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Sample records for human mesenchymal progenitor

  1. Human embryonic stem cell derived mesenchymal progenitors express cardiac markers but do not form contractile cardiomyocytes.

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    Christophe M Raynaud

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal progenitors or stromal cells have shown promise as a therapeutic strategy for a range of diseases including heart failure. In this context, we explored the growth and differentiation potential of mesenchymal progenitors (MPs derived in vitro from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Similar to MPs isolated from bone marrow, hESC derived MPs (hESC-MPs efficiently differentiated into archetypical mesenchymal derivatives such as chondrocytes and adipocytes. Upon treatment with 5-Azacytidine or TGF-β1, hESC-MPs modified their morphology and up-regulated expression of key cardiac transcription factors such as NKX2-5, MEF2C, HAND2 and MYOCD. Nevertheless, NKX2-5+ hESC-MP derivatives did not form contractile cardiomyocytes, raising questions concerning the suitability of these cells as a platform for cardiomyocyte replacement therapy. Gene profiling experiments revealed that, although hESC-MP derived cells expressed a suite of cardiac related genes, they lacked the complete repertoire of genes associated with bona fide cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that whilst agents such as TGF-β1 and 5-Azacytidine can induce expression of cardiac related genes, but treated cells retain a mesenchymal like phenotype.

  2. Prolonged Expansion Induces Spontaneous Neural Progenitor Differentiation from Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

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    Rajan, Thangavelu Soundara; Scionti, Domenico; Diomede, Francesca; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2017-12-01

    Neural crest-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from dental tissues received considerable interest in regenerative medicine, particularly in nerve regeneration owing to their embryonic origin and ease of harvest. Proliferation efficacy and differentiation capacity into diverse cell lineages propose dental MSCs as an in vitro tool for disease modeling. In this study, we investigated the spontaneous differentiation efficiency of dental MSCs obtained from human gingiva tissue (hGMSCs) into neural progenitor cells after extended passaging. At passage 41, the morphology of hGMSCs changed from typical fibroblast-like shape into sphere-shaped cells with extending processes. Next-generation transcriptomics sequencing showed increased expression of neural progenitor markers such as NES, MEIS2, and MEST. In addition, de novo expression of neural precursor genes, such as NRN1, PHOX2B, VANGL2, and NTRK3, was noticed in passage 41. Immunocytochemistry results showed suppression of neurogenesis repressors TP53 and p21, whereas Western blot results revealed the expression of neurotrophic factors BDNF and NT3 at passage 41. Our results showed the spontaneous efficacy of hGMSCs to differentiate into neural precursor cells over prolonged passages and that these cells may assist in producing novel in vitro disease models that are associated with neural development.

  3. Progressive Recruitment of Mesenchymal Progenitors Reveals a Time-Dependent Process of Cell Fate Acquisition in Mouse and Human Nephrogenesis.

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    Lindström, Nils O; De Sena Brandine, Guilherme; Tran, Tracy; Ransick, Andrew; Suh, Gio; Guo, Jinjin; Kim, Albert D; Parvez, Riana K; Ruffins, Seth W; Rutledge, Elisabeth A; Thornton, Matthew E; Grubbs, Brendan; McMahon, Jill A; Smith, Andrew D; McMahon, Andrew P

    2018-06-04

    Mammalian nephrons arise from a limited nephron progenitor pool through a reiterative inductive process extending over days (mouse) or weeks (human) of kidney development. Here, we present evidence that human nephron patterning reflects a time-dependent process of recruitment of mesenchymal progenitors into an epithelial nephron precursor. Progressive recruitment predicted from high-resolution image analysis and three-dimensional reconstruction of human nephrogenesis was confirmed through direct visualization and cell fate analysis of mouse kidney organ cultures. Single-cell RNA sequencing of the human nephrogenic niche provided molecular insights into these early patterning processes and predicted developmental trajectories adopted by nephron progenitor cells in forming segment-specific domains of the human nephron. The temporal-recruitment model for nephron polarity and patterning suggested by direct analysis of human kidney development provides a framework for integrating signaling pathways driving mammalian nephrogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mesenchymal progenitor cells for the osteogenic lineage.

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    Ono, Noriaki; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2015-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitors of the osteogenic lineage provide the flexibility for bone to grow, maintain its function and homeostasis. Traditionally, colony-forming-unit fibroblasts (CFU-Fs) have been regarded as surrogates for mesenchymal progenitors; however, this definition cannot address the function of these progenitors in their native setting. Transgenic murine models including lineage-tracing technologies based on the cre-lox system have proven to be useful in delineating mesenchymal progenitors in their native environment. Although heterogeneity of cell populations of interest marked by a promoter-based approach complicates overall interpretation, an emerging complexity of mesenchymal progenitors has been revealed. Current literatures suggest two distinct types of bone progenitor cells; growth-associated mesenchymal progenitors contribute to explosive growth of bone in early life, whereas bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors contribute to the much slower remodeling process and response to injury that occurs mainly in adulthood. More detailed relationships of these progenitors need to be studied through further experimentation.

  5. Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans as Drivers of Neural Progenitors Derived From Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

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    Okolicsanyi, Rachel K; Oikari, Lotta E; Yu, Chieh; Griffiths, Lyn R; Haupt, Larisa M

    2018-01-01

    Background: Due to their relative ease of isolation and their high ex vivo and in vitro expansive potential, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are an attractive candidate for therapeutic applications in the treatment of brain injury and neurological diseases. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are a family of ubiquitous proteins involved in a number of vital cellular processes including proliferation and stem cell lineage differentiation. Methods: Following the determination that hMSCs maintain neural potential throughout extended in vitro expansion, we examined the role of HSPGs in mediating the neural potential of hMSCs. hMSCs cultured in basal conditions (undifferentiated monolayer cultures) were found to co-express neural markers and HSPGs throughout expansion with modulation of the in vitro niche through the addition of exogenous HS influencing cellular HSPG and neural marker expression. Results: Conversion of hMSCs into hMSC Induced Neurospheres (hMSC IN) identified distinctly localized HSPG staining within the spheres along with altered gene expression of HSPG core protein and biosynthetic enzymes when compared to undifferentiated hMSCs. Conclusion: Comparison of markers of pluripotency, neural self-renewal and neural lineage specification between hMSC IN, hMSC and human neural stem cell (hNSC H9) cultures suggest that in vitro generated hMSC IN may represent an intermediary neurogenic cell type, similar to a common neural progenitor cell. In addition, this data demonstrates HSPGs and their biosynthesis machinery, are associated with hMSC IN formation. The identification of specific HSPGs driving hMSC lineage-specification will likely provide new markers to allow better use of hMSCs in therapeutic applications and improve our understanding of human neurogenesis.

  6. Human bone marrow mesenchymal progenitors: perspectives on an optimized in vitro manipulation

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    Eric Cordeiro-Spinetti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to regenerative medicine, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are considered one of the most promising cell types for use in many cell therapies and bioengineering protocols. The International Society of Cellular Therapy recommended minimal criteria for defining multipotential MSC is based on adhesion and multipotency in vitro, and the presence or absence of select surface markers. Though these criteria help minimize discrepancies and allow some comparisons of data generated in different laboratories, the conditions in which cells are isolated and expanded are often not considered. Herein, we propose and recommend a few procedures to be followed to facilitate the establishment of quality control standards when working with mesenchymal progenitors isolation and expansion. Following these procedures, the classic Colony-Forming Unit-Fibroblast (CFU-f assay is revisited and three major topics are considered to define conditions and to assist on protocol optimization and data interpretation. We envision that the creation of a guideline will help in the identification and isolation of long-term stem cells and short-term progenitors to better explore their regenerative potential for multiple therapeutic purposes.

  7. Successful immortalization of mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human placenta and the differentiation abilities of immortalized cells

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    Zhang Xiaohong; Soda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Kenji; Bai, Yuansong; Mitsuru, Ayako; Igura, Koichi; Satoh, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Satoru; Tani, Kenzaburo; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Tsuneo A.

    2006-01-01

    We reported previously that mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from chorionic villi of the human placenta could differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes under proper induction conditions and that these cells should be useful for allogeneic regenerative medicine, including cartilage tissue engineering. However, similar to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), though these placental cells can be isolated easily, they are difficult to study in detail because of their limited life span in vitro. To overcome this problem, we attempted to prolong the life span of human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) by modifying hTERT and Bmi-1, and investigated whether these modified hPDMCs retained their differentiation capability and multipotency. Our results indicated that the combination of hTERT and Bmi-1 was highly efficient in prolonging the life span of hPDMCs with differentiation capability to osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic cells in vitro. Clonal cell lines with directional differentiation ability were established from the immortalized parental hPDMC/hTERT + Bmi-1. Interestingly, hPDMC/Bmi-1 showed extended proliferation after long-term growth arrest and telomerase was activated in the immortal hPDMC/Bmi-1 cells. However, the differentiation potential was lost in these cells. This study reports a method to extend the life span of hPDMCs with hTERT and Bmi-1 that should become a useful tool for the study of mesenchymal stem cells

  8. PDGFRα and CD51 mark human nestin+ sphere-forming mesenchymal stem cells capable of hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion.

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    Pinho, Sandra; Lacombe, Julie; Hanoun, Maher; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Bruns, Ingmar; Kunisaki, Yuya; Frenette, Paul S

    2013-07-01

    The intermediate filament protein Nestin labels populations of stem/progenitor cells, including self-renewing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a major constituent of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche. However, the intracellular location of Nestin prevents its use for prospective live cell isolation. Hence it is important to find surface markers specific for Nestin⁺ cells. In this study, we show that the expression of PDGFRα and CD51 among CD45⁻ Ter119⁻ CD31⁻ mouse bone marrow (BM) stromal cells characterizes a large fraction of Nestin⁺ cells, containing most fibroblastic CFUs, mesenspheres, and self-renewal capacity after transplantation. The PDGFRα⁺ CD51 ⁺subset of Nestin⁺ cells is also enriched in major HSC maintenance genes, supporting the notion that niche activity co-segregates with MSC activity. Furthermore, we show that PDGFRα⁺ CD51⁺ cells in the human fetal BM represent a small subset of CD146⁺ cells expressing Nestin and enriched for MSC and HSC niche activities. Importantly, cultured human PDGFRα⁺ CD51⁺ nonadherent mesenspheres can significantly expand multipotent hematopoietic progenitors able to engraft immunodeficient mice. These results thus indicate that the HSC niche is conserved between the murine and human species and suggest that highly purified nonadherent cultures of niche cells may represent a useful novel technology to culture human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

  9. Wnt/β-Catenin Stimulation and Laminins Support Cardiovascular Cell Progenitor Expansion from Human Fetal Cardiac Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

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    Agneta Månsson-Broberg

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic regenerative capacity of human fetal cardiac mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs has not been fully characterized. Here we demonstrate that we can expand cells with characteristics of cardiovascular progenitor cells from the MSC population of human fetal hearts. Cells cultured on cardiac muscle laminin (LN-based substrata in combination with stimulation of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway showed increased gene expression of ISL1, OCT4, KDR, and NKX2.5. The majority of cells stained positive for PDGFR-α, ISL1, and NKX2.5, and subpopulations also expressed the progenitor markers TBX18, KDR, c-KIT, and SSEA-1. Upon culture of the cardiac MSCs in differentiation media and on relevant LNs, portions of the cells differentiated into spontaneously beating cardiomyocytes, and endothelial and smooth muscle-like cells. Our protocol for large-scale culture of human fetal cardiac MSCs enables future exploration of the regenerative functions of these cells in the context of myocardial injury in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to mesenchymal progenitors by inhibition of TGF-beta/Activin/Nodal signaling using SB-431542

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    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2010-01-01

    Directing differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into specific cell types using an easy and reproducible protocol is a prerequisite for the clinical use of hESC in regenerative medicine procedures. Here, we report a protocol for directing the differentiation of hESC into mesenchymal...... in vivo. Interestingly, SB-OG cells cultured in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) developed into a homogeneous population of mesenchymal progenitors that expressed CD markers characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): CD44(+) (100%), CD73(+) (98%), CD146(+) (96%) and CD166(+) (88%) with the ability...... progenitor cells. We demonstrate that inhibition of TGF-beta/Activin/Nodal signaling during embryoid bodies (EB) formation using SB-431542 (SB) in serum free medium, markedly up-regulated paraxial mesodermal markers (TBX6, TBX5), and several myogenic developmental markers including early myogenic...

  11. Platelet-Rich Plasma Preparation Types Show Impact on Chondrogenic Differentiation, Migration, and Proliferation of Human Subchondral Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells.

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    Kreuz, Peter Cornelius; Krüger, Jan Philipp; Metzlaff, Sebastian; Freymann, Undine; Endres, Michaela; Pruss, Axel; Petersen, Wolf; Kaps, Christian

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the chondrogenic potential of platelet concentrates on human subchondral mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) as assessed by histomorphometric analysis of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Furthermore, the migratory and proliferative effect of platelet concentrates were assessed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was prepared using preparation kits (Autologous Conditioned Plasma [ACP] Kit [Arthrex, Naples, FL]; Regen ACR-C Kit [Regen Lab, Le Mont-Sur-Lausanne, Switzerland]; and Dr.PRP Kit [Rmedica, Seoul, Republic of Korea]) by apheresis (PRP-A) and by centrifugation (PRP-C). In contrast to clinical application, freeze-and-thaw cycles were subsequently performed to activate platelets and to prevent medium coagulation by residual fibrinogen in vitro. MPCs were harvested from the cortico-spongious bone of femoral heads. Chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs was induced in high-density pellet cultures and evaluated by histochemical staining of typical cartilage matrix components. Migration of MPCs was assessed using a chemotaxis assay, and proliferation activity was measured by DNA content. MPCs cultured in the presence of 5% ACP, Regen, or Dr.PRP formed fibrous tissue, whereas MPCs stimulated with 5% PRP-A or PRP-C developed compact and dense cartilaginous tissue rich in type II collagen and proteoglycans. All platelet concentrates significantly (ACP, P = .00041; Regen, P = .00029; Dr.PRP, P = .00051; PRP-A, P platelet concentrates but one (Dr.PRP, P = .63) showed a proliferative effect on MPCs, as shown by significant increases (ACP, P = .027; Regen, P = .0029; PRP-A, P = .00021; and PRP-C, P = .00069) in DNA content. Platelet concentrates obtained by different preparation methods exhibit different potentials to stimulate chondrogenic differentiation, migration, and proliferation of MPCs. Platelet concentrates obtained by commercially available preparation kits failed to induce chondrogenic differentiation of MPCs, whereas highly standardized PRP

  12. Invited review: mesenchymal progenitor cells in intramuscular connective tissue development.

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    Miao, Z G; Zhang, L P; Fu, X; Yang, Q Y; Zhu, M J; Dodson, M V; Du, M

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and cross-linking of intramuscular connective tissue contributes to the background toughness of meat, and is thus undesirable. Connective tissue is mainly synthesized by intramuscular fibroblasts. Myocytes, adipocytes and fibroblasts are derived from a common pool of progenitor cells during the early embryonic development. It appears that multipotent mesenchymal stem cells first diverge into either myogenic or non-myogenic lineages; non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors then develop into the stromal-vascular fraction of skeletal muscle wherein adipocytes, fibroblasts and derived mesenchymal progenitors reside. Because non-myogenic mesenchymal progenitors mainly undergo adipogenic or fibrogenic differentiation during muscle development, strengthening progenitor proliferation enhances the potential for both intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis, leading to the elevation of both marbling and connective tissue content in the resulting meat product. Furthermore, given the bipotent developmental potential of progenitor cells, enhancing their conversion to adipogenesis reduces fibrogenesis, which likely results in the overall improvement of marbling (more intramuscular adipocytes) and tenderness (less connective tissue) of meat. Fibrogenesis is mainly regulated by the transforming growth factor (TGF) β signaling pathway and its regulatory cascade. In addition, extracellular matrix, a part of the intramuscular connective tissue, provides a niche environment for regulating myogenic differentiation of satellite cells and muscle growth. Despite rapid progress, many questions remain in the role of extracellular matrix on muscle development, and factors determining the early differentiation of myogenic, adipogenic and fibrogenic cells, which warrant further studies.

  13. Adhesive and mechanical regulation of mesenchymal stem cell differentiation in human bone marrow and periosteum-derived progenitor cells

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    Jeroen Eyckmans

    2012-08-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that cell shape can influence commitment of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMCs to adipogenic, osteogenic, chondrogenic, and other lineages. Human periosteum-derived cells (hPDCs exhibit multipotency similar to hBMCs, but hPDCs may offer enhanced potential for osteogenesis and chondrogenesis given their apparent endogenous role in bone and cartilage repair in vivo. Here, we examined whether hPDC differentiation is regulated by adhesive and mechanical cues comparable to that reported for hBMC differentiation. When cultured in the appropriate induction media, hPDCs at high cell seeding density demonstrated enhanced levels of adipogenic or chondrogenic markers as compared with hPDCs at low cell seeding density. Cell seeding density correlated inversely with projected area of cell spreading, and directly limiting cell spreading with micropatterned substrates promoted adipogenesis or chondrogenesis while substrates promoting cell spreading supported osteogenesis. Interestingly, cell seeding density influenced differentiation through both changes in cell shape and non-shape-mediated effects: density-dependent adipogenesis and chondrogenesis were regulated primarily by cell shape whereas non-shape effects strongly influenced osteogenic potential. Inhibition of cytoskeletal contractility by adding the Rho kinase inhibitor Y27632 further enhanced adipogenic differentiation and discouraged osteogenic differentiation of hPDCs. Together, our results suggest that multipotent lineage decisions of hPDCs are impacted by cell adhesive and mechanical cues, though to different extents than hBMCs. Thus, future studies of hPDCs and other primary stem cell populations with clinical potential should consider varying biophysical metrics for more thorough optimization of stem cell differentiation.

  14. A Promising Tool in Retina Regeneration: Current Perspectives and Challenges When Using Mesenchymal Progenitor Stem Cells in Veterinary and Human Ophthalmological Applications.

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    Cislo-Pakuluk, Anna; Marycz, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Visual impairment is a common ailment of the current world population, with more exposure to CCD screens and fluorescent lighting, approximately 285 billion people suffer from this deficiency and 13% of those are considered clinically blind. More common causes for visual impairment include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy (Zhu et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, 2015; Kolb et al. 2007; Machalińska et al. Current Eye Research, 34(9),748-760, 2009) among a few. As cases of retinal and optic nerve diseases rise, it is vital to find a treatment, which has led to investigation of the therapeutic potential of various stem cells types (Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 50(9), 4244, 2009; Bull et al. Investigative Opthalmology & Visual Science, 49(8), 3449, 2008; Yu et al. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 344(4), 1071-1079, 2006; Na et al. Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 247(4), 503-514, 2008). In previous studies, some of the stem cell variants used include human Muller SCs and bone marrow derived SCs. Some of the regenerative potential characteristics of mesenchymal progenitor stem cells (MSCs) include their multilineage differentiation potential, their immunomodulatory effects, their high proliferative activity, they can be easily cultured in vitro, and finally their potential to synthesize and secrete membrane derived vesicles rich in growth factors, mRNA and miRNA which possibly aid in regulation of tissue damage regeneration. These facts alone, explain why MSCs are so widely used in clinical trials, 350 up to date (Switonski, Reproductive Biology, 14(1), 44-50, 2014). Animal studies have demonstrated that sub-retinal transplantation of MSCs delays retinal degeneration and preserves retinal function through trophic response (Inoue et al. Experimental Eye Research, 85(2), 234-241, 2007). Umbilical cord derived MSCs (UC/MSCs) have also been shown to contain

  15. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

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    Chikhovskaya, J. V.; Jonker, M. J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T. M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  16. Human testis-derived embryonic stem cell-like cells are not pluripotent, but possess potential of mesenchymal progenitors

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    Chikhovskaya, J.V.; Jonker, M.J.; Meissner, A.; Breit, T.M.; Repping, S.; van Pelt, A.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Spontaneous in vitro transition of undifferentiated spermatogonia into the pluripotent cell state has been achieved using neonatal and adult mouse testis tissue. In an effort to establish an analogous source of human patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, several research groups have

  17. Human mesenchymal stem cells

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    Abdallah, Basem; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of clonogenic cells present among the bone marrow stroma and capable of multilineage differentiation into mesoderm-type cells such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Due to their ease of isolation and their differentiation potential, MSC are being...... introduced into clinical medicine in variety of applications and through different ways of administration. Here, we discuss approaches for isolation, characterization and directing differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). An update of the current clinical use of the cells is also provided....

  18. Synergistic actions of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells in vascularizing bioengineered tissues.

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    Eduardo K Moioli

    Full Text Available Poor angiogenesis is a major road block for tissue repair. The regeneration of virtually all tissues is limited by angiogenesis, given the diffusion of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products is limited to a few hundred micrometers. We postulated that co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells improves angiogenesis of tissue repair and hence the outcome of regeneration. In this study, we tested this hypothesis by using bone as a model whose regeneration is impaired unless it is vascularized. Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs were isolated from each of three healthy human bone marrow samples and reconstituted in a porous scaffold. MSCs were seeded in micropores of 3D calcium phosphate (CP scaffolds, followed by infusion of gel-suspended CD34(+ hematopoietic cells. Co-transplantation of CD34(+ HSCs and CD34(- MSCs in microporous CP scaffolds subcutaneously in the dorsum of immunocompromised mice yielded vascularized tissue. The average vascular number of co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSC scaffolds was substantially greater than MSC transplantation alone. Human osteocalcin was expressed in the micropores of CP scaffolds and was significantly increased upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Human nuclear staining revealed the engraftment of transplanted human cells in vascular endothelium upon co-transplantation of MSCs and CD34(+ cells. Based on additional in vitro results of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, we adsorbed VEGF with co-transplanted CD34(+ and MSCs in the microporous CP scaffolds in vivo, and discovered that vascular number and diameter further increased, likely owing to the promotion of endothelial differentiation of CD34(+ cells by VEGF. Together, co-transplantation of hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells may improve the regeneration of vascular dependent tissues such as bone

  19. Impact of adipose tissue or umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells on the immunogenicity of human cord blood derived endothelial progenitor cells.

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    Kefang Tan

    Full Text Available The application of autologous endothelial progenitor cell (EPC transplantation is a promising approach in therapeutic cardiovascular diseases and ischemic diseases. In this study, we compared the immunogenicity of EPCs, adipose tissue (AD-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and umbilical cord (UC-derived MSCs by flow cytometry and the mixed lymphocyte reaction. The impact of AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs on the immunogenicity of EPCs was analyzed by the mixed lymphocyte reaction and cytokine secretion in vitro and was further tested by allogenic peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC induced immuno-rejection on a cell/matrigel graft in an SCID mouse model. EPCs and AD-MSCs express higher levels of MHC class I than UC-MSCs. All three kinds of cells are negative for MHC class II. UC-MSCs also express lower levels of IFN-γ receptor mRNA when compared with EPCs and AD-MSCs. EPCs can stimulate higher rates of proliferation of lymphocytes than AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs. Furthermore, AD-MSCs and UC-MSCs can modulate immune response and inhibit lymphocyte proliferation induced by EPCs, mainly through inhibition of the proliferation of CD8+ T cells. Compared with UC-MSCs, AD-MSCs can significantly improve vessel formation and maintain the integrity of neovascular structure in an EPC+MSC/matrigel graft in SCID mice, especially under allo-PBMC induced immuno-rejection. In conclusion, our study shows that AD-MSC is a powerful candidate to minimize immunological rejection and improve vessel formation in EPC transplantation treatment.

  20. Characterization of multipotent adult progenitor cells, a subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Reyes, M; Verfaillie, C M

    2001-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated and a subpopulation of cells--multipotent adult progenitor cells--were identified that have the potential for multilineage differentiation. Their ability to engraft and differentiate in vivo is under investigation.

  1. Postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in bioengineered amelogenesis and dentinogenesis.

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    Jiang, Nan; Zhou, Jian; Chen, Mo; Schiff, Michael D; Lee, Chang H; Kong, Kimi; Embree, Mildred C; Zhou, Yanheng; Mao, Jeremy J

    2014-02-01

    Rodent incisors provide a classic model for studying epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in development. However, postnatal stem/progenitor cells in rodent incisors have not been exploited for tooth regeneration. Here, we characterized postnatal rat incisor epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells and found that they formed enamel- and dentin-like tissues in vivo. Epithelium and mesenchyme cells were harvested separately from the apical region of postnatal 4-5 day rat incisors. Epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes were confirmed by immunocytochemistry, CFU assay and/or multi-lineage differentiation. CK14+, Sox2+ and Lgr5+ epithelium stem cells from the cervical loop enhanced amelogenin and ameloblastin expression upon BMP4 or FGF3 stimulation, signifying their differentiation towards ameloblast-like cells, whereas mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells upon BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a treatment robustly expressed Dspp, a hallmark of odontoblastic differentiation. We then control-released microencapsulated BMP4, BMP7 and Wnt3a in transplants of epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells in the renal capsule of athymic mice in vivo. Enamel and dentin-like tissues were generated in two integrated layers with specific expression of amelogenin and ameloblastin in the newly formed, de novo enamel-like tissue, and DSP in dentin-like tissue. These findings suggest that postnatal epithelium and mesenchyme stem/progenitor cells can be primed towards bioengineered tooth regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. LIX1 regulates YAP1 activity and controls the proliferation and differentiation of stomach mesenchymal progenitors.

