M3-muscarinic receptor antagonist (p< 0.01, and was not effected by an M2 receptor antagonist. Furthermore, a selective M3 receptor agonist, cevimeline, and Gq protein stimulator, Pasteurella multocida toxin, significantly increased MCA (P < 0.01, and tiotropium bromide pretreatment reduced (p< 0.01 the increase in MCA induced by these agents. These results suggest that tiotropium might regulate monocyte chemotaxis, in part, by interfering with M3-muscarinic receptor coupled Gq protein signal transduction. These results provide new insight that an anti-cholinergic therapeutic may provide anti-inflammatory action in the pulmonary system.

  20. Aliphatic alcohols in spirits inhibit phagocytosis by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pál, László; Árnyas, Ervin M; Bujdosó, Orsolya; Baranyi, Gergő; Rácz, Gábor; Ádány, Róza; McKee, Martin; Szűcs, Sándor

    2015-04-01

    A large volume of alcoholic beverages containing aliphatic alcohols is consumed worldwide. Previous studies have confirmed the presence of ethanol-induced immunosuppression in heavy drinkers, thereby increasing susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, the aliphatic alcohols contained in alcoholic beverages might also impair immune cell function, thereby contributing to a further decrease in microbicidal activity. Previous research has shown that aliphatic alcohols inhibit phagocytosis by granulocytes but their effect on human monocytes has not been studied. This is important as they play a crucial role in engulfment and killing of pathogenic microorganisms and a decrease in their phagocytic activity could lead to impaired antimicrobial defence in heavy drinkers. The aim of this study was to measure monocyte phagocytosis following their treatment with those aliphatic alcohols detected in alcoholic beverages. Monocytes were separated from human peripheral blood and phagocytosis of opsonized zymosan particles by monocytes treated with ethanol and aliphatic alcohols individually and in combination was determined. It was shown that these alcohols could suppress the phagocytic activity of monocytes in a concentration-dependent manner and when combined with ethanol, they caused a further decrease in phagocytosis. Due to their additive effects, it is possible that they may inhibit phagocytosis in a clinically meaningful way in alcoholics and episodic heavy drinkers thereby contribute to their increased susceptibility to infectious diseases. However, further research is needed to address this question.

  1. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Milena; Mirabile Gattia, Daniele; Traversa, Enrico; Ghibelli, Lina

    2013-06-01

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  2. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nicola, Milena, E-mail: milena.de.nicola@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy); Mirabile Gattia, Daniele, E-mail: daniele.mirabile@enea.it [UTTMAT, ENEA-C.R. Casaccia (Italy); Traversa, Enrico, E-mail: Enrico.Traversa@kaust.edu.sa [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Division of Physical Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Ghibelli, Lina, E-mail: ghibelli@uniroma2.it [University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Department of Biology (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 {mu}m) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses.

  3. Maturation and demise of human primary monocytes by carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    De Nicola, Milena D.

    2013-05-17

    The possibility of exploiting carbon nanotubes (CNT) in biomedical practices requires thorough analysis of the chemical or bulk effects they may exert on the immune system, the complex network that recognizes and eliminates foreign particles. In particular, the phagocytosing ability of cells belonging to the monocyte/macrophage lineage may render these immune cells an ideal toxicological target of pristine CNT, which may form aggregates of size exceeding monocyte/macrophage phagocytosing plasticity. To shed light on this issue, we analyzed the effects that pristine multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) without metal or biological impurities exert on survival and activation of freshly explanted human peripheral blood monocytes, analyzing in parallel the non-phagocytosing lymphocytes, and using graphite as control carbon material. MWCNT (diameter 10-50 nm, length up to 10 μm) exert two different toxic effects on mononuclear leukocytes: a minor apoptogenic effect (on lymphocytes > monocytes), and a major, apoptosis-independent effect that exclusively and deeply affect monocyte homeostasis. Analysis of monocyte number, adhesion, redox equilibrium, and the differentiation markers CD14 and CD11b reveals that MWCNT cause the selective disappearance of phagocytosis-competent monocytes by mechanisms related to the presence of large nanoparticle aggregates, suggesting phenomena of bulk toxicity possibly consisting of frustrated phagocytosis. At the same time, MWCNT stimulate adhesion of the phagocytosis-incompetent monocytes, and their differentiation toward a peculiar maturation asset. These observations point out novel mechanisms of CNT toxicity, renewing concerns that they may impair the innate immune system deranging the inflammatory responses. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  4. Unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Brozek, John [Genfit, Loos (France); Derudas, Bruno [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte [Inserm ERI-9 and Equipe d' Accueil 2693, IFR114, Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Staels, Bart, E-mail: bart.staels@pasteur-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Inserm U545, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2009-08-28

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPAR{gamma} promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPAR{beta}/{delta} in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPAR{alpha}. Here, we show that in contrast to PPAR{gamma}, expression of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPAR{gamma}, PPAR{alpha} or PPAR{beta}/{delta} activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta}/{delta} do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  5. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Katrin; Rehli, Michael; Singer, Katrin; Renner-Sattler, Kathrin; Kreutz, Marina

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pregnancy and Preeclampsia Affect Monocyte Subsets in Humans and Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, Barbro N.; Spaans, Floor; Borghuis, Theo; Klok, Pieter A.; Groen, Bart; Bolt, Annemarie; de Vos, P.; van Pampus, Maria; Wong, Tsz Y.; van Goor, Harry; Bakker, Winston W.; Faas, Marijke M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Both nonclassical and intermediate monocytes have been implicated in different inflammatory conditions. We hypothesized that these monocytes would increase during pregnancy, a condition associated with generalized activation of inflammatory responses and that they would increase even

  7. Maternal monocytes in pregnancy and preeclampsia in humans and in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faas, M M; de Vos, P

    2017-02-01

    Monocytes are short-lived cells, arising from the bone marrow and maturing in the circulation. They play an important role in immune responses and are thought to be important for healthy pregnancy. In humans, 3 subpopulations of monocytes have been identified: classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes. These subpopulations have different functions and phenotypical characteristics. Healthy pregnancy is characterized by a pro-inflammatory condition, with increased numbers of monocytes and monocyte activation as well as with increased numbers of intermediate monocytes and decreased numbers of classical monocytes. This may suggest monocyte maturation. Preeclampsia is an important pregnancy complication characterized by hypertension and proteinuria developing in the second half of pregnancy. The pathophysiology of preeclampsia is associated with further activation of the inflammatory response, further activation of monocytes and further monocyte maturation. In the present review we focus on the role of monocyte activation and maturation in healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High glucose-induced oxidative stress increases transient receptor potential channel expression in human monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wuensch, Tilo; Thilo, Florian; Krueger, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel-induced cation influx activates human monocytes, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of high glucose-induced oxidative stress on TRP channel expression in human monocytes....

  9. In vitro effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-1 and MMP-9) and their inhibitor (TIMP-1) in lipopolysaccharide-activated human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Polyana das Graças Figueiredo; de Oliveira, Jonatas Rafael; de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Leão, Mariella Vieira Pereira; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2015-09-01

    The role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tissue degradation has become evident in many diseases and great interest therefore exists in the pharmacological control of the activity of these enzymes. This study evaluated the effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the production of MMPs and their inhibitor (TIMP) in monocytes activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The human monocytic cell line (THP-1) was treated with non-cytotoxic concentrations of CAPE (10 and 60μM) combined with 1μg/mL of LPS. The gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The protein secretion into the culture medium was assessed via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 by zymography. CAPE, especially at the highest concentration, down-regulated MMP-1 and MMP-9 gene expression but up-regulated the gene expression of TIMP-1. Furthermore, CAPE reduced the secreted protein level of MMP-1 and MMP-9 as well as the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9. CAPE was able to inhibit the gene expression, production and the activity of MMPs induced by LPS and also increased the gene expression of TIMP-1. The present observations suggest that CAPE exerted a positive effect on the regulatory mechanism between MMPs and TIMP, which is important for the control of different diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute myocardial infarction activates distinct inflammation and proliferation pathways in circulating monocytes, prior to recruitment, and identified through conserved transcriptional responses in mice and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruparelia, Neil; Godec, Jernej; Lee, Regent; Chai, Joshua T.; Dall'Armellina, Erica; McAndrew, Debra; Digby, Janet E.; Forfar, J. Colin; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Kharbanda, Rajesh K.; Banning, Adrian P.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.; Channon, Keith M.; Haining, Nicholas W.; Choudhury, Robin P.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Monocytes play critical roles in tissue injury and repair following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Specifically targeting inflammatory monocytes in experimental models leads to reduced infarct size and improved healing. However, data from humans are sparse, and it remains unclear whether monocytes play an equally important role in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the monocyte response following AMI is conserved between humans and mice and interrogate patterns of gene expression to identify regulated functions. Methods and results Thirty patients (AMI) and 24 control patients (stable coronary atherosclerosis) were enrolled. Female C57BL/6J mice (n = 6/group) underwent AMI by surgical coronary ligation. Myocardial injury was quantified by magnetic resonance imaging (human) and echocardiography (mice). Peripheral monocytes were isolated at presentation and at 48 h. RNA from separated monocytes was hybridized to Illumina beadchips. Acute myocardial infarction resulted in a significant peripheral monocytosis in both species that positively correlated with the extent of myocardial injury. Analysis of the monocyte transcriptome following AMI demonstrated significant conservation and identified inflammation and mitosis as central processes to this response. These findings were validated in both species. Conclusions Our findings show that the monocyte transcriptome is conserved between mice and humans following AMI. Patterns of gene expression associated with inflammation and proliferation appear to be switched on prior to their infiltration of injured myocardium suggesting that the specific targeting of inflammatory and proliferative processes in these immune cells in humans are possible therapeutic strategies. Importantly, they could be effective in the hours after AMI. PMID:25982896

  11. Enhancement of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced differentiation of human leukaemia HL-60 cells into monocytes by parthenolide via inhibition of NF-κB activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S N; Kim, S H; Chung, S W; Lee, M H; Kim, H J; Kim, T S

    2002-01-01

    Transcription factors such as NF-κB provide powerful targets for drugs to use in the treatment of cancer. In this report parthenolide (PT), a sesquiterpene lactone of herbal remedies such as feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) with NF-κB inhibitory activity, markedly increased the degree of human leukaemia HL-60 cell differentiation when simultaneously combined with 5 nM 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2D3). PT by itself did not induce HL-60 cell differentiation. Cytofluorometric analysis indicated that PT stimulated 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced differentiation of HL-60 cells predominantly into monocytes. Pretreatment of HL-60 cells with PT before the 1,25-(OH)2D3 addition also potentiated the 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced HL-60 cell differentiation in both a dose- and a time-dependent manner, in which the enhanced levels of cell differentiation closely correlated with the inhibitory levels of NF-κB binding activity by PT. In contrast, santonin, a sesquiterpene lactone without an inhibitory activity of NF-κB binding to the κB sites, did not enhance the 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced HL-60 cell differentiation. In transfection experiments, PT enhanced 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced VDRE-dependent promoter activity. Furthermore, PT restored 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced VDRE-dependent promoter activity inhibited by TNF-α, an activator of NF-κB signalling pathway. These results indicate that PT strongly potentiates the 1,25-(OH)2D3-induced HL-60 cell differentiation into monocytes via the inhibition of NF-κB activity and provide evidence that inhibition of NF-κB activation can be a pre-requisite to the efficient entry of promyelocytic leukaemia cells into a differentiation pathway. PMID:11877332

  12. IL-4 decreases Fc gamma R membrane expression and Fc gamma R-mediated cytotoxic activity of human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Velde, A. A.; Huijbens, R. J.; de Vries, J. E.; Figdor, C. G.

    1990-01-01

    Monocytes can express three classes of FcR for IgG: Fc gamma RI, Fc gamma RII, and Fc gamma RIII (CD64, CD32, and CD16, respectively) of which the Fc gamma RIII is expressed after prolonged culture. Fc gamma R expression is regulated by IFN-gamma. Because IFN-gamma and IL-4 have antagonistic effects

  13. Diverging pathways for lipopolysaccharide and CD14 in human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antal-Szalmas, P; Poppelier, MJJG; Broekhuizen, R; Verhoef, J; van Strijp, JAG; van Kessel, KPM

    2000-01-01

    Background: CD14 is considered to be the major endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) binding molecule on human monocytes. It initiates cellular response, but its role in the clearance of LPS is not well understood. Under conditions that ensure totally CD14-dependent LPS binding on human monocytes,

  14. Methylomics of gene expression in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongmei; Ding, Jingzhong; Reynolds, Lindsay M.; Lohman, Kurt; Register, Thomas C.; De La Fuente, Alberto; Howard, Timothy D.; Hawkins, Greg A.; Cui, Wei; Morris, Jessica; Smith, Shelly G.; Barr, R. Graham; Kaufman, Joel D.; Burke, Gregory L.; Post, Wendy; Shea, Steven; Mccall, Charles E.; Siscovick, David; Jacobs, David R.; Tracy, Russell P.; Herrington, David M.; Hoeschele, Ina

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is one of several epigenetic mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of gene expression; however, the extent to which methylation of CpG dinucleotides correlates with gene expression at the genome-wide level is still largely unknown. Using purified primary monocytes from subjects in a large community-based cohort (n = 1264), we characterized methylation (>485 000 CpG sites) and mRNA expression (>48K transcripts) and carried out genome-wide association analyses of 8370 expression phenotypes. We identified 11 203 potential cis-acting CpG loci whose degree of methylation was associated with gene expression (eMS) at a false discovery rate threshold of 0.001. Most of the associations were consistent in effect size and direction of effect across sex and three ethnicities. Contrary to expectation, these eMS were not predominately enriched in promoter regions, or CpG islands, but rather in the 3′ UTR, gene bodies, CpG shores or ‘offshore’ sites, and both positive and negative correlations between methylation and expression were observed across all locations. eMS were enriched for regions predicted to be regulatory by ENCODE (Encyclopedia of DNA Elements) data in multiple cell types, particularly enhancers. One of the strongest association signals detected (P < 2.2 × 10−308) was a methylation probe (cg17005068) in the promoter/enhancer region of the glutathione S-transferase theta 1 gene (GSTT1, encoding the detoxification enzyme) with GSTT1 mRNA expression. Our study provides a detailed description of the epigenetic architecture in human monocytes and its relationship to gene expression. These data may help prioritize interrogation of biologically relevant methylation loci and provide new insights into the epigenetic basis of human health and diseases. PMID:23900078

  15. Expression of ACAT-1 protein in human atherosclerotic lesions and cultured human monocytes-macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, A; Sakashita, N; Lee, O; Takahashi, K; Horiuchi, S; Hakamata, H; Morganelli, P M; Chang, C C; Chang, T Y

    1998-10-01

    The acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) gene was first cloned in 1993 (Chang et al, J Biol Chem. 1993;268:20747-20755; designated ACAT-1). Using affinity-purified antibodies raised against the N-terminal portion of human ACAT-1 protein, we performed immunohistochemical localization studies and showed that the ACAT-1 protein was highly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions of the human aorta. We also performed cell-specific localization studies using double immunostaining and showed that ACAT-1 was predominantly expressed in macrophages but not in smooth muscle cells. We then used a cell culture system in vitro to monitor the ACAT-1 expression in differentiating monocytes-macrophages. The ACAT-1 protein content increased by up to 10-fold when monocytes spontaneously differentiated into macrophages. This increase occurred within the first 2 days of culturing the monocytes and reached a plateau level within 4 days of culturing, indicating that the increase in ACAT-1 protein content is an early event during the monocyte differentiation process. The ACAT-1 protein expressed in the differentiating monocytes-macrophages was shown to be active by enzyme assay in vitro. The high levels of ACAT-1 present in macrophages maintained in culture can explain the high ACAT-1 contents found in atherosclerotic lesions. Our results thus support the idea that ACAT-1 plays an important role in differentiating monocytes and in forming macrophage foam cells during the development of human atherosclerosis.

  16. Inhibition of human monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H

    1991-01-01

    The in vitro effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase on human monocyte function was examined. Mononuclear cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy individuals were incubated with various concentrations of elastase, and the chemotactic activity and chemiluminescence response of these ...

  17. Human Macrophage–derived Chemokine (MDC), a Novel Chemoattractant for Monocytes, Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells, and Natural Killer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godiska, Ronald; Chantry, David; Raport, Carol J.; Sozzani, Silvano; Allavena, Paola; Leviten, Dina; Mantovani, Alberto; Gray, Patrick W.

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a novel human chemokine was isolated by random sequencing of cDNA clones from human monocyte-derived macrophages. This protein has been termed macrophagederived chemokine (MDC) because it appears to be synthesized specifically by cells of the macrophage lineage. MDC has the four-cysteine motif and other highly conserved residues characteristic of CC chemokines, but it shares <35% identity with any of the known chemokines. Recombinant MDC was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified by heparin– Sepharose chromatography. NH2-terminal sequencing and mass spectrophotometry were used to verify the NH2 terminus and molecular mass of recombinant MDC (8,081 dalton). In microchamber migration assays, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and IL-2–activated natural killer cells migrated to MDC in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal chemotactic response at 1 ng/ml. Freshly isolated monocytes also migrated toward MDC, but with a peak response at 100 ng/ml MDC. Northern analyses indicated MDC is highly expressed in macrophages and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not in monocytes, natural killer cells, or several cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblast origin. High expression was also detected in normal thymus and less expression in lung and spleen. Unlike most other CC chemokines, MDC is encoded on human chromosome 16. MDC is thus a unique member of the CC chemokine family that may play a fundamental role in the function of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes. PMID:9151897

  18. Human macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), a novel chemoattractant for monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells, and natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godiska, R; Chantry, D; Raport, C J; Sozzani, S; Allavena, P; Leviten, D; Mantovani, A; Gray, P W

    1997-05-05

    A cDNA encoding a novel human chemokine was isolated by random sequencing of cDNA clones from human monocyte-derived macrophages. This protein has been termed macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) because it appears to be synthesized specifically by cells of the macrophage lineage. MDC has the four-cysteine motif and other highly conserved residues characteristic of CC chemokines, but it shares <35% identity with any of the known chemokines. Recombinant MDC was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and purified by heparin-Sepharose chromatography. NH2-terminal sequencing and mass spectrophotometry were used to verify the NH2 terminus and molecular mass of recombinant MDC (8,081 dalton). In microchamber migration assays, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and IL-2-activated natural killer cells migrated to MDC in a dose-dependent manner, with a maximal chemotactic response at 1 ng/ml. Freshly isolated monocytes also migrated toward MDC, but with a peak response at 100 ng/ml MDC. Northern analyses indicated MDC is highly expressed in macrophages and in monocyte-derived dendritic cells, but not in monocytes, natural killer cells, or several cell lines of epithelial, endothelial, or fibroblast origin. High expression was also detected in normal thymus and less expression in lung and spleen. Unlike most other CC chemokines, MDC is encoded on human chromosome 16. MDC is thus a unique member of the CC chemokine family that may play a fundamental role in the function of dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes.

  19. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling of human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zeng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human monocyte is an important cell type which is involved in various complex human diseases. To better understand the biology of human monocytes and facilitate further studies, we developed the first comprehensive proteome knowledge base specifically for human monocytes by integrating both in vivo and in vitro datasets. The top 2000 expressed genes from in vitro datasets and 779 genes from in vivo experiments were integrated into this study. Altogether, a total of 2237 unique monocyte-expressed genes were cataloged. Biological functions of these monocyte-expressed genes were annotated and classified via Gene Ontology (GO analysis. Furthermore, by extracting the overlapped genes from in vivo and in vitro datasets, a core gene list including 541 unique genes was generated. Based on the core gene list, further gene-disease associations, pathway and network analyses were performed. Data analyses based on multiple bioinformatics tools produced a large body of biologically meaningful information, and revealed a number of genes such as SAMHD1, G6PD, GPD2 and ENO1, which have been reported to be related to immune response, blood biology, bone remodeling, and cancer respectively. As a unique resource, this study can serve as a reference map for future in-depth research on monocytes biology and monocyte-involved human diseases.

  20. Mass spectrometry based proteomics profiling of human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yong; Deng, Fei-Yan; Zhu, Wei; Zhang, Lan; He, Hao; Xu, Chao; Tian, Qing; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Zhang, Li-Shu; Hu, Hong-Gang; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2017-02-01

    Human monocyte is an important cell type which is involved in various complex human diseases. To better understand the biology of human monocytes and facilitate further studies, we developed the first comprehensive proteome knowledge base specifically for human monocytes by integrating both in vivo and in vitro datasets. The top 2000 expressed genes from in vitro datasets and 779 genes from in vivo experiments were integrated into this study. Altogether, a total of 2237 unique monocyte-expressed genes were cataloged. Biological functions of these monocyte-expressed genes were annotated and classified via Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. Furthermore, by extracting the overlapped genes from in vivo and in vitro datasets, a core gene list including 541 unique genes was generated. Based on the core gene list, further gene-disease associations, pathway and network analyses were performed. Data analyses based on multiple bioinformatics tools produced a large body of biologically meaningful information, and revealed a number of genes such as SAMHD1, G6PD, GPD2 and ENO1, which have been reported to be related to immune response, blood biology, bone remodeling, and cancer respectively. As a unique resource, this study can serve as a reference map for future in-depth research on monocytes biology and monocyte-involved human diseases.

  1. Sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation and subsequent interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production by intracellular Fe(2+) in human monocytic U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Shunichi; Yonezawa, Ryo; Negoro, Takaharu; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Numata, Tomohiro; Ishii, Masakazu; Mori, Yasuo; Toda, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is an oxidative stress-sensitive Ca(2+)-permeable channel. In monocytes/macrophages, H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation causes cell death and/or production of chemokines that aggravate inflammatory diseases. However, relatively high concentrations of H2O2 are required for activation of TRPM2 channels in vitro. Thus, in the present study, factors that sensitize TRPM2 channels to H2O2 were identified and subsequent physiological responses were examined in U937 human monocytes. Temperature increase from 30°C to 37°C enhanced H2O2-induced TRPM2-mediated increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) in TRPM2-expressing HEK 293 cells (TRPM2/HEK cells). The H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation enhanced by the higher temperature was dramatically sensitized by intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation following pretreatment with FeSO4. Thus intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation sensitizes H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation at around body temperature. Moreover, intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation increased poly(ADP-ribose) levels in nuclei by H2O2 treatment, and the sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation were almost completely blocked by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, suggesting that intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation enhances H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation by increase of ADP-ribose production through poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase pathway. Similarly, pretreatment with FeSO4 stimulated H2O2-induced TRPM2 activation at 37°C in U937 cells and enhanced H2O2-induced ERK phosphorylation and interleukin-8 (CXCL8) production. Although the addition of H2O2 to cells under conditions of intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation caused cell death, concentration of H2O2 required for CXCL8 production was lower than that resulting in cell death. These results indicate that intracellular Fe(2+)-accumulation sensitizes TRPM2 channels to H2O2 and subsequently produces CXCL8 at around body temperature. It is possible that sensitization of H2O2-induced TRPM2

  2. A novel in vitro human microglia model: characterization of human monocyte-derived microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etemad, Samar; Zamin, Rasheeda Mohd; Ruitenberg, Marc J; Filgueira, Luis

    2012-07-30

    Microglia are the innate immune cells of the central nervous system. They help maintaining physiological homeostasis and contribute significantly to inflammatory responses in the course of infection, injury and degenerative processes. To date, there is no standardized simple model available to investigate the biology of human microglia. The aim of this study was to establish a new human microglia model. For that purpose, human peripheral blood monocytes were cultured in serum free medium in the presence of M-CSF, GM-CSF, NGF and CCL2 to generate monocyte-derived microglia (M-MG). M-MG were clearly different in morphology, phenotype and function from freshly isolated monocytes, cultured monocytes in the absence of the cytokines and monocyte-derived dendritic cells (M-DC) cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4. M-MG acquired a ramified morphology with primary and secondary processes. M-MG displayed a comparable phenotype to the human microglia cell line HMC3, expressing very low levels of CD45, CD14 and HLA-DR, CD11b and CD11c; and undetectable levels of CD40, CD80 and CD83, and a distinct pattern of chemokine receptors (positive for CCR1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5, CXCR1, CXCR3, CX3CR1; negative for CCR6 and CCR7). In comparison with M-DC, M-MG displayed lower T-lymphocyte stimulatory capacity, as well as lower phagocytosis activity. The described protocol for the generation of human monocyte-derived microglia is feasible, well standardized and reliable, as it uses well defined culture medium and recombinant cytokines, but no serum or conditioned medium. This protocol will certainly be very helpful for future studies investigating the biology and pathology of human microglia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Apoptosis induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein in human monocyte-derived macrophages involves CD36 and activation of caspase-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintergerst, E S; Jelk, J; Rahner, C; Asmis, R

    2000-10-01

    Macrophage death may play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Here we present evidence that CD36 is involved in oxidized LDL (OxLDL)-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Anti-CD36 mAb SMO and OKM-5 reduced the number of apoptotic cells in OxLDL-treated macrophages by more than 94%, but they did not block ceramide-triggered apoptosis. Thrombospondin inhibited the induction of apoptosis by OxLDL in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 of 10-30 microM. OxLDL did not induce apoptosis in CD36-negative macrophages, demonstrating the essential role of this scavenger receptor in OxLDL-triggered programmed cell death. Neither anti-CD36 Ig nor thrombospondin triggered programmed cell death suggesting that binding to CD36 alone is not sufficient to initiate apoptosis. However, inhibitors of OxLDL-induced apoptosis did not block the uptake of 3H-labeled OxLDL. In contrast, acetylated LDL and polyinosinic acid, ligands of scavenger receptor A (SRA), inhibited uptake of 3H-labeled OxLDL by 65 and 49%, respectively, but did not block OxLDL-induced apoptosis, indicating that SRA is not involved in this process. OxLDL also stimulated caspase-3 activity in human macrophages. Activation of caspase-3 was blocked by anti-CD36 Ig and the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK. These results suggest that binding of OxLDL to CD36 initiates a yet unknown OxLDL-specific signaling event, which leads to the rapid activation of caspase-3 resulting in apoptosis of human macrophages. Our data demonstrate a novel role for CD36 in macrophage biology with likely consequences for the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  4. An in vitro monocyte culture method and establishment of a human monocytic cell line (K63

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuyuki Kadoi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of monocyte culture in vitro was developed. The fraction of monocytes was obtained by density centrifugation of heparinised human venous blood samples. Monocytes were suspended in a modified Rosewell Park Memorial Institute medium (RPMI-1640 (mRPMI supplemented with 10% non-inactivated autologous serum added to the feeder cells. An avian cell line was used for feeder cells. Only those monocytes that settled on feeder cells grew rapidly at 37°C-38°C into a formation of clumped masses within two to three days. The cell mass was harvested and subcultures were made without feeder cells. A stable cell line (K63 was established from subcultures using a limited dilution method and cell cloning in microplates. K63 cells were adapted for later growth in the mRPMI medium supplemented with 10% foetal calf serum. The cells were well maintained at over 50th passage levels. This method proved to be applicable for monocyte cultures of animals as well.

  5. Plasmin is a potent and specific chemoattractant for human peripheral monocytes acting via a cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrovets, T; Tippler, B; Rieks, M; Simmet, T

    1997-06-15

    We have previously reported that the serine protease plasmin generated during contact activation of human plasma triggers biosynthesis of leukotrienes (LTs) in human peripheral monocytes (PMs), but not in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). We now show that purified plasmin acts as a potent chemoattractant on human monocytes, but not on PMNs. Human plasmin or plasminogen activated with urokinase, but not active site-blocked plasmin or plasminogen, elicited monocyte migration across polycarbonate membranes. Similarly, stimulation of monocytes with plasmin, but not with active site-blocked plasmin or plasminogen, induced actin polymerization. As assessed by checkerboard analysis, the plasmin-mediated monocyte locomotion was a true chemotaxis. The plasmin-induced chemotactic response was inhibited by the lysine analog trans-4-(aminomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (t-AMCA), which prevents binding of plasmin/ogen to the appropriate membrane binding sites. In addition, active site-blocked plasmin inhibited monocyte migration triggered by active plasmin. Further, plasmin-induced monocyte chemotaxis was inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX) and 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (HMG) and chelerythrine, two structurally unrelated inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC). Plasmin, but not active site-blocked plasmin or plasminogen, triggered formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in monocytes. LY83583, an inhibitor of soluble guanylyl cyclase, inhibited both plasmin-induced cGMP formation and the chemotactic response. The latter effect could be antagonized by 8-bromo-cGMP. In addition, KT5823 and (Rp)-8-(p-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphorothioate [(Rp)-8-pCPT-cGMPs], two structurally unrelated inhibitors of cGMP-dependent protein kinase, inhibited plasmin-mediated monocyte chemotaxis. Thus, beyond being a stimulus for lipid mediator release, plasmin is a potent and specific chemoattractant for human monocytes acting via a c

  6. Expression and regulation of Schlafen (SLFN family members in primary human monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells and T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Puck

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schlafen (SLFN/Slfn family members have been investigated for their involvement in fundamental cellular processes including growth regulation, differentiation and control of viral replication. However, most research has been focused on the characterization of Slfns within the murine system or in human cell lines. Since little is known about SLFNs in primary human immune cells, we set out to analyze the expression and regulation of the six human SLFN genes in monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs and T cells. Comparison of SLFN gene expression across these three cell types showed high mRNA expression of SLFN11 in monocytes and moDCs and high SLFN5 expression in T cells, indicating functional importance within these cell types. Differentiation of monocytes to moDCs leads to the gradual upregulation of SLFN12L and SLFN13 while SLFN12 levels were decreased by differentiation stimuli. Stimulation of moDCs via human rhinovirus, lipopolysaccharide, or IFN-α lead to strong upregulation of SLFN gene expression, while peptidoglycan poorly stimulated regulation of both SLFNs and the classical interferon-stimulated gene MxA. T cell activation was found to downregulate the expression of SLFN5, SLFN12 and SLFN12L, which was reversible upon addition of exogenous IFN-α. In conclusion, we demonstrate, that SLFN gene upregulation is mainly dependent on autocrine type I interferon signaling in primary human immune cells. Rapid decrease of SLFN expression levels following T cell receptor stimulation indicates a role of SLFNs in the regulation of human T cell quiescence.

  7. Comprehensive gene expression profile of LPS-stimulated human monocytes by SAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Hashimoto, S; Toyoda, N; Nagai, S; Yamazaki, N; Dong, H Y; Sakai, J; Yamashita, T; Nukiwa, T; Matsushima, K

    2000-10-01

    Monocytes play a pivotal role in various human infectious and inflammatory diseases. To reveal a whole picture of pathophysiologic function of activated human monocytes, this study used the serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) procedure in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes. A total of 35 874 tags corresponding to more than 12 000 different transcripts were sequenced. Comparison of gene expression profile with that of resting monocytes revealed the LPS-inducible gene expression profile. Many cytokines and chemokines, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta, MIP-2beta, MIP-2alpha, liver and activation-regulated chemokine (LARC), MIP-1alpha, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC), regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), growth-regulated oncogene (GRO) alpha, and IL-8, were observed in the highest inducible transcripts. Other genes encoding plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2), Hc-gp39, apolipoproteins, malate dehydrogenase, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and cyclooxygenase (COX2) were also highly elevated in LPS-stimulated monocytes. Moreover, up-regulation of Naf1beta, IL-7 receptor, adenosine receptor A2a, and many novel genes was newly identified. These results suggest that the LPS-inducible gene products may be involved in cell activation and migration, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and metabolism, and thus may orchestrate the inflammatory reactions. On the other hand, the expression of numerous sets of novel genes was discovered to be down-regulated on LPS stimulation. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of LPS-inducible gene expression in human monocytes and provides tremendous novel information for the function of LPS-activated monocytes and targets for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating sepsis and various human infectious and

  8. Inhibition of the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by human gingival fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Séguier

    Full Text Available We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05 inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.

  9. Inhibition of the differentiation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells by human gingival fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séguier, Sylvie; Tartour, Eric; Guérin, Coralie; Couty, Ludovic; Lemitre, Mathilde; Lallement, Laetitia; Folliguet, Marysette; El Naderi, Samah; Terme, Magali; Badoual, Cécile; Lafont, Antoine; Coulomb, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether gingival fibroblasts (GFs) can modulate the differentiation and/or maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and analyzed soluble factors that may be involved in this immune modulation. Experiments were performed using human monocytes in co-culture with human GFs in Transwell® chambers or using monocyte cultures treated with conditioned media (CM) from GFs of four donors. The four CM and supernatants from cell culture were assayed by ELISA for cytokines involved in the differentiation of dendritic cells, such as IL-6, VEGF, TGFβ1, IL-13 and IL-10. The maturation of monocyte-derived DCs induced by LPS in presence of CM was also studied. Cell surface phenotype markers were analyzed by flow cytometry. In co-cultures, GFs inhibited the differentiation of monocyte-derived DCs and the strength of this blockade correlated with the GF/monocyte ratio. Conditioned media from GFs showed similar effects, suggesting the involvement of soluble factors produced by GFs. This inhibition was associated with a lower stimulatory activity in MLR of DCs generated with GFs or its CM. Neutralizing antibodies against IL-6 and VEGF significantly (P<0.05) inhibited the inhibitory effect of CM on the differentiation of monocytes-derived DCs and in a dose dependent manner. Our data suggest that IL-6 is the main factor responsible for the inhibition of DCs differentiation mediated by GFs but that VEGF is also involved and constitutes an additional mechanism.

  10. [Mycoplasma genitalium lipid-associated membrane proteins induce human monocytic cell express proinflammatory cytokines and apoptosis by activating nuclear factor kappaB].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong; Wu, Yi-Mou; You, Xiao-Xing; Yu, Ming-Jun; Zeng, Yan-Hua

    2007-10-01

    Designed to investigate the potential pathogenicity of Mycoplasma genitalium (M. genitalium) and its molecular mechanisms responsible for the induction of proinflammatory cytokines gene expression in human monocytic cells (THP-1) stimulated by lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) prepared from M. genitalium. THP-1 cells were stimulated with LAMPs to analyze the production of proinflammatory cytokines and the expression of mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Cell apoptosis was detected in THP-1 cells by Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. The activity of transcriptional factors, NF-kappaB, was examined in THP-1 cells treated with LAMPs by EMSA. The effects of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an inhibitor of NF-kappaB, on the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the expression of mRNA and apoptosis were also examined in THP-1 cells treated with LAMPs. M. genitalium LAMPs stimulate THP-1 cells to produce TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 in dose- and time-dependent manner. The mRNA levels and cell apoptosis are also downregulated in response to LAMPs stimulation and inhibited by PDTC treatment. M. genitalium LAMPs are found to trigger NF-kappaB activation, a possible mechanism for the induction of mRNA expression and the cell apoptosis. This study demonstrated that M. genitalium may be an important etiological factor of certain disease due to the ability of LAMPs to stimulated the expression of mRNA and apoptosis, which is probably mediated through the activation of NF-kappaB.

  11. Activation of human monocytes by live Borrelia burgdorferi generates TLR2-dependent and -independent responses which include induction of IFN-beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Salazar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-beta and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs, which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1beta in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1beta, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-beta and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs.

  12. Soluble CD14 is a nonspecific marker of monocyte activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shive, Carey L.; Jiang, Wei; Anthony, Donald D.; Lederman, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble CD14 is associated with morbidity and mortality in HIV disease. It is a co-receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that is released from monocytes upon activation. We demonstrate here, that inflammatory cytokines can induce the release of sCD14 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures from healthy donors, and that TLR ligands other than LPS can cause a decrease in the monocyte cell surface expression of CD14. Thus, sCD14 is a marker of monocyte activation, not restricted to activation by LPS. PMID:26035325

  13. Decreased glucose uptake by hyperglycemia is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chae Kyun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Yong Jin; Hong, Mee Kyoung; Jeong, Jae Min; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-01

    To clarify the difference in glucose uptake between human cancer cells and monocytes, we studied ({sup 18}F) fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in three human colon cancer cell lines (SNU-C2A, SNU-C4, SNU-C5), one human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H522), and human peripheral blood monocytes. The FDG uptake of both cancer cells and monocytes was increased in glucose-free medium, but decreased in the medium containing 16.7 mM glucose (hyperglycemic). The level of Glut1 mRNA decreased in human colon cancer cells and NCI-H522 under hyperglycemic condition. Glut1 protein expression was also decreased in the four human cancer cell lines under hyperglycemic condition, whereas it was consistently undetectable in monocytes. SNU-C2A, SNU-C4 and NCI-H522 showed a similar level of hexokinase activity (7.5-10.8 mU/mg), while SNU-C5 and moncytes showed lower range of hexokinase activity (4.3-6.5 mU/mg). These data suggest that glucose uptake is regulated by different mechanisms in human cancer cells and monocytes.

  14. Selection of molecular structure and delivery of RNA oligonucleotides to activate TLR7 versus TLR8 and to induce high amounts of IL-12p70 in primary human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablasser, Andrea; Poeck, Hendrik; Anz, David; Berger, Michael; Schlee, Martin; Kim, Sarah; Bourquin, Carole; Goutagny, Nadege; Jiang, Zhaozhao; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Rothenfusser, Simon; Endres, Stefan; Hartmann, Gunther; Hornung, Veit

    2009-06-01

    Detection of non-self RNA by TLRs within endosomes and by retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like helicases in the cytosol is central to mammalian antiviral immunity. In this study, we used pathway-specific agonists and targeted delivery to address RNA immunorecognition in primary human immune cells. Within PBMC, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) and monocytes were found to be responsible for IFN-alpha production upon immunorecognition of RNA. The mechanisms of RNA recognition in pDC and monocytes were distinct. In pDC, recognition of ssRNA and dsRNA oligonucleotides was TLR7-dependent, whereas a 5' triphosphate moiety (RIG-I ligand activity) had no major contribution to IFN-alpha production. In monocytes, the response to RNA oligonucleotides was mediated by either TLR8 or RIG-I. TLR8 was responsible for IL-12 induction upon endosomal delivery of ssRNA oligonucleotides and RIG-I was responsible for IFN-alpha production upon delivery of 5' triphosphate RNA into the cytosol. In conclusion, the dissection of these pathways by selecting the appropriate structure and delivery of RNA reveals pDC as major producer of IFN-alpha upon TLR-mediated stimulation and monocytes as major producer of IFN-alpha upon RIG-I-mediated stimulation. Furthermore, our results uncover the potential of monocytes to function as major producers of IL-12p70, a key Th1 cytokine classically ascribed to myeloid dendritic cells that cannot be induced by CpG oligonucleotides in the human system.

  15. Identification of Monocyte Chemotactic Activity Produced by Malignant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, D. T.; Jiang, Y. L.; Williamson, M. J.; Valente, A. J.

    1989-09-01

    Human malignant cells secrete low molecular size proteins that attract peripheral blood monocytes and may be responsible for the accumulation of tumor-associated macrophages observed in vivo. Similar chemotactic proteins are secreted by cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. The predominant monocyte chemoattractants produced by tumor cells of differing origin were demonstrated to be related to smooth muscle cell-derived chemotactic factor. Thus, a single class of chemotactic proteins is produced by different cell types, which suggests a common mechanism for the recruitment of monocytes and macrophages. These results are significant in view of the potential of macrophages to affect tumor growth.

  16. Plectasin shows intracellular activity against Staphylococcus aureus in human THP-1 monocytes and in a mouse peritonitis model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Sandberg, Anne; Baudoux, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    was maintained (maximal relative efficacy [E(max)], 1.0- to 1.3-log reduction in CFU) even though efficacy was inferior to that of extracellular killing (E(max), >4.5-log CFU reduction). Animal studies included a novel use of the mouse peritonitis model, exploiting extra- and intracellular differentiation assays...... concentration. These findings stress the importance of performing studies of extra- and intracellular activity since these features cannot be predicted from traditional MIC and killing kinetic studies. Application of both the THP-1 and the mouse peritonitis models showed that the in vitro results were similar...

  17. The effect of alpha-fetoprotein on the activation and phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ming; Tian, Shufen; Shi, Hongbo; Zhao, Jun; Feng, Xia; Zheng, Sujun; Duan, Zhongping; Chen, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral blood mononuclear cells constitute the first line of innate immunity.Although restricted to embryonic expression and elevated in liver cancer, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has recently been recognized for its role in modulation immunity. The aim of this study is to examine the influence of alpha-fetoprotein on the activation and phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes in vitro. The human peripheral blood granulocytes and monocytes were prepared from healthy volunteers. Blood cells were incubated with different levels of AFP and activation by oxidative burst and phagocytosis were measured by flow cytometry. First- ly, the percentage of monocytes producing reactive oxygen metabolites was higher in groups with exogenous AFP than the group without AFP exposure. Secondly, we assessed the phagocytosis levels of granulocytes and monocytes at different AFP levels. At certain regions of AFP (600-6000ng/mL), the granulocytes and monocytes gained increased capacity of bacteria phagocytosis. Alpha-fetoprotein level in the plasma is apparently related to monocyte activation. The results also suggested that alpha-fetoprotein can stimulate the phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes in vitro.

  18. Induction of Chemokine Secretion and Monocyte Migration by Human Choroidal Melanocytes in Response to Proinflammatory Cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jehs, Tina; Faber, Carsten; Udsen, Maja S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine to which extent inflammatory cytokines affect chemokine secretion by primary human choroidal melanocytes (HCMs), their capacity to attract monocytes, and whether HCMs are able to influence the proliferation of activated T cells. Methods: Primary cultures of HCMs were...... and secretion of CXCL8, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CCL2, CCL5 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Vascular endothelial growth factor and monocyte migration inhibitory factor were constitutively expressed without changes in response to proinflammatory cytokines. Supernatants derived from unstimulated cultures...... of 10 HCM donors induced a high initial level of monocyte migration, which decreased upon stimulation with either TCM or IFN-γ and TNF-α. The supernatants from three HCM donors initially showed a low level of monocyte attraction, which increased after exposure to proinflammatory cytokines. Direct...

  19. Gallic Acid Is the Major Active Component of Cortex Moutan in Inhibiting Immune Maturation of Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chung Lap Chan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a widely prevalent and chronically relapsing inflammatory skin disease. Penta Herbs Formula (PHF is efficacious in improving the quality of life and reducing topical corticosteroid used in children with AD and one of the active herbs it contains is Cortex Moutan. Recent studies showed that altered functions of dendritic cells (DC were observed in atopic individuals, suggesting that DC might play a major role in the generation and maintenance of inflammation by their production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Hence, the aims of the present study were to identify the major active component(s of Cortex Moutan, which might inhibit DC functions and to investigate their possible interactions with conventional corticosteroid on inhibiting the development of DC from monocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC culture model coupled with the high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LCMS analyses were used. Gallic acid was the major active component from Cortex Moutan which could dose dependently inhibit interleukin (IL-12 p40 and the functional cluster of differentiation (CD surface markers CD40, CD80, CD83 and CD86 expression from cytokine cocktail-activated moDC. Gallic acid could also lower the concentration of hydrocortisone required to inhibit the activation of DC.

  20. Self double-stranded (ds)DNA induces IL-1β production from human monocytes by activating NLRP3 inflammasome in the presence of anti-dsDNA antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Sun; Kang, Youna; Lee, Naeun; Wahl, Elizabeth R; Kim, Sang Hyun; Kang, Ki Soo; Lazova, Rossitza; Kang, Insoo

    2013-02-15

    The pathogenic hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus is the autoimmune response against self nuclear Ags, including dsDNA. The increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β has been found in the cutaneous lesion and PBMCs from lupus patients, suggesting a potential involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of lupus. IL-1β is produced primarily by innate immune cells such as monocytes and can promote a Th17 cell response, which is increased in lupus. IL-1β production requires cleaving pro-IL-β into IL-1β by the caspase-1-associated multiprotein complex called inflammasomes. In this study we show that self dsDNA induces IL-1β production from human monocytes dependent on serum or purified IgG containing anti-dsDNA Abs by activating the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and K(+) efflux were involved in this activation. Knocking down the NLRP3 or inhibiting caspase-1, ROS, and K(+) efflux decreased IL-1β production. Supernatants from monocytes treated with a combination of self dsDNA and anti-dsDNA Ab(+) serum promoted IL-17 production from CD4(+) T cells in an IL-1β-dependent manner. These findings provide new insights in lupus pathogenesis by demonstrating that self dsDNA together with its autoantibodies induces IL-1β production from human monocytes by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through inducing ROS synthesis and K(+) efflux, leading to the increased Th17 cell response.

  1. Arthritic and non-arthritic synovial fluids modulate IL10 and IL1RA gene expression in differentially activated primary human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopa, S; Leijs, M J C; Moretti, M; Lubberts, E; van Osch, G J V M; Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Y M

    2015-11-01

    Synovitis with an increased presence of macrophages is observed in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Given the important role of macrophages in arthritis, we investigated the influence of OA and RA synovial fluid (SF) on primary human monocytes (Mo), their lineage precursors. Adherent monocytes without any stimulation (Mo(-)) or stimulated with IFN-γ and TNF-α (Mo(IFN-γ/TNF-α)) or IL-4 (Mo(IL-4)) were exposed to SF from 6 donors without any known joint disease (SF-Ctrl), 10 OA donors (SF-OA), and 10 RA donors (SF-RA). The transcriptional expression of IL6, IL1B, TNFA, IL10, CCL18, CD206, and IL1RA was analyzed. Mo(-) exposed to SF-RA had a lower expression of IL10 and a higher expression of IL1RA than when exposed to SF-Ctrl. Mo(IL-4) exposed to SF-RA had a lower expression of IL10 and CCL18 than when exposed to SF-Ctrl and Mo(IFN-γ/TNF-α) were not affected by SF-RA. Mo exposed to SF-OA also expressed less IL10, but only upon stimulation with IL-4, and expressed more IL1RA than when exposed to SF-Ctrl in any condition. A lower expression of IL10 may be regarded as a response to less inflammatory conditions since IL10 expression is higher in response to IFN-γ/TNF-α stimulation, probably as a feedback mechanism. Therefore, the lower expression of IL10 and the higher expression of IL1RA in Mo exposed to arthritic than to non-arthritic SF suggest that arthritic SF is mainly reducing the inflammatory responses in Mo. This may mimic the response of monocytes/macrophages recruited to the joint, where feedback mechanisms counteract pro-inflammatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Induction of ceruloplasmin synthesis by IFN-gamma in human monocytic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, B.; Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Prok, A.; Cathcart, M. K.; Fox, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin is a 132-kDa glycoprotein abundant in human plasma. It has multiple in vitro activities, including copper transport, lipid pro- and antioxidant activity, and oxidation of ferrous ion and aromatic amines; however, its physiologic role is uncertain. Although ceruloplasmin is synthesized primarily by the liver in adult humans, production by cells of monocytic origin has been reported. We here show that IFN-gamma is a potent inducer of ceruloplasmin synthesis by monocytic cells. Activation of human monoblastic leukemia U937 cells with IFN-gamma increased the production of ceruloplasmin by at least 20-fold. The identity of the protein was confirmed by plasmin fingerprinting. IFN-gamma also increased ceruloplasmin mRNA. Induction followed a 2- to 4-h lag and was partially blocked by cycloheximide, indicating a requirement for newly synthesized factors. Ceruloplasmin induction in monocytic cells was agonist specific, as IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, TNF-alpha, and LPS were completely ineffective. The induction was also cell type specific, as IFN-gamma did not induce ceruloplasmin synthesis in endothelial or smooth muscle cells. In contrast, IFN-gamma was stimulatory in other monocytic cells, including THP-1 cells and human peripheral blood monocytes, and also in HepG2 cells. Ceruloplasmin secreted by IFN-gamma-stimulated U937 cells had ferroxidase activity and was, in fact, the only secreted protein with this activity. Monocytic cell-derived ceruloplasmin may contribute to defense responses via its ferroxidase activity, which may drive iron homeostasis in a direction unfavorable to invasive organisms.

  3. Endothelial cell ephrinB2-dependent activation of monocytes in arteriosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Sabrina C; Feldner, Anja; Ludwig, Thomas; Henning, Rob; Hecker, Markus; Korff, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    The expression of ephrinB2 in endothelial cells delineates their arterial phenotype and is a prerequisite for the development of the embryonic vasculature. Whereas the role of ephrinB2 in the microcirculation has been studied extensively, its expression and function in adult arteries is hardly understood. Our analyses showed that in mouse arteries, ephrinB2 is located on the luminal surface of endothelial cells and may physically interact with monocyte EphB receptors. Moreover, transdifferentiation of human monocytes into macrophages was associated with an increase in EphB2 expression, and exposing monocytes to immobilized ephrinB2 resulted in phosphorylation of the receptor followed by an increased expression of proinflammatory chemokines such as interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1/CCL2. Relating to the (patho)physiological relevance of these findings, immunofluorescence analyses revealed that ephrinB2 is most abundantly expressed in endothelial cells at arteriosclerosis predilection sites of the mouse aorta. Subsequent analyses indicated that monocyte adhesion to aortic segments abundantly expressing ephrinB2 is strongly enhanced and that endothelial cell ephrinB2 forward signaling is sufficient to upregulate cytokine expression in monocytes. These observations suggest a hitherto unknown link between vascular ephrinB2 expression and the proinflammatory activation of monocytes that may contribute to the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis.

  4. Fulvic acid attenuates homocysteine-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Shao-Ju; Chen, Te-Chuan; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Chang, Shun-Fu

    2015-03-13

    Homocysteine and pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) have been linked to vascular dysfunction and risks of cardiovascular diseases. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of compounds of humic substances, possesses various pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on inflammatory responses of the monocytes remains unclear. We investigated the regulatory effect of FA on homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in human monocytes. Peripheral blood monocytes and U937 cells were used for all experiments. Real-time PCR and ELISA assay were used to analyze the COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion, respectively. Specific inhibitors were used to investigate the mechanism of homocysteine-mediating COX-2 mRNA expression and PGE2 secretion. Luciferase assay, transcription factor ELISA, and chromatin immunoprecipitation were used to determine the role of nuclear factor-κB in FA-mediated inhibition of homocysteine effect on monocytes. The results show that pretreating monocytes with FA inhibited the homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. Stimulation of U937 monocytes with homocysteine induced rapid increases in the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK; the inhibitor for ERK and JNK attenuated the homocysteine-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and COX-2 expression. Transcription factor ELISA and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that FA blocked the homocysteine-induced increases in the binding activity and in vivo promoter binding of nuclear factor-κB in monocytes. Our findings provide a molecular mechanism by which FA inhibits homocysteine-induced COX-2 expression in monocytes, and a basis for using FA in pharmaceutical therapy against inflammation.

  5. The monocyte binding domain(s) on human immunoglobulin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woof, J M; Nik Jaafar, M I; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1984-06-01

    Monocyte binding has previously been assigned to the C gamma 3 domain of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) largely on the ability of the pFc' fragment to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. This ability is markedly reduced compared to the intact parent IgG. We find this result with a conventional pFc' preparation but this preparation is found to contain trace contamination of parent IgG as demonstrated by reactivity with monoclonal antibodies directed against C gamma 2 domain and light-chain epitopes of human IgG. Extensive immunoaffinity purification of the pFc' preparation removes its inhibitory ability indicating that this originates in the trace contamination of parent IgG (or Fc). Neither of the human IgG1 paraproteins TIM, lacking the C gamma 2 domain, or SIZ, lacking the C gamma 3 domain, are found to inhibit the monocyte-IgG interaction. The hinge-deleted IgG1 Dob protein shows little or no inhibitory ability. Indirect evidence for the involvement of the C gamma 2 domain in monocyte binding is considered. We suggest finally that the site of interaction is found either on the C gamma 2 domain alone or between the C gamma 2 and C gamma 3 domains.

  6. DMPD: LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 11257452 LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Guha M, Mackman N. Ce...ll Signal. 2001 Feb;13(2):85-94. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show LPS induction of gene expression in human... monocytes. PubmedID 11257452 Title LPS induction of gene expression in human monocytes. Authors Guha M, Ma

  7. Comparative study of the effect of rivaroxaban and fondaparinux on monocyte's coagulant activity and cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Marc; Joimel, Ulrich; Varin, Rémi; Cazin, Lionel; Gest, Caroline; Le-Cam-Duchez, Veronique; Jin, Jian; Liu, Jielin; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lu, He; Soria, Jeannette; Li, Hong; Soria, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) exposed on activated monocytes and macrophages is involved in thrombosis through activation of factor X and cytokine release, responsible for inflammation and thrombosis. We investigated the effect of two anti-factor Xa drugs: rivaroxaban, a direct anti-Xa inhibitor, and fondaparinux, an antithrombin dependent anti-Xa inhibitor, on monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity and cytokine release. Rivaroxaban and fondaparinux were tested at pharmacological concentrations on LPS-activated monocytes and on THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line, to assess 1) TF expression by flow cytometry 2) prothrombinase activity by its coagulant activity and 3) cytokine release in cell supernatants by antibody based cytokine array and ELISA for IL-8 and TNFα. Rivaroxaban and fondaparinux did not modify TF expression level on activated cells. In contrast procoagulant activity associated to monocytes and macrophages was dose dependently inhibited by rivaroxaban, but not significantly by fondaparinux. These results could explain why patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery with rivaroxaban prophylaxis were able to achieve significant reductions in venous thromboembolism, compared with drugs commonly used, i.e. fondaparinux and low molecular weight heparin. In addition, rivaroxaban and fondaparinux suppressed some chemokine secretion produced by activated macrophages. This may also contribute to their antithrombotic effect in clinic.

  8. Phenolic compounds alone or in combination may be involved in propolis effects on human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Eliza de Oliveira; Conti, Bruno José; Santiago, Karina Basso; Conte, Fernanda Lopes; Oliveira, Lucas Pires Garcia; Hernandes, Rodrigo Tavanelli; Golim, Marjorie de Assis; Sforcin, José Maurício

    2017-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product with a complex chemical composition. Its isolated compounds exert biological activities; however, its synergistic effects are unknown. The involvement of phenolic acids (caffeic - Caf, dihydrocinnamic - Cin and p-coumaric - Cou) alone or in combination was investigated in the action of propolis in human monocytes. Cell viability was analysed by MTT assay; TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 production by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA); cell markers expression by flow cytometry; colony-forming units were counted to assess the microbicidal activity; and H2 O2 production was analysed by colorimetric assay. Treatments did not affect monocytes viability. Propolis and combinations containing Caf enhanced TNF-α production by resting cells. Propolis, Cin, Cou and Caf + Cin stimulated IL-6 production. All treatments upregulated IL-10. In LPS-stimulated cells, treatments downregulated IL-6 and maintained TNF-α and IL-10 production. A lower TLR-2 expression was seen than propolis. Caf + Cin enhanced TLR-4 expression. Propolis, Caf and Caf + Cin stimulated H2 O2 production, whereas propolis, Cin, Cou, and Caf + Cin + Cou induced a higher fungicidal activity. Cin and Cin + Cou increased the bactericidal activity of human monocytes. Propolis activated human monocytes, and acids were involved differently in propolis activity. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. The membrane expression of Neisseria meningitidis adhesin A (NadA) increases the proimmune effects of MenB OMVs on human macrophages, compared with NadA- OMVs, without further stimulating their proinflammatory activity on circulating monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Regina; Franzoso, Susanna; Cecchini, Paola; Cartocci, Elena; Oriente, Francesca; Aricò, Beatrice; Papini, Emanuele

    2009-07-01

    Hypervirulent MenB causing fatal human infections frequently display the oligomeric-coiled coil adhesin NadA, a 45-kDa intrinsic outer membrane protein implicated in binding to and invasion of respiratory epithelial cells. A recombinant soluble mutant lacking the 10-kDa COOH terminal membrane domain (NadA(Delta351-405)) also activates human monocytes/macrophages/DCs. As NadA is physiologically released during sepsis as part of OMVs, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that NadA(+) OMVs have an enhanced or modified proinflammatory/proimmune action compared with NadA(-) OMVs. To do this we investigated the activity of purified free NadA(Delta351-405) and of OMVs from MenB and Escherichia coli strains, expressing or not full-length NadA. NadA(Delta351-405) stimulated monocytes and macrophages to secrete cytokines (IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-10) and chemokines (IL-8, MIP-1alpha, MCP-1, RANTES), and full-length NadA improved MenB OMV activity, preferentially on macrophages, and only increased cytokine release. NadA(Delta351-405) induced the lymphocyte costimulant CD80 in monocytes and macrophages, and NadA(+) OMVs induced a wider set of molecules supporting antigen presentation (CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and ICAM-1) more efficiently than NadA(-) OMVs only in macrophages. Moreover, membrane NadA effects, unlike NadA(Delta351-405) ones, were much less IFN-gamma-sensitive. The activity of NadA-positive E. coli OMVs was similar to that of control OMVs. NadA in MenB OMVs acted at adhesin concentrations approximately 10(6) times lower than those required to stimulate cells with free NadA(Delta351-405).

  10. GM-CSF promotes migration of human monocytes across the blood brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Daphne Y S; Kooij, Gijs; Heijnen, Priscilla D A M; Breur, Marjolein; Peferoen, Laura A N; van der Valk, Paul; de Vries, Helga E; Amor, Sandra; Dijkstra, Christine D

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Infiltration of monocytes into the CNS is crucial for disease onset and progression. Animal studies indicate that granulocyte-macrophages colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may play an essential role in this process, possibly by acting on the migratory capacities of myeloid cells across the blood-brain barrier. This study describes the effect of GM-CSF on human monocytes, macrophages, and microglia. Furthermore, the expression of GM-CSF and its receptor was investigated in the CNS under healthy and pathological conditions. We show that GM-CSF enhances monocyte migration across human blood-brain barrier endothelial cells in vitro. Next, immunohistochemical analysis on human brain tissues revealed that GM-CSF is highly expressed by microglia and macrophages in MS lesions. The GM-CSF receptor is expressed by neurons in the rim of combined gray/white matter lesions and astrocytes. Finally, the effect of GM-CSF on human macrophages was determined, revealing an intermediate activation status, with a phenotype similar to that observed in active MS lesions. Together our data indicate that GM-CSF is a powerful stimulator of monocyte migration, and is abundantly present in the inflamed CNS where it may act as an activator of macrophages and microglia. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages. PMID:24893991

  12. Characterization of the opsonic and monocyte adherence functions of the specific fibronectin fragment that enhances phagocytosis of particulate activators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Czop, JK; Kadish, JL; Zepf, DM; Austen, KF

    1985-01-01

    .... opsonic fibronectin fragment (180K-opFnf) that selectively augments human monocyte phagocytosis of particulate activators of the alternative complement pathway were analyzed with Fab fragments of monoclonal anti-fibronectin antibodies BC7...

  13. Vortioxetine exerts anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects on human monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmon, Maria; Rossi, Silvia; Pastore, Anna; Cattaneo, Carlo Ignazio; Brunelleschi, Sandra; Fresu, Luigia Grazia

    2018-01-01

    A crosstalk between the immune system and depression has been postulated, with monocytes/macrophages and cytokines having a key role in this interaction. In this study, we examined whether vortioxetine, a multimodal anti-depressive drug, was endowed with anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activity, leading to immunomodulatory effects on human monocytes and macrophages. Human monocytes were isolated from buffy coats and used as such or differentiated into M1 and M2 macrophages. Cells were treated with vortioxetine before or after differentiation, and their responsiveness was evaluated. This included oxy-radical and TNFα production, TNFα and PPARγ gene expression and NF-κB translocation. Vortioxetine significantly reduced the PMA-induced oxidative burst in monocytes and in macrophages (M1 and M2), causing a concomitant shift of macrophages from the M1 to the M2 phenotype, demonstrated by a significant decrease in the expression of the surface marker CD86 and an increase in CD206. Moreover, treatment of monocytes with vortioxetine rendered macrophages derived from this population less sensitive to PMA, as it reduced the oxidative burst, NF-kB translocation, TNFα release and expression while inducing PPARγ gene expression. FACS analysis showed a significant decrease in the CD14+ /CD16+ /CD86+ M1 population. These results demonstrate that in human monocytes/macrophages, vortioxetine has antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects driving the polarization of macrophages towards their alternative phenotype. These findings suggest that vortioxetine, alongside its antidepressive effect, may have immunomodulatory properties. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  14. Analyses of nanoformulated antiretroviral drug charge, size, shape and content for uptake, drug release and antiviral activities in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacek, Ari S; Balkundi, Shantanu; McMillan, JoEllyn; Roy, Upal; Martinez-Skinner, Andrea; Mosley, R Lee; Kanmogne, Georgette; Kabanov, Alexander V; Bronich, Tatiana; Gendelman, Howard E

    2011-03-10

    Long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1) infection shows limitations in pharmacokinetics and biodistribution while inducing metabolic and cytotoxic aberrations. In turn, ART commonly requires complex dosing schedules and leads to the emergence of viral resistance and treatment failures. We posit that the development of nanoformulated ART could preclude such limitations and affect improved clinical outcomes. To this end, we wet-milled 20 nanoparticle formulations of crystalline indinavir, ritonavir, atazanavir, and efavirenz, collectively referred to as "nanoART," then assessed their performance using a range of physicochemical and biological tests. These tests were based on cell-nanoparticle interactions using monocyte-derived macrophages and their abilities to uptake and release nanoformulated drugs and affect viral replication. We demonstrate that physical characteristics such as particle size, surfactant coating, surface charge, and most importantly shape are predictors of cell uptake and antiretroviral efficacy. These studies bring this line of research a step closer to developing nanoART that can be used in the clinic to affect the course of HIV-1 infection. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma of pregnant and preeclamptic women activates monocytes in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faas, M.M.; Donker, R.B.; van Pampus, M.G.; Huls, A.M.; Salomons, J.; de Vos, P.; Aarnoudse, J.G.

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that factors circulating in the plasma of pregnant women and women with preeclampsia activate monocytes. STUDY DESIGN: Blood samples were taken from patients with early-onset severe preeclampsia (n = 9), healthy pregnant women (n = 9),

  16. Interferon-beta induces distinct gene expression response patterns in human monocytes versus T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Henig

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocytes, which are key players in innate immunity, are outnumbered by neutrophils and lymphocytes among peripheral white blood cells. The cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β is widely used as an immunomodulatory drug for multiple sclerosis and its functional pathways in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have been previously described. The aim of the present study was to identify novel, cell-specific IFN-β functions and pathways in tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α-activated monocytes that may have been missed in studies using PBMCs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Whole genome gene expression profiles of human monocytes and T cells were compared following in vitro priming to TNF-α and overnight exposure to IFN-β. Statistical analyses of the gene expression data revealed a cell-type-specific change of 699 transcripts, 667 monocyte-specific transcripts, 21 T cell-specific transcripts and 11 transcripts with either a difference in the response direction or a difference in the magnitude of response. RT-PCR revealed a set of differentially expressed genes (DEGs, exhibiting responses to IFN-β that are modulated by TNF-α in monocytes, such as RIPK2 and CD83, but not in T cells or PBMCs. Known IFN-β promoter response elements, such as ISRE, were enriched in T cell DEGs but not in monocyte DEGs. The overall directionality of the gene expression regulation by IFN-β was different in T cells and monocytes, with up-regulation more prevalent in T cells, and a similar extent of up and down-regulation recorded in monocytes. CONCLUSIONS: By focusing on the response of distinct cell types and by evaluating the combined effects of two cytokines with pro and anti-inflammatory activities, we were able to present two new findings First, new IFN-β response pathways and genes, some of which were monocytes specific; second, a cell-specific modulation of the IFN-β response transcriptome by TNF-α.

  17. Epstein-Barr virus promotes human monocyte survival and maturation through a paracrine induction of IFN-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salek-Ardakani, Shahram; Lyons, Stephen A; Arrand, John R

    2004-07-01

    The role of monocytes and macrophages during EBV infection is not clear. The interaction of EBV with human monocytes was investigated in terms of cell survival and morphological and phenotypic changes to gain a better understanding of the role of these cells during EBV infection. We show that EBV infection of PBMCs rescues monocytes from undergoing spontaneous apoptosis and dramatically enhances their survival. Results obtained with heat-inactivated virus, neutralizing anti-EBV mAb 72A1 and recombinant gp350, suggest that enhancement of viability by EBV requires both infectious virus and interaction between gp350 and its receptor. IFN-alpha either secreted within 24 h from PBMCs upon infection with EBV or exogenously added to unstimulated monocytes inhibited spontaneous apoptosis, indicating that induction of IFN-alpha is an early important survival signal responsible for the delay in the apoptosis of monocytes. EBV infection also induced acute maturation of monocytes to macrophages with morphological and phenotypic characteristics of potent APCs. Monocytes exposed to EBV became larger in size with increased granularity and expressed considerably higher levels of membrane HLA classes I and II, ICAM-1, CD80, CD86, and CD40 compared with uninfected cultures. These observations provide the first immunoregulatory links among EBV, IFN-alpha, and monocyte survival and maturation and importantly raise the possibility that these cells may serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of the virus as well as being active participants in eliciting anti-EBV T cell responses during acute infection.

  18. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16+ monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16+ monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi: Inhibition of infection of human monocytes by aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Freitas, Rafael; Lonien, Sandra Cristina Heim; Malvezi, Aparecida Donizette; Silveira, Guilherme Ferreira; Wowk, Pryscilla Fanini; da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Bordignon, Juliano; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2017-11-01

    Cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and its intracellular replication are essential for progression of the parasite life cycle and development of Chagas disease. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2 ) and other eicosanoids potently modulate host response and contribute to Chagas disease progression. In this study, we evaluated the effect of aspirin (ASA), a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on the T. cruzi invasion and its influence on nitric oxide and cytokine production in human monocytes. The pretreatment of monocytes with ASA or SQ 22536 (adenylate-cyclase inhibitor) induced a marked inhibition of T. cruzi infection. On the other hand, the treatment of monocytes with SQ 22536 after ASA restored the invasiveness of T. cruzi. This reestablishment was associated with a decrease in nitric oxide and PGE 2 production, and also an increase of interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 by cells pre-treated with ASA. Altogether, these results reinforce the idea that the cyclooxygenase pathway plays a fundamental role in the process of parasite invasion in an in vitro model of T. cruzi infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-nucleated giant cell formation from human cord blood monocytes in vitro, in comparison with adult peripheral blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Y; Yasui, K; Yashiro, M; Tsuge, M; Kotani, N; Morishima, T

    2009-10-01

    Multi-nucleated giant cells (MGCs; Langhans-type cell), formed from macrophage fusion, are recognized as a hallmark histological feature in chronic inflammation. However, their precise pathological role is still poorly understood, especially for microorganism pathogens in the neonatal immune system, which are capable of surviving intracellularly in phagocytes. To conduct a partial evaluation of the monocyte function of neonates, we investigated the ability of human cord blood monocytes to form MGCs in vitro by stimulating various cytokines and comparing them with adult peripheral blood monocytes. Monocytes from cord blood and adult peripheral blood were isolated and cultured for 14 days with cytokines known to induce MGC in vitro. The fusion index in experiments with a combination of interleukin (IL)-4 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and a combination of IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was significantly lower in cord blood than in adult blood monocytes (P = 0.0018 and P = 0.0141, respectively). The number of nuclei per MGC was significantly lower in cord blood than in adult blood monocytes in experiments with IL-4 alone, the combination of IL-4 and M-CSF, and the combination of IL-4 and GM-CSF (P < 0.0001). These results suggest the possibility that the susceptibility of newborns to mycobacterium infection is due partly to impaired MGC formation.

  1. The activation of CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 by mmLDL induces IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 secretion in human monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanco-Favela Francisco

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is considered a chronic inflammatory disease in which monocytes and macrophages are critical. These cells express CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR 2, and TLR4 on their surfaces, are activated by minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL and are capable of secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this research was thus to demonstrate that the activation of CD14, TLR2, and TLR4 by mmLDL induces the secretion of cytokines. Methods Human monocytes and macrophages were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 prior to stimulation with mmLDL. Cytokine secretion was then compared to that observed upon mmLDL stimulation in untreated cells. Results Stimulation with mmLDL induced the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Blocking CD14 in monocytes inhibited secretion of interleukin (IL-1β (72%, IL-6 (58% and IL-10 (63%, and blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 67%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 60%. Blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 73%, IL-6 by 69% and IL-10 by 63%. Furthermore, blocking TLR2 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 65%, IL-6 by 62% and IL-10 by 75%. In macrophages, we found similar results: blocking CD14 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 59%, IL-6 by 52% and IL-10 by 65%; blocking TLR4 inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 53%, IL-6 by 63% and IL-10 by 61%; and blocking both receptors inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 69%, IL-6 by 67% and IL-10 by 65%. Blocking TLR2 in macrophages inhibited secretion of IL-1β by 57%, IL-6 by 40% and IL-10 by 72%. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that CD14, TLR4, and TLR2 participate in the immune response against mmLDL by inducing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both monocytes and macrophages. These findings suggest that the activation of these receptors by mmLDL contributes to the inflammatory process of atherosclerosis.

  2. Endothelial cell-borne platelet bridges selectively recruit monocytes in human and mouse models of vascular inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuckleburg, Christopher J; Yates, Clara M; Kalia, Neena; Zhao, Yan; Nash, Gerard B; Watson, Steve P; Rainger, George Ed

    2011-07-01

    Cells of the monocyte lineage are the most abundant inflammatory cells found in atherosclerotic lesions. Dominance of the inflammatory infiltrate by monocytes indicates that there is a disease-driven mechanism supporting their selective recruitment. Previous studies have demonstrated that interactions between endothelial cells (ECs) and platelets may promote monocyte recruitment. In this study, we sought to expand on this knowledge using a complex coculture model of the diseased vessel wall. Using primary human cells in an in vitro flow-based adhesion assay, we found that secretory arterial smooth muscle cells (SMCs), cocultured with ECs, promote preferential recruitment of monocytes from blood in a TGF-β1-dependent manner. Approximately 85% of leucocytes recruited to the endothelium were CD14(+). Formation of adhesive platelet bridges on ECs was essential for monocyte recruitment as platelet removal or inhibition of adhesion to the ECs abolished monocyte recruitment. Monocytes were recruited from flow by platelet P-selectin and activated by EC-derived CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), although the presentation of CCL2 to adherent monocytes was dependent upon platelet activation and release of CXC chemokine ligand 4 (CXCL4). In an intravital model of TGF-β1-driven vascular inflammation in mice, platelets were also necessary for efficient leucocyte recruitment to vessels of the microcirculation in the cremaster muscle. In this study, we have demonstrated that stromal cells found within the diseased artery wall may promote the preferential recruitment of monocytes and this is achieved by establishing a cascade of interactions between SMCs, ECs, platelets, and monocytes.

  3. Soluble CD163, A Product of Monocyte/Macrophage Activation Is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although, the exact pathophysiology of preeclampsia is unknown, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocyte/macrophage activation) is suggested to have a rolein the immunopathology of preeclampsia. Soluble CD163 (sCD163) is considered a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation.

  4. Variation in dietary salt intake induces coordinated dynamics of monocyte subsets and monocyte-platelet aggregates in humans: implications in end organ inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte activation and tissue infiltration are quantitatively associated with high-salt intake induced target organ inflammation. We hypothesized that high-salt challenge would induce the expansion of CD14++CD16+ monocytes, one of the three monocyte subsets with a pro-inflammatory phenotype, that is associated with target organ inflammation in humans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A dietary intervention study was performed in 20 healthy volunteers, starting with a 3-day usual diet and followed with a 7-day high-salt diet (≥15 g NaCl/day, and a 7-day low-salt diet (≤5 g NaCl/day. The amounts of three monocyte subsets ("classical" CD14++CD16-, "intermediate" CD14++CD16+ and "non-classical" CD14+CD16++ and their associations with monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs were measured by flow cytometry. Blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI was used to evaluate renal hypoxia. Switching to a high-salt diet resulted in CD14++ monocyte activation and a rapid expansion of CD14++CD16+ subset and MPAs, with a reciprocal decrease in the percentages of CD14++CD16- and CD14+CD16++ subsets. In vitro study using purified CD14++ monocytes revealed that elevation in extracellular [Na(+] could lead to CD14++CD16+ expansion via a ROS dependent manner. In addition, high-salt intake was associated with progressive hypoxia in the renal medulla (increased R2* signal and enhanced urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 excretion, indicating a temporal and spatial correlation between CD14++CD16+ subset and renal inflammation. The above changes could be completely reversed by a low-salt diet, whereas blood pressure levels remained unchanged during dietary intervention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present work demonstrates that short-term increases in dietary salt intake could induce the expansion of CD14++CD16+ monocytes, as well as an elevation of MPAs, which might be the underlying cellular basis of high-salt induced

  5. Monocyte-lymphocyte fusion induced by the HIV-1 envelope generates functional heterokaryons with an activated monocyte-like phenotype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Méndez, David; Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Ortega, Enrique; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Huerta, Leonor, E-mail: leonorhh@biomedicas.unam.mx

    2017-03-01

    Enveloped viruses induce cell-cell fusion when infected cells expressing viral envelope proteins interact with target cells, or through the contact of cell-free viral particles with adjoining target cells. CD4{sup +} T lymphocytes and cells from the monocyte-macrophage lineage express receptors for HIV envelope protein. We have previously reported that lymphoid Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) can fuse with THP-1 monocytic cells, forming heterokaryons with a predominantly myeloid phenotype. This study shows that the expression of monocytic markers in heterokaryons is stable, whereas the expression of lymphoid markers is mostly lost. Like THP-1 cells, heterokaryons exhibited FcγR-dependent phagocytic activity and showed an enhanced expression of the activation marker ICAM-1 upon stimulation with PMA. In addition, heterokaryons showed morphological changes compatible with maturation, and high expression of the differentiation marker CD11b in the absence of differentiation-inducing agents. No morphological change nor increase in CD11b expression were observed when an HIV-fusion inhibitor blocked fusion, or when THP-1 cells were cocultured with Jurkat cells expressing a non-fusogenic Env protein, showing that differentiation was not induced merely by cell-cell interaction but required cell-cell fusion. Inhibition of TLR2/TLR4 signaling by a TIRAP inhibitor greatly reduced the expression of CD11b in heterokaryons. Thus, lymphocyte-monocyte heterokaryons induced by HIV-1 Env are stable and functional, and fusion prompts a phenotype characteristic of activated monocytes via intracellular TLR2/TLR4 signaling. - Highlights: • Jurkat T cells expressing the HIV-1 envelope fuse with THP-1 monocytes. • Heterokaryons display a dominant myeloid phenotype and monocyte function. • Heterokaryons exhibit activation features in the absence of activation agents. • Activation is not due to cell-cell interaction but requires cell-cell fusion. • The

  6. Pleiotropic effects of Blastocystis spp. Subtypes 4 and 7 on ligand-specific toll-like receptor signaling and NF-κB activation in a human monocyte cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D W Teo

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. is a common enteric stramenopile parasite that colonizes the colon of hosts of a diverse array of species, including humans. It has been shown to compromise intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity and mediate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mucosal epithelial surfaces, including the intestinal epithelium, are increasingly recognized to perform a vital surveillance role in the context of innate immunity, through the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs. In this study, we use the human TLR reporter monocytic cell line, THP1-Blue, which expresses all human TLRs, to investigate effects of Blastocystis on TLR activation, more specifically the activation of TLR-2, -4 and -5. We have observed that live Blastocystis spp. parasites and whole cell lysate (WCL alone do not activate TLRs in THP1-Blue. Live ST4-WR1 parasites inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. In contrast, ST7-B WCL and ST4-WR1 WCL induced pleiotropic modulation of ligand-specific TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation, with no significant effects on flagellin-mediated TLR-5 activation. Real time-qPCR analysis on SEAP reporter gene confirmed the augmenting effect of ST7-B on LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. Taken together, this is the first study to characterize interactions between Blastocystis spp. and host TLR activation using an in vitro reporter model.

  7. Pleiotropic effects of Blastocystis spp. Subtypes 4 and 7 on ligand-specific toll-like receptor signaling and NF-κB activation in a human monocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Joshua D W; Macary, Paul A; Tan, Kevin S W

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. is a common enteric stramenopile parasite that colonizes the colon of hosts of a diverse array of species, including humans. It has been shown to compromise intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity and mediate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mucosal epithelial surfaces, including the intestinal epithelium, are increasingly recognized to perform a vital surveillance role in the context of innate immunity, through the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this study, we use the human TLR reporter monocytic cell line, THP1-Blue, which expresses all human TLRs, to investigate effects of Blastocystis on TLR activation, more specifically the activation of TLR-2, -4 and -5. We have observed that live Blastocystis spp. parasites and whole cell lysate (WCL) alone do not activate TLRs in THP1-Blue. Live ST4-WR1 parasites inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. In contrast, ST7-B WCL and ST4-WR1 WCL induced pleiotropic modulation of ligand-specific TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation, with no significant effects on flagellin-mediated TLR-5 activation. Real time-qPCR analysis on SEAP reporter gene confirmed the augmenting effect of ST7-B on LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. Taken together, this is the first study to characterize interactions between Blastocystis spp. and host TLR activation using an in vitro reporter model.

  8. Pleiotropic Effects of Blastocystis spp. Subtypes 4 and 7 on Ligand-Specific Toll-Like Receptor Signaling and NF-κB Activation in a Human Monocyte Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Joshua D. W.; MacAry, Paul A.; Tan, Kevin S. W.

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. is a common enteric stramenopile parasite that colonizes the colon of hosts of a diverse array of species, including humans. It has been shown to compromise intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity and mediate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Mucosal epithelial surfaces, including the intestinal epithelium, are increasingly recognized to perform a vital surveillance role in the context of innate immunity, through the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). In this study, we use the human TLR reporter monocytic cell line, THP1-Blue, which expresses all human TLRs, to investigate effects of Blastocystis on TLR activation, more specifically the activation of TLR-2, -4 and -5. We have observed that live Blastocystis spp. parasites and whole cell lysate (WCL) alone do not activate TLRs in THP1-Blue. Live ST4-WR1 parasites inhibited LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. In contrast, ST7-B WCL and ST4-WR1 WCL induced pleiotropic modulation of ligand-specific TLR-2 and TLR-4 activation, with no significant effects on flagellin-mediated TLR-5 activation. Real time-qPCR analysis on SEAP reporter gene confirmed the augmenting effect of ST7-B on LPS-mediated NF-κB activation in THP1-Blue. Taken together, this is the first study to characterize interactions between Blastocystis spp. and host TLR activation using an in vitro reporter model. PMID:24551212

  9. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldinucci, Alessandra; Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia; Nosi, Daniele; Masini, Emanuela; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Ballerini, Clara

    2016-07-08

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1-4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Histamine Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton in Human Toll-like Receptor 4-activated Monocyte-derived Dendritic Cells Tuning CD4+ T Lymphocyte Response*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonechi, Elena; Manuelli, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Histamine, a major mediator in allergic diseases, differentially regulates the polarizing ability of dendritic cells after Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation, by not completely explained mechanisms. In this study we investigated the effects of histamine on innate immune reaction during the response of human monocyte-derived DCs (mDCs) to different TLR stimuli: LPS, specific for TLR4, and Pam3Cys, specific for heterodimer molecule TLR1/TLR2. We investigated actin remodeling induced by histamine together with mDCs phenotype, cytokine production, and the stimulatory and polarizing ability of Th0. By confocal microscopy and RT-PCR expression of Rac1/CdC42 Rho GTPases, responsible for actin remodeling, we show that histamine selectively modifies actin cytoskeleton organization induced by TLR4, but not TLR2 and this correlates with increased IL4 production and decreased IFNγ by primed T cells. We also demonstrate that histamine-induced cytoskeleton organization is at least in part mediated by down-regulation of small Rho GTPase CdC42 and the protein target PAK1, but not by down-regulation of Rac1. The presence and relative expression of histamine receptors HR1–4 and TLRs were determined as well. Independently of actin remodeling, histamine down-regulates IL12p70 and CXCL10 production in mDCs after TLR2 and TLR4 stimulation. We also observed a trend of IL10 up-regulation that, despite previous reports, did not reach statistical significance. PMID:27226579

  11. The Bacillus anthracis cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, Anthrolysin O, kills human neutrophils, monocytes and macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rest Richard F

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacillus anthracis is an animal and human pathogen whose virulence is characterized by lethal and edema toxin, as well as a poly-glutamic acid capsule. In addition to these well characterized toxins, B. anthracis secretes several proteases and phospholipases, and a newly described toxin of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC family, Anthrolysin O (ALO. Results In the present studies we show that recombinant ALO (rALO or native ALO, secreted by viable B. anthracis, is lethal to human primary polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs, monocytes, monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs, lymphocytes, THP-1 monocytic human cell line and ME-180, Detroit 562, and A549 epithelial cells by trypan blue exclusion or lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release viability assays. ALO cytotoxicity is dose and time dependent and susceptibility to ALO-mediated lysis differs between cell types. In addition, the viability of monocytes and hMDMs was assayed in the presence of vegetative Sterne strains 7702 (ALO+, UT231 (ALO-, and a complemented strain expressing ALO, UT231 (pUTE544, and was dependent upon the expression of ALO. Cytotoxicity of rALO is seen as low as 0.070 nM in the absence of serum. All direct cytotoxic activity is inhibited by the addition of cholesterol or serum concentration as low as 10%. Conclusion The lethality of rALO and native ALO on human monocytes, neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes supports the idea that ALO may represent a previously unidentified virulence factor of B. anthracis. The study of other factors produced by B. anthracis, along with the major anthrax toxins, will lead to a better understanding of this bacterium's pathogenesis, as well as provide information for the development of antitoxin vaccines for treating and preventing anthrax.

  12. Epstein-Barr virus envelope glycoprotein gp350 induces NF-kappaB activation and IL-1beta synthesis in human monocytes-macrophages involving PKC and PI3-K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addario, M; Ahmad, A; Xu, J W; Menezes, J

    1999-12-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly immunotropic human herpesvirus with oncogenic potential and is involved in numerous pathologies. EBV utilizes its major envelope glycoprotein gp350 to bind to its receptor CR2/CD21 on target cells for initiating the infection. We have previously shown that EBV is able to modulate transcription and translation of a number of cytokine genes via its gp350-mediated binding to this receptor. However, the effects of the binding of purified gp350 to CR2/CD21 on plastic-adherent monocyte-macrophages (AMM) have not been investigated. These cells are a rich source of potent proinflammatory and immune-modulating cytokines, and express low levels of CR2/CD21. We show here for the first time that recombinant gp350 (rgp350) causes production of the potent proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in human AMM. Surprisingly, rgp350 is comparable in this capacity to the phorbol ester 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate. This induction of IL-1beta production was accompanied by increased steady-state levels of its mRNA in gp350-treated AMM, and was dependent on the specific binding of rgp350 to the EBV receptor CR2/CD21. We also show that the signaling pathways resulting in the induction of IL-1beta synthesis by rgp350 required protein kinase C and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5 triphosphate kinase activities and occurred via activation of the NF-kappaB family of transcription factors.-D'Addario, M., Ahmad, A., Xu, J. W., Menezes, J. Epstein-Barr virus envelope glycoprotein gp350 induces NF-kappaB activation and IL-1beta synthesis in human monocytes-macrophages involving PKC and PI3-K.

  13. Differential binding of IL-3 and GM-CSF to human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, M J; Moss, J; Dottore, M; Park, L S; Vadas, M A; Lopez, A F

    1992-01-01

    Human monocytes respond to IL-3 and GM-CSF with a similar range of functional activities, and at similar cytokine concentrations. We have recently shown, however, that the rate of monocyte activation is greater in response to GM-CSF than to IL-3. In order to understand the basis of this phenomenon we investigated the interaction of IL-3 and GM-CSF with their surface receptors by means of kinetic binding experiments. 125I-GM-CSF showed very rapid association to monocytes at 37 degrees C, with a half-time of only 40 sec. The pattern of binding with this ligand was complex, with a decline in overall cell-associated radioactivity after 2 min of incubation. In contrast, 125I-IL-3 showed slower association, with a half-time at 37 degrees C of 2.5 min. The different rates of association correlated well with the different rates of cell activation induced by the two cytokines. On the other hand, rates of internalisation were similar for the two cytokines, with half-times of 14-15 min. Competition binding experiments performed under high affinity conditions showed that IL-3 and GM-CSF cross-competed for binding on the surface of monocytes. In contrast, under low affinity conditions IL-3 did not compete for 125I-GM-CSF binding while GM-CSF was a strong competitor of 125I-IL-3 binding. In quantitative inhibition experiments GM-CSF showed inhibitory effects on low affinity 125I-IL-3 binding at lower concentrations than those needed with unlabelled IL-3. It is suggested that current models of IL-3/GM-CSF receptor interactions need to be revised in order to accommodate the unique pattern of competition on human monocytes presented here.

  14. Sudden sensorineural hearing loss in human monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Vidur; Rodgers, Brian; Lin, James

    2017-08-01

    The hallmarks of symptomatic human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) include fever, headache, myalgia, nausea, malaise, transaminitis, and blood cell abnormalities. Previous case reports have described isolated cranial nerve palsies in infected patients but not hearing loss. We describe the onset of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in 2 patients with HME-a 31-year-old woman and an 82-year-old woman. The older patient experienced objective and subjective improvement in her hearing after treatment with an antibiotic and steroid taper; the younger patient was lost to audiologic follow-up. Additionally, we discuss the possible mechanisms of the hearing loss in these patients.

  15. Establishing a Proteomics-Based Monocyte Assay To Assess Differential Innate Immune Activation Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasova, Nataliya K; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Lundberg, Karin; Zhang, Xing-Mei; Harris, Robert A; Zubarev, Roman A

    2016-07-01

    Innate immune cells are complex systems that can be simultaneously activated in a variety of ways. Common methods currently used to estimate the response of innate immune cells to stimuli are usually biased toward a single mode of activation. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of designing an assay based on unbiased proteome analysis that would be capable of predicting the complex response of the innate immune system to various challenges. Monocytes were used as representative cells of the innate immune system. The underlying hypothesis was that their proteome response to different activating molecules would reflect the immunogenicity of these molecules. To identify the main modes of response, we treated the human monocytic THP-1 cell line with nine different stimuli. Differentiation and activation were determined to be the two major modes of monocyte response, with PMA causing the strongest differentiation and Pam3CSK4 causing the strongest proinflammatory activation. The established assay was applied to characterize the monocyte response to epidermal growth factor peptide containing isoaspartate, which induced differentiation but not proinflammatory activation. Because of its versatility, robustness, and specificity, this new assay is likely to find a niche among the more established immunological methods.

  16. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin increases resistin messenger ribonucleic acid through the pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase-activating transcription factor 4-CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α homologous protein pathway in THP-1 human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Junpei; Onuma, Hiroshi; Ochi, Fumihiro; Hirai, Hiroki; Takemoto, Koji; Miyoshi, Akiko; Matsushita, Manami; Kadota, Yuko; Ohashi, Jun; Kawamura, Ryoichi; Takata, Yasunori; Nishida, Wataru; Hashida, Seiichi; Ishii, Eiichi; Osawa, Haruhiko

    2016-05-01

    Resistin, secreted from adipocytes, causes insulin resistance in mice. In humans, the resistin gene is mainly expressed in monocytes and macrophages. Tunicamycin is known to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and reduce resistin gene expression in 3T3-L1 mouse adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to examine whether ER stress affects resistin gene expression in human monocytes. The relationship between resistin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and ER stress markers mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in isolated monocytes of 30 healthy volunteers. The effect of endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides or tunicamycin on resistin gene expression was analyzed in THP-1 human monocytes. Signaling pathways leading to resistin mRNA were assessed by the knockdown using small interfering RNA or overexpression of key molecules involved in unfolded protein response. Resistin mRNA was positively associated with immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein (BiP) or CAAT/enhancer binding protein-α homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA in human isolated monocytes. In THP-1 cells, lipopolysaccharides increased mRNA of BiP, pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum eukaryotic initiation factor 2α kinase (PERK) and CHOP, as well as resistin. Tunicamycin also increased resistin mRNA. This induction appeared to be dose- and time-dependent. Tunicamycin-induced resistin mRNA was inhibited by chemical chaperone, 4-phenylbutyric acid. The knockdown of either PERK, activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) or CHOP reduced tunicamycin-induced resistin mRNA. Conversely, overexpression of ATF4 or CHOP increased resistin mRNA. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by tunicamycin increased resistin mRNA through the PERK-ATF4-CHOP pathway in THP-1 human monocytes. ER stress could lead to insulin resistance through enhanced resistin gene expression in human monocytes.

  18. Human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression on CD14+ monocytes during adverse events after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michaela; Rohrer, Karin Melanie; Erbacher, Annika; Gieseke, Friederike; Schwarze, Carl-Philipp; Bader, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert; Hofbeck, Michael; Kerst, Gunter

    2015-02-01

    The human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression on CD14+ monocytes reflects the degree to which these cells have been activated. Given the central role monocytes and macrophages play in the immune system, a decreased human leukocyte antigen DR expression on CD14+ monocytes results in a hallmark of altered immune status during systemic inflammatory response syndrome. We hypothesize that human leukocyte antigen DR expression might be similarly altered after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and during post-transplant complications. Using flow cytometry, this study investigates the human leukocyte antigen DR surface expression of CD14+ monocytes in 30 pediatric and young adult patients up to 1 year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Normal values were derived from a control group of healthy children, adolescents, and young adults. Human leukocyte antigen DR expression decreased significantly prior and during bacterial infection or sepsis. By contrast, human leukocyte antigen DR expression levels were elevated before and at the time of viremia. Human leukocyte antigen DR expression was also elevated during acute graft-versus-host disease. In contrast, the expression was reduced when patients had hepatic veno-occlusive disease. A significant decrease of human leukocyte antigen DR expression was associated with a relapse of the underlying disease and before death. Human leukocyte antigen DR expression on CD14+ monocytes appears to be a promising parameter that might allow identification of patients at risk after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  19. Effect of Legionella pneumophila cytotoxic protease on human neutrophil and monocyte function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechnitzer, C; Kharazmi, A

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular metalloprotease of Legionella pneumophila, also called tissue-destructive protease or major secretory protein, has been proposed as one of the virulence factors of this organism. Considering the decisive role played by the phagocytic cells in host defense against Legionella infe....... pneumophila protease on neutrophil chemotaxis and on the listericidal activity of human neutrophils and monocytes demonstrated in this study provides evidence for a role of this enzyme in the pathogenesis of Legionnaires' disease....

  20. Investigating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type One-Infected Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Secretome

    OpenAIRE

    Ciborowski, Pawel; Kadiu, Irena; Rozek, Wojciech; Smith, Lynette; Bernhardt, Kristen; Fladseth, Melissa; Ricardo-Dukelow, Mary; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2007-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages, alveolar macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and microglia) are reservoirs and vehicles of dissemination for the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). How virus alters mononuclear phagocyte immunoregulatory activities to complete its life cycle and influence disease is incompletely understood. In attempts to better understanding the influence of virus on macrophage functions, we used one-dimensional electrophoresis, a...

  1. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E W; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M; Chawla, Ajay; Greaves, David R

    2014-10-09

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Monocyte subset accumulation in the human heart following acute myocardial infarction and the role of the spleen as monocyte reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Anja M; Ter Horst, Ellis N; Delewi, Ronak; Begieneman, Mark P V; Krijnen, Paul A J; Hirsch, Alexander; Lavaei, Mehrdad; Nahrendorf, Matthias; Horrevoets, Anton J; Niessen, Hans W M; Piek, Jan J

    2014-02-01

    Monocytes are critical mediators of healing following acute myocardial infarction (AMI), making them an interesting target to improve myocardial repair. The purpose of this study was a gain of insight into the source and recruitment of monocytes following AMI in humans. Post-mortem tissue specimens of myocardium, spleen and bone marrow were collected from 28 patients who died at different time points after AMI. Twelve patients who died from other causes served as controls. The presence and localization of monocytes (CD14(+) cells), and their CD14(+)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets, were evaluated by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. CD14(+) cells localized at distinct regions of the infarcted myocardium in different phases of healing following AMI. In the inflammatory phase after AMI, CD14(+) cells were predominantly located in the infarct border zone, adjacent to cardiomyocytes, and consisted for 85% (78-92%) of CD14(+)CD16(-) cells. In contrast, in the subsequent post-AMI proliferative phase, massive accumulation of CD14(+) cells was observed in the infarct core, containing comparable proportions of both the CD14(+)CD16(-) [60% (31-67%)] and CD14(+)CD16(+) subsets [40% (33-69%)]. Importantly, in AMI patients, of the number of CD14(+) cells was decreased by 39% in the bone marrow and by 58% in the spleen, in comparison with control patients (P = 0.02 and <0.001, respectively). Overall, this study showed a unique spatiotemporal pattern of monocyte accumulation in the human myocardium following AMI that coincides with a marked depletion of monocytes from the spleen, suggesting that the human spleen contains an important reservoir function for monocytes.

  3. A case of human monocytic ehrlichiosis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ehrlichiosis is a bacterial zoonosis transmitted by hematophagous arthropods - ticks. In humans, it occurs as monocytic, granulocytic, and ewingii ehrlichiosis. Pathological process is based on parasitic presence of Ehrlichia organisms within peripheral blood cells - monocytes and granulocytes. Case Outline. Fifty-two year old patient was admitted to hospital due to high fever of over 40°C that lasted two days, accompanied with chills, muscle aches, malaise, loss of appetite, headache, confusion, breathing difficulties, and mild dry cough. The history suggested tick bite that occurred seven days before the onset of disease. Doxycycline was introduced and administered for 14 days, causing the disease to subside. Indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to analyze three serum samples obtained from this patient for Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies, and peripheral blood smear was evaluated for the presence of Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia aggregation into morulae. Conclusion. Ehrlichiosis should be considered in each case where there is a history of tick bite together with the clinical picture (high fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, generalized weakness and malaise, and possible maculopapular rash. The presence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis antibodies was confirmed in a patient with the history of tick bite, appropriate clinical picture and indirect immunofluorescence assay. This confirmed the presence of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, a disease that is uncommonly identified in our country.

  4. Plasmin is a specific stimulus of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway of human peripheral monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weide, I; Tippler, B; Syrovets, T; Simmet, T

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the plasmin-induced stimulation of leukotriene (LT) B4 biosynthesis in human peripheral monocytes (PM). Plasmin up to 175 x 10(-3) CTA U/ml triggers a concentration-dependent release of 5-lipoxygenase-derived LTB4 while release of the cyclooxygenase products thromboxane (TX) B2 and prostaglandin (PG) E2 remained unaffected. The stimulatory effect appeared to be specific in as much as 1) it was found in PM, but not in polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), 2) it requires the lysine binding sites of plasmin molecule since it was inhibited by the lysine analogues 6-aminohexanoic acid (6-AHA) and trans-4(aminomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid (t-AMCA), 3) the intact catalytic center of plasmin is required since neither plasminogen nor catalytic center-blocked plasmin share the stimulatory effect of active plasmin, 4) other serine proteases such as alpha-chymotrypsin, human neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G did not stimulate release of detectable amounts of LTB4 from PM. In addition, catalytic center-blocked plasmin antagonized the stimulatory effect of active plasmin. Plasmin-mediated monocyte activation apparently proceeds via a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. Plasmin did not increase inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate levels, but a time- and concentration-dependent stimulation of cyclic GMP formation was observed. The data show that plasmin is a specific stimulus for human peripheral monocytes. Plasmin may be an important link between the coagulation cascade and inflammatory reactions.

  5. Effect of Legionella pneumophila sonicate on killing of Listeria monocytogenes by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechnitzer, C; Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Shand, G H

    1993-01-01

    will be exposed to bacterial components, either expressed on the surface of the organisms or released in the environment upon cell lysis. In this study, we have investigated the effect of water-soluble bacterial components present in L. pneumophila sonicate on the phagocytosis and bactericidal activity of human...... polymorphonuclear neutrophils and monocytes. Preincubation of neutrophils with L. pneumophila sonicate did not affect phagocytosis of L. monocytogenes, whereas Listeria killing was significantly inhibited at sonicate concentrations of 1 and 2 mg/ml. The phenol phase of a phenol-water extraction, containing most...... of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS), had no inhibitory effect on the listericidal activity of neutrophils. Killing of Listeria by monocytes was inhibited in a similar manner. The inhibitory activity was mainly recovered in the sonicate fraction above 100 kDa, suggesting that components organized in larger molecular complexes...

  6. Persistent systemic monocyte and neutrophil activation in neonatal encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, F M; Watson, R W G; O'Neill, A; Blanco, A; Donoghue, V; Molloy, E J

    2016-01-01

    Circulating immune cell activation is associated with worse outcome in adult and animal models of brain injury. Our aim was to profile the systemic inflammatory response over the first week of life in infants at risk of neonatal encephalopathy and correlate early neutrophil and monocyte endotoxin and activation responses with outcome. Prospective observational study in a tertiary referral university hospital including 22 infants requiring resuscitation at birth who had serial (five time points) neutrophil and monocyte CD11b (marker of cell adhesion) (intracellular Reactive oxygen intermediates) ROI (cell activation), and Toll-like receptor (endotoxin recognition) before and after endotoxin stimulation ex vivo compared to neonatal controls. All neonates requiring resuscitation at delivery (n = 122 samples) had higher neutrophil and monocyte CD11b and TLR-4 expressions compared with adults and neonatal controls. Neonates with abnormal neuroimaging and/or severe neonatal encephalopathy had increased CD11b, ROI and TLR-4. Increased PMN TLR-4 expression was associated with increased mortality in infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE). Innate immune dysregulation in the first week of life is associated with severity of outcome in neonatal brain injury in this cohort and may be amenable to immunomodulation.

  7. Human monocytes/macrophages are a target of Neisseria meningitidis Adhesin A (NadA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzoso, Susanna; Mazzon, Cristina; Sztukowska, Maryta; Cecchini, Paola; Kasic, Tihana; Capecchi, Barbara; Tavano, Regina; Papini, Emanuele

    2008-05-01

    Specific surface proteins of Neisseria meningitidis have been proposed to stimulate leukocytes during tissue invasion and septic shock. In this study, we demonstrate that the adhesin N. meningitidis Adhesin A (NadA) involved in the colonization of the respiratory epithelium by hypervirulent N. meningitidis B strains also binds to and activates human monocytes/macrophages. Expression of NadA on the surface on Escherichia coli does not increase bacterial-monocyte association, but a NadA-positive strain induced a significantly higher amount of TNF-alpha and IL-8 compared with the parental NadA-negative strain, suggesting that NadA has an intrinsic stimulatory action on these cells. Consistently, highly pure, soluble NadA(Delta351-405), a proposed component of an antimeningococcal vaccine, efficiently stimulates monocytes/macrophages to secrete a selected pattern of cytokines and chemotactic factors characterized by high levels of IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1, and MIP-1alpha and low levels of the main vasoactive mediators TNF-alpha and IL-1. NadA(Delta351-405) also inhibited monocyte apoptosis and determined its differentiation into a macrophage-like phenotype.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus infection induces indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages through p38/mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB pathways: impairment in T cell functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wan-li; Lin, Yue-hao; Xiao, Han; Xing, Shan; Chen, Hao; Chi, Pei-dong; Zhang, Ge

    2014-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been observed in tumor-infiltrated macrophages, but its infection effects on macrophage immune functions are poorly understood. Here, we showed that some macrophages in the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue expressed the immunosuppressive protein indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) more strongly than did tumor cells. EBV infection induced mRNA, protein, and enzymatic activity of IDO in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Infection increased the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), whereas the neutralizing antibodies against TNF-α and IL-6 inhibited IDO induction. EBV infection also activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and NF-κB, and the inhibition of these two pathways with SB202190 and SN50 almost abrogated TNF-α and IL-6 production and inhibited IDO production. Moreover, the activation of IDO in response to EBV infection of MDMs suppressed the proliferation of T cells and impaired the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T cells, whereas the inhibition of IDO activity with 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT) did not affect T cell proliferation and function. These findings indicate that EBV-induced IDO expression in MDMs is substantially mediated by IL-6- and TNF-α-dependent mechanisms via the p38/MAPK and NF-κB pathways, suggesting that a possible role of EBV-mediated IDO expression in tumor stroma of NPC may be to create a microenvironment of suppressed T cell immune responses. CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in the control of viral infections and destroy tumor cells. Activation of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in cancer tissues facilitates immune escape by the impairment of CTL functions. IDO expression was observed in some macrophages of the tumor stroma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue, and IDO could be induced in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected human monocyte

  9. Transcriptional profiling of human monocytes identifies the inhibitory receptor CD300a as regulator of transendothelial migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharang Ghavampour

    Full Text Available Local inflammatory responses are characterized by the recruitment of circulating leukocytes from the blood to sites of inflammation, a process requiring the directed migration of leukocytes across the vessel wall and hence a penetration of the endothelial lining. To identify underlying signalling events and novel factors involved in these processes we screened for genes differentially expressed in human monocytes following their adhesion to and passage through an endothelial monolayer. Functional annotation clustering of the genes identified revealed an overrepresentation of those associated with inflammation/immune response, in particular early monocyte to macrophage differentiation. Among the gene products so far not implicated in monocyte transendothelial migration was the inhibitory immune receptor CD300a. CD300a mRNA and protein levels were upregulated following transmigration and engagement of the receptor by anti-CD300a antibodies markedly reduced monocyte transendothelial migration. In contrast, siRNA mediated downregulation of CD300a in human monocytes increased their rate of migration. CD300a colocalized and cosedimented with actin filaments and, when activated, caused F-actin cytoskeleton alterations. Thus, monocyte transendothelial migration is accompanied by an elevation of CD300a which serves an inhibitory function possibly required for termination of the actual transmigration.

  10. Effect of Native and Minimally Modified Low-density Lipoprotein on the Activation of Monocyte Subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Favela, Francisco; Espinosa-Luna, José Esteban; Chávez-Rueda, Adriana Karina; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis

    2017-07-01

    In atherosclerosis, monocytes are essential and secrete pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Human CD14++CD16-, CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ monocytes produce different cytokines. The objective of this research was to determine the number of monocyte subsets positives to cytokines in response to native (nLDL) and minimally modified LDL (mmLDL). Human monocytes from healthy individuals were purified by negative selection and were stimulated with nLDL, mmLDL or LPS. Subsequently, human total monocytes were incubated with monoclonal antibodies specific for CD14 or both CD14 and CD16 to characterize total monocytes and monocyte subsets and with antibodies specific to anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-6 and anti-IL-10. The number of cells positive for cytokines was determined and cells cultured with nLDL, mmLDL and LPS were compared with cells cultured only with culture medium. We found that nLDL does not induce in the total monocyte population or in the three monocyte subsets positives to cytokines. MmLDL induced in total monocytes positives to TNF-α and IL-6 as well as in both CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ and in CD14++CD16+ monocytes, respectively. Moreover, total monocytes and the three monocyte subsets expressed few amounts of cells positives to IL-10 in response to mmLDL. Our study demonstrated that nLDL did not induce cells positives to cytokines and that the CD14++CD16+ and CD14+CD16++ monocyte subsets could be the main sources of TNF-α and IL-6, respectively, in response to mmLDL, which promotes the development and progression of atherosclerotic plaque. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Minocycline ameliorates LPS-induced inflammation in human monocytes by novel mechanisms including LOX-1, Nur77 and LITAF inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Tao; Wang, Juan; Benicky, Julius; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Minocycline exhibits anti-inflammatory properties independent of its antibiotic activity, ameliorating inflammatory responses in monocytes and macrophages. However, the mechanisms of minocycline anti-inflammatory effects are only partially understood. Methods Human circulating monocytes were cultured in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 50 ng/ml, and minocycline (10–40 µM). Gene expression was determined by RT-PCR, cytokine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release by ELISA, protein expression, phosphorylation and nuclear translocation by Western blotting. Results Minocycline significantly reduced the inflammatory response in LPS-challenged monocytes, decreasing LPS-induced transcription of pro-inflammatory tumor-necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-6 and PGE2 release. Minocycline inhibited LPS-induced activation of the lectin-like oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), NF-κB, LPS-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) and the Nur77 nuclear receptor. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of minocycline include a reduction of LPS-stimulated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) activation and stimulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Conclusions We provide novel evidence demonstrating that the anti-inflammatory effects of minocycline in human monocytes include, in addition to decreased NF-κB activation, abrogation of the LPS-stimulated LOX-1, LITAF, Nur77 pathways, p38 MAPK inhibition and PI3K/Akt activation. Our results reveal that minocycline inhibits points of convergence of distinct and interacting signaling pathways mediating multiple inflammatory signals which may influence monocyte activation, traffic and recruitment into the brain. General significance Our results in primary human monocytes contribute to explain the profound anti-inflammatory and protective effects of minocycline in

  12. Candesartan reduces the innate immune response to lipopolysaccharide in human monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrayoz, Ignacio M.; Pang, Tao; Benicky, Julius; Pavel, Jaroslav; Sánchez-Lemus, Enrique; Saavedra, Juan M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Inhibition of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) reduces chronic inflammation associated with hypertension. We asked whether AT1 receptor inhibition would reduce the innate inflammatory response induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Methods We used unstimulated human circulating monocytes obtained from healthy donors by counterflow centrifugal elutriation. Monocytes were studied in vitro after incubation with LPS (50 ng/ml) with and without 1 μmol/l candesartan, an AT1 receptor blocker. Angiotensin II receptor mRNA expression was determined by reverse transcriptase-PCR and receptor binding by autoradiography; inflammatory factor mRNA expression was studied by reverse transcriptase-PCR and cytokine release by ELISA. Results Human monocytes did not express detectable AT1 receptors, and angiotensin II did not induce inflammatory factor mRNA expression or cytokine release. However, candesartan substantially reduced the LPS-induced expression of the mRNAs for the LPS recognition protein cluster of differentiation 14, the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta and interleukin-6 and the lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor. In addition, candesartan reduced the activation of the nuclear factor kappa B pathway, the tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 secretion, and the ROS formation induced by LPS, without affecting the secretion of interleukin-10. Conclusion We hypothesize that the anti-inflammatory effects of candesartan in these cells are likely mediated by mechanisms unrelated to AT1 receptor blockade. Our results demonstrate that candesartan significantly reduces the innate immune response to LPS in human circulating monocytes. The anti-inflammatory effects of candesartan may be of importance not only in hypertension but also in other inflammatory disorders. PMID:19730394

  13. Dyslipidemic Diet-Induced Monocyte “Priming” and Dysfunction in Non-Human Primates Is Triggered by Elevated Plasma Cholesterol and Accompanied by Altered Histone Acetylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Short

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes and the recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages into sites of inflammation play a key role in atherogenesis and other chronic inflammatory diseases linked to cardiometabolic syndrome and obesity. Previous studies from our group have shown that metabolic stress promotes monocyte priming, i.e., enhanced adhesion and accelerated chemotaxis of monocytes in response to chemokines, both in vitro and in dyslipidemic LDLR−/− mice. We also showed that metabolic stress-induced monocyte dysfunction is, at least to a large extent caused by the S-glutathionylation, inactivation, and subsequent degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1. Here, we analyzed the effects of a Western-style, dyslipidemic diet (DD, which was composed of high levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and simple sugars, on monocyte (dysfunction in non-human primates (NHPs. We found that similar to mice, a DD enhances monocyte chemotaxis in NHP within 4 weeks, occurring concordantly with the onset of hypercholesterolemia but prior to changes in triglycerides, blood glucose, monocytosis, or changes in monocyte subset composition. In addition, we identified transitory decreases in the acetylation of histone H3 at the lysine residues 18 and 23 in metabolically primed monocytes, and we found that monocyte priming was correlated with the acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 after an 8-week DD regimen. Our data show that metabolic stress promotes monocyte priming and hyper-chemotactic responses in NHP. The histone modifications accompanying monocyte priming in primates suggest a reprogramming of the epigenetic landscape, which may lead to dysregulated responses and functionalities in macrophages derived from primed monocytes that are recruited to sites of inflammation.

  14. Monocyte Activation in Immunopathology: Cellular Test for Development of Diagnostics and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Several highly prevalent human diseases are associated with immunopathology. Alterations in the immune system are found in such life-threatening disorders as cancer and atherosclerosis. Monocyte activation followed by macrophage polarization is an important step in normal immune response to pathogens and other relevant stimuli. Depending on the nature of the activation signal, macrophages can acquire pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes that are characterized by the expression of distinct patterns of secreted cytokines and surface antigens. This process is disturbed in immunopathologies resulting in abnormal monocyte activation and/or bias of macrophage polarization towards one or the other phenotype. Such alterations could be used as important diagnostic markers and also as possible targets for the development of immunomodulating therapy. Recently developed cellular tests are designed to analyze the phenotype and activity of living cells circulating in patient’s bloodstream. Monocyte/macrophage activation test is a successful example of cellular test relevant for atherosclerosis and oncopathology. This test demonstrated changes in macrophage activation in subclinical atherosclerosis and breast cancer and could also be used for screening a panel of natural agents with immunomodulatory activity. Further development of cellular tests will allow broadening the scope of their clinical implication. Such tests may become useful tools for drug research and therapy optimization.