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    McKey, Jennifer; Martire, Delphine; de Santa Barbara, Pascal; Faure, Sandrine

    2016-04-28

    Smooth muscle cell (SMC) plasticity maintains the balance between differentiated SMCs and proliferative mesenchymal progenitors, crucial for muscular tissue homeostasis. Studies on the development of mesenchymal progenitors into SMCs have proven useful in identifying molecular mechanisms involved in digestive musculature plasticity in physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we show that Limb Expression 1 (LIX1) molecularly defines the population of mesenchymal progenitors in the developing stomach. Using in vivo functional approaches in the chick embryo, we demonstrate that LIX1 is a key regulator of stomach SMC development. We show that LIX1 is required for stomach SMC determination to regulate the expression of the pro-proliferative gene YAP1 and mesenchymal cell proliferation. However, as stomach development proceeds, sustained LIX1 expression has a negative impact on further SMC differentiation and this is associated with a decrease in YAP1 activity. We demonstrate that expression of LIX1 must be tightly regulated to allow fine-tuning of the transcript levels and state of activation of the pro-proliferative transcriptional coactivator YAP1 to regulate proliferation rates of stomach mesenchymal progenitors and their differentiation. Our data highlight dual roles for LIX1 and YAP1 and provide new insights into the regulation of cell density-dependent proliferation, which is essential for the development and homeostasis of organs.

  3. Norepinephrine inhibition of mesenchymal stem cell and chondrogenic progenitor cell chondrogenesis and acceleration of chondrogenic hypertrophy.

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    Jenei-Lanzl, Zsuzsa; Grässel, Susanne; Pongratz, Georg; Kees, Frieder; Miosge, Nicolai; Angele, Peter; Straub, Rainer H

    2014-09-01

    Mesenchymal progenitor cell chondrogenesis is the biologic platform for the generation or regeneration of cartilage, but the external influence of the sympathetic nervous system on this process is not yet known. Sympathetic nerve fibers are present in articular tissue, and the sympathetic nervous system influences the musculoskeletal system by, for example, increasing osteoclastogenesis. This study was initiated to explore the role of the sympathetic neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-dependent and cartilage progenitor cell (CPC)-dependent chondrogenesis. Using human MSCs or CPCs, chondrogenic differentiation was induced in the presence of NE, the specific β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) agonist isoproterenol, and the specific β-AR antagonist nadolol. We studied sympathetic nerve fibers, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression, catecholamine biosynthesis, and synovial fluid levels in human joints, as well as cartilage-specific matrix deposition during differentiation. TH+ sympathetic nerve fibers were present in the synovial tissue, meniscus, and subchondral bone marrow. In addition, synovial fluid from patients with knee trauma demonstrated high concentrations of NE. During MSC or CPC chondrogenesis, β-AR were expressed. Chondrogenic aggregates treated with NE or isoproterenol synthesized lower amounts of type II collagen and glycosaminoglycans. NE and isoproterenol treatment dose-dependently increased the levels of cartilage hypertrophy markers (type X collagen and matrix metalloproteinase 13). Nadolol reversed the inhibition of chondrogenesis and the up-regulation of cartilage hypertrophy. Our findings demonstrate NE-dependent inhibition of chondrogenesis and acceleration of hypertrophic differentiation. By inhibiting cartilage repair, these sympathetic influences can be important after joint trauma. These findings may be a basis for novel neurochondrogenic therapeutic options. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of

  4. Yolk sac mesenchymal progenitor cells from New World mice (Necromys lasiurus with multipotent differential potential.

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    Phelipe Oliveira Favaron

    Full Text Available Fetal membranes are abundant, ethically acceptable and readily accessible sources of stem cells. In particular, the yolk sac is a source of cell lineages that do not express MHCs and are mainly free from immunological incompatibles when transferred to a recipient. Although data are available especially for hematopoietic stem cells in mice and human, whereas other cell types and species are dramatically underrepresented. Here we studied the nature and differentiation potential of yolk sac derived mesenchymal stem cells from a New World mouse, Necromys lasiurus. Explants from mid-gestation were cultured in DMEM-High glucose medium with 10% defined fetal bovine serum. The cells were characterized by standard methods including immunophenotyping by fluorescence and flow cytometry, growth and differentiation potential and tumorigenicity assays. The first adherent cells were observed after 7 days of cell culture and included small, elongated fibroblast-like cells (92.13% and large, round epithelial-like cells with centrally located nuclei (6.5%. Only the fibroblast-like cells survived the first passages. They were positive to markers for mesenchymal stem cells (Stro-1, CD90, CD105, CD73 and pluripotency (Oct3/4, Nanog as well as precursors of hematopoietic stem cells (CD117. In differentiation assays, they were classified as a multipotent lineage, because they differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages and, finally, they did not develop tumors. In conclusion, mesenchymal progenitor cells with multipotent differentiation potential and sufficient growth and proliferation abilities were able to be obtained from Necromys yolk sacs, therefore, we inferred that these cells may be promising for a wide range of applications in regenerative medicine.

  5. Nonstimulated human uncommitted mesenchymal stem cells express cell markers of mesenchymal and neural lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguell, José J; Fierro, Fernando A; Epuñan, María J; Erices, Alejandro A; Sierralta, Walter D

    2005-08-01

    Ex vivo cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contain subsets of progenitors exhibiting dissimilar properties. One of these subsets comprises uncommitted progenitors displaying distinctive features, such as morphology, a quiescent condition, growth factor production, and restricted tissue biodistribution after transplantation. In this study, we assessed the competence of these cells to express, in the absence of differentiation stimuli, markers of mesoderm and ectodermic (neural) cell lineages. Fluorescence microscopy analysis showed a unique pattern of expression of osteogenic, chondrogenic, muscle, and neural markers. The depicted "molecular signature" of these early uncommitted progenitors, in the absence of differentiation stimuli, is consistent with their multipotentiality and plasticity as suggested by several in vitro and in vivo studies.

  6. Bioreactor-induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation and elastic fiber assembly in engineered vascular tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shigang; Mequanint, Kibret

    2017-09-01

    In vitro maturation of engineered vascular tissues (EVT) requires the appropriate incorporation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) components similar to native arteries. To this end, the aim of the current study was to fabricate 4mm inner diameter vascular tissues using mesenchymal progenitor cells seeded into tubular scaffolds. A dual-pump bioreactor operating either in perfusion or pulsatile perfusion mode was used to generate physiological-like stimuli to promote progenitor cell differentiation, extracellular elastin production, and tissue maturation. Our data demonstrated that pulsatile forces and perfusion of 3D tubular constructs from both the lumenal and ablumenal sides with culture media significantly improved tissue assembly, effectively inducing mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to SMCs with contemporaneous elastin production. With bioreactor cultivation, progenitor cells differentiated toward smooth muscle lineage characterized by the expression of smooth muscle (SM)-specific markers smooth muscle alpha actin (SM-α-actin) and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC). More importantly, pulsatile perfusion bioreactor cultivation enhanced the synthesis of tropoelastin and its extracellular cross-linking into elastic fiber compared with static culture controls. Taken together, the current study demonstrated progenitor cell differentiation and vascular tissue assembly, and provides insights into elastin synthesis and assembly to fibers. Incorporation of elastin into engineered vascular tissues represents a critical design goal for both mechanical and biological functions. In the present study, we seeded porous tubular scaffolds with multipotent mesenchymal progenitor cells and cultured in dual-pump pulsatile perfusion bioreactor. Physiological-like stimuli generated by bioreactor not only induced mesenchymal progenitor cell differentiation to vascular smooth muscle lineage but also actively promoted elastin synthesis and

  7. Response of cells on surface-induced nanopatterns: fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Hwei Ling; Kuan, Yujun; Kukula, Hildegard; Tamada, Kaoru; Knoll, Wolfgang; Moeller, Martin; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2007-05-01

    Ultrathin films of a poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and poly(styrene)-block-poly(4-vinylpyrindine) diblock copolymer (PS-b-P4VP) were used to form surface-induced nanopattern (SINPAT) on mica. Surface interaction controlled microphase separation led to the formation of chemically heterogeneous surface nanopatterns on dry ultrathin films. Two distinct nanopatterned surfaces, namely, wormlike and dotlike patterns, were used to investigate the influence of topography in the nanometer range on cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration. Atomic force microscopy was used to confirm that SINPAT was stable under cell culture conditions. Fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells were cultured on the nanopatterned surfaces. Phase contrast and confocal laser microscopy showed that fibroblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells preferred the densely spaced wormlike patterns. Atomic force microscopy showed that the cells remodelled the extracellular matrix differently as they migrate over the two distinctly different nanopatterns.

  8. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  9. Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Zaher, Walid; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2012-01-01

    Human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) represent a group of non-hematopoietic stem cells present in the bone marrow stroma and the stroma of other organs including subcutaneous adipose tissue, placenta, and muscles. They exhibit the characteristics of somatic stem cells of self......-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation into mesoderm-type of cells, e.g., to osteoblasts, adipocytes, chondrocytes and possibly other cell types including hepatocytes and astrocytes. Due to their ease of culture and multipotentiality, hMSC are increasingly employed as a source for cells suitable for a number...

  10. Illustration of extensive extracellular matrix at the epithelial-mesenchymal interface within the renal stem/progenitor cell niche

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    Minuth Will W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering effects after an implantation investigations are in progress to administer these cells within an artificial polyester interstitum supporting survival. Learning from nature the renal stem/progenitor cell niche appears as a valuable model. At this site epithelial stem/progenitor cells within the collecting duct ampulla face mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Both cell types do not have close contact but are separated by a wide interstitium. Methods To analyze extracellular matrix in this particular interstitium, special contrasting for transmission electron microscopy was performed. Kidneys of neonatal rabbits were fixed in solutions containing glutaraldehyde (GA or in combination with cupromeronic blue, ruthenium red and tannic acid. Results GA revealed a basal lamina at the ampulla and a bright but inconspicuously looking interstitial space. In contrast, GA containing cupromeronic blue exhibits numerous proteoglycan braces lining from the ampulla towards the interstitial space. GA containing ruthenium red or tannic acid demonstrates clouds of extracellular matrix protruding from the basal lamina of the ampulla to the surface of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells. Conclusions The actual data show that the interstitium between epithelial and mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells contains much more and up to date unknown extracellular matrix than earlier observed by classical GA fixation.

  11. Mesenchymal stromal cell derived endothelial progenitor treatment in patients with refractory angina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Tina; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Mathiasen, Anders B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intra-myocardial injection of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived endothelial progenitor cell (MSC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and refractory angina in this first in man trial. Methods and resu......Abstract Aims. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and efficacy of intra-myocardial injection of autologous mesenchymal stromal cells derived endothelial progenitor cell (MSC) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and refractory angina in this first in man trial. Methods...... and results. A total of 31 patients with stable CAD, moderate to severe angina and no further revascularization options, were included. Bone marrow MSC were isolated and culture expanded for 6-8 weeks. It was feasible and safe to establish in-hospital culture expansion of autologous MSC and perform intra......-myocardial injection of MSC. After six months follow-up myocardial perfusion was unaltered, but the patients increased exercise capacity (p angina attacks (p Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) evaluations (p

  12. Osteogenic differentiation capacity of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitor cells.

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    Teruyo Oishi

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is defined as the formation of ectopic bone in soft tissue outside the skeletal tissue. HO is thought to result from aberrant differentiation of osteogenic progenitors within skeletal muscle. However, the precise origin of HO is still unclear. Skeletal muscle contains two kinds of progenitor cells, myogenic progenitors and mesenchymal progenitors. Myogenic and mesenchymal progenitors in human skeletal muscle can be identified as CD56(+ and PDGFRα(+ cells, respectively. The purpose of this study was to investigate the osteogenic differentiation potential of human skeletal muscle-derived progenitors. Both CD56(+ cells and PDGFRα(+ cells showed comparable osteogenic differentiation potential in vitro. However, in an in vivo ectopic bone formation model, PDGFRα(+ cells formed bone-like tissue and showed successful engraftment, while CD56(+ cells did not form bone-like tissue and did not adapt to an osteogenic environment. Immunohistological analysis of human HO sample revealed that many PDGFRα(+ cells were localized in proximity to ectopic bone formed in skeletal muscle. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are known to regulate many biological processes including osteogenic differentiation. We investigated the participation of miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells by using microarray. We identified miRNAs that had not been known to be involved in osteogenesis but showed dramatic changes during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells. Upregulation of miR-146b-5p and -424 and downregulation of miR-7 during osteogenic differentiation of PDGFRα(+ cells were confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Inhibition of upregulated miRNAs, miR-146b-5p and -424, resulted in the suppression of osteocyte maturation, suggesting that these two miRNAs have the positive role in the osteogenesis of PDGFRα(+ cells. Our results suggest that PDGFRα(+ cells may be the major source of HO and that the newly identified mi

  13. Activation of cardiac progenitor cells through paracrine effects of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Chiaki; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Yamahara, Kenichi; Hagino, Ikuo; Mori, Hidezo; Sawa, Yoshiki; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Kitamura, Soichiro; Nagaya, Noritoshi

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) transplantation has been proved to be promising strategy to treat the failing heart. The effect of MSC transplantation is thought to be mediated mainly in a paracrine manner. Recent reports have suggested that cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) reside in the heart. In this study, we investigated whether MSC had paracrine effects on CPC in vitro. CPC were isolated from the neonatal rat heart using an explant method. MSC were isolated from the adult rat bone marrow. MSC-derived conditioned medium promoted proliferation of CPC and inhibited apoptosis of CPC induced by hypoxia and serum starvation. Chemotaxis chamber assay demonstrated that MSC-derived conditioned medium enhanced migration of CPC. Furthermore, MSC-derived conditioned medium upregulated expression of cardiomyocyte-related genes in CPC such as β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). In conclusion, MSC-derived conditioned medium had protective effects on CPC and enhanced their migration and differentiation

  14. IGF1 is a common target gene of Ewing's sarcoma fusion proteins in mesenchymal progenitor cells.

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    Luisa Cironi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The EWS-FLI-1 fusion protein is associated with 85-90% of Ewing's sarcoma family tumors (ESFT, the remaining 10-15% of cases expressing chimeric genes encoding EWS or FUS fused to one of several ets transcription factor family members, including ERG-1, FEV, ETV1 and ETV6. ESFT are dependent on insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 for growth and survival and recent evidence suggests that mesenchymal progenitor/stem cells constitute a candidate ESFT origin. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the functional relatedness between ESFT-associated fusion proteins, we compared mouse progenitor cell (MPC permissiveness for EWS-FLI-1, EWS-ERG and FUS-ERG expression and assessed the corresponding expression profile changes. Whereas all MPC isolates tested could stably express EWS-FLI-1, only some sustained stable EWS-ERG expression and none could express FUS-ERG for more than 3-5 days. Only 14% and 4% of the total number of genes that were respectively induced and repressed in MPCs by the three fusion proteins were shared. However, all three fusion proteins, but neither FLI-1 nor ERG-1 alone, activated the IGF1 promoter and induced IGF1 expression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Whereas expression of different ESFT-associated fusion proteins may require distinct cellular microenvironments and induce transcriptome changes of limited similarity, IGF1 induction may provide one common mechanism for their implication in ESFT pathogenesis.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Mesenchymal-Epithelial Progenitor-Like Cells in Normal and Injured Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Yovchev, Mladen I.; Zhang, Jinghang; Alfieri, Alan A.; Tchaikovskaya, Tatyana; Laconi, Ezio; Dabeva, Mariana D.

    2016-01-01

    In normal rat liver, thymocyte antigen 1 (Thy1) is expressed in fibroblasts/myofibroblasts and in some blood progenitor cells. Thy1-expressing cells also accumulate in the liver during impaired liver regeneration. The origin and nature of these cells are not well understood. By using RT-PCR analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy, we describe the presence of rare Thy1+ cells in the liver lobule of normal animals, occasionally forming small collections of up to 20 cells. These cells constitute a small portion (1.7% to 1.8%) of nonparenchymal cells and reveal a mixed mesenchymal-epithelial phenotype, expressing E-cadherin, cytokeratin 18, and desmin. The most potent mitogens for mesenchymal-epithelial Thy1+ cells in vitro are the inflammatory cytokines interferon γ, IL-1, and platelet-derived growth factor-BB, which are not produced by Thy1+ cells. Thy1+ cells express all typical mesenchymal stem cell and hepatic progenitor cell markers and produce growth factor and cytokine mRNA (Hgf, Il6, Tgfa, and Tweak) for proteins that maintain oval cell growth and differentiation. Under appropriate conditions, mesenchymal-epithelial cells differentiate in vitro into hepatocyte-like cells. In this study, we show that the adult rat liver harbors a small pool of endogenous mesenchymal-epithelial cells not recognized previously. In the quiescent state, these cells express both mesenchymal and epithelial cell markers. They behave like hepatic stem cells/progenitors with dual phenotype, exhibiting high plasticity and long-lasting proliferative activity. PMID:25447047

  16. Low calcium culture condition induces mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in normal human epidermal keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ryo; Yamato, Masayuki; Murakami, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Hiroaki; Okano, Teruo

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Normal human epidermal keratinocytes serially cultured under low calcium concentration were cytokeratin and vimentin double positive cells. → The human keratinocytes expressed some epithelial stem/progenitor cell makers, mesenchymal cell markers, and markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. → Mesenchymal cell-like phenotype in the keratinocytes was suppressed under high-calcium condition. -- Abstract: Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cellular phenomenon in organ developments, cancer invasions, and wound healing, and many types of transformed cell lines are used for investigating for molecular mechanisms of EMT. However, there are few reports for EMT in normal human epithelial cells, which are non-transformed or non-immortalized cells, in vitro. Therefore, normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) serially cultured in low-calcium concentration medium (LCM) were used for investigating relations between differentiation and proliferation and mesenchymal-like phenotype in the present study, since long-term cultivation of NHEK is achieved in LCM. Interestingly, NHEK serially cultured in LCM consisted essentially of cytokeratin-vimentin double positive cells (98%), although the NHEK exhibited differentiation under high-calcium culture condition with 3T3 feeder layer. The vimentin expression was suppressed under high-calcium condition. These results may indicate the importance of mesenchymal-like phenotype for serially cultivation of NHEK in vitro.

  17. Blastema from rabbit ear contains progenitor cells comparable to marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have the capacity to regenerate holes in their ears by forming a blastema, a tissue that is made up of a group of undifferentiated cells. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and characterize blastema progenitor cells and compare them with marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. A 2-mm hole was created in the animal ears. After 4 days, the blastema ring formed in the periphery of the hole was removed and cultivated. The cells were expanded through several subcultures and compared with the MSCs derived from the marrow of same animal in terms of in vitro differentiation capacity, growth kinetics and culture requirements for optimal proliferation. The primary cultures from both cells tended to be heterogeneous. Fibroblastic cells became progressively dominant with advancing passages. Similar to MSCs blastema passaged-3 cells succeeded to differentiate into bone, cartilage and adipose cell lineages. Even lineage specific genes tended to express in higher level in blastema cells compared to MSCs (p < 0.05. Moreover blastema cells appeared more proliferative; producing more colonies (p < 0.05. While blastema cells showed extensive proliferation in 15% fetal bovine serum (FBS, MSCs displayed higher expansion rate at 10% FBS. In conclusion, blastema from rabbit ear contains a population of fibroblastic cells much similar in characteristic to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. However, the two cells were different in the level of lineage-specific gene expression, the growth curve characteristics and the culture requirements.

  18. Reciprocal upregulation of Notch signaling molecules in hematopoietic progenitor and mesenchymal stromal cells

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    Kikuchi Y

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs play pivotal supportive roles in hematopoiesis, how they interact with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs is not well understood. We investigated the interaction between HSCs and surrogate MSCs (C3H10T1/2 stromal cells, focusing on the molecular events induced by cell contact of these bipartite populations. C3H10T1/2 is a mesenchymal stromal cell line that can be induced to differentiate into preadipocytes (A54 and myoblasts (M1601. The stromal cell derivatives were cocultured with murine HSCs (Lineage-Sca1+, and gene expression profiles in stromal cells and HSCs were compared before and after the coculture. HSCs gave rise to cobblestone areas only on A54 cells, with ninefold more progenitors than on M1601 or undifferentiated C3H10T1/2 cells. Microarray-based screening and a quantitative reverse transcriptase directed-polymerase chain reaction showed that the levels of Notch ligands (Jagged1 and Delta-like 3 were increased in A54 cells upon interaction with HSCs. On the other hand, the expression of Notch1 and Hes1 was upregulated in the HSCs cocultured with A54 cells. A transwell assay revealed that the reciprocal upregulation was dependent on cell-to-cell contact. The result suggested that in the hematopoietic niche, HSCs help MSCs to produce Notch ligands, and in turn, MSCs help HSCs to express Notch receptor. Such a reciprocal upregulation would reinforce the downstream signaling to determine the fate of hematopoietic cell lineage. Clarification of the initiating events on cell contact should lead to the identification of specific molecular targets to facilitate HSC engraftment in transplantation therapy.

  19. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

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    Vanja Dakic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A, which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY, and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO but not DYRK1A (pargyline. INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo.

  20. Endothelial Progenitor Cell Fraction Contained in Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Populations Impairs Osteogenic Differentiation

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    Fabian Duttenhoefer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In bone tissue engineering (TE endothelial cell-osteoblast cocultures are known to induce synergies of cell differentiation and activity. Bone marrow mononucleated cells (BMCs are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs able to develop an osteogenic phenotype. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are also present within BMC. In this study we investigate the effect of EPCs present in the BMC population on MSCs osteogenic differentiation. Human BMCs were isolated and separated into two populations. The MSC population was selected through plastic adhesion capacity. EPCs (CD34+ and CD133+ were removed from the BMC population and the resulting population was named depleted MSCs. Both populations were cultured over 28 days in osteogenic medium (Dex+ or medium containing platelet lysate (PL. MSC population grew faster than depleted MSCs in both media, and PL containing medium accelerated the proliferation for both populations. Cell differentiation was much higher in Dex+ medium in both cases. Real-time RT-PCR revealed upregulation of osteogenic marker genes in depleted MSCs. Higher values of ALP activity and matrix mineralization analyses confirmed these results. Our study advocates that absence of EPCs in the MSC population enables higher osteogenic gene expression and matrix mineralization and therefore may lead to advanced bone neoformation necessary for TE constructs.

  1. Mesenchymal Stem and Progenitor Cells in Normal and Dysplastic Hematopoiesis—Masters of Survival and Clonality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleyer, Lisa; Valent, Peter; Greil, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders that have the capacity to progress to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Accumulating evidence suggests that the altered bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in general, and in particular the components of the stem cell niche, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their progeny, play a pivotal role in the evolution and propagation of MDS. We here present an overview of the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of MDS, with emphasis on cellular interactions in the BM microenvironment and related stem cell niche concepts. MSCs have potent immunomodulatory capacities and communicate with diverse immune cells, but also interact with various other cellular components of the microenvironment as well as with normal and leukemic stem and progenitor cells. Moreover, compared to normal MSCs, MSCs in MDS and AML often exhibit altered gene expression profiles, an aberrant phenotype, and abnormal functional properties. These alterations supposedly contribute to the “reprogramming” of the stem cell niche into a disease-permissive microenvironment where an altered immune system, abnormal stem cell niche interactions, and an impaired growth control lead to disease progression. The current article also reviews molecular targets that play a role in such cellular interactions and possibilities to interfere with abnormal stem cell niche interactions by using specific targeted drugs. PMID:27355944

  2. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

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    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  3. Exosomes from Cardiomyocyte Progenitor Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells Stimulate Angiogenesis Via EMMPRIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Krijn R; Maring, Janita A; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Verhage, Vera; Mol, Emma A; Deddens, Janine C; Metz, Corina H G; Lodder, Kirsten; van Eeuwijk, Esther C M; van Dommelen, Susan M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Smits, Anke M; Goumans, Marie-José; Sluijter, Joost P G

    2016-10-01

    To date, cellular transplantation therapy has not yet fulfilled its high expectations for cardiac repair. A major limiting factor is lack of long-term engraftment of the transplanted cells. Interestingly, transplanted cells can positively affect their environment via secreted paracrine factors, among which are extracellular vesicles, including exosomes: small bi-lipid-layered vesicles containing proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. An exosome-based therapy will therefore relay a plethora of effects, without some of the limiting factors of cell therapy. Since cardiomyocyte progenitor cells (CMPC) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) induce vessel formation and are frequently investigated for cardiac-related therapies, the pro-angiogenic properties of CMPC and MSC-derived exosome-like vesicles are investigated. Both cell types secrete exosome-like vesicles, which are efficiently taken up by endothelial cells. Endothelial cell migration and vessel formation are stimulated by these exosomes in in vitro models, mediated via ERK/Akt-signaling. Additionally, these exosomes stimulated blood vessel formation into matrigel plugs. Analysis of pro-angiogenic factors revealed high levels of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN). Knockdown of EMMPRIN on CMPCs leads to a diminished pro-angiogenic effect, both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, CMPC and MSC exosomes have powerful pro-angiogenic effects, and this effect is largely mediated via the presence of EMMPRIN on exosomes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Modulate Differentiation of Myeloid Progenitor Cells During Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Mittal, Sharad K; Sahu, Anuradha; Sahu, Srikant K; Chauhan, Sunil K

    2017-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess distinct immunomodulatory properties and have tremendous potential for use in therapeutic applications in various inflammatory diseases. MSCs have been shown to regulate pathogenic functions of mature myeloid inflammatory cells, such as macrophages and neutrophils. Intriguingly, the capacity of MSCs to modulate differentiation of myeloid progenitors (MPs) to mature inflammatory cells remains unknown to date. Here, we report the novel finding that MSCs inhibit the expression of differentiation markers on MPs under inflammatory conditions. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of MSCs is dependent on direct cell-cell contact and that this intercellular contact is mediated through interaction of CD200 expressed by MSCs and CD200R1 expressed by MPs. Furthermore, using an injury model of sterile inflammation, we show that MSCs promote MP frequencies and suppress infiltration of inflammatory cells in the inflamed tissue. We also find that downregulation of CD200 in MSCs correlates with abrogation of their immunoregulatory function. Collectively, our study provides unequivocal evidence that MSCs inhibit differentiation of MPs in the inflammatory environment via CD200-CD200R1 interaction. Stem Cells 2017;35:1532-1541. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  5. Connective Tissue Growth Factor reporter mice label a subpopulation of mesenchymal progenitor cells that reside in the trabecular bone region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Strecker, Sara; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Liping; Assanah, Fayekah; Smith, Spenser; Maye, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Few gene markers selectively identify mesenchymal progenitor cells inside the bone marrow. We have investigated a cell population located in the mouse bone marrow labeled by Connective Tissue Growth Factor reporter expression (CTGF-EGFP). Bone marrow flushed from CTGF reporter mice yielded an EGFP+ stromal cell population. Interestingly, the percentage of stromal cells retaining CTGF reporter expression decreased with age in vivo and was half the frequency in females compared to males. In culture, CTGF reporter expression and endogenous CTGF expression marked the same cell types as those labeled using Twist2-Cre and Osterix-Cre fate mapping approaches, which previously had been shown to identify mesenchymal progenitors in vitro. Consistent with this past work, sorted CTGF+ cells displayed an ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes in vitro and into osteoblast, adipocyte, and stromal cell lineages after transplantation into a parietal bone defect. In vivo examination of CTGF reporter expression in bone tissue sections revealed that it marked cells highly localized to the trabecular bone region and was not expressed in the perichondrium or periosteum. Mesenchymal cells retaining high CTGF reporter expression were adjacent to, but distinct from mature osteoblasts lining bone surfaces and endothelial cells forming the vascular sinuses. Comparison of CTGF and Osterix reporter expression in bone tissue sections indicated an inverse correlation between the strength of CTGF expression and osteoblast maturation. Down-regulation of CTGF reporter expression also occurred during in vitro osteogenic differentiation. Collectively, our studies indicate that CTGF reporter mice selectively identify a subpopulation of bone marrow mesenchymal progenitor cells that reside in the trabecular bone region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Cardiac Progenitor Spheroids Exhibit Enhanced Engraftment Potential.

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    Francesca Oltolina

    Full Text Available A major obstacle to an effective myocardium stem cell therapy has always been the delivery and survival of implanted stem cells in the heart. Better engraftment can be achieved if cells are administered as cell aggregates, which maintain their extra-cellular matrix (ECM. We have generated spheroid aggregates in less than 24 h by seeding human cardiac progenitor cells (hCPCs onto methylcellulose hydrogel-coated microwells. Cells within spheroids maintained the expression of stemness/mesenchymal and ECM markers, growth factors and their cognate receptors, cardiac commitment factors, and metalloproteases, as detected by immunofluorescence, q-RT-PCR and immunoarray, and expressed a higher, but regulated, telomerase activity. Compared to cells in monolayers, 3D spheroids secreted also bFGF and showed MMP2 activity. When spheroids were seeded on culture plates, the cells quickly migrated, displaying an increased wound healing ability with or without pharmacological modulation, and reached confluence at a higher rate than cells from conventional monolayers. When spheroids were injected in the heart wall of healthy mice, some cells migrated from the spheroids, engrafted, and remained detectable for at least 1 week after transplantation, while, when the same amount of cells was injected as suspension, no cells were detectable three days after injection. Cells from spheroids displayed the same engraftment capability when they were injected in cardiotoxin-injured myocardium. Our study shows that spherical in vivo ready-to-implant scaffold-less aggregates of hCPCs able to engraft also in the hostile environment of an injured myocardium can be produced with an economic, easy and fast protocol.

  7. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo; Pagliari, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient

  8. Identification and clonal characterisation of a progenitor cell sub-population in normal human articular cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Williams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Articular cartilage displays a poor repair capacity. The aim of cell-based therapies for cartilage defects is to repair damaged joint surfaces with a functional replacement tissue. Currently, chondrocytes removed from a healthy region of the cartilage are used but they are unable to retain their phenotype in expanded culture. The resulting repair tissue is fibrocartilaginous rather than hyaline, potentially compromising long-term repair. Mesenchymal stem cells, particularly bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC, are of interest for cartilage repair due to their inherent replicative potential. However, chondrocyte differentiated BMSCs display an endochondral phenotype, that is, can terminally differentiate and form a calcified matrix, leading to failure in long-term defect repair. Here, we investigate the isolation and characterisation of a human cartilage progenitor population that is resident within permanent adult articular cartilage. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Human articular cartilage samples were digested and clonal populations isolated using a differential adhesion assay to fibronectin. Clonal cell lines were expanded in growth media to high population doublings and karyotype analysis performed. We present data to show that this cell population demonstrates a restricted differential potential during chondrogenic induction in a 3D pellet culture system. Furthermore, evidence of high telomerase activity and maintenance of telomere length, characteristic of a mesenchymal stem cell population, were observed in this clonal cell population. Lastly, as proof of principle, we carried out a pilot repair study in a goat in vivo model demonstrating the ability of goat cartilage progenitors to form a cartilage-like repair tissue in a chondral defect. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we propose that we have identified and characterised a novel cartilage progenitor population resident in human articular cartilage which will greatly benefit future cell

  9. Roles of CDX2 and EOMES in human induced trophoblast progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying, E-mail: ying.chen@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Wang, Kai [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Gong, Yun Guo; Khoo, Sok Kean [Genomic Microarray Core Facility, Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Leach, Richard, E-mail: Richard.Leach@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, College of Human Medicine, Michigan State University, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States); Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Women’s Health, Spectrum Health Medical Group, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (United States)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► CDX2 and EOMES play critical roles in human induced trophoblast progenitors (iTP). ► iTP cells directly transformed from fibroblasts. ► Differentiation of iTP cells into extravillous trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. -- Abstract: Abnormal trophoblast lineage proliferation and differentiation in early pregnancy have been associated with the pathogenesis of placenta diseases of pregnancy. However, there is still a gap in understanding the molecular mechanisms of early placental development due to the limited primary trophoblast cultures and fidelity of immortalized trophoblast lines. Trophoblasts stem (TS) cells, an in vitro model of trophectoderm that can differentiate into syncytiotrophoblasts and extravillous trophoblasts, can be an attractive tool for early pregnancy research. TS cells are well established in mouse but not in humans due to insufficient knowledge of which trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors are involved in human trophectoderm (TE) proliferation and differentiation. Here, we applied induced pluripotent stem cell technique to investigate the human trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors. We established human induced trophoblast progenitor (iTP) cells by direct reprogramming the fibroblasts with a pool of mouse trophoblast lineage-specific transcription factors consisting of CDX2, EOMES, and ELF5. The human iTP cells exhibit epithelial morphology and can be maintained in vitro for more than 2 months. Gene expression profile of these cells was tightly clustered with human trophectoderm but not with human neuron progenitor cells, mesenchymal stem cells, or endoderm cells. These cells are capable of differentiating into cells with an invasive capacity, suggesting extravillous trophoblasts. They also form multi-nucleated cells which secrete human chorionic gonadotropin and estradiol, consistent with a syncytiotrophoblast phenotype. Our results provide the evidence that transcription factors CDX2 and

  10. Human endothelial progenitor cells rescue cortical neurons from oxygen-glucose deprivation induced death.

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    Bacigaluppi, Susanna; Donzelli, Elisabetta; De Cristofaro, Valentina; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; D'Amico, Giovanna; Scuteri, Arianna; Tredici, Giovanni

    2016-09-19

    Cerebral ischemia is characterized by both acute and delayed neuronal injuries. Neuro-protection is a major issue that should be properly addressed from a pharmacological point of view, and cell-based treatment approaches are of interest due to their potential pleiotropic effects. Endothelial progenitor cells have the advantage of being mobilized from the bone marrow into the circulation, but have been less studied than other stem cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, the comparison between human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPC) and human mesenchymal progenitor cells (hMSC) in terms of efficacy in rescuing neurons from cell death after transitory ischemia is the aim of the current study, in the effort to address further directions. In vitro model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on a primary culture of rodent cortical neurons was set up with different durations of exposure: 1, 2 and 3hrs with assessment of neuron survival. The 2hrs OGD was chosen for the subsequent experiments. After 2hrs OGD neurons were either placed in indirect co-culture with hMSC or hEPC or cultured in hMSC or hEPC conditioned medium and cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay. At day 2 after 2hrs OGD exposure, mean neuronal survival was 47.9±24.2%. In contrast, after treatment with hEPC and hMSC indirect co-culture was 74.1±27.3%; and 69.4±18.8%, respectively. In contrast, treatment with conditioned medium did not provide any advantage in terms of survival to OGD neurons The study shows the efficacy of hEPC in indirect co-culture to rescue neurons from cell death after OGD, comparable to that of hMSC. hEPC deserve further studies given their potential interest for ischemia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Articular Cartilage, Synovial Membrane and Synovial Fluid for Cartilage Regeneration: Current Status and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Zhou; Xie, Hui-Qi; Silini, Antonietta; Parolini, Ornella; Zhang, Yi; Deng, Li; Huang, Yong-Can

    2017-10-01

    Large articular cartilage defects remain an immense challenge in the field of regenerative medicine because of their poor intrinsic repair capacity. Currently, the available medical interventions can relieve clinical symptoms to some extent, but fail to repair the cartilaginous injuries with authentic hyaline cartilage. There has been a surge of interest in developing cell-based therapies, focused particularly on the use of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells with or without scaffolds. Mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are promising graft cells for tissue regeneration, but the most suitable source of cells for cartilage repair remains controversial. The tissue origin of mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells notably influences the biological properties and therapeutic potential. It is well known that mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells derived from synovial joint tissues exhibit superior chondrogenic ability compared with those derived from non-joint tissues; thus, these cell populations are considered ideal sources for cartilage regeneration. In addition to the progress in research and promising preclinical results, many important research questions must be answered before widespread success in cartilage regeneration is achieved. This review outlines the biology of stem/progenitor cells derived from the articular cartilage, the synovial membrane, and the synovial fluid, including their tissue distribution, function and biological characteristics. Furthermore, preclinical and clinical trials focusing on their applications for cartilage regeneration are summarized, and future research perspectives are discussed.

  12. Developmentally inspired programming of adult human mesenchymal stromal cells toward stable chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhetta, Paola; Pigeot, Sebastien; Rasponi, Marco; Dasen, Boris; Mehrkens, Arne; Ullrich, Thomas; Kramer, Ina; Guth-Gundel, Sabine; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    It is generally accepted that adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are default committed toward osteogenesis. Even when induced to chondrogenesis, hMSCs typically form hypertrophic cartilage that undergoes endochondral ossification. Because embryonic mesenchyme is obviously competent to generate phenotypically stable cartilage, it is questioned whether there is a correspondence between mesenchymal progenitor compartments during development and in adulthood. Here we tested whether forcing specific early events of articular cartilage development can program hMSC fate toward stable chondrogenesis. Inspired by recent findings that spatial restriction of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling guides embryonic progenitors toward articular cartilage formation, we hypothesized that selective inhibition of BMP drives the phenotypic stability of hMSC-derived chondrocytes. Two BMP type I receptor-biased kinase inhibitors were screened in a microfluidic platform for their time- and dose-dependent effect on hMSC chondrogenesis. The different receptor selectivity profile of tested compounds allowed demonstration that transient blockade of both ALK2 and ALK3 receptors, while permissive to hMSC cartilage formation, is necessary and sufficient to maintain a stable chondrocyte phenotype. Remarkably, even upon compound removal, hMSCs were no longer competent to undergo hypertrophy in vitro and endochondral ossification in vivo, indicating the onset of a constitutive change. Our findings demonstrate that adult hMSCs effectively share properties of embryonic mesenchyme in the formation of transient but also of stable cartilage. This opens potential pharmacological strategies to articular cartilage regeneration and more broadly indicates the relevance of developmentally inspired protocols to control the fate of adult progenitor cell systems.

  13. Cardiac Progenitor Cell Extraction from Human Auricles

    KAUST Repository

    Di Nardo, Paolo

    2017-02-22

    For many years, myocardial tissue has been considered terminally differentiated and, thus, incapable of regenerating. Recent studies have shown, instead, that cardiomyocytes, at least in part, are slowly substituted by new cells originating by precursor cells mostly embedded into the heart apex and in the atria. We have shown that an elective region of progenitor cell embedding is represented by the auricles, non-contractile atria appendages that can be easily sampled without harming the patient. The protocol here reported describes how from auricles a population of multipotent, cardiogenic cells can be isolated, cultured, and differentiated. Further studies are needed to fully exploit this cell population, but, sampling auricles, it could be possible to treat cardiac patients using their own cells circumventing rejection or organ shortage limitations.

  14. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guadix, Juan Antonio; Orlova, Valeria V.; Giacomelli, Elisa; Bellin, Milena; Ribeiro, Marcelo C.; Mummery, Christine L.; Pérez-Pomares, José M.; Passier, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced) to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA)

  15. Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Differentiation into Functional Epicardial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Guadix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs are widely used to study cardiovascular cell differentiation and function. Here, we induced differentiation of hPSCs (both embryonic and induced to proepicardial/epicardial progenitor cells that cover the heart during development. Addition of retinoic acid (RA and bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 promoted expression of the mesodermal marker PDGFRα, upregulated characteristic (proepicardial progenitor cell genes, and downregulated transcription of myocardial genes. We confirmed the (proepicardial-like properties of these cells using in vitro co-culture assays and in ovo grafting of hPSC-epicardial cells into chick embryos. Our data show that RA + BMP4-treated hPSCs differentiate into (proepicardial-like cells displaying functional properties (adhesion and spreading over the myocardium of their in vivo counterpart. The results extend evidence that hPSCs are an excellent model to study (proepicardial differentiation into cardiovascular cells in human development and evaluate their potential for cardiac regeneration. : The authors have shown that hPSCs can be instructed in vitro to differentiate into a specific cardiac embryonic progenitor cell population called the proepicardium. Proepicardial cells are required for normal formation of the heart during development and might contribute to the development of cell-based therapies for heart repair. Keywords: human pluripotent stem cells, proepicardium, progenitor cells, cardiovascular, differentiation

  16. FGF8 signaling sustains progenitor status and multipotency of cranial neural crest-derived mesenchymal cells in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meiying; Liu, Chao; Song, Yingnan; Ye, Wenduo; He, Wei; Yuan, Guohua; Gu, Shuping; Lin, Congxin; Ma, Liang; Zhang, Yanding; Tian, Weidong; Hu, Tao; Chen, YiPing

    2015-01-01

    The cranial neural crest (CNC) cells play a vital role in craniofacial development and regeneration. They are multi-potent progenitors, being able to differentiate into various types of tissues. Both pre-migratory and post-migratory CNC cells are plastic, taking on diverse fates by responding to different inductive signals. However, what sustains the multipotency of CNC cells and derivatives remains largely unknown. In this study, we present evidence that FGF8 signaling is able to sustain progenitor status and multipotency of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells both in vivo and in vitro. We show that augmented FGF8 signaling in pre-migratory CNC cells prevents cell differentiation and organogenesis in the craniofacial region by maintaining their progenitor status. CNC-derived mesenchymal cells with Fgf8 overexpression or control cells in the presence of exogenous FGF8 exhibit prolonged survival, proliferation, and multi-potent differentiation capability in cell cultures. Remarkably, exogenous FGF8 also sustains the capability of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells to participate in organogenesis such as odontogenesis. Furthermore, FGF8-mediated signaling strongly promotes adipogenesis but inhibits osteogenesis of CNC-derived mesenchymal cells in vitro. Our results reveal a specific role for FGF8 in the maintenance of progenitor status and in fate determination of CNC cells, implicating a potential application in expansion and fate manipulation of CNC-derived cells in stem cell-based craniofacial regeneration. PMID:26243590

  17. Preclinical Evaluation of the Immunomodulatory Properties of Cardiac Adipose Tissue Progenitor Cells Using Umbilical Cord Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Direct Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Perea-Gil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based strategies to regenerate injured myocardial tissue have emerged over the past decade, but the optimum cell type is still under scrutiny. In this context, human adult epicardial fat surrounding the heart has been characterized as a reservoir of mesenchymal-like progenitor cells (cardiac ATDPCs with potential clinical benefits. However, additional data on the possibility that these cells could trigger a deleterious immune response following implantation are needed. Thus, in the presented study, we took advantage of the well-established low immunogenicity of umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCBMSCs to comparatively assess the immunomodulatory properties of cardiac ATDPCs in an in vitro allostimulatory assay using allogeneic mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs. Similar to UCBMSCs, increasing amounts of seeded cardiac ATDPCs suppressed the alloproliferation of T cells in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6, TNFα, and IFNγ was also specifically modulated by the different numbers of cardiac ATDPCs cocultured. In summary, we show that cardiac ATDPCs abrogate T cell alloproliferation upon stimulation with allogeneic mature MDDCs, suggesting that they could further regulate a possible harmful immune response in vivo. Additionally, UCBMSCs can be considered as valuable tools to preclinically predict the immunogenicity of prospective regenerative cells.

  18. Human mesenchymal stem cells self-renew and differentiate according to a deterministic hierarchy.

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    Rahul Sarugaser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs have been isolated from a variety of connective tissues, and are commonly called "mesenchymal stem cells" (MSCs. A stem cell is defined as having robust clonal self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential. Accordingly, the term "MSC" has been criticised, as there is little data demonstrating self-renewal of definitive single-cell-derived (SCD clonal populations from a mesenchymal cell source. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that a tractable MPC population, human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs, was capable of multilineage differentiation in vitro and, more importantly, contributed to rapid connective tissue healing in vivo by producing bone, cartilage and fibrous stroma. Furthermore, HUCPVCs exhibit a high clonogenic frequency, allowing us to isolate definitive SCD parent and daughter clones from mixed gender suspensions as determined by Y-chromosome fluorescent in situ hybridization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of the multilineage differentiation capacity of SCD parent clones and daughter clones enabled us to formulate a new hierarchical schema for MSC self-renewal and differentiation in which a self-renewing multipotent MSC gives rise to more restricted self-renewing progenitors that gradually lose differentiation potential until a state of complete restriction to the fibroblast is reached.

  19. Recruitment of host's progenitor cells to sites of human amniotic fluid stem cells implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, Teodelinda; Poggi, Alessandro; Scaranari, Monica; Mogni, Massimo; Lituania, Mario; Baldo, Chiara; Cancedda, Ranieri; Gentili, Chiara

    2011-06-01

    The amniotic fluid is a new source of multipotent stem cells with a therapeutic potential for human diseases. Cultured at low cell density, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) were still able to generate colony-forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F) after 60 doublings, thus confirming their staminal nature. Moreover, after extensive in vitro cell expansion hAFSCs maintained a stable karyotype. The expression of genes, such as SSEA-4, SOX2 and OCT3/4 was confirmed at early and later culture stage. Also, hAFSCs showed bright expression of mesenchymal lineage markers and immunoregulatory properties. hAFSCs, seeded onto hydroxyapatite scaffolds and subcutaneously implanted in nude mice, played a pivotal role in mounting a response resulting in the recruitment of host's progenitor cells forming tissues of mesodermal origin such as fat, muscle, fibrous tissue and immature bone. Implanted hAFSCs migrated from the scaffold to the skin overlying implant site but not to other organs. Given their in vivo: (i) recruitment of host progenitor cells, (ii) homing towards injured sites and (iii) multipotentiality in tissue repair, hAFSCs are a very appealing reserve of stem cells potentially useful for clinical application in regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy and Safety of Human Retinal Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semo, Ma'ayan; Haamedi, Nasrin; Stevanato, Lara; Carter, David; Brooke, Gary; Young, Michael; Coffey, Peter; Sinden, John; Patel, Sara; Vugler, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the long-term efficacy and safety of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPC) using established rodent models. Methods Efficacy of hRPC was tested initially in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) dystrophic rats immunosuppressed with cyclosporine/dexamethasone. Due to adverse effects of dexamethasone, this drug was omitted from a subsequent dose-ranging study, where different hRPC doses were tested for their ability to preserve visual function (measured by optokinetic head tracking) and retinal structure in RCS rats at 3 to 6 months after grafting. Safety of hRPC was assessed by subretinal transplantation into wild type (WT) rats and NIH-III nude mice, with analysis at 3 to 6 and 9 months after grafting, respectively. Results The optimal dose of hRPC for preserving visual function/retinal structure in dystrophic rats was 50,000 to 100,000 cells. Human retinal progenitor cells integrated/survived in dystrophic and WT rat retina up to 6 months after grafting and expressed nestin, vimentin, GFAP, and βIII tubulin. Vision and retinal structure remained normal in WT rats injected with hRPC and there was no evidence of tumors. A comparison between dexamethasone-treated and untreated dystrophic rats at 3 months after grafting revealed an unexpected reduction in the baseline visual acuity of dexamethasone-treated animals. Conclusions Human retinal progenitor cells appear safe and efficacious in the preclinical models used here. Translational Relevance Human retinal progenitor cells could be deployed during early stages of retinal degeneration or in regions of intact retina, without adverse effects on visual function. The ability of dexamethasone to reduce baseline visual acuity in RCS dystrophic rats has important implications for the interpretation of preclinical and clinical cell transplant studies. PMID:27486556

  1. Dendritic Cell Lineage Potential in Human Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

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    Julie Helft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional dendritic cells (cDCs are thought to descend from a DC precursor downstream of the common myeloid progenitor (CMP. However, a mouse lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitor has been shown to generate cDCs following a DC-specific developmental pathway independent of monocyte and granulocyte poiesis. Similarly, here we show that, in humans, a large fraction of multipotent lymphoid early progenitors (MLPs gives rise to cDCs, in particular the subset known as cDC1, identified by co-expression of DNGR-1 (CLEC9A and CD141 (BDCA-3. Single-cell analysis indicates that over one-third of MLPs have the potential to efficiently generate cDCs. cDC1s generated from CMPs or MLPs do not exhibit differences in transcriptome or phenotype. These results demonstrate an early imprinting of the cDC lineage in human hematopoiesis and highlight the plasticity of developmental pathways giving rise to human DCs.

  2. Macrophages commit postnatal endothelium-derived progenitors to angiogenesis and restrict endothelial to mesenchymal transition during muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zordan, P; Rigamonti, E; Freudenberg, K; Conti, V; Azzoni, E; Rovere-Querini, P; Brunelli, S

    2014-01-30

    The damage of the skeletal muscle prompts a complex and coordinated response that involves the interactions of many different cell populations and promotes inflammation, vascular remodeling and finally muscle regeneration. Muscle disorders exist in which the irreversible loss of tissue integrity and function is linked to defective neo-angiogenesis with persistence of tissue necrosis and inflammation. Here we show that macrophages (MPs) are necessary for efficient vascular remodeling in the injured muscle. In particular, MPs sustain the differentiation of endothelial-derived progenitors to contribute to neo-capillary formation, by secreting pro-angiogenic growth factors. When phagocyte infiltration is compromised endothelial-derived progenitors undergo a significant endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndoMT), possibly triggered by the activation of transforming growth factor-β/bone morphogenetic protein signaling, collagen accumulates and the muscle is replaced by fibrotic tissue. Our findings provide new insights in EndoMT in the adult skeletal muscle, and suggest that endothelial cells in the skeletal muscle may represent a new target for therapeutic intervention in fibrotic diseases.