  15. DMPD: Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534111 Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-1...):575-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-...4 and IL-13. PubmedID 10534111 Title Differential responses of human monocytes an

  16. Expression of the human monocyte membrane antigen gp55 by murine fibroblasts after DNA-mediated gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmun, R A; Peiper, S C; Rebentisch, M B; Look, A T

    1987-03-01

    Human DNA sequences that contain the gene encoding gp55, a cell surface glycoprotein expressed exclusively on mature human monocytes and monocytic leukemia cells, were isolated in a mouse genetic background. DNA from mature human monocytes was cotransfected with DNA from a molecularly cloned feline sarcoma virus containing the v-fms oncogene into NIH-3T3 cells. Transformed mouse fibroblasts that expressed gp55, based on their reactivity with the MY4, B44.1, or LeuM3 monoclonal antibodies, were selected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Regardless of which antibody was used for selection, equivalent binding of all three antibodies was observed for positive transformants. Secondary and tertiary mouse cell transformants were obtained after additional rounds of transfection and cell sorting with the use of DNA from primary and then secondary transformants. Southern blot analysis of the cellular DNA from two independently derived tertiary subclones revealed a limited complement of human sequences, thus indicating that the gene encoding gp55 is included in fewer than 50 kilobases of human DNA. Independently derived tertiary subclones displayed concordant patterns of reactivity with 13 monocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies, thus indicating that each recognized an epitope on the product (gp55) of a single human gene. The 55-kilodalton cell surface polypeptide was specifically immunoprecipitated with a representative monoclonal antibody, 26if, from lysates of enzymatically radioiodinated peripheral blood monocytes and tertiary transformants. We conclude that gp55 is highly immunogenic and that a large number of independently derived monoclonal antibodies specific for human monocytes react with epitopes on this one molecule.

  17. A functional study on the migration of human monocytes to human leukemic cell lines and the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legdeur, MCJC; Beelen, RHJ; Schuurhuis, GJ; Broekhoven, MG; vandeLoosdrecht, AA; Tekstra, J; Langenhuijsen, MMAC; Ossenkoppele, GJ

    1997-01-01

    In the present study the migration of human monocytes towards the supernatants of five different human myeloid leukemic cell lines, four different human lymphatic leukemic cell lines and blasts derived from three different patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was studied and the role of

  18. HLA-DR-presented peptide repertoires derived from human monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with blood coagulation factor VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, Simon D.; Herczenik, Eszter; ten Brinke, Anja; Mertens, Koen; Voorberg, Jan; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2011-01-01

    Activation of T-helper cells is dependent upon the appropriate presentation of antigen-derived peptides on MHC class II molecules expressed on antigen presenting cells. In the current study we explored the repertoire of peptides presented on MHC class II molecules on human monocyte derived dendritic

  19. Ciprofloxacin inhibits advanced glycation end products-induced adhesion molecule expression on human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, S; Takahashi, H K; Liu, K; Wake, H; Zhang, J; Liu, R; Yoshino, T; Nishibori, M

    2010-09-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) subtypes, proteins or lipids that become glycated after exposure to sugars, can induce complications in diabetes. Among the various AGE subtypes, glyceraldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-2) and glycolaldehyde-derived AGE (AGE-3) are involved in inflammation in diabetic patients; monocytes are activated by these AGEs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluorinated 4-quinolone, is often used clinically to treat infections associated with diabetis due to its antibacterial properties. It also modulates immune responses in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) therefore we investigated the involvement of AGEs in these effects. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 was examined by flow cytometry. The production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interferon (IFN)-gamma, prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and cAMP were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Lymphocyte proliferation was determined by [(3)H]-thymidine uptake. KEY RESULTS CIP induced PGE(2) production in monocytes, irrespective of the presence of AGE-2 and AGE-3, by enhancing COX-2 expression; this led to an elevation of intracellular cAMP in monocytes. Non-selective and selective COX-2 inhibitors, indomethacin and NS398, inhibited CIP-induced PGE(2) and cAMP production. In addition, CIP inhibited AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced expressions of ICAM-1, B7.1, B7.2 and CD40 in monocytes, the production of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and lymphocyte proliferation in PBMC. Indomethacin, NS398 and a protein kinase A inhibitor, H89, inhibited the actions of CIP. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS CIP exerts immunomodulatory activity via PGE(2), implying therapeutic potential of CIP for the treatment of AGE-2- and AGE-3-induced inflammatory responses.

  20. Dietary supplementation with fish oil modifies the ability of human monocytes to induce an inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Nguyet-Thin; Madden, Jackie; Calder, Philip C; Grimble, Robert F; Shearman, Cliff P; Chan, Tim; Dastur, Neville; Howell, William M; Rainger, G Ed; Nash, Gerard B

    2007-12-01

    Monocytes/macrophages are key orchestrators of inflammation and are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis. (n-3) Fatty acids, found in fish oil, have been shown to have protective effects in such disorders. To investigate possible modes of action, we used a monocyte:endothelial cell (EC) coculture model to investigate the pro-inflammatory potential of monocytes. Monocytes were isolated from the blood of donors with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) or control donors, before and after a 12-wk supplementation of their diet with fish oil. The monocytes were cultured with human umbilical vein EC (HUVEC) for 24 h, after which the ability of the HUVEC to recruit flowing neutrophils was tested. Monocytes from either group of donors stimulated the EC to support the adhesion and migration of neutrophils. Fish oil supplementation reduced the potency of monocytes from normal subjects, but not those from patients with PAD, to induce recruitment. Concurrent medication may have acted as a complicating factor. On subgroup analysis, only those free of medication showed a significant effect of fish oil. Responses before or after supplementation were not closely linked to patterns of secretion of cytokines by cultured monocytes, tested in parallel monocultures. These results suggest that fish oil can modulate the ability of monocytes to stimulate EC and that this might contribute to their protective effects against chronic inflammatory disorders. Benefits, however, may depend on existing medical status and on other treatments being received.

  1. Monocyte subset dynamics in human atherosclerosis can be profiled with magnetic nano-sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Wildgruber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes are circulating macrophage and dendritic cell precursors that populate healthy and diseased tissue. In humans, monocytes consist of at least two subsets whose proportions in the blood fluctuate in response to coronary artery disease, sepsis, and viral infection. Animal studies have shown that specific shifts in the monocyte subset repertoire either exacerbate or attenuate disease, suggesting a role for monocyte subsets as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Assays are therefore needed that can selectively and rapidly enumerate monocytes and their subsets. This study shows that two major human monocyte subsets express similar levels of the receptor for macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSFR but differ in their phagocytic capacity. We exploit these properties and custom-engineer magnetic nanoparticles for ex vivo sensing of monocytes and their subsets. We present a two-dimensional enumerative mathematical model that simultaneously reports number and proportion of monocyte subsets in a small volume of human blood. Using a recently described diagnostic magnetic resonance (DMR chip with 1 microl sample size and high throughput capabilities, we then show that application of the model accurately quantifies subset fluctuations that occur in patients with atherosclerosis.

  2. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  3. Cell surface expression and function of the macromolecular C1 complex on the surface of human monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga K Hosszu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of the subunits of the C1 complex (C1q, C1s, C1r, and its regulator C1 inhibitor (C1-Inh by human monocytes has been previously established. However, surface expression of these molecules by monocytes has not been shown. Using flow cytometry and antigen-capture ELISA, we show here for the first time that, in addition to C1q, PB monocytes and the monocyte-derived U937 cells express C1s and C1r, as well as Factor B and C1-Inh on their surface. C1s and C1r immunoprecipitated with C1q, suggesting that at least some of the C1q on these cells is part of the C1 complex. Furthermore, the C1 complex on U937 cells was able to trigger complement activation via the classical pathway. The presence of C1-Inh may ensure that an unwarranted autoactivation of the C1 complex does not take place. Since C1-Inh closely monitors the activation of the C1 complex in a sterile or infectious inflammatory environment, further elucidation of the role of C1 complex is crucial to dissect its function in monocyte, DC and T cell activities, and its implications in host defense and tolerance.

  4. Monocyte Recruitment by HLA IgG‐Activated Endothelium: The Relationship Between IgG Subclass and FcγRIIa Polymorphisms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valenzuela, N. M; Trinh, K. R; Mulder, A; Morrison, S. L; Reed, E. F

    2015-01-01

    ...RIIa polymorphisms, the authors show the ability of different human IgG subclasses to cause endothelial activation and recruitment of monocytes, and evaluate therapeutic potential of IgG with two...

  5. Human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes express a distinct RNA profile compared to human control and murine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulzewsky, Frank; Arora, Sonali; de Witte, Lot; Ulas, Thomas; Markovic, Darko; Schultze, Joachim L; Holland, Eric C; Synowitz, Michael; Wolf, Susanne A; Kettenmann, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive brain tumor in adults. It is strongly infiltrated by microglia and peripheral monocytes that support tumor growth. In the present study we used RNA sequencing to compare the expression profile of CD11b(+) human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes (hGAMs) to CD11b(+) microglia isolated from non-tumor samples. Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis showed a clear separation of the two sample groups and we identified 334 significantly regulated genes in hGAMs. In comparison to human control microglia hGAMs upregulated genes associated with mitotic cell cycle, cell migration, cell adhesion, and extracellular matrix organization. We validated the expression of several genes associated with extracellular matrix organization in samples of human control microglia, hGAMs, and the hGAMs-depleted fraction via qPCR. The comparison to murine GAMs (mGAMs) showed that both cell populations share a significant fraction of upregulated transcripts compared with their respective controls. These genes were mostly related to mitotic cell cycle. However, in contrast to murine cells, human GAMs did not upregulate genes associated to immune activation. Comparison of human and murine GAMs expression data to several data sets of in vitro-activated human macrophages and murine microglia showed that, in contrast to mGAMs, hGAMs share a smaller overlap to these data sets in general and in particular to cells activated by proinflammatory stimulation with LPS + INFγ or TNFα. Our findings provide new insights into the biology of human glioblastoma-associated microglia/monocytes and give detailed information about the validity of murine experimental models. GLIA 2016 GLIA 2016;64:1416-1436. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. C1q Binding to and Uptake of Apoptotic Lymphocytes by Human Monocyte-derived Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Marie E; Clarke, Elizabeth V; Tenner, Andrea J

    2013-09-05

    To characterize macrophage gene expression profiles during the uptake of autologous apoptotic cells, we developed a unique, more physiologic system using primary human monocyte derived macrophages purified via a nonactivating isolation procedure (and in the absence of contaminating platelets, which can release stimulating signals if activated) and autologous lymphocytes as a source of apoptotic cells. The use of autologous cells as the apoptotic target rather than transformed cell lines avoids antigenic stimulation from "nonself" structures at the HLA level but also from "altered self" signals due to the transformation inherent in cell lines.

  7. Role of nanostructured gold surfaces on monocyte activation and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Sara; Forsberg, Magnus; Hulander, Mats; Vazirisani, Forugh; Palmquist, Anders; Lausmaa, Jukka; Thomsen, Peter; Trobos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The role of material surface properties in the direct interaction with bacteria and the indirect route via host defense cells is not fully understood. Recently, it was suggested that nanostructured implant surfaces possess antimicrobial properties. In the current study, the adhesion and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis and human monocyte adhesion and activation were studied separately and in coculture in different in vitro models using smooth gold and well-defined nanostructured gold surfaces. Two polystyrene surfaces were used as controls in the monocyte experiments. Fluorescent viability staining demonstrated a reduction in the viability of S. epidermidis close to the nanostructured gold surface, whereas the smooth gold correlated with more live biofilm. The results were supported by scanning electron microscopy observations, showing higher biofilm tower formations and more mature biofilms on smooth gold compared with nanostructured gold. Unstimulated monocytes on the different substrates demonstrated low activation, reduced gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and low cytokine secretion. In contrast, stimulation with opsonized zymosan or opsonized live S. epidermidis for 1 hour significantly increased the production of reactive oxygen species, the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-10, as well as the secretion of TNF-α, demonstrating the ability of the cells to elicit a response and actively phagocytose prey. In addition, cells cultured on the smooth gold and the nanostructured gold displayed a different adhesion pattern and a more rapid oxidative burst than those cultured on polystyrene upon stimulation. We conclude that S. epidermidis decreased its viability initially when adhering to nanostructured surfaces compared with smooth gold surfaces, especially in the bacterial cell layers closest to the surface. In contrast, material surface properties neither strongly

  8. Inactivation of lipid glyceryl ester metabolism in human THP1 monocytes/macrophages by activated organophosphorus insecticides: role of carboxylesterases 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shuqi; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Hatfield, M Jason; Edwards, Carol C; Potter, Philip M; Ross, Matthew K

    2010-12-20

    Carboxylesterases (CES) have important roles in pesticide and drug metabolism and contribute to the clearance of ester-containing xenobiotics in mammals. Tissues with the highest levels of CES expression are the liver and small intestine. In addition to xenobiotics, CES also harness their broad substrate specificity to hydrolyze endobiotics, such as cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols. Here, we determined if two human CES isoforms, CES1 and CES2, hydrolyze the endocannabinoids 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) and anandamide (AEA), and two prostaglandin glyceryl esters (PG-Gs), which are formed by COX-mediated oxygenation of 2AG. We show that recombinant CES1 and CES2 efficiently hydrolyze 2AG to arachidonic acid (AA) but not amide-containing AEA. Steady-state kinetic parameters for CES1- and CES2-mediated 2AG hydrolysis were, respectively, kcat, 59 and 43 min(-1); Km, 49 and 46 μM; and kcat/Km, 1.2 and 0.93 μM(-1) min(-1). kcat/Km values are comparable to published values for rat monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL)-catalyzed 2AG hydrolysis. Furthermore, we show that CES1 and CES2 also efficiently hydrolyze PGE2-G and PGF2α-G. In addition, when cultured human THP1 macrophages were treated with exogenous 2AG or PG-G (10 μM, 1 h), significant quantities of AA or PGs were detected in the culture medium; however, the ability of macrophages to metabolize these compounds was inhibited (60-80%) following treatment with paraoxon, the toxic metabolite of the insecticide parathion. Incubation of THP1 cell lysates with small-molecule inhibitors targeting CES1 (thieno[3,2-e][1]benzothiophene-4,5-dione or JZL184) significantly reduced lipid glyceryl ester hydrolase activities (40-50% for 2AG and 80-95% for PG-Gs). Immunodepletion of CES1 also markedly reduced 2AG and PG-G hydrolase activities. These results suggested that CES1 is in part responsible for the hydrolysis of 2AG and PG-Gs in THP1 cells, although it did not rule out a role for other hydrolases, especially with regard

  9. Lipopolysaccharide-Elicited TSLPR Expression Enriches a Functionally Discrete Subset of Human CD14+ CD1c+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Vastolo, Viviana; Petrosino, Giuseppe; Visconte, Feliciano; Raia, Maddalena; Scalia, Giulia; Loffredo, Stefania; Varricchi, Gilda; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Granata, Francescopaolo; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2017-05-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine produced mainly by epithelial cells in response to inflammatory or microbial stimuli and binds to the TSLP receptor (TSLPR) complex, a heterodimer composed of TSLPR and IL-7 receptor α (CD127). TSLP activates multiple immune cell subsets expressing the TSLPR complex and plays a role in several models of disease. Although human monocytes express TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in response to the TLR4 agonist LPS, their responsiveness to TSLP is poorly defined. We demonstrate that TSLP enhances human CD14+ monocyte CCL17 production in response to LPS and IL-4. Surprisingly, only a subset of CD14+ CD16- monocytes, TSLPR+ monocytes (TSLPR+ mono), expresses TSLPR complex upon LPS stimulation in an NF-κB- and p38-dependent manner. Phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic analysis revealed specific features of TSLPR+ mono, including higher CCL17 and IL-10 production and increased expression of genes with important immune functions (i.e., GAS6, ALOX15B, FCGR2B, LAIR1). Strikingly, TSLPR+ mono express higher levels of the dendritic cell marker CD1c. This evidence led us to identify a subset of peripheral blood CD14+ CD1c+ cells that expresses the highest levels of TSLPR upon LPS stimulation. The translational relevance of these findings is highlighted by the higher expression of TSLPR and CD127 mRNAs in monocytes isolated from patients with Gram-negative sepsis compared with healthy control subjects. Our results emphasize a phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in an apparently homogeneous population of human CD14+ CD16- monocytes and prompt further ontogenetic and functional analysis of CD14+ CD1c+ and LPS-activated CD14+ CD1c+ TSLPR+ mono. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Human Galectin-3 Is a Novel Chemoattractant for Monocytes and Macrophages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sano, Hideki; Hsu, Daniel K; Yu, Lan; Apgar, John R; Kuwabara, Ichiro; Yamanaka, Tohru; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Liu, Fu-Tong

    2000-01-01

    ...-galactoside-binding protein implicated in diverse biological processes. We found that galectin-3 induced human monocyte migration in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and it was chemotactic at high concentrations (1.0 µM...

  11. Uremic conditions drive human monocytes to pro-atherogenic differentiation via an angiotensin-dependent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Trojanowicz

    Full Text Available Elevated expression levels of monocytic-ACE have been found in haemodialysis patients. They are not only epidemiologically linked with increased mortality and cardiovascular disease, but may also directly participate in the initial steps of atherosclerosis. To further address this question we tested the role of monocytic-ACE in promotion of atherosclerotic events in vitro under conditions mimicking those of chronic renal failure.Treatment of human primary monocytes or THP-1 cells with uremic serum as well as PMA-induced differentiation led to significantly up-regulated expression of ACE, further increased by additional treatment with LPS. Functionally, these monocytes revealed significantly increased adhesion and transmigration through endothelial monolayers. Overexpression of ACE in transfected monocytes or THP-1 cells led to development of more differentiated, macrophage-like phenotype with up-regulated expression of Arg1, MCSF, MCP-1 and CCR2. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFa and IL-6 were also noticeably up-regulated. ACE overexpression resulted in significantly increased adhesion and transmigration properties. Transcriptional screening of ACE-overexpressing monocytes revealed noticeably increased expression of Angiotensin II receptors and adhesion- as well as atherosclerosis-related ICAM-1 and VCAM1. Inhibition of monocyte ACE or AngII-receptor signalling led to decreased adhesion potential of ACE-overexpressing cells.Taken together, these data demonstrate that uremia induced expression of monocytic-ACE mediates the development of highly pro-atherogenic cells via an AngII-dependent mechanism.

  12. Blood monocyte oxidative burst activity in acute P. falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Theander, T G

    1989-01-01

    The release of superoxide anion from blood monocytes was studied in eight patients with acute primary attack P. falciparum malaria. Before treatment a significant enhancement of the oxidative burst prevailed, which contrasts with previous findings of a depressed monocyte chemotactic responsiveness...

  13. Chloroform extract of aged black garlic attenuates TNF-α-induced ROS generation, VCAM-1 expression, NF-κB activation and adhesiveness for monocytes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Na; Choi, Young Whan; Kim, Hye Kyung; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Myoung June; Lee, Hee Woo; Kim, Ki-Hyung; Bae, Sun Sik; Kim, Bong Seon; Yoon, Sik

    2011-01-01

    Aged black garlic is a type of fermented garlic (Allium sativum) which has been used in Oriental countries for a long time because of various biological properties of garlic derivatives. The current study explored the potential of the chloroform extract of aged black garlic (CEABG) in attenuating the activities of adhesion molecules in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The study was performed on HUVECs that were pretreated with 30 μg/mL of CEABG before TNF-α treatment. Treatment of HUVECs with CEABG significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. HUVECs treated with CEABG showed markedly suppressed TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of VCAM-1, but little alteration in ICAM-1 and E-selectin mRNA expression. CEABG treatment also significantly decreased the TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of VCAM-1 without affecting ICAM-1 and E-selectin expression. In addition, treatment of HUVECs with CEABG markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, CEABG significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of CEABG that may have a potential therapeutic use for the prevention and treatment of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Efficient activation of T cells by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (HMDCs pulsed with Coxiella burnetii outer membrane protein Com1 but not by HspB-pulsed HMDCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xile

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular bacterium and the etiologic agent of Q fever; both coxiella outer membrane protein 1 (Com1 and heat shock protein B (HspB are its major immunodominant antigens. It is not clear whether Com1 and HspB have the ability to mount immune responses against C. burnetii infection. Results The recombinant proteins Com1 and HspB were applied to pulse human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (HMDCs, and the pulsed HMDCs were used to stimulate isogenic T cells. Com1-pulsed HMDCs expressed substantially higher levels of surface molecules (CD83, CD40, CD80, CD86, CD54, and CD58 and a higher level of interleukin-12 than HspB-pulsed HMDCs. Moreover, Com1-pulsed HMDCs induced high-level proliferation and activation of CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which expressed high levels of T-cell activation marker CD69 and inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ and TNF-α. In contrast, HspB-pulsed HMDCs were unable to induce efficient T-cell proliferation and activation. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that Com1-pulsed HMDCs are able to induce efficient T-cell proliferation and drive T cells toward Th1 and Tc1 polarization; however, HspB-pulsed HMDCs are unable to do so. Unlike HspB, Com1 is a protective antigen, which was demonstrated by the adoptive transfer of Com1-pulsed bone marrow dendritic cells into naive BALB/c mice.

  15. Oxaprozin-Induced Apoptosis on CD40 Ligand-Treated Human Primary Monocytes Is Associated with the Modulation of Defined Intracellular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Montecucco

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of CD40L activity might represent a promising therapeutic target to reduce monocyte inflammatory functions in chronic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. In the present study, we investigated the possible influence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on CD40L-induced monocyte survival. Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats by using Ficoll-Percoll gradients. Monocyte apoptosis was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy on cytopreps stained with acridine orange or using flow cytometry analysis of Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide staining. Akt and NF-κB activation was assessed using western blot. Caspase 3 activity was determined spectrophotometrically. Among different NSAIDs, only oxaprozin dose-dependently increased apoptosis of CD40L-treated monocytes. Oxaprozin pro-apoptotic activity was associated with the inhibition of CD40L-triggered Akt and NF-κB phosphorylation and the activation of caspase 3. In conclusion, our data suggest that oxaprozin-induced apoptosis in CD40L-treated human monocytes is associated with previously unknown cyclooxygenase (COX-independent pathways. These intracellular proteins might be promising pharmacological targets to increase apoptosis in CD40L-treated monocytes.

  16. Endothelial cells suppress monocyte activation through secretion of extracellular vesicles containing antiinflammatory microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njock, Makon-Sébastien; Cheng, Henry S; Dang, Lan T; Nazari-Jahantigh, Maliheh; Lau, Andrew C; Boudreau, Emilie; Roufaiel, Mark; Cybulsky, Myron I; Schober, Andreas; Fish, Jason E

    2015-05-14

    The blood contains high concentrations of circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs), and their levels and contents are altered in several disease states, including cardiovascular disease. However, the function of circulating EVs, especially the microRNAs (miRNAs) that they contain, are poorly understood. We sought to determine the effect of secreted vesicles produced by quiescent endothelial cells (ECs) on monocyte inflammatory responses and to assess whether transfer of microRNAs occurs between these cells. We observed that monocytic cells cocultured (but not in contact) with ECs were refractory to inflammatory activation. Further characterization revealed that endothelium-derived EVs (EC-EVs) suppressed monocyte activation by enhancing immunomodulatory responses and diminishing proinflammatory responses. EVs isolated from mouse plasma also suppressed monocyte activation. Importantly, injection of EC-EVs in vivo repressed monocyte/macrophage activation, confirming our in vitro findings. We found that several antiinflammatory microRNAs were elevated in EC-EV-treated monocytes. In particular, miR-10a was transferred to monocytic cells from EC-EVs and could repress inflammatory signaling through the targeting of several components of the NF-κB pathway, including IRAK4. Our findings reveal that ECs secrete EVs that can modulate monocyte activation and suggest that altered EV secretion and/or microRNA content may affect vascular inflammation in the setting of cardiovascular disease. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Monocyte tissue factor–dependent activation of coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys is inhibited by simvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A. Phillip; Passam, Freda H.; Antoniak, Silvio; Marshall, Stephanie M.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Rudel, Lawrence; Williams, Julie C.; Hubbard, Brian K.; Dutton, Julie-Ann; Wang, Jianguo; Tobias, Peter S.; Curtiss, Linda K.; Daugherty, Alan; Kirchhofer, Daniel; Luyendyk, James P.; Moriarty, Patrick M.; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Furie, Barbara C.; Furie, Bruce; Johns, Douglas G.; Temel, Ryan E.; Mackman, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for atherosclerosis. It also is associated with platelet hyperactivity, which increases morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. However, the mechanisms by which hypercholesterolemia produces a procoagulant state remain undefined. Atherosclerosis is associated with accumulation of oxidized lipoproteins within atherosclerotic lesions. Small quantities of oxidized lipoproteins are also present in the circulation of patients with coronary artery disease. We therefore hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia leads to elevated levels of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) in plasma and that this induces expression of the procoagulant protein tissue factor (TF) in monocytes. In support of this hypothesis, we report here that oxLDL induced TF expression in human monocytic cells and monocytes. In addition, patients with familial hypercholesterolemia had elevated levels of plasma microparticle (MP) TF activity. Furthermore, a high-fat diet induced a time-dependent increase in plasma MP TF activity and activation of coagulation in both LDL receptor–deficient mice and African green monkeys. Genetic deficiency of TF in bone marrow cells reduced coagulation in hypercholesterolemic mice, consistent with a major role for monocyte-derived TF in the activation of coagulation. Similarly, a deficiency of either TLR4 or TLR6 reduced levels of MP TF activity. Simvastatin treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice and monkeys reduced oxLDL, monocyte TF expression, MP TF activity, activation of coagulation, and inflammation, without affecting total cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that the prothrombotic state associated with hypercholesterolemia is caused by oxLDL-mediated induction of TF expression in monocytes via engagement of a TLR4/TLR6 complex. PMID:22214850

  18. Minocycline Inhibition of Monocyte Activation Correlates with Neuronal Protection in SIV NeuroAIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer H.; Burdo, Tricia H.; Autissier, Patrick; Bombardier, Jeffrey P.; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Soulas, Caroline; González, R. Gilberto; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Williams, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Minocycline is a tetracycline antibiotic that has been proposed as a potential conjunctive therapy for HIV-1 associated cognitive disorders. Precise mechanism(s) of minocycline's functions are not well defined. Methods Fourteen rhesus macaques were SIV infected and neuronal metabolites measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS). Seven received minocycline (4 mg/kg) daily starting at day 28 post-infection (pi). Monocyte expansion and activation were assessed by flow cytometry, cell traffic to lymph nodes, CD16 regulation, viral replication, and cytokine production were studied. Results Minocycline treatment decreased plasma virus and pro-inflammatory CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes, and reduced their expression of CD11b, CD163, CD64, CCR2 and HLA-DR. There was reduced recruitment of monocyte/macrophages and productively infected cells in axillary lymph nodes. There was an inverse correlation between brain NAA/Cr (neuronal injury) and circulating CD14+CD16+ and CD14loCD16+ monocytes. Minocycline treatment in vitro reduced SIV replication CD16 expression on activated CD14+CD16+ monocytes, and IL-6 production by monocytes following LPS stimulation. Conclusion Neuroprotective effects of minocycline are due in part to reduction of activated monocytes, monocyte traffic. Mechanisms for these effects include CD16 regulation, reduced viral replication, and inhibited immune activation. PMID:21494695

  19. Dietary strawberries increase the proliferative response of CD3/CD28-activated CD8⁺ T cells and the production of TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes from obese human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, Susan J; Storms, David H; Freytag, Tammy L; Mackey, Bruce E; Zhao, Ling; Gouffon, Julia S; Hwang, Daniel H

    2013-12-14

    Obesity increases the risk of developing bacterial and viral infections compared with normal weight. In a 7-week double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial, twenty obese volunteers (BMI between 30 and 40 kg/m²) were fed freeze-dried strawberry powder or strawberry-flavoured placebo preparations to determine the effects of dietary strawberries on immune function. Blood was collected at six time points during the study and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at each time point and activated with CD3 plus CD28 antibodies (T-lymphocyte activation) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, monocyte activation). Interferon-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 were measured in supernatants from the activated T cells. Supernatants from the activated monocytes were analysed for the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8. PBMC were pre-stained with PKH (Paul Karl Horan) dye and activated with CD3 plus CD28 antibodies to determine the proliferative responses of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-lymphocytes by flow cytometry. To detect global changes in gene expression, microarray analysis was performed on LPS- and vehicle-treated PBMC from two subjects before and after the strawberry intervention. No difference was observed for the production of T-cell cytokines between the intervention groups. The production of TNF-α was increased in the supernatants from LPS-activated PBMC in the group consuming strawberries compared with the placebo. A modest increase in the proliferation of the CD8⁺ T-lymphocyte population was observed at 24 h post-activation. These data suggest that dietary strawberries may increase the immunological response of T-lymphocytes and monocytes in obese people who are at greater risk for developing infections.

  20. Inactivation of lipid glyceryl ester metabolism in human THP1 monocytes/macrophages by activated organophosphorus insecticides: Role of carboxylesterase 1 and 2

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Shuqi; Borazjani, Abdolsamad; Hatfield, M. Jason; Edwards, Carol C.; Potter, Philip M.; Ross, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    Carboxylesterases (CES) have important roles in pesticide and drug metabolism, and contribute to the clearance of ester-containing xenobiotics in mammals. Tissues with the highest levels of CES expression are the liver and small intestine. In addition to xenobiotics, CES also harness their broad substrate specificity to hydrolyze endobiotics, such as cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols. Here we determined if two human CES isoforms, CES1 and CES2, hydrolyze the endocannabinoids 2-arachidon...

  1. Intracellular activity of the peptide antibiotic NZ2114: studies with Staphylococcus aureus and human THP-1 monocytes, and comparison with daptomycin and vancomycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Karoline Sidelmann; Tulkens, Paul M; Van Bambeke, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus survives inside eukaryotic cells. Our objective was to assess the activity of NZ2114, a novel peptidic antibiotic, against intracellular S. aureus in comparison with established antistaphylococcal agents acting on the bacterial envelope with a distinct mechanism.......Staphylococcus aureus survives inside eukaryotic cells. Our objective was to assess the activity of NZ2114, a novel peptidic antibiotic, against intracellular S. aureus in comparison with established antistaphylococcal agents acting on the bacterial envelope with a distinct mechanism....

  2. Estradiol coupling to human monocyte nitric oxide release is dependent on intracellular calcium transients: evidence for an estrogen surface receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, G B; Prevot, V; Beauvillain, J C; Fimiani, C; Welters, I; Cadet, P; Breton, C; Pestel, J; Salzet, M; Bilfinger, T V

    1999-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that estrogen acutely stimulates constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) activity in human peripheral monocytes by acting on an estrogen surface receptor. NO release was measured in real time with an amperometric probe. 17beta-estradiol exposure to monocytes stimulated NO release within seconds in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas 17alpha-estradiol had no effect. 17beta-estradiol conjugated to BSA (E2-BSA) also stimulated NO release, suggesting mediation by a membrane surface receptor. Tamoxifen, an estrogen receptor inhibitor, antagonized the action of both 17beta-estradiol and E2-BSA, whereas ICI 182,780, a selective inhibitor of the nuclear estrogen receptor, had no effect. We further showed, using a dual emission microfluorometry in a calcium-free medium, that the 17beta-estradiol-stimulated release of monocyte NO was dependent on the initial stimulation of intracellular calcium transients in a tamoxifen-sensitive process. Leeching out the intracellular calcium stores abolished the effect of 17beta-estradiol on NO release. RT-PCR analysis of RNA obtained from the cells revealed a strong estrogen receptor-alpha amplification signal and a weak beta signal. Taken together, a physiological dose of estrogen acutely stimulates NO release from human monocytes via the activation of an estrogen surface receptor that is coupled to increases in intracellular calcium.

  3. Cannabinoid inhibits HIV-1 Tat-stimulated adhesion of human monocyte-like cells to extracellular matrix proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raborn, Erinn S.; Jamerson, Melissa; Marciano-Cabral, Francine; Cabral, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the effect of select cannabinoids on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transactivating (Tat) protein-enhanced monocyte-like cell adhesion to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Main Methods Collagen IV, laminin, or an ECM gel were used to construct extracellular matrix layers. Human U937 monocyte-like cells were exposed to Tat in the presence of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), CP55,940, and other select cannabinoids. Cell attachment to ECM proteins was assessed using an adhesion assay. Key findings THC and CP55,940 inhibited Tat-enhanced attachment of U937 cells to ECM proteins in a mode that was linked to the cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2R). The cannabinoid treatment of Tat-activated U937 cells was associated with altered β1-integrin expression and distribution of polymerized actin, suggesting a modality by which these cannabinoids inhibited adhesion to the ECM. Significance The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a complex structure that is composed of cellular elements and an extracellular matrix (ECM). HIV-1 Tat promotes transmigration of monocytes across this barrier, a process that includes interaction with ECM proteins. The results indicate that cannabinoids that activate the CB2R inhibit the ECM adhesion process. Thus, this receptor has potential to serve as a therapeutic agent for ablating neuroinflammation associated with HIV-elicited influx of monocytes across the BBB. PMID:24742657

  4. Microparticles Engineered to Highly Express Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Decreased Inflammatory Mediator Production and Increased Adhesion of Recipient Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahler, Julie; Woeller, Collynn F.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ). In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles also changed monocyte

  5. Microparticles engineered to highly express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ decreased inflammatory mediator production and increased adhesion of recipient monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Sahler

    Full Text Available Circulating blood microparticles are submicron vesicles released primarily by megakaryocytes and platelets that act as transcellular communicators. Inflammatory conditions exhibit elevated blood microparticle numbers compared to healthy conditions. Direct functional consequences of microparticle composition, especially internal composition, on recipient cells are poorly understood. Our objective was to evaluate if microparticle composition could impact the function of recipient cells, particularly during inflammatory provocation. We therefore engineered the composition of megakaryocyte culture-derived microparticles to generate distinct microparticle populations that were given to human monocytes to assay for influences recipient cell function. Herein, we tested the responses of monocytes exposed to either control microparticles or microparticles that contain the anti-inflammatory transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ. In order to normalize relative microparticle abundance from two microparticle populations, we implemented a novel approach that utilizes a Nanodrop Spectrophotometer to assay for microparticle density rather than concentration. We found that when given to peripheral blood mononuclear cells, microparticles were preferentially internalized by CD11b+ cells, and furthermore, microparticle composition had a profound functional impact on recipient monocytes. Specifically, microparticles containing PPARγ reduced activated monocyte production of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared to activated monocytes exposed to control microparticles. Additionally, treatment with PPARγ microparticles greatly increased monocyte cell adherence. This change in morphology occurred simultaneously with increased production of the key extracellular matrix protein, fibronectin and increased expression of the fibronectin-binding integrin, ITGA5. PPARγ microparticles

  6. Monocyte activation in HIV/HCV coinfection correlates with cognitive impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Rempel

    Full Text Available Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV challenges the immune system with two viruses that elicit distinct immune responses. Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and an accurate indicator of disease progression. Suppressing HIV viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART effectively prolongs life and significantly improves immune function. HIV/HCV coinfected individuals have peripheral immune activation despite effective ART control of HIV viral load. Here we examined freshly isolated CD14 monocytes for gene expression using high-density cDNA microarrays and analyzed T cell subsets, CD4 and CD8, by flow cytometry to characterize immune activation in monoinfected HCV and HIV, and HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects. To determine the impact of coinfection on cognition, subjects were evaluated in 7 domains for neuropsychological performance, which were summarized as a global deficit score (GDS. Monocyte gene expression analysis in HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects identified 43 genes that were elevated greater than 2.5 fold. Correlative analysis of subjects' GDS and gene expression found eight genes with significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Correlative expression of six genes was confirmed by qPCR, five of which were categorized as type 1 IFN response genes. Global deficit scores were not related to plasma lipopolysaccharide levels. In the T cell compartment, coinfection significantly increased expression of activation markers CD38 and HLADR on both CD4 and CD8 T cells but did not correlate with GDS. These findings indicate that coinfection is associated with a type 1 IFN monocyte activation profile which was further found to correlate with cognitive impairment, even in subjects with controlled HIV infection. HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects with controlled HIV viral load experiencing immune activation could benefit significantly from successful anti-HCV therapy and may be

  7. Alpha interferon-induced antiretroviral activities: restriction of viral nucleic acid synthesis and progeny virion production in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Baca-Regen, L; Heinzinger, N; Stevenson, M; Gendelman, H E

    1994-01-01

    Alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) restricts multiple steps of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) life cycle. A well-described effect of IFN-alpha is in the modulation of viral nucleic acid synthesis. We demonstrate that IFN-alpha influences HIV-1 DNA synthesis principally by reducing the production of late products of reverse transcription. The magnitude of IFN-alpha-induced downregulation of HIV-1 DNA and/or progeny virion production was dependent on the IFN-alpha concentration, the ...

  8. Degradation of tissue-type plasminogen activator by human monocyte- derived macrophages is mediated by the mannose receptor and by the low- density lipoprotein receptor-related protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, F.; Braat, E.A.M.; Rijken, D.C.

    1995-01-01

    The balance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) production and degradation determines its concentration in blood and tissues. Disturbance of this balance may result in either increased or decreased proteolysis. In the present study, we identified the receptor systems involved in the

  9. Toxicity of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) on human monocytes and their mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbary, Fatemeh; Seydi, Enaytollah; Naserzadeh, Parvaneh; Salimi, Ahmad

    2017-12-20

    The effect of nanotitanium dioxide (TiO2-NP) in human monocytes is still unknown. Therefore, an understanding of probable cytotoxicity of TiO2-NP on human monocytes and underlining the mechanisms involved is of significant interest. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxicity of TiO2-NP on human monocytes. Using biochemical and flow cytometry assessments, we demonstrated that addition of TiO2-NP at 10 μg/ml concentration to monocytes induced cytotoxicity following 12 h. The TiO2-NP-induced cytotoxicity on monocytes was associated with intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) collapse, lysosomal membrane injury, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione. According to our results, TiO2-NP triggers oxidative stress and organelles damages in monocytes which are important cells in defense against foreign agents. Finally, our findings suggest that use of antioxidants and mitochondrial/lysosomal protective agents could be of benefit for the people in the exposure with TiO2-NP.

  10. Mycoplasma fermentans MALP-2 induces heme oxygenase-1 expression via mitogen-activated protein kinases and Nrf2 pathways to modulate cyclooxygenase 2 expression in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaohua; You, Xiaoxing; Zeng, Yanhua; He, Jun; Liu, Liangzhuan; Deng, Zhongliang; Jiang, Chuanhao; Wu, Haiying; Zhu, Cuiming; Yu, Minjun; Wu, Yimou

    2013-06-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress-inducible rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation that confers cytoprotection against oxidative injury and performs a vital function in the maintenance of cell hemostasis. Increasing numbers of reports have indicated that mycoplasma-derived membrane lipoproteins/lipopeptides, such as macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2), function as agents that stimulate the immune system by producing various inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which play roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory responses during mycoplasma infection. Here, we report that MALP-2 induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression and upregulated HO-1 enzyme activity in THP-1 cells. Specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), SB203580, PD98059, and SP600125, significantly abolished HO-1 expression. In addition, MALP-2 also induced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) translocation, and the silencing of Nrf2 expression in THP-1 cells decreased the levels of MALP-2-mediated HO-1 expression. Furthermore, COX-2 protein expression levels were upregulated in THP-1 cells in response to MALP-2, and transfection with small interfering RNAs of HO-1 significantly increased COX-2 accumulation. These results demonstrate that MALP-2 induces HO-1 expression via MAPKs and Nrf2 pathways and, furthermore, that MALP-2-induced COX-2 expression was modulated by HO-1 in THP-1 cells.

  11. The Effect of Tacrolimus and Mycophenolic Acid on CD14+ Monocyte Activation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Nynke M; Hesselink, Dennis A; Dieterich, Marjolein; Kraaijeveld, Rens; Rowshani, Ajda T; Leenen, Pieter J M; Baan, Carla C

    2017-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages play key roles in many disease states, including cellular and humoral rejection after solid organ transplantation (SOT). To suppress alloimmunity after SOT, immunosuppressive drug therapy is necessary. However, little is known about the effects of the immunosuppressive drugs tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid (MPA) on monocyte activation and function. Here, the effect of these immunosuppressants on monocytes was investigated by measuring phosphorylation of three intracellular signaling proteins which all have a major role in monocyte function: p38MAPK, ERK and Akt. In addition, biological functions downstream of these signaling pathways were studied, including cytokine production, phagocytosis and differentiation into macrophages. To this end, blood samples from healthy volunteers were spiked with diverse concentrations of tacrolimus and MPA. Tacrolimus (200 ng/ml) inhibited phosphorylation of p38MAPK by 30% (mean) in CD14+ monocytes which was significantly less than in activated CD3+ T cells (max 60%; p tacrolimus or MPA. The production of IL-1β and phagocytosis by monocytes were not affected by tacrolimus concentrations, whereas MPA did inhibit IL-1β production by 50%. Monocyte/macrophage polarization was shifted to an M2-like phenotype in the presence of tacrolimus, while MPA increased the expression of M2 surface markers, including CD163 and CD200R, on M1 macrophages. These results show that tacrolimus and MPA do not strongly affect monocyte function, apart from a change in macrophage polarization, to a clinically relevant degree.

  12. Form Matters: Stable Helical Foldamers Preferentially Target Human Monocytes and Granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Secco, Benedetta; Malachin, Giulia; Milli, Lorenzo; Zanna, Nicola; Papini, Emanuele; Cornia, Andrea; Tavano, Regina; Tomasini, Claudia

    2017-02-20

    Some hybrid foldamers of various length, all containing the (4R,5S)-4-carboxy-5-methyloxazolidin-2-one (d-Oxd) moiety alternating with an l-amino acid (l-Val, l-Lys, or l-Ala), were prepared in order to study their preferred conformations and to evaluate their biological activity. Surprisingly, only the longer oligomers containing l-Ala fold into well-established helices, whereas all the other oligomers give partially unfolded turn structures. Nevertheless, they all show good biocompatibility, with no detrimental effects up to 64 μm. After equipping some selected foldamers with the fluorescent tag rhodamine B, a quantitative analysis was performed by dose- and time-response fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) assays with human HeLa cells and primary blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes. Among the cell types analyzed, the oligomers associated with monocytes and granulocytes with greatest efficacy, still visible after 24 h incubation. This effect is even more pronounced for foldamers that are able to form stable helices. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Phenotypic Characterization of Human Monocytes following Macronutrient Intake in Healthy Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Alshahrani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThree subsets of human monocytes in circulation have been identified and their characterization is still ill-defined. Although glucose and lipid intakes have been demonstrated to exert pro-inflammatory effects on mononuclear cells (MNCs of healthy subjects, characterization of monocytes phenotypes following macronutrient (glucose, protein, and lipid intake in humans remains to be determined.MethodsThirty-six healthy, normal weight volunteers were recruited in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned into three groups, each group consisting of 12 participants. Each group drank equal calories (300 kcal of either glucose or lipids or whey proteins. Each subject served as his own control by drinking 300 mL of water 1 week before or after the caloric intake. Baseline blood samples were drawn at 0, 1, 2, and 3-h intervals post caloric or water intakes. MNCs were isolated, and the expression levels of different cluster of differentiation (CD markers (CD86, CD11c, CD169, CD206, CD163, CD36, CD68, CD11b, CD16, and CD14 and IL-6 were measured by RT-qPCR.ResultsEquicaloric intake of either glucose or lipids or whey proteins resulted in different monocyte phenotypes as demonstrated by changes in the expression levels of CD and polarization markers. Whey proteins intake resulted in significant mRNA upregulation in MNCs of CD68 and CD11b at 1, 2, and 3 h post intake while mRNA of IL-6 was significantly inhibited at 1 h. Lipids intake, on the other hand, resulted in mRNA upregulation of CD11b at 2 and 3 h and CD206 at 1, 2, and 3 h. There were no significant changes in the other CD markers measured (CD86, CD163, CD169, CD36, CD16, and CD14 following either whey proteins or lipids intakes. Glucose intake did not alter mRNA expression of any marker tested except CD206 at 3 h.ConclusionMacronutrient intake alters the expression levels of polarization markers in MNCs of human subjects. A distinct population of different monocytes

  14. A curated compendium of monocyte transcriptome datasets of relevance to human monocyte immunobiology research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darawan Rinchai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Systems-scale profiling approaches have become widely used in translational research settings. The resulting accumulation of large-scale datasets in public repositories represents a critical opportunity to promote insight and foster knowledge discovery. However, resources that can serve as an interface between biomedical researchers and such vast and heterogeneous dataset collections are needed in order to fulfill this potential. Recently, we have developed an interactive data browsing and visualization web application, the Gene Expression Browser (GXB. This tool can be used to overlay deep molecular phenotyping data with rich contextual information about analytes, samples and studies along with ancillary clinical or immunological profiling data. In this note, we describe a curated compendium of 93 public datasets generated in the context of human monocyte immunological studies, representing a total of 4,516 transcriptome profiles. Datasets were uploaded to an instance of GXB along with study description and sample annotations. Study samples were arranged in different groups. Ranked gene lists were generated based on relevant group comparisons. This resource is publicly available online at http://monocyte.gxbsidra.org/dm3/landing.gsp.

  15. Inhibitory and stimulatory effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pyocyanine on human T and B lymphocytes and human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, A J; Pryjma, J; Tarnok, Z; Ernst, M; Flad, H D

    1990-01-01

    Pyocyanine, a pigment produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has dual dose-dependent stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects on immune responses in vitro as measured by DNA synthesis of human T and B lymphocytes, interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by human T lymphocytes, immunoglobulin production by human B lymphocytes, and monokine production by human monocytes. In general, stimulatory activity was found at low concentrations of pyocyanine, whereas high concentrations of the pigment resulted in an inhibition of responses. At a pyocyanine concentration of 0.1 micrograms/ml or less the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was enhanced, but at 0.5 micrograms/ml it was suppressed. IL-2 production by T lymphocytes was enhanced at concentrations up to 0.5 micrograms/ml but totally inhibited at 1.0 micrograms/ml. The differentiation of B lymphocytes to become immunoglobulin-producing cells was also enhanced in the presence of low doses of pyocyanine, whereas secretion of immunoglobulin by B lymphocytes was suppressed at all concentrations of pyocyanine. In contrast to the dual effects of pyocyanine on lymphocyte response, lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor release by monocytes was markedly enhanced by low as well as high concentrations of pyocyanine. From these results we conclude that this property of pyocyanine may lead to suppression of specific defense mechanisms and enhance harmful inflammatory reactions of the host during infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:2106495

  16. Amelioration of Glucolipotoxicity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by a “Chemical Chaperone” in Human THP-1 Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raji Lenin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic ER stress is emerging as a trigger that imbalances a number of systemic and arterial-wall factors and promote atherosclerosis. Macrophage apoptosis within advanced atherosclerotic lesions is also known to increase the risk of atherothrombotic disease. We hypothesize that glucolipotoxicity might mediate monocyte activation and apoptosis through ER stress. Therefore, the aims of this study are (a to investigate whether glucolipotoxicity could impose ER stress and apoptosis in THP-1 human monocytes and (b to investigate whether 4-Phenyl butyric acid (PBA, a chemical chaperone could resist the glucolipotoxicity-induced ER stress and apoptosis. Cells subjected to either glucolipotoxicity or tunicamycin exhibited increased ROS generation, gene and protein (PERK, GRP-78, IRE1α, and CHOP expression of ER stress markers. In addition, these cells showed increased TRPC-6 channel expression and apoptosis as revealed by DNA damage and increased caspase-3 activity. While glucolipotoxicity/tunicamycin increased oxidative stress, ER stress, mRNA expression of TRPC-6, and programmed the THP-1 monocytes towards apoptosis, all these molecular perturbations were resisted by PBA. Since ER stress is one of the underlying causes of monocyte dysfunction in diabetes and atherosclerosis, our study emphasize that chemical chaperones such as PBA could alleviate ER stress and have potential to become novel therapeutics.

  17. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné

    2015-01-01

    negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly......The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood....... The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted...

  18. Evidence for unfolded protein response activation in monocytes from individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carroll, Tomás P

    2010-04-15

    The hereditary disorder alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and presents with emphysema in young adults and liver disease in childhood. The most common form of AAT deficiency occurs because of the Z mutation, causing the protein to fold aberrantly and accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This leads to ER stress and contributes significantly to the liver disease associated with the condition. In addition to hepatocytes, AAT is also synthesized by monocytes, neutrophils, and epithelial cells. In this study we show for the first time that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in quiescent monocytes from ZZ individuals. Activating transcription factor 4, X-box binding protein 1, and a subset of genes involved in the UPR are increased in monocytes from ZZ compared with MM individuals. This contributes to an inflammatory phenotype with ZZ monocytes exhibiting enhanced cytokine production and activation of the NF-kappaB pathway when compared with MM monocytes. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular accumulation of AAT within the ER of ZZ monocytes. These are the first data showing that Z AAT protein accumulation induces UPR activation in peripheral blood monocytes. These findings change the current paradigm regarding lung inflammation in AAT deficiency, which up until now was derived from the protease-anti-protease hypothesis, but which now must include the exaggerated inflammatory response generated by accumulated aberrantly folded AAT in circulating blood cells.

  19. Development of a new protocol for 2-day generation of mature dendritic cells from human monocytes

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    Obermaier Bianca

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a new 2-day protocol for the generation of dendritic cells (DCs from human monocytes in vitro. First, we demonstrated that 24 hours of culture with GM-CSF and IL-4 are sufficient to generate immature DCs capable of antigen uptake. We then compared two different strategies for DC maturation: proinflammatory mediators were either added together with GM-CSF and IL-4 from the beginning of cell culture or added after 24 hours of differentiation with GM-CSF and IL-4. After 48 hours of total culture period, expression of activation markers was more pronounced in cells generated by the 2-step differentiation and activation method. Our new protocol for 2-day DC differentiation reduces labor, cost and time and also reliably renders high numbers of mature and viable DCs.

  20. Human Monocyte Recognition of Adenosine-Based Cyclic Dinucleotides Unveils the A2a Gαs Protein-Coupled Receptor Tonic Inhibition of Mitochondrially Induced Cell Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Frédéric; Bétous, Delphine; Ravet, Emmanuel; Ligat, Laetitia; Lopez, Frédéric; Poupot, Mary; Poirot, Marc; Pérouzel, Éric; Tiraby, Gérard; Verhoeyen, Els

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic dinucleotides are important messengers for bacteria and protozoa and are well-characterized immunity alarmins for infected mammalian cells through intracellular binding to STING receptors. We sought to investigate their unknown extracellular effects by adding cyclic dinucleotides to the culture medium of freshly isolated human blood cells in vitro. Here we report that adenosine-containing cyclic dinucleotides induce the selective apoptosis of monocytes through a novel apoptotic pathway. We demonstrate that these compounds are inverse agonist ligands of A2a, a Gαs-coupled adenosine receptor selectively expressed by monocytes. Inhibition of monocyte A2a by these ligands induces apoptosis through a mechanism independent of that of the STING receptors. The blockade of basal (adenosine-free) signaling from A2a inhibits protein kinase A (PKA) activity, thereby recruiting cytosolic p53, which opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and impairs mitochondrial respiration, resulting in apoptosis. A2a antagonists and inverse agonist ligands induce apoptosis of human monocytes, while A2a agonists are antiapoptotic. In vivo, we used a mock developing human hematopoietic system through NSG mice transplanted with human CD34+ cells. Treatment with cyclic di-AMP selectively depleted A2a-expressing monocytes and their precursors via apoptosis. Thus, monocyte recognition of cyclic dinucleotides unravels a novel proapoptotic pathway: the A2a Gαs protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven tonic inhibitory signaling of mitochondrion-induced cell death. PMID:25384972

  1. Targeting Tumor Necrosis Factor-α with Adalimumab: Effects on Endothelial Activation and Monocyte Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghav Oberoi

    Full Text Available It is well known that atherosclerotic inflammatory vascular disease is critically driven by oxidized lipids and cytokines. In this regard, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α is known as a crucial mediator of early pro-atherosclerotic events. Epidemiologic data suggest that blockade of TNF-α has beneficial effects on vascular outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, however, detailed mechanistic studies are still lacking. This study aims to elucidate effects of TNF-α blockade by adalimumab-which is approved for several inflammatory disorders-on endothelial activation and monocyte adhesion under pro-atherosclerotic conditions.Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with oxidized low density lipoprotein and subsequent analysis of this conditioned media (oxLDL CM revealed a strong release of TNF-α. The TNF-α rich supernatant led to activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC as shown by enhanced expression of major adhesion molecules, such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and E-selectin which was suppressed by the TNF-α inhibitor adalimumab. Accordingly, adalimumab effectively prevented THP-1 monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells under static as well as under flow conditions. Furthermore, adalimumab suppressed endothelial leakage as shown by Evan's blue diffusion across a confluent endothelial monolayer. Of note, after intraperitoneal injection we detected abundant deposition of fluorophore-labelled adalimumab in atherosclerotic plaques of hypercholesterolemic mice.Our results show that adalimumab prevents major inflammatory effects of TNF-α on endothelial activation, endothelial monocyte adhesion, endothelial leakage and therefore extends the therapeutic options of adalimumab to limit vascular inflammation.

  2. Lipid-cell interactions in human monocytes investigated by doubly-resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Weeks, Tyler; Schie, Iwan; den Hartigh, Laura J.; Rutledge, John C.; Huser, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that doubly-resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering can provide enhanced and highly specific contrast for molecules containing unique Raman-active small molecular groups. This combination provides contrast for molecules that can otherwise be difficult to discriminate by Raman spectroscopy. Here, human monocytes were incubated with either deuterated oleic acid or 17-octadecynoic acid (a fatty acid with an end terminal acetylene group). The carbon-deuterium stretching vibr...

  3. IκBζ Regulates Human Monocyte Pro-Inflammatory Responses Induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Kruthika; Rahman, Mohd. Akhlakur; Mitra, Srabani; Knoell, Daren L.; Woodiga, Shireen A.; King, Samantha J.

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal lung infections represent a major cause of death worldwide. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NFKBIZ gene, encoding the transcription factor IκBζ, are associated with increased susceptibility to invasive pneumococcal disease. We hence analyzed how IκBζ might regulate inflammatory responses to pneumococcal infection. We first demonstrate that IκBζ is expressed in human blood monocytes but not in bronchial epithelial cells, in response to wild type pneumococcal strain D39. D39 transiently induced IκBζ in a dose dependent manner, with subsequent induction of downstream molecules involved in host defense. Of these molecules, IκBζ knockdown reduced the expression of IL-6 and GMCSF. Furthermore, IκBζ overexpression increased the activity of IL-6 and GMCSF promoters, supporting the knockdown findings. Pneumococci lacking either pneumolysin or capsule still induced IκBζ. While inhibition of TLR1/TLR2 blocked D39 induced IκBζ expression, TLR4 inhibition did not. Blockade of p38 MAP kinase and NFκB suppressed D39 induced IκBζ. Overall, our data demonstrates that IκBζ regulates monocyte inflammatory responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae by promoting the production of IL-6 and GMCSF. PMID:27597997

  4. T-cell cytokines differentially control human monocyte antimicrobial responses by regulating vitamin D metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edfeldt, Kristina; Liu, Philip T; Chun, Rene; Fabri, Mario; Schenk, Mirjam; Wheelwright, Matthew; Keegan, Caroline; Krutzik, Stephan R; Adams, John S; Hewison, Martin; Modlin, Robert L

    2010-12-28

    We investigated the mechanisms by which T-cell cytokines are able to influence the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-induced, vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway in human monocytes. T-cell cytokines differentially influenced TLR2/1-induced expression of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and DEFB4, being up-regulated by IFN-γ, down-regulated by IL-4, and unaffected by IL-17. The Th1 cytokine IFN-γ up-regulated TLR2/1 induction of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylase (i.e., CYP27B1), leading to enhanced bioconversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) (25D(3)) to its active metabolite 1,25D(3). In contrast, the Th2 cytokine IL-4, by itself and in combination with the TLR2/1 ligand, induced catabolism of 25D(3) to the inactive metabolite 24,25D(3), and was dependent on expression of vitamin D-24-hydroxylase (i.e., CYP24A1). Therefore, the ability of T-cell cytokines to differentially control monocyte vitamin D metabolism represents a mechanism by which cell-mediated immune responses can regulate innate immune mechanisms to defend against microbial pathogens.

  5. A System Dynamics Model to Predict the Human Monocyte Response to Endotoxins

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    Enrique Álvarez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available System dynamics is a powerful tool that allows modeling of complex and highly networked systems such as those found in the human immune system. We have developed a model that reproduces how the exposure of human monocytes to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs induces an inflammatory state characterized by high production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, which is rapidly modulated to enter into a tolerant state, known as endotoxin tolerance (ET. The model contains two subsystems with a total of six states, seven flows, two auxiliary variables, and 14 parameters that interact through six differential and nine algebraic equations. The parameters were estimated and optimized to obtain a model that fits the experimental data obtained from human monocytes treated with various LPS doses. In contrast to publications on other animal models, stimulation of human monocytes with super-low-dose LPSs did not alter the response to a second LPSs challenge, neither inducing ET, nor enhancing the inflammatory response. Moreover, the model confirms the low production of TNFα and increased levels of C–C motif ligand 2 when monocytes exhibit a tolerant state similar to that of patients with sepsis. At present, the model can help us better understand the ET response and might offer new insights on sepsis diagnostics and prognosis by examining the monocyte response to endotoxins in patients with sepsis.

  6. Inhibition of monocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells by human milk oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Lars; Kunz, Clemens; Muhly-Reinholz, Marion; Mayer, Konstantin; Seeger, Werner; Rudloff, Silvia

    2004-12-01

    Excessive leukocyte infiltration causes severe tissue damage in a variety of inflammatory diseases. The initial step in leukocyte extravasation is mediated by selectins and oligosaccharides on their glycoconjugate ligands. Human milk is a rich source of lactose-derived oligosaccharides that are partly absorbed in the intestine and excreted with the urine. As these components contain binding determinants for the selectins we investigated whether human milk oligosaccharides are able to affect leukocyte rolling and adhesion to endothelial cells under dynamic conditions. Therefore, monocytes, lymphocytes, or neutrophils isolated from human peripheral blood were passed over TNF-alpha-activated HUVEC under shear stress. The influence of different oligosaccharide fractions was determined by video-microscopy and compared with the effects of various individual oligosaccharides. Within a physiological range (12.5 - 125 microg/ml) the acidic fraction significantly inhibited leukocyte rolling and adhesion (up to 24.0% and 52.8%, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. These effects were even more pronounced than those achieved by soluble sialyl-Lewis x, a physiological binding determinant for selectins. Several active components within the oligosaccharide fraction of human milk were identified, e.g. 3'-sialyl-lactose and 3'-sialyl-3-fucosyl-lactose. These results indicate that specific oligosaccharides in human milk may serve as anti-inflammatory components and might therefore contribute to the lower incidence of inflammatory diseases in human milk-fed infants.

  7. Monocyte activation drives preservation of membrane thiols by promoting release of oxidised membrane moieties via extracellular vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó-Taylor, K É; Tóth, E Á; Balogh, A M; Sódar, B W; Kádár, L; Pálóczi, K; Fekete, N; Németh, A; Osteikoetxea, X; Vukman, K V; Holub, M; Pállinger, É; Nagy, Gy; Winyard, P G; Buzás, E I

    2017-07-01

    The redox state of cellular exofacial molecules is reflected by the amount of available thiols. Furthermore, surface thiols can be considered as indicators of immune cell activation. One group of thiol containing proteins, peroxiredoxins, in particular, have been associated with inflammation. In this study, we assessed surface thiols of the U937 and Thp1 monocyte cell lines and primary monocytes in vitro upon inflammatory stimulation by irreversibly labelling the cells with a fluorescent derivative of maleimide. We also investigated exofacial thiols on circulating blood mononuclear cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and healthy controls. When analysing extracellular vesicles, we combined thiol labelling with the use of antibodies to specific CD markers to exclude extracellular vesicle mimicking signals from thiol containing protein aggregates. Furthermore, differential detergent lysis was applied to confirm the vesicular nature of the detected extracellular events in blood plasma. We found an increase in exofacial thiols on monocytes upon in vitro stimulation by LPS or TNF, both in primary monocytes and monocytic cell lines (pextracellular vesicles showed a decrease in their exofacial thiols compared with those from unstimulated cells (pextracellular vesicles of isolated CD14 + cells from rheumatoid arthritis patients had decreased thiol levels compared with healthy subjects (pextracellular vesicles was increased in rheumatoid arthritis blood plasma (pextracellular vesicle-enriched preparations from blood plasma. Our data show that cell surface thiols play a protective role and reflect oxidative stress resistance state in activated immune cells. Furthermore, they support a role of extracellular vesicles in the redox regulation of human monocytes, possibly representing an antioxidant mechanism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Vastatins inhibit cholesterol ester accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, H.J.M.; Vermeer, M.; Wit, E.de; Havekes, L.M.

    1991-01-01

    Human monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated for 48 hours in Medium 199 with 1% human serum albumin, and with 100 μg acetyl low density lipoprotein (LDL) or β-very low density lipoprotein (β-VLDL), with or without various concentrations of compactin, lovastatin, simvastatin, or pravastatin. The

  9. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M.; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N?Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-01-01

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16(+) monocytes with a poor activa...

  10. In vitro interaction of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela eRoscetto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is increasingly identified as an opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, cancer and cystic fibrosis (CF patients. Knowledge on innate immune responses to S. maltophilia and its potential modulation is poor. The present work investigated the ability of 12 clinical S. maltophilia strains (5 from CF patients, 7 from non-CF patients and one environmental strain to survive inside human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs. The effects of the bacteria on maturation of and cytokine secretion by DCs were also measured. S. maltophilia strains presented a high degree of heterogeneity in internalization and intracellular replication efficiencies as well as in the ability of S. maltophilia to interfere with normal DCs maturation. By contrast, all S. maltophilia strains were able to activate DCs, as measured by increase in the expression of surface maturation markers and proinflammatory cytokines secretion.

  11. Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT–PRAS40 autophagy pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Tania O.; Cleophas, Maartje C. P.; Novakovic, Boris; Erler, Kathrin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G.; Netea, Mihai G.; Dinarello, Charles A.; Joosten, Leo A. B.

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which uric acid selectively lowers human blood monocyte production of the natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and shifts production toward the highly inflammatory IL-1β. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were first primed with uric acid for 24 h and then subjected to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of MSU. Transcriptomic analysis revealed broad inflammatory pathways associated with uric acid priming, with NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling strongly increased. Functional validation did not identify NF-κB or AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but uric acid priming induced phosphorylation of AKT and proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS 40), which in turn activated mTOR. Subsequently, Western blot for the autophagic structure LC3-I and LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) fractions, as well as fluorescence microscopy of LC3-GFP–overexpressing HeLa cells, revealed lower autophagic activity in cells exposed to uric acid compared with control conditions. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species production was diminished by uric acid priming. Thus, the Akt–PRAS40 pathway is activated by uric acid, which inhibits autophagy and recapitulates the uric acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine phenotype. PMID:28484006

  12. Uric acid priming in human monocytes is driven by the AKT-PRAS40 autophagy pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Tania O; Cleophas, Maartje C P; Novakovic, Boris; Erler, Kathrin; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Netea, Mihai G; Dinarello, Charles A; Joosten, Leo A B

    2017-05-23

    Metabolic triggers are important inducers of the inflammatory processes in gout. Whereas the high serum urate levels observed in patients with gout predispose them to the formation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals, soluble urate also primes for inflammatory signals in cells responding to gout-related stimuli, but also in other common metabolic diseases. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms through which uric acid selectively lowers human blood monocyte production of the natural inhibitor IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and shifts production toward the highly inflammatory IL-1β. Monocytes from healthy volunteers were first primed with uric acid for 24 h and then subjected to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of MSU. Transcriptomic analysis revealed broad inflammatory pathways associated with uric acid priming, with NF-κB and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling strongly increased. Functional validation did not identify NF-κB or AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but uric acid priming induced phosphorylation of AKT and proline-rich AKT substrate 40 kDa (PRAS 40), which in turn activated mTOR. Subsequently, Western blot for the autophagic structure LC3-I and LC3-II (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) fractions, as well as fluorescence microscopy of LC3-GFP-overexpressing HeLa cells, revealed lower autophagic activity in cells exposed to uric acid compared with control conditions. Interestingly, reactive oxygen species production was diminished by uric acid priming. Thus, the Akt-PRAS40 pathway is activated by uric acid, which inhibits autophagy and recapitulates the uric acid-induced proinflammatory cytokine phenotype.

  13. Induction of alpha interferon by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human monocyte-macrophage cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Szebeni, J; Dieffenbach, C; Wahl, S M; Venkateshan, C N; Yeh, A; Popovic, M.; Gartner, S; Wahl, L M; Peterfy, M; Friedman, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    The induction of interferon (IFN) by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in primary, nonstimulated monocyte-macrophage cultures was studied. HIV-1 infection, as confirmed by p24 antigen levels in the cell supernatant, led to the production of alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) over 7 to 21 days following infection. In two of seven experiments, the IFN detected was acid labile. Coupled reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed the induction of IFN-alpha mRNA in cells...

  14. Immature dendritic cells generated from cryopreserved human monocytes show impaired ability to respond to LPS and to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Ferreira Silveira

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells play a key role in the immune system, in the sensing of foreign antigens and triggering of an adaptive immune response. Cryopreservation of human monocytes was investigated to understand its effect on differentiation into immature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (imdDCs, the response to inflammatory stimuli and the ability to induce allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. Cryopreserved (crp-monocytes were able to differentiate into imdDCs, albeit to a lesser extent than freshly (frh-obtained monocytes. Furthermore, crp-imdDCs had lower rates of maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion in response to LPS than frh-imdDCs. Lower expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (at 24 and 48 h and higher susceptibility to apoptosis in crp-imdDCs than in fresh cells would account for the impaired maturation and cytokine/chemokine secretion observed. A mixed leukocyte reaction showed that lymphocyte proliferation was lower with crp-imdDCs than with frh-imdDCs. These findings suggested that the source of monocytes used to generate human imdDCs could influence the accuracy of results observed in studies of the immune response to pathogens, lymphocyte activation, vaccination and antigen sensing. It is not always possible to work with freshly isolated monocytes but the possible effects of freezing/thawing on the biology and responsiveness of imdDCs should be taken into account.

  15. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R; Bernal, Paula J; Fresnay, Stephanie; Darton, Thomas C; Jones, Claire; Waddington, Claire S; Blohmke, Christoph J; Dougan, Gordon; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2015-06-01

    A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi) was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD-) 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h) and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia) endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e.g., monocytes, dendritic cells -DCs-). Various changes in circulating monocytes and DCs have been described in the murine S. Typhimurium model; however, whether similar changes are present in humans remains to be explored. To address these questions, a subset of volunteers (5 TD and 3 who did not develop typhoid despite oral challenge -NoTD-) were evaluated for changes in circulating monocytes and DCs. Expression of CD38 and CD40 were upregulated in monocytes and DCs in TD volunteers during the disease days (TD-0h to TD-96h). Moreover, integrin α4β7, a gut homing molecule, was upregulated on monocytes but not DCs. CD21 upregulation was only identified in DCs. These changes were not observed among NoTD volunteers despite the same oral challenge. Moreover, monocytes and DCs from NoTD volunteers showed increased binding to S. Typhi one day after challenge. These monocytes showed phosphorylation of p38MAPK, NFkB and Erk1/2 upon stimulation with S. Typhi-LPS-QDot micelles. In contrast, monocytes from TD volunteers showed only a moderate increase in S. Typhi binding 48 h and 96 h post-TD, and only Erk1/2 phosphorylation. This is the first study to describe different activation and migration profiles, as well as differential signaling patterns, in monocytes and DCs which relate directly to the clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild type S. Typhi.

  16. Augmented TLR2 expression on monocytes in both human Kawasaki disease and a mouse model of coronary arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Chun; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Lin, Ying-Jui; Wang, Feng-Shen; Wang, Lin; Huang, Shun-Chen; Chien, Shao-Ju; Huang, Chien-Fu; Wang, Chih-Lu; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Rong-Fu; Yang, Kuender D

    2012-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced coronary arteritis. Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG) treatment at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2009. Blood samples from KD patients were collected before and after IVIG treatment, and cardiovascular abnormalities were examined by transthoracic echocardiography. Wild-type male BALB/c mice (4-week-old) were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1 mg/mL) to induce coronary arteritis. The induced immune response in mice was examined on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injections, and histopathology studies were performed on days 7 and 14. Both human KD patients and LCWE-treated mice developed coronary arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and pericarditis, as well as elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in acute phase. Most of these proinflammatory cytokines declined to normal levels in mice, whereas normal levels were achieved in patients only after IVIG treatment, with a few exceptions. Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, but not TLR4 surface enhancement on circulating CD14+ monocytes, was augmented in KD patients before IVIG treatment and in LCWE-treated mice, which declined in patients after IVIG treatment. This result suggests that that not only TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human KD patients and LCWE-induced CAL mouse model but also this model is feasible for studying therapeutic strategies of coronary arteritis in human KD by modulating TLR2-mediated immune activation on CD14

  17. Augmented TLR2 expression on monocytes in both human Kawasaki disease and a mouse model of coronary arteritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Kawasaki disease (KD of unknown immunopathogenesis is an acute febrile systemic vasculitis and the leading cause of acquired heart diseases in childhood. To search for a better strategy for the prevention and treatment of KD, this study compared and validated human KD immunopathogenesis in a mouse model of Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE-induced coronary arteritis. METHODS: Recruited subjects fulfilled the criteria of KD and were admitted for intravenous gamma globulin (IVIG treatment at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital from 2001 to 2009. Blood samples from KD patients were collected before and after IVIG treatment, and cardiovascular abnormalities were examined by transthoracic echocardiography. Wild-type male BALB/c mice (4-week-old were intraperitoneally injected with LCWE (1 mg/mL to induce coronary arteritis. The induced immune response in mice was examined on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 post injections, and histopathology studies were performed on days 7 and 14. RESULTS: Both human KD patients and LCWE-treated mice developed coronary arteritis, myocarditis, valvulitis, and pericarditis, as well as elevated plasma levels of interleukin (IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α in acute phase. Most of these proinflammatory cytokines declined to normal levels in mice, whereas normal levels were achieved in patients only after IVIG treatment, with a few exceptions. Toll-like receptor (TLR-2, but not TLR4 surface enhancement on circulating CD14+ monocytes, was augmented in KD patients before IVIG treatment and in LCWE-treated mice, which declined in patients after IVIG treatment. CONCLUSION: This result suggests that that not only TLR2 augmentation on CD14+ monocytes might be an inflammatory marker for both human KD patients and LCWE-induced CAL mouse model but also this model is feasible for studying therapeutic strategies of coronary arteritis in human KD by

  18. Effects of an interleukin-1 receptor antagonist on human sleep, sleep-associated memory consolidation, and blood monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eva-Maria; Linz, Barbara; Diekelmann, Susanne; Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2015-07-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1 beta (IL-1) are major players in the interaction between the immune system and the central nervous system. Various animal studies report a sleep-promoting effect of IL-1 leading to enhanced slow wave sleep (SWS). Moreover, this cytokine was shown to affect hippocampus-dependent memory. However, the role of IL-1 in human sleep and memory is not yet understood. We administered the synthetic IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra (IL-1ra) in healthy humans (100mg, subcutaneously, before sleep; n=16) to investigate the role of IL-1 signaling in sleep regulation and sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Inasmuch monocytes have been considered a model for central nervous microglia, we monitored cytokine production in classical and non-classical blood monocytes to gain clues about how central nervous effects of IL-1ra are conveyed. Contrary to our expectation, IL-1ra increased EEG slow wave activity during SWS and non-rapid eye movement (NonREM) sleep, indicating a deepening of sleep, while sleep-associated memory consolidation remained unchanged. Moreover, IL-1ra slightly increased prolactin and reduced cortisol levels during sleep. Production of IL-1 by classical monocytes was diminished after IL-1ra. The discrepancy to findings in animal studies might reflect species differences and underlines the importance of studying cytokine effects in humans. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Interactions of TANGO and leukocyte integrin CD11c/CD18 regulate the migration of human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephanie; Melle, Christian; Mondal, Krishna; Klein, Gerd; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2007-12-01

    The TANGO gene was originally identified as a new member of the MIA gene family. It codes for a protein of yet unknown function. TANGO revealed a very broad expression pattern in contrast to the highly restricted expression pattern determined for the other family members. The only cells lacking TANGO expression are cells of the hematopoietic system. One of the major differences between mature hematopoietic cells and other tissue cells is the lack of adhesion until these cells leave the bloodstream. In this study, we observed that TANGO expression was induced after adhesion of human monocytic cells to substrate. To understand the mechanism of TANGO function during monocyte adhesion we isolated interacting proteins and found an interaction between TANGO and the leukocyte-specific integrin CD11c. In functional assays, we observed reduced attachment of human monocytic cells to fibrinogen, ICAM-1 and to human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) after stimulation with recombinant TANGO protein. Additionally, the migrating capacity of premonocytic cells through fibrinogen or HMECs was increased after stimulation of these cells with recombinant TANGO. Therefore, we suggest that TANGO reduced the attachment to fibrinogen or other cell adhesion molecules. As TANGO does not compete for CD11c ligand binding directly, we hypothesize TANGO function by modulation of integrin activity. Taken together, the results from this study present TANGO as a novel ligand for CD11c, regulating migratory processes of hematopoietic cells.

  20. MiR-200b modulates the properties of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells by targeting WASF3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanlin; Li, Jie; Xia, Wei; Chen, Chen; Zhu, Heng; Chen, Jide; Li, Shaohua; Su, Xueting; Qin, Xingliang; Ding, Hongmei; Long, Long; Wang, Lili; Li, Zhanghua; Liao, Wen; Zhang, Yi; Shao, Ningsheng

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of miR-200b on the development of human peripheral blood monocyte-deriveddendritic-cell (DC) and its mechanisms. Expression levels of miR-200b and its predicted targets were measured by real time-PCR. Protein expression of WASF3 was determined by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque density gradient centrifugation from the buffy coat fraction of anticoagulated blood. Monocytes were purified from PBMCs using anti-CD14 microbeads. The immunophenotypes of DCs were tested by flow cytometry. A strong reduction in miR-200b expression was associated with human peripheral blood monocyte-derivedDC differentiation. The overexpression of miR-200b significantly reduced the numbers of protruding veils in mature DCs (mDCs) that are critical for promoting antigen-specificT-cell activation. Further experiments showed that miR-200b could regulate the function of DCs by targeting WASF3, a protein involved in cell movement and invasion. Our results define an important function of miR-200b in the negative regulation of DC development and provide a potential form of miRNA-mediated cell therapy for diseases that range from auto-immunity to graft-versus-host disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Flagella from five Cronobacter species induce pro-inflammatory cytokines in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadnna Cruz-Córdova

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. are opportunistic pathogens linked to lie-threatening infections in neonates and contaminated powdered infant formula that has been epidemiologically associated with these cases. Clinical symptoms of Cronobacter include necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteremia, and meningitis. Flagella from C. sakazakii are involved in biofilm formation and its adhesion to epithelial cells. We investigated the role of flagella from C. sakazakii ST1 and ST4, C. malonaticus, C. muytjensii, C. turicensis and C. dublinensis during the activation of cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 in macrophage derivatives from human monocytes, which has not been extensively studied. The production and identity of flagella from the five Cronobacter species were visualized and recognized with anti-flagella antibodies by immunogold labeling through transmission electron microscopy. Purified flagella were dissociated into monomers in 12% SDS-PAGE Coomassie blue-stained gels showing a band of ∼28 kDa and, in addition, mass spectrometry revealed the presence of several peptides that correspond to flagellin. Flagella (100 ng induced the release of IL-8 (3314-6025 pg/ml, TNF-α (39-359 pg/ml, and IL-10 (2-96 pg/ml, in macrophage isolates from human monocytes and similar results were obtained when flagella were dissociated into monomers. Inhibition assays using three dilutions of anti-flagella antibodies (1∶10, 1∶100, and 1∶200 suppressed the secretion of IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-10 between 95-100% using 100 ng of protein. A transfection assay using 293-hTLR5 cells showed IL-8 release of 197 pg/ml and suppression in the secretion of IL-8 when anti-hTLR5-IgA antibodies were used at different concentrations. These observations suggest that flagella and flagellin are involved in an inflammatory response dependent on TLR5 recognition, which could contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacteria.

  2. Mechanism of Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake) mushroom-induced apoptosis of U937 human monocytic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Kang, Mi Young; Choi, Yong Hee; Kim, Jae Ho; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-06-01

    Phytochemicals in some foods are a potential source of bioactive safe compounds for cancer chemoprevention and suppression of tumor initiation, promotion, and metastasis. In the present study, we evaluated hot water (HWE), microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE), acidic (ACE), and alkaline (AKE) extracts of the fruitbody (sporocarp) of Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake, Lion's Mane) mushrooms for their ability to induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in U937 human monocytic leukemia cells. Cell culture, cell viability, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, chromosomal DNA integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and activation and inhibition of caspase assays were carried out to help define the mechanism of observed apoptosis. The aqueous and aqueous/ethanolic extracts were active in all assays, whereas the acidic and alkaline extracts with the similar proximate compositions were both inactive. The results of the bioassays with the active extracts are consistent with an apoptosis mechanism governing suppression of the cell proliferation pathway that involves activation of mitochondria-mediated caspase-3 and caspase-9 but not caspase-8. Proximate analysis of the freeze-dried mushroom powder showed that it contains high amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, and minerals. The results indicate that H. erinaceus mushrooms may have therapeutic potential against human leukemia.

  3. Monocyte-macrophage membrane possesses free radicals scavenging activity: stimulation by polyphenols or by paraoxonase 1 (PON1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblat, M; Elias, A; Volkova, N; Aviram, M

    2013-04-01

    In the current study, we analysed free radicals scavenging activity of monocytes-macrophages in the absence or presence of antioxidants such as polyphenols or paraoxonase 1 (PON1). THP-1 human monocytic cell line, murine J774A.1 macrophages, as well as human primary monocytes have the capability to scavenge free radicals, as measured by the 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. This effect (which could be attributed to the cell's membrane) was cell number and incubation time dependent. Upon incubation of J774A.1 macrophages with acetylated LDL (Ac-LDL), with VLDL, or with the radical generator, AAPH, the cells' lipid peroxides content, and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) activity were significantly increased. While non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 65%, the Ac-LDL-, VLDL- or AAPH-treated cells, decreased it by only 33%, 30%, or 45%, respectively. We next analysed the effect of J774A.1 macrophage enrichment with antioxidants, such as polyphenols or PON1 on the cells' free radicals scavenging activity. Non-treated cells decreased DPPH absorbance by 50%, whereas vitamin E-, punicalagin- or PJ-treated cells significantly further decreased it, by 75%. Similarly, in PON1-treated cells DPPH absorbance was further decreased by 63%, in association with 23% increment in PON1 catalytic activity. In cells under oxidative stress [treated with AAPH-, or with oxidized LDL], PON1 activity was decreased by 31% or 40%, as compared to the activity observed in PON1 incubated with non-treated cells. We conclude that monocytes-macrophages possess free radicals scavenging activity, which is decreased under atherogenic conditions, and increased upon cell enrichment with potent antioxidants such as nutritional polyphenols, or PON1.

  4. Human Airway Epithelial Cells Direct Significant Rhinovirus Replication in Monocytic Cells by Enhancing ICAM1 Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu; Zhu, Lingxiang; Lizarraga, Rosa; Chen, Yin

    2017-08-01

    Human rhinovirus (RV) is the major cause of common cold, and it also plays a significant role in asthma and asthma exacerbation. The airway epithelium is the primary site of RV infection and production. In contrast, monocytic cells (e.g., monocytes and macrophages) are believed to be nonpermissive for RV replication. Instead, RV has been shown to modulate inflammatory gene expressions in these cells via a replication-independent mechanism. In the study presented here, replication of RV16 (a major-group RV) was found to be significantly enhanced in monocytes when it was cocultivated with airway epithelial cells. This effect appeared to be mediated by secretory components from epithelial cells, which stimulated RV16 replication and significantly elevated the expression of a number of proinflammatory cytokines. The lack of such an effect on RV1A, a minor-group RV that enters the cell by a different receptor, suggests that intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1), the receptor for major-group RVs, may be involved. Indeed, conditioned media from epithelial cells significantly increased ICAM1 expression in monocytes. Consistently, ICAM1 overexpression and ICAM1 knockdown enhanced and blocked RV production, respectively, confirming the role of ICAM1 in this process. Thus, this is the first report demonstrating that airway epithelial cells direct significant RV16 replication in monocytic cells via an ICAM1-dependent mechanism. This finding will open a new avenue for the study of RV infection in airway disease and its exacerbation.

  5. Polarization of migrating monocytic cells is independent of PI 3-kinase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Volpe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migration of mammalian cells is a complex cell type and environment specific process. Migrating hematopoietic cells assume a rapid amoeboid like movement when exposed to gradients of chemoattractants. The underlying signaling mechanisms remain controversial with respect to localization and distribution of chemotactic receptors within the plasma membrane and the role of PI 3-kinase activity in cell polarization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a novel model for the investigation of human leukocyte migration. Monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with the alpha(2A-adrenoceptor (alpha(2AAR display comparable signal transduction responses, such as calcium mobilization, MAP-kinase activation and chemotaxis, to the noradrenaline homologue UK 14'304 as when stimulated with CCL2, which binds to the endogenous chemokine receptor CCR2. Time-lapse video microscopy reveals that chemotactic receptors remain evenly distributed over the plasma membrane and that their internalization is not required for migration. Measurements of intramolecular fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET of alpha(2AAR-YFP/CFP suggest a uniform activation of the receptors over the entire plasma membrane. Nevertheless, PI 3-kinase activation is confined to the leading edge. When reverting the gradient of chemoattractant by moving the dispensing micropipette, polarized monocytes--in contrast to neutrophils--rapidly flip their polarization axis by developing a new leading edge at the previous posterior side. Flipping of the polarization axis is accompanied by re-localization of PI-3-kinase activity to the new leading edge. However, reversal of the polarization axis occurs in the absence of PI 3-kinase activation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Accumulation and internalization of chemotactic receptors at the leading edge is dispensable for cell migration. Furthermore, uniformly distributed receptors allow the cells to rapidly reorient and adapt to changes in the

  6. Isolation of IL-12p70-competent human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Jonas Nørskov; Pedersen, Susanne Brix

    2012-01-01

    Diverse methodologies ranging from experimental immunological studies to immunotherapy involve the application of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). Considerable donor-dependent variations in the moDC production of IL-12p70 affect the outcome of these methodologies. It has been shown...

  7. Nucleotides Regulate Secretion of the Inflammatory Chemokine CCL2 from Human Macrophages and Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. Higgins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available CCL2 is an important inflammatory chemokine involved in monocyte recruitment to inflamed tissues. The extracellular nucleotide signalling molecules UTP and ATP acting via the P2Y2 receptor are known to induce CCL2 secretion in macrophages. We confirmed this in the human THP-1 monocytic cell line showing that UTP is as efficient as LPS at inducing CCL2 at early time points (2–6 hours. Expression and calcium mobilisation experiments confirmed the presence of functional P2Y2 receptors on THP-1 cells. UTP stimulation of human peripheral CD14+ monocytes showed low responses to LPS (4-hour stimulation but a significant increase above background following 6 hours of treatment. The response to UTP in human monocytes was variable and required stimulation >6 hours. With such variability in response we looked for single nucleotide polymorphisms in P2RY2 that could affect the functional response. Sequencing of P2RY2 from THP-1 cells revealed the presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism altering amino acid 312 from arginine to serine (rs3741156. This polymorphism is relatively common at a frequency of 0.276 (n=404 subjects. Finally, we investigated CCL2 secretion in response to LPS or UTP in human macrophages expressing 312Arg-P2Y2 or 312Ser-P2Y2 where only the latter exhibited significant UTP-induced CCL2 secretion (n=5 donors per group.

  8. Interleukin 10 Increases CCR5 Expression and HIV Infection in Human Monocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozzani, Silvano; Ghezzi, Silvia; Iannolo, Gioacchino; Luini, Walter; Borsatti, Alessandro; Polentarutti, Nadia; Sica, Antonio; Locati, Massimo; Mackay, Charles; Wells, Timothy N.C.; Biswas, Priscilla; Vicenzi, Elisa; Poli, Guido; Mantovani, Alberto

    1998-01-01

    The immunosuppressive and antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL) 10 selectively upregulates the expression of the CC chemokine receptors CCR5, 2, and 1 in human monocytes by prolonging their mRNA half-life. IL-10–stimulated monocytes display an increased number of cell surface receptors for, and better chemotactic responsiveness to, relevant agonists than do control cells. In addition, IL-10–stimulated monocytes are more efficiently infected by HIV BaL. This effect was associated to the enhancement of viral entry through CCR5. These data add support to an emerging paradigm in which pro- and antiinflammatory molecules exert reciprocal and opposing influence on chemokine agonist production and receptor expression. PMID:9449724

  9. Cancer Cell-derived Exosomes Induce Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-dependent Monocyte Survival by Transport of Functional Receptor Tyrosine Kinases*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiao; Ding, Yanping; Liu, Gang; Yang, Xiao; Zhao, Ruifang; Zhang, Yinlong; Zhao, Xiao; Anderson, Gregory J.; Nie, Guangjun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play pivotal roles in cancer initiation and progression. Monocytes, the precursors of TAMs, normally undergo spontaneous apoptosis within 2 days, but can subsist in the inflammatory tumor microenvironment for continuous survival and generation of sufficient TAMs. The mechanisms underlying tumor-driving monocyte survival remain obscure. Here we report that cancer cell-derived exosomes were crucial mediators for monocyte survival in the inflammatory niche. Analysis of the survival-promoting molecules in monocytes revealed that cancer cell-derived exosomes activated Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, resulting in the prevention of caspase cleavage. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), such as phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), were abundantly expressed in cancer cell-derived exosomes. Knock-out of EGFR or/and HER-2, or alternatively, inhibitors against their phosphorylation significantly disturbed the exosome-mediated activation of the MAPK pathway, inhibition of caspase cleavage, and increase in survival rate in monocytes. Moreover, the deprived survival-stimulating activity of exosomes due to null expression of EGFR and HER-2 could be restored by activation of another RTK, insulin receptor. Overall, our study uncovered a mechanism of tumor-associated monocyte survival and demonstrated that cancer cell-derived exosomes can stimulate the MAPK pathway in monocytes through transport of functional RTKs, leading to inactivation of apoptosis-related caspases. This work provides insights into the long sought question on monocyte survival prior to formation of plentiful TAMs in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26895960

  10. Effect of β-agonist on the dexamethasone-induced expression of aromatase by the human monocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatada Watanabe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that sex steroids are important for human skin health. In particular, estrogen improves skin thickness, elasticity and moisture of older women. The major source of circulating estrogen is the ovary; however, local estrogen synthesis and secretion have important roles in, for example, bone metabolism and breast cancer development. We hypothesized that infiltrated peripheral monocytes are one of the sources of estrogen in skin tissues. We also hypothesized that, during atopic dermatitis under stress, a decline in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA and facilitation of the (hypothalamus–sympathetic–adrenomedullary system (SAM attenuates estrogen secretion from monocytes. Based on this hypothesis, we tested aromatase expression in the human peripheral monocyte-derived cell line THP-1 in response to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (Dex, the synthetic β-agonist isoproterenol (Iso and the β-antagonist propranolol (Pro. Dex mimics glucocorticoid secreted during excitation of the HPA, and Iso mimics catecholamine secreted during excitation of the SAM. We found that aromatase activity and the CYP19A1 gene transcript were both upregulated in THP-1 cells in the presence of Dex. Addition of Iso induced their downregulation and further addition of Pro rescued aromatase expression. These results may suggest that attenuation of estrogen secretion from peripheral monocytes could be a part of the pathology of stress-caused deterioration of atopic dermatitis. Further examination using an in vitro human skin model including THP-1 cells might be a valuable tool for investigating the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of estrogen treatment for skin health.

  11. Environmentally relevant dose of arsenic interferes in functions of human monocytes derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahari, Abbas; Salmani, Vahid

    2017-06-05

    Arsenic is a major environmental pollutant and highly hazardous toxin to human health, which well established as carcinogen and immune deregulatory properties. Dendritic cells (DCs) have a pivotal role in cell-mediated immunity for T-cell activation and antigen presentation. In this study, T cell activation, some key functional genes expression, cell stability and phagocytosis capacity of human monocytes derived DCs (MDDCs) were analyzed after in vitro exposure to very low dose of arsenic for 12 and 24h. Arsenic decreased continually phagocytosis capacity of MDDCs. Furthermore, down-regulation of the cell-surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD40 after 24h post treatment with arsenic, confirmed arsenic interferers in the phagocytosis process. Pro inflammatory cytokines, IL1β and TNFα were more expressed in arsenic-treated MDDCs while IL6 transiently was down regulated. In general, our novel findings here strongly suggest that low level of arsenic dysregulates four fundamental immune processes of DCs. Mechanistically; this could explain the observed immunodeficiency activity of Arsenic, and give direction for comprehension the pathogenesis of Arsenic-induced diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. The transcriptome of Legionella pneumophila-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Christopher T D Price

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within alveolar macrophages through injection of ∼ 300 effector proteins by its Dot/Icm type IV translocation apparatus. The bona fide F-box protein, AnkB, is a nutritional virulence effector that triggers macrophages to generate a surplus of amino acids, which is essential for intravacuolar proliferation. Therefore, the ankB mutant represents a novel genetic tool to determine the transcriptional response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs to actively replicating L. pneumophila.Here, we utilized total human gene microarrays to determine the global transcriptional response of hMDMs to infection by wild type or the ankB mutant of L. pneumophila. The transcriptomes of hMDMs infected with either actively proliferating wild type or non-replicative ankB mutant bacteria were remarkably similar. The transcriptome of infected hMDMs was predominated by up-regulation of inflammatory pathways (IL-10 anti-inflammatory, interferon signaling and amphoterin signaling, anti-apoptosis, and down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways. In addition, L. pneumophila modulated diverse metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with bio-active lipid metabolism, and SLC amino acid transporters expression.Taken together, the hMDM transcriptional response to L. pneumophila is independent of intra-vacuolar replication of the bacteria and primarily involves modulation of the immune response and metabolic as well as nutritional pathways.

  13. Differential procoagulant activity of microparticles derived from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells: impact of active tissue factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shustova, Olga N; Antonova, Olga A; Golubeva, Nina V; Khaspekova, Svetlana G; Yakushkin, Vladimir V; Aksuk, Svetlana A; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Mazurov, Alexey V

    2017-07-01

    : Microparticles released by activated/apoptotic cells exhibit coagulation activity as they express phosphatidylserine and some of them - tissue factor. We compared procoagulant properties of microparticles from monocytes, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells and assessed the impact of tissue factor in observed differences. Microparticles were sedimented (20 000g, 30 min) from the supernatants of activated monocytes, monocytic THP-1 cells, granulocytes, platelets and endothelial cells. Coagulation activity of microparticles was examined using plasma recalcification assay. The size of microparticles was evaluated by dynamic light scattering. Tissue factor activity was measured by its ability to activate factor X. All microparticles significantly accelerated plasma coagulation with the shortest lag times for microparticles derived from monocytes, intermediate - for microparticles from THP-1 cells and endothelial cells, and the longest - for microparticles from granulocytes and platelets. Average diameters of microparticles ranged within 400-600 nm. The largest microparticles were produced by endothelial cells and granulocytes, smaller - by monocytes, and the smallest - by THP-1 cells and platelets. The highest tissue factor activity was detected in microparticles from monocytes, lower activity - in microparticles from endothelial cells and THP-1 cells, and no activity - in microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Anti-tissue factor antibodies extended coagulation lag times for microparticles from monocytes, endothelial cells and THP-1 cells and equalized them with those for microparticles from platelets and granulocytes. Higher coagulation activity of microparticles from monocytes, THP-1 cells and endothelial cells in comparison with microparticles from platelets and granulocytes is determined mainly by the presence of active tissue factor.

  14. Novel Role for p21-activated Kinase 2 in Thrombin-induced Monocyte Migration*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadepalli, Ravisekhar; Kotla, Sivareddy; Heckle, Mark R.; Verma, Shailendra K.; Singh, Nikhlesh K.; Rao, Gadiparthi N.

    2013-01-01

    To understand the role of thrombin in inflammation, we tested its effects on migration of THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. Thrombin induced THP-1 cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. Thrombin induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2, Gab1, and p115 RhoGEF, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-dependent Pak2 activation. Downstream to Pyk2, Gab1 formed a complex with p115 RhoGEF involving their pleckstrin homology domains. Furthermore, inhibition or depletion of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, or Pak2 levels substantially attenuated thrombin-induced THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Inhibition or depletion of PAR1 also blocked thrombin-induced activation of Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2, resulting in diminished THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. Similarly, depletion of Gα12 negated thrombin-induced Pyk2, Gab1, p115 RhoGEF, Rac1, RhoA, and Pak2 activation, leading to attenuation of THP-1 cell F-actin cytoskeletal remodeling and migration. These novel observations reveal that thrombin induces monocyte/macrophage migration via PAR1-Gα12-dependent Pyk2-mediated Gab1 and p115 RhoGEF interactions, leading to Rac1- and RhoA-targeted Pak2 activation. Thus, these findings provide mechanistic evidence for the role of thrombin and its receptor PAR1 in inflammation. PMID:24025335

  15. Extracellular lipase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: biochemical characterization and effect on human neutrophil and monocyte function in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, K E; Kharazmi, A; Høiby, N

    1991-01-01

    concentrations of this lipase preparation were preincubated with human peripheral blood neutrophils and monocytes. The chemotaxis and chemiluminescence of these cells were then determined. It was shown that lipase inhibited the monocyte chemotaxis and chemiluminescence, whereas it had no or very little effect...

  16. Heterogeneity of Bovine Peripheral Blood Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hussen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood monocytes of several species can be divided into different subpopulations with distinct phenotypic and functional properties. Herein, we aim at reviewing published work regarding the heterogeneity of the recently characterized bovine monocyte subsets. As the heterogeneity of human blood monocytes was widely studied and reviewed, this work focuses on comparing bovine monocyte subsets with their human counterparts regarding their phenotype, adhesion and migration properties, inflammatory and antimicrobial functions, and their ability to interact with neutrophilic granulocytes. In addition, the differentiation of monocyte subsets into functionally polarized macrophages is discussed. Regarding phenotype and distribution in blood, bovine monocyte subsets share similarities with their human counterparts. However, many functional differences exist between monocyte subsets from the two species. In contrast to their pro-inflammatory functions in human, bovine non-classical monocytes show the lowest phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation capacity, an absent ability to produce the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β after inflammasome activation, and do not have a role in the early recruitment of neutrophils into inflamed tissues. Classical and intermediate monocytes of both species also differ in their response toward major monocyte-attracting chemokines (CCL2 and CCL5 and neutrophil degranulation products (DGP in vitro. Such differences between homologous monocyte subsets also extend to the development of monocyte-derived macrophages under the influence of chemokines like CCL5 and neutrophil DGP. Whereas the latter induce the differentiation of M1-polarized macrophages in human, bovine monocyte-derived macrophages develop a mixed M1/M2 macrophage phenotype. Although only a few bovine clinical trials analyzed the correlation between changes in monocyte composition and disease, they suggest that functional differences between

  17. Sulforaphane mitigates cadmium-induced toxicity pattern in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharashi, Nouf Abdulkareem Omer; Periasamy, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2017-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic and widely distributed heavy metal that induces various diseases in humans through environmental exposure. Therefore, alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity in living organisms is necessary. In this study, we investigated the protective role of sulforaphane on Cd-induced toxicity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes. Sulforaphane did not show any major reduction in the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. However, Cd treatment at a concentration of 50μM induced around 69% cell death. Treatment of IC10-Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination for 24 and 48h increased viability by 2 and 9% in cells subjected to Cd toxicity, respectively. In addition, IC25 of Cd and 100μM sulforaphane combination recovered 17-20% of cell viability. Cd induced apoptotic and necrotic cell death. Sulforaphane treatment reduced Cd-induced cell death in lymphocytes and monocytes. Our results clearly indicate that when the cells were treated with Cd+sulforaphane combination, sulforaphane decreased the Cd-induced cytotoxic effect in lymphocytes and monocytes. In addition, sulforaphane concentration plays a major role in the alleviation of Cd-induced toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of human granulocyte and monocyte isolation procedures on functional studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhou (Lili); R. Somasundaram (Rajesh); E. Nederhof (Esther); G. Dijkstra (Gerard); K.N. Faber (Klaas Nico); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); G.M. Fuhler (Gwenny)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOne of the first lines of defense against infection is the activation of the innate immune system. It is becoming clear that autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, may be caused by disturbed innate immunity, and relating granulocyte and monocyte functions

  19. Impact of Human Granulocyte and Monocyte Isolation Procedures on Functional Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Lu; Somasundaram, Rajesh; Nederhof, Rosa F.; Dijkstra, Gerard; Faber, Klaas Nico; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.

    One of the first lines of defense against infection is the activation of the innate immune system. It is becoming clear that autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease, may be caused by disturbed innate immunity, and relating granulocyte and monocyte functions to the

  20. Cationic liposomal drug delivery system for specific targeting of human cd14+ monocytes in whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This invention concerns a liposome comprising lipids and at least one active ingredient, wherein at least one of the lipids is a cationic lipid; said liposome exhibiting a net positive charge at physiological conditions at which said liposome preferentially adheres to monocytes in freshly drawn b......, an infectious disease, an inflammatory disease, an autoimmune disease or allergy....

  1. Maggot secretions suppress pro-inflammatory responses of human monocytes through elevation of cyclic AMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, M.P.E.; Baldry, M.; Dissel, van J.T.; Jukema, G.N.; Nibbering, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Maggots of the blowfly Lucilia sericata are used for the treatment of chronic wounds. As monocytes may contribute to the excessive inflammatory responses in such wounds, this study focussed on the effects of maggot secretions on the pro-inflammatory activities of these cells.

  2. Metformin affects macrophages' phenotype and improves the activity of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and decreases malondialdehyde concentration in a partially AMPK-independent manner in LPS-stimulated human monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bułdak, Łukasz; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Bułdak, Rafał Jakub; Kozłowski, Michał; Machnik, Grzegorz; Liber, Sebastian; Suchy, Dariusz; Duława-Bułdak, Anna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2014-06-01

    Diabetic patients experience accelerated atherosclerosis. Metformin is a cornerstone of the current therapy of type 2 diabetes. Macrophages are the key cells associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, our aim was to assess the in vitro effects of metformin on macrophages and its influence on the mechanisms involved in the development of atherosclerosis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from the group including 16 age-matched healthy non-smoking volunteers aged 18-40 years. Monocytes were further incubated with metformin, LPS and compound C--a pharmacological inhibitor of AMPK. The impact of metformin on oxidative stress markers, antioxidative properties, inflammatory cytokines and phenotypical markers of macrophages was studied. We showed that macrophages treated with metformin expressed less reactive oxygen species (ROS), which resulted from increased antioxidative potential. Furthermore, a reduction in inflammatory cytokines was observed. We also observed a phenotypic shift toward the alternative activation of macrophages that was induced by metformin. All the aforementioned results resulted from AMPK activation, but a residual activity of metformin after AMPK blockade was still noticeable even after inhibition of AMPK by compound C. Authors believe that metformin-based therapy, a cornerstone in diabetes therapy, not only improves the prognosis of diabetics by reducing blood glucose but also by reducing oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokine production and the shift toward alternative activation of macrophages. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. Human β-Defensin 3 Reduces TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Monocyte Adhesion in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianying Bian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3 in the initiation stage of atherosclerosis with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs triggered by tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. The effects of hBD3 on TNF-α-induced endothelial injury and inflammatory response were evaluated. Our data revealed that first, hBD3 reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, hBD3 significantly prevented intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production by HUVECs. Second, western blot analysis demonstrated that hBD3 dose-dependently suppressed the protein levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1 in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. As a result, hBD3 inhibited monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-treated endothelial cells. Additionally, hBD3 suppressed TNF-α-induced F-actin reorganization in HUVECs. Third, hBD3 markedly inhibited NF-κB activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of IKK-α/β, IκB, and p65 subunit within 30 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway were also inhibited by hBD3 in HUVECs. In conclusion, hBD3 exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects in endothelial cells in response to TNF-α by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling.

  4. Human platelet lysate is a successful alternative serum supplement for propagation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švajger, Urban

    2017-04-01

    Clinical protocols for dendritic cell (DC) generation from monocytes require the use of animal serum-free supplements. Serum-free media can also require up to 1% of serum supplementation. In addition, recommendations based on the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement) principle also recommend the use of non-animal sera in in vitro studies. The aim of this study was to explore the potential use of platelet lysate (PL) for generation of optimally differentiated DCs from monocytes. Cells were isolated from buffy coats from healthy volunteers using immunomagnetic selection. DCs were differentiated in RPMI1640 supplemented with either 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 10% AB serum or 10% PL with the addition of granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor and interleukin-4. Generated DCs were assessed for their morphology, viability, endocytotic capacity, surface phenotype (immature, mature and tolerogenic DCs) and activation of important signaling pathways. DC function was evaluated on the basis of their allostimulatory capacity, cytokine profile and ability to induce different T-helper subsets. DCs generated with PL displayed normal viability, morphology and endocytotic capacity. Their differentiation and maturation phenotype was comparable to FBS-cultured DCs. They showed functional plasticity and up-regulated tolerogenic markers in response to their environment. PL-cultured mature DCs displayed unhindered allostimulatory potential and the capacity to induce Th1 responses. The use of PL allowed for activation of crucial signaling proteins associated with DC differentiation and maturation. This study demonstrates for the first time that human PL represents a successful alternative to FBS in differentiation of DCs from monocytes. DCs display the major phenotypic and functional characteristics compared with existing culture protocols. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Leishmania infection modulates beta-1 integrin activation and alters the kinetics of monocyte spreading over fibronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Cláudio Pereira; Carvalhal, Djalma Gomes Ferrão; Almeida, Rafaela Andrade; Hermida, Micely d' El-Rei; Touchard, Dominique; Robert, Phillipe; Pierres, Anne; Bongrand, Pierre; dos-Santos, Washington L C

    2015-08-07

    Contact with Leishmania leads to a decreases in mononuclear phagocyte adherence to connective tissue. In this work, we studied the early stages of bond formation between VLA4 and fibronectin, measured the kinetics of membrane alignment and the monocyte cytoplasm spreading area over a fibronectin-coated surface, and studied the expression of high affinity integrin epitope in uninfected and Leishmania-infected human monocytes. Our results show that the initial VLA4-mediated interaction of Leishmania-infected monocyte with a fibronectin-coated surface is preserved, however, the later stage, leukocyte spreading over the substrate is abrogated in Leishmania-infected cells. The median of spreading area was 72 [55-89] μm(2) for uninfected and 41 [34-51] μm(2) for Leishmania-infected monocyte. This cytoplasm spread was inhibited using an anti-VLA4 blocking antibody. After the initial contact with the fibronectrin-coated surface, uninfected monocyte quickly spread the cytoplasm at a 15 μm(2) s(-1) ratio whilst Leishmania-infected monocytes only made small contacts at a 5.5 μm(2) s(-1) ratio. The expression of high affinity epitope by VLA4 (from 39 ± 21% to 14 ± 3%); and LFA1 (from 37 ± 32% to 18 ± 16%) molecules was reduced in Leishmania-infected monocytes. These changes in phagocyte function may be important for parasite dissemination and distribution of lesions in leishmaniasis.

  6. Aβ and inflammatory stimulus activate diverse signaling pathways in monocytic cells: implications in retaining phagocytosis in Aβ-laden environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Savchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ is one of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The enhancement of Aβ clearance may provide therapeutic means to restrict AD pathology. The cellular responses to different forms of Aβ in monocytic cells are poorly known. We aimed to study whether different forms of Aβ induce inflammatory responses in monocytic phagocytes and how Aβ may affect monocytic cell survival and function to retain phagocytosis in Aβ-laden environment. Methods Monocytic cells were differentiated from bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells in the presence of macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Monocytic cells were stimulated with synthetic Aβ42 and intracellular calcium responses were recorded with calcium imaging. The formation of reactive oxygen species, secretion of cytokines and cell viability were also assessed. Finally, monocytic cells were introduced to native Aβ deposits ex vivo and the cellular responses in terms of cell viability, pro-inflammatory activation and phagocytosis were determined. The ability of monocytic cells to phagocytose Aβ plaques was determined after intrahippocampal transplantation in vivo.Results Freshly solubilized Aβ induced calcium oscillations, which persisted after removal of the stimulus. After few hours of aggregation, Aβ was not able to induce oscillations in monocytic cells. Instead, lipopolysaccharide (LPS induced calcium responses divergent from Aβ-induced response. Furthermore, while LPS induced massive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, neither synthetic Aβ species nor native Aβ deposits were able to induce pro-inflammatory activation of monocytic cells, contrary to primary microglia. Finally, monocytic cells retained their viability in the presence of Aβ and exhibited phagocytic activity towards native fibrillar Aβ deposits and congophilic Aβ plaques.Conclusions Monocytic cells carry diverse cellular responses to Aβ and inflammatory stimulus LPS. Even

  7. Modulatory effects of propolis samples from Latin America (Brazil, Cuba and Mexico) on cytokine production by human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Bruno J; Santiago, Karina B; Búfalo, Michelle C; Herrera, Yahima F; Alday, Efrain; Velazquez, Carlos; Hernandez, Javier; Sforcin, José M

    2015-10-01

    Propolis has been used in folk medicine in different regions of the world including Latin America. Propolis is a resinous mixture of substances collected by honey bees from several botanical sources, and its composition contains a rich chemical variety, depending on the geographical area and plant sources. Our aim was to compare the modulatory effect of propolis samples from three different countries of Latin America (Brazil, Cuba and Mexico) on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-10, respectively) by human monocytes. Cells were incubated with propolis for 18 h at 37°C. Cell viability was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method, and cytokine production was determined by ELISA. All samples did not affect monocyte viability. Brazilian propolis stimulated both TNF-α and IL-10 production by monocytes. Cuban propolis stimulated TNF-α and inhibited IL-10 production, while Mexican sample exerted the opposite effect, inhibiting TNF-α and stimulating IL-10 production. The major compounds found in Brazilian, Cuban and Mexican propolis samples were artepillin C, isoflavonoids and pinocembrin, respectively. Brazilian, Cuban and Mexican propolis contained different components that may exert pro- and anti-inflammatory activity depending on concentration, what may provide a novel approach to the development of immunomodulatory drugs containing propolis. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Differential Effects of Vitamins A and D on the Transcriptional Landscape of Human Monocytes during Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassert, Tilman E; Bräuer, Julia; Hölzer, Martin; Stock, Magdalena; Riege, Konstantin; Zubiría-Barrera, Cristina; Müller, Mario M; Rummler, Silke; Skerka, Christine; Marz, Manja; Slevogt, Hortense

    2017-01-17

    Vitamin A and vitamin D are essential nutrients with a wide range of pleiotropic effects in humans. Beyond their well-documented roles in cellular differentiation, embryogenesis, tissue maintenance and bone/calcium homeostasis, both vitamins have attracted considerable attention due to their association with-immunological traits. Nevertheless, our knowledge of their immunomodulatory potential during infection is restricted to single gene-centric studies, which do not reflect the complexity of immune processes. In the present study, we performed a comprehensive RNA-seq-based approach to define the whole immunomodulatory role of vitamins A and D during infection. Using human monocytes as host cells, we characterized the differential role of both vitamins upon infection with three different pathogens: Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Escherichia coli. Both vitamins showed an unexpected ability to counteract the pathogen-induced transcriptional responses. Upon infection, we identified 346 and 176 immune-relevant genes that were regulated by atRA and vitD, respectively. This immunomodulatory activity was dependent on the inflammatory stimulus, allowing us to distinguish regulatory patterns which were specific for each stimulatory setting. Moreover, we explored possible direct and indirect mechanisms of vitamin-mediated regulation of the immune response. Our findings highlight the importance of vitamin-monitoring in critically ill patients. Moreover, our results underpin the potential of atRA and vitD as therapeutic options for anti-inflammatory treatment.