  3. Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells transfected with pIRES2-EGFP-VEGF165 using liposome. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  4. Defining human mesenchymal stem cell efficacy in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennon Donald P

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allogeneic human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can suppress graft versus host disease (GvHD and have profound anti-inflammatory and regenerative capacity in stroke, infarct, spinal cord injury, meniscus regeneration, tendinitis, acute renal failure, and heart disease in human and animal models of disease. There is significant clinical hMSC variability in efficacy and the ultimate response in vivo. The challenge in hMSC based therapy is defining the efficacy of hMSC in vivo. Models which may provide insight into hMSC bioactivity in vivo would provide a means to distinguish hMSCs for clinical utility. hMSC function has been described as both regenerative and trophic through the production of bioactive factors. The regenerative component involves the multi-potentiality of hMSC progenitor differentiation. The secreted factors generated by the hMSCs are milieu and injury specific providing unique niches for responses in vivo. These bioactive factors are anti-scarring, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic as well as regenerative. Further, from an immunological standpoint, hMSC's can avoid host immune response, providing xenographic applications. To study the in vivo immuno-regulatory effectiveness of hMSCs, we used the ovalbumin challenge model of acute asthma. This is a quick 3 week in vivo pulmonary inflammation model with readily accessible ways of measuring effectiveness of hMSCs. Our data show that there is a direct correlation between the traditional ceramic cube score to hMSCs attenuation of cellular recruitment due to ovalbumin challenge. The results from these studies verify the in vivo immuno-modulator effectiveness of hMSCs and support the potential use of the ovalbumin model as an in vivo model of hMSC potency and efficacy. Our data also support future directions toward exploring hMSCs as an alternative therapeutic for the treatment of airway inflammation associated with asthma.

  5. Transplantation of Human Chorion-Derived Cholinergic Progenitor Cells: a Novel Treatment for Neurological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Alireza; Maleki-Jamshid, Ali; Sanooghi, Davood; Milan, Peiman Brouki; Rahmani, Arash; Sefat, Farshid; Shahpasand, Koorosh; Soleimani, Mansoureh; Bakhtiari, Mehrdad; Belali, Rafie; Faghihi, Faezeh; Joghataei, Mohammad Taghi; Perry, George; Mozafari, Masoud

    2018-03-16

    A neurological disorder is any disorder or abnormality in the nervous system. Among different neurological disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is recognized as the sixth leading cause of death globally. Considerable research has been conducted to find pioneer treatments for this devastating disorder among which cell therapy has attracted remarkable attentions over the last decade. Up to now, targeted differentiation into specific desirable cell types has remained a major obstacle to clinical application of cell therapy. Also, potential risks including uncontrolled growth of stem cells could be disastrous. In our novel protocol, we used basal forebrain cholinergic progenitor cells (BFCN) derived from human chorion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hC-MSCs) which made it possible to obtain high-quality population of cholinergic neurons and in vivo in much shorter time period than previous established methods. Remarkably, the transplanted progenitors fully differentiated to cholinergic neurons which in turn integrated in higher cortical networks of host brains, resulting in significant improvement in cognitive assessments. This method may have profound implications in cell therapies for any other neurodegenerative disorders. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  6. Haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Ryohichi; Jha, Deepak Kumar; Han, Areum; Soria-Valles, Clara; da Rocha, Edroaldo Lummertz; Lu, Yi-Fen; Goettel, Jeremy A.; Serrao, Erik; Rowe, R. Grant; Malleshaiah, Mohan; Wong, Irene; Sousa, Patricia; Zhu, Ted N.; Ditadi, Andrea; Keller, Gordon; Engelman, Alan N.; Snapper, Scott B.; Doulatov, Sergei; Daley, George Q.

    2018-01-01

    A variety of tissue lineages can be differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by mimicking embryonic development through stepwise exposure to morphogens, or by conversion of one differentiated cell type into another by enforced expression of master transcription factors. Here, to yield functional human haematopoietic stem cells, we perform morphogen-directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into haemogenic endothelium followed by screening of 26 candidate haematopoietic stem-cell-specifying transcription factors for their capacity to promote multi-lineage haematopoietic engraftment in mouse hosts. We recover seven transcription factors (ERG, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXA10, LCOR, RUNX1 and SPI1) that are sufficient to convert haemogenic endothelium into haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that engraft myeloid, B and T cells in primary and secondary mouse recipients. Our combined approach of morphogen-driven differentiation and transcription-factor-mediated cell fate conversion produces haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells and holds promise for modelling haematopoietic disease in humanized mice and for therapeutic strategies in genetic blood disorders. PMID:28514439

  7. Mesenchymal stromal cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia have altered capacity to expand differentiated hematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Priya; Le, Yevgeniya; Li, Yuhua; Sabloff, Mitchell; Mehic, Jelica; Rosu-Myles, Michael; Allan, David S

    2015-04-01

    The bone marrow microenvironment may be permissive to the emergence and progression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Studying interactions between the microenvironment and leukemia cells should provide new insight for therapeutic advances. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are central to the maintenance of the hematopoietic niche. Here we compared the functions and gene expression patterns of MSCs derived from bone marrow aspirates of healthy donors and patients with AML. MSCs expanded from AML patients had heterogeneous morphology and displayed a wide range of proliferation capacity compared to MSCs from healthy controls. The ability of AML-MSCs to support the expansion of committed hematopoietic progenitors from umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells may be impaired while the expression of genes associated with maintaining hematopoietic quiescence appeared to be increased in AML-MSCs compared to healthy donors. These results highlight important potential differences in the biologic profile of MSCs from AML patients compared to healthy donors that may contribute to the emergence or progression of leukemia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Human neonatal cardiovascular progenitors: unlocking the secret to regenerative ability.

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    Tania I Fuentes

    Full Text Available Although clinical benefit can be achieved after cardiac transplantation of adult c-kit+ or cardiosphere-derived cells for myocardial repair, these stem cells lack the regenerative capacity unique to neonatal cardiovascular stem cells. Unraveling the molecular basis for this age-related discrepancy in function could potentially transform cardiovascular stem cell transplantation. In this report, clonal populations of human neonatal and adult cardiovascular progenitor cells were isolated and characterized, revealing the existence of a novel subpopulation of endogenous cardiovascular stem cells that persist throughout life and co-express both c-kit and isl1. Epigenetic profiling identified 41 microRNAs whose expression was significantly altered with age in phenotypically-matched clones. These differences were correlated with reduced proliferation and a limited capacity to invade in response to growth factor stimulation, despite high levels of growth factor receptor on progenitors isolated from adults. Further understanding of these differences may provide novel therapeutic targets to enhance cardiovascular regenerative capacity.

  9. Cannabidiol Activates Neuronal Precursor Genes in Human Gingival Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soundara Rajan, Thangavelu; Giacoppo, Sabrina; Scionti, Domenico; Diomede, Francesca; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Pollastro, Federica; Piattelli, Adriano; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela; Trubiani, Oriana

    2017-06-01

    In the last years, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from oral tissues have received considerable interest in regenerative medicine since they can be obtained with minimal invasive procedure and exhibit immunomodulatory properties. This study was aimed to investigate whether in vitro pre-treatment of MSCs obtained from human gingiva (hGMSCs) with Cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabinoid component produced by the plant Cannabis sativa, may promote human gingiva derived MSCs to differentiate toward neuronal precursor cells. Specifically, we have treated the hGMSCs with CBD (5 µM) for 24 h in order to evaluate the expression of genes involved in cannabidiol signaling, cell proliferation, self-renewal and multipotency, and neural progenitor cells differentiation. Next generation sequencing (NGS) demonstrated that CBD activates genes associated with G protein coupled receptor signaling in hGMSCs. Genes involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis were regulated. Moreover, genes associated with the biological process of neuronal progenitor cells (NCPs) proliferation, neuron differentiation, neurogenesis, and nervous system development were significantly modulated. From our results, we hypothesize that human gingiva-derived MSCs conditioned with CBD could represent a valid method for improving the hGMSCs phenotype and thus might be a potential therapeutic tool in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1531-1546, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Purification and ex vivo expansion of postnatal human marrow mesodermal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M; Lund, T; Lenvik, T; Aguiar, D; Koodie, L; Verfaillie, C M

    2001-11-01

    It is here reported that mesenchymal stem cells known to give rise to limb-bud mesoderm can, at the single-cell level, also differentiate into cells of visceral mesoderm and can be expanded extensively by means of clinically applicable methods. These cells were named mesodermal progenitor cells (MPCs). MPCs were selected by depleting bone marrow mononuclear cells from more than 30 healthy human donors of CD45(+)/glycophorin-A (GlyA)(+) cells. Cells were cultured on fibronectin with epidermal growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor BB and 2% or less fetal calf serum. It was found that 1/5 x 10(3) CD45(-)GlyA(-) cells, or 1/10(6) bone marrow mononuclear cells, gave rise to clusters of small adherent cells. Cell-doubling time was 48 to 72 hours, and cells have been expanded in culture for more than 60 cell doublings. MPCs are CD34(-), CD44(low), CD45(-), CD117 (cKit)(-), class I-HLA(-), and HLA-DR(-). MPCs differentiated into cells of limb-bud mesoderm (osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, stroma cells, and skeletal myoblasts) as well as visceral mesoderm (endothelial cells). Retroviral marking was used to definitively prove that single MPCs can differentiate into cells of limb bud and visceral mesoderm. Thus, MPCs that proliferate without obvious senescence under clinically applicable conditions and differentiate at the single-cell level not only into mesenchymal cells but also cells of visceral mesoderm may be an ideal source of stem cells for treatment of genetic or degenerative disorders affecting cells of mesodermal origin.

  11. Endogenous collagen influences differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.; Mentink, A.; Bank, R.; Stoop, R.; Blitterswijk, C. van; Boer, J. de

    2010-01-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix

  12. Endogenous Collagen Influences Differentiation of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, Hugo; Mentink, Anouk; Bank, Ruud; Stoop, Reinout; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix

  13. Endogenous Collagen Influences Differentiation of Human Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Mentink-Leusink, Anouk; Bank, Ruud; Stoop, Reinout; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix

  14. Human mesenchymal stromal cells : biological characterization and clinical application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardo, Maria Ester

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the characterization of the biological and functional properties of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), isolated from different tissue sources. The differentiation capacity of MSCs from fetal and adult tissues has been tested and compared. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has

  15. Nanoscale Mechanical Stimulation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nikukar

    2014-05-01

    We observed significant responses after 1 and 2-week stimulations in cell number, cell shapes and phenotypical markers. Microarray was performed for all groups. Cell count showed normal cell growth with stimulation. However, cell surface area, cell perimeter, and arboration after 1-week stimulation showed significant increases. Immunofluorescent studies have showed significant increase in osteocalcin production after stimulation. Conclusions: Nanoscale mechanical vibration showed significant changes in human mesenchymal stem cell behaviours. Cell morphology changed to become more polygonal and increased expression of the osteoblast markers were noted. These findings with gene regulation changes suggesting nanoscale mechanostimulation has stimulated osteoblastogenesis.  Keywords:  Mesenchymal, Nanoscale, Stem Cells.

  16. Retinoic acid receptor signalling directly regulates osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.C. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Kocovski, P.; Jovic, T.; Walia, M.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Chandraratna, R.A.S. [IO Therapeutics, Inc., Santa Ana, CA 92705 (United States); Martin, T.J.; Baker, E.K. [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Purton, L.E., E-mail: lpurton@svi.edu.au [St Vincent' s Institute, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065 (Australia); Department of Medicine at St. Vincent' s Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3065 (Australia)

    2017-01-01

    Low and high serum retinol levels are associated with increased fracture risk and poor bone health. We recently showed retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Here we show RARs are also negative regulators of osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. The pan-RAR agonist, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), directly inhibited differentiation and mineralisation of early osteoprogenitors and impaired the differentiation of more mature osteoblast populations. In contrast, the pan-RAR antagonist, IRX4310, accelerated differentiation of early osteoprogenitors. These effects predominantly occurred via RARγ and were further enhanced by an RARα agonist or antagonist, respectively. RAR agonists similarly impaired adipogenesis in osteogenic cultures. RAR agonist treatment resulted in significant upregulation of the Wnt antagonist, Sfrp4. This accompanied reduced nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin protein and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2, suggesting impaired Wnt/β-catenin signalling. To determine the effect of RAR inhibition in post-natal mice, IRX4310 was administered to male mice for 10 days and bones were assessed by µCT. No change to trabecular bone volume was observed, however, radial bone growth was impaired. These studies show RARs directly influence osteoblast and adipocyte formation from mesenchymal cells, and inhibition of RAR signalling in vivo impairs radial bone growth in post-natal mice. - Graphical abstract: Schematic shows RAR ligand regulation of osteoblast differentiation in vitro. RARγ antagonists±RARα antagonists promote osteoblast differentiation. RARγ and RARα agonists alone or in combination block osteoblast differentiation, which correlates with upregulation of Sfrp4, and downregulation of nuclear and cytosolic β-catenin and reduced expression of the Wnt target gene Axin2. Red arrows indicate effects of RAR agonists on mediators of Wnt signalling.

  17. Crosstalk between Wnt/β-catenin and estrogen receptor signaling synergistically promotes osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal progenitor cells.

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    Yanhong Gao

    Full Text Available Osteogenic differentiation from mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs are initiated and regulated by a cascade of signaling events. Either Wnt/β-catenin or estrogen signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in regulating skeletal development and maintaining adult tissue homeostasis. Here, we investigate the potential crosstalk and synergy of these two signaling pathways in regulating osteogenic differentiation of MPCs. We find that the activation of estrogen receptor (ER signaling by estradiol (E2 or exogenously expressed ERα in MPCs synergistically enhances Wnt3A-induced early and late osteogenic markers, as well as matrix mineralization. The E2 or ERα-mediated synergy can be effectively blocked by ERα antagonist tamoxifen. E2 stimulation can enhance endochondral ossification of Wnt3A-transduced mouse fetal limb explants. Furthermore, exogenously expressed ERα significantly enhances the maturity and mineralization of Wnt3A-induced subcutaneous and intramuscular ectopic bone formation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that E2 does not exert any detectable effect on β-catenin/Tcf reporter activity. However, ERα expression is up-regulated within the first 48h in AdWnt3A-transduced MPCs, whereas ERβ expression is significantly inhibited within 24h. Moreover, the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of estrogens aromatase is modulated by Wnt3A in a biphasic manner, up-regulated at 24h but reduced after 48h. Our results demonstrate that, while ER signaling acts synergistically with Wnt3A in promoting osteogenic differentiation, Wnt3A may crosstalk with ER signaling by up-regulating ERα expression and down-regulating ERβ expression in MPCs. Thus, the signaling crosstalk and synergy between these two pathways should be further explored as a potential therapeutic approach to combating bone and skeletal disorders, such as fracture healing and osteoporosis.

  18. Impaired cell surface expression of HLA-B antigens on mesenchymal stem cells and muscle cell progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Nehlin, Jan; Sabir, Hardee Jawad

    2010-01-01

    HLA class-I expression is weak in embryonic stem cells but increases rapidly during lineage progression. It is unknown whether all three classical HLA class-I antigens follow the same developmental program. In the present study, we investigated allele-specific expression of HLA-A, -B, and -C...... at the mRNA and protein levels on human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue as well as striated muscle satellite cells and lymphocytes. Using multicolour flow cytometry, we found high cell surface expression of HLA-A on all stem cells and PBMC examined. Surprisingly, HLA-B was either...... undetectable or very weakly expressed on all stem cells protecting them from complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) using relevant human anti-B and anti-Cw sera. IFNgamma stimulation for 48-72 h was required to induce full HLA-B protein expression. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR showed that IFNgamma induced...

  19. Gene expression profiling and secretome analysis differentiate adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells and human hepatic stellate cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Berardis

    Full Text Available Adult-derived human liver stem/progenitor cells (ADHLSC are obtained after primary culture of the liver parenchymal fraction. The cells are of fibroblastic morphology and exhibit a hepato-mesenchymal phenotype. Hepatic stellate cells (HSC derived from the liver non-parenchymal fraction, present a comparable morphology as ADHLSC. Because both ADHLSC and HSC are described as liver stem/progenitor cells, we strived to extensively compare both cell populations at different levels and to propose tools demonstrating their singularity. ADHLSC and HSC were isolated from the liver of four different donors, expanded in vitro and followed from passage 5 until passage 11. Cell characterization was performed using immunocytochemistry, western blotting, flow cytometry, and gene microarray analyses. The secretion profile of the cells was evaluated using Elisa and multiplex Luminex assays. Both cell types expressed α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, fibronectin, CD73 and CD90 in accordance with their mesenchymal origin. Microarray analysis revealed significant differences in gene expression profiles. HSC present high expression levels of neuronal markers as well as cytokeratins. Such differences were confirmed using immunocytochemistry and western blotting assays. Furthermore, both cell types displayed distinct secretion profiles as ADHLSC highly secreted cytokines of therapeutic and immuno-modulatory importance, like HGF, interferon-γ and IL-10. Our study demonstrates that ADHLSC and HSC are distinct liver fibroblastic cell populations exhibiting significant different expression and secretion profiles.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells with osteogenic potential in human maxillary sinus membrane: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbéri, Antoine; Al-Nemer, Fatima; Hamade, Eva; Noujeim, Ziad; Badran, Bassam; Zibara, Kazem

    2017-06-01

    The aim of our study is to prove and validate the existence of an osteogenic progenitor cell population within the human maxillary Schneiderian sinus membrane (hMSSM) and to demonstrate their potential for bone formation. Ten hMSSM samples of approximately 2 × 2 cm were obtained during a surgical nasal approach for treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis and were retained for this study. The derived cells were isolated, cultured, and assayed at passage 3 for their osteogenic potential using the expression of Alkaline phosphatase, alizarin red and Von Kossa staining, flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. hMSSM-derived cells were isolated, showed homogenous spindle-shaped fibroblast-like morphology, characteristic of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), and demonstrated very high expression of MPC markers such as STRO-1, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD73 in all tested passages. In addition, von Kossa and Alizarin red staining showed significant mineralization, a typical feature of osteoblasts. Moreover, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was significantly increased at days 7, 14, 21, and 28 of culture in hMSSM-derived cells grown in osteogenic medium, in comparison to controls. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation significantly upregulated the transcriptional expression of osteogenic markers such as ALP, Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2), bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2, osteocalcin (OCN), osteonectin (ON), and osteopontin (OPN), confirming that hMSSM-derived cells are of osteoprogenitor origin. Finally, hMSSM-derived cells were also capable of producing OPN proteins upon culturing in an osteogenic medium. Our data showed that hMSSM holds mesenchymal osteoprogenitor cells capable of differentiating to the osteogenic lineage. hMSSM contains potentially multipotent postnatal stem cells providing a promising clinical application in preimplant and implant therapy.

  1. A population of human brain cells expressing phenotypic markers of more than one lineage can be induced in vitro to differentiate into mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieske, Piotr; Augelli, Brian J.; Stawski, Robert; Gaughan, John; Azizi, S. Ausim; Krynska, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Proliferating astrocytic cells from germinal, as well as mature areas of brain parenchyma, have the characteristics of neural stem/progenitor cells and are capable of generating both neurons and glia. We previously reported that primary fetal human brain cells, designated as Normal Human Astrocytes (NHA), expressed, in addition to GFAP, Vimentin and Nestin, low levels of βIII-Tubulin, an early neuronal marker, and differentiated into neurons and astrocytes in vitro. Here, we showed that primary NHA cells co-express low levels of mesenchymal markers Fibronectin and Collagen-1 in culture. These cells transitioned into mesenchymal-like cells when cultured in adherent conditions in serum containing media. The mesenchymal-like derivatives of these cells were characterized based on their morphological changes, high expression of Vimentin and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, Collagen-1 and Fibronectin, and decline of neural markers. When incubated in osteogenic and adipogenic induction media, the mesenchymal-like cells differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes. Furthermore, NHA cells express markers of neural crest cells, SOX-10 and p75. These data support the idea of ectoderm-derived mesenchymal lineages. These findings suggest that a population of primitive fetal brain cells with neural/neural crest/mesenchymal phenotype, resembles the remarkable phenotypic plasticity of neural crest cells, and differentiates into adipocytes and osteocytes under the influence of environmental factors

  2. Mitigating HZE Radiation-Induced Deficits in Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Progenitor Cells and Skeletal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Terada, Masahiro; Alwood, Joshua; Halloran, Bernard; Tahimic, Candice

    2016-01-01

    Future long-duration space exploration beyond the earths magnetosphere will increase human exposure to space radiation and associated risks to skeletal health. We hypothesize that oxidative stress resulting from radiation exposure causes progressive bone loss and dysfunction in associated tissue. In animal studies, increased free radical formation is associated with pathological changes in bone structure, enhanced bone resorption, reduced bone formation and decreased bone mineral density, which can lead to skeletal fragility.

  3. Nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells by releasing active BMP4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leprince Pierre

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spontaneous repair is limited after CNS injury or degeneration because neurogenesis and axonal regrowth rarely occur in the adult brain. As a result, cell transplantation has raised much interest as potential treatment for patients with CNS lesions. Several types of cells have been considered as candidates for such cell transplantation and replacement therapies. Foetal brain tissue has already been shown to have significant effects in patients with Parkinson's disease. Clinical use of the foetal brain tissue is, however, limited by ethical and technical problems as it requires high numbers of grafted foetal cells and immunosuppression. Alternatively, several reports suggested that mesenchymal stem cells, isolated from adult bone marrow, are multipotent cells and could be used in autograft approach for replacement therapies. Results In this study, we addressed the question of the possible influence of mesenchymal stem cells on neural stem cell fate. We have previously reported that adult rat mesenchymal stem cells are able to express nestin in defined culture conditions (in the absence of serum and after 25 cell population doublings and we report here that nestin-positive (but not nestin-negative mesenchymal stem cells are able to favour the astroglial lineage in neural progenitors and stem cells cultivated from embryonic striatum. The increase of the number of GFAP-positive cells is associated with a significant decrease of the number of Tuj1- and O4-positive cells. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we demonstrate that mesenchymal stem cells express LIF, CNTF, BMP2 and BMP4 mRNAs, four cytokines known to play a role in astroglial fate decision. In this model, BMP4 is responsible for the astroglial stimulation and oligodendroglial inhibition, as 1 this cytokine is present in a biologically-active form only in nestin-positive mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium and 2 anti-BMP4 antibodies inhibit the nestin-positive mesenchymal

  4. MCP/CCR2 signaling is essential for recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells during the early phase of fracture healing.

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    Masahiro Ishikawa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate chemokine profiles and their functional roles in the early phase of fracture healing in mouse models. METHODS: The expression profiles of chemokines were examined during fracture healing in wild-type (WT mice using a polymerase chain reaction array and histological staining. The functional effect of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1 on primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells (mBMSCs was evaluated using an in vitro migration assay. MCP-1-/- and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2-/- mice were fractured and evaluated by histological staining and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT. RS102895, an antagonist of CCR2, was continuously administered in WT mice before or after rib fracture and evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. Bone graft exchange models were created in WT and MCP-1-/- mice and were evaluated by histological staining and micro-CT. RESULTS: MCP-1 and MCP-3 expression in the early phase of fracture healing were up-regulated, and high levels of MCP-1 and MCP-3 protein expression observed in the periosteum and endosteum in the same period. MCP-1, but not MCP-3, increased migration of mBMSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Fracture healing in MCP-1-/- and CCR2-/- mice was delayed compared with WT mice on day 21. Administration of RS102895 in the early, but not in the late phase, caused delayed fracture healing. Transplantation of WT-derived graft into host MCP-1-/- mice significantly increased new bone formation in the bone graft exchange models. Furthermore, marked induction of MCP-1 expression in the periosteum and endosteum was observed around the WT-derived graft in the host MCP-1-/- mouse. Conversely, transplantation of MCP-1-/- mouse-derived grafts into host WT mice markedly decreased new bone formation. CONCLUSIONS: MCP-1/CCR2 signaling in the periosteum and endosteum is essential for the recruitment of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the early phase of fracture healing.

  5. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayato Fukusumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi. Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPSC clones with diverse somatic tissue origins. The established hNPCs exhibited a mid/hindbrain-type neural identity and uniform expression of neural progenitor genes.

  6. Oxygen Tension Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paracrine Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Paquet, Joseph; Deschepper, Mickael; Moya, Adrien; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the shift of the human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) cytokine signature induced by oxygen tension. Conditioned media obtained from hMSCs cultured under near anoxia exhibited significantly enhanced chemotactic and proangiogenic properties and a significant decrease in the inflammatory mediator content. These results elucidate important aspects of using MSCs in regenerative medicine, contribute to improving the efficacy of such therapies, and highlight the interest in using c...

  7. Radiosensitivity of human haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kengo; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Omori, Atsuko

    2013-01-01

    The haematopoietic system is regenerative tissue with a high proliferative potential; therefore, haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are sensitive to extracellular oxidative stress caused by radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. An understanding of this issue can help predict haematopoietic recovery from radiation exposure as well as the extent of radiation damage to the haematopoietic system. In the present study, the radiosensitivity of human lineage-committed myeloid haematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), including colony-forming unit–granulocyte macrophage, burst-forming unit–erythroid and colony-forming unit–granulocyte–erythroid–macrophage–megakaryocyte cells, which are contained in adult individual peripheral blood (PB) and fetus/neonate placental/umbilical cord blood (CB), were studied. The PB of 59 healthy individual blood donors and the CB of 42 neonates were investigated in the present study. HSPCs prepared from PB and CB were exposed to 0.5 or 2 Gy x-irradiation. The results showed that large individual differences exist in the surviving fraction of cells. In the case of adult PB, a statistically significant negative correlation was observed between the surviving fraction observed at a dose of 0.5 Gy and the age of the blood donors; however, none of these correlations were observed after 2 Gy x-irradiation. In addition, seasonal and gender variation were observed in the surviving fraction of CB HSPCs. The present results suggest that there are large individual differences in the surviving fraction of HSPCs contained in both adult PB and fetus/neonate CB. In addition, some factors, including the gender, age and season of birth, affect the radiosensitivity of HSPCs, especially with a relatively low-dose exposure. (paper)

  8. Characterization of Endothelial Progenitor Cell Interactions with Human Tropoelastin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Yu

    Full Text Available The deployment of endovascular implants such as stents in the treatment of cardiovascular disease damages the vascular endothelium, increasing the risk of thrombosis and promoting neointimal hyperplasia. The rapid restoration of a functional endothelium is known to reduce these complications. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are increasingly recognized as important contributors to device re-endothelialization. Extracellular matrix proteins prominent in the vessel wall may enhance EPC-directed re-endothelialization. We examined attachment, spreading and proliferation on recombinant human tropoelastin (rhTE and investigated the mechanism and site of interaction. EPCs attached and spread on rhTE in a dose dependent manner, reaching a maximal level of 56±3% and 54±3%, respectively. EPC proliferation on rhTE was comparable to vitronectin, fibronectin and collagen. EDTA, but not heparan sulfate or lactose, reduced EPC attachment by 81±3%, while full attachment was recovered after add-back of manganese, inferring a classical integrin-mediated interaction. Integrin αVβ3 blocking antibodies decreased EPC adhesion and spreading on rhTE by 39±3% and 56±10% respectively, demonstrating a large contribution from this specific integrin. Attachment of EPCs on N-terminal rhTE constructs N25 and N18 accounted for most of this interaction, accompanied by comparable spreading. In contrast, attachment and spreading on N10 was negligible. αVβ3 blocking antibodies reduced EPC spreading on both N25 and N18 by 45±4% and 42±14%, respectively. In conclusion, rhTE supports EPC binding via an integrin mechanism involving αVβ3. N25 and N18, but not N10 constructs of rhTE contribute to EPC binding. The regulation of EPC activity by rhTE may have implications for modulation of the vascular biocompatibility of endovascular implants.

  9. Establishment of Human Neural Progenitor Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with Diverse Tissue Origins

    OpenAIRE

    Hayato Fukusumi; Tomoko Shofuda; Yohei Bamba; Atsuyo Yamamoto; Daisuke Kanematsu; Yukako Handa; Keisuke Okita; Masaya Nakamura; Shinya Yamanaka; Hideyuki Okano; Yonehiro Kanemura

    2016-01-01

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) have previously been generated from limited numbers of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) clones. Here, 21 hiPSC clones derived from human dermal fibroblasts, cord blood cells, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were differentiated using two neural induction methods, an embryoid body (EB) formation-based method and an EB formation method using dual SMAD inhibitors (dSMADi). Our results showed that expandable hNPCs could be generated from hiPS...

  10. TWIST1 promotes invasion through mesenchymal change in human glioblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakimoto Hiroaki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell invasion into adjacent normal brain is a mesenchymal feature of GBM and a major factor contributing to their dismal outcomes. Therefore, better understandings of mechanisms that promote mesenchymal change in GBM are of great clinical importance to address invasion. We previously showed that the bHLH transcription factor TWIST1 which orchestrates carcinoma metastasis through an epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT is upregulated in GBM and promotes invasion of the SF767 GBM cell line in vitro. Results To further define TWIST1 functions in GBM we tested the impact of TWIST1 over-expression on invasion in vivo and its impact on gene expression. We found that TWIST1 significantly increased SNB19 and T98G cell line invasion in orthotopic xenotransplants and increased expression of genes in functional categories associated with adhesion, extracellular matrix proteins, cell motility and locomotion, cell migration and actin cytoskeleton organization. Consistent with this TWIST1 reduced cell aggregation, promoted actin cytoskeletal re-organization and enhanced migration and adhesion to fibronectin substrates. Individual genes upregulated by TWIST1 known to promote EMT and/or GBM invasion included SNAI2, MMP2, HGF, FAP and FN1. Distinct from carcinoma EMT, TWIST1 did not generate an E- to N-cadherin "switch" in GBM cell lines. The clinical relevance of putative TWIST target genes SNAI2 and fibroblast activation protein alpha (FAP identified in vitro was confirmed by their highly correlated expression with TWIST1 in 39 human tumors. The potential therapeutic importance of inhibiting TWIST1 was also shown through a decrease in cell invasion in vitro and growth of GBM stem cells. Conclusions Together these studies demonstrated that TWIST1 enhances GBM invasion in concert with mesenchymal change not involving the canonical cadherin switch of carcinoma EMT. Given the recent recognition that mesenchymal change in GBMs is

  11. Interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells and natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulou, Panagiota A; Perez, Sonia A; Gritzapis, Angelos D; Baxevanis, Constantin N; Papamichail, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells representing an attractive therapeutic tool for regenerative medicine. They possess unique immunomodulatory properties, being capable of suppressing T-cell responses and modifying dendritic cell differentiation, maturation, and function, whereas they are not inherently immunogenic, failing to induce alloreactivity to T cells and freshly isolated natural killer (NK) cells. To clarify the generation of host immune responses to implanted MSCs in tissue engineering and their potential use as immunosuppressive elements, the effect of MSCs on NK cells was investigated. We demonstrate that at low NK-to-MSC ratios, MSCs alter the phenotype of NK cells and suppress proliferation, cytokine secretion, and cyto-toxicity against HLA-class I- expressing targets. Some of these effects require cell-to-cell contact, whereas others are mediated by soluble factors, including transforming growth factor-beta1 and prostaglandin E2, suggesting the existence of diverse mechanisms for MSC-mediated NK-cell suppression. On the other hand, MSCs are susceptible to lysis by activated NK cells. Overall, these data improve our knowledge of interactions between MSCs and NK cells and consequently of their effect on innate immune responses and their contribution to the regulation of adaptive immunity, graft rejection, and cancer immunotherapy.

  12. Human endothelial progenitor cells internalize high-density lipoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaemisa Srisen

    Full Text Available Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs originate either directly from hematopoietic stem cells or from a subpopulation of monocytes. Controversial views about intracellular lipid traffic prompted us to analyze the uptake of human high density lipoprotein (HDL, and HDL-cholesterol in human monocytic EPCs. Fluorescence and electron microscopy were used to investigate distribution and intracellular trafficking of HDL and its associated cholesterol using fluorescent surrogates (bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, cytochemical labels and fluorochromes including horseradish peroxidase and Alexa Fluor® 568. Uptake and intracellular transport of HDL were demonstrated after internalization periods from 0.5 to 4 hours. In case of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568, bodipy-cholesterol and bodipy-cholesteryl oleate, a photooxidation method was carried out. HDL-specific reaction products were present in invaginations of the plasma membrane at each time of treatment within endocytic vesicles, in multivesicular bodies and at longer periods of uptake, also in lysosomes. Some HDL-positive endosomes were arranged in form of "strings of pearl"- like structures. HDL-positive multivesicular bodies exhibited intensive staining of limiting and vesicular membranes. Multivesicular bodies of HDL-Alexa Fluor® 568-treated EPCs showed multilamellar intra-vacuolar membranes. At all periods of treatment, labeled endocytic vesicles and organelles were apparent close to the cell surface and in perinuclear areas around the Golgi apparatus. No HDL-related particles could be demonstrated close to its cisterns. Electron tomographic reconstructions showed an accumulation of HDL-containing endosomes close to the trans-Golgi-network. HDL-derived bodipy-cholesterol was localized in endosomal vesicles, multivesicular bodies, lysosomes and in many of the stacked Golgi cisternae and the trans-Golgi-network Internalized HDL-derived bodipy-cholesteryl oleate was channeled into the lysosomal

  13. Novel pathways to erythropoiesis induced by dimerization of intracellular C-Mpl in human hematopoietic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Chintan; Sahaghian, Arineh; Kim, William; Scholes, Jessica; Ge, Shundi; Zhu, Yuhua; Asgharzadeh, Shahab; Hollis, Roger; Kohn, Donald; Ji, Lingyun; Malvar, Jemily; Wang, Xiaoyan; Crooks, Gay

    2012-04-01

    The cytokine thrombopoietin (Tpo) plays a critical role in hematopoiesis by binding to the extracellular domain and inducing homodimerization of the intracellular signaling domain of its receptor, c-Mpl. Mpl homodimerization can also be accomplished by binding of a synthetic ligand to a constitutively expressed fusion protein F36VMpl consisting of a ligand binding domain (F36V) and the intracellular signaling domain of Mpl. Unexpectedly, in contrast to Tpo stimulation, robust erythropoiesis is induced after dimerization of F36VMpl in human CD34+ progenitor cells. The goal of this study was to define the hematopoietic progenitor stages at which dimerization of intracellular Mpl induces erythropoiesis and the downstream molecular events that mediate this unanticipated effect. Dimerization (in the absence of erythropoietin and other cytokines) in human common myeloid progenitors and megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors caused a significant increase in CD34+ cells (p Mpl in human myeloerythroid progenitors induces progenitor expansion and erythropoiesis through molecular mechanisms that are not shared by Tpo stimulation of endogenous Mpl. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  14. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are products of interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaBarge, Mark A; Nelson, Celeste M; Villadsen, Rene; Fridriksdottir, Agla; Ruth, Jason R; Stampfer, Martha R; Petersen, Ole W; Bissell, Mina J

    2008-09-19

    In adult tissues, multi-potent progenitor cells are some of the most primitive members of the developmental hierarchies that maintain homeostasis. That progenitors and their more mature progeny share identical genomes, suggests that fate decisions are directed by interactions with extrinsic soluble factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells. Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well as constellations of signaling molecules; and these were used in conjunction with physiologically relevant 3 dimensional human breast cultures. Both immortalized and primary human breast progenitors were analyzed. We report on the functional ability of those proteins of the mammary gland that maintain quiescence, maintain the progenitor state, and guide progenitor differentiation towards myoepithelial and luminal lineages.

  15. Fluorescent nanodiamonds enable quantitative tracking of human mesenchymal stem cells in miniature pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Long-Jyun; Wu, Meng-Shiue; Hui, Yuen Yung; Chang, Be-Ming; Pan, Lei; Hsu, Pei-Chen; Chen, Yit-Tsong; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Huang, Yen-Hua; Ling, Thai-Yen; Hsu, Hsao-Hsun; Chang, Huan-Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Cell therapy is a promising strategy for the treatment of human diseases. While the first use of cells for therapeutic purposes can be traced to the 19th century, there has been a lack of general and reliable methods to study the biodistribution and associated pharmacokinetics of transplanted cells in various animal models for preclinical evaluation. Here, we present a new platform using albumin-conjugated fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) as biocompatible and photostable labels for quantitative tracking of human placenta choriodecidual membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (pcMSCs) in miniature pigs by magnetic modulation. With this background-free detection technique and time-gated fluorescence imaging, we have been able to precisely determine the numbers as well as positions of the transplanted FND-labeled pcMSCs in organs and tissues of the miniature pigs after intravenous administration. The method is applicable to single-cell imaging and quantitative tracking of human stem/progenitor cells in rodents and other animal models as well.

  16. Regulated proliferation of primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells in long-term human marrow cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashman, J.; Eaves, A.C.; Eaves, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    We have examined the cycling status of various classes of erythroid and granulopoietic progenitor populations maintained for many weeks in standard normal long-term human marrow cultures. These were initiated with a single inoculum of marrow aspirate and were routinely fed by weekly removal of half of the nonadherent cells and replacement of half of the growth medium. Progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters) present in the nonadherent fraction and progenitors of small granulocyte/macrophage colonies (fewer than 500 cells) present in both the nonadherent and adherent fractions were found to be actively cycling at all times examined (28% to 63% kill following a 20-minute exposure to 20 microCi/mL of high specific activity 3 H-thymidine). In contrast, progenitors of large granulocyte/macrophage colonies (more than 500 cells) and progenitors of large erythroid colonies (more than eight erythroblast clusters), present in the adherent layer, consistently alternated between a quiescent state at the time of each weekly medium change and a proliferating state two to three days later (0% to 13% kill and 21% to 49% kill, respectively). Additional experiments revealed that the activation of primitive progenitors in the adherent layer was not dependent on the addition of fresh glutamine or hydrocortisone, nor on the physical manipulations involved in changing the growth medium. These studies provide the first direct evidence that normal long-term human marrow cultures support the continued turnover of a variety of early hematopoietic progenitor cell types. Further, they indicate that the proliferative activity of the most primitive of these progenitors is regulated by stage-specific cell-cell interactions that are subject to manipulation

  17. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid

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    Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  18. Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanie-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Davari, Maliheh; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Deezagi, Abdolkhalegh; Pakravesh, Jalil; Bagheri, Abouzar

    2012-04-10

    Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1) confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

  19. Defined Conditions for the Isolation and Expansion of Basal Prostate Progenitor Cells of Mouse and Human Origin

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    Thomas Höfner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods to isolate and culture primary prostate epithelial stem/progenitor cells (PESCs have proven difficult and ineffective. Here, we present a method to grow and expand both murine and human basal PESCs long term in serum- and feeder-free conditions. The method enriches for adherent mouse basal PESCs with a Lin−SCA-1+CD49f+TROP2high phenotype. Progesterone and sodium selenite are additionally required for the growth of human Lin−CD49f+TROP2high PESCs. The gene-expression profiles of expanded basal PESCs show similarities to ESCs, and NF-kB function is critical for epithelial differentiation of sphere-cultured PESCs. When transplanted in combination with urogenital sinus mesenchyme, expanded mouse and human PESCs generate ectopic prostatic tubules, demonstrating their stem cell activity in vivo. This novel method will facilitate the molecular, genomic, and functional characterization of normal and pathologic prostate glands of mouse and human origin.

  20. IL-17 inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Masahiro Kondo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate into cells of mesenchymal lineages, such as osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Here we investigated the effects of IL-17, a key cytokine in chronic inflammation, on chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs were pellet cultured in chondrogenic induction medium containing TGF-β3. Chondrogenic differentiation was detected by cartilage matrix accumulation and chondrogenic marker gene expression. RESULTS: Over-expression of cartilage matrix and chondrogenic marker genes was noted in chondrogenic cultures, but was inhibited by IL-17 in a dose-dependent manner. Expression and phosphorylation of SOX9, the master transcription factor for chondrogenesis, were induced within 2 days and phosphorylated SOX9 was stably maintained until day 21. IL-17 did not alter total SOX9 expression, but significantly suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner. At day 7, IL-17 also suppressed the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA, which is known to phosphorylate SOX9. H89, a selective PKA inhibitor, also suppressed SOX9 phosphorylation, expression of chondrogenic markers and cartilage matrix, and also decreased chondrogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: IL-17 inhibited chondrogenesis of human MSCs through the suppression of PKA activity and SOX9 phosphorylation. These results suggest that chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs can be inhibited by a mechanism triggered by IL-17 under chronic inflammation.

  1. Glucosamine-Based Supramolecular Nanotubes for Human Mesenchymal Cell Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talloj, Satish Kumar; Cheng, Bill; Weng, Jen-Po; Lin, Hsin-Chieh

    2018-04-23

    Herein, we demonstrate an example of glucosamine-based supramolecular hydrogels that can be used for human mesenchymal cell therapy. We designed and synthesized a series of amino acid derivatives based on a strategy of capping d-glucosamine moiety at the C-terminus and fluorinated benzyl group at the N-terminus. From a systematic study on chemical structures, we discovered that the glucosamine-based supramolecular hydrogel [pentafluorobenzyl (PFB)-F-Glu] self-assembled with one-dimensional nanotubular structures at physiological pH. The self-assembly of a newly discovered PFB-F-Glu motif is attributed to the synergistic effect of π-π stacking and extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding network in aqueous medium. Notably, PFB-F-Glu nanotubes are proven to be nontoxic to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and have been shown to enhance hMSC proliferation while maintaining their pluripotency. Retaining of pluripotency capabilities provides potentially unlimited source of undifferentiated cells for the treatment of future cell therapies. Furthermore, hMSCs cultured on PFB-F-Glu are able to secrete paracrine factors that downregulate profibrotic gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-treated human skin fibroblasts, which demonstrates that PFB-F-Glu nanotubes have the potential to be used for wound healing applications. Overall, this article addresses the importance of chemical design to generate supramolecular biomaterials for stem cell therapy.

  2. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Expansion in Contact with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in a Hanging Drop Model Uncovers Disadvantages of 3D Culture

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    Olga Schmal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with a concomitant preservation of stemness and self-renewal potential is still an unresolved ambition. Increased numbers of methods approaching this issue using three-dimensional (3D cultures were reported. Here, we describe a simplified 3D hanging drop model for the coculture of cord blood-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs. When seeded as a mixed cell suspension, MSCs segregated into tight spheroids. Despite the high expression of niche-specific extracellular matrix components by spheroid-forming MSCs, HSPCs did not migrate into the spheroids in the initial phase of coculture, indicating strong homotypic interactions of MSCs. After one week, however, HSPC attachment increased considerably, leading to spheroid collapse as demonstrated by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. In terms of HSPC proliferation, the conventional 2D coculture system was superior to the hanging drop model. Furthermore, expansion of primitive hematopoietic progenitors was more favored in 2D than in 3D, as analyzed in colony-forming assays. Conclusively, our data demonstrate that MSCs, when arranged with a spread (monolayer shape, exhibit better HSPC supportive qualities than spheroid-forming MSCs. Therefore, 3D systems are not necessarily superior to traditional 2D culture in this regard.

  3. Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Expansion in Contact with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in a Hanging Drop Model Uncovers Disadvantages of 3D Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Olga; Seifert, Jan; Schäffer, Tilman E; Walter, Christina B; Aicher, Wilhelm K; Klein, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Efficient ex vivo expansion of hematopoietic stem cells with a concomitant preservation of stemness and self-renewal potential is still an unresolved ambition. Increased numbers of methods approaching this issue using three-dimensional (3D) cultures were reported. Here, we describe a simplified 3D hanging drop model for the coculture of cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). When seeded as a mixed cell suspension, MSCs segregated into tight spheroids. Despite the high expression of niche-specific extracellular matrix components by spheroid-forming MSCs, HSPCs did not migrate into the spheroids in the initial phase of coculture, indicating strong homotypic interactions of MSCs. After one week, however, HSPC attachment increased considerably, leading to spheroid collapse as demonstrated by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence staining. In terms of HSPC proliferation, the conventional 2D coculture system was superior to the hanging drop model. Furthermore, expansion of primitive hematopoietic progenitors was more favored in 2D than in 3D, as analyzed in colony-forming assays. Conclusively, our data demonstrate that MSCs, when arranged with a spread (monolayer) shape, exhibit better HSPC supportive qualities than spheroid-forming MSCs. Therefore, 3D systems are not necessarily superior to traditional 2D culture in this regard.

  4. Insulin is essential for in vitro chondrogenesis of mesenchymal progenitor cells and influences chondrogenesis in a dose-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael B; Blunk, Torsten; Appel, Bernhard; Maschke, Angelika; Goepferich, Achim; Zellner, Johannes; Englert, Carsten; Prantl, Lukas; Kujat, Richard; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Insulin is a commonly used additive in chondrogenic media for differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The indispensability of other bioactive factors like TGF-β or dexamethasone in these medium formulations has been shown, but the role of insulin is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether insulin is essential for MSC chondrogenesis and if there is a dose-dependent effect of insulin on MSC chondrogenesis. We cultivated human MSCs in pellet culture in serum-free chondrogenic medium with insulin concentrations between 0 and 50 μg/ml and assessed the grade of chondrogenic differentiation by histological evaluation and determination of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), total collagen and DNA content. We further tested whether insulin can be delivered in an amount sufficient for MSC chondrogenesis via a drug delivery system in insulin-free medium. Chondrogenesis was not induced by standard chondrogenic medium without insulin and the expression of cartilage differentiation markers was dose-dependent at insulin concentrations between 0 and 10 μg/ml. An insulin concentration of 50 μg/ml had no additional effect compared with 10 μg/ml. Insulin was delivered by a release system into the cell culture under insulin-free conditions in an amount sufficient to induce chondrogenesis. Insulin is essential for MSC chondrogenesis in this system and chondrogenic differentiation is influenced by insulin in a dose-dependent manner. Insulin can be provided in a sufficient amount by a drug delivery system. Therefore, insulin is a suitable and inexpensive indicator substance for testing drug release systems in vitro.

  5. A bFGF-releasing silk/PLGA-based biohybrid scaffold for ligament/tendon tissue engineering using mesenchymal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Sambit; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James C H

    2010-04-01

    An ideal scaffold that provides a combination of suitable mechanical properties along with biological signals is required for successful ligament/tendon regeneration in mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering strategies. Among the various fibre-based scaffolds that have been used, hybrid fibrous scaffolds comprising both microfibres and nanofibres have been recently shown to be particularly promising. This study developed a biohybrid fibrous scaffold system by coating bioactive bFGF-releasing ultrafine PLGA fibres over mechanically robust slowly-degrading degummed knitted microfibrous silk scaffolds. On the ECM-like biomimetic architecture of ultrafine fibres, sustained release of bFGF mimicked the ECM in function, initially stimulating mesenchymal progenitor cell (MPC) proliferation, and subsequently, their tenogeneic differentiation. The biohybrid scaffold system not only facilitated MPC attachment and promoted cell proliferation, with cells growing both on ultrafine PLGA fibres and silk microfibres, but also stimulated tenogeneic differentiation of seeded MPCs. Upregulated gene expression of ligament/tendon-specific ECM proteins and increased collagen production likely contributed to enhancing mechanical properties of the constructs, generating a ligament/tendon analogue that has the potential to be used to repair injured ligaments/tendons. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Imaging gene expression in human mesenchymal stem cells: from small to large animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willmann, Jürgen K; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Rodriguez-Porcel, Martin

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning.......To evaluate the feasibility of reporter gene imaging in implanted human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in porcine myocardium by using clinical positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) scanning....

  7. Catabolic factors and osteoarthritis-conditioned medium inhibit chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldens, Genoveva T H; Blaney Davidson, Esmeralda N; Vitters, Elly L; Schreurs, B Willem; Piek, Ester; van den Berg, Wim B; van der Kraan, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Articular cartilage has a very limited intrinsic repair capacity leading to progressive joint damage. Therapies involving tissue engineering depend on chondrogenic differentiation of progenitor cells. This chondrogenic differentiation will have to survive in a diseased joint. We postulate that catabolic factors in this environment inhibit chondrogenesis of progenitor cells. We investigated the effect of a catabolic environment on chondrogenesis in pellet cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). We exposed chondrogenically differentiated hMSC pellets, to interleukin (IL)-1α, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α or conditioned medium derived from osteoarthritic synovium (CM-OAS). IL-1α and TNF-α in CM-OAS were blocked with IL-1Ra or Enbrel, respectively. Chondrogenesis was determined by chondrogenic markers collagen type II, aggrecan, and the hypertrophy marker collagen type X on mRNA. Proteoglycan deposition was analyzed by safranin o staining on histology. IL-1α and TNF-α dose-dependently inhibited chondrogenesis when added at onset or during progression of differentiation, IL-1α being more potent than TNF-α. CM-OAS inhibited chondrogenesis on mRNA and protein level but varied in extent between patients. Inhibition of IL-1α partially overcame the inhibitory effect of the CM-OAS on chondrogenesis whereas the TNF-α contribution was negligible. We show that hMSC chondrogenesis is blocked by either IL-1α or TNF-α alone, but that there are additional factors present in CM-OAS that contribute to inhibition of chondrogenesis, demonstrating that catabolic factors present in OA joints inhibit chondrogenesis, thereby impairing successful tissue engineering.