  9. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecht, Tal; Haim, Yulia; Bashan, Nava; Shapiro, Hagit; Harman-Boehm, Ilana; Kirshtein, Boris; Clément, Karine; Shai, Iris; Rudich, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM) are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient. We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,plipid content (r = 0.303,plipid content, particularly in men. Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  10. Stepwise isolation of human peripheral erythrocytes, T lymphocytes, and monocytes for blood cell proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseron, Frederic; May, Caroline; Schoenebeck, Bodo; Tippler, Bettina; Woitalla, Dirk; Kauth, Marion; Brockmann, Kathrin; Meyer, Helmut E; Berg, Daniela; Bufe, Albrecht; Marcus, Katrin

    2012-10-01

    Density gradient centrifugation and magnetic- or fluorescence-activated cell sorting are common and robust techniques for the isolation of different types of blood cells. In this article, we give detailed description of a stepwise application of these methods as one isolation strategy for enrichment of different cell types from one blood sample. The workflow targeted erythrocytes, monocytes, and T lymphocytes. Pancoll® density gradient centrifugation was used together with subsequent MACS™ isolation. Purity of monocytes and T lymphocytes was controlled by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, and cells were used for carrier-ampholine-based 2D-PAGE to confirm compatibility of the procedure to standard proteomic applications. Gradient centrifugation resulted in an average of 125 μL of packed erythrocytes per milliliter blood. MACS™ sorting reached purities of 90 ± 2% (monocytes) and 93 ± 2% (T lymphocytes), with an average yield of 12 × 10(4) monocytes or T lymphocytes. 2D-PAGE of isolated cells showed well-separated spot patterns. A combined isolation holds substantial advantages especially in clinical studies, as it allows for the comparison of findings not only between individuals, but also between different cell types derived from one donor. Our approach ensured high reproducibility, yields, and purities of cells as required for reliable proteome analysis. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Gliadin peptides activate blood monocytes from patients with celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cinová, Jana; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Smythies, L.; Černá, M.; Pecharová, Barbara; Dvořák, M.; Fruhauf, P.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Smith, P.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2007), s. 201-209 ISSN 0271-9142 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR IAA5020205; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA AV ČR KJB5020407; GA MZe 1B53002 Grant - others:US(US) DK-064400; US(US) DK-47322; US(US) DK-54495; US(US) HD-41361; US(US) DK-064400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : celiac disease * innate immunity * blood monocytes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2007

  12. Enhancement of fibrinogen-triggered pro-coagulant activation of monocytes in vitro by matrix metalloproteinase-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feistritzer Clemens

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of fibrinogen with specific leukocyte integrins of monocytes may link coagulation and inflammation, however, the precise mechanism of fibrinogen leading to the pro-inflammatory and pro-coagulatory response on monocytes is yet unknown. Results Fibrinogen and its digestion fragment D induced pro-coagulant activation of monocytes as assessed in a cellular coagulation assay by reductions in clotting times. Pro-coagulant activation was reversed by blocking antibodies against Mac-1 or LFA-1. Pre-exposure of monocytes to the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190 and the MEK1.2 inhibitor U0126 led to significant increasees in coagulation times whereas blocking JNKII with its inhibitor had no such effect. Blocking NFκB with MG-132 also inhibited pro-coagulant activation of monocytes by fibrinogen. A selective inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-9 increased times to clot formation whereas other matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors did not significantly interfere with fibrinogen-augmented clot formation in this assay. Treatment of monocytes with fibrinogen increased concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 immunoreactivity in their supernatants. Conclusions Fibrinogen induces monocyte pro-coagulant activation in an integrin-, nuclear factor κB-, p38 MAPK-, and MEK1.2-dependent manner. Activation of monocytes by fibrinogen increases metalloproteinase-9 secretion, metalloproteinase-9 itself enhances monocyte coagulation by an autocrine mechanism. Results provide further evidence that mediators of hemostasis have a profound impact on cells of the immune system and are closely related to inflammatory pathways.

  13. Successful isolation of infectious and high titer human monocyte-derived HIV-1 from two subjects with discontinued therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tong; Xu, Younong; Zhu, Haiying; Andrus, Thomas; Ivanov, Sergei B; Pan, Charlotte; Dolores, Jazel; Dann, Gregory C; Zhou, Michael; Forte, Dominic; Yang, Zihuan; Holte, Sarah; Corey, Lawrence; Zhu, Tuofu

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 DNA in blood monocytes is considered a viral source of various HIV-1 infected tissue macrophages, which is also known as "Trojan horse" hypothesis. However, whether these DNA can produce virions has been an open question for years, due to the inability of isolating high titer and infectious HIV-1 directly from monocytes. In this study, we demonstrated successful isolation of two strains of M-HIV-1 (1690 M and 1175 M) from two out of four study subjects, together with their in vivo controls, HIV-1 isolated from CD4+ T-cells (T-HIV-1), 1690 T and 1175 T. All M- and T- HIV-1 isolates were detected CCR5-tropic. Both M- HIV-1 exhibited higher levels of replication in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) than the two T- HIV-1. Consistent with our previous reports on the subject 1175 with late infection, compartmentalized env C2-V3-C3 sequences were identified between 1175 M and 1175 T. In contrast, 1690 M and 1690 T, which were isolated from subject 1690 with relatively earlier infection, showed homogenous env C2-V3-C3 sequences. However, multiple reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor resistance-associated variations were detected in the Gag-Pol region of 1690 M, but not of 1690 T. By further measuring HIV DNA intracellular copy numbers post-MDM infection, 1690 M was found to have significantly higher DNA synthesis efficiency than 1690 T in macrophages, indicating a higher RT activity, which was confirmed by AZT inhibitory assays. These results suggested that the M- and T- HIV-1 are compartmentalized in the two study subjects, respectively. Therefore, we demonstrated that under in vitro conditions, HIV-1 infected human monocytes can productively release live viruses while differentiating into macrophages.

  14. The effect of short-chain fatty acids on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Claudia; Candela, Marco; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Geisler, Carsten; Hansen, Morten; Krejsgaard, Thorbjørn; Biagi, Elena; Andersen, Mads Hald; Brigidi, Patrizia; Ødum, Niels; Litman, Thomas; Woetmann, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The gut microbiota is essential for human health and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of several diseases. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are end-products of microbial fermentation of macronutrients that distribute systemically via the blood. The aim of this study was to investigate the transcriptional response of immature and LPS-matured human monocyte-derived DC to SCFA. Our data revealed distinct effects exerted by each individual SCFA on gene expression in human monocyte-derived DC, especially in the mature ones. Acetate only exerted negligible effects, while both butyrate and propionate strongly modulated gene expression in both immature and mature human monocyte-derived DC. An Ingenuity pathway analysis based on the differentially expressed genes suggested that propionate and butyrate modulate leukocyte trafficking, as SCFA strongly reduced the release of several pro-inflammatory chemokines including CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11. Additionally, butyrate and propionate inhibited the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-12p40 showing a strong anti-inflammatory effect. This work illustrates that bacterial metabolites far from the site of their production can differentially modulate the inflammatory response and generally provides new insights into host-microbiome interactions. PMID:26541096

  15. Biologic therapy improves psoriasis by decreasing the activity of monocytes and neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Yamagiwa, Akisa; Saeki, Hidehisa; Kondo, Makoto; Gabazza, Esteban C; Nakagawa, Hidemi; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Therapy with monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and the interleukin (IL)-12/23 p40 subunit has significantly improved the clinical outcome of patients with psoriasis. These antibodies inhibit the effects of the target cytokines and thus the major concern during their use is the induction of excessive immunosuppression. Recent studies evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of biologic therapy in psoriasis have shown no significant appearance of serious adverse effects including infections and malignancies. However, the immunological consequence and the mechanism by which the blockade of a single cytokine by biologics can successfully control the activity of psoriasis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of biologic therapy on cytokine production of various lymphocytes and on the activity of monocytes and neutrophils in psoriatic patients. Neutrophils, monocytes and T cells were purified from heparinized peripheral venous blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, and γ-interferon, TNF-α and IL-17 production from lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometer. The activation maker of neutrophils and the activated subsets of monocytes were also analyzed. Biologic therapy induced no significant changes in the cytokine production by lymphocytes from the skin and gut-homing T cells. However, neutrophil activity and the ratio of activated monocyte population increased in severely psoriatic patients were normalized in psoriatic patients receiving biologic therapy. The present study showed that biologic therapy ameliorates clinical symptoms and controls the immune response in patients with psoriasis. © 2014 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Formyl-Peptide Receptor Agonists and Amorphous SiO-NPs Synergistically and Selectively Increase the Inflammatory Responses of Human Monocytes and PMNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Tavano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We tested whether amorphous SiO 2 -NPs and formylpeptide receptor (FPRs agonists synergistically activate human monocytes and neutrophil polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs. Peptide ligands specifically binding to FPR1 (f-MLP and to FPR2 (MMK-1, WKYMVM and WKYMVm human isoforms did not modify the association of SiO 2 -NPs to both cell types or their cytotoxic effects. Similarly, the extent of CD80, CD86, CD83, ICAM-1 and MHCII expression in monocytes treated with SiO 2 -NPs was not significantly altered by any FPRs agonist. However, FPR1 stimulation with f-MLP strongly increased the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 by human monocytes, and of IL-8 by PMNs in the presence of SiO 2 -NPs, due to the synergic stimulation of gene transcription. FPR2 agonists also up-modulated the production of IL-1β induced by monocytes treated with SiO 2 -NPs. In turn, SiO 2 -NPs increased the chemotaxis of PMNs toward FPR1-specific ligands, but not toward FPR2-specific ones. Conversely, the chemotaxis of monocytes toward FPR2-specific peptides was inhibited by SiO 2 -NPs. NADPH-oxidase activation triggered by FPR1- and FPR2-specific ligands in both cell types was not altered by SiO 2 -NPs. Microbial and tissue danger signals sensed by FPRs selectively amplified the functional responses of monocytes and PMN S to SiO 2 -NPs, and should be carefully considered in the assessment of the risk associated with nanoparticle exposure.

  17. Activation of monocytes and cytokine production in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis obliterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastória Sidney

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arterial peripheral disease is a condition caused by the blocked blood flow resulting from arterial cholesterol deposits within the arms, legs and aorta. Studies have shown that macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque are highly activated, which makes these cells important antigen-presenting cells that develop a specific immune response, in which LDLox is the inducing antigen. As functional changes of cells which participate in the atherogenesis process may occur in the peripheral blood, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate plasma levels of anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, IFN-γ, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β in patients with peripheral arteriosclerosis obliterans, to assess the monocyte activation level in peripheral blood through the ability of these cells to release hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and to develop fungicidal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans in vitro. Methods TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and TGF-β from plasma of patients were detected by ELISA. Monocyte cultures activated in vitro with TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were evaluated by fungicidal activity against C. albicans by culture plating and Colony Forming Unit (CFU recovery, and by H2O2 production. Results Plasma levels of all cytokines were significantly higher in patients compared to those detected in control subjects. Control group monocytes did not release substantial levels of H2O2 in vitro, but these levels were significantly increased after activation with IFN-γ and TNF-α. Monocytes of patients, before and after activation, responded less than those of control subjects. Similar results were found when fungicidal activity was evaluated. The results seen in patients were always significantly smaller than among control subjects. Conclusions: The results revealed an unresponsiveness of patient monocytes in vitro probably due to the high activation process occurring in vivo as corroborated by high

  18. Zinc oxide nanoparticles and monocytes: Impact of size, charge and solubility on activation status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prach, Morag [Edinburgh Napier University, School of Life, Sport and Social Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Stone, Vicki [Heriot-Watt University, School of Life Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Proudfoot, Lorna, E-mail: l.proudfoot@napier.ac.uk [Edinburgh Napier University, School of Life, Sport and Social Science, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) particle induced cytotoxicity was dependent on size, charge and solubility, factors which at sublethal concentrations may influence the activation of the human monocytic cell line THP1. ZnO nanoparticles (NP; average diameter 70 nm) were more toxic than the bulk form (< 44 μm mesh) and a positive charge enhanced cytotoxicity of the NP despite their relatively high dissolution. A positive charge of the particles has been shown in other studies to have an influence on cell viability. Centrifugal filtration using a cut off of 5 kDa and Zn element analysis by atomic absorption spectroscopy confirmed that exposure of the ZnO particles and NP to 10% foetal bovine serum resulted in a strong association of the Zn{sup 2+} ion with protein. This association with protein may influence interaction of the ZnO particles and NP with THP1 cells. After 24 h exposure to the ZnO particles and NP at sublethal concentrations there was little effect on immunological markers of inflammation such as HLA DR and CD14, although they may induce a modest increase in the adhesion molecule CD11b. The cytokine TNFα is normally associated with proinflammatory immune responses but was not induced by the ZnO particles and NP. There was also no effect on LPS stimulated TNFα production. These results suggest that ZnO particles and NP do not have a classical proinflammatory effect on THP1 cells. -- Highlights: ► ZnO is cytotoxic to THP-1 monocytes. ► ZnO nanoparticles are more toxic than the bulk form. ► Positive charge enhances ZnO nanoparticle cytotoxicity. ► Sublethal doses of ZnO particles do not induce classical proinflammatory markers.

  19. Monocyte-mediated activation of endothelial cells occurs only after binding to extracellular vesicles from red blood cell products, a process mediated by β-integrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straat, Marleen; van Hezel, Maike E.; Böing, Anita; Tuip-de Boer, Anita; Weber, Nina; Nieuwland, Rienk; van Bruggen, Robin; Juffermans, Nicole P.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with organ failure. The mechanism remains unknown, but may include adherence of blood cells to the microvasculature. We hypothesized that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) interact with monocytes to activate endothelial cells. Human umbilical

  20. Effect of cigarette smoke on monocyte procoagulant activity: Focus on platelet-derived brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, Patrizia; Baldassarre, Damiano; Sandrini, Leonardo; Weksler, Babette B; Tremoli, Elena; Barbieri, Silvia S

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) activates platelets, promotes vascular dysfunction, and enhances Tissue Factor (TF) expression in blood monocytes favoring pro-thrombotic states. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the family of neurotrophins involved in survival, growth, and maturation of neurons, is released by activated platelets (APLTs) and plays a role in the cardiovascular system. The effect of CS on circulating levels of BDNF is controversial and the function of circulating BDNF in atherothrombosis is not fully understood. Here, we have shown that human platelets, treated with an aqueous extract of CS (CSE), released BDNF in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, incubation of human monocytes with BDNF or with the supernatant of platelets activated with CSE increased TF activity by a Tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB)-dependent mechanism. Finally, comparing serum and plasma samples of 12 male never smokers (NS) and 29 male active smokers (AS) we observed a significant increase in microparticle-associated TF activity (MP-TF) as well as BDNF in AS, while in serum, BDNF behaved oppositely. Taken together these findings suggest that platelet-derived BDNF is involved in the regulation of TF activity and that CS plays a role in this pathway by favoring a pro-atherothrombotic state.

  1. Trained immunity or tolerance: opposing functional programs induced in human monocytes after engagement of various pattern recognition receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifrim, Daniela C; Quintin, Jessica; Joosten, Leo A B; Jacobs, Cor; Jansen, Trees; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Gow, Neil A R; Williams, David L; van der Meer, Jos W M; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-04-01

    Upon priming with Candida albicans or with the fungal cell wall component β-glucan, monocytes respond with an increased cytokine production upon restimulation, a phenomenon termed "trained immunity." In contrast, the prestimulation of monocytes with lipopolysaccharide has long been known to induce tolerance. Because the vast majority of commensal microorganisms belong to bacterial or viral phyla, we sought to systematically investigate the functional reprogramming of monocytes induced by the stimulation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) with various bacterial or viral ligands. Monocytes were functionally programmed for either enhanced (training) or decreased (tolerance) cytokine production, depending on the type and concentration of ligand they encountered. The functional reprogramming of monocytes was also associated with cell shape, granulocity, and cell surface marker modifications. The training effect required p38- and Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, with specific signaling patterns directing the functional fate of the cell. The long-term effects on the function of monocytes were mediated by epigenetic events, with both histone methylation and acetylation inhibitors blocking the training effects. In conclusion, our experiments identify the ability of monocytes to acquire adaptive characteristics after prior activation with a wide variety of ligands. Trained immunity and tolerance are two distinct and opposing functional programs induced by the specific microbial ligands engaging the monocytes.

  2. Koala Biovar of Chlamydia pneumoniae Infects Human and Koala Monocytes and Induces Increased Uptake of Lipids In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Coles, Katie A.; Timms, Peter; Smith, David W.

    2001-01-01

    We examined the ability of the koala biovar of Chlamydia pneumoniae to infect both Hep-2 cells and human monocytes and the effect of infection on the formation of foam cells. The koala biovar produced large inclusions in both human and koala monocytes and in Hep-2 cells. Koala C. pneumoniae induced foam cell formation with and without added low-density lipoprotein, in contrast to TW183, which produced increased foam cell formation only in the presence of low-density lipoprotein.

  3. In Vitro experimental model of trained innate immunity in human primary monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekkering, S.; Blok, B. A.; Joosten, Leo A B

    2016-01-01

    training period with β-glucan, BCG, or oxLDL, followed by washing and resting of the cells and, thereafter, restimulation with secondary bacterial stimuli. The training and resting time intervals were varied to identify the optimal setting for the long-term induction of trained immunity. Trained immunity...... was assessed in terms of the secondary cytokine response, the production of reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and induction of glycolysis. Monocytes primed with β-glucan, BCG, and oxLDL showed increased pro-and antiinflammatory cytokine responses upon restimulation with nonrelated stimuli. Also, all......-glucan led to the decreased production of reactive oxygen species. We describe the optimal conditions for an in vitro experimental model with human primary monocytes for study of the induction of trained innate immunity by microbial and metabolic stimuli. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology...

  4. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera...... on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... to CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  5. Protective role of klotho protein on epithelial cells upon co-culture with activated or senescent monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mytych, Jennifer, E-mail: jennifermytych@gmail.com [Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland); Centre of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland); Wos, Izabela; Solek, Przemyslaw; Koziorowski, Marek [Institute of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland); Centre of Applied Biotechnology and Basic Sciences, University of Rzeszow, Werynia 502, 36-100 Kolbuszowa (Poland)

    2017-01-15

    Monocytes ensure proper functioning and maintenance of epithelial cells, while good condition of monocytes is a key factor of these interactions. Although, it was shown that in some circumstances, a population of altered monocytes may appear, there is no data regarding their effect on epithelial cells. In this study, using direct co-culture model with LPS-activated and Dox-induced senescent THP-1 monocytes, we reported for the first time ROS-induced DNA damage, reduced metabolic activity, proliferation inhibition and cell cycle arrest followed by p16-, p21- and p27-mediated DNA damage response pathways activation, premature senescence and apoptosis induction in HeLa cells. Also, we show that klotho protein possessing anti-aging and anti-inflammatory characteristics reduced cytotoxic and genotoxic events by inhibition of insulin/IGF-IR and downregulation of TRF1 and TRF2 proteins. Therefore, klotho protein could be considered as a protective factor against changes caused by altered monocytes in epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Activated and senescent THP-1 monocytes induced cyto- and genotoxicity in HeLa cells. • Altered monocytes provoked oxidative and nitrosative stress-induced DNA damage. • DNA damage activated DDR pathways and lead to premature senescence and apoptosis. • Klotho reduced ROS/RNS-mediated toxicity through insulin/IGF-IR pathway inhibition. • Klotho protects HeLa cells from cyto- and genotoxicity induced by altered monocytes.

  6. Pathobiology of HIV in the Human Monocyte-Macrophage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-24

    be induced folowing infection with simian virus obtained for the humain T-celI Line 149. These data suggested ’Copy ovn +oJ 077C does oat p em bi...12. Gorman, C. M.. L. F. Moffat. and B. H. Howard. 1982. activation by Sp1: evidence for coactivators. Cell 61:1187-1197 Recombinant genomes which

  7. Maturation of human dendritic cells by monocyte-conditioned medium is dependent upon trace amounts of lipopolysaccharide inducing tumour necrosis factor alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Svenson, Morten; Andersen, Vagn

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the ability of monocyte-conditioned medium (MCM), generated by monocytes cultured on plastic-immobilised immunoglobulin, to stimulate maturation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC). Earlier reports suggest that MCM is a strong inducer of irreversible DC maturation, wher...

  8. Transcriptional profiling reveals functional dichotomy between human slan+ non-classical monocytes and myeloid dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen-Kerkhoff, Nathalie; Lundberg, Kristina; Westers, Theresia M; Kordasti, Shahram; Bontkes, Hetty J; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Lindstedt, Malin; van de Loosdrecht, Arjan A

    2017-10-01

    Human 6-sulfo LacNac-positive (slan+) cells have been subject to a paradigm debate. They have previously been classified as a distinct dendritic cell (DC) subset. However, evidence has emerged that they may be more related to monocytes than to DCs. To gain deeper insight into the functional specialization of slan+ cells, we have compared them with both conventional myeloid DC subsets (CD1c+ and CD141+) in human peripheral blood (PB). With the use of genome-wide transcriptional profiling, as well as functional tests, we clearly show that slan+ cells form a distinct, non-DC-like population. They cluster away from both DC subsets, and their gene-expression profile evidently suggests involvement in distinct inflammatory processes. An extensive transcriptional meta-analysis confirmed the relationship of slan+ cells with the monocytic compartment rather than with DCs. From a functional perspective, their ability to prime CD4+ and CD8+ T cells is relatively low. Combined with the finding that "antigen presentation by MHC class II" is at the top of under-represented pathways in slan+ cells, this points to a minimal role in directing adaptive T cell immunity. Rather, the higher expression levels of complement receptors on their cell surface, together with their high secretion of IL-1β and IL-6, imply a specific role in innate inflammatory processes, which is consistent with their recent identification as non-classical monocytes. This study extends our knowledge on DC/monocyte subset biology under steady-state conditions and contributes to our understanding of their role in immune-mediated diseases and their potential use in immunotherapeutic strategies. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  9. Monocyte-mediated activation of endothelial cells occurs only after binding to extracellular vesicles from red blood cell products, a process mediated by β-integrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straat, Marleen; van Hezel, Maike E; Böing, Anita; Tuip-De Boer, Anita; Weber, Nina; Nieuwland, Rienk; van Bruggen, Robin; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2016-12-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is associated with organ failure. The mechanism remains unknown, but may include adherence of blood cells to the microvasculature. We hypothesized that RBC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) interact with monocytes to activate endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were incubated with supernatant from fresh and stored RBC units either containing EVs or depleted from EVs, with or without the addition of immune cells. We measured expression of adhesion markers by flow cytometry and markers of coagulation and inflammation in the culture medium. We studied phagocytosis of EVs by monocytes by using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. Incubation of endothelial cells with monocytes alone did not induce up regulation of adhesion markers. The addition of both monocytes and supernatant from RBCs containing EVs resulted in up regulation of endothelial expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and E-selectin when compared to baseline. Up regulation was absent when stimulated with RBC supernatant depleted from EVs. EVs are phagocytosed by monocytes, which was partly abrogated after coincubation with two different complement receptor 3 (CR3)-blocking antibodies. Addition of RBC-derived EVs also increased levels of von Willebrand factor (VWF). There were no differences between groups related to storage time. EVs from RBC transfusion bags activate monocytes with subsequent up regulation of endothelial cell adhesion markers. EVs are phagocytosed by monocytes through CR3. Furthermore, these EVs proved to be a source of VWF. These effects are unrelated to storage time. Thereby, EVs from RBC transfusion bags induce a proinflammatory and procoagulant endothelial cell response. © 2016 AABB.

  10. Deciphering the transcriptional circuitry of microRNA genes expressed during human monocytic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Schmeier, Sebastian

    2009-12-10

    Background: Macrophages are immune cells involved in various biological processes including host defence, homeostasis, differentiation, and organogenesis. Disruption of macrophage biology has been linked to increased pathogen infection, inflammation and malignant diseases. Differential gene expression observed in monocytic differentiation is primarily regulated by interacting transcription factors (TFs). Current research suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) degrade and repress translation of mRNA, but also may target genes involved in differentiation. We focus on getting insights into the transcriptional circuitry regulating miRNA genes expressed during monocytic differentiation. Results: We computationally analysed the transcriptional circuitry of miRNA genes during monocytic differentiation using in vitro time-course expression data for TFs and miRNAs. A set of TF?miRNA associations was derived from predicted TF binding sites in promoter regions of miRNA genes. Time-lagged expression correlation analysis was utilised to evaluate the TF?miRNA associations. Our analysis identified 12 TFs that potentially play a central role in regulating miRNAs throughout the differentiation process. Six of these 12 TFs (ATF2, E2F3, HOXA4, NFE2L1, SP3, and YY1) have not previously been described to be important for monocytic differentiation. The remaining six TFs are CEBPB, CREB1, ELK1, NFE2L2, RUNX1, and USF2. For several miRNAs (miR-21, miR-155, miR-424, and miR-17-92), we show how their inferred transcriptional regulation impacts monocytic differentiation. Conclusions: The study demonstrates that miRNAs and their transcriptional regulatory control are integral molecular mechanisms during differentiation. Furthermore, it is the first study to decipher on a large-scale, how miRNAs are controlled by TFs during human monocytic differentiation. Subsequently, we have identified 12 candidate key controllers of miRNAs during this differentiation process. 2009 Schmeier et al; licensee Bio

  11. Development of pro-inflammatory phenotype in monocytes after engulfing Hb-activated platelets in hemolytic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Rashi; Chawla, Sheetal; Rathore, Deepak K; Bhasym, Angika; Annarapu, Gowtham K; Sharma, Vandana; Seth, Tulika; Guchhait, Prasenjit

    2017-02-01

    Monocytes and macrophage combat infections and maintain homeostatic balance by engulfing microbes and apoptotic cells, and releasing inflammatory cytokines. Studies have described that these cells develop anti-inflammatory properties upon recycling the free-hemoglobin (Hb) in hemolytic conditions. While investigating the phenotype of monocytes in two hemolytic disorders-paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) and sickle cell disease (SCD), we observed a high number of pro-inflammatory (CD14(+)CD16(hi)) monocytes in these patients. We further investigated in vitro the phenotype of these monocytes and found an estimated 55% of CD14(+) cells were transformed into the CD14(+)CD16(hi) subset after engulfing Hb-activated platelets. The CD14(+)CD16(hi) monocytes, which were positive for both intracellular Hb and CD42b (platelet marker), secreted significant amounts of TNF-α and IL-1β, unlike monocytes treated with only free Hb, which secreted more IL-10. We have shown recently the presence of a high number of Hb-bound hyperactive platelets in patients with both diseases, and further investigated if the monocytes engulfed these activated platelets in vivo. As expected, we found 95% of CD14(+)CD16(hi) monocytes with both intracellular Hb and CD42b in both diseases, and they expressed high TNF-α. Furthermore our data showed that these monocytes whether from patients or developed in vitro after treatment with Hb-activated platelets, secreted significant amounts of tissue factor. Besides, these CD14(+)CD16(hi) monocytes displayed significantly decreased phagocytosis of E. coli. Our study therefore suggests that this alteration of monocyte phenotype may play a role in the increased propensity to pro-inflammatory/coagulant complications observed in these hemolytic disorders-PNH and SCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 interferes with the function of human monocytes and neutrophils in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A L; Hey, A S; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    In the present study the effect of Leishmania major surface protease Gp63 on the chemotaxis and oxidative burst response of human peripheral blood monocytes and neutrophils was investigated. It was shown that prior incubation of cells with Gp63 inhibited chemotaxis of neutrophils but not monocytes...... by heat inactivation of the protease at 70 degrees C for 15 min. Neither neutrophil nor monocyte chemiluminescence was inhibited by Gp63 when cells were stimulated with PMA. Our data suggest that the major surface protease Gp63 might play an important role in the initial stages of Leishmania...

  13. Down-regulation of surface receptors for TNF and IL-1 on circulating monocytes and granulocytes during human endotoxemia: effect of neutralization of endotoxin-induced TNF activity by infusion of a recombinant dimeric TNF receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poll, T.; Coyle, S. M.; Kumar, A.; Barbosa, K.; Agosti, J. M.; Lowry, S. F.

    1997-01-01

    Leukocytes rapidly lose their surface receptors for TNF and IL-1 upon exposure to various stimuli in vitro. We sought to determine by FACS analysis changes in the expression of TNF receptors (TNFR) and type II IL-1R on circulating monocytes and granulocytes during endotoxemia in vivo, and the role

  14. Gene profiling analysis of ALVAC infected human monocyte derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenberg, Anke; Guillaume, Florine; Ryan, Elizabeth J; Burdin, Nicolas; Spada, Franca

    2008-09-15

    The recombinant canarypox virus ALVAC is being extensively studied as vaccine vector for the development of new vaccine strategies against chronic infectious diseases and cancer. However, the mechanisms by which ALVAC initiates the immune response have not been completely elucidated. In order to determine the type of innate immunity triggered by ALVAC, we characterized the gene expression profile of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) upon ALVAC infection. These cells are permissive to poxvirus infection and play a key role in the initiation of immune responses. The majority of the genes that were up-regulated by ALVAC belong to the type I interferon signaling pathway including IRF7, STAT1, RIG-1, and MDA-5. Genes involved in the NF-kappaB pathway were not up-regulated. The gene encoding for the chemokine CXCL10, a direct target of the transcription factor IRF3 was among those up-regulated and DC secretion of CXCL10 following exposure to ALVAC was confirmed by ELISA. Many downstream type I interferon activated genes with anti-viral activity (PKR, Mx, ISG15 and OAS among others) were also up-regulated in response to ALVAC. Among these, ISG15 expression in its unconjugated form by Western blot analysis was demonstrated. In view of these results we propose that ALVAC induces type I interferon anti-viral innate immunity via a cytosolic pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR) sensing double-stranded DNA, through activation of IRF3 and IRF7. These findings may aid in the design of more effective ALVAC-vectored vaccines.

  15. Identification of genes responsive to solar simulated UV radiation in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortensia de la Fuente

    Full Text Available Ultraviolet (UV irradiation has profound effects on the skin and the systemic immune system. Several effects of UV radiation on Dendritic cells (DCs functions have been described. However, gene expression changes induced by UV radiation in DCs have not been addressed before. In this report, we irradiated human monocyte-derived DCs with solar-simulated UVA/UVB and analyzed regulated genes on human whole genome arrays. Results were validated by RT-PCR and further analyzed by Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA. Solar-simulated UV radiation up-regulated expression of genes involved in cellular stress and inflammation, and down-regulated genes involved in chemotaxis, vesicular transport and RNA processing. Twenty four genes were selected for comparison by RT-PCR with similarly treated human primary keratinocytes and human melanocytes. Several genes involved in the regulation of the immune response were differentially regulated in UVA/UVB irradiated human monocyte-derived DCs, such as protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type E (PTPRE, thrombospondin-1 (THBS1, inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL, galectins, Src-like adapter protein (SLA, IL-10 and CCR7. These results indicate that UV-exposure triggers the regulation of a complex gene repertoire involved in human-DC-mediated immune responses.

  16. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  17. Nanoporosity of Alumina Surfaces Induces Different Patterns of Activation in Adhering Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ferraz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows that alumina nanotopography affects monocyte/macrophage behavior. Human mononuclear cells cultured on alumina membranes with pore diameters of 20 and 200 nm were evaluated in terms of cell adhesion, viability, morphology, and release of proinflammatory cytokines. After 24 hours, cell adhesion was assessed by means of light microscopy and cell viability by measuring LDH release. The inflammatory response was evaluated by quantifying interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α. Finally, scanning electron microscopy was used to study cell morphology. Results showed pronounced differences in cell number, morphology, and cytokine release depending on the nanoporosity. Few but highly activated cells were found on the 200 nm porous alumina, while relatively larger number of cells were found on the 20 nm porous surface. However, despite their larger number, the cells adhering on the 20 nm surface exhibited reduced pro-inflammatory activity. The data of this paper implies that nanotopography could be exploited for controlling the inflammatory response to implants.

  18. In Vitro Experimental Model of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Primary Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Siroon; Blok, Bastiaan A; Joosten, Leo A B; Riksen, Niels P; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2016-12-01

    Innate immune memory, or trained immunity, has recently been described to be an important property of cells of the innate immune system. Due to the increased interest in this important new field of immunological investigation, we sought to determine the optimal conditions for an in vitro experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). We investigated and optimized a protocol of monocyte trained immunity induced by an initial training period with β-glucan, BCG, or oxLDL, followed by washing and resting of the cells and, thereafter, restimulation with secondary bacterial stimuli. The training and resting time intervals were varied to identify the optimal setting for the long-term induction of trained immunity. Trained immunity was assessed in terms of the secondary cytokine response, the production of reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and induction of glycolysis. Monocytes primed with β-glucan, BCG, and oxLDL showed increased pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine responses upon restimulation with nonrelated stimuli. Also, all three stimuli induced a switch to glycolysis (the Warburg effect). These effects were most pronounced when the training interval was 24 h and the resting time interval was 6 days. Training with BCG and oxLDL also led to the increased production of reactive oxygen species, whereas training with β-glucan led to the decreased production of reactive oxygen species. We describe the optimal conditions for an in vitro experimental model with human primary monocytes for study of the induction of trained innate immunity by microbial and metabolic stimuli. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as a biomarker of lupus nephritis activity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad E Ghobrial

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a life-long, life-limiting and multi-systemic autoimmune disease. Glomerulonephritis is one of the most serious manifestations of SLE. Younger children have an increased incidence, severity and morbidity of lupus nephritis (LN compared with adult-onset disease. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 enhances leukocyte adhesiveness and endothelial permeability in the kidneys of murine and human LN models. Our study aimed to assess the role of urinary MCP-1 in the early diagnosis of LN activity. Sixty children, of whom 45 children aged from six to 12 years old and of both sexes (15 SLE patients without nephritis, 15 active LN and 15 inactive LN fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for SLE were studied in comparison with 15 healthy subjects. We investigated the serum and urinary MCP-1 in all groups using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Urinary MCP-1 was significantly higher in active LN in comparison with inactive LN and controls, and also significantly higher in inactive LN in comparison with SLE without nephritis and controls. There was also a significant difference between SLE without nephritis and controls. Serum MCP-1 was significantly higher in the group with active LN in comparison with the inactive group and SLE without nephritis and controls, but there was no significant difference between SLE and controls. The urinary MCP-1 level correlated well with SLE disease activity as measured by the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI. Urinary MCP-1 correlates positively with proteinuria, blood urea nitrogen level and creatinine and negatively with hemoglobin and creatinine clearance. We concluded that measurement of MCP-1 in urine may be useful for monitoring the severity of renal involvement in SLE. We recommend measuring urinary MCP-1 in pediatric SLE for the early diagnosis of LN and for the evaluation of the severity of renal

  20. Effect of rIFN-gamma on antibody-mediated cytotoxicity via human monocyte IgG Fc receptor II (CD32).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schie, R C; Verstraten, H G; Tax, W J; van den Berkmortel, F W; van de Winkel, J G; de Mulder, P H

    1992-09-01

    Human monocytes and macrophages express an isoform of IgG Fc receptor II (Fc gamma RII), Fc gamma RIIa. Two allotypic variants of this receptor could be distinguished with respect to their ability to bind murine (m)IgG1 complexes either strongly or weakly, defined as high-responder (HR) and low-responder (LR), respectively. We investigated the effect of recombinant (r)IFN-gamma on the ability of freshly isolated monocytes, and those cultured for 40 h and 9 days, to mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). Using human erythrocytes (E) sensitized with mIgG1 as target cells, Fc gamma RII was studied selectively. Cells which had been cultured for 40 h exhibit a significantly decreased Fc gamma RII expression, and Fc gamma RII-mediated ADCC activity as compared with freshly isolated monocytes. Co-culture with rIFN-gamma (40 h) reversed this decrease. Short-term rIFN-gamma-cultured cells, and fresh cells express similar numbers of Fc gamma RII, and exhibit comparable Fc gamma RII-mediated ADCC activity. Phagocytic activity was not affected. Prolonged culture of monocytes for 9 days, co-cultured with rIFN-gamma either from day 0 or from day 7, did not affect expression or functional activity of Fc gamma RII. Furthermore, the effects were observed in both HR and LR individuals. Our results show that rIFN-gamma has strong effects on Fc gamma RII-mediated responses specifically during the early stages of monocyte maturation, most likely by affecting receptor expression levels.

  1. Platelet-Derived MRP-14 Induces Monocyte Activation in Patients With Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Rebecca; Hadi, Tarik; Montenont, Emilie; Boytard, Ludovic; Alebrahim, Dornaszadat; Feinstein, Jordyn; Allen, Nicole; Simon, Russell; Barone, Krista; Uryu, Kunihiro; Guo, Yu; Rockman, Caron; Ramkhelawon, Bhama; Berger, Jeffrey S

    2018-01-02

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD), a diffuse manifestation of atherothrombosis, is a major cardiovascular threat. Although platelets are primary mediators of atherothrombosis, their role in the pathogenesis of PAD remains unclear. The authors sought to investigate the role of platelets in a cohort of symptomatic PAD. The authors profiled platelet activity, mRNA, and effector roles in patients with symptomatic PAD and in healthy controls. Patients with PAD and carotid artery stenosis were recruited into ongoing studies (NCT02106429 and NCT01897103) investigating platelet activity, platelet RNA, and cardiovascular disease. Platelet RNA sequence profiling mapped a robust up-regulation of myeloid-related protein (MRP)-14 mRNA, a potent calcium binding protein heterodimer, in PAD. Circulating activated platelets were enriched with MRP-14 protein, which augmented the expression of the adhesion mediator, P-selectin, thereby promoting monocyte-platelet aggregates. Electron microscopy confirmed the firm interaction of platelets with monocytes in vitro and colocalization of macrophages with MRP-14 confirmed their cross talk in atherosclerotic manifestations of PAD in vivo. Platelet-derived MRP-14 was channeled to monocytes, thereby fueling their expression of key PAD lesional hallmarks and increasing their directed locomotion, which were both suppressed in the presence of antibody-mediated blockade. Circulating MRP-14 was heightened in the setting of PAD, significantly correlated with PAD severity, and was associated with incident limb events. The authors identified a heightened platelet activity profile and unraveled a novel immunomodulatory effector role of platelet-derived MRP-14 in reprograming monocyte activation in symptomatic PAD. (Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery and Cardiovascular Events [PACE]; NCT02106429; and Platelet Activity in Vascular Surgery for Thrombosis and Bleeding [PIVOTAL]; NCT01897103). Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  2. Staphylococcus aureus SaeR/S-regulated Factors Decrease Monocyte-derived TNF-α to Reduce Neutrophil Bactericidal Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sward, Eli W; Fones, Elizabeth M; Spaan, Russel R; Pallister, Kyler B; Haller, Brandon L; Guerra, Fermin E; Zurek, Oliwia W; Nygaard, Tyler K; Voyich, Jovanka M

    2017-12-19

    The ability of Staphylococcus aureus to evade killing by human neutrophils significantly contributes to disease progression. In this study, we characterize an influential role for the S. aureus SaeR/S-two component gene regulatory system in suppressing monocyte production of TNF-α to subsequently influence human neutrophil priming. TNF-α production from monocytes was significantly reduced following challenge with wild type S. aureus (USA300) compared to an isogenic saeR/S deletion mutant (USA300∆saeR/S). We observed that priming of neutrophils using conditioned medium (CM) from PBMCs stimulated with USA300∆saeR/S significantly increased neutrophil bactericidal activity against USA300 relative to unprimed neutrophils and neutrophils primed with USA300 CM. The increased neutrophil bactericidal activity was associated with enhanced ROS production that was significantly influenced by elevated TNF-α concentrations. Taken together, our findings identify an immune evasion strategy used by S. aureus to impede neutrophil priming and subsequent bactericidal activity. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Phagocytic activity of monocytes, their subpopulations and granulocytes during post-transplant adverse events after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Erbacher, Annika; Haufe, Susanne; Schwarze, Carl Philipp; Handgretinger, Rupert; Hofbeck, Michael; Kerst, Gunter

    2015-05-01

    Phagocytosis of granulocytes and monocytes presents a major mechanism that contributes to the clearance of pathogens and cell debris. We analyzed the phagocytic activity of the peripheral blood cell monocytes, three monocyte subpopulations and granulocytes before and up to one year after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as well as during transplant-related adverse events. 25 pediatric patients and young adults (median age of 11.0 years) with hemato-oncological malignancies and non malignancies were enrolled in the prospective study. Ingestion of fluorescence-labeled Escherichia coli bacteria was used to assess the phagocytic activity of monocytes and their subpopulations and granulocytes by means of flow cytometry in the patient group as well as in a control group (n=36). During sepsis, a significant increase of phagocytic activity of monocytes (P=0.0003) and a significant decrease of the phagocytic activity of granulocytes (P=0.0003) and the CD14+ CD16++ monocyte subpopulation (P=0.0020) occurred. At the onset of a veno-occlusive disease, a significant increase of phagocytic activity in the CD14++ CD16+ monocyte subpopulation (P=0.001) and a significant decrease in the phagocytic activity of the CD14++ CD16- monocyte subpopulation (P=0.0048) were observed. In conclusion, the phagocytic activity of monocytes, their subpopulations and granulocytes might be a useful and easy determinable parameter that enables identification of post-transplant complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The alterations of phagocytic activity contribute to the altered immune response that accompanies adverse events after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Oral Wild-Type Salmonella Typhi Challenge Induces Activation of Circulating Monocytes and Dendritic Cells in Individuals Who Develop Typhoid Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R Toapanta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new human oral challenge model with wild-type Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi was recently developed. In this model, ingestion of 104 CFU of Salmonella resulted in 65% of subjects developing typhoid fever (referred here as typhoid diagnosis -TD- 5-10 days post-challenge. TD criteria included meeting clinical (oral temperature ≥38°C for ≥12 h and/or microbiological (S. Typhi bacteremia endpoints. One of the first lines of defense against pathogens are the cells of the innate immune system (e.g., monocytes, dendritic cells -DCs-. Various changes in circulating monocytes and DCs have been described in the murine S. Typhimurium model; however, whether similar changes are present in humans remains to be explored. To address these questions, a subset of volunteers (5 TD and 3 who did not develop typhoid despite oral challenge -NoTD- were evaluated for changes in circulating monocytes and DCs. Expression of CD38 and CD40 were upregulated in monocytes and DCs in TD volunteers during the disease days (TD-0h to TD-96h. Moreover, integrin α4β7, a gut homing molecule, was upregulated on monocytes but not DCs. CD21 upregulation was only identified in DCs. These changes were not observed among NoTD volunteers despite the same oral challenge. Moreover, monocytes and DCs from NoTD volunteers showed increased binding to S. Typhi one day after challenge. These monocytes showed phosphorylation of p38MAPK, NFkB and Erk1/2 upon stimulation with S. Typhi-LPS-QDot micelles. In contrast, monocytes from TD volunteers showed only a moderate increase in S. Typhi binding 48 h and 96 h post-TD, and only Erk1/2 phosphorylation. This is the first study to describe different activation and migration profiles, as well as differential signaling patterns, in monocytes and DCs which relate directly to the clinical outcome following oral challenge with wild type S. Typhi.

  5. Dengue Virus-Infected Dendritic Cells, but Not Monocytes, Activate Natural Killer Cells through a Contact-Dependent Mechanism Involving Adhesion Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Vasconcelos Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells play a protective role against dengue virus (DENV infection, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Using an optimized humanized mouse model, we show that human NK cells, through the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ, are critical in the early defense against DENV infection. Depletion of NK cells or neutralization of IFN-γ leads to increased viremia and more severe thrombocytopenia and liver damage in humanized mice. In vitro studies using autologous human NK cells show that DENV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs, but not monocytes, activate NK cells in a contact-dependent manner, resulting in upregulation of CD69 and CD25 and secretion of IFN-γ. Blocking adhesion molecules (LFA-1, DNAM-1, CD2, and 2β4 on NK cells abolishes NK cell activation, IFN-γ secretion, and the control of DENV replication. NK cells activated by infected MDDCs also inhibit DENV infection in monocytes. These findings show the essential role of human NK cells in protection against acute DENV infection in vivo, identify adhesion molecules and dendritic cells required for NK cell activation, and delineate the sequence of events for NK cell activation and protection against DENV infection.

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms with cis-regulatory effects on long non-coding transcripts in human primary monocytes.

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    Jonas Carlsson Almlöf

    Full Text Available We applied genome-wide allele-specific expression analysis of monocytes from 188 samples. Monocytes were purified from white blood cells of healthy blood donors to detect cis-acting genetic variation that regulates the expression of long non-coding RNAs. We analysed 8929 regions harboring genes for potential long non-coding RNA that were retrieved from data from the ENCODE project. Of these regions, 60% were annotated as intergenic, which implies that they do not overlap with protein-coding genes. Focusing on the intergenic regions, and using stringent analysis of the allele-specific expression data, we detected robust cis-regulatory SNPs in 258 out of 489 informative intergenic regions included in the analysis. The cis-regulatory SNPs that were significantly associated with allele-specific expression of long non-coding RNAs were enriched to enhancer regions marked for active or bivalent, poised chromatin by histone modifications. Out of the lncRNA regions regulated by cis-acting regulatory SNPs, 20% (n = 52 were co-regulated with the closest protein coding gene. We compared the identified cis-regulatory SNPs with those in the catalog of SNPs identified by genome-wide association studies of human diseases and traits. This comparison identified 32 SNPs in loci from genome-wide association studies that displayed a strong association signal with allele-specific expression of non-coding RNAs in monocytes, with p-values ranging from 6.7×10(-7 to 9.5×10(-89. The identified cis-regulatory SNPs are associated with diseases of the immune system, like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Salusin-β induces foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in human vascular smooth muscle cells via miR155/NOX2/NFκB pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Jian; Zhao, Ming-Xia; Liu, Tong-Yan; Ren, Xing-Sheng; Chen, Qi; Li, Yue-Hua; Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are indispensible components in foam cell formation. Salusin-β is a stimulator in the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we showed that salusin-β increased foam cell formation evidenced by accumulation of lipid droplets and intracellular cholesterol content, and promoted monocyte adhesion in human VSMCs. Salusin-β increased the expressions and activity of acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in VSMCs. Silencing of ACAT-1 abolished the salusin-β-induced lipid accumulation, and silencing of VCAM-1 prevented the salusin-β-induced monocyte adhesion in VSMCs. Salusin-β caused p65-NFκB nuclear translocation and increased p65 occupancy at the ACAT-1 and VCAM-1 promoter. Inhibition of NFκB with Bay 11-7082 prevented the salusin-β-induced ACAT-1 and VCAM-1 upregulation, foam cell formation and monocyte adhesion in VSMCs. Scavenging ROS, inhibiting NADPH oxidase or knockdown of NOX2 abolished the effects of salusin-β on ACAT-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, p65-NFκB nuclear translocation, lipid accumulation and monocyte adhesion in VSMCs. Salusin-β increased miR155 expression, and knockdown of miR155 prevented the effects of salusin-β on ACAT-1 and VCAM-1 expressions, p65-NFκB nuclear translocation, lipid accumulation, monocyte adhesion and ROS production in VSMCs. These results indicate that salusin-β induces foam formation and monocyte adhesion via miR155/NOX2/NFκB-mediated ACAT-1 and VCAM-1 expressions in VSMCs. PMID:27004848

  8. In Vitro Detection of Apoptosis in Monocytes/Macrophages Infected with Human Coronavirus

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    Collins, Arlene R.

    2002-01-01

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) strain 229E infection, but not HCoV strain OC43 infection, of monocytes/macrophages from healthy donors and patients with multiple sclerosis in remission resulted in increased apoptosis, as measured by DNA changes and annexin V staining. Apoptosis correlated with the differential release of infectious virus. HCoV strain 229E titers were 103.5 to 106 50% tissue culture-infective doses (TCID50)/ml, and HCoV strain OC43 titers were only 101.2 to 102.7 TCID50/ml.

  9. Effect of probenecid on phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by human monocytes and granulocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buisman, H P; Buys, L F; Langermans, J A; van den Broek, P J; van Furth, R

    1991-01-01

    The present study concerns the effects of probenecid on the phagocytosis and intracellular killing of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by human monocytes and granulocytes. In both monocytes and granulocytes the inhibitory effect on phagocytosis was very small. Inhibition of intracellular killing of S. aureus by monocytes and granulocytes by probenecid was concentration dependent, being half-maximal at about 2 mM probenecid, and near-maximal at about 5 mM probenecid. The intracellular killing could also be inhibited when probenecid was added when this process was already started. Probenecid also inhibited the intracellular killing of E. coli by granulocytes, but not by monocytes. In the concentration range used, probenecid had no toxic effect on phagocytes or bacteria during the 2 hr of the experiments. PMID:1748482

  10. Integrin αMβ2 is differently expressed by subsets of human osteoclast precursors and mediates adhesion of classical monocytes to bone

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    Sprangers, Sara, E-mail: s.l.sprangers@acta.nl [Department of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands); Schoenmaker, Ton, E-mail: t.schoenmaker@acta.nl [Department of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands); Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands); Cao, Yixuan, E-mail: y.cao@acta.nl [Department of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands); Everts, Vincent, E-mail: v.everts@acta.nl [Department of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands); Vries, Teun J. de, E-mail: teun.devries@acta.nl [Department of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands); Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam The Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2017-01-01

    Bone-degrading osteoclasts are formed through fusion of their monocytic precursors. In the population of human peripheral blood monocytes, three distinct subsets have been identified: classical, intermediate and non-classical monocytes. We have previously shown that when the monocyte subsets are cultured on bone, significantly more osteoclasts are formed from classical monocytes than from intermediate or non-classical monocytes. Considering that this difference does not exist when monocyte subsets are cultured on plastic, we hypothesized that classical monocytes adhere better to the bone surface compared to intermediate and non-classical monocytes. To investigate this, the different monocyte subsets were isolated from human peripheral blood and cultured on slices of human bone in the presence of the cytokine M-CSF. We found that classical monocytes adhere better to bone due to a higher expression of the integrin αMβ2 and that their ability to attach to bone is significantly decreased when the integrin is blocked. This suggests that integrin αMβ2 mediates attachment of osteoclast precursors to bone and thereby enables the formation of osteoclasts.

  11. Attenuation of LPS-induced inflammation by ICT, a derivate of icariin, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinfeng; Zhou, Junmin; Chen, Xianghong; Fortenbery, Nicole; Eksioglu, Erika A; Wei, Sheng; Dong, Jingcheng

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of ICT in LPS stimulated human innate immune cells. 3, 5, 7-Trihydroxy-4'-methoxy-8-(3-hydroxy-3- methylbutyl)-flavone (ICT) is a novel derivative of icariin, the major active ingredient of Herba Epimedii, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine. We previously demonstrated its anti-inflammatory potential in a murine macrophage cell line as well as in mouse models. We measured TNF-α production by ELISA, TLR4/CD14 expression by flow cytometry, and NF-κB and MAPK activation by western blot all in LPS-stimulated PBMC, human monocytes, or THP-1 cells after treatment with ICT. ICT inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α production in THP-1 cells, PBMCs and human monocytes in a dose-dependent manner. ICT treatment resulted in down-regulation of the expression of CD14/TLR4 and attenuated NF-κB and MAPK activation induced by LPS. We illustrate the anti-inflammatory property of ICT in human immune cells, especially in monocytes. These effects were mediated, at least partially, via inhibition of the CD14/TLR4 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Treponema pallidum flagellins elicit proinflammatory cytokines from human monocytes via TLR5 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Xie, Yafeng; Jiang, Chuanhao; Xiao, Yongjian; Kuang, Xingxing; Wen, Yating; Tan, Yuan; Tan, Manyi; Zhao, Feijun; Zeng, Tiebing; Wu, Yimou

    2017-05-01

    The tissue damage caused by syphilis infection may be associated with inflammation. However, the virulence factors of Treponema pallidum are still unclear, nor are the molecular mechanisms for leading to the productions of proinflammatory cytokines. Flagellin, a classic pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), is a potent immunogen that induces inflammation. In the present study, we have demonstrated that stimulations of human monocytes with Treponema pallidum FlaB1, FlaB2, and FlaB3 result in the up regulation of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Moreover, silencing of the Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) gene by using small interfering RNA was found to abrogate the T. pallidum flagellins-induced IL-6 and IL-8 expressions. Similarly, transfection with the dominant negative plasmid encoding MyD88 (pDeNy-hMyD88) was also giving rise to the down regulation of IL-6 and IL-8. We further investigated the relative contributions of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling to transcriptions and translations of IL-6 and IL-8. Western Blot and immuno fluorescence experiments revealed that flagellins-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 expressions are heavily dependent on ERK, p38, and NF-κB. In addition, inhibitions of p38 kinase, ERK, and NF-κB were found to attenuate the productions of IL-6 and IL-8. Taken together, our results indicate that T. pallidum flagellins can upregulate IL-6 and IL-8 generations via TLR5 and MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathways in THP-1 cells, which will improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of T. pallidum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of cinnamon water extract on monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and scavenger receptor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hee; Park, Sung-Hyun; Yun, Jeong-Moon; Nam, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Youn Jung

    2014-03-07

    Water soluble cinnamon extract has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and modulate macrophage activation, a desirable trait for the management of obesity or atherosclerosis. Our present study investigated whether cinnamon water extract (CWE) may influence the differentiation of monocytes into macrophages and the activity of macrophage scavenger receptors, commonly observed in atherosclerotic lesions. We investigated the effect of CWE on the expression of various surface markers and the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein (LDL) in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated THP-1 cells. The protein levels of PMA or macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF)-stimulated type 1 macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA) were analyzed. Finally, the role of extracellar signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 in SRA synthesis and the effect of CWE on PMA-stimulated ERK1/2 were determined. CWE inhibited the differentiation of monocyte by decreasing the expression of CD11b, CD36 and SRA and the uptake of acetyl LDL. CWE suppressed the upregulation of SRA by M-CSF and modulated ERK1/2 activity, which was required for PMA-induced SRA synthesis. Our results demonstrate that CWE was able to interfere with monocyte differentiation and macrophage scavenger activity, indicating its potential in preventing the development of atherosclerotic lesions.

  15. Proinflammatory cytokines increase iron uptake into human monocytes and synovial fibroblasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, Joan F; Brock, Jeremy H

    2004-04-01

    It has been hypothesized that iron is stored in the synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis which perpetuates inflamation by aiding the production of oxygen free radicals. Proinflammatory cytokines are produced by macrophages and lymphocytes present within synovium and by mononuclear cells of in synovial fluid from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. There are two known systems for iron uptake. The first involves binding of iron to transferrin and uptake via transferrin receptors. The second involves uptake by low molecular weight organic anions such as ascorbate and citrate (non-transferrin bound uptake). Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6, TNFalpha and interferon gamma) were added to fibroblasts isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and human monocytes in culture and their effect on 59Fe-transferrin and citrate uptake was determined. Proinflammatory cytokines increase transferrin and non-transferrin bound iron uptake into human monocytes and increase transferrin-bound iron uptake by synovial fibroblasts, but have no effect on non-transferrin bound uptake into fibroblasts. Proinflammatory cytokines produced in human rheumatoid arthritis synovium and synovial fluid may contribute to the accumulation of iron that occurs in rheumatoid arthritis synovium which may lead to damage to synovial fibroblasts, macrophages and lymphocytes.