  8. Donor age of human platelet lysate affects proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Michael Lohmann

    Full Text Available The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL. In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1, but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years. Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal. HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1 or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3 were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation.

  9. Donor Age of Human Platelet Lysate Affects Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Michael; Walenda, Gudrun; Hemeda, Hatim; Joussen, Sylvia; Drescher, Wolf; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Hutschenreuter, Gabriele; Zenke, Martin; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The regenerative potential declines upon aging. This might be due to cell-intrinsic changes in stem and progenitor cells or to influences by the microenvironment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) raise high hopes in regenerative medicine. They are usually culture expanded in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or other serum supplements such as human platelet lysate (HPL). In this study, we have analyzed the impact of HPL-donor age on culture expansion. 31 single donor derived HPLs (25 to 57 years old) were simultaneously compared for culture of MSC. Proliferation of MSC did not reveal a clear association with platelet counts of HPL donors or growth factors concentrations (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, or IGF-1), but it was significantly higher with HPLs from younger donors (45 years). Furthermore, HPLs from older donors increased activity of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-βgal). HPL-donor age did not affect the fibroblastoid colony-forming unit (CFU-f) frequency, immunophenotype or induction of adipogenic differentiation, whereas osteogenic differentiation was significantly lower with HPLs from older donors. Concentrations of various growth factors (PDGF-AB, TGF-β1, bFGF, IGF-1) or hormones (estradiol, parathormone, leptin, 1,25 vitamin D3) were not associated with HPL-donor age or MSC growth. Taken together, our data support the notion that aging is associated with systemic feedback mechanisms acting on stem and progenitor cells, and this is also relevant for serum supplements in cell culture: HPLs derived from younger donors facilitate enhanced expansion and more pronounced osteogenic differentiation. PMID:22662236

  10. Priming 3D cultures of human mesenchymal stromal cells toward cartilage formation via developmental pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centola, Matteo; Tonnarelli, Beatrice; Schären, Stefan; Glaser, Nicolas; Barbero, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    The field of regenerative medicine has increasingly recognized the importance to be inspired by developmental processes to identify signaling pathways crucial for 3D organogenesis and tissue regeneration. Here, we aimed at recapitulating the first events occurring during limb development (ie, cell condensation and expansion of an undifferentiated mesenchymal cell population) to prime 3D cultures of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hBM-MSC) toward the chondrogenic route. Based on embryonic development studies, we hypothesized that Wnt3a and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) induce hBM-MSC to proliferate in 3D culture as an undifferentiated pool of progenitors (defined by clonogenic capacity and expression of typical markers), retaining chondrogenic potential upon induction by suitable morphogens. hBM-MSC were responsive to Wnt signaling in 3D pellet culture, as assessed by significant upregulation of main target genes and increase of unphosphorylated β-catenin levels. Wnt3a was able to induce a five-fold increase in the number of proliferating hBM-MSC (6.4% vs. 1.3% in the vehicle condition), although total DNA content of the 3D construct was decreasing over time. Preconditioning with Wnt3a improved transforming growth factor-β1 mediated chondrogenesis (30% more glycosaminoglycans/cell in average). In contrast to developmental and 2D MSC culture models, FGF2 antagonized the Wnt-mediated effects. Interestingly, the CD146⁺ subpopulation was found to be more responsive to Wnt3a. The presented data indicate a possible strategy to prime 3D cultures of hBM-MSC by invoking a "developmental engineering" approach. The study also identifies some opportunities and challenges to cross-fertilize skeletal development models and 3D hBM-MSC culture systems.

  11. Differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids under microgravity conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang H Cerwinka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop and characterize a novel cell culture method for the generation of undifferentiated and differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell 3D structures, we utilized the RWV system with a gelatin-based scaffold. 3 × 106 cells generated homogeneous spheroids and maximum spheroid loading was accomplished after 3 days of culture. Spheroids cultured in undifferentiated spheroids of 3 and 10 days retained expression of CD44, without expression of differentiation markers. Spheroids cultured in adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation media exhibited oil red O staining and von Kossa staining, respectively. Further characterization of osteogenic lineage, showed that 10 day spheroids exhibited stronger calcification than any other experimental group corresponding with significant expression of vitamin D receptor, alkaline phosphatase, and ERp60 . In conclusion this study describes a novel RWV culture method that allowed efficacious engineering of undifferentiated human mesenchymal stem cell spheroids and rapid osteogenic differentiation. The use of gelatin scaffolds holds promise to design implantable stem cell tissue of various sizes and shapes for future regenerative treatment.

  12. The effects of nanophase ceramic materials on select functions of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulgar-Tulloch, Aaron Joseph

    2005-11-01

    Modification of the chemistry and surface topography of nanophase ceramics can provide biomaterial formulations capable of directing the functions of adherent cells. This effect relies on the type, amount, and conformation of adsorbed proteins that mediate the adhesion of mesenchymally-descended lineages. The mechanisms driving this response are not yet well-understood and have not been investigated for human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs), a progenitor-lineage critical to orthopaedic biomaterials. The present study addressed these needs by examining the in vitro adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of HMSCs as a function of substrate chemistry and grain size, with particular attention to the protein-mediated mechanisms of cell adhesion. Alumina, titania, and hydroxyapatite substrates were prepared with 1500, 200, 50, and 24 (alumina only) nm grain sizes, and characterized with respect to surface properties, porosity, composition, and phase. Adhesion of HMSCs was dependent upon both chemistry and grain size. Specifically, adhesion on alumina and hydroxyapatite was reduced on 50 and 24 (alumina only) nm surfaces, as compared to 1500 and 200 nm surfaces, while adhesion on titania substrates was independent of grain size. Investigation into the protein-mediated mechanisms of this response identified vitronectin as the dominant adhesive protein, demonstrated random protein distribution across the substrate surface without aggregation or segregation, and confirmed the importance of the type, amount, and conformation of adsorbed proteins in cell adhesion. Minimal cell proliferation was observed on 50 and 24 (alumina only) nm substrates of any chemistry. Furthermore, cell proliferation was up-regulated on 200 nm substrates after 7 days of culture. Osteogenic differentiation was not detected on 50 nm substrates throughout the 28 day culture period. In contrast, osteogenic differentiation was strongly enhanced on 200 nm substrates, occurring approximately

  13. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs from Human Adenoid Tissue

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    Yoon Se Lee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs are multipotent progenitor cells that originally derived from bone marrow. Clinical use of bone marrow-derived MSC is difficult due to morbidity and low MSC abundance and isolation efficiency. Recently, MSCs have been isolated from various adult tissues. Here we report the isolation of adenoid tissue-derived MSCs (A-MSCs and their characteristics. Methods: We compared the surface markers, morphologies, and differentiation and proliferation capacities of previously established tonsil-derived MSCs (T-MSCs and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs with cells isolated from adenoid tissue. The immunophenotype of A-MSCs was investigated upon interferon (IFN-γ stimulation. Results: A-MSCs, T-MSCs, and BM-MSCs showed negative CD45, CD31 HLA-DR, CD34, CD14, CD19 and positive CD 90, CD44, CD73, CD105 expression. A-MSCs were fibroblast-like, spindle-shaped non-adherent cells, similar to T-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Adipogenesis was observed in A-MSCs by the formation of lipid droplets after Oil Red O staining. Osteogenesis was observed by the formation of the matrix mineralization in Alizarin Red staining. Chondrogenesis was observed by the accumulation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan-rich matrix in collagen type II staining. These data were similar to those of T-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Expression of marker genes (i.e., adipogenesis; lipoprotein lipase, proliferator-activator receptor-gamma, osteogenesis; osteocalcin, alkaline phasphatase, chondrogenesis; aggrecan, collagen type II α1 in A-MSCs were not different from those in T-MSCs and BM-MSCs. Conclusions: A-MSCs possess the characteristics of MSCs in terms of morphology, multipotent differentiation capacity, cell surface markers, and immunogeneity. Therefore, A-MSCs fulfill the definition of MSCs and represent an alternate source of MSCs.

  14. microRNA 126 inhibits the transition of endothelial progenitor cells to mesenchymal cells via the PIK3R2-PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Zongqi; Zhang, David Y; Zhu, Jianbing; Zhang, Tiantian; Wang, Changqian

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are capable of proliferating and differentiating into mature endothelial cells, and they have been considered as potential candidates for coronary heart disease therapy. However, the transition of EPCs to mesenchymal cells is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the role of microRNA 126 (miR-126) in the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1). EndMT of rat bone marrow-derived EPCs was induced by TGFβ1 (5 ng/mL) for 7 days. miR-126 expression was depressed in the process of EPC EndMT. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the PI3K regulatory subunit p85 beta (PIK3R2) was a direct target of miR-126 in EPCs. Overexpression of miR-126 by a lentiviral vector (lenti-miR-126) was found to downregulate the mRNA expression of mesenchymal cell markers (α-SMA, sm22-a, and myocardin) and to maintain the mRNA expression of progenitor cell markers (CD34, CD133). In the cellular process of EndMT, there was an increase in the protein expression of PIK3R2 and the nuclear transcription factors FoxO3 and Smad4; PI3K and phosphor-Akt expression decreased, a change that was reversed markedly by overexpression of miR-126. Furthermore, knockdown of PIK3R2 gene expression level showed reversed morphological changes of the EPCs treated with TGFβ1, thereby giving the evidence that PIK3R2 is the target gene of miR-126 during EndMT process. These results show that miR-126 targets PIK3R2 to inhibit EPC EndMT and that this process involves regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. miR-126 has the potential to be used as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of intimal hyperplasia in cardiovascular disease and can even be a therapeutic tool for treating cardiovascular diseases mediated by the EndMT process.

  15. microRNA 126 inhibits the transition of endothelial progenitor cells to mesenchymal cells via the PIK3R2-PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Zhang

    Full Text Available AIMS: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs are capable of proliferating and differentiating into mature endothelial cells, and they have been considered as potential candidates for coronary heart disease therapy. However, the transition of EPCs to mesenchymal cells is not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the role of microRNA 126 (miR-126 in the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT induced by transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1. METHODS AND RESULTS: EndMT of rat bone marrow-derived EPCs was induced by TGFβ1 (5 ng/mL for 7 days. miR-126 expression was depressed in the process of EPC EndMT. The luciferase reporter assay showed that the PI3K regulatory subunit p85 beta (PIK3R2 was a direct target of miR-126 in EPCs. Overexpression of miR-126 by a lentiviral vector (lenti-miR-126 was found to downregulate the mRNA expression of mesenchymal cell markers (α-SMA, sm22-a, and myocardin and to maintain the mRNA expression of progenitor cell markers (CD34, CD133. In the cellular process of EndMT, there was an increase in the protein expression of PIK3R2 and the nuclear transcription factors FoxO3 and Smad4; PI3K and phosphor-Akt expression decreased, a change that was reversed markedly by overexpression of miR-126. Furthermore, knockdown of PIK3R2 gene expression level showed reversed morphological changes of the EPCs treated with TGFβ1, thereby giving the evidence that PIK3R2 is the target gene of miR-126 during EndMT process. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that miR-126 targets PIK3R2 to inhibit EPC EndMT and that this process involves regulation of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway. miR-126 has the potential to be used as a biomarker for the early diagnosis of intimal hyperplasia in cardiovascular disease and can even be a therapeutic tool for treating cardiovascular diseases mediated by the EndMT process.

  16. Expansion of Adult Human Pancreatic Tissue Yields Organoids Harboring Progenitor Cells with Endocrine Differentiation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy J.M. Loomans

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Generating an unlimited source of human insulin-producing cells is a prerequisite to advance β cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here, we describe a 3D culture system that supports the expansion of adult human pancreatic tissue and the generation of a cell subpopulation with progenitor characteristics. These cells display high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDHhi, express pancreatic progenitors markers (PDX1, PTF1A, CPA1, and MYC, and can form new organoids in contrast to ALDHlo cells. Interestingly, gene expression profiling revealed that ALDHhi cells are closer to human fetal pancreatic tissue compared with adult pancreatic tissue. Endocrine lineage markers were detected upon in vitro differentiation. Engrafted organoids differentiated toward insulin-positive (INS+ cells, and circulating human C-peptide was detected upon glucose challenge 1 month after transplantation. Engrafted ALDHhi cells formed INS+ cells. We conclude that adult human pancreatic tissue has potential for expansion into 3D structures harboring progenitor cells with endocrine differentiation potential. : In the context of β cell replacement therapy for diabetes, de Koning and colleagues describe a 3D culture platform that supports ex vivo expansion of human pancreatic tissue as organoids. These organoids harbor a subpopulation of ALDHhi cells that display proliferative capacity and can differentiate to an endocrine fate. Keywords: pancreas, organoid, human, ALDH, endocrine differentiation, beta cells, insulin, progenitor, fetal, diabetes

  17. Wharton's Jelly Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Comparing Human and Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Barbara; Teti, Gabriella; Mazzotti, Eleonora; Ingrà, Laura; Salvatore, Viviana; Buzzi, Marina; Cerqueni, Giorgia; Dicarlo, Manuela; Lanci, Aliai; Castagnetti, Carolina; Iacono, Eleonora

    2018-08-01

    Wharton's jelly (WJ) is an important source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) both in human and other animals. The aim of this study was to compare human and equine WJMSCs. Human and equine WJMSCs were isolated and cultured using the same protocols and culture media. Cells were characterized by analysing morphology, growth rate, migration and adhesion capability, immunophenotype, differentiation potential and ultrastructure. Results showed that human and equine WJMSCs have similar ultrastructural details connected with intense synthetic and metabolic activity, but differ in growth, migration, adhesion capability and differentiation potential. In fact, at the scratch assay and transwell migration assay, the migration ability of human WJMSCs was higher (P cells, while the volume of spheroids obtained after 48 h of culture in hanging drop was larger than the volume of equine ones (P cell adhesion ability. This can also revealed in the lower doubling time of equine cells (3.5 ± 2.4 days) as compared to human (6.5 ± 4.3 days) (P cell doubling after 44 days of culture observed for the equine (20.3 ± 1.7) as compared to human cells (8.7 ± 2.4) (P cells showed an higher chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation ability (P staminal phenotype in human and equine WJMSCs, they showed different properties reflecting the different sources of MSCs.

  18. Low/Negative Expression of PDGFR-α Identifies the Candidate Primary Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Adult Human Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhe Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human bone marrow (BM contains a rare population of nonhematopoietic mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, which are of central importance for the hematopoietic microenvironment. However, the precise phenotypic definition of these cells in adult BM has not yet been reported. In this study, we show that low/negative expression of CD140a (PDGFR-α on lin−/CD45−/CD271+ BM cells identified a cell population with very high MSC activity, measured as fibroblastic colony-forming unit frequency and typical in vitro and in vivo stroma formation and differentiation capacities. Furthermore, these cells exhibited high levels of genes associated with mesenchymal lineages and HSC supportive function. Moreover, lin−/CD45−/CD271+/CD140alow/− cells effectively mediated the ex vivo expansion of transplantable CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these data indicate that CD140a is a key negative selection marker for adult human BM-MSCs, which enables to prospectively isolate a close to pure population of candidate human adult stroma stem/progenitor cells with potent hematopoiesis-supporting capacity.

  19. Isolation and characterization of adult human liver progenitors from ischemic liver tissue derived from therapeutic hepatectomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelscheid, Harald; Urbaniak, Thomas; Ring, Alexander; Spengler, Berlind; Gerlach, Jörg C; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2009-07-01

    Recent evidence suggests that progenitor cells in adult tissues and embryonic stem cells share a high resistance to hypoxia and ischemic stress. To study the ischemic resistance of adult liver progenitors, we characterized remaining viable cells in human liver tissue after cold ischemic treatment for 24-168 h, applied to the tissue before cell isolation. In vitro cultures of isolated cells showed a rapid decline of the number of different cell types with increasing ischemia length. After all ischemic periods, liver progenitor-like cells could be observed. The comparably small cells exhibited a low cytoplasm-to-nucleus ratio, formed densely packed colonies, and showed a hepatobiliary marker profile. The cells expressed epithelial cell adhesion molecule, epithelial-specific (CK8/18) and biliary-specific (CK7/19) cytokeratins, albumin, alpha-1-antitrypsin, cytochrome-P450 enzymes, as well as weak levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4 and gamma-glutamyl transferase, but not alpha-fetoprotein or Thy-1. In vitro survival and expansion was facilitated by coculture with mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Hepatic progenitor-like cells exhibit a high resistance to ischemic stress and can be isolated from human liver tissue after up to 7 days of ischemia. Ischemic liver tissue from various sources, thought to be unsuitable for cell isolation, may be considered as a prospective source of hepatic progenitor cells.

  20. Effect of Dynamic Culture and Periodic Compression on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ting; Yu, Li; Lim, Casey G; Goodley, Addison S; Xiao, Xuan; Placone, Jesse K; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Hsieh, Adam H; Fisher, John P

    2016-07-01

    We have recently developed a bioreactor that can apply both shear and compressive forces to engineered tissues in dynamic culture. In our system, alginate hydrogel beads with encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured under different dynamic conditions while subjected to periodic, compressive force. A customized pressure sensor was developed to track the pressure fluctuations when shear forces and compressive forces were applied. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture can maintain a higher cell population throughout the study. With the application of only shear stress, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that hMSCs experienced less chondrogenic differentiation than the static group. The second study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was enhanced by additional mechanical compression. After 14 days, alcian blue staining showed more extracellular matrix formed in the compression group. The upregulation of the positive chondrogenic markers such as Sox 9, aggrecan, and type II collagen were demonstrated by qPCR. Our bioreactor provides a novel approach to apply mechanical forces to engineered cartilage. Results suggest that a combination of dynamic culture with proper mechanical stimulation may promote efficient progenitor cell expansion in vitro, thereby allowing the culture of clinically relevant articular chondrocytes for the treatment of articular cartilage defects.

  1. Hypoxia enhances proliferation and tissue formation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grayson, Warren L.; Zhao, Feng; Bunnell, Bruce; Ma, Teng

    2007-01-01

    Changes in oxygen concentrations affect many of the innate characteristics of stem and progenitor cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were maintained under hypoxic atmospheres (2% O 2 ) for up to seven in vitro passages. This resulted in approximately 30-fold higher hMSC expansion over 6 weeks without loss of multi-lineage differentiation capabilities. Under hypoxia, hMSCs maintained their growth-rates even after reaching confluence, resulting in the formation of multiple cell layers. Hypoxic hMSCs also displayed differences in the cell and nuclear morphologies as well as enhanced ECM formation and organization. These changes in cellular characteristics were accompanied by higher mRNA levels of Oct-4 and HIF-2α, as well as increased expression levels of connexin-43, a protein used in gap junction formation. The results from this study demonstrated that oxygen concentrations affected many aspects of stem-cell physiology, including growth and in vitro development, and may be a critical parameter during expansion and differentiation

  2. In vitro expression of erythropoietin by transfected human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, P-L; Cheong, S-K; Leong, C-F; Othman, A

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are pluripotent progenitor cells that can be found in human bone marrow (BM). These cells have low immunogenicity and could suppress alloreactive T-cell responses. In the current study, MSC were tested for their capacity to carry and deliver the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in vitro. Expanded BM MSC was transfected with EPO-encoded plasmid pMCV1.2 and EPO-encoded MIDGE (minimalistic immunologically defined gene expression) vector by electroporation. The expressed EPO was used to induce hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) into erythroid colonies. The results showed that the MIDGE vector was more effective and stable than the plasmid (pMCV1.2) in delivering EPO gene into MSC. The supernatants containing EPO obtained from the transfected cell culture were able to induce the differentiation of HSC into erythroid colonies. MSC hold promise as a cell factory for the production of biologic molecules, and MIDGE vector is more effective and stable than the plasmid in nucleofection involving the EPO gene.

  3. Transformation of human mesenchymal cells and skin fibroblasts into hematopoietic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Harris

    Full Text Available Patients with prolonged myelosuppression require frequent platelet and occasional granulocyte transfusions. Multi-donor transfusions induce alloimmunization, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an autologous or HLA-matched allogeneic source of platelets and granulocytes is needed. To determine whether nonhematopoietic cells can be reprogrammed into hematopoietic cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs and skin fibroblasts were incubated with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (Aza and the growth factors (GF granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor. This treatment transformed MSCs to round, non-adherent cells expressing T-, B-, myeloid-, or stem/progenitor-cell markers. The transformed cells engrafted as hematopoietic cells in bone marrow of immunodeficient mice. DNA methylation and mRNA array analysis suggested that Aza and GF treatment demethylated and activated HOXB genes. Indeed, transfection of MSCs or skin fibroblasts with HOXB4, HOXB5, and HOXB2 genes transformed them into hematopoietic cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether transformed MSCs or skin fibroblasts are suitable for therapy.

  4. Characterization of distinct mesenchymal-like cell populations from human skeletal muscle in situ and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecourt, Severine, E-mail: severine.lecourt@sls.aphp.fr [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Marolleau, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: Marolleau.Jean-Pierre@chu-amiens.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); CHU Amiens Hopital Sud, Service d' Hematologie Clinique, UPJV, Amiens (France); Fromigue, Olivia, E-mail: olivia.fromigue@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Vauchez, Karine, E-mail: k.vauchez@institut-myologie.org [UPMC/AIM UMR S 974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); INSERM U974, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); CNRS UMR 7215, Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Genzyme S.A.S., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Andriamanalijaona, Rina, E-mail: rinandria@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Ternaux, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.ternaux@orange.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Lacassagne, Marie-Noelle, E-mail: mnlacassagne@free.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Robert, Isabelle, E-mail: isa-robert@hotmail.fr [Laboratoire de Therapie Cellulaire, Hopital Saint Louis, Paris (France); Boumediene, Karim, E-mail: karim.boumediene@unicaen.fr [Laboratoire de Biochimie des Tissus Conjonctifs, Faculte de Medecine, Caen (France); Chereau, Frederic, E-mail: fchereau@pervasistx.com [Myosix S.A., Saint-Germain en Laye (France); Marie, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.marie@larib.inserm.fr [INSERM U606, Universite Paris 07, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); and others

    2010-09-10

    Human skeletal muscle is an essential source of various cellular progenitors with potential therapeutic perspectives. We first used extracellular markers to identify in situ the main cell types located in a satellite position or in the endomysium of the skeletal muscle. Immunohistology revealed labeling of cells by markers of mesenchymal (CD13, CD29, CD44, CD47, CD49, CD62, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146, and CD15 in this study), myogenic (CD56), angiogenic (CD31, CD34, CD106, CD146), hematopoietic (CD10, CD15, CD34) lineages. We then analysed cell phenotypes and fates in short- and long-term cultures of dissociated muscle biopsies in a proliferation medium favouring the expansion of myogenic cells. While CD56{sup +} cells grew rapidly, a population of CD15{sup +} cells emerged, partly from CD56{sup +} cells, and became individualized. Both populations expressed mesenchymal markers similar to that harboured by human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. In differentiation media, both CD56{sup +} and CD15{sup +} cells shared osteogenic and chondrogenic abilities, while CD56{sup +} cells presented a myogenic capacity and CD15{sup +} cells presented an adipogenic capacity. An important proportion of cells expressed the CD34 antigen in situ and immediately after muscle dissociation. However, CD34 antigen did not persist in culture and this initial population gave rise to adipogenic cells. These results underline the diversity of human muscle cells, and the shared or restricted commitment abilities of the main lineages under defined conditions.

  5. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...

  6. A Cell Model to Evaluate Chemical Effects on Adult Human Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult cardiac stem cells (CSC) and progenitor cells (CPC) represent a population of cells in the heart critical for its regeneration and function over a lifetime. The impact of chemicals on adult human CSC/CPC differentiation and function is unknown. Research was conducted to dev...

  7. Xenotransplantation of human neural progenitor cells to the subretinal space of nonimmunosuppressed pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warfvinge, Karin; Schwartz, Philip H; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of transplanting human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) to the retina of nonimmunosuppressed pigs, cultured hNPCs were injected into the subretinal space of 5 adult pigs after laser burns were applied to promote donor cell integration. Postoperatively, the retinal ve...... that modulation of host immunity is likely necessary for prolonged xenograft survival in this model....

  8. Generation of hepatocyte- and endocrine pancreatic-like cells from human induced endodermal progenitor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sambathkumar, Rangarajan; Akkerman, Renate; Dastidar, Sumitava; Roelandt, Philip; Kumar, Manoj; Bajaj, Manmohan; Mestre Rosa, Ana Rita; Helsen, Nicky; Vanslembrouck, Veerle; Kalo, Eric; Khurana, Satish; Laureys, Jos; Gysemans, Conny; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul; Verfaillie, Catherine M

    2018-01-01

    Multipotent Adult Progenitor Cells (MAPCs) are one potential stem cell source to generate functional hepatocytes or β-cells. However, human MAPCs have less plasticity than pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), as their ability to generate endodermal cells is not robust. Here we studied the role of 14

  9. Osteogenic differentiation of human dental papilla mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Etsuko; Hirose, Motohiro; Kotobuki, Noriko; Shimaoka, Hideki; Tadokoro, Mika; Maeda, Masahiko; Hayashi, Yoshiko; Kirita, Tadaaki; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    We isolated dental papilla from impacted human molar and proliferated adherent fibroblastic cells after collagenase treatment of the papilla. The cells were negative for hematopoietic markers but positive for CD29, CD44, CD90, CD105, and CD166. When the cells were further cultured in the presence of β-glycerophosphate, ascorbic acid, and dexamethasone for 14 days, mineralized areas together with osteogenic differentiation evidenced by high alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin contents were observed. The differentiation was confirmed at both protein and gene expression levels. The cells can also be cryopreserved and, after thawing, could show in vivo bone-forming capability. These results indicate that mesenchymal type cells localize in dental papilla and that the cells can be culture expanded/utilized for bone tissue engineering

  10. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiat...

  11. Human Urine-Derived Renal Progenitors for Personalized Modeling of Genetic Kidney Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Elena; Ronconi, Elisa; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Peired, Anna; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Becherucci, Francesca; Conti, Sara; Sansavini, Giulia; Sisti, Alessandro; Ravaglia, Fiammetta; Lombardi, Duccio; Provenzano, Aldesia; Manonelles, Anna; Cruzado, Josep M; Giglio, Sabrina; Roperto, Rosa Maria; Materassi, Marco; Lasagni, Laura; Romagnani, Paola

    2015-08-01

    The critical role of genetic and epigenetic factors in the pathogenesis of kidney disorders is gradually becoming clear, and the need for disease models that recapitulate human kidney disorders in a personalized manner is paramount. In this study, we describe a method to select and amplify renal progenitor cultures from the urine of patients with kidney disorders. Urine-derived human renal progenitors exhibited phenotype and functional properties identical to those purified from kidney tissue, including the capacity to differentiate into tubular cells and podocytes, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy, Western blot analysis of podocyte-specific proteins, and scanning electron microscopy. Lineage tracing studies performed with conditional transgenic mice, in which podocytes are irreversibly tagged upon tamoxifen treatment (NPHS2.iCreER;mT/mG), that were subjected to doxorubicin nephropathy demonstrated that renal progenitors are the only urinary cell population that can be amplified in long-term culture. To validate the use of these cells for personalized modeling of kidney disorders, renal progenitors were obtained from (1) the urine of children with nephrotic syndrome and carrying potentially pathogenic mutations in genes encoding for podocyte proteins and (2) the urine of children without genetic alterations, as validated by next-generation sequencing. Renal progenitors obtained from patients carrying pathogenic mutations generated podocytes that exhibited an abnormal cytoskeleton structure and functional abnormalities compared with those obtained from patients with proteinuria but without genetic mutations. The results of this study demonstrate that urine-derived patient-specific renal progenitor cultures may be an innovative research tool for modeling of genetic kidney disorders. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  13. Human neural progenitors express functional lysophospholipid receptors that regulate cell growth and morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callihan Phillip

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lysophospholipids regulate the morphology and growth of neurons, neural cell lines, and neural progenitors. A stable human neural progenitor cell line is not currently available in which to study the role of lysophospholipids in human neural development. We recently established a stable, adherent human embryonic stem cell-derived neuroepithelial (hES-NEP cell line which recapitulates morphological and phenotypic features of neural progenitor cells isolated from fetal tissue. The goal of this study was to determine if hES-NEP cells express functional lysophospholipid receptors, and if activation of these receptors mediates cellular responses critical for neural development. Results Our results demonstrate that Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA and Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P receptors are functionally expressed in hES-NEP cells and are coupled to multiple cellular signaling pathways. We have shown that transcript levels for S1P1 receptor increased significantly in the transition from embryonic stem cell to hES-NEP. hES-NEP cells express LPA and S1P receptors coupled to Gi/o G-proteins that inhibit adenylyl cyclase and to Gq-like phospholipase C activity. LPA and S1P also induce p44/42 ERK MAP kinase phosphorylation in these cells and stimulate cell proliferation via Gi/o coupled receptors in an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR- and ERK-dependent pathway. In contrast, LPA and S1P stimulate transient cell rounding and aggregation that is independent of EGFR and ERK, but dependent on the Rho effector p160 ROCK. Conclusion Thus, lysophospholipids regulate neural progenitor growth and morphology through distinct mechanisms. These findings establish human ES cell-derived NEP cells as a model system for studying the role of lysophospholipids in neural progenitors.

  14. Oxygen Tension Regulates Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Paracrine Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Joseph; Deschepper, Mickael; Moya, Adrien; Logeart-Avramoglou, Delphine; Boisson-Vidal, Catherine; Petite, Hervé

    2015-07-01

    : Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured the attention and research endeavors of the scientific world because of their differentiation potential. However, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that the beneficial effects of MSCs are predominantly due to the multitude of bioactive mediators secreted by these cells. Because the paracrine potential of MSCs is closely related to their microenvironment, the present study investigated and characterized select aspects of the human MSC (hMSC) secretome and assessed its in vitro and in vivo bioactivity as a function of oxygen tension, specifically near anoxia (0.1% O2) and hypoxia (5% O2), conditions that reflect the environment to which MSCs are exposed during MSC-based therapies in vivo. In contrast to supernatant conditioned media (CM) obtained from hMSCs cultured at either 5% or 21% of O2, CM from hMSCs cultured under near anoxia exhibited significantly (p mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) secretome and assessed its in vitro and in vivo biological bioactivity as a function of oxygen tension, specifically near anoxia (0.1% O2) and hypoxia (5% O2), conditions that reflect the environment to which MSCs are exposed during MSC-based therapies in vivo. The present study provided the first evidence of a shift of the hMSC cytokine signature induced by oxygen tension, particularly near anoxia (0.1% O2). Conditioned media obtained from hMSCs cultured under near anoxia exhibited significantly enhanced chemotactic and proangiogenic properties and a significant decrease in the inflammatory mediator content. These findings provide new evidence that elucidates aspects of great importance for the use of MSCs in regenerative medicine, could contribute to improving the efficacy of such therapies, and most importantly highlighted the interest in using conditioned media in therapeutic modalities. ©AlphaMed Press.

  15. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detamore, Michael S

    2013-11-25

    Cells of the human umbilical cord offer tremendous potential for improving human health. Cells from the Wharton’s jelly (umbilical cord stroma) in particular, referred to as human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cells (HUCMSCs), hold several advantages that make them appealing for translational research. In the previous issue of Stem Cell Research & Therapy, Chon and colleagues made an important contribution to the HUCMSC literature not only by presenting HUCMSCs as an emerging cell source for intervertebral disc regeneration in general and the nucleus pulposus in particular, but also by demonstrating that an extracellular matrix-based strategy might be preferred over the use of growth factors. By culturing HUCMSCs under hypoxia in serum-free conditions in the presence of Matrigel with laminin-111, they were able to achieve intense collagen II staining by 21 days without the addition of exogenous growth factors. There is tremendous translational significance here in that such raw materials may alleviate the need for the use of growth factors in some instances, and this may have important ramifications in reducing product cost and streamlining regulatory approval. Chon and colleagues provide a promising example of the potential of HUCMSCs, demonstrating the ability to guide HUCMSC differentiation even in the absence of serum and growth factors and supporting the use of HUCMSCs as a viable alternative in intervertebral disc regeneration.

  16. Osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal progenitor cell, Kusa-A1 is promoted by mammalian transcriptional repressor Rbpj

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shengchao [Department of Preventive Dentistry, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, 145 West Changle Road, 710032 Xi' an (China); Kawashima, Nobuyuki, E-mail: kawashima.n.endo@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Pulp Biology and Endodontics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Sakamoto, Kei; Katsube, Ken-ichi [Department of Oral Pathology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); Umezawa, Akihiro [Department of Reproductive Biology and Pathology, National Institute for Child Health and Development, 2-10-4 Ohkura, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 157-8535 (Japan); Suda, Hideaki [Department of Pulp Biology and Endodontics, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan); GCOE Program, International Research Center for Molecular Science in Tooth and Bone Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549 (Japan)

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} High Rbpj mRNA expression was observed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the bone of mouse embryos. {yields} Overexpression of Rbpj depressed Notch-Hes1/Hey1 signaling. {yields} Rbpj upregulated promoter activities of Runx2 and Ose2. {yields} Rbpj promoted osteoblastic differentiation/maturation in Kusa-A1 cells. -- Abstract: Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells possess the ability to differentiate into many cell types, but the precise mechanisms of differentiation are still unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Rbpj (recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa j region) protein, the primary nuclear mediator of Notch, is involved in osteogenesis. Overexpression of Rbpj promoted osteogenic differentiation of mouse Kusa-A1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Transient transfection of an Rbpj expression vector into Kusa-A1 cells upregulated promoter activities of Runx2 and Ose2. Enhanced osteogenic potentials including high alkaline phosphatase activity, rapid calcium deposition, and increased calcified nodule formation, were observed in established stable Rbpj-overexpressing Kusa-A1 (Kusa-A1/Rbpj) cell line. In vivo mineralization by Kusa-A1/Rbpj was promoted compared to that by Kusa-A1 host cells. Histological findings revealed that expression of Rbpj was primarily observed in osteoblasts. These results suggest that Rbpj may play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation.

  17. Osteogenic differentiation of mouse mesenchymal progenitor cell, Kusa-A1 is promoted by mammalian transcriptional repressor Rbpj

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shengchao; Kawashima, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Kei; Katsube, Ken-ichi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Suda, Hideaki

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → High Rbpj mRNA expression was observed in mesenchymal cells surrounding the bone of mouse embryos. → Overexpression of Rbpj depressed Notch-Hes1/Hey1 signaling. → Rbpj upregulated promoter activities of Runx2 and Ose2. → Rbpj promoted osteoblastic differentiation/maturation in Kusa-A1 cells. -- Abstract: Pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells possess the ability to differentiate into many cell types, but the precise mechanisms of differentiation are still unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Rbpj (recombination signal-binding protein for immunoglobulin kappa j region) protein, the primary nuclear mediator of Notch, is involved in osteogenesis. Overexpression of Rbpj promoted osteogenic differentiation of mouse Kusa-A1 cells in vitro and in vivo. Transient transfection of an Rbpj expression vector into Kusa-A1 cells upregulated promoter activities of Runx2 and Ose2. Enhanced osteogenic potentials including high alkaline phosphatase activity, rapid calcium deposition, and increased calcified nodule formation, were observed in established stable Rbpj-overexpressing Kusa-A1 (Kusa-A1/Rbpj) cell line. In vivo mineralization by Kusa-A1/Rbpj was promoted compared to that by Kusa-A1 host cells. Histological findings revealed that expression of Rbpj was primarily observed in osteoblasts. These results suggest that Rbpj may play essential roles in osteoblast differentiation.

  18. Immortalization of human myogenic progenitor cell clone retaining multipotentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Naohiro; Kiyono, Tohru; Wada, Michiko R.; Shimizu, Shirabe; Yasumoto, Shigeru; Inagawa, Masayo

    2006-01-01

    Human myogenic cells have limited ability to proliferate in culture. Although forced expression of telomerase can immortalize some cell types, telomerase alone delays senescence of human primary cultured myogenic cells, but fails to immortalize them. In contrast, constitutive expression of both telomerase and the E7 gene from human papillomavirus type 16 immortalizes primary human myogenic cells. We have established an immortalized primary human myogenic cell line preserving multipotentiality by ectopic expression of telomerase and E7. The immortalized human myogenic cells exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of their primary parent, including an ability to undergo myogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic terminal differentiation under appropriate culture conditions. The immortalized cells will be useful for both basic and applied studies aimed at human muscle disorders. Furthermore, immortalization by transduction of telomerase and E7 represents a useful method by which to expand human myogenic cells in vitro without compromising their ability to differentiate

  19. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Romain Barbet; Isabelle Peiffer; Antoinette Hatzfeld; Pierre Charbord; Jacques A. Hatzfeld

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs ...

  20. Comparisons of phenotype and immunomodulatory capacity among rhesus bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells, multipotent adult progenitor cells, and dermal fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Clarkson, Christina; Graham, Melanie; Donahue, Robert; Hering, Bernhard J.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.; Bansal-Pakala, Pratima; O'Brien, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Potent immunomodulatory effects have been reported for mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), and fibroblasts. However, side-by-side comparisons of these cells specifically regarding immunophenotype, gene expression, and suppression of proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocyte populations have not been reported. Methods We developed MAPC and MSC lines from rhesus macaque bone marrow and fibroblast cell lines from rhesus dermis and assessed phenotypes based upon differentiation potential, flow cytometric analysis of immunophenotype, and quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression. Using allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation assays, we compared the in vitro immunomodulatory potency of each cell type. Results and Conclusions Extensive phenotypic similarities exist among each cell type, although immunosuppressive potencies are distinct. MAPCs are most potent, and fibroblasts are the least potent cell type. All three cell types demonstrated immunomodulatory capacity such that each may have potential therapeutic applications such as in organ transplantation, where reduced local immune response is desirable. PMID:24825538

  1. Bone engineering in dog mandible: Coculturing mesenchymal stem cells with endothelial progenitor cells in a composite scaffold containing vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khojasteh, Arash; Fahimipour, Farahnaz; Jafarian, Mohammad; Sharifi, Davoud; Jahangir, Shahrbanoo; Khayyatan, Fahimeh; Baghaban Eslaminejad, Mohamadreza

    2017-10-01

    We sought to assess the effects of coculturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the repair of dog mandible bone defects. The cells were delivered in β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds coated with poly lactic co-glycolic acid microspheres that gradually release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). The complete scaffold and five partial scaffolds were implanted in bilateral mandibular body defects in eight beagles. The scaffolds were examined histologically and morphometrically 8 weeks after implantation. Histologic staining of the decalcified scaffolds demonstrated that bone formation was greatest in the VEGF/MSC scaffold (63.42 ± 1.67), followed by the VEGF/MSC/EPC (47.8 ± 1.87) and MSC/EPC (45.21 ± 1.6) scaffolds, the MSC scaffold (34.59 ± 1.49), the VEGF scaffold (20.03 ± 1.29), and the untreated scaffold (7.24 ± 0.08). Hence, the rate of new bone regeneration was highest in scaffolds containing MSC, either mixed with EPC or incorporating VEGF. Adding both EPC and VEGF with the MSC was not necessary. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1767-1777, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Use of Limiting Dilution Method for Isolation of Nucleus Pulposus Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells and Effects of Plating Density on Biological Characteristics and Plasticity

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    Linghan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate the effects of the limiting dilution method and plating density in rat nucleus pulposus mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (NPMSCs. Materials and Methods. Nucleus pulposus tissues were isolated from 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats and NPMSCs were isolated using limiting dilution method. Cells were then classified into 3 groups according to plating density. Cell morphologies were observed, and colony-forming units, migration abilities, proliferative capacities, cell cycle percentages, multilineage differentiation capacities, stem cell biomarker expression levels, and immunophenotyping were also examined in each group. Results. Low density group (LD had higher morphological homogeneity, stronger colony-forming ability, higher cell proliferation capacity, and enhanced cell migration ability relative to the other two groups (p<0.05. Moreover, LD had more cells entering S phase, with fewer cells arrested in G0/G1 phase (p<0.05. While all three density groups showed a multilineage differentiation potential, LD showed a higher degree of observed and semiquantified lineage specific staining (p<0.05. Furthermore, LD displayed higher expression levels of stem cell biomarkers (Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 and showed higher percentages of CD29+, CD44+, and CD90+ cells (p<0.05 following flow cytometry analysis. Conclusions. Limiting dilution method is suggested when isolating NPMSCs as a means of improving cell activity and plasticity.

  3. In vitro characterization of a human neural progenitor cell coexpressing SSEA4 and CD133

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barraud, Perrine; Stott, Simon; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    The stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4) is commonly used as a cell surface marker to identify the pluripotent human embryonic stem (ES) cells. Immunohistochemistry on human embryonic central nervous system revealed that SSEA4 is detectable in the early neuroepithelium, and its expression....... Therefore, we propose that SSEA4 associated with CD133 can be used for both the positive selection and the enrichment of neural stem/progenitor cells from human embryonic forebrain....... decreases as development proceeds. Flow cytometry analysis of forebrain-derived cells demonstrated that the SSEA4-expressing cells are enriched in the neural stem/progenitor cell fraction (CD133(+)), but are rarely codetected with the neural stem cell (NSC) marker CD15. Using a sphere-forming assay, we...

  4. Different Motile Behaviors of Human Hematopoietic Stem versus Progenitor Cells at the Osteoblastic Niche

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    Katie Foster

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in our understanding of interactions between mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs and their niche, little is known about communication between human HSCs and the microenvironment. Using a xenotransplantation model and intravital imaging, we demonstrate that human HSCs display distinct motile behaviors to their hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC counterparts, and the same pattern can be found between mouse HSCs and HPCs. HSCs become significantly less motile after transplantation, while progenitor cells remain motile. We show that human HSCs take longer to find their niche than previously expected and suggest that the niche be defined as the position where HSCs stop moving. Intravital imaging is the only technique to determine where in the bone marrow stem cells stop moving, and future analyses should focus on the environment surrounding the HSC at this point.

  5. Use of long-term human marrow cultures to demonstrate progenitor cell precursors in marrow treated with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winton, E.F.; Colenda, K.W.

    1987-01-01

    The continued retrieval of progenitor cells (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-E, CFU-GM) from human long-term marrow cultures (LTMC) is not uncommonly used as evidence that proliferation and differentiation are occurring in more primitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in these cultures. Alternatively, the continued presence of progenitors in LTMC could be the result of survival and/or limited self-renewal of progenitor cells present when the culture was initiated, and such progenitors would have little relevance to the parent HSC. The following studies were designed to determine the relative contributions of precursors of progenitor cells to the total progenitor cells present in LTMC using a two-stage regeneration model. The adherent layer in LTMC was established over 3 weeks, irradiated (875 rad) to permanently eliminate resident hematopoietic cells, and recharged with autologous cryo-preserved marrow that was either treated or not treated (control) with 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide (4-HC, 100 micrograms/ml for 30 min). The 4-HC-treated marrow contained no progenitor cells, yet based on clinical autologous bone marrow transplant experience, has intact HSC. Within 1-3 weeks, progenitor cells reappeared in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow, and were preferentially located in the adherent layer. By 2-6 weeks, the number of progenitor cells in the adherent layer of LTMC recharged with 4-HC marrow was equivalent to control LTMC. The progenitors regenerating in the irradiated LTMC recharged with 4-HC-treated marrow appear to originate from precursors of progenitor cells, perhaps HSC. We propose this model may be useful in elucidating cellular and molecular correlates of progenitor cell regeneration from precursors

  6. The sensitivity of human mesenchymal stem cells to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.-F.; Lin, C.-T.; Chen, W.-C.; Yang, C.-T.; Chen, C.-C.; Liao, S.-K.; Liu, J.M.; Lu, C.-H.; Lee, K.-D.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Recent studies have shown that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) obtained from bone marrow transplantation patients originate from the host. This clinical observation suggests that MSCs in their niches could be resistant to irradiation. However, the biologic responses of bone marrow MSCs to irradiation have rarely been described in the literature. Methods and Materials: In this study, human bone marrow-derived, clonally expanded MSCs were used to investigate their sensitivity to irradiation in vitro, and the cellular mechanisms that may facilitate resistance to irradiation. The human lung cancer cell line A549 and the breast cancer cell line HCC1937 were used as controls for radiosensitivity; the former line has been shown to be radioresistant and the latter radiosensitive. We then examined their in vitro biologic changes and sensitivities to radiation therapy. Results: Our results suggest that MSCs are characterized as resistant to irradiation. Several cellular mechanisms were demonstrated that may facilitate resistance to irradiation: ATM protein phosphorylation, activation of cell-cycle checkpoints, double-strand break repair by homologous recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), and the antioxidant capacity for scavenging reactive oxygen species. Conclusions: As demonstrated, MSCs possess a better antioxidant reactive oxygen species-scavenging capacity and active double-strand break repair to facilitate their radioresistance. These findings provide a better understanding of radiation-induced biologic responses in MSCs and may lead to the development of better strategies for stem cell treatment and cancer therapy

  7. Generation of Oligodendrogenic Spinal Neural Progenitor Cells From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaei, Mohamad; Ahuja, Christopher S; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-08-14

    This unit describes protocols for the efficient generation of oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (o-NPCs) from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). Specifically, detailed methods are provided for the maintenance and differentiation of hiPSCs, human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells (hiPS-NPCs), and human induced pluripotent stem cell-oligodendrogenic neural progenitor cells (hiPSC-o-NPCs) with the final products being suitable for in vitro experimentation or in vivo transplantation. Throughout, cell exposure to growth factors and patterning morphogens has been optimized for both concentration and timing, based on the literature and empirical experience, resulting in a robust and highly efficient protocol. Using this derivation procedure, it is possible to obtain millions of oligodendrogenic-NPCs within 40 days of initial cell plating which is substantially shorter than other protocols for similar cell types. This protocol has also been optimized to use translationally relevant human iPSCs as the parent cell line. The resultant cells have been extensively characterized both in vitro and in vivo and express key markers of an oligodendrogenic lineage. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.

  8. Interleukin-3 Does Not Affect the Differentiation of Mast Cells Derived from Human Bone Marrow Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Matsumoto, Kenji; Okayama, Yoshimichi; Kentaro, Sakai; Maeno, Toshitaka; Suga, Tatsuo; Miura, Toru; Takai, Shinji; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Saito, Hirohisa

    2008-01-01

    Although IL-3 is commonly used for culture of human progenitor-derived mast cells together with Stem cell factor (SCF) and IL-6, the effect of IL-3 on human mast cell differentiation has not been well elucidated. Human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors were cultured for up to 12 weeks in the presence of rhSCF and rhIL-6 either with rhIL-3 (IL-3 (+)) or without rhIL-3 (IL-3 (−)) for the initial 1-week of culture. Total cell number increased at 2 weeks in IL-3 (+), as compared to IL-3 (−), but changes in the appearance of mast cells were delayed. When IL-3 was present for the initial 1-week culture, granules looked more mature with IL-3 than without IL-3. However, tryptase and chymase contents, and surface antigen expression (CD18, CD51, CD54, and CD117) were not altered by IL-3. Surface expression and mRNA level of FcεRIα and histamine release by crosslinking of FcεRIα did not differ from one preparation to the next. GeneChip analysis revealed that no significant differences were observed between IL-3 (+) and IL-3 (−) cells either when inactivated or activated by aggregation of FcεRIα. These findings indicate that initial incubation of human bone marrow CD34+ progenitors with IL-3 does not affect the differentiation of mast cells. PMID:18214796

  9. A Clinical Indications Prediction Scale Based on TWIST1 for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Siddaraju V. Boregowda

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their stem/progenitor properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs also exhibit potent effector (angiogenic, antiinflammatory, immuno-modulatory functions that are largely paracrine in nature. It is widely believed that effector functions underlie most of the therapeutic potential of MSCs and are independent of their stem/progenitor properties. Here we demonstrate that stem/progenitor and effector functions are coordinately regulated at the cellular level by the transcription factor Twist1 and specified within populations according to a hierarchical model. We further show that manipulation of Twist1 levels by genetic approaches or by exposure to widely used culture supplements including fibroblast growth factor 2 (Ffg2 and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma alters MSC efficacy in cell-based and in vivo assays in a predictable manner. Thus, by mechanistically linking stem/progenitor and effector functions our studies provide a unifying framework in the form of an MSC hierarchy that models the functional complexity of populations. Using this framework, we developed a CLinical Indications Prediction (CLIP scale that predicts how donor-to-donor heterogeneity and culture conditions impact the therapeutic efficacy of MSC populations for different disease indications.