  16. Age Increases Monocyte Adhesion on Collagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaji, Samira; Zondler, Lisa; Kleinjan, Fenneke; Nolte, Ulla; Mulaw, Medhanie A.; Danzer, Karin M.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Gottschalk, Kay-E.

    2017-05-01

    Adhesion of monocytes to micro-injuries on arterial walls is an important early step in the occurrence and development of degenerative atherosclerotic lesions. At these injuries, collagen is exposed to the blood stream. We are interested whether age influences monocyte adhesion to collagen under flow, and hence influences the susceptibility to arteriosclerotic lesions. Therefore, we studied adhesion and rolling of human peripheral blood monocytes from old and young individuals on collagen type I coated surface under shear flow. We find that firm adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is elevated in old individuals. Pre-stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increases the firm adhesion of monocytes homogeneously in older individuals, but heterogeneously in young individuals. Blocking integrin αx showed that adhesion of monocytes to collagen type I is specific to the main collagen binding integrin αxβ2. Surprisingly, we find no significant age-dependent difference in gene expression of integrin αx or integrin β2. However, if all integrins are activated from the outside, no differences exist between the age groups. Altered integrin activation therefore causes the increased adhesion. Our results show that the basal increase in integrin activation in monocytes from old individuals increases monocyte adhesion to collagen and therefore the risk for arteriosclerotic plaques.

  17. Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Are Essential for CD8(+) T Cell Activation and Antitumor Responses After Local Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Sabine; Yang, Jianping; Ronchese, Franca

    2015-01-01

    Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells (DCs) with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate antitumor immune responses and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived DCs (moDCs) in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node (dLN). Here, we use depletion of DCs or monocytes and monocyte transfer to show that these moDCs are critical to the activation of antitumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents monosodium urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the dLN, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα, and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of moDCs, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and antitumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c(+) cells were sufficient to rescue CD8(+) T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus, monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells and antitumor immunity.

  18. Long non-coding RNA-DANCR in human circulating monocytes: a potential biomarker associated with postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiang; Gu, Peng-cheng; Xu, San-zhong; Lin, Xiang-jin

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and low trauma fractures, mainly resulting from exceeding bone resorption by osteoclasts over bone formation by osteoblasts. Circulating monocytes are directly involved in osteoclastogenesis, and lncRNAs are believed to be involved in the osteoblast differentiation. However, no study has been conducted to identify the roles of lncRNA in circulating monocytes associated with human osteoporosis. In this study, we found significant upregulation of DANCR in the blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) from low-BMD patients with the qRT-PCR analyses. We further found that DANCR promoted the expression of IL6 and TNF-α at both mRNA level and protein level in MNCs. After deletion of DANCR with siRNAs, the levels of IL6 and TNF-α are decreased in the MNCs from low-BMD postmenopausal women. Moreover, DANCR level was correlated with IL6 and TNF-α in postmenopausal women with low BMD. Furthermore, we found that DANCR-induced IL6 and TNF-α in MNCs had bone-resorbing activity. These results indicate that DANCR is involved in the pathology of osteoporosis and may be as a biomarker for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  19. Cytoplasmic HIV-RNA in monocytes determines microglial activation and neuronal cell death in HIV-associated neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faissner, Simon; Ambrosius, Björn; Schanzmann, Kirsten; Grewe, Bastian; Potthoff, Anja; Münch, Jan; Sure, Ulrich; Gramberg, Thomas; Wittmann, Sabine; Brockmeyer, Norbert; Uberla, Klaus; Gold, Ralf; Grunwald, Thomas; Chan, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Despite highly active antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are still highly prevalent. Direct neurotoxicity of microglia activated by HIV-infected monocytes independent from viral replication may account for this observation. To investigate underlying molecular and viral determinants, human monocytoid cells (U937) transduced with HIV-particles were co-cultured with primary human microglia or astrocytes. Using genetically-engineered HIV-particles key steps of infection were examined. Levels of pro-inflammatory/neurotoxic cytokines were investigated in co-culture supernatants by flow cytometry. Neurotoxicity mediated by the supernatants was analysed using primary cortical rat neurons. To corroborate our findings, cytokine profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neuropsychologically asymptomatic HIV positive (HIV(+)) patients (n=45) were correlated with neurofilament H (NfH) as surrogate of neuronal/axonal degeneration. In contrast to direct exposure of HIV to microglia, only the presence of HIV-transduced monocytoid cells strongly activated human microglia as evidenced by enhanced secretion of CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2, and IL-6 (1.3-7.1-fold; pHIV-transduced monocytoid cells was limited. Using different mutant HIV-particles we show that the presence of cytoplasmic HIV-RNA in monocytoid cells is the viral determinant for this unique microglial activation pattern and subsequent neuronal cell death; reverse transcription and expression of viral genes were not essential. In CSF of presymptomatic HIV(+) patients, CXCL10, CCL5 and IL-6 were correlated with NfH as surrogate marker of neurodegeneration as well as CSF-pleocytosis. In conclusion, cytosolic viral RNA in monocytes is mandatory for subsequent microglial activation and neurotoxicity; activated astrocytes may augment neuroinflammation. In addition, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration occur even in preclinical HIV(+) patients and are associated with cytokines regulated in vitro. Our

  20. Involvement of Toso in activation of monocytes, macrophages, and granulocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Karl S.; Lang, Philipp A.; Meryk, Andreas; Pandyra, Aleksandra A.; Boucher, Louis-Martin; Pozdeev, Vitaly I.; Tusche, Michael W.; Göthert, Joachim R.; Haight, Jillian; Wakeham, Andrew; You-Ten, Annick J.; McIlwain, David R.; Merches, Katja; Khairnar, Vishal; Recher, Mike; Nolan, Garry P.; Hitoshi, Yasumichi; Funkner, Pauline; Navarini, Alexander A.; Verschoor, Admar; Shaabani, Namir; Honke, Nadine; Penn, Linda Z.; Ohashi, Pamela S.; Häussinger, Dieter; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Mak, Tak W.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid activation of immune responses is necessary for antibacterial defense, but excessive immune activation can result in life-threatening septic shock. Understanding how these processes are balanced may provide novel therapeutic potential in treating inflammatory disease. Fc receptors are crucial for innate immune activation. However, the role of the putative Fc receptor for IgM, known as Toso/Faim3, has to this point been unclear. In this study, we generated Toso-deficient mice and used them to uncover a critical regulatory function of Toso in innate immune activation. Development of innate immune cells was intact in the absence of Toso, but Toso-deficient neutrophils exhibited more reactive oxygen species production and reduced phagocytosis of pathogens compared with controls. Cytokine production was also decreased in Toso−/− mice compared with WT animals, rendering them resistant to septic shock induced by lipopolysaccharide. However, Toso−/− mice also displayed limited cytokine production after infection with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes that was correlated with elevated presence of Listeria throughout the body. Accordingly, Toso−/− mice succumbed to infections of L. monocytogenes, whereas WT mice successfully eliminated the infection. Taken together, our data reveal Toso to be a unique regulator of innate immune responses during bacterial infection and septic shock. PMID:23359703

  1. Carbon monoxide blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression by interfering with proximal TLR4 to NF-kappaB signal transduction in human monocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesha Chhikara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an endogenous messenger that suppresses inflammation, modulates apoptosis and promotes vascular remodeling. Here, microarrays were employed to globally characterize the CO (250 ppm suppression of early (1 h LPS-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. CO suppressed 79 of 101 immediate-early genes induced by LPS; 19% (15/79 were transcription factors and most others were cytokines, chemokines and immune response genes. The prototypic effects of CO on transcription and protein production occurred early but decreased rapidly. CO activated p38 MAPK, ERK1/2 and Akt and caused an early and transitory delay in LPS-induced JNK activation. However, selective inhibitors of these kinases failed to block CO suppression of LPS-induced IL-1beta, an inflammation marker. Of CO-suppressed genes, 81% (64/79 were found to have promoters with putative NF-kappaB binding sites. CO was subsequently shown to block LPS-induced phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaBalpha in human monocytes, thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB signal transduction. CO broadly suppresses the initial inflammatory response of human monocytes to LPS by reshaping proximal events in TLR4 signal transduction such as stress kinase responses and early NF-kappaB activation. These rapid, but transient effects of CO may have therapeutic applications in acute pulmonary and vascular injury.

  2. Alpha-toxin induces programmed cell death of human T cells, B cells, and monocytes during USA300 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler K Nygaard

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the influence of alpha-toxin (Hla during USA300 infection of human leukocytes. Survival of an USA300 isogenic deletion mutant of hla (USA300Δhla in human blood was comparable to the parental wild-type strain and polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN plasma membrane permeability caused by USA300 did not require Hla. Flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs following infection by USA300, USA300Δhla, and USA300Δhla transformed with a plasmid over-expressing Hla (USA300Δhla Comp demonstrated this toxin plays a significant role inducing plasma membrane permeability of CD14(+, CD3(+, and CD19(+ PBMCs. Rapid plasma membrane permeability independent of Hla was observed for PMNs, CD14(+ and CD19(+ PBMCs following intoxication with USA300 supernatant while the majority of CD3(+ PBMC plasma membrane permeability induced by USA300 required Hla. Addition of recombinant Hla to USA300Δhla supernatant rescued CD3(+ and CD19(+ PBMC plasma membrane permeability generated by USA300 supernatant. An observed delay in plasma membrane permeability caused by Hla in conjunction with Annexin V binding and ApoBrdU Tunel assays examining PBMCs intoxicated with recombinant Hla or infected with USA300, USA300Δhla, USA300Δhla Comp, and USA300ΔsaeR/S suggest Hla induces programmed cell death of monocytes, B cells, and T cells that results in plasma membrane permeability. Together these findings underscore the importance of Hla during S. aureus infection of human tissue and specifically demonstrate Hla activity during USA300 infection triggers programmed cell death of human monocytes, T cells and B cells that leads to plasma membrane permeability.

  3. Monoclonal antibody to a subset of human monocytes found only in the peripheral blood and inflammatory tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwadlo, G.; Schlegel, R.; Sorg, C.

    1986-07-15

    A monoclonal antibody is described that was generated by immunizing mice with cultured human blood monocytes. The antibody (27E10) belongs to the IgG1 subclass and detects a surface antigen at M/sub r/ 17,000 that is found on 20% of peripheral blood monocytes. The antigen is increasingly expressed upon culture of monocytes, reaching a maximum between days 2 and 3. Stimulation of monocytes with interferon-..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..), 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Ylalanine (fMLP) increased the 27E10 antigen density. The amount of 27E10-positive cells is not or is only weakly affected. The antigen is absent from platelets, lymphotyces, and all tested human cell lines, yet it cross-reacts with 15% of freshly isolated granulocytes. By using the indirect immunoperoxidase technique, the antibody is found to be negative on cryostat sections of normal human tissue (skin, lung, and colon) and positive on only a few monocyte-like cells in liver and on part of the cells of the splenic red pulp. In inflammatory tissue, however, the antibody is positive on monocytes/macrophages and sometimes on endothelial cells and epidermal cells, depending on the stage and type of inflammation, e.g., BCG ranulomas are negative, whereas psoriasis vulgaris, atopic dermatitis, erythrodermia, pressure urticaria, and periodontitis contain positively staining cells. In contact eczemas at different times after elicitation (6 hr, 24 hr, and 72 hr), the 27E10 antigen is seen first after 24 hr on a few infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, which increase in numbers after 72 hr.

  4. In vitro studies of human monocyte migration across endothelium in response to leukotriene B4 and f-Met-Leu-Phe.

    OpenAIRE

    Migliorisi, G.; Folkes, E.; Pawlowski, N.; Cramer, E. B.

    1987-01-01

    Relatively little is known about monocyte emigration from the vasculature or about the factors that regulate this process. In this study, a human in vitro model of a blood vessel wall was used for examination of monocyte transendothelial migration. Umbilical vein endothelial cells were grown to confluency on amnion connective tissue, and human monocytes were stimulated to cross the monolayer in response to the chemoattractants leukotriene B4 or f-Met-Leu-Phe. The pattern and time course of mo...

  5. Genetics and beyond--the transcriptome of human monocytes and disease susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Zeller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Variability of gene expression in human may link gene sequence variability and phenotypes; however, non-genetic variations, alone or in combination with genetics, may also influence expression traits and have a critical role in physiological and disease processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To get better insight into the overall variability of gene expression, we assessed the transcriptome of circulating monocytes, a key cell involved in immunity-related diseases and atherosclerosis, in 1,490 unrelated individuals and investigated its association with >675,000 SNPs and 10 common cardiovascular risk factors. Out of 12,808 expressed genes, 2,745 expression quantitative trait loci were detected (P<5.78x10(-12, most of them (90% being cis-modulated. Extensive analyses showed that associations identified by genome-wide association studies of lipids, body mass index or blood pressure were rarely compatible with a mediation by monocyte expression level at the locus. At a study-wide level (P<3.9x10(-7, 1,662 expression traits (13.0% were significantly associated with at least one risk factor. Genome-wide interaction analyses suggested that genetic variability and risk factors mostly acted additively on gene expression. Because of the structure of correlation among expression traits, the variability of risk factors could be characterized by a limited set of independent gene expressions which may have biological and clinical relevance. For example expression traits associated with cigarette smoking were more strongly associated with carotid atherosclerosis than smoking itself. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates that the monocyte transcriptome is a potent integrator of genetic and non-genetic influences of relevance for disease pathophysiology and risk assessment.

  6. Activated Platelets Induce an Anti-Inflammatory Response of Monocytes/Macrophages through Cross-Regulation of PGE2 and Cytokines

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    Bona Linke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are well known for their role in hemostasis and are also increasingly recognized for their roles in the innate immune system during inflammation and their regulation of macrophage activation. Here, we aimed to study the influence of platelets on the production of inflammatory mediators by monocytes and macrophages. Analyzing cocultures of platelets and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages or human monocytes, we found that collagen-activated platelets release high amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 that leads to an increased interleukin- (IL- 10 release and a decreased tumor necrosis factor (TNF α secretion out of the monocytes or macrophages. Platelet PGE2 mediated the upregulation of IL-10 in both cell types via the PGE2 receptor EP2. Notably, PGE2-mediated IL-10 synthesis was also mediated by EP4 in murine macrophages. Inhibition of TNFα synthesis via EP2 and EP4, but not EP1, was mediated by IL-10, since blockade of the IL-10 receptor abolished the inhibitory effect of both receptors on TNFα release. This platelet-mediated cross-regulation between PGE2 and cytokines reveals one mechanism how monocytes and macrophages can attenuate excessive inflammatory responses induced by activated platelets in order to limit inflammatory processes.

  7. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induce Expression of CD73 in Human Monocytes In Vitro and in a Swine Model of Myocardial Infarction In Vivo

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    Marta Monguió-Tortajada

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The ectoenzymes CD39 and CD73 regulate the purinergic signaling through the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP/ADP to AMP and to adenosine (Ado, respectively. This shifts the pro-inflammatory milieu induced by extracellular ATP to the anti-inflammatory regulation by Ado. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capabilities, including monocyte modulation toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype aiding tissue repair. In vitro, we observed that human cardiac adipose tissue-derived MSCs (cATMSCs and umbilical cord MSCs similarly polarize monocytes toward a regulatory M2 phenotype, which maintained the expression of CD39 and induced expression of CD73 in a cell contact dependent fashion, correlating with increased functional activity. In addition, the local treatment with porcine cATMSCs using an engineered bioactive graft promoted the in vivo CD73 expression on host monocytes in a swine model of myocardial infarction. Our results suggest the upregulation of ectonucleotidases on MSC-conditioned monocytes as an effective mechanism to amplify the long-lasting immunomodulatory and healing effects of MSCs delivery.

  8. Monocyte-mediated inhibition of TLR9-dependent IFN-α induction in plasmacytoid dendritic cells questions bacterial DNA as the active ingredient of bacterial lysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poth, Jens M; Coch, Christoph; Busch, Nicolas; Boehm, Olaf; Schlee, Martin; Janke, Markus; Zillinger, Thomas; Schildgen, Oliver; Barchet, Winfried; Hartmann, Gunther

    2010-12-15

    Bacterial DNA contains unmethylated CpG dinucleotides and is a potent ligand for TLR9. Bacterial DNA has been claimed the active ingredient in bacterial lysates used for immunotherapy. Whereas the detection of viral DNA by TLR9 expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) with subsequent IFN-α production is well defined, the role of bacterial DNA during microbial infection is less clear. In fact, IFN-α is not a hallmark of antibacterial immune responses. Unlike in mice, TLR9 expression in humans is restricted to PDCs and B cells; thus, conclusions from murine models of infection have limitations. In this study, we demonstrate that lysates of heat-killed Escherichia coli containing bacterial DNA induced IFN-α in isolated PDCs but not in the mixed cell populations of human PBMCs. Depletion of monocytes restored IFN-α secretion by PDCs within PBMCs. We found that monocyte-derived IL-10 and PGs contribute to monocyte-mediated inhibition of IFN-α release in PDCs. We conclude that human PDCs can be stimulated by bacterial DNA via TLR9; however, in the physiological context of mixed-cell populations, PDC activation is blocked by factors released from monocytes stimulated in parallel by other components of bacterial lysates such as LPS. This functional repression of PDCs by concomitantly stimulated monocytes avoids production of antiviral IFN-α during bacterial infection and thus explains how the innate immune system is enabled to distinguish bacterial from viral CpG DNA and thus to elicit the appropriate responses despite the presence of CpG DNA in both types of infection.

  9. GM-CSF and IL-3 Modulate Human Monocyte TNF-α Production and Renewal in In Vitro Models of Trained Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Loffredo, Stefania; Scamardella, Eloise; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Varricchi, Gilda; Granata, Francescopaolo; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2017-01-01

    GM-CSF and IL-3 are hematopoietic cytokines that also modulate the effector functions of several immune cell subsets. In particular, GM-CSF and IL-3 exert a significant control on monocyte and macrophage effector functions, as assessed in experimental models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and also in human studies. Here, we sought to investigate the mechanisms and the extent to which GM-CSF and IL-3 modulate the pro-inflammatory, LPS-mediated, activation of human CD14+ monocytes taking into account the new concept of trained immunity (i.e., the priming stimulus modulates the response to subsequent stimuli mainly by inducing chromatin remodeling and increased transcription at relevant genetic loci). We demonstrate that GM-CSF and IL-3 priming enhances TNF-α production upon subsequent LPS stimulation (short-term model of trained immunity) in a p38- and SIRT2-dependent manner without increasing TNF primary transcript levels (a more direct measure of transcription), thus supporting a posttranscriptional regulation of TNF-α in primed monocytes. GM-CSF and IL-3 priming followed by 6 days of resting also results in increased TNF-α production upon LPS stimulation (long-term model of trained immunity). In this case, however, GM-CSF and IL-3 priming induces a c-Myc-dependent monocyte renewal and increase in cell number that is in turn responsible for heightened TNF-α production. Overall, our results provide insights to understand the biology of monocytes in health and disease conditions in which the hematopoietic cytokines GM-CSF and IL-3 play a role and also extend our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of trained immunity. PMID:28138327

  10. GM-CSF and IL-3 Modulate Human Monocyte TNF-α Production and Renewal in In Vitro Models of Trained Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, Francesco; Iannone, Raffaella; Di Somma, Sarah; Loffredo, Stefania; Scamardella, Eloise; Galdiero, Maria Rosaria; Varricchi, Gilda; Granata, Francescopaolo; Portella, Giuseppe; Marone, Gianni

    2016-01-01

    GM-CSF and IL-3 are hematopoietic cytokines that also modulate the effector functions of several immune cell subsets. In particular, GM-CSF and IL-3 exert a significant control on monocyte and macrophage effector functions, as assessed in experimental models of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and also in human studies. Here, we sought to investigate the mechanisms and the extent to which GM-CSF and IL-3 modulate the pro-inflammatory, LPS-mediated, activation of human CD14+ monocytes taking into account the new concept of trained immunity (i.e., the priming stimulus modulates the response to subsequent stimuli mainly by inducing chromatin remodeling and increased transcription at relevant genetic loci). We demonstrate that GM-CSF and IL-3 priming enhances TNF-α production upon subsequent LPS stimulation (short-term model of trained immunity) in a p38- and SIRT2-dependent manner without increasing TNF primary transcript levels (a more direct measure of transcription), thus supporting a posttranscriptional regulation of TNF-α in primed monocytes. GM-CSF and IL-3 priming followed by 6 days of resting also results in increased TNF-α production upon LPS stimulation (long-term model of trained immunity). In this case, however, GM-CSF and IL-3 priming induces a c-Myc-dependent monocyte renewal and increase in cell number that is in turn responsible for heightened TNF-α production. Overall, our results provide insights to understand the biology of monocytes in health and disease conditions in which the hematopoietic cytokines GM-CSF and IL-3 play a role and also extend our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of trained immunity.

  11. Lipid-cell interactions in human monocytes investigated by doubly-resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Tyler; Schie, Iwan; den Hartigh, Laura J.; Rutledge, John C.; Huser, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that doubly-resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering can provide enhanced and highly specific contrast for molecules containing unique Raman-active small molecular groups. This combination provides contrast for molecules that can otherwise be difficult to discriminate by Raman spectroscopy. Here, human monocytes were incubated with either deuterated oleic acid or 17-octadecynoic acid (a fatty acid with an end terminal acetylene group). The carbon-deuterium stretching vibration of the deuterated fatty acid, as well as the unique alkyne stretching vibration of the alkyne-containing fatty acid, were used to provide contrast for these exogenous free fatty acids. The combination of these unique modes with the common aliphatic carbon-hydrogen stretching vibration inherent to all fatty acid allowed for doubly-resonant detection of these unique molecules and enabled us to detect the presence of these lipids in areas within a cell where each molecular resonance by itself did not generate sufficient signal.

  12. Lipid-cell interactions in human monocytes investigated by doubly-resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Tyler; Schie, Iwan; den Hartigh, Laura J; Rutledge, John C; Huser, Thomas

    2011-02-01

    We demonstrate that doubly-resonant coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering can provide enhanced and highly specific contrast for molecules containing unique Raman-active small molecular groups. This combination provides contrast for molecules that can otherwise be difficult to discriminate by Raman spectroscopy. Here, human monocytes were incubated with either deuterated oleic acid or 17-octadecynoic acid (a fatty acid with an end terminal acetylene group). The carbon-deuterium stretching vibration of the deuterated fatty acid, as well as the unique alkyne stretching vibration of the alkyne-containing fatty acid, were used to provide contrast for these exogenous free fatty acids. The combination of these unique modes with the common aliphatic carbon-hydrogen stretching vibration inherent to all fatty acid allowed for doubly-resonant detection of these unique molecules and enabled us to detect the presence of these lipids in areas within a cell where each molecular resonance by itself did not generate sufficient signal.

  13. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

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    G. Karina Chimal-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1 and protumoral (M2 activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli.

  14. Human Cytomegalovirus-Encoded Human Interleukin-10 (IL-10) Homolog Amplifies Its Immunomodulatory Potential by Upregulating Human IL-10 in Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdic, Selmir; McSharry, Brian P; Steain, Megan; Poole, Emma; Sinclair, John; Abendroth, Allison; Slobedman, Barry

    2016-04-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL111A encodes cytomegalovirus-encoded human interleukin-10 (cmvIL-10), a homolog of the potent immunomodulatory cytokine human interleukin 10 (hIL-10). This viral homolog exhibits a range of immunomodulatory functions, including suppression of proinflammatory cytokine production and dendritic cell (DC) maturation, as well as inhibition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II. Here, we present data showing that cmvIL-10 upregulates hIL-10, and we identify CD14(+)monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages and DCs as major sources of hIL-10 secretion in response to cmvIL-10. Monocyte activation was not a prerequisite for cmvIL-10-mediated upregulation of hIL-10, which was dose dependent and controlled at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, cmvIL-10 upregulated expression of tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2), which is a regulator of the positive hIL-10 feedback loop, whereas expression of a negative regulator of the hIL-10 feedback loop, dual-specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1), remained unchanged. Engagement of the hIL-10 receptor (hIL-10R) by cmvIL-10 led to upregulation of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an enzyme linked with suppression of inflammatory responses, and this upregulation was required for cmvIL-10-mediated upregulation of hIL-10. We also demonstrate an important role for both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and STAT3 in the upregulation of HO-1 and hIL-10 by cmvIL-10. In addition to upregulating hIL-10, cmvIL-10 could exert a direct immunomodulatory function, as demonstrated by its capacity to upregulate expression of cell surface CD163 when hIL-10 was neutralized. This study identifies a mechanistic basis for cmvIL-10 function, including the capacity of this viral cytokine to potentially amplify its immunosuppressive impact by upregulating hIL-10 expression. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that causes significant human disease, particularly in the

  15. Effects of drospirenone on adhesion molecule expression and monocyte adherence in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fumitake; Mori, Taisuke; Takaoka, Osamu; Tanaka, Yukiko; Koshiba, Akemi; Tatsumi, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Koichi; Kitawaki, Jo

    2016-06-01

    A major concern in hormone replacement therapy is the associated increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A progestogen without the unfavorable effects on cardiovascular disease should be explored. Monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is an important initial event in atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of the alternative progestogen drospirenone (DRSP) on monocyte adhesion in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined. In HUVECs treated with estrogens and progestogens, including DRSP and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), the expression of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 were examined by real-time PCR and using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A flow chamber system was used to investigate the effects of DRSP on U937 monocytoid cell adherence to HUVEC monolayers. All experimental data were compared using one-way Analysis of Variance. Upregulation of adhesion molecule mRNA or protein was not seen in HUVECs treated with DRSP alone or with 17β-estradiol+DRSP. DRSP alone, 17β-estradiol+DRSP or ethinylestradiol+DRSP did not increase the number of adherent monocytoid cells to HUVECs in the flow chamber system. However, MPA significantly enhanced the monocytoid cell adherence (Padhesion molecules or monocytoid cell adherence to endothelial cells, indicating that DRSP could reduce the risk of atherogenesis caused by MPA. These results suggest that DRSP may be an alternative to MPA in hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Oxygen-Loaded Nanodroplets Effectively Abrogate Hypoxia Dysregulating Effects on Secretion of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 by Human Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rossana Gulino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Monocytes play a key role in the inflammatory stage of the healing process. To allow monocyte migration to injured tissues, the balances between secreted matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs and their inhibitors (TIMPs must be finely modulated. However, a reduction of blood supply and local oxygen tension can modify the phenotype of immune cells. Intriguingly, hypoxia might be targeted by new effective oxygenating devices such as 2H,3H-decafluoropentane- (DFP- based oxygen-loaded nanodroplets (OLNs. Here, hypoxia effects on gelatinase/TIMP release from human peripheral monocytes were investigated, and the therapeutic potential of dextran-shelled OLNs was evaluated. Normoxic monocytes constitutively released ~500 ng/mL MMP-9, ~1.3 ng/mL TIMP-1, and ~0.6 ng/mL TIMP-2 proteins. MMP-2 was not detected. After 24 hours, hypoxia significantly altered MMP-9/TIMP-1 balance by reducing MMP-9 and increasing TIMP-1, without affecting TIMP-2 secretion. Interestingly OLNs, not displaying toxicity to human monocytes after cell internalization, effectively counteracted hypoxia, restoring a normoxia-like MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio. The action of OLNs was specifically dependent on time-sustained oxygen diffusion up to 24 h from their DFP-based core. Therefore, OLNs appear as innovative, nonconventional, cost-effective, and nontoxic therapeutic tools, to be potentially employed to restore the physiological invasive phenotype of immune cells in hypoxia-associated inflammation.

  17. Activated platelets enhance IL-10 secretion and reduce TNF-α secretion by monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudbrandsdottir, Sif; Hasselbalch, Hans C; Nielsen, Claus H

    2013-01-01

    ), Escherichia coli LPS, or intact Porphyromonas gingivalis. Addition of platelets activated by thrombin-receptor-activating peptide enhanced IL-10 production induced by LPS (p ....05), and P. gingivalis (p IL-10 and TNF-α production were observed on addition of platelet supernatant to mononuclear cells, whereas addition of recombinant soluble CD40L mimicked the effects on IL-10...... production. Moreover, Ab-mediated blockade of CD40L counteracted the effect of platelets and platelet supernatants on TNF-α production. Monocytes separated into two populations with respect to IL-10 production induced by TG; the high-secreting fraction increased from 0.8 to 2.1% (p

  18. LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to T4 phage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bocian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data shows that bacteriophages can interact with different kinds of immune cells. The objective of this study was to investigate whether T4 bacteriophage and T4-generated Escherichia coli lysate affect functions of monocytes, the key population of immune cells involved in antibacterial immunity. To that end we evaluated how T4 and E. coli lysate influence the expression of main costimulatory molecules including CD40, CD80 and CD86, TLR2, TLR4 on monocytes, as well as the production of IL-6 and IL-12 in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. Separate experiments were performed on unactivated and LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. Both studied preparations significantly increased the percentage of CD14+CD16-CD40+ and CD14+CD16-CD80+ monocytes in unactivated PBMCs cultures, as well as the concentration of IL-6 and IL-12 in culture supernates. However, neither purified T4 nor E. coli lysate had any significant effect on monocytes in LPS-activated PBMCs cultures. We conclude that LPS-activated monocytes are unresponsive to phages and products of phage-induced lysis of bacteria. This study is highly relevant to phage therapy because it suggests that in patients with infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria the administration of phage preparations to patients and lysis of bacteria by phages are not likely to overly stimulate monocytes.

  19. A human monocytic NF-κB fluorescent reporter cell line for detection of microbial contaminants in biological samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Battin

    Full Text Available Sensing of pathogens by innate immune cells is essential for the initiation of appropriate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs, which are highly sensitive for various structurally and evolutionary conserved molecules derived from microbes have a prominent role in this process. TLR engagement results in the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB, which induces the expression of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators. The exquisite sensitivity of TLR signalling can be exploited for the detection of bacteria and microbial contaminants in tissue cultures and in protein preparations. Here we describe a cellular reporter system for the detection of TLR ligands in biological samples. The well-characterized human monocytic THP-1 cell line was chosen as host for an NF-ᴋB-inducible enhanced green fluorescent protein reporter gene. We studied the sensitivity of the resultant reporter cells for a variety of microbial components and observed a strong reactivity towards TLR1/2 and TLR2/6 ligands. Mycoplasma lipoproteins are potent TLR2/6 agonists and we demonstrate that our reporter cells can be used as reliable and robust detection system for mycoplasma contaminations in cell cultures. In addition, a TLR4-sensitive subline of our reporters was engineered, and probed with recombinant proteins expressed in different host systems. Bacterially expressed but not mammalian expressed proteins induced strong reporter activity. We also tested proteins expressed in an E. coli strain engineered to lack TLR4 agonists. Such preparations also induced reporter activation in THP-1 cells highlighting the importance of testing recombinant protein preparations for microbial contaminations beyond endotoxins. Our results demonstrate the usefulness of monocytic reporter cells for high-throughput screening for microbial contaminations in diverse biological samples, including tissue culture supernatants and recombinant protein preparations. Fluorescent reporter

  20. Mitochondrial DAMPs induce endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes: an observation in patients with myocardial infarction.

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    Irene Fernández-Ruiz

    Full Text Available Monocyte exposure to mitochondrial Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs, including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further endotoxin stimulation. In this context, IRAK-M up-regulation and impaired p65 activity were observed. This phenomenon, termed endotoxin tolerance (ET, is characterized by decreased production of cytokines in response to the pro-inflammatory stimulus. We also show that monocytes isolated from patients with myocardial infarction (MI exhibited high levels of circulating mtDNA, which correlated with ET status. Moreover, a significant incidence of infection was observed in those patients with a strong tolerant phenotype. The present data extend our current understanding of the implications of endotoxin tolerance. Furthermore, our data suggest that the levels of mitochondrial antigens in plasma, such as plasma mtDNA, should be useful as a marker of increased risk of susceptibility to nosocomial infections in MI and in other pathologies involving tissue damage.

  1. Monocyte chemotactic protein-2 activates CCR5 and blocks CD4/CCR5-mediated HIV-1 entry/replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W; Howard, O M; Turpin, J A; Grimm, M C; Ueda, H; Gray, P W; Raport, C J; Oppenheim, J J; Wang, J M

    1998-02-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus, type I (HIV-1) cell-type tropism is dictated by chemokine receptor usage: T-cell line tropic viruses use CXCR4, whereas monocyte tropic viruses primarily use CCR5 as fusion coreceptors. CC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) inhibit CD4/CCR5-mediated HIV-1 cell fusion. MCP-2 is also a member of the CC chemokine subfamily and has the capacity to interact with at least two receptors including CCR-1 and CCR2B. In an effort to further characterize the binding properties of MCP-2 on leukocytes, we observed that MCP-2, but not MCP-1, effectively competed with MIP-1beta for binding to monocytes, suggesting that MCP-2 may interact with CCR5. As predicted, MCP-2 competitively inhibited MIP-1beta binding to HEK293 cells stably transfected with CCR5 (CCR5/293 cells). MCP-2 also bound to and induced chemotaxis of CCR5/293 cells with a potency comparable with that of MIP-1beta. Confocal microscopy indicates that MCP-2 caused remarkable and dose-dependent internalization of CCR5 in CCR5/293 cells. Furthermore, MCP-2 inhibited the entry/replication of HIV-1ADA in CCR5/293 cells coexpressing CD4. These results indicated that MCP-2 uses CCR5 as one of its functional receptors and is an additional potent natural inhibitor of HIV-1.

  2. The immune response during the luteal phase of the ovarian cycle : increasing sensitivity of human monocytes to endotoxin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Moes, H; Heineman, MJ; de Leij, LFMH; Faas, MM

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that during the luteal phase of the human ovarian cycle, as compared with the follicular phase, the percentage of cytokines producing peripheral monocytes after in vitro stimulation with endotoxin is increased. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Academic research

  3. Leishmania donovani infection drives the priming of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells during Plasmodium falciparum co-infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bogaart, E.; de Bes, H. M.; Balraadjsing, P. P. S.; Mens, P. F.; Adams, E. R.; Grobusch, M. P.; van Die, I.; Schallig, H. D. F. H.

    2015-01-01

    Functional impairment of dendritic cells (DCs) is part of a survival strategy evolved by Leishmania and Plasmodium parasites to evade host immune responses. Here, the effects of co-exposing human monocyte-derived DCs to Leishmania donovani promastigotes and Plasmodium falciparum-infected

  4. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  5. 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone do not influence the production of cytokines from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, M; Heineman, MJ; Faas, M; Bouman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To test whether 17beta-estradiol or progesterone influence the cytokine productive capacity of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes in humans. Design: Prospective study. Setting: Academic research institution. Patient(s): Seven women in the luteal phase of a normal ovarian cycle,

  6. Modulation of neutrophil and monocyte function by recombinant human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in patients with lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharazmi, A; Nielsen, H; Hovgaard, D

    1991-01-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) has been shown to inhibit the chemotaxis and enhance the oxidative burst response of human neutrophils in vitro. The present study describes the effect of recombinant GM-CSF on the neutrophil and monocyte function in patients with lymphoma...

  7. Toll-Like Receptor 8 Is a Major Sensor of Group B Streptococcus But Not Escherichia coli in Human Primary Monocytes and Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnström, Birgitta; Beckwith, Kai Sandvold; Yurchenko, Mariia; Moen, Siv Helen; Kojen, June Frengen; Lentini, Germana; Teti, Giuseppe; Damås, Jan Kristian; Espevik, Terje; Stenvik, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    TLR8 is the major endosomal sensor of degraded RNA in human monocytes and macrophages. It has been implicated in the sensing of viruses and more recently also bacteria. We previously identified a TLR8-IFN regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) signaling pathway that mediates IFNβ and interleukin-12 (IL-12) induction by Staphylococcus aureus and is antagonized by TLR2. The relative importance of TLR8 for the sensing of various bacterial species is however still unclear. We here compared the role of TLR8 and IRF5 for the sensing of Group B Streptococcus (GBS), S. aureus, and Escherichia coli in human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). GBS induced stronger IFNβ and TNF production as well as IRF5 nuclear translocation compared to S. aureus grown to the stationary phase, while S. aureus in exponential growth appeared similarly potent to GBS. Cytokine induction in primary human monocytes by GBS was not dependent on hemolysins, and induction of IFNβ and IL-12 as well as IRF5 activation were reduced with TLR2 ligand costimulation. Heat inactivation of GBS reduced IRF5 and NF-kB translocation, while only the viable E. coli activated IRF5. The attenuated stimulation correlated with loss of bacterial RNA integrity. The E. coli-induced IRF5 translocation was not inhibited by TLR2 costimulation, suggesting that IRF5 was activated via a TLR8-independent mechanism. Gene silencing of MDM using siRNA revealed that GBS-induced IFNβ, IL-12-p35, and TNF production was dependent on TLR8 and IRF5. In contrast, cytokine induction by E. coli was TLR8 independent but still partly dependent on IRF5. We conclude that TLR8-IRF5 signaling is more important for the sensing of GBS than for stationary grown S. aureus in human primary monocytes and MDM, likely due to reduced resistance of GBS to phagosomal degradation and to a lower production of TLR2 activating lipoproteins. TLR8 does not sense viable E. coli, while IRF5 still contributes to E. coli-induced cytokine production

  8. Angiogenic activity of breast cancer patients' monocytes reverted by combined use of systems modeling and experimental approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Guex

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth and cancer progression. TIE-2-expressing monocytes (TEM have been reported to critically account for tumor vascularization and growth in mouse tumor experimental models, but the molecular basis of their pro-angiogenic activity are largely unknown. Moreover, differences in the pro-angiogenic activity between blood circulating and tumor infiltrated TEM in human patients has not been established to date, hindering the identification of specific targets for therapeutic intervention. In this work, we investigated these differences and the phenotypic reversal of breast tumor pro-angiogenic TEM to a weak pro-angiogenic phenotype by combining Boolean modelling and experimental approaches. Firstly, we show that in breast cancer patients the pro-angiogenic activity of TEM increased drastically from blood to tumor, suggesting that the tumor microenvironment shapes the highly pro-angiogenic phenotype of TEM. Secondly, we predicted in silico all minimal perturbations transitioning the highly pro-angiogenic phenotype of tumor TEM to the weak pro-angiogenic phenotype of blood TEM and vice versa. In silico predicted perturbations were validated experimentally using patient TEM. In addition, gene expression profiling of TEM transitioned to a weak pro-angiogenic phenotype confirmed that TEM are plastic cells and can be reverted to immunological potent monocytes. Finally, the relapse-free survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between patients with tumors with high and low expression values for genes encoding transitioning proteins detected in silico and validated on patient TEM. In conclusion, the inferred TEM regulatory network accurately captured experimental TEM behavior and highlighted crosstalk between specific angiogenic and inflammatory signaling pathways of outstanding importance to control their pro-angiogenic activity. Results showed the successful in vitro reversion of such an

  9. SR proteins ASF/SF2 and SRp55 participate in tissue factor biosynthesis in human monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardos, J G; Eisenreich, A; Deikus, G; Bechhofer, D H; Chandradas, S; Zafar, U; Rauch, U; Bogdanov, V Y

    2008-05-01

    Human monocytes express two naturally occurring forms of circulating tissue factor (TF) - full-length TF, a membrane-spanning protein, and alternatively spliced TF, a soluble molecule. Presence of the variable exon 5 in TF mRNA determines whether the encoded TF protein is transmembrane, or soluble. Recently, an essential SR protein ASF/SF2 was implicated in TF pre-mRNA processing in human platelets. To examine molecular mechanisms governing regulated processing of TF pre-mRNA in human monocytic cells. In silico analysis of the human TF exon 5, present only in full-length TF mRNA, revealed putative binding motifs termed exonic splicing enhancers (ESE) for the SR proteins ASF/SF2 and SRp55, which were found to be abundantly expressed in monocytic cell lines THP-1 and SC, as well as monocyte-enriched peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Using a splice competent mini-gene reporter system transiently expressed in monocytic cells, it was determined that weakening of either five closely positioned ASF/SF2 ESE (bases 87-117) or a single conserved SRp55 ESE (base 39) results in severe skipping of exon 5. ASF/SF2 and SRp55 were found to physically associate with the identified ESE. SR proteins ASF/SF2 and SRp55 appear to interact with the variable TF exon 5 through ESE at bases 39 and 87-117. Weakening of the above ESE modulates splicing of TF exon 5. This study is the first to identify and experimentally characterize cis-acting splicing elements involved in regulated biosynthesis of human TF.

  10. Unsaturated long-chain fatty acids induce the respiratory burst of human neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osthaus Wilhelm A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is increasingly recognized that infectious complications in patients treated with total parenteral nutrition (TPN may be caused by altered immune responses. Neutrophils and monocytes are the first line of defence against bacterial and fungal infection through superoxide anion production during the respiratory burst. To characterize the impact of three different types of lipid solutions that are applied as part of TPN formulations, we investigated the unstimulated respiratory burst activation of neutrophils and monocytes in whole blood. Methods Whole blood samples were incubated with LCT (Intralipid®, LCT/MCT (Lipofundin® and LCT-MUFA (ClinOleic® in three concentrations (0.06, 0.3 and 0.6 mg ml-1 for time periods up to one hour. Hydrogen peroxide production during the respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes was measured by flow cytometry. Results LCT and LCT-MUFA induced a hydrogen peroxide production in neutrophils and monocytes without presence of a physiological stimulus in contrast to LCT/MCT. Conclusion We concluded that parenteral nutrition containing unsaturated oleic (C18:1 and linoleic (C18:2 acid can induce respiratory burst of neutrophils and monocytes, resulting in an elevated risk of tissue damage by the uncontrolled production of reactive oxygen species. Contradictory observations reported in previous studies may in part be the result of different methods used to determine hydrogen peroxide production.

  11. Acute alcohol intake induces SOCS1 and SOCS3 and inhibits cytokine-induced STAT1 and STAT3 signaling in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkina, Oxana; Dolganiuc, Angela; Catalano, Donna; Kodys, Karen; Mandrekar, Pranoti; Syed, Amber; Efros, Marian; Szabo, Gyongyi

    2008-09-01

    Acute alcohol consumption is associated with induction of immuno-inhibitory cytokines and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory responses to various pathogens. We previously reported that alcohol activates janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling leading to IL-10 induction. The JAK-STAT pathway also activates its own negative regulators, suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1 and SOCS3. SOCS proteins are inducible inhibitors that negatively regulate STAT3/STAT1 signaling pathways induced by cytokines, IL-6 or IFNs. Here we aimed to explore the effect of acute alcohol on induction of SOCS1/SOCS3 and regulation of STAT3/STAT1 pathways induced by IL-6 or IFNs in human monocytes. Blood samples from normal volunteers were collected before and 24 hours after consumption of 2 ml vodka/kg body weight. For in vitro experiments human monocytes were pretreated with ethanol (EtOH) followed by stimulation with cytokines; proteins were analyzed by Western blot, nuclear protein binding to DNA by EMSA, and RNA by real time PCR. Acute in vivo or in vitro alcohol treatment increased both SOCS1 and SOCS3 RNA expression in monocytes. Alcohol treatment resulted in increased STAT3 and STAT1 DNA binding capacity. Activation of both STAT1 and STAT3 has been shown to induce SOCS1/3. We hypothesized that induction of SOCS proteins by alcohol in turn may lead to modulation of cytokine signaling through STAT1 and STAT3. Indeed, we observed significant down-regulation of IL-6-, IFNalpha- and IFNgamma-induced STAT1 DNA binding as well as inhibition of IL-6- and IFNgamma-induced STAT3 when alcohol was added to monocytes 3 hours prior to the cytokine stimulation. Consistent with inhibition of IL-6-induced STAT3 DNA binding in alcohol-pretreated cells, the levels of IL-6-dependent genes, MCP-1 and ICAM-1, was reduced after IL-6 stimulation. Similar to EtOH alone, combined EtOH+IL-6 simulation resulted in increased expression of both SOCS3 and SOCS1 genes

  12. Associations between Cognition, Gender and Monocyte Activation among HIV Infected Individuals in Nigeria.

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    Walter Royal

    Full Text Available The potential role of gender in the occurrence of HIV-related neurocognitive impairment (NCI and associations with markers of HIV-related immune activity has not been previously examined. In this study 149 antiretroviral-naïve seropositive subjects in Nigeria (SP, 92 women and 57 men and 58 seronegative (SN, 38 women and 20 men were administered neuropsychological testing that assessed 7 ability domains. From the neuropsychological test scores was calculated a global deficit score (GDS, a measure of overall NCI. Percentages of circulating monocytes and plasma HIV RNA, soluble CD163 and soluble CD14 levels were also assessed. HIV SP women were found to be younger, more educated and had higher CD4+ T cell counts and borderline higher viral load measures than SP men. On the neuropsychological testing, SP women were more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency and had a higher mean GDS than SN women. Compared to SP men, SP women were also more impaired in speed of information processing and verbal fluency as well as on tests of learning and memory. Numbers of circulating monocytes and plasma sCD14 and sCD163 levels were significantly higher for all SP versus all SN individuals and were also higher for SP women and for SP men versus their SN counterparts. Among SP women, soluble CD14 levels were slightly higher than for SP men, and SP women had higher viral load measurements and were more likely to have detectable virus than SP men. Higher sCD14 levels among SP women correlated with more severe global impairment, and higher viral load measurements correlated with higher monocyte numbers and sCD14 and sCD14 levels, associations that were not observed for SP men. These studies suggest that the risk of developing NCI differ for HIV infected women and men in Nigeria and, for women, may be linked to effects from higher plasma levels of HIV driving activation of circulating monocytes.

  13. Vitamin D-dependent chromatin association of CTCF in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neme, Antonio; Seuter, Sabine; Carlberg, Carsten

    2016-11-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is a transcription factor being involved in 3D chromatin organization and displays a highly conserved genome-wide binding pattern. In this study, we report the cistrome of CTCF in THP-1 human monocytes and confirm that from the 40,078 CTCF binding sites nearly 85% are identical with those found in K562 monocytes. Quadruplicate chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) demonstrated that at 2130 loci the association strenght of CTCF with genomic DNA was significantly (p<0.05) modulated by stimulation with the natural vitamin D receptor (VDR) ligand 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). Some 55% of these CTCF sites contribute to DNA looping and mark the anchors of 587 putative topologically associating domains (TADs) containing at least one VDR binding site and one 1,25(OH)2D3 target gene. These TADs can explain the regulatory scenarios of up to 70% of all 1,25(OH)2D3 target genes. A self-organizing map approach subdivided the vitamin D-sensitive CTCF sites into seven classes that can be distinguished by participation in DNA loop formation, binding to open chromatin, carrying binding motifs for CTCF or its relative BORIS, overlap with transcription start site (TSS) regions and binding of VDR. These variant molecular profiles suggest different mechanisms of the 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent action of CTCF. The co-location of VDR and 1,25(OH)2D3-dependent CTCF sites increases in the context of accessible chromatin and TSS regions but does not show any significant correlation with classical DNA binding mechanisms of CTCF. In conclusion, vitamin D-sensitive CTCF sites provide further mechanistic details to the epigenome-wide understanding of 1,25(OH)2D3-mediated gene regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human cytomegalovirus induces TLR4 signaling components in monocytes altering TIRAP, TRAM and downstream interferon-beta and TNF-alpha expression.

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    Kok-Hooi Yew

    Full Text Available Using TLR pathways, primary human cytomegalovirus (HCMV induces innate responses including the production of inflammatory cytokines. Mounting evidence suggests that LPS recognition by TLR4/MD2/CD14 results in differential utilization of TIRAP-TRAF6 and TRAM-TRIF signaling, thereby leading to transcriptional activation of various cytokine genes. However, relative roles of the TLR4/MD2/CD14 complex and its adaptor proteins TIRAP and TRAM involved in regulating monocyte responses to HCMV are incomplete. Here, we provided evidence supporting the notion that the TLR4/MD2/CD14 complex contributes notably to HCMV-induced signaling and subsequent cytokine production in monocytes. In particular, induction of both IL-6 and IL-8 is associated with elevated TIRAP and reduced TRAM mRNA expression. The latter may serve in a compensatory pathway that yields a robust IFN response when TIRAP signaling is blocked in monocytes incubated with Toledo strain HCMV. Inhibitory studies using antisense oligonucleotides or neutralizing antibodies indicate that IL-6 induction by TLR4/MD2 complex is important for the activation of endogenous CD14 which later acts in concert or synergy with TLR4/MD2 as a factor resulting in IL-8 gene expression. We further show that exogenous recombinant CD14 can potentiate innate immune response via TLR4-dependent and possibly via TLR9-dependent pathways to promote enhanced expression/production of IL-8 and IFN-β, respectively.

  15. Induction of DNA repair synthesis in human monocytes/B-lymphocytes compared with T-lymphocytes after exposure to N-acetoxy-N-acetylaminofluorene and dimethylsulfate in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Ryder, L P; Wassermann, K

    1992-01-01

    We have explored the induction of DNA repair synthesis in monocyte/B- and T-lymphocyte enriched cell fractions from 12 different human mononuclear blood cell populations. Unscheduled DNA synthesis was measured in monocyte/B- and T-cells after exposure to the DNA-damaging agents dimethylsulfate (D...

  16. Suppression of blood monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis in acute human malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Kharazmi, A; Theander, T G

    1986-01-01

    tested monocyte chemotactic responsiveness in 19 patients with acute primary attack malaria. In addition, the neutrophil chemotaxis was measured in 12 patients. Before the initiation of antimalarial treatment a significant depression of monocyte chemotaxis was observed in approximately half...... suppressed. The monocyte chemotaxis was followed in 14 of the patients, during treatment and after complete recovery. After 3 days of treatment the response had improved in most of the patients, and after 7 days all patients had a normal monocyte chemotaxis, which remained normal after one month....... No significant differences between P. falciparum and P. vivax/ovale malaria was observed with respect to blood monocyte chemotactic responsiveness. Neutrophil chemotaxis in patients with P. falciparum infections was similarly suppressed before treatment (54% of controls), was still defective after 3 days...

  17. Regulation of ERK-mediated signal transduction by p38 MAP kinase in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Satoshi; Watabe, Masahiko; Nishimura, Satoshi; Kurosawa, Masahiro; Izuno, Makoto; Yoshida, Takemi

    2003-05-01

    SB 203580 has been widely used to specifically shut down the p38 MAP kinase-dependent pathway, although it is capable of inducing c-Raf kinase activity in cells. The present study demonstrates that SB 203580 activates members of the ERK cascade, c-Raf, MEK, and ERK, in human monocytic THP-1 cells. The activation of these kinases was sustained for at least 24 h after SB 203580 treatment and was also observed in U937 cells, suggesting that c-Raf efficiently transduces the signal even in the presence of the inhibitor in these cells. However, the expression of ERK cascade-dependent genes, such as c-fos and IL-1beta, was extremely limited. Analysis of the cellular distribution of ERK in SB 203580-treated cells indicated that nuclear translocation of phosphorylated ERK was impaired. Also, nuclear translocation of ERK induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) was inhibited by SB 239063, which does not associate with c-Raf and is highly selective for p38 MAP kinase. In addition, the forced expression of the dominant negative mutant of p38 MAP kinase suppressed serum responsive element-dependent transactivation induced by TPA. These results suggest that the steady-state level of p38 MAP kinase activity modulates ERK signaling.

  18. Differential interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-23 production by human blood monocytes and dendritic cells in response to commensal enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuzak, Jennifer; Dillon, Stephanie; Wilson, Cara

    2012-08-01

    Human peripheral blood contains antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, that may encounter microbes that have translocated from the intestine to the periphery in disease states like HIV-1 infection and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the response of DC and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to a panel of representative commensal enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Bacteroides fragilis. All three bacteria induced significant upregulation of the maturation and activation markers CD40 and CD83 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). However, only mDC produced cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p40/70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in response to bacterial stimulation. Cytokine profiles in whole PBMC differed depending on the stimulating bacterial species: B. fragilis induced production of IL-23, IL-12p70, and IL-10, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus induced an IL-10-predominant response. mDC and monocyte depletion experiments indicated that these cell types differentially produced IL-10 and IL-23 in response to E. coli and B. fragilis. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron did not induce levels of IL-23 similar to those of B. fragilis, suggesting that B. fragilis may have unique proinflammatory properties among Bacteroides species. The addition of recombinant human IL-10 to PBMC cultures stimulated with commensal bacteria abrogated the IL-23 response, whereas blocking IL-10 significantly enhanced IL-23 production, suggesting that IL-10 controls the levels of IL-23 produced. These results indicate that blood mDC and monocytes respond differentially to innate stimulation with whole commensal bacteria and that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the proinflammatory response to translocated microbes.

  19. Lack of enhancing effect of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of human blood monocytes and peritoneal macrophages.

    OpenAIRE

    Shadduck, P P; Weinberg, J B; Haney, A. F.; Bartlett, J. A.; Langlois, A J; Bolognesi, D P; Matthews, T J

    1991-01-01

    The influence of human anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody on HIV-1 infection of freshly isolated normal human peritoneal macrophages and blood monocytes was examined. Each of 14 HIV antibody-positive human serum samples was found to block the infection of four virus isolates (human T-cell lymphotropic virus type IIIBa-L [HTLV-IIIBa-L], HTLV-IIIB, D.U. 6587-7, and D.U. 7887-8) at serum dilutions ranging from 10(-1) to 10(-2). Three of these isolates (HTLV-IIIBa-L, D.U. 6...

  20. Phospholipase D from Loxosceles laeta Spider Venom Induces IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/MCP-1 Production in Human Skin Fibroblasts and Stimulates Monocytes Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Rojas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous loxoscelism envenomation by Loxosceles spiders is characterized by the development of a dermonecrotic lesion, strong inflammatory response, the production of pro-inflammatory mediators, and leukocyte migration to the bite site. The role of phospholipase D (PLD from Loxosceles in the recruitment and migration of monocytes to the envenomation site has not yet been described. This study reports on the expression and production profiles of cytokines and chemokines in human skin fibroblasts treated with catalytically active and inactive recombinant PLDs from Loxosceles laeta (rLlPLD and lipid inflammatory mediators ceramide 1-phosphate (C1P and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, and the evaluation of their roles in monocyte migration. Recombinant rLlPLD1 (active and rLlPLD2 (inactive isoforms induce interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, CXCL1/GRO-α, and CCL2/monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 expression and secretion in fibroblasts. Meanwhile, C1P and LPA only exhibited a minor effect on the expression and secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Moreover, neutralization of both enzymes with anti-rLlPLD1 antibodies completely inhibited the secretion of these cytokines and chemokines. Importantly, conditioned media from fibroblasts, treated with rLlPLDs, stimulated the transmigration of THP-1 monocytes. Our data demonstrate the direct role of PLDs in chemotactic mediator synthesis for monocytes in human skin fibroblasts and indicate that inflammatory processes play an important role during loxoscelism.

  1. Carvedilol, a nonselective beta-blocker, suppresses the production of tumor necrosis factor and tissue factor by inhibiting early growth response factor-1 expression in human monocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuochi, Yuichiro; Okajima, Kenji; Harada, Naoaki; Molor-Erdene, Perenlei; Uchiba, Mitsuhiro; Komura, Hidefumi; Tsuda, Takako; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2007-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and tissue factor (TF) produced by monocytes and macrophages have been shown to be among the aggravating factors for chronic heart failure (CHF), because they induce cardiac dysfunction and thrombotic complications, respectively. Carvedilol, a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with alpha(1)- adrenoceptor blockade action, has been demonstrated to improve the outcome of patients with severe CHF, suggesting that carvedilol might inhibit the production of TNF and TF. In this study, this possibility is examined using isolated human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. Carvedilol (10 muM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of TNF and TF by monocytes, whereas prazosin (a selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), bisoprolol (a selective beta(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI-118,551 (a selective beta(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), and arotinolol (a nonselective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with alpha(1)-adrenoceptor blockade action) did not. Carvedilol inhibited both expression of early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but it did not inhibit activation of either nuclear factor-kappaB or activator protein-1 in monocytes stimulated with LPS. These results suggest that carvedilol inhibits LPS-induced production of TNF and TF by inhibiting activation of the ERK1/2-Egr-1 pathway independent of its adrenoceptor inhibitory activities in monocytes.

  2. Extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2, Jun N-terminal kinase, and c-Jun are involved in NF-kappa B-dependent IL-6 expression in human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuyt, LML; Dokter, WHA; Birbenkamp, K; Koopmans, S.B.; Lummen, C; Kruijer, W; Vellenga, E

    1999-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family members extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating IL-6 gene expression in human monocytes, in particular their role in enhancing NF-kappa B

  3. Dynamical optical imaging monocytes/macrophages migration and activation in contact hypersensitivity (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhihong

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory monocytes/macrophages (Mon/Mφ) play an important role in cutaneous allergic inflammation. However, their migration and activation in dermatitis and how they accelerate the inflammatory reaction are largely unknown. Optical molecular imaging is the most promising tool for investigating the function and motility of immune cells in vivo. We have developed a multi-scale optical imaging approach to evaluate the spatio-temporal dynamic behavior and properties of immune cells from the whole field of organs to the cellular level at the inflammatory site in delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. Here, we developed some multi-color labeling mouse models based on the endogenous labeling with fluorescent proteins and the exogenous labeling with fluorescent dyes. We investigated the cell movement, cell interaction and function of immunocytes (e.g. Mon/Mφ, DC, T cells and neutrophils) in the skin allergy inflammation (e.g., contact hypersensitivity) by using intravital microscopy. The long-term imaging data showed that after inflammatory Mon/Mφ transendothelial migration in dermis, they migrating in interstitial space of dermis. Depletion of blood monocyte with clodronate liposome extremely reduced the inflammatory reaction. Our finding provided further insight into inflammatory Mon/Mφ mediating the inflammatory cascade through functional migration in allergic contact dermatitis.

  4. Isolation of F. novicida-Containing Phagosome from Infected Human Monocyte Derived Macrophages

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    Valentina Marecic

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Francisella is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes tularemia in humans and animals. A crucial step of Francisella infection is its invasion of macrophage cells. Biogenesis of the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP is arrested for ~15 min at the endosomal stage, followed by gradual bacterial escape into the cytosol, where the microbe proliferates. The crucial step in pathogenesis of tularemia is short and transient presence of the bacterium within phagosome. Isolation of FCPs for further studies has been challenging due to the short period of time of bacterial residence in it and the characteristics of the FCP. Here, we will for the first time present the method for isolation of the FCPs from infected human monocytes-derived macrophages (hMDMs. For elimination of lysosomal compartment these organelles were pre-loaded with dextran coated colloidal iron particles prior infection and eliminated by magnetic separation of the post-nuclear supernatant (PNS. We encountered the challenge that mitochondria has similar density to the FCP. To separate the FCP in the PNS from mitochondria, we utilized iodophenylnitrophenyltetrazolium, which is converted by the mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase into formazan, leading to increased density of the mitochondria and allowing separation by the discontinuous sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation. The purity of the FCP preparation and its acquisition of early endosomal markers was confirmed by Western blots, confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Our strategy to isolate highly pure FCPs from macrophages should facilitate studies on the FCP and its biogenesis.

  5. Recognition and uptake of free and nanoparticle‐bound betalactoglobulin – a food allergen – by human monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marengo, Mauro; Bonomi, Francesco; Iametti, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Scope: To improve our understanding of the interaction of food allergens with cells of the immune system, the endocytosis by human monocytes of bovine β‐lactoglobulin (BLG) and ovomucoid (OM) – two major food allergens – and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied. Methods and results: BLG......, and HSA were conjugated to MNPs also labeled with a fluorescent probe. The uptake of these materials by human monocytes was monitored through flow cytometry, and compared with fluorescent MNPs and the free fluorescently labeled proteins, confirming higher uptake of the BLG‐conjugated MNPs versus non......‐conjugated MNPs. OM but not HSA conjugation to particles enhanced uptake of the MNPs. Confocal microscopy provided direct evidence of the actual internalization of BLG–MNP conjugates into the cytoplasm. Conclusions: These results contribute to the current understanding of the interaction between food allergens...

  6. Vaccination against canine leishmaniosis increases the phagocytic activity, nitric oxide production and expression of cell activation/migration molecules in neutrophils and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marcela L; Costa-Pereira, Christiane; Alves, Marina Luiza Rodrigues; Marteleto, Bruno H; Ribeiro, Vitor M; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo C; Martins-Filho, Olindo A; Araújo, Márcio S S

    2016-04-15

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is transmitted by phlebotomine sandfly vectors and domestic dogs serve as a reservoir. The elimination of seropositive dogs has been a recommended strategy for managing the disease in Brazil. A protective canine vaccine would be an important tool for controlling the disease, reducing the parasites available to sandfly vectors and, consequently, reducing the number of human VL cases. Leishmune(®) is an anti-canine Leishmaniosis (VL Canine) vaccine produced by Zoetis (Pfizer, Brazil) that was commercially available in Brazil until 2014. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the protective immunological events induced by vaccination with Leishmune(®) in the time frame of one year. Healthy, non-vaccinated dogs and dogs of 1, 6 and 10 months post-vaccination were evaluated. Results showed that Leishmune(®) induced an increase in phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes and also increased NO production. Immunological events were correlated with functional responses, as high levels of IgG and an increase of the receptor Fcγ were detected. Vaccination induced an increased expression of TLR (2, 4, 5, 9), integrin (CD29, CD49f), activation (MHCII) and co-stimulatory (CD80, CD81) molecules by neutrophils and monocytes. Vaccination led to decrease of IL-4 and an increase of IL-8 production by monocytes and higher IFN-γ and IL-17 production by T-cells. The results suggested that Leishmune(®) was able to induce a long-lasting change in immune response, mediated by supportive immunological events that may be participating in protective immunity against CL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation of human monocytes by double gradient centrifugation and their differentiation to macrophages in teflon-coated cell culture bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menck, Kerstin; Behme, Daniel; Pantke, Mathias; Reiling, Norbert; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias; Klemm, Florian

    2014-09-09

    Human macrophages are involved in a plethora of pathologic processes ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. Thus they pose a valuable tool to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases. We therefore present a straightforward protocol for the isolation of human monocytes from buffy coats, followed by a differentiation procedure which results in high macrophage yields. The technique relies mostly on commonly available lab equipment and thus provides a cost and time effective way to obtain large quantities of human macrophages. Briefly, buffy coats from healthy blood donors are subjected to a double density gradient centrifugation to harvest monocytes from the peripheral blood. These monocytes are then cultured in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon-coated cell culture bags in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The differentiated macrophages can be easily harvested and used for subsequent studies and functional assays. Important methods for quality control and validation of the isolation and differentiation steps will be highlighted within the protocol. In summary, the protocol described here enables scientists to routinely and reproducibly isolate human macrophages without the need for cost intensive tools. Furthermore, disease models can be studied in a syngeneic human system circumventing the use of murine macrophages.

  8. Histaminergic regulation of NK cells. Role of monocyte-derived reactive oxygen metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrand, K; Asea, A; Dahlgren, C; Hermodsson, S

    1994-12-01

    Monocytes, recovered by centrifugal elutriation, effectively inhibit functions of human NK cells in vitro. Histamine, acting via monocyte H2-type histamine receptors, abrogates the inhibitory signal. The aim of this study was to define the histamine-reversible mechanism by which monocytes inhibit NK cells with special reference to the respiratory burst activity of monocytes. Monocytes recovered from patients with chronic granulomatous disease did not suppress NK cell function, indicating the requirement of intact nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAPDH) oxidase activity of monocytes to inhibit NK cells. Furthermore, catalase, a scavenger of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), was found to potently reverse the monocyte-induced inhibition of NK cell function; on the other hand, superoxide dismutase (a scavenger of superoxide anion), hydroxyl radical scavengers such as mannitol and deferoxamine, the hypochlorous acid scavenger taurin, or the nitric oxide synthetase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) did not affect the monocyte-derived, suppressive signal. H2O2, at micromolar concentrations, reconstituted the inhibitory effects of monocytes on NK cell function. Histamine had no scavenger activity but effectively suppressed the generation of H2O2 in isolated monocytes. This effect of histamine was transduced by H2-type histamine receptors. We conclude that the histamine-reversible, inhibitory effect of elutriated monocytes on NK cells is dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen metabolites by monocytes and that H2O2 is a pivotal mediator of the suppressive signal.

  9. Mycophenolate Mofetil and Rapamycin Induce Apoptosis in the Human Monocytic U937 Cell Line Through Two Different Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Maxime; Tardivel, Sylviane; Nguyen-Khoa, Thao; Abreu, Sonia; Allaoui, Fatima; Fournier, Natalie; Chaminade, Pierre; Paul, Jean-Louis; Lacour, Bernard

    2017-10-01

    Transplant vasculopathy may be considered as an accelerated form of atherosclerosis resulting in chronic rejection of vascularized allografts. After organ transplantation, a diffuse intimal thickening is observed, leading to the development of an atherosclerosis plaque due to a significant monocyte infiltration. This results from a chronic inflammatory process induced by the immune response. In this study, we investigated the impact of two immunosuppressive drugs used in therapy initiated after organ transplantation, mycophenolate mofetil, and rapamycin, on the apoptotic response of monocytes induced or not by oxidized LDL. Here we show the pro-apoptotic effect of these two drugs through two distinct signaling pathways and we highlight a synergistic effect of rapamycin on apoptosis induced by oxidized LDL. In conclusion, since immunosuppressive therapy using mycophenolate mofetil or rapamycin can increase the cell death in a monocyte cell line, this treatment could exert similar effects on human monocytes in transplant patients, and thus, prevent transplant vasculopathy, atherosclerosis development, and chronic allograft rejection. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 3480-3487, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Pivotal Role for CD16+ Monocytes in Immune Surveillance of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschbisch, Anne; Schröder, Sina; Schraudner, Dana; Sammet, Laura; Weksler, Babette; Melms, Arthur; Pfeifenbring, Sabine; Stadelmann, Christine; Schwab, Stefan; Linker, Ralf A

    2016-02-15

    Monocytes represent a heterogeneous population of primary immune effector cells. At least three different subsets can be distinguished based on expression of the low-affinity FcγRIII: CD14(++)CD16 -: classical monocytes, CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes, and CD14(+)CD16 ++: non-classical monocytes. Whereas CD16 -: classical monocytes are considered key players in multiple sclerosis (MS), little is known on CD16(+) monocytes and how they contribute to the disease. In this study, we examined the frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and brain biopsy material derived from MS patients and controls. Furthermore, we addressed a possible monocyte dysfunction in MS and analyzed migratory properties of monocyte subsets using human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Our ex vivo studies demonstrated that CD16(+) monocyte subpopulations are functional but numerically reduced in the peripheral blood of MS patients. CD16(+) monocytes with an intermediate-like phenotype were found to be enriched in CSF and dominated the CSF monocyte population under noninflammatory conditions. In contrast, an inversed CD16(+) to CD16 -: CSF monocyte ratio was observed in MS patients with relapsing-remitting disease. Newly infiltrating, hematogenous CD16(+) monocytes were detected in a perivascular location within active MS lesions, and CD16(+) monocytes facilitated CD4(+) T cell trafficking in a blood -: brain barrier model. Our findings support an important role of CD16(+) monocytes in the steady-state immune surveillance of the CNS and suggest that CD16(+) monocytes shift to sites of inflammation and contribute to the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in CNS autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Oxytocin inhibits ox-LDL-induced adhesion of monocytic THP-1 cells to human brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyan; Pan, Shengying; Tan, Jing; Zhao, Weina; Liu, Fengguo

    2017-12-15

    The attachment of monocytes to human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEs) caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is associated with an early event and the pathological progression of cerebrovascular diseases. Oxytocin (OT) is a human peptide hormone that is traditionally used as a medication to facilitate childbirth. However, little information is available regarding the physiological function of OT in brain endothelial dysfunction. In the present study, our results indicate that the oxytocin receptor (OTR) was expressed in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVEs) and was upregulated in response to ox-LDL in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, OT significantly suppressed ox-LDL-induced attachment of THP-1 monocytes to HBMVEs. Furthermore, we found that OT reduced the expression of adhesion molecules, such as VCAM-1 and E-selectin. Interestingly, it was shown that OT could restore ox-LDL-induced reduction of KLF4 in HBMVEs. Importantly, knockdown of KLF4 abolished the inhibitory effects of OT on ox-LDL-induced expressions of VCAM-1 and E-selectin as well as the adhesion of human monocytic THP-1 cells to endothelial HBMVEs. Mechanistically, we found that the stimulatory effects of OT on KLF4 expression are mediated by the MEK5/MEF2A pathway. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Vaccine adjuvant MF59 promotes the intranodal differentiation of antigen-loaded and activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

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    Rossella Cioncada

    Full Text Available MF59 is an oil-in-water emulsion adjuvant approved for human influenza vaccination in European Union. The mode of action of MF59 is not fully elucidated yet, but results from several years of investigation indicate that MF59 establishes an immunocompetent environment at injection site which promotes recruitment of immune cells, including antigen presenting cells (APCs, that are facilitated to engulf antigen and transport it to draining lymph node (dLN where the antigen is accumulated. In vitro studies showed that MF59 promotes the differentiation of monocytes to dendritic cells (Mo-DCs. Since after immunization with MF59, monocytes are rapidly recruited both at the injection site and in dLN and appear to have a morphological change toward a DC-like phenotype, we asked whether MF59 could play a role in inducing differentiation of Mo-DC in vivo. To address this question we immunized mice with the auto-fluorescent protein Phycoerythrin (PE as model antigen, in presence or absence of MF59. We measured the APC phenotype and their antigen uptake within dLNs, the antigen distribution within the dLN compartments and the humoral response to PE. In addition, using Ovalbumin as model antigen, we measured the capacity of dLN APCs to induce antigen-specific CD4 T cell proliferation. Here, we show, for the first time, that MF59 promotes differentiation of Mo-DCs within dLNs from intranodal recruited monocytes and we suggest that this differentiation could take place in the medullary compartment of the LN. In addition we show that the Mo-DC subset represents the major source of antigen-loaded and activated APCs within the dLN when immunizing with MF59. Interestingly, this finding correlates with the enhanced triggering of antigen-specific CD4 T cell response induced by LN APCs. This study therefore demonstrates that MF59 is able to promote an immunocompetent environment also directly within the dLN, offering a novel insight on the mechanism of action of

  13. Muramyl dipeptide and mononuclear cell supernatant induce Langhans-type cells from human monocytes.

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    Mizuno, K; Okamoto, H; Horio, T

    2001-09-01

    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) in bacterial cell walls reportedly evokes epithelioid cell granulomas. We examined its effects on multinucleated-giant-cell (MGC) formation from monocytes. Supernatant of concanavalin A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (conditioned medium) generated MGCs from monocytes. MDP significantly increased the fusion index of Langhans-type MGCs (LGCs) but did not affect total MGCs. N-Acetylmuramyl-L-alanyl-L-isoglutamine, an MDP analogue, had no effect on MGC formation. MGCs were produced by conditioned medium from CD14(++)/CD16(-) monocytes. MDP enhanced the LGC fusion index from CD14(++)/CD16(-) monocytes. MGCs were not produced from CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocytes or immature dendritic cells induced by granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL) 4 and only weakly produced from macrophage (M)-CSF- or GM-CSF-induced macrophages. Added MDP did not generate MGCs from CD14(+)/CD16(+) monocytes or dendritic cells but enhanced LGC formation from macrophages. Because IFN-gamma, IL-3, and GM-CSF reportedly are important in LGC induction, we added anti-IFN-gamma, anti-IL-3, or anti-GM-CSF monoclonal antibody (mAb) concomitantly to the monocyte culture treated with conditioned medium alone or plus MDP. Anti-IFN-gamma mAb completely abrogated MGC generation, whereas anti-GM-CSF and anti-IL-3 mAbs significantly inhibited LGCs. These findings suggest that CD14(++)/CD16(-) monocytes are fused to form LGCs by MDP derived from granulomatous-disease-causing pathogens with inflammatory mediators such as IFN-gamma, IL-3, and GM-CSF.

  14. The influence of surface modified poly(L-lactic acid) films on the differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Clara R.; Gaifem, Joana; Oliveira, Mariana Braga; Silvestre, Ricardo Jorge Leal; Mano, J. F.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in the biological performance of biomaterials, as key factors in defining the optimal inflammation-healing balance towards tissue regeneration and implant integration. Here, we investigate how different surface modifications performed on poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) films would influence the differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages. We tested PLLA films without modification, surface-modified by plasma treatment (pPLLA) or by combining plasma treatment ...

  15. Insoluble immune complexes are most effective at triggering IL-10 production in human monocytes and synergize with TLR ligands and C5a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Stephen J; Yuan, Weijia; Redecha, Patricia; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Salmon, Jane E

    2008-04-01

    In systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a disease of immune complex (IC) deposition, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to promote B-lymphocyte hyperactivity and autoantibody production. Both ICs and Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have been shown to stimulate the production of IL-10 by human monocytes. Using an in vitro model, we studied how IC solubility, complement activation products, and TLR ligands could affect IL-10 production by human monocytes stimulated with ICs. Human monocytes were stimulated with soluble or insoluble heat-aggregated human IgG with or without TLR ligands or C5a. Cytokine levels in cell culture supernatants were measured by ELISA. To study cytokine signaling, cell lysates were analyzed by Western blot for total or tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3. Insoluble ICs were most effective at stimulating production of IL-10, and costimulation LPS enhanced synthesis of IL-10. In addition, stimulation with insoluble ICs together with C5a enhanced the production of IL-10 by 2-4 fold in either the presence or absence of TLR ligands. Increased STAT3 phosphorylation correlated temporally with enhanced IL-10 production and was reduced by an IL-10 receptor blocking antibody, suggesting that IL-10 was responsible for observed STAT3 phosphorylation. Because the immune deposits of SLE are, by definition, insoluble; and because IL-10 is thought to be important for B-cell hyperactivity and autoantibody production, these observations provide a critical link, bridging current views of B-cell hyperactivity with the early concept that SLE may arise from defective clearance of immune complexes.

  16. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation

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    Bethel-Brown Crystal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND. The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB. We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays demonstrated increased binding of NFκB to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs, an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R blocker. PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte

  17. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-mediated induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 in human astrocytes: implications for HIV-associated neuroinflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2, also known as monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is an important factor for the pathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The mechanisms of MCP-1-mediated neuropathogenesis, in part, revolve around its neuroinflammatory role and the recruitment of monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS) via the disrupted blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have previously demonstrated that HIV-1/HIV-1 Tat upregulate platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB, a known cerebrovascular permeant; subsequently, the present study was aimed at exploring the regulation of MCP-1 by PDGF-BB in astrocytes with implications in HAND. Specifically, the data herein demonstrate that exposure of human astrocytes to HIV-1 LAI elevated PDGF-B and MCP-1 levels. Furthermore, treating astrocytes with the human recombinant PDGF-BB protein significantly increased the production and release of MCP-1 at both the RNA and protein levels. MCP-1 induction was regulated by activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways and the downstream transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NFκB). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays demonstrated increased binding of NFκB to the human MCP-1 promoter following PDGF-BB exposure. Conditioned media from PDGF-BB-treated astrocytes increased monocyte transmigration through human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), an effect that was blocked by STI-571, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (PDGF receptor (PDGF-R) blocker). PDGF-BB-mediated release of MCP-1 was critical for increased permeability in an in vitro BBB model as evidenced by blocking antibody assays. Since MCP-1 is linked to disease severity, understanding its modulation by PDGF-BB could aid in understanding the proinflammatory responses in HAND. These results suggest that astrocyte activation by PDGF

  18. Localization of monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF/MCP-1) in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, M; Buhl, L; Ellingsen, T

    1996-01-01

    The monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCAF) also termed MCP-1, a strong chemotactic factor towards monocytes, is produced by several cell types present in the skin. The in situ presence of MCAF/MCP-1 protein in the skin has, however, not yet been established. Using immunohistochemical techniques we...

  19. Different Regulation of Interleukin-1 Production and Activity in Monocytes and Macrophages: Innate Memory as an Endogenous Mechanism of IL-1 Inhibition

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    Mariusz P. Madej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Production and activity of interleukin (IL-1β are kept under strict control in our body, because of its powerful inflammation-promoting capacity. Control of IL-1β production and activity allows IL-1 to exert its defensive activities without causing extensive tissue damage. Monocytes are the major producers of IL-1β during inflammation, but they are also able to produce significant amounts of IL-1 inhibitors such as IL-1Ra and the soluble form of the decoy receptor IL-1R2, in an auto-regulatory feedback loop. Here, we investigated how innate immune memory could modulate production and activity of IL-1β by human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived tissue-like/deactivated macrophages in vitro. Cells were exposed to Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Gram-positive (Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria for 24 h, then allowed to rest, and then re-challenged with the same stimuli. The presence of biologically active IL-1β in cell supernatants was calculated as the ratio between free IL-1β (i.e., the cytokine that is not bound/inhibited by sIL-1R2 and its receptor antagonist IL-1Ra. As expected, we observed that the responsiveness of tissue-like/deactivated macrophages to bacterial stimuli was lower than that of monocytes. After resting and re-stimulation, a memory effect was evident for the production of inflammatory cytokines, whereas production of alarm signals (chemokines was minimally affected. We observed a high variability in the innate memory response among individual donors. This is expected since innate memory largely depends on the previous history of exposure or infections, which is different in different subjects. Overall, innate memory appeared to limit the amount of active IL-1β produced by macrophages in response to a bacterial challenge, while enhancing the responsiveness of monocytes. The functional re-programming of mononuclear phagocytes through modulation of innate memory may provide innovative approaches in the management

  20. Redox Stimulation of Human THP-1 Monocytes in Response to Cold Physical Plasma

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    Sander Bekeschus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In plasma medicine, cold physical plasma delivers a delicate mixture of reactive components to cells and tissues. Recent studies suggested a beneficial role of cold plasma in wound healing. Yet, the biological processes related to the redox modulation via plasma are not fully understood. We here used the monocytic cell line THP-1 as a model to test their response to cold plasma in vitro. Intriguingly, short term plasma treatment stimulated cell growth. Longer exposure only modestly compromised cell viability but apparently supported the growth of cells that were enlarged in size and that showed enhanced metabolic activity. A significantly increased mitochondrial content in plasma treated cells supported this notion. On THP-1 cell proteome level, we identified an increase of protein translation with key regulatory proteins being involved in redox regulation (hypoxia inducible factor 2α, differentiation (retinoic acid signaling and interferon inducible factors, and cell growth (Yin Yang 1. Regulation of inflammation is a key element in many chronic diseases, and we found a significantly increased expression of the anti-inflammatory heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1 and of the neutrophil attractant chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8. Together, these results foster the view that cold physical plasma modulates the redox balance and inflammatory processes in wound related cells.

  1. Higher infection of dengue virus serotype 2 in human monocytes of patients with G6PD deficiency.

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    Yuan-Chang Chao

    Full Text Available The prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is high in Asia. An ex vivo study was conducted to elucidate the association of G6PD deficiency and dengue virus (DENV infection when many Asian countries are hyper-endemic. Human monocytes from peripheral mononuclear cells collected from 12 G6PD-deficient patients and 24 age-matched controls were infected with one of two DENV serotype 2 (DENV-2 strains-the New Guinea C strain (from a case of dengue fever or the 16681 strain (from a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever with a multiplicity of infection of 0.1. The infectivity of DENV-2 in human monocytes was analyzed by flow cytometry. Experimental results indicated that the monocytes of G6PD-deficient patients exhibited a greater levels of infection with DENV-2 New Guinea C strain than did those in healthy controls [mean+/-SD:33.6%+/-3.5 (27.2% approximately 39.2% vs 20.3%+/-6.2 (8.0% approximately 30.4%, P<0.01]. Similar observations were made of infection with the DENV-2 16681 strain [40.9%+/-3.9 (35.1% approximately 48.9% vs 27.4%+/-7.1 (12.3% approximately 37.1%, P<0.01]. To our knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time higher infection of human monocytes in G6PD patients with the dengue virus, which may be important in increasing epidemiological transmission and perhaps with the potential to develop more severe cases pathogenically.

  2. In vitro detection of contact allergens: development of an optimized protocol using human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Hendrik; Spieker, Jochem; Gerlach, Silke; Engels, Ursula; Pape, Wolfgang; Kolbe, Ludger; Schmucker, Robert; Wenck, Horst; Diembeck, Walter; Wittern, Klaus-Peter; Reisinger, Kerstin; Schepky, Andreas G

    2011-02-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a delayed T-cell mediated allergic response associated with relevant social and economic impacts. Animal experiments (e.g. the local lymph node assay) are still supplying most of the data used to assess the sensitization potential of new chemicals. However, the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetic Directive will introduce a testing ban for cosmetic ingredients after 2013. In vitro alternative methods are thus being actively developed. Although promising results have been obtained with cell lines, their reduced functionality and inherent genomic instability led us to reinvestigate the use of peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs) for the establishment of a reliable in vitro sensitization test. To solve the issues associated with the use of primary cells, the culture and exposure conditions (cytokine concentrations, incubation time, readout, pooled vs. single donors and cytotoxicity) were re-assessed and optimized. Here we propose a stable and reproducible protocol based on PBMDCs. This should allow a wider acceptance of PBMDCs as a reliable test system for the detection of human skin sensitizers and the inclusion of this protocol in an integrated testing strategy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Lymph node hemophagocytosis in rickettsial diseases: a pathogenetic role for CD8 T lymphocytes in human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME?

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    Dumler J Stephen

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME and Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF are caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia rickettsii, respectively. The pathogenesis of RMSF relates to rickettsia-mediated vascular injury, but it is unclear in HME. Methods To study histopathologic responses in the lymphatic system for correlates of immune injury, lymph nodes from patients with HME (n = 6 and RMSF (n = 5 were examined. H&E-stained lymph node tissues were examined for five histopathologic features, including hemophagocytosis, cellularity, necrosis, and vascular congestion and edema. The relative proportions of CD68 macrophages, CD8 and CD4 T lymphocytes, and CD20 B lymphocytes were evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. Results Hemophagocytosis was similar in HME and RMSF, and was greater than in control cases (p = .015. Cellularity in HME was not different from controls, whereas RMSF lymph nodes were markedly less cellular (p E. chaffeensis-infected mononuclear phagocytes were infrequent compared to R. rickettsii-infected endothelial cells. More CD8 cells in lymph nodes were observed with HME (p Conclusion Hemophagocytosis, CD8 T cell expansion, and the paucity of infected cells in HME, suggest that E. chaffeensis infection leads to macrophage activation and immune-mediated injury.

  4. Epstein-Barr virus lytic infection promotes activation of Toll-like receptor 8 innate immune response in systemic sclerosis monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Antonella; Peruzzi, Giovanna; Lacconi, Valentina; Lenna, Stefania; Quarta, Silvia; Rosato, Edoardo; Vestri, Anna Rita; York, Michael; Dreyfus, David H; Faggioni, Alberto; Morrone, Stefania; Trojanowska, Maria; Farina, G Alessandra

    2017-02-28

    Monocytes/macrophages are activated in several autoimmune diseases, including systemic sclerosis (scleroderma; SSc), with increased expression of interferon (IFN)-regulatory genes and inflammatory cytokines, suggesting dysregulation of the innate immune response in autoimmunity. In this study, we investigated whether the lytic form of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (infectious EBV) is present in scleroderma monocytes and contributes to their activation in SSc. Monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) depleted of the CD19+ cell fraction, using CD14/CD16 negative-depletion. Circulating monocytes from SSc and healthy donors (HDs) were infected with EBV. Gene expression of innate immune mediators were evaluated in EBV-infected monocytes from SSc and HDs. Involvement of Toll-like receptor (TLR)8 in viral-mediated TLR8 response was investigated by comparing the TLR8 expression induced by infectious EBV to the expression stimulated by CL075/TLR8/agonist-ligand in the presence of TLR8 inhibitor in THP-1 cells. Infectious EBV strongly induced TLR8 expression in infected SSc and HD monocytes in vitro. Markers of activated monocytes, such as IFN-regulated genes and chemokines, were upregulated in SSc- and HD-EBV-infected monocytes. Inhibiting TLR8 expression reduced virally induced TLR8 in THP-1 infected cells, demonstrating that innate immune activation by infectious EBV is partially dependent on TLR8. Viral mRNA and proteins were detected in freshly isolated SSc monocytes. Microarray analysis substantiated the evidence of an increased IFN signature and altered level of TLR8 expression in SSc monocytes carrying infectious EBV compared to HD monocytes. This study provides the first evidence of infectious EBV in monocytes from patients with SSc and links EBV to the activation of TLR8 and IFN innate immune response in freshly isolated SSc monocytes. This study provides the first evidence of EBV replication activating the TLR8 molecular pathway

  5. The N-terminal thrombin receptor fragment SFLLRN, but not catalytically inactive thrombin-derived agonists, activate U937 human monocytic cells: evidence for receptor hydrolysis in thrombin-dependent signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, S.; MacDermot, J.

    1993-01-01

    It has previously been reported that murine macrophages can respond chemotactically and mitogenically to the serine proteinase thrombin. There is a similar response in these macrophages to catalytically inactivated thrombin or to peptide fragments of the thrombin B-chain [Bar-Shavit, Kahn, Mann and Wilner (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83, 976-980]. However, the existence of a non-proteolytic mechanism of thrombin receptor activation in mononuclear cells was not evident in the present s...

  6. Monocytic suppressor cells derived from human peripheral blood suppress xenogenic immune reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akira; Kawamura, Takuji; Ueno, Takehisa; Usui, Noriaki; Miyagawa, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were initially found to contribute to the immunosuppression in tumor patients and have recently been recognized as a subset of innate immune cells that are capable of regulating adaptive immunity. A variety of innate immune stimuli such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which act as a double-edged sword, induce both the maturation of dendritic cells (DC) and the expansion of MDSCs. In this study, we isolated MDSCs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and examined the suppressive effect of MDSCs against cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-mediated xenocytotoxicity. Peripheral blood monocytes cultured in the presence of GM-CSF and IL-4 were stimulated with polyiosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] or LPS. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that LPS and poly I:C stimulation allows the CD33(+) CD14(+) HLA-DR(-) subset to be significantly increased. To assess the suppressive capacity of MDSCs in xenotoxicity, CTL assay was performed. Poly (I:C)-activated MDSCs dramatically suppressed the CTL xenocytotoxicity. Phagocytosis assays revealed that activated MDSCs aggressively phagocytose the xenogenic CTLs. Characterization of MDSCs by real-time PCR revealed that poly (I:C) and LPS-stimulated MDSCs expressed significant amounts of mRNA for indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) compared to untreated MDSCs. Furthermore, when MDSCs were incubated with the IDO inhibitor, the MDSC-induced suppression of xenocytotoxicity was abolished. Taken together, the possibility that activated MDSCs could induce apoptosis in xenogenic CTLs via an IDO-dependent manner and aggressively phagocytose apoptotic CTLs cannot be excluded. These findings indicate that MDSCs have a great deal of potential as a therapeutic strategy for dealing with xenograft rejection. Further investigations of the underlying mechanisms will facilitate the development of this therapeutic strategy. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Activated p38 MAPK in Peripheral Blood Monocytes of Steroid Resistant Asthmatics.

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    Ling-Bo Li

    Full Text Available Steroid resistance is a significant problem in management of chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. Accessible biomarkers are needed to identify steroid resistant patients to optimize their treatment. This study examined corticosteroid resistance in severe asthma. 24 asthmatics with forced expiratory volume in one second of less then 80% predicted were classified as steroid resistant or steroid sensitive based on changes in their lung function following a week of treatment with oral prednisone. Heparinised blood was collected from patients prior to oral prednisone administration. Phosphorylated mitogen activated kinases (MAPK (extracellular regulated kinase (ERK, p38 and jun kinase (JNK were analyzed in whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Activation of phospho-p38 MAPK and phospho-mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK1 in asthmatics' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were confirmed by Western blot. Dexamethasone suppression of the LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA production by steroid resistant asthmatics PBMC in the presence of p38 and ERK inhibitors was evaluated by real time PCR. Flow cytometry analysis identified significantly stronger p38 phosphorylation in CD14+ monocytes from steroid resistant than steroid sensitive asthmatics (p = 0.014, whereas no difference was found in phosphorylation of ERK or JNK in CD14+ cells from these two groups of asthmatics. No difference in phosphorylated p38, ERK, JNK was detected in CD4+, CD8+ T cells, B cells and NK cells from steroid resistant vs. steroid sensitive asthmatics. P38 MAPK pathway activation was confirmed by Western blot, as significantly higher phospho-p38 and phospho-MSK1 levels were detected in the PBMC lysates from steroid resistant asthmatics. P38 inhibitor significantly enhanced DEX suppression of LPS-induced IL-8 mRNA by PBMC of steroid resistant asthmatics. This is the first report demonstrating selective p38 MAPK pathway activation in blood monocytes of

  8. Hyper-activated pro-inflammatory CD16 monocytes correlate with the severity of liver injury and fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B.

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    Ji-Yuan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Extensive mononuclear cell infiltration is strongly correlated with liver damage in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB infection. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes also participate in the development of liver damage and fibrosis in animal models. However, little is known regarding the immunopathogenic role of peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The frequencies, phenotypes, and functions of peripheral blood and intrahepatic monocyte/macrophage subsets were analyzed in 110 HBeAg positive CHB patients, including 32 immune tolerant (IT carriers and 78 immune activated (IA patients. Liver biopsies from 20 IA patients undergoing diagnosis were collected for immunohistochemical analysis. IA patients displayed significant increases in peripheral blood monocytes and intrahepatic macrophages as well as CD16(+ subsets, which were closely associated with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT levels and the liver histological activity index (HAI scores. In addition, the increased CD16(+ monocytes/macrophages expressed higher levels of the activation marker HLA-DR compared with CD16(- monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, peripheral blood CD16(+ monocytes preferentially released inflammatory cytokines and hold higher potency in inducing the expansion of Th17 cells. Of note, hepatic neutrophils also positively correlated with HAI scores. CONCLUSIONS: These distinct properties of monocyte/macrophage subpopulations participate in fostering the inflammatory microenvironment and liver damage in CHB patients and further represent a collaborative scenario among different cell types contributing to the pathogenesis of HBV-induced liver disease.

  9. In Lysinuric Protein Intolerance system y+L activity is defective in monocytes and in GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages

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    Mariani Francesca

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the recessive aminoaciduria Lysinuric Protein Intolerance (LPI, mutations of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 impair system y+L transport activity for cationic amino acids. A severe complication of LPI is a form of Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP, in which alveolar spaces are filled with lipoproteinaceous material because of the impaired surfactant clearance by resident macrophages. The pathogenesis of LPI-associated PAP remains still obscure. The present study investigates for the first time the expression and function of y+LAT1 in monocytes and macrophages isolated from a patient affected by LPI-associated PAP. A comparison with mesenchymal cells from the same subject has been also performed. Methods Monocytes from peripheral blood were isolated from a 21-year-old patient with LPI. Alveolar macrophages and fibroblastic-like mesenchymal cells were obtained from a whole lung lavage (WLL performed on the same patient. System y+L activity was determined measuring the 1-min uptake of [3H]-arginine under discriminating conditions. Gene expression was evaluated through qRT-PCR. Results We have found that: 1 system y+L activity is markedly lowered in monocytes and alveolar macrophages from the LPI patient, because of the prevailing expression of SLC7A7/y+LAT1 in these cells; 2 on the contrary, fibroblasts isolated from the same patient do not display the transport defect due to compensation by the SLC7A6/y+LAT2 isoform; 3 in both normal and LPI monocytes, GM-CSF induces the expression of SLC7A7, suggesting that the gene is a target of the cytokine; 4 GM-CSF-induced differentiation of LPI monocytes is comparable to that of normal cells, demonstrating that GM-CSF signalling is unaltered; 5 general and respiratory conditions of the patient, along with PAP-associated parameters, markedly improved after GM-CSF therapy through aerosolization. Conclusions Monocytes and macrophages, but not fibroblasts, derived from a LPI patient clearly display the

  10. NADPH Oxidase/ROS-Dependent VCAM-1 Induction on TNF-α-Challenged Human Cardiac Fibroblasts Enhances Monocyte Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Chung; Yang, Chien-Chung; Wang, Chen-Yu; Tseng, Hui-Ching; Pan, Chih-Shuo; Hsiao, Li-Der; Yang, Chuen-Mao

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation-dependent adhesion molecule expressions are characterized in cardiovascular diseases and myocardial tissue infiltrations. Several pro-inflammatory cytokines are elevated in the acute myocardial injury and infarction. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is raised in the injury tissues and inflammatory regions and involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac injury, inflammation, and apoptosis. In fibroblasts, TNF-α-triggered expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 aggravated the heart inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying TNF-α-mediated VCAM-1 expression in cardiac fibroblasts remain unclear. Here, the primary cultured human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) were used to investigate the effects of TNF-α on VCAM-1 expression. The molecular evidence, including protein, mRNA, and promoter analyses, indicated that TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 gene expression is mediated through the TNFR-dependent manner. Activation of TNF-α/TNFR system triggered PKCα-dependent NADPH oxidase (Nox)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) signal linking to MAPK cascades, and then led to activation of the transcription factor, AP-1. Moreover, the results of mRNA and promoter assay demonstrated that c-Jun/AP-1 phosphorylated by TNF-α turns on VCAM-1 gene expression. Subsequently, up-regulated VCAM-1 on the cell surface of TNF-α-challenged HCFs increased the number of monocytes adhering to these cells. These results indicated that in HCFs, activation of AP-1 by PKCα-dependent Nox/ROS/MAPKs cascades is required for TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression. To clarify the mechanisms of TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in HCFs may provide therapeutic strategies for heart injury and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26858641

  11. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  12. Both common and specialty mushrooms inhibit adhesion molecule expression and in vitro binding of monocytes to human aortic endothelial cells in a pro-inflammatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of mortality in the United States as well as globally. Epidemiological studies show that regular fruit and vegetable consumption reduces CVD risk, in part, due to antioxidant activity and immunomodulation since oxidative stress and inflammation are features of atherogenesis. Accumulating evidence also shows that dietary fungi, viz., mushrooms, can protect against chronic disease by altering inflammatory environments such as those associated with CVD although most research has focused on specialty mushrooms. In this study, we tested the ability of both common and specialty mushrooms to inhibit cellular processes associated with CVD. Methods Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were incubated overnight with control media with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) vehicle (1% v/v) or containing DMSO extracts of whole dehydrated mushrooms (0.1 mg/mL), which included Agaricus bisporus (white button and crimini), Lentinula edodes (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster), and Grifola frondosa (maitake). Monolayers were subsequently washed and incubated with medium alone or containing the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β (5 ng/mL) for 6 h to upregulate pro-atherosclerotic adhesion molecules (AM). AM expression was assayed by ELISA and binding of U937 human monocytes pre-loaded with fluorescent dye was determined. Results White button mushrooms consistently reduced (p mushrooms significantly modulated AM expression singly, collectively, or combinatorially. All mushrooms, however, significantly reduced binding of monocytes to both quiescent and cytokine-stimulated monolayers. Conclusion These data provide evidence that dietary mushrooms can inhibit cellular processes such as adhesion molecule expression and ultimate binding of monocytes to the endothelium under pro-inflammatory conditions, which are associated with CVD. As a result, these findings support the notion that dietary mushrooms can be protective against CVD. PMID

  13. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication in human monocyte-derived macrophages by parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

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    Guadalupe Andreani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage are one of the major targets of HIV-1 infection and serve as reservoirs for viral persistence in vivo. These cells are also the target of the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, being one of the most important endemic protozoonoses in Latin America. It has been demonstrated in vitro that co-infection with other pathogens can modulate HIV replication. However, no studies at cellular level have suggested an interaction between T. cruzi and HIV-1 to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a fully replicative wild-type virus, our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 antigen production by nearly 100% (p99% being stronger than HIV-T. cruzi (approximately 90% for BaL and approximately 85% for VSV-G infection. In MDM with established HIV-1 infection, T. cruzi significantly inhibited luciferate activity (p<0.01. By quantifying R-U5 and U5-gag transcripts by real time PCR, our study showed the expression of both transcripts significantly diminished in the presence of trypomastigotes (p<0.05. Thus, T. cruzi inhibits viral post-integration steps, early post-entry steps and entry into MDM. Trypomastigotes also caused a approximately 60-70% decrease of surface CCR5 expression on MDM. Multiplication of T. cruzi inside the MDM does not seem to be required for inhibiting HIV-1 replication since soluble factors secreted by trypomastigotes have shown similar effects. Moreover, the major parasite antigen cruzipain, which is secreted by the trypomastigote form, was able to inhibit viral production in MDM over 90% (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study showed that T. cruzi inhibits HIV-1 replication at several replication stages in macrophages, a major cell target for both pathogens.

  14. Oxidized Phospholipids on Lipoprotein(a) Elicit Arterial Wall Inflammation and an Inflammatory Monocyte Response in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Fleur M; Bekkering, Siroon; Kroon, Jeffrey; Yeang, Calvin; Van den Bossche, Jan; van Buul, Jaap D; Ravandi, Amir; Nederveen, Aart J; Verberne, Hein J; Scipione, Corey; Nieuwdorp, Max; Joosten, Leo A B; Netea, Mihai G; Koschinsky, Marlys L; Witztum, Joseph L; Tsimikas, Sotirios; Riksen, Niels P; Stroes, Erik S G

    2016-08-23

    Elevated lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] is a prevalent, independent cardiovascular risk factor, but the underlying mechanisms responsible for its pathogenicity are poorly defined. Because Lp(a) is the prominent carrier of proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids (OxPLs), part of its atherothrombosis might be mediated through this pathway. In vivo imaging techniques including magnetic resonance imaging, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake positron emission tomography/computed tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography were used to measure subsequently atherosclerotic burden, arterial wall inflammation, and monocyte trafficking to the arterial wall. Ex vivo analysis of monocytes was performed with fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, inflammatory stimulation assays, and transendothelial migration assays. In vitro studies of the pathophysiology of Lp(a) on monocytes were performed with an in vitro model for trained immunity. We show that subjects with elevated Lp(a) (108 mg/dL [50-195 mg/dL]; n=30) have increased arterial inflammation and enhanced peripheral blood mononuclear cells trafficking to the arterial wall compared with subjects with normal Lp(a) (7 mg/dL [2-28 mg/dL]; n=30). In addition, monocytes isolated from subjects with elevated Lp(a) remain in a long-lasting primed state, as evidenced by an increased capacity to transmigrate and produce proinflammatory cytokines on stimulation (n=15). In vitro studies show that Lp(a) contains OxPL and augments the proinflammatory response in monocytes derived from healthy control subjects (n=6). This effect was markedly attenuated by inactivating OxPL on Lp(a) or removing OxPL on apolipoprotein(a). These findings demonstrate that Lp(a) induces monocyte trafficking to the arterial wall and mediates proinflammatory responses through its OxPL content. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which Lp(a) mediates cardiovascular disease. URL: http://www.trialregister.nl. Unique identifier: NTR

  15. In vitro cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements on human monocytes, a colorimetric MTT assay

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    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was performed to evaluate the cytotoxicity of four calcium silicate-based endodontic cements at different storage times after mixing. Materials and Methods Capillary tubes were filled with Biodentine (Septodont, Calcium Enriched Mixture (CEM cement, BioniqueDent, Tech Biosealer Endo (Tech Biosealer and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental. Empty tubes and tubes containing Dycal were used as negative and positive control groups respectively. Filled capillary tubes were kept in 0.2 mL microtubes and incubated at 37℃. Each material was divided into 3 groups for testing at intervals of 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day after mixing. Human monocytes were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cocultered with 24 hr, 7 day and 28 day samples of different materials for 24 and 48 hr. Cell viability was evaluated using an MTT assay. Results In all groups, the viability of monocytes significantly improved with increasing storage time regardless of the incubation time (p < 0.001. After 24 hr of incubation, there was no significant difference between the materials regarding monocyte viability. However, at 48 hr of incubation, ProRoot MTA and Biodentine were less cytotoxic than CEM cement and Biosealer (p < 0.01. Conclusions Biodentine and ProRoot MTA had similar biocompatibility. Mixing ProRoot MTA with PBS in place of distilled water had no effect on its biocompatibility. Biosealer and CEM cement after 48 hr of incubation were significantly more cytotoxic to on monocyte cells compared to ProRoot MTA and Biodentine.

  16. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

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    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  17. Endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II disrupts alveolar epithelial type II to type I cell transdifferentiation

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    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Distal alveolar morphogenesis is marked by differentiation of alveolar type (AT-II to AT-I cells that give rise to the primary site of gas exchange, the alveolar/vascular interface. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II, an endogenous protein with anti-angiogenic properties, profoundly disrupts distal lung neovascularization and alveolar formation during lung morphogenesis, and is robustly expressed in the dysplastic alveolar regions of infants with Bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Determination as to whether EMAP II has a direct or indirect affect on ATII→ATI trans-differentiation has not been explored. Method In a controlled nonvascular environment, an in vitro model of ATII→ATI cell trans-differentiation was utilized to demonstrate the contribution that one vascular mediator has on distal epithelial cell differentiation. Results Here, we show that EMAP II significantly blocked ATII→ATI cell transdifferentiation by increasing cellular apoptosis and inhibiting expression of ATI markers. Moreover, EMAP II-treated ATII cells displayed myofibroblast characteristics, including elevated cellular proliferation, increased actin cytoskeleton stress fibers and Rho-GTPase activity, and increased nuclear:cytoplasmic volume. However, EMAP II-treated cells did not express the myofibroblast markers desmin or αSMA. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that EMAP II interferes with ATII → ATI transdifferentiation resulting in a proliferating non-myofibroblast cell. These data identify the transdifferentiating alveolar cell as a possible target for EMAP II's induction of alveolar dysplasia.

  18. Activation of farnesoid X receptor downregulates monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in murine macrophage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liangpeng; Zhang, Qian; Peng, Jiahe; Jiang, Chanjui; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Lili; Dong, Jinyu; Wang, Yongchao; Jiang, Yu, E-mail: yujiang0207@163.com

    2015-11-27

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays important roles in bile acids/lipid homeostasis and inflammation. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) contributes to macrophage infiltration into body tissues during inflammation. Here we investigated whether FXR can regulate MCP-1 expression in murine macrophage. FXR activation down regulate MCP-1 mRNA and protein levels in ANA-1 and Raw264.7 cells. Luciferase reporter assay, Gel shift and Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays have revealed that the activated FXR bind to the FXR element located in −738 bp ∼  −723 bp in MCP-1 promoter. These results suggested that FXR may serve as a novel target for regulating MCP-1 levels for the inflammation related diseases therapies. - Highlights: • FXR is expressed in murine macrophage cell line. • FXR down regulates MCP-1 expression. • FXR binds to the DR4 in MCP-1 promoter.

  19. SARS-CoV regulates immune function-related gene expression in human monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wanchung; Yen, Yu-Ting; Singh, Sher; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2012-08-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is characterized by acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis, and monocytes/macrophages are the key players in the pathogenesis of SARS. In this study, we compared the transcriptional profiles of SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-infected monocytic cells against that infected by coronavirus 229E (CoV-229E). Total RNA was extracted from infected DC-SIGN-transfected monocytes (THP-1-DC-SIGN) at 6 and 24 h after infection, and the gene expression was profiled in oligonucleotide-based microarrays. Analysis of immune-related gene expression profiles showed that at 24 h after SARS-CoV infection: (1) IFN-α/β-inducible and cathepsin/proteasome genes were downregulated; (2) hypoxia/hyperoxia-related genes were upregulated; and (3) TLR/TLR-signaling, cytokine/cytokine receptor-related, chemokine/chemokine receptor-related, lysosome-related, MHC/chaperon-related, and fibrosis-related genes were differentially regulated. These results elucidate that SARS-CoV infection regulates immune-related genes in monocytes/macrophages, which may be important to the pathogenesis of SARS.

  20. Vitamin A induces inhibitory histone methylation modifications and down-regulates trained immunity in human monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arts, Rob J W; Blok, Bastiaan A; van Crevel, Reinout

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that VAS has long-lasting immunomodulatory effects. We hypothesized that ATRA inhibits inflammatory cytokines in a model of trained immunity in monocytes by inducing epigenetic reprogramming through histone modifications. We used an previously described in vitro mode...

  1. Induction of oxygen free radical generation in human monocytes by lipoprotein(a)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Hansen, P; Kharazmi, A; Jauhiainen, M

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism behind the association of elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels with atherosclerotic disease is unknown. In the present study, Lp(a) induced generation of oxygen free radicals by monocytes from selected healthy individuals in vitro. This observation may provide a link between...

  2. Rapid desensitization of the histamine H2 receptor on the human monocytic cell line U937

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Shukrula, S R; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we have subjected the histamine H2 receptor on the monocytic cell line U937 to a thorough pharmacological characterization using a series of selective histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists and antagonists. Recent reports have demonstrated the existence of a histamine H2

  3. Fibronectin Binding Is Required for Acquisition of Mesenchymal/Endothelial Differentiation Potential in Human Circulating Monocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriyuki Seta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported monocyte-derived multipotential cells (MOMCs, which include progenitors capable of differentiating into a variety of mesenchymal cells and endothelial cells. In vitro generation of MOMCs from circulating CD14+ monocytes requires their binding to extracellular matrix (ECM protein and exposure to soluble factor(s derived from circulating CD14- cells. Here, we investigated the molecular factors involved in MOMC generation by examining the binding of monocytes to ECM proteins. We found that MOMCs were obtained on the fibronectin, but not on type I collagen, laminin, or poly-L-lysine. MOMC generation was followed by changes in the expression profiles of transcription factors and was completely inhibited by either anti-α5 integrin antibody or a synthetic peptide that competed with the RGD domain for the β1-integrin binding site. These results indicate that acquisition of the multidifferentiation potential by circulating monocytes depends on their binding to the RGD domain of fibronectin via cell-surface α5β1 integrin.

  4. Vitamin A induces inhibitory histone methylation modifications and down-regulates trained immunity in human monocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, R.J.W.; Blok, B.A.; Crevel, R. van; Joosten, L.A.B.; Aaby, P.; Benn, C.S.; Netea, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that VAS has long-lasting immunomodulatory effects. We hypothesized that ATRA inhibits inflammatory cytokines in a model of trained immunity in monocytes by inducing epigenetic reprogramming through histone modifications. We used an previously described in vitro model

  5. GM-CSF promotes migration of human monocytes across the blood brain barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, D.Y.S.; Kooij, G.; Heijnen, P.D.A.M.; Breur, M.; Peferoen, L.A.N.; van der Valk, P.; de Vries, H.E.; Amor, S.; Dijkstra, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Infiltration of monocytes into the CNS is crucial for disease onset and progression. Animal studies indicate that granulocyte-macrophages colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may play an

  6. Activation of human monocytes by proteolytic fragments of gliadin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínková, Lenka; Tučková, Ludmila; Cinová, Jana; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Tlaskalová, Helena

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2003), s. 08 ISSN 0165-2478 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : proteolytic * fragments * gliadin Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.710, year: 2003

  7. Elevated atherosclerosis-related gene expression, monocyte activation and microparticle-release are related to increased lipoprotein-associated oxidative stress in familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hjuler Nielsen

    Full Text Available Animal and in vitro studies have suggested that hypercholesterolemia and increased oxidative stress predisposes to monocyte activation and enhanced accumulation of oxidized LDL cholesterol (oxLDL-C through a CD36-dependent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that elevated oxLDL-C induce proinflammatory monocytes and increased release of monocyte-derived microparticles (MMPs, as well as up-regulation of CD36, chemokine receptors and proinflammatory factors through CD36-dependent pathways and that this is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis in subjects with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH, in particular in the presence of Achilles tendon xanthomas (ATX.We studied thirty FH subjects with and without ATX and twenty-three healthy control subjects. Intima-media thickness (IMT and Achilles tendon (AT thickness were measured by ultrasonography. Monocyte classification and MMP analysis were performed by flow cytometry. Monocyte expression of genes involved in atherosclerosis was determined by quantitative PCR. IMT and oxLDL-C were increased in FH subjects, especially in the presence of ATX. In addition, FH subjects had elevated proportions of intermediate CD14++CD16+ monocytes and higher circulating MMP levels. Stepwise linear regression identified oxLDL-C, gender and intermediate monocytes as predictors of MMPs. Monocyte expression of pro-atherogenic and pro-inflammatory genes regulated by oxLDL-C-CD36 interaction was increased in FH, especially in ATX+ subjects. Monocyte chemokine receptor CX3CR1 was identified as an independent contributor to IMT.Our data support that lipoprotein-associated oxidative stress is involved in accelerated atherosclerosis in FH, particularly in the presence of ATX, by inducing pro-inflammatory monocytes and increased release of MMPs along with elevated monocyte expression of oxLDL-C-induced atherosclerosis-related genes.