  10. Identification of subpopulations in mesenchymal stem cell-like cultures from human umbilical cord

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    Majore Ingrida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of cell types can be identified in the adherent fraction of bone marrow mononuclear cells including more primitive and embryonic-like stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, lineage-committed progenitors as well as mature cells such as osteoblasts and fibroblasts. Different methods are described for the isolation of single bone marrow stem cell subpopulations – beginning from ordinary size sieving, long term cultivation under specific conditions to FACS-based approaches. Besides bone marrow-derived subpopulations, also other tissues including human umbilical cord (UC have been recently suggested to provide a potential source for MSC. Although of clinical importance, these UC-derived MSC populations remain to be characterized. It was thus the aim of the present study to identify possible subpopulations in cultures of MSC-like cells obtained from UC. We used counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE as a novel strategy to successfully address this question. Results UC-derived primary cells were separated by CCE and revealed differentially-sized populations in the fractions. Thus, a subpopulation with an average diameter of about 11 μm and a small flat cell body was compared to a large sized subpopulation of about 19 μm average diameter. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the expression of certain MSC stem cell markers including CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105, respectively, although these markers were expressed at higher levels in the small-sized population. Moreover, this small-sized subpopulation exhibited a higher proliferative capacity as compared to the total UC-derived primary cultures and the large-sized cells and demonstrated a reduced amount of aging cells. Conclusion Using the CCE technique, we were the first to demonstrate a subpopulation of small-sized UC-derived primary cells carrying MSC-like characteristics according to the presence of various mesenchymal stem cell markers. This is also supported by the

  11. Genetic Modification of Human Pancreatic Progenitor Cells Through Modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Song; Chow, Christie C; Zhou, Junwei; Leung, Po Sing; Tsui, Stephen K; Lui, Kathy O

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe a highly efficient genetic modification strategy for human pancreatic progenitor cells using modified mRNA-encoding GFP and Neurogenin-3. The properties of modified mRNA offer an invaluable platform to drive protein expression, which has broad applicability in pathway regulation, directed differentiation, and lineage specification. This approach can also be used to regulate expression of other pivotal transcription factors during pancreas development and might have potential therapeutic values in regenerative medicine.

  12. Effects of topography on the functional development of human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Kisaalita, William S; Wang, Lina; Zachman, Angela L; Zhao, Yiping; Hasneen, Kowser; Machacek, Dave; Stice, Steven L

    2010-07-01

    We have fabricated a topographical substrate with a packed polystyrene bead array for the development of cell-based assay systems targeting voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Human neural progenitor cells (H945RB.3) cultured on both flat and topographical substrates were analyzed in terms of morphological spreading, neuronal commitment, resting membrane potential (V(m)) establishment and VGCC function development. We found, by SEM imaging, that arrayed substrates, formed with both sub-micrometer (of 0.51 microm in mean diameter) and micrometer (of 1.98 microm in mean diameter) beads, were capable of promoting the spreading of the progenitor cells as compared with the flat polystyrene surfaces. With the micrometer beads, it was found that arrayed substrates facilitated the neural progenitor cells' maintenance of less negative V(m) values upon differentiation with bFGF starvation, which favored predominant neuronal commitment. Almost all the progenitor cells were responsive to 50 mM K(+) depolarization with an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) either before or upon differentiation, suggesting the expression of functional VGCCs. Compared to the flat polystyrene surfaces, microbead arrayed substrates facilitated the development of higher VGCC responsiveness by the progenitor cells upon differentiation. The enhancement of both VGCC responsiveness and cell spreading by arrays of micrometer beads was most significant on day 14 into differentiation, which was the latest time point of measurement in this study. This study thus rationalized the possibility for future substrate topography engineering to manipulate ion channel function and to meet the challenge of low VGCC responsiveness found in early drug discovery.

  13. Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit osteoclastogenesis through osteoprotegerin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshita, Koichi; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Fukuyo, Shunsuke; Sonomoto, Koshiro; Maeshima, Keisuke; Kurihara, Ryuji; Nakano, Kazuhisa; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Okada, Yosuke; Chiba, Kenji; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2011-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed to be a useful tool for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), not only because of their multipotency but also because of their immunosuppressive effect on lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and other proinflammatory cells. Since bone destruction caused by activated osteoclasts occurs in RA, we undertook the present study to investigate the effect of MSCs on osteoclast function and differentiation in order to evaluate their potential use in RA therapy. Human MSCs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured under cell-cell contact-free conditions with osteoclast induction medium. Differentiation into osteoclast-like cells was determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining and expression of osteoclast differentiation markers. The number of osteoclast-like cells was decreased and expression of cathepsin K and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NF-ATc1) was down-regulated by the addition of either MSCs or a conditioned medium obtained from MSCs. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was constitutively produced by MSCs and inhibited osteoclastogenesis. However, osteoclast differentiation was not fully recovered upon treatment with either anti-OPG antibody or OPG small interfering RNA, suggesting that OPG had only a partial role in the inhibitory effect of MSCs. Moreover, bone-resorbing activity of osteoclast-like cells was partially recovered by addition of anti-OPG antibody into the conditioned medium. The present results indicate that human MSCs constitutively produce OPG, resulting in inhibition of osteoclastogenesis and expression of NF-ATc1 and cathepsin K in the absence of cell-cell contact. Therefore, we conclude that human MSCs exert a suppressive effect on osteoclastogenesis, which may be beneficial in inhibition of joint damage in RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  14. Endogenous collagen influences differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Hugo; Mentink, Anouk; Bank, Ruud; Stoop, Reinout; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are multipotent cells that, in the presence of appropriate stimuli, can differentiate into different lineages such as the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages. In the presence of ascorbic acid, MSCs secrete an extracellular matrix mainly composed of collagen type I. Here we assessed the potential role of endogenous collagen synthesis in hMSC differentiation and stem cell maintenance. We observed a sharp reduction in proliferation rate of hMSCs in the absence of ascorbic acid, concomitant with a reduction in osteogenesis in vitro and bone formation in vivo. In line with a positive role for collagen type I in osteogenesis, gene expression profiling of hMSCs cultured in the absence of ascorbic acid demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and chondrogenesis and a reduction in expression of osteogenic genes. We also observed that matrix remodeling and anti-osteoclastogenic signals were high in the presence of ascorbic acid. The presence of collagen type I during the expansion phase of hMSCs did not affect their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential. In conclusion, the collagenous matrix supports both proliferation and differentiation of osteogenic hMSCs but, on the other hand, presents signals stimulating matrix remodeling and inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  15. Hepatic differentiation potential of commercially available human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Shin-Yeu; Dai, Hui; Leong, Kam W

    2006-12-01

    The ready availability and low immunogenicity of commercially available mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) render them a potential cell source for the development of therapeutic products. With cell source a major bottleneck in hepatic tissue engineering, we investigated whether commercially available human MSC (hMSC) can transdifferentiate into the hepatic lineage. Based on previous studies that find rapid gain of hepatic genes in bone marrow-derived stem cells cocultured with liver tissue, we used a similar approach to drive hepatic differentiation by coculturing the hMSC with rat livers treated or untreated with gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3)). After a 24-hour coculture period with liver tissue injured by GdCl(3) in a Transwell configuration, approximately 34% of the cells differentiated into albumin-expressing cells. Cocultured cells were subsequently maintained with growth factors to complete the hepatic differentiation. Cocultured cells expressed more hepatic gene markers, and had higher metabolic functions and P450 activity than cells that were only differentiated with growth factors. In conclusion, commercially available hMSC do show hepatic differentiation potential, and a liver microenvironment in culture can provide potent cues to accelerate and deepen the differentiation. The ability to generate hepatocyte-like cells from a commercially available cell source would find interesting applications in liver tissue engineering.

  16. Cryopreservation and revival of human mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Ekblond, Annette; Kastrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Cell-based therapy is a promising and innovative new treatment for different degenerative and autoimmune diseases, and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the bone marrow have demonstrated great therapeutic potential due to their immunosuppressive and regenerative capacities. The establishment ...

  17. Robust generation and expansion of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Michael; Kocharyan, Avetik; Liu, Jun; Skerjanc, Ilona S; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-15

    Human pluripotent stem cells provide a developmental model to study early embryonic and tissue development, tease apart human disease processes, perform drug screens to identify potential molecular effectors of in situ regeneration, and provide a source for cell and tissue based transplantation. Highly efficient differentiation protocols have been established for many cell types and tissues; however, until very recently robust differentiation into skeletal muscle cells had not been possible unless driven by transgenic expression of master regulators of myogenesis. Nevertheless, several breakthrough protocols have been published in the past two years that efficiently generate cells of the skeletal muscle lineage from pluripotent stem cells. Here, we present an updated version of our recently described 50-day protocol in detail, whereby chemically defined media are used to drive and support muscle lineage development from initial CHIR99021-induced mesoderm through to PAX7-expressing skeletal muscle progenitors and mature skeletal myocytes. Furthermore, we report an optional method to passage and expand differentiating skeletal muscle progenitors approximately 3-fold every 2weeks using Collagenase IV and continued FGF2 supplementation. Both protocols have been optimized using a variety of human pluripotent stem cell lines including patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. Taken together, our differentiation and expansion protocols provide sufficient quantities of skeletal muscle progenitors and myocytes that could be used for a variety of studies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differentiation of insulin-producing cells from human neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hori

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Success in islet-transplantation-based therapies for type 1 diabetes, coupled with a worldwide shortage of transplant-ready islets, has motivated efforts to develop renewable sources of islet-replacement tissue. Islets and neurons share features, including common developmental programs, and in some species brain neurons are the principal source of systemic insulin. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we show that brain-derived human neural progenitor cells, exposed to a series of signals that regulate in vivo pancreatic islet development, form clusters of glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells (IPCs. During in vitro differentiation of neural progenitor cells with this novel method, genes encoding essential known in vivo regulators of pancreatic islet development were expressed. Following transplantation into immunocompromised mice, IPCs released insulin C-peptide upon glucose challenge, remained differentiated, and did not form detectable tumors. CONCLUSION: Production of IPCs solely through extracellular factor modulation in the absence of genetic manipulations may promote strategies to derive transplantable islet-replacement tissues from human neural progenitor cells and other types of multipotent human stem cells.

  19. Identification of human embryonic progenitor cell targeting peptides using phage display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola A Bignone

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem (hPS cells are capable of differentiation into derivatives of all three primary embryonic germ layers and can self-renew indefinitely. They therefore offer a potentially scalable source of replacement cells to treat a variety of degenerative diseases. The ability to reprogram adult cells to induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has now enabled the possibility of patient-specific hPS cells as a source of cells for disease modeling, drug discovery, and potentially, cell replacement therapies. While reprogramming technology has dramatically increased the availability of normal and diseased hPS cell lines for basic research, a major bottleneck is the critical unmet need for more efficient methods of deriving well-defined cell populations from hPS cells. Phage display is a powerful method for selecting affinity ligands that could be used for identifying and potentially purifying a variety of cell types derived from hPS cells. However, identification of specific progenitor cell-binding peptides using phage display may be hindered by the large cellular heterogeneity present in differentiating hPS cell populations. We therefore tested the hypothesis that peptides selected for their ability to bind a clonal cell line derived from hPS cells would bind early progenitor cell types emerging from differentiating hPS cells. The human embryonic stem (hES cell-derived embryonic progenitor cell line, W10, was used and cell-targeting peptides were identified. Competition studies demonstrated specificity of peptide binding to the target cell surface. Efficient peptide targeted cell labeling was accomplished using multivalent peptide-quantum dot complexes as detected by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The cell-binding peptides were selective for differentiated hPS cells, had little or no binding on pluripotent cells, but preferential binding to certain embryonic progenitor cell lines and early endodermal hPS cell derivatives. Taken

  20. Human multipotent adult progenitor cells are nonimmunogenic and exert potent immunomodulatory effects on alloreactive T-cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Sandra A; Pinxteren, Jef; Roobrouck, Valerie D; Luyckx, Ariane; van't Hof, Wouter; Deans, Robert; Verfaillie, Catherine M; Waer, Mark; Billiau, An D; Van Gool, Stefaan W

    2013-01-01

    Multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs) are bone marrow-derived nonhematopoietic stem cells with a broad differentiation potential and extensive expansion capacity. A comparative study between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human MAPCs (hMAPCs) has shown that hMAPCs have clearly distinct phenotypical and functional characteristics from hMSCs. In particular, hMAPCs express lower levels of MHC class I than hMSCs and cannot only differentiate into typical mesenchymal cell types but can also differentiate in vitro and in vivo into functional endothelial cells. The use of hMSCs as cellular immunomodulatory stem cell products gained much interest since their immunomodulatory capacities in vitro became evident over the last decade. Currently, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs is already used in clinical trials to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), as well as for the treatment of acute myocardial infarct, ischemic stroke, and Crohn's disease. Therefore, we studied the immune phenotype, immunogenicity, and immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs in vitro. We demonstrated that hMAPCs are nonimmunogenic for T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. In addition, hMAPCs exert strong immunosuppressive effects on T-cell alloreactivity and on T-cell proliferation induced by mitogens and recall antigens. This immunomodulatory effect was not MHC restricted, which makes off-the-shelf use promising. The immunosuppressive effect of hMAPCs is partially mediated via soluble factors and dependent on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity. At last, we isolated hMAPCs, the clinical grade stem cell product of hMAPCs, named MultiStem, and hMSCs from one single donor and observed that both the immunogenicity and the immunosuppressive capacities of all three stem cell products are comparable in vitro. In conclusion, hMAPCs have potent immunomodulatory properties in vitro and can serve as a valuable cell source for the clinical use of immunomodulatory cellular

  1. Perianal implantation of bioengineered human internal anal sphincter constructs intrinsically innervated with human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Shreya; Miyasaka, Eiichi A; Gilmont, Robert R; Somara, Sita; Teitelbaum, Daniel H; Bitar, Khalil N

    2014-04-01

    The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is a major contributing factor to pressure within the anal canal and is required for maintenance of rectoanal continence. IAS damage or weakening results in fecal incontinence. We have demonstrated that bioengineered, intrinsically innervated, human IAS tissue replacements possess key aspects of IAS physiology, such as the generation of spontaneous basal tone and contraction/relaxation in response to neurotransmitters. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of implantation of bioengineered IAS constructs in the perianal region of athymic rats. Human IAS tissue constructs were bioengineered from isolated human IAS circular smooth muscle cells and human enteric neuronal progenitor cells. After maturation of the bioengineered constructs in culture, they were implanted operatively into the perianal region of athymic rats. Platelet-derived growth factor was delivered to the implanted constructs through a microosmotic pump. Implanted constructs were retrieved from the animals 4 weeks postimplantation. Animals tolerated the implantation well, and there were no early postoperative complications. Normal stooling was observed during the implantation period. At harvest, implanted constructs were adherent to the perirectal rat tissue and appeared healthy and pink. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed neovascularization. Implanted smooth muscle cells maintained contractile phenotype. Bioengineered constructs responded in vitro in a tissue chamber to neuronally evoked relaxation in response to electrical field stimulation and vasoactive intestinal peptide, indicating the preservation of neuronal networks. Our results indicate that bioengineered innervated IAS constructs can be used to augment IAS function in an animal model. This is a regenerative medicine based therapy for fecal incontinence that would directly address the dysfunction of the IAS muscle. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Polybrene inhibits human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation during lentiviral transduction.

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    Paul Lin

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can be engineered to express specific genes, either for their use in cell-based therapies or to track them in vivo over long periods of time. To obtain long-term expression of these genes, a lentivirus- or retrovirus-mediated cell transduction is often used. However, given that the efficiency with these viruses is typically low in primary cells, additives such as polybrene are always used for efficient viral transduction. Unfortunately, as presented here, exposure to polybrene alone at commonly used concentratons (1-8 µg/mL negatively impacts hMSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as measured by CyQUANT, EdU incorporation, and cell cycle analysis. This inhibition of proliferation was observable in culture even 3 weeks after exposure. Culturing the cells in the presence of FGF-2, a potent mitogen, did not abrogate this negative effect of polybrene. In fact, the normally sharp increase in hMSC proliferation that occurs during the first days of exposure to FGF-2 was absent at 4 µg/mL or higher concentrations of polybrene. Similarly, the effect of stimulating cell proliferation under simulated hypoxic conditions was also decreased when cells were exposed to polybrene, though overall proliferation rates were higher. The negative influence of polybrene was, however, reduced when the cells were exposed to polybrene for a shorter period of time (6 hr vs 24 hr. Thus, careful evaluation should be done when using polybrene to aid in lentiviral transduction of human MSCs or other primary cells, especially when cell number is critical.

  3. Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells for retinal vascular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Da; An, Ying; Zhang, Jing-Shang; Wan, Xiu-Hua; Jonas, Jost B; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    To examine the potential of intravitreally implanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to affect vascular repair and the blood-retina barrier in mice and rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy or retinal ischaemia-reperfusion damage. Three study groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 18 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received BMSCs injected intravitreally. Control groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 12 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received an intravitreal injection of phosphate-buffered saline. We applied immunohistological techniques to measure retinal vascularization, spectroscopic measurements of intraretinally extravasated fluorescein-conjugated dextran to quantify the blood-retina barrier breakdown, and histomorphometry to assess retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cell count. In the oxygen-induced retinopathy model, the study group with intravitreally injected BMSCs as compared with the control group showed a significantly (p = 0.001) smaller area of retinal neovascularization. In the diabetic retinopathy model, study group and control group did not differ significantly in the amount of intraretinally extravasated dextran. In the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model, on the 7th day after retina injury, the retina was significantly thicker in the study group than in the control group (p = 0.02), with no significant difference in the retinal ganglion cell count (p = 0.36). Intravitreally implanted human BMSCs were associated with a reduced retinal neovascularization in the oxygen-induced retinopathy model and with a potentially cell preserving effect in the retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model. Intravitreal BMSCs may be of potential interest for the therapy of retinal vascular disorders. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley

  4. Osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of induced mesenchymal stem cells generated through epithelial-mesenchyme transition of cultured human keratinocytes.

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    Yi, Jin-Kyu; Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun; Bhalla, Anu; Oo, Jenessa; Chen, Wei; Lee, Min; Kim, Reuben H; Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K

    2014-11-01

    Revascularization of necrotic pulp has been successful in the resolution of periradicular inflammation; yet, several case studies suggest the need for cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as an alternative for de novo pulp regeneration. Because the availability of MSCs may be limited, especially in an aged population, the current study reports an alternative approach in generating MSCs from epidermal keratinocytes through a process called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We induced EMT in primary normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) by transient transfection of small interfering RNA targeting the p63 gene. The resulting cells were assayed for their mesenchymal marker expression, proliferation capacities as a monolayer and in a 3-dimensional collagen scaffold, and differentiation capacities. Transient transfection of p63 small-interfering RNA successfully abolished the expression of endogenous p63 in NHEKs and induced the expression of mesenchymal markers (eg, vimentin and fibronectin), whereas epithelial markers (eg, E-cadherin and involucrin) were lost. The NHEKs exhibiting the EMT phenotype acquired extended replicative potential and an increased telomere length compared with the control cells. Similar to the established MSCs, the NHEKs with p63 knockdown showed attachment onto the 3-dimensional collagen scaffold and underwent progressive proliferation and differentiation. Upon differentiation, these EMT cells expressed alkaline phosphatase activity, osteocalcin, and osteonectin and readily formed mineralized nodules detected by alizarin S red staining, showing osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. The induction of EMT in primary NHEKs by means of transient p63 knockdown allows the generation of induced MSCs from autologous sources. These cells may be used for tissues engineering purposes, including that of dental pulp. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A competitive advantage by neonatally engrafted human glial progenitors yields mice whose brains are chimeric for human glia.

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    Windrem, Martha S; Schanz, Steven J; Morrow, Carolyn; Munir, Jared; Chandler-Militello, Devin; Wang, Su; Goldman, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Neonatally transplanted human glial progenitor cells (hGPCs) densely engraft and myelinate the hypomyelinated shiverer mouse. We found that, in hGPC-xenografted mice, the human donor cells continue to expand throughout the forebrain, systematically replacing the host murine glia. The differentiation of the donor cells is influenced by the host environment, such that more donor cells differentiated as oligodendrocytes in the hypomyelinated shiverer brain than in myelin wild-types, in which hGPCs were more likely to remain as progenitors. Yet in each recipient, both the number and relative proportion of mouse GPCs fell as a function of time, concomitant with the mitotic expansion and spread of donor hGPCs. By a year after neonatal xenograft, the forebrain GPC populations of implanted mice were largely, and often entirely, of human origin. Thus, neonatally implanted hGPCs outcompeted and ultimately replaced the host population of mouse GPCs, ultimately generating mice with a humanized glial progenitor population. These human glial chimeric mice should permit us to define the specific contributions of glia to a broad variety of neurological disorders, using human cells in vivo. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416153-09$15.00/0.

  6. Dedifferentiation of Human Primary Thyrocytes into Multilineage Progenitor Cells without Gene Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, Vladimir; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Matsuse, Michiko; Ohtsuru, Akira; Kumagai, Atsushi; Uga, Tatsuya; Yano, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Yuji; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    While identification and isolation of adult stem cells have potentially important implications, recent reports regarding dedifferentiation/reprogramming from differentiated cells have provided another clue to gain insight into source of tissue stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we developed a novel culture system to obtain dedifferentiated progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. After enzymatic digestion, primary thyrocytes, expressing thyroglobulin, vimentin and cytokeratin-18, were cultured in a serum-free medium called SAGM. Although the vast majority of cells died, a small proportion (∼0.5%) survived and proliferated. During initial cell expansion, thyroglobulin/cytokeratin-18 expression was gradually declined in the proliferating cells. Moreover, sorted cells expressing thyroid peroxidase gave rise to proliferating clones in SAGM. These data suggest that those cells are derived from thyroid follicular cells or at least thyroid-committed cells. The SAGM-grown cells did not express any thyroid-specific genes. However, after four-week incubation with FBS and TSH, cytokeratin-18, thyroglobulin, TSH receptor, PAX8 and TTF1 expressions re-emerged. Moreover, surprisingly, the cells were capable of differentiating into neuronal or adipogenic lineage depending on differentiating conditions. In summary, we have developed a novel system to generate multilineage progenitor cells from normal human thyroid tissues. This seems to be achieved by dedifferentiation of thyroid follicular cells. The presently described culture system may be useful for regenerative medicine, but the primary importance will be as a tool to elucidate the mechanisms of thyroid diseases. PMID:21556376

  7. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

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    Ryo Kurita

    Full Text Available Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  8. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

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    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  9. Human Migratory Meniscus Progenitor Cells Are Controlled via the TGF-β Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Hayat; Schminke, Boris; Bode, Christa; Roth, Moritz; Albert, Julius; von der Heyde, Silvia; Rosen, Vicki; Miosge, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Summary Degeneration of the knee joint during osteoarthritis often begins with meniscal lesions. Meniscectomy, previously performed extensively after meniscal injury, is now obsolete because of the inevitable osteoarthritis that occurs following this procedure. Clinically, meniscus self-renewal is well documented as long as the outer, vascularized meniscal ring remains intact. In contrast, regeneration of the inner, avascular meniscus does not occur. Here, we show that cartilage tissue harvested from the avascular inner human meniscus during the late stages of osteoarthritis harbors a unique progenitor cell population. These meniscus progenitor cells (MPCs) are clonogenic and multipotent and exhibit migratory activity. We also determined that MPCs are likely to be controlled by canonical transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling that leads to an increase in SOX9 and a decrease in RUNX2, thereby enhancing the chondrogenic potential of MPC. Therefore, our work is relevant for the development of novel cell biological, regenerative therapies for meniscus repair. PMID:25418724

  10. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretta, Marco; de Boer, Bauke; Jaques, Jenny; Antonelli, Antonella; Horton, Sarah J; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; Groen, Richard W J; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2017-07-01

    Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ -/- (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and thrombopoietin (TPO). In vitro, these IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs were superior in expanding human cord blood (CB) CD34 + hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells could be transformed efficiently along myeloid or lymphoid lineages on IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs. In vivo, these genetically engineered MSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into bone, adipocytes, and other stromal components. Upon transplantation of MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed in engineered scaffolds, in which a significantly higher percentage of myeloid clones was observed in the mouse compartments compared with previous models. Engraftment of primary AML, B-cell ALL, and biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient samples was also evaluated, and all patient samples could engraft efficiently; the myeloid compartment of the BAL samples was better preserved in the human cytokine scaffold model. In conclusion, we show that we can genetically engineer the ectopic human BM microenvironment in a humanized scaffold xenograft model. This approach will be useful for functional study of the importance of niche factors in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2017 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cell/mesenchymal stem cell interaction in co-culture and its implications in angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, A.; Planell, J.A.; Engel, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → BM-EPCs and MSCs establish complex, self-organizing structures in co-culture. → Co-culture decreases proliferation by cellular self-regulatory mechanisms. → Co-cultured cells present an activated proangiogenic phenotype. → qRT-PCR and cluster analysis identify new target genes playing important roles. -- Abstract: Tissue engineering aims to regenerate tissues and organs by using cell and biomaterial-based approaches. One of the current challenges in the field is to promote proper vascularization in the implant to prevent cell death and promote host integration. Bone marrow endothelial progenitor cells (BM-EPCs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow resident stem cells widely employed for proangiogenic applications. In vivo, they are likely to interact frequently both in the bone marrow and at sites of injury. In this study, the physical and biochemical