  8. Elimination of erroneous results in flow cytometry caused by antibody binding to Fc receptors on human monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Morten N; Al-Karradi, Sinan N H; Kragstrup, Tue W; Hokland, Marianne

    2016-11-01

    Nonspecific binding of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to Fc-receptors on leukocytes is an important cause of background fluorescence in flow cytometry, and failing to block such nonspecific binding can lead to erroneous results. A major part of previous studies on blocking reagents for flow cytometry have been done in mice, and published results are not completely in agreement. In humans, Fc-receptors are found on most leukocytes, with highest abundance on monocytes/macrophages. Therefore, in the present study our aim was to thoroughly investigate the efficiency of different commonly used blocking reagents regarding inhibition of nonspecific binding of mouse mAbs to human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). Monocytes and MDMs showed strong nonspecific binding of IgG1 and IgG2a isotypes, but not IgG2b. In contrast, B-cells, T-cells, and NK-cells did not substantially bind any of the mouse isotype control antibodies evaluated (IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b). Importantly, we show that binding of IgG1 and IgG2a to monocytes and MDMs can be eliminated by blocking, either with a commercial Fc-blocking reagent, with mouse or human serum, or with mouse or human IgG in high concentration. Previously, isotype controls have been widely used in flow cytometry assays. However, we show that such controls may be highly unreliable, and we believe they should not be used as gating controls, or to determine background signal. Based on these results, as well as considerations of price and applicability, our recommendation is not to use isotypes as gating controls in flow cytometry, but instead to use 100 μg/mL of purified human IgG as blocking reagent for elimination of nonspecific binding of mouse mAbs to human MNCs and MDMs. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  9. Gene expression in blood changes rapidly in neutrophils and monocytes after ischemic stroke in humans: a microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Xu, Huichun; Du, XinLi; Lit, Lisa; Walker, Wynn; Lu, Aigang; Ran, Ruiqiong; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Reilly, Melinda; Pancioli, Art; Khoury, Jane C; Sauerbeck, Laura R; Carrozzella, Janice A; Spilker, Judith; Clark, Joseph; Wagner, Kenneth R; Jauch, Edward C; Chang, Dongwoo J; Verro, Piero; Broderick, Joseph P; Sharp, Frank R

    2006-08-01

    Ischemic brain and peripheral white blood cells release cytokines, chemokines and other molecules that activate the peripheral white blood cells after stroke. To assess gene expression in these peripheral white blood cells, whole blood was examined using oligonucleotide microarrays in 15 patients at 2.4+/-0.5, 5 and 24 h after onset of ischemic stroke and compared with control blood samples. The 2.4-h blood samples were drawn before patients were treated either with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) alone or with tPA plus Eptifibatide (the Combination approach to Lysis utilizing Eptifibatide And Recombinant tPA trial). Most genes induced in whole blood at 2 to 3 h were also induced at 5 and 24 h. Separate studies showed that the genes induced at 2 to 24 h after stroke were expressed mainly by polymorphonuclear leukocytes and to a lesser degree by monocytes. These genes included: matrix metalloproteinase 9; S100 calcium-binding proteins P, A12 and A9; coagulation factor V; arginase I; carbonic anhydrase IV; lymphocyte antigen 96 (cluster of differentiation (CD)96); monocarboxylic acid transporter (6); ets-2 (erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog 2); homeobox gene Hox 1.11; cytoskeleton-associated protein 4; N-formylpeptide receptor; ribonuclease-2; N-acetylneuraminate pyruvate lyase; BCL6; glycogen phosphorylase. The fold change of these genes varied from 1.6 to 6.8 and these 18 genes correctly classified 10/15 patients at 2.4 h, 13/15 patients at 5 h and 15/15 patients at 24 h after stroke. These data provide insights into the inflammatory responses after stroke in humans, and should be helpful in diagnosis, understanding etiology and pathogenesis, and guiding acute treatment and development of new treatments for stroke.

  10. Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exposed to Microorganisms Involved in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Induce a Th1-Polarized Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Loeffert, Sophie; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula [actinomycetes], Mycobacterium immunogenum [mycobacteria], and Wallemia sebi and Eurotium amstelodami [filamentous fungi]) and are involved in HP. Our objectives were to determine the cross talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response varied according to the microbial extract tested. The phenotypic activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and levels of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by the ability of MoDCs to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation in a mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR). E. amstelodami-exposed (EA) MoDCs expressed higher percentages of costimulatory molecules than did W. sebi-exposed (WS), S. rectivirgula-exposed (SR), or M. immunogenum-exposed (MI) MoDCs (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs, and MI-MoDCs induced CD4+ T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response. The present study provides evidence that, although differences were initially observed between MoDCs exposed to filamentous fungi and MoDCs exposed to bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested. PMID:23720369

  11. Antagonism of free-radical-induced damage of adlay seed and its antiproliferative effect in human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C C; Shih, M C; Kuo, Y H; Chiang, W

    2001-03-01

    The goal of our current research was to investigate the antioxidative effects of methanolic extracts from different parts of adlay seed and their antiproliferative activity in malignant human cells. The methanolic extracts from different parts of adlay seeds were from the hull (AHM), testa (ATM), bran (ABM), and polished adlay (PAM). AHM exhibited greater capacity to scavenge superoxide anion radicals in the PMS-NADH system than ATM, ABM, or PAM. The scavenging capacities of AHM and ATM on hydrogen peroxides were about 20% at a dose of 250 microg/mL. Using the method of deoxyribose degradation to assess damage caused by hydroxyl radicals, AHM was found to inhibit damage in deoxyribose at a higher concentration. However, ATM, ABM, and PAM exhibited prooxidative activity at the same concentration. The inhibitory effect on enzymatic oxidation of xanthine to uric acid was found to follow the order AHM > ATM =. ABM. However, PAM was inactive. All test samples were positive for inhibition of TPA-induced free radical formation on neutrophil-like leukocytes and were found to follow the order AHM > ATM > ABM > PAM. When human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide, AHM protected the cells against the cytotoxicity caused by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. In addition, AHM exhibited antiproliferative activity against human histolytic lymphoma U937 monocytic cells in a dose-dependent manner. The antiproliferative properties of AHM appear to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death as determined by flow cytometry. These results show that AHM displays multiple antioxidant effects and induces apoptosis of malignant human cells.

  12. Activation of monocytic cells by monoclonal antibodies to the CD11a/18 (LFA-1) complex: mediation by Fc receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, E A; Roberts, P J; Abdul-Gaffar, R; Morgan, J; Linch, D C

    1990-01-01

    IgG1 antibodies reacting with several monocytic antigens form a bridge between the specific antigen and the Fc receptors also expressed on these cells. This results in calcium mobilization and generation of superoxide. Single IgG1 antibodies reacting with the CD11a/CD18 cellular adhesion molecular complex do not, however, induce monocytic activation. This is not because they induce a negative signal, as the response to formyl-methionyl-leucyl2-phenylalanine (FMLP) or direct cross-linking of FcRII is not inhibited. Furthermore, a combination of an intact CD11a and CD18 antibody does induce a rise in intracellular calcium and production of superoxide. This activation is dependent on the binding of the Fc portion of both antibodies to Fc receptors, as F(ab')2 fragments do not cause activation. This suggests that simultaneous binding of opsonized bacteria to cellular adhesion molecules and to Fc receptors on monocytes would facilitate activation of these cells. Furthermore, it illustrates the importance of using F(ab')2 fragments in the analysis of signal transduction molecules on Fc receptor-bearing cells. PMID:2185986

  13. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    and monocytes were differentiated to macrophages. Macrophages infected with HSV-1 were analyzed using siRNA-mediated knock-down of IFI16 by real-time PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting. RESULTS: We determined that both CXCL10 and CCL3 are induced independent of HSV-1 replication. IFI16 mediates CCL3 m......RNA accumulation during early HSV-1 infection. In contrast, CXCL10 was induced independently of IFI16. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the first evidence of HSV-1-induced innate immune responses via IFI16 in human primary macrophages. In addition, the data suggest that at least one additional unidentified receptor...

  14. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

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    Nascimento, Magda Paula Pereira do; Bannwart, Camila Ferreira; Nakaira-Takahagi, Erika; Peraçoli, Maria Terezinha Serrão

    2011-09-01

    Multinucleated giant cells (MGC) are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg). The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI) and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18). The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  15. Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor enhances the modulatory effect of cytokines on monocyte-derived multinucleated giant cell formation and fungicidal activity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

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    Magda Paula Pereira do Nascimento

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Multinucleated giant cells (MGC are cells present in characteristic granulomatous inflammation induced by intracellular infectious agents or foreign materials. The present study evaluated the modulatory effect of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF in association with other cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL-10 or transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 on the formation of MGC from human peripheral blood monocytes stimulated with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis antigen (PbAg. The generation of MGC was determined by fusion index (FI and the fungicidal activity of these cells was evaluated after 4 h of MGC co-cultured with viable yeast cells of P. brasiliensis strain 18 (Pb18. The results showed that monocytes incubated with PbAg and GM-CSF plus IFN-γ had a significantly higher FI than in all the other cultures, while the addition of IL-10 or TGF-β1 had a suppressive effect on MGC generation. Monocytes incubated with both pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines had a higher induction of foreign body-type MGC rather than Langhans-type MGC. MGC stimulated with PbAg and GM-CSF in association with the other cytokines had increased fungicidal activity and the presence of GM-CSF also partially inhibited the suppressive effects of IL-10 and TGF-β1. Together, these results suggest that GM-CSF is a positive modulator of PbAg-stimulated MGC generation and on the fungicidal activity against Pb18.

  16. Regions of common inter-individual DNA methylation differences in human monocytes: genetic basis and potential function.

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    Schröder, Christopher; Leitão, Elsa; Wallner, Stefan; Schmitz, Gerd; Klein-Hitpass, Ludger; Sinha, Anupam; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Per; Nöthen, Markus M; Steffens, Michael; Ebert, Peter; Rahmann, Sven; Horsthemke, Bernhard

    2017-07-26

    There is increasing evidence for inter-individual methylation differences at CpG dinucleotides in the human genome, but the regional extent and function of these differences have not yet been studied in detail. For identifying regions of common methylation differences, we used whole genome bisulfite sequencing data of monocytes from five donors and a novel bioinformatic strategy. We identified 157 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) with four or more CpGs, almost none of which has been described before. The DMRs fall into different chromatin states, where methylation is inversely correlated with active, but not repressive histone marks. However, methylation is not correlated with the expression of associated genes. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping of the five donors revealed evidence for a role of cis-acting genetic variation in establishing methylation patterns. To validate this finding in a larger cohort, we performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using SNP genotypes and 450k array methylation data from blood samples of 1128 individuals. Only 30/157 (19%) DMRs include at least one 450k CpG, which shows that these arrays miss a large proportion of DNA methylation variation. In most cases, the GWAS peak overlapped the CpG position, and these regions are enriched for CREB group, NF-1, Sp100 and CTCF binding motifs. In two cases, there was tentative evidence for a trans-effect by KRAB zinc finger proteins. Allele-specific DNA methylation occurs in discrete chromosomal regions and is driven by genetic variation in cis and trans, but in general has little effect on gene expression.

  17. In Vitro Experimental Model of Trained Innate Immunity in Human Primary Monocytes

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    Bekkering, Siroon; Blok, Bastiaan A.; Joosten, Leo A. B.; Riksen, Niels P.; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G.

    2016-01-01

    Innate immune memory, or trained immunity, has recently been described to be an important property of cells of the innate immune system. Due to the increased interest in this important new field of immunological investigation, we sought to determine the optimal conditions for an in vitro experimental protocol of monocyte training using three of the most commonly used training stimuli from the literature: β-glucan, the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, and oxidized low-density lipoprotei...

  18. Regulation of Cellular Metabolism and Cytokines by the Medicinal Herb Feverfew in the Human Monocytic THP-1 Cells

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    Chin-Fu Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The herb feverfew is a folk remedy for various symptoms including inflammation. Inflammation has recently been implicated in the genesis of many diseases including cancers, atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanisms of action of feverfew in the human body are largely unknown. To determine the cellular targets of feverfew extracts, we have utilized oligo microarrays to study the gene expression profiles elicited by feverfew extracts in human monocytic THP-1 cells. We have identified 400 genes that are consistently regulated by feverfew extracts. Most of the genes are involved in cellular metabolism. However, the genes undergoing the highest degree of change by feverfew treatment are involved in other pathways including chemokine function, water homeostasis and heme-mediated signaling. Our results also suggest that feverfew extracts effectively reduce Lipopolysaccharides (LPS-mediated TNF-α and CCL2 (MCP-1 releases by THP-1 cells. We hypothesize that feverfew components mediate metabolism, cell migration and cytokine production in human monocytes/macrophages.

  19. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin, exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of I kappa B-alpha degradation in human monocytes.

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    Ricciotti, Emanuela; Dovizio, Melania; Di Francesco, Luigia; Anzellotti, Paola; Salvatore, Tania; Di Francesco, Andrea; Sciulli, Maria G; Pistritto, Giuseppa; Monopoli, Angela; Patrignani, Paola

    2010-02-15

    NO-donating aspirins consist of aspirin to which a NO-donating group is covalently linked via a spacer molecule. NCX 4040 and NCX 4016 are positional isomers with respect to the -CH(2)ONO(2) group (para and meta, respectively) on the benzene ring of the spacer. Because positional isomerism is critical for antitumor properties of NO-donating aspirins, we aimed to compare their anti-inflammatory effects with those of aspirin in vitro. Thus, we assessed their impacts on cyclooxygenase-2 activity (by measuring PGE(2) levels), protein expression, and cytokine generation(IL-1beta, IL-18, TNF-alpha, and IL-10) in human whole blood and isolated human monocytes stimulated with LPS. Interestingly, we found that micromolar concentrations of NCX 4040, but not NCX 4016 or aspirin, affected cyclooxygenase-2 expression and cytokine generation. We compared the effects of NCX 4040 with those of NCX 4016 or aspirin on IkappaB-alpha stabilization and proteasome activity in the LPS-stimulated human monocytic cell line THP1. Differently from aspirin and NCX 4016, NCX 4040, at a micromolar concentration range, inhibited IkappaB-alpha degradation. In fact, NCX 4040 caused concentration-dependent accumulation of IkappaB-alpha and its phosphorylated form. This effect was not reversed by 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, thus excluding the contribution of NO-dependent cGMP generation. In contrast, IkappaB-alpha accumulation by NCX 4040 may involve an inhibitory effect on proteasome functions. Indeed, NCX 4040 inhibited 20S proteasome activity when incubated with intact cells but not in the presence of cell lysate supernatants, thus suggesting an indirect inhibitory effect. In conclusion, NCX 4040 is an inhibitor of IkappaB-alpha degradation and proteasome function, and it should be taken into consideration for the development of novel anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents.

  20. Differential effects of antidepressants on glucocorticoid receptors in human primary blood cells and human monocytic U-937 cells.

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    Heiske, Andreas; Jesberg, Jutta; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Vedder, Helmut

    2003-04-01

    A number of data support the assumption that antidepressants (ADs) normalize the altered function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorder via direct effects on glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). In the present study, we examined the tricyclic ADs desipramine (DESI) and imipramine (IMI), the noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor maprotiline (MAPRO), and the noradrenergic and specific serotonergic AD (NaSSA) mirtazapine (MIR) for their effects on GR expression in primary human leukocytes and in monocytic U-937 cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR indicated that the ADs exert differential effects on GR-mRNA levels in both primary human leukocytes and U-937 cells: whereas MAPRO and IMI did not induce pronounced changes in GR-mRNA levels, DESI and MIR significantly decreased the amounts of GR-mRNA in both cell systems. Further characterization of the effects of MIR revealed a time dependency of the regulation with an initial increase of GR-mRNA levels above control levels after 2.5 h of treatment and a decrease after 4, 24, and 48 h of incubation. A dose-response analysis demonstrated maximal effects of MIR at a concentration of 10(-7) M. Immunohistochemical studies showed that MIR increased the GR protein levels in a time-dependent manner and that this upregulation appeared earlier by additional treatment with dexamethasone (DEX). A translocation of the GR protein from the cytoplasm to the nucleus was induced between 24 and 48 h of treatment with MIR and MIR/DEX, respectively. Taken together, our data further support the assumption that ADs influence the neuroendocrine and immune system via effects on cellular GRs.

  1. Increased percentages of T helper cells producing IL-17 and monocytes expressing markers of alternative activation in patients with sepsis.

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    Milena Karina Colo Brunialti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A shift from Th1 to Th2 as well as an increase in Treg CD4+T cell subsets has been reported in septic patients (SP. Furthermore, these patients display modulation of monocyte function, with reduced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulus, which resembles the phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages. In this study, we evaluated the percentages of T cells differentiated into Th1, Th17 and Treg subsets, as well as the percentage of monocytes expressing markers of alternatively activated monocytes/macrophages (AAM in SP. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were obtained from 32 healthy volunteers (HV and from SP at admission (D0, n = 67 and after 7 days of therapy (D7, n = 33. Th1 and Th17 (CD3+CD8- lymphocytes were identified by the intracellular detection of IFN-γ and IL-17, respectively, spontaneously and after PMA/Io stimulation, and Treg cells were identified by Foxp3+CD127- expression. Monocytes were evaluated for CD206 and CD163 expression. Absolute numbers of CD4+T lymphocytes were measured in whole blood samples by flow cytometry. The Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon test was applied, as appropriate. The percentage of Th1 cells was lower in SP than in HV at admission after PMA/Io stimulation, whereas the percentage of Th17 cells was higher. In patients' follow-up samples, a higher percentage of Th1 cells and a lower percentage of Th17 cells were observed on D7 compared with the D0 samples. Treg cells remained unchanged. Septic patients showed a markedly increased proportion of monocytes expressing CD163 and CD206. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Upon in vitro stimulus, the percentage of T helper lymphocytes producing IL-17 was higher in SP than in HV at admission, and the percentage producing IFN-γ was lower, a pattern that was reversed during follow-up. The increased expression of CD163 and CD206 indicates that monocytes may acquire the AAM phenotype during sepsis.

  2. Human monocytes differentiate into dendritic cells subsets that induce anergic and regulatory T cells in sepsis.

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    Valérie Faivre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a multifactorial pathology with high susceptibility to secondary infections. Innate and adaptive immunity are affected in sepsis, including monocyte deactivation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better understand the effects of alterations in monocytes on the regulation of immune responses during sepsis, we analyzed their differentiation in dendritic cell (DC. Cells from septic patients differentiated overwhelmingly into CD1a-negative DC, a population that was only a minor subset in controls and that is so far poorly characterized. Analysis of T cell responses induced with purified CD1a-negative and CD1a+ DC indicated that (i CD1a-negative DC from both healthy individuals and septic patients fail to induce T cell proliferation, (ii TGFβ and IL-4 were strongly produced in mixed leukocyte reaction (MLR with control CD1a-negative DC; reduced levels were produced with patients DC together with a slight induction of IFNγ, (iii compared to controls, CD1a+ DC derived from septic patients induced 3-fold more Foxp3+ T cells. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate a strong shift in DC populations derived from septic patients' monocytes with expanded cell subsets that induce either T cell anergy or proliferation of T cells with regulatory potential. Lower regulatory cytokines induction on a per cell basis by CD1a-negative dendritic cells from patients points however to a down regulation of immune suppressive abilities in these cells.

  3. Vitamin A induces inhibitory histone methylation modifications and down-regulates trained immunity in human monocytes.

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    Arts, Rob J W; Blok, Bastiaan A; van Crevel, Reinout; Joosten, Leo A B; Aaby, Peter; Benn, Christine Stabell; Netea, Mihai G

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that VAS has long-lasting immunomodulatory effects. We hypothesized that ATRA inhibits inflammatory cytokines in a model of trained immunity in monocytes by inducing epigenetic reprogramming through histone modifications. We used an previously described in vitro model of trained immunity, in which adherent monocytes of healthy volunteers were incubated for 24 h with BCG in the presence or absence of ATRA. After washing the cells, they were incubated for an additional 6 d in culture medium and restimulated with microbial ligands, and cytokine production was assessed. ATRA inhibited cytokine responses upon restimulation of monocytes, and this effect was exerted through increased expression of SUV39H2, a histone methyltransferase that induces the inhibitory mark H3K9me3. H3K9me3 at promoter sites of several cytokines was up-regulated by ATRA, and inhibition of SUV39H2 restored cytokine production. In addition to H3K9me3, the stimulatory histone mark H3K4me3 was down-regulated by ATRA at several promoter locations of cytokine genes. Therefore, we can conclude that ATRA inhibits cytokine production in models of direct stimulation or BCG-induced trained immunity and that these effects are mediated by histone modifications. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. [Modulation by some fatty acids of protein kinase C-dependent NADPH oxidase in human adherent monocyte: mechanism of action, possible implication in atherogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, C L; Kadri-Hassani, N

    1995-01-01

    It is largely admitted nowadays that the early stage of the atherosclerotic lesion involves formation of oxidized (and minimally oxidized) low-density lipoprotein. Their properties are briefly reviewed. It is recalled that a lipolytic process also takes place both at the lumenal surface and in the subendothelial space of the vessels implying lipoprotein lipase (LpL) activity. Recent studies emphasize the role of LpL in accumulating LDL in the vascular tissue (Rutledge & Golberg, J. Lipid Res., 1994, 35, 1152-1160), but the role of LpL-generated unesterified fatty acids (UEFA) in these two locations and their possible implication in atherogenesis are largely neglected. Physiological and pathophysiological significance of UEFA in the human adherent monocyte modulation of the superoxide anion (O2.-) production has been examined by our group, leading to a possible mechanism of modulation of LDL oxidative modification. The O2.- production-modulating effect of a 30-min UEFA preincubation has been studied in intact human adherent monocytes (HAM) after stimulation by a direct effector of protein kinase C (PKC). It has been established that UEFA alone (in the absence of PKC effectors) were not able to modulate the O2.- production of HAM whereas they had such a capacity in the presence of PKC effectors, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or diacylglycerol (DAG). In this case inhibitors of PKC such as GF 109203 X suppressed the modulating effect. UEFA have also been shown to possess a bimodal action in the presence of PKC effectors: they depressed or enhanced O2.- production at micromolar or nanomolar concentrations, respectively. All these results contrasted with others obtained in neutrophils or nonadherent monocytes, suggesting an absolute requirement of PKC for the phagocyte-NADPH oxydase (PHOX) activation especially in the case of HAM. In HAM, the maximal enhancing effects were obtained with monomethyl ramified saturated (MMRS) and linear unsaturated (LU) FAs such as

  5. From human monocytes to genome-wide binding sites--a protocol for small amounts of blood: monocyte isolation/ChIP-protocol/library amplification/genome wide computational data analysis.

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    Sebastian Weiterer

    Full Text Available Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner.The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA.

  6. Malarial pigment haemozoin, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and LPS do not stimulate expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in immuno-purified human monocytes

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    Ceretto Monica

    2007-06-01

    unable to express iNOS and generate NOS metabolites even after stimulation with IFN-gamma or a cytokine-LSP mix that were very active on HZ-fed murine phagocytic lines. Present data do not support the hypothesis that monocytes are mediators of anti-parasitic defence in clinical malaria via activation of iNOS and production of NO, and suggest caution in extrapolating data obtained with murine or hybrid systems to human malaria.

  7. RNA of Enterococcus faecalis Strain EC-12 Is a Major Component Inducing Interleukin-12 Production from Human Monocytic Cells.

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    Ryoichiro Nishibayashi

    Full Text Available Interleukin-12 (IL-12 is an important cytokine for the immunomodulatory effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Using murine immune cells, we previously reported that the RNA of Enterococcus faecalis EC-12, a LAB strain exerting probiotic-like beneficial effects, is the major IL-12-inducing immunogenic component. However, it was recently revealed that bacterial RNA can be a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR 13, which is only expressed in mice. Because TLR13 is not expressed in humans, the immuno-stimulatory and -modulatory effects of LAB RNA in human cells should be augmented excluding TLR13 contribution. In experiment 1 of this study, the role of LAB RNA in IL-12 induction in human immune cells was studied using three LAB strains, E.faecalis EC-12, Lactobacillus gasseri JCM5344, and Bifidobacterium breve JCM1192. RNase A treatment of heat-killed LAB significantly decreased the IL-12 production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells on stimulation, while RNase III treatment revealed virtually no effects. Further, IL-12 production against heat-killed E. faecalis EC-12 was abolished by depleting monocytes. These results demonstrated that single stranded RNA (ssRNA of LAB is a strong inducer of IL-12 production from human monocytes. In experiment 2, major receptor for ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was identified using THP-1 cells, a human monocytic cell line. The type of RNA molecules of E. faecalis EC-12 responsible for IL-12 induction was also identified. IL-12 production induced by the total RNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was significantly reduced by the treatment of siRNA for TLR8 but not for TLR7. Furthermore, both 23S and 16S rRNA, but not mRNA, of E. faecalis EC-12 markedly induced IL-12 production from THP-1 cells. These results suggested that the recognition of ssRNA of E. faecalis EC-12 was mediated by TLR8 and that rRNA was the RNA molecule that exhibited IL-12-inducing ability in human cells.

  8. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells are essential for CD8+ T cell activation and anti-tumor responses after local immunotherapy

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    Sabine eKuhn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tumors harbor several populations of dendritic cells with the ability to prime tumor-specific T cells. However, these T cells mostly fail to differentiate into armed effectors and are unable to control tumor growth. We have previously shown that treatment with immunostimulatory agents at the tumor site can activate anti-tumor immune responses, and is associated with the appearance of a population of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in the tumor and tumor-draining lymph node. Here we use dendritic cell or monocyte depletion and monocyte transfer to show that these monocyte-derived dendritic cells are critical to the activation of anti-tumor immune responses. Treatment with the immunostimulatory agents Monosodium Urate crystals and Mycobacterium smegmatis induced the accumulation of monocytes in the draining lymph node, their upregulation of CD11c and MHCII, and expression of iNOS, TNFα and IL12p40. Blocking monocyte entry into the lymph node and tumor through neutralization of the chemokine CCL2 or inhibition of Colony Stimulating Factor-1 receptor signaling prevented the generation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells, the infiltration of tumor-specific T cells into the tumor, and anti-tumor responses. In a reciprocal fashion, monocytes transferred into mice depleted of CD11c+ cells were sufficient to rescue CD8+ T cell priming in lymph node and delay tumor growth. Thus monocytes exposed to the appropriate conditions become powerful activators of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells and anti-tumor immunity.

  9. Ubiquinol decreases monocytic expression and DNA methylation of the pro-inflammatory chemokine ligand 2 gene in humans

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    Fischer Alexandra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coenzyme Q10 is an essential cofactor in the respiratory chain and serves in its reduced form, ubiquinol, as a potent antioxidant. Studies in vitro and in vivo provide evidence that ubiquinol reduces inflammatory processes via gene expression. Here we investigate the putative link between expression and DNA methylation of ubiquinol sensitive genes in monocytes obtained from human volunteers supplemented with 150 mg/ day ubiquinol for 14 days. Findings Ubiquinol decreases the expression of the pro-inflammatory chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 2 gene (CXCL2 more than 10-fold. Bisulfite-/ MALDI-TOF-based analysis of regulatory regions of the CXCL2 gene identified six adjacent CpG islands which showed a 3.4-fold decrease of methylation status after ubiquinol supplementation. This effect seems to be rather gene specific, because ubiquinol reduced the expression of two other pro-inflammatory genes (PMAIP1, MMD without changing the methylation pattern of the respective gene. Conclusion In conclusion, ubiquinol decreases monocytic expression and DNA methylation of the pro-inflammatory CXCL2 gene in humans. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN26780329.

  10. Two new monoclonal antibodies to human monocytes and granulocytes: isolation of membrane antigens and lack of effects of antibodies on leukocyte functions in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, H C; Kimball, E; Schroff, R W; Buescher, S; Clarke, G; Gregorio, T; Wilburn, S; Foon, K A

    1984-01-01

    Mice were immunized with purified human monocytes or granulocytes obtained by leukapheresis and isolated on dextran gradients or by countercurrent centrifugation-elutriation. A monoclonal antibody, Mo95, was generated in response to monocytes and was found to react strongly with monocytes, large granular lymphocytes (LGL), granulocytes, eosinophils, and some myelomonocytic leukemia cells, but not with normal T or B lymphocytes, platelets, red cells, or leukemic cell lines. Mo95 is an IgG1 antibody, which precipitated a 95 kD molecular weight antigen. Addition of the Mo95 antibody to monocytes in the absence of complement did not inhibit lysozyme secretion nor did it affect superoxide production, C3b-rosetting, nitrotetrazolium blue reduction, phagocytosis, or chemotactic responses. A second antibody, PMN70, was found to react exclusively with granulocytes and not with monocytes, lymphocytes, LGL, platelets, red cells, or any of the myelomonocytic, T-cell-derived or B-cell-derived leukemic cell lines tested. The PMN70 antibody immunoprecipitated a 70 kD molecular weight antigen found only on mature granulocytes. Mo95 and PMN70 appear to be distinct from five other tested monoclonal antibodies reactive to monocytes and/or granulocytes on the basis of the fluorescent cell sorter and immunoprecipitation studies performed.

  11. Foal monocyte-derived dendritic cells become activated upon Rhodococcus equi infection.

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    Flaminio, M Julia B F; Nydam, Daryl V; Marquis, Hélène; Matychak, Mary Beth; Giguère, Steeve

    2009-02-01

    Susceptibility of foals to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is exclusive to the first few months of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate immunologic response of foal and adult horse antigen-presenting cells (APCs) upon infection with R. equi. We measured the activation of the antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in monocyte-derived macrophages (mMOs) and dendritic cells (mDCs) of adult horses and foals of different ages (from birth to 3 months of age) infected with virulent R. equi or its avirulent, plasmid-cured derivative. Infection with virulent or avirulent R. equi induced (P foal mMOs and mDCs at different ages. This response was likely mediated by the higher (P=0.008) expression of IRF-1 in foal mDCs at birth than in adult horse mDCs. R. equi infection promoted comparable expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 in foal and adult horse cells. The cytokine and costimulatory response by foal mDCs was not accompanied by robust MHC class II molecule expression. These data suggest that foal APCs detect the presence of R. equi and respond with the expression of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12. Nevertheless, there seems to be a limitation to MHC class II molecule expression which we hypothesize may compromise the efficient priming of naïve effector cells in early life.

  12. Foal Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Become Activated upon Rhodococcus equi Infection▿ †

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    Flaminio, M. Julia B. F.; Nydam, Daryl V.; Marquis, Hélène; Matychak, Mary Beth; Giguère, Steeve

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility of foals to Rhodococcus equi pneumonia is exclusive to the first few months of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate immunologic response of foal and adult horse antigen-presenting cells (APCs) upon infection with R. equi. We measured the activation of the antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule, costimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, the cytokine interleukin-12 (IL-12), and the transcriptional factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) in monocyte-derived macrophages (mMOs) and dendritic cells (mDCs) of adult horses and foals of different ages (from birth to 3 months of age) infected with virulent R. equi or its avirulent, plasmid-cured derivative. Infection with virulent or avirulent R. equi induced (P ≤ 0.01) the expression of IL-12p35 and IL-12p40 mRNAs in foal mMOs and mDCs at different ages. This response was likely mediated by the higher (P = 0.008) expression of IRF-1 in foal mDCs at birth than in adult horse mDCs. R. equi infection promoted comparable expression of costimulatory molecules CD86 and CD40 in foal and adult horse cells. The cytokine and costimulatory response by foal mDCs was not accompanied by robust MHC class II molecule expression. These data suggest that foal APCs detect the presence of R. equi and respond with the expression of the Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12. Nevertheless, there seems to be a limitation to MHC class II molecule expression which we hypothesize may compromise the efficient priming of naïve effector cells in early life. PMID:19109450

  13. Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide II Suppresses the In Vitro Glioblastoma-Induced Angiogenesis by Inducing Autophagy

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    Zhiqing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The obstacle in delivering therapeutics to glioblastoma (GBM is tumor-induced angiogenesis which leads to the formation of abnormal vessels and a dysfunctional blood-tumor barrier. Here, we elucidated the effect of endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II (EMAP II on the GBM-induced angiogenesis as well as its potential mechanisms. Our results proved that EMAP II inhibited the viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, migration and tube formation of GBM-induced endothelial cells (GECs by inducing cell autophagy, demonstrated by cell viability assay, JC-1 staining assay, transwell assay and tube formation assay, respectively. Cell autophagy was induced by EMAP II through the observation of autophagic vacuoles formation and the up-regulation of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain-3 (LC3-II and p62/SQSTM1 expression, demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy analysis, immunofluorescence assay and Western blot assay. The activity of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway could be inhibited by the EMAP II treatment. Furthermore, unfolded protein response (UPR-related proteins (GRP78, eIF2α, and CHOP were up-regulated by EMAP II, which suggest that GECs exposed to EMAP II experienced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Further, mechanistic investigations found that EMAP II reduced the miR-96 expression which could directly target the 3′-UTR of these UPR-related proteins, and over-expression of miR-96 inhibited LC3 and p62/SQSTM1 expression by down-regulating these UPR-related proteins in GECs. Moreover, the combination of EMAP II with miR-96 inhibitor showed the inhibitory effect on the viability, migration, and in vitro tube formation of GECs, which are critical for angiogenesis. Taken together, we have demonstrated the fact that EMAP II resulted in the decreased GBM-induced angiogenesis by inducing autophagy, which might contribute to establishing potential strategies for human GBM treatment.

  14. Gefitinib and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate decrease viral replication and cytokine production in dengue virus infected human monocyte cultures.

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    Duran, Anyelo; Valero, Nereida; Mosquera, Jesús; Fuenmayor, Edgard; Alvarez-Mon, Melchor

    2017-12-15

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization-domain containing 2 (NOD2) are important in cancer and in microbial recognition, respectively. These molecules trigger intracellular signaling pathways inducing the expression of inflammatory genes by NF-kB translocation. Gefitinib (GBTC) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) are capable of inhibiting EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. In earlier stages of dengue virus (DENV) infection, monocytes are capable of sustaining viral replication and increasing cytokine production, suggesting that monocyte/macrophages play an important role in early DENV replication. GBTC and PDTC have not been used to modify the pathogenesis of DENV in infected cells. This study was aimed to determine the effect of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production in DENV serotype 2 (DENV2)-infected human monocyte cultures. GBTC and PDTC were used to inhibit EGFR/NOD2 and NF-kB, respectively. Cytokine production was measured by ELISA and viral replication by plaque forming unit assay. Increased DENV2 replication and anti-viral cytokine production (IFN-α/β, TNF-α, IL-12 and IL-18) in infected cultures were found. These parameters were decreased after EGFR/NOD2 or NF-kB inhibitions. The inhibitory effects of GBTC and PDTC on viral replication and cytokine production can be beneficial in the treatment of patients infected by dengue and suggest a possible role of EGFR/NOD2 receptors and NF-kB in dengue pathogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Monocyte targeting and activation by cationic liposomes formulated with a TLR7 agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Pia Thermann; Zucker, Daniel; Parhamifar, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    adaptive immune responses has drawn attention to modulate monocyte responses therapeutically within cancer, inflammation and infectious diseases. We present a technology for targeting of nnonocytes and delivery of a toll-like receptor (TLR) agonist in fresh blood using liposomes with a positively charged...... cytokines. We envision this technology as a promising tool in future cancer immunotherapy....

  16. Peripheral monocyte functions and activation in patients with quiescent Crohn's disease.

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    David Schwarzmaier

    Full Text Available Recent developments suggest a causal link between inflammation and impaired bacterial clearance in Crohn's disease (CD due to alterations of intestinal macrophages. Studies suggest that excessive inflammation is the consequence of an underlying immunodeficiency rather than the primary cause of CD pathogenesis. We characterized phenotypic and functional features of peripheral blood monocytes of patients with quiescent CD (n = 18 and healthy controls (n = 19 by analyses of cell surface molecule expression, cell adherence, migration, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, oxidative burst, and cytokine expression and secretion with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS priming. Peripheral blood monocytes of patients with inactive CD showed normal expression of cell surface molecules (CD14, CD16, CD116, adherence to plastic surfaces, spontaneous migration, chemotaxis towards LTB4, phagocytosis of E. coli, and production of reactive oxygen species. Interestingly, peripheral blood monocytes of CD patients secreted higher levels of IL1β (p<.05. Upon LPS priming we found a decreased release of IL10 (p<.05 and higher levels of CCL2 (p<.001 and CCL5 (p<.05. The expression and release of TNFα, IFNγ, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL13, IL17, CXCL9, and CXCL10 were not altered compared to healthy controls. Based on our phenotypic and functional studies, peripheral blood monocytes from CD patients in clinical remission were not impaired compared to healthy controls. Our results highlight that defective innate immune mechanisms in CD seems to play a role in the (inflamed intestinal mucosa rather than in peripheral blood.

  17. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonate antivirals activate gene expression of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 and 3.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Potměšil, Petr; Holý, Antonín; Kmoníčková, Eva; Křížková, Jana; Zídek, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 59-66 ISSN 1021-7770 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Acyclic nucleoside phosponate * HIV * Monocyte chemotactic protein Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.024, year: 2007

  18. Persistent STAT5 phosphorylation and epigenetic dysregulation of GM-CSF and PGS2/COX2 expression in Type 1 diabetic human monocytes.

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    Erin Garrigan

    Full Text Available STAT5 proteins are adaptor proteins for histone acetylation enzymes. Histone acetylation at promoter and enhancer chromosomal regions opens the chromatin and allows access of transcription enzymes to specific genes in rapid response cell signals, such as in inflammation. Histone acetylation-mediated gene regulation is involved in expression of 2 key inflammatory response genes: CSF2, encoding granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and PTGS2, encoding prostaglandin synthase 2/cyclooxygenase 2 (PGS2/COX2. Prolonged CSF2 expression, high GM-CSF production, and GM-CSF activation of PTGS2 gene expression all are seen in type 1 diabetes (T1D monocytes. Persistent phosphorylation activation of monocyte STAT5 (STAT5Ptyr is also found in individuals with or at-risk for T1D. To examine whether elevated T1D monocyte STAT5Ptyr may be associated with aberrant inflammatory gene expression in T1D, blood monocytes from non-autoimmune controls and T1D patients were analyzed by flow cytometry for STAT5Ptyr activation, and by chromatin immuno-precipitation (ChIP analyses for STAT5Ptyr's ability to bind at CSF2 and PTGS2 regulatory sites in association with histone acetylation. In unstimulated monocytes, STAT5Ptyr was elevated in 59.65% of T1D, but only 2.44% of control subjects (p<0.0001. Increased STAT5Ptyr correlated with T1D disease duration (p = 0.0030, r(2 = 0.0784. Unstimulated (p = 0.140 and GM-CSF-stimulated (p = 0.0485 T1D monocytes, had greater STAT5Ptyr binding to epigenetic regulatory sites upstream of CSF2 than control monocytes. Increased STAT5Ptyr binding in T1D monocytes was concurrent with binding at these sites of STAT6Ptyr (p = 0.0283, CBP/P300 histone acetylase, acetylated histones H3, SMRT/NCoR histone deacetylase (p = 0.0040, and RNA Polymerase II (p = 0.0040. Our study indicates that in T1D monocytes, STAT5Ptyr activation is significantly higher and that STAT5Ptyr is found bound to CSF2 promoter and PTGS2 enhancer regions

  19. ApoE production in human monocytes and its regulation by inflammatory cytokines.

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    Sten Braesch-Andersen

    Full Text Available The apoE production by tissue macrophages is crucial for the prevention of atherosclerosis and the aim of this study was to further elucidate how this apolipoprotein is regulated by cytokines present during inflammation. Here we studied apoE production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and analysis was made with a newly developed apoE ELISpot assay. In PBMC, apoE secretion was restricted to monocytes with classical (CD14(++CD16(- and intermediate (CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes being the main producers. As earlier described for macrophages, production was strongly upregulated by TGF-β and downregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS and the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β. We could here show that a similar down-regulatory effect was also observed with the type I interferon, IFN-α, while IL-6, often regarded as one of the more prominent inflammatory cytokines, did not affect TGF-β-induced apoE production. The TNF-α inhibitor Enbrel could partly block the down-regulatory effect of IFN-γ, IFN-α and IL-1β, indicating that inhibition of apoE by these cytokines may be dependent on or synergize with TNF-α. Other cytokines tested, IL-2, IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A and IL-23, had no inhibitory effect on apoE production. In contrast to the effect on monocytes, apoE production by primary hepatocytes and the hepatoma cell line HepG2 was more or less unaffected by treatment with cytokines or LPS.

  20. A rapid crosstalk of human gammadelta T cells and monocytes drives the acute inflammation in bacterial infections.

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    Matthias Eberl

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells are a minor subset of T cells in human blood and differ from other T cells by their immediate responsiveness to microbes. We previously demonstrated that the primary target for Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells is (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, an essential metabolite produced by a large range of pathogens. Here we wished to study the consequence of this unique responsiveness in microbial infection. The majority of peripheral Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells shares migration properties with circulating monocytes, which explains the presence of these two distinct blood cell types in the inflammatory infiltrate at sites of infection and suggests that they synergize in anti-microbial immune responses. Our present findings demonstrate a rapid and HMB-PP-dependent crosstalk between Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cells and autologous monocytes that results in the immediate production of inflammatory mediators including the cytokines interleukin (IL-6, interferon (IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, and oncostatin M (OSM; the chemokines CCL2, CXCL8, and CXCL10; and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. Moreover, under these co-culture conditions monocytes differentiate within 18 hours into inflammatory dendritic cells (DCs with antigen-presenting functions. Addition of further microbial stimuli (lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan induces CCR7 and enables these inflammatory DCs to trigger the generation of CD4(+ effector alphabeta T cells expressing IFN-gamma and/or IL-17. Importantly, our in vitro model replicates the responsiveness to microbes of effluent cells from peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and translates directly to episodes of acute PD-associated bacterial peritonitis, where Vgamma9/Vdelta2 T cell numbers and soluble inflammatory mediators are elevated in patients infected with HMB-PP-producing pathogens. Collectively, these findings suggest a direct link between invading pathogens, microbe

  1. In vitro evidence for the protective role of Sida rhomboidea. Roxb extract against LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Devkar, Ranjisinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2011-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate protective role of S. rhomboidea. Roxb (SR) leaf extract against in vitro low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL) induced macrophage apoptosis. Copper and cell-mediated LDL oxidation, Ox-LDL-induced peroxyl radical generation, mitochondrial activity, and apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs) were assessed in presence of SR extract. Results clearly indicated that SR was capable of reducing LDL oxidation and formation of intermediary oxidation products. Also, SR successfully attenuated peroxyl radical formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, nuclear condensation, and apoptosis in Ox-LDL-exposed HMDMs. This scientific report is the first detailed investigation that establishes anti-atherosclerotic potential of SR extract.

  2. Differential transcription of exon 1 of the human c-fms gene in placental trophoblasts and monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visvader, J.; Verma, I.M. (Salk Inst. for Biological Studies, San Diego, CA (USA))

    1989-03-01

    Structural analysis of the 5' end of the human c-fms gene revealed that a large intron of about 25 kilobases separates an upstream noncoding exon (exon 1) from the signal peptide-containing exon (exon 2). Northern (RNA) blot analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, and primer extensions showed that exon 1 is transcribed in placenta but not in cells of the monocytic lineage. This is due to the differential usage or promoters, separated by approximately 25 kilobases, in cell-specific manner. One major c-fms transcript was observed in U-937 cells, whereas multiple initiation sites for transcription appeared to be utilized in placental cells. Nucleotide sequence comparisons showed that the 3' end of the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene lies approximately 350 base pairs upstream of the major initiation sites for c-fms transcription in placental trophoblasts.

  3. Differential transcription of exon 1 of the human c-fms gene in placental trophoblasts and monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvader, J; Verma, I M

    1989-01-01

    Structural analysis of the 5' end of the human c-fms gene revealed that a large intron of about 25 kilobases separates an upstream noncoding exon (exon 1) from the signal peptide-containing exon (exon 2). Northern (RNA) blot analysis, S1 nuclease mapping, and primer extensions showed that exon 1 is transcribed in placenta but not in cells of the monocytic lineage. This is due to the differential usage of promoters, separated by approximately 25 kilobases, in a cell-specific manner. One major c-fms transcript was observed in U-937 cells, whereas multiple initiation sites for transcription appeared to be utilized in placental cells. Nucleotide sequence comparisons showed that the 3' end of the human platelet-derived growth factor receptor gene lies approximately 350 base pairs upstream of the major initiation sites for c-fms transcription in placental trophoblasts. Images PMID:2524648

  4. Monocytes and the 38kDa-antigen of mycobacterium tuberculosis modulate natural killer cell activity and their cytolysis directed against ovarian cancer cell lines

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    Gottschalk Nina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite strong efforts to improve clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients by conventional and targeted immuno-based therapies, the prognosis of advanced ovarian cancer is still poor. Natural killer (NK cells mediate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC, release immunostimulatory cytokines and thus function as potent anti-tumour effector cells. However, tumour cells developed mechanisms to escape from an effective immune response. So highly immunogenic substances, like the 38 kDa-preparation of M. tuberculosis, PstS-1, are explored for their potential to enhance cancer-targeted immune responses. In this study we examined the modulation of different NK cell functions by accessory monocytes and PstS-1. We focussed on NK cell activation as well as natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity directed against epidermal-growth-factor-receptor (EGFR-positive ovarian cancer cell lines. Methods Activation, cytokine release and cytotoxicity of NK cells stimulated by monocytes and PstS-1 were determined by FACS-analysis, ELISA, Bioplex assay and quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (qPCR. Transwell assays were used to discriminate cell-cell contact-dependent from contact-independent mechanisms. Five ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, IGROV-1, OVCAR-3, OVCAR-4 and SKOV-3 with different EGFR-expression were used as target cells for natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity assays. Cetuximab (anti-EGFR-antibody was used for ADCC studies. Results Our data show that monocytes effectively enhance activation as well natural and antibody-dependent cytolytic activity of NK cells. PstS-1 directly stimulated monocytes and further activated monocyte-NK-co-cultures. However, PstS-1 did not directly influence purified NK cells and did also not affect natural and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity directed against EGFR-positive ovarian cancer cells, even in presence of monocytes. Direct cell-cell contact between

  5. Influence of monocytes and antibiotic treatment on tissue factor activity of endocardial vegetations in rabbits infected with Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancsi, M J; Veltrop, M H; Bertina, R M; Thompson, J

    1996-01-01

    A main feature in the pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis is the activation of the coagulation system via the extrinsic pathway, resulting in the formation of infected endocardial vegetations. Earlier studies gave indirect evidence that monocytes play an important role in the procoagulant response during the course of the disease. In this study, we assessed the role of monocytes more directly. We compared weights and tissue factor activities (TFA) of endocardial vegetations of normal rabbits infected with Streptococcus sanguis with those of rabbits which were treated with the cytostatic drug etoposide (Vepesid; Bristol-Myers Squibb B.V.) to induce a selective monocytopenia. Furthermore, the importance of the presence of bacteria was determined through the influence of antibiotic treatment on TFA, vegetational weight, and infection of the vegetations. The TFA of the vegetations was measured chromogenically by monitoring the factor VII-dependent activation of factor X with an amidolytic assay for factor Xa. We found that the degree of infection and the weight of vegetations of rabbits treated with the cytostatic drug etoposide did not differ from that of untreated rabbits. Their TFA, however, was significantly lower than the TFA of vegetations of rabbits not treated with etoposide. We also found that, as with the monocytopenic rabbits, the weight of the vegetations was not reduced in penicillin G-treated rabbits. The degree of infection and TFA, however, were significantly lower. We conclude that monocytes indeed are involved in the activation of the coagulation system during the course of bacterial endocarditis and that the degree of infection is positively correlated to the TFA of the vegetations. PMID:8550190

  6. A macrophage activation switch (MAcS)-index for assessment of monocyte/macrophage activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Lauridsen, Mette; Knudsen, Troels Bygum

    2008-01-01

    , simplified by the M1-M2 dichotomy of classically activated (M1), pro-inflammatory cells and alternatively activated (M2), anti-inflammatory cells. Macrophages, however, display a large degree of flexibility and are able to switch between activation states (1). The hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163.......058-5139) (pswitch (MAcS)-index, which seems able to differentiate between (predominantly) pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory macrophage activation. The index needs...... further validation, however, may be very useful for monitoring diseases with macrophage involvement and response to therapeutic interventions.   REFERENCES: 1. Porcheray F, Viaud S, Rimaniol AC, Léone C, Samah B, Dereuddre-Bosquet N, Dormont D, Gras G. Macrophage activation switching: an asset...

  7. Multinucleated giant cell formation induced by IFN-gamma/IL-3 is associated with restriction of virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell to cell invasion in human monocyte monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, T F

    1998-09-15

    One of the hallmarks of an effective immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the formation of granulomas containing multinucleated giant cells. IFN-gamma and interleukin-3 (IL-3) promote Langhans-type multinucleated giant cell formation and have been identified in T cell clones reacting to M. tuberculosis antigens. The ability of human monocytes treated with IFN-gamma and IL-3 to limit the spread of M. tuberculosis in an in vitro infection assay was examined. Monocytes were incubated with control medium, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and calcitriol, a combination permissive to M. tuberculosis growth, or IFN-gamma and IL-3 and infected with a low inoculum of M. tuberculosis (Erdman). IFN-gamma/IL-3 treatment reduced M. tuberculosis CFU relative to both untreated and IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/calcitriol-treated monocytes. Specifically, CFU were reduced by 79% at 14 days in the IFN-gamma/IL-3 treatment group relative to the IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/calcitriol treatment group, an effect that was not due to toxic monocyte metabolites. M. tuberculosis growth restriction by IFN-gamma/IL-3-treated monocyte monolayers was associated with the development of Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells. At the light microscope level, dense growth of M. tuberculosis surrounded by a ring of nuclei localized to the center of individual cells. The intracellular location of M. tuberculosis was confirmed by electron microscopy. In contrast, monocyte monolayers treated with IFN-gamma/TNF-alpha/calcitriol consisted of a syncitium of cells containing monocyte aggregates. Nonlocalized linear arrays of M. tuberculosis were observed to be growing throughout such aggregates. These results suggest that physical sequestration of M. tuberculosis by Langhans-type multinucleated giant cells may limit cell to cell spread of this pathogen, thereby restricting growth. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  8. TNF and PGE2 in human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with Chlamydia trachomatis

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    E. Manor

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, tumour necrosis factor (TNF and interleukin-1 (IL-1 alpha in medium from monocyte derived macrophages (MdM infected with Chlamydia trachomatis (L2/434/Bu or K biovars. TNF and PGE2 were found in both cases while IL-1 alpha was not detected. Both TNF and PGE2 levels were higher in the medium of the MdM infected with K biovars. TNF reached maximum levels 24 h postinfection, and then declined, while PGE2 levels increased continuously during the infection time up to 96 h post-infection. Addition of dexamethasone inhibited production of TNF and PGE2. Inhibition of PGE2 production by indomethacin resulted in increased production of TNF, while addition of PGE2 caused partial inhibition of TNF production from infected MdM.

  9. 'Clustering' SIRPα into the plasma membrane lipid microdomains is required for activated monocytes and macrophages to mediate effective cell surface interactions with CD47.

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    Binh Ha

    Full Text Available SIRPα, an ITIMs-containing signaling receptor, negatively regulates leukocyte responses through extracellular interactions with CD47. However, the dynamics of SIRPα-CD47 interactions on the cell surface and the governing mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that while the purified SIRPα binds to CD47 and that SIRPα is expressed on monocytes and monocytic THP-1 or U937, these SIRPα are ineffective to mediate cell binding to immobilized CD47. However, cell binding to CD47 is significantly enhanced when monocytes transmigrating across endothelia, or being differentiated into macrophages. Cell surface labeling reveals SIRPα to be diffused on naïve monocytes but highly clustered on transmigrated monocytes and macrophages. Protein crosslink and equilibrium centrifugation confirm that SIRPα in the latter cells forms oligomerized complexes resulting in increased avidity for CD47 binding. Furthermore, formation of SIRPα complexes/clusters requires the plasma membrane 'lipid rafts' and the activity of Src family kinase during macrophage differentiation. These results together suggest that 'clustering' SIRPα into plasma membrane microdomains is essential for activated monocytes and macrophages to effectively interact with CD47 and initiate intracellular signaling.

  10. CD16+ monocyte subset was enriched and functionally exacerbated in driving T-cell activation and B-cell response in systemic lupus erythematosus

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    Huaqun Zhu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The roles that CD16+ monocyte subset plays in T-cell activation and B-cell response have not been well studied in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate the distribution of CD16+ monocyte subsets in SLE and explore their possible roles in T-cell activation and B-cell differentiation. Methods: The frequencies of monocyte subsets in the peripheral blood of healthy controls (HCs and patients with SLE were determined by flow cytometry. Monocyte subsets were sorted and co-cultured with CD4+ T cells and CD19+ B cells. Then, T and B cells were collected for different subset detection, while the supernatants were collected for immunoglobulin G (IgG, IgA, and IgM or interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-17A detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Our results showed that CD16+ monocytes exhibited a pro-inflammatory phenotype with elevated CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, and CX3CR1 expression on the cell surface. It’s further demonstrated that CD16+ monocytes from patients and HCs shared different cell-surface marker profiles. The CD16+ subset was enriched in SLE and had an exacerbated capacity to promote CD4+ T cell polarization into a Th17 phenotype. Also, CD16+ monocytes had enhanced impacts on CD19+ B cells to differentiate into plasma B cells and regulatory B cells with more Ig production. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that CD16+ monocytes, characterized by different cell-surface marker profiles, were enriched and played a critical role in driving the pathogenic T- and B-cell responses in patients with SLE.

  11. Glucocorticoid mediated regulation of inflammation in human monocytes is associated with depressive mood and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tiefu; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Pruitt, Christopher; Hong, Suzi

    2016-04-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is observed in various conditions, including depression and obesity, which are also often related. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance and desensitization of peripheral GC receptors (GRs) are often the case in HPA dysregulation seen in depression, and GC plays a critical role in regulation of inflammation. Given the growing evidence that inflammation is a central feature of some depression cases and obesity, we aimed to investigate the immune-regulatory role of GC-GR in relation to depressive mood and obesity in 35 healthy men and women. Depressive mood and level of obesity were assessed, using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ia) and body mass index (BMI), respectively. We measured plasma cortisol levels via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated intracellular tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by monocytes, using flow cytometry. Cortisol sensitivity was determined by the difference in monocytic TNF production between the conditions of 1 and 0 μM cortisol incubation ("cortisol-mediated inflammation regulation, CoMIR"). GR vs. mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism for CoMIR was examined by using mifepristone and spironolactone. A series of multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate independent contribution of depressive mood vs. obesity after controlling for age, gender, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and plasma cortisol in predicting CoMIR. CoMIR was explained by somatic subcomponents of depressive mood (BDI-S: β=-0.499, p=0.001), or BMI (β=-0.466, pobesity and somatic depressive symptoms were associated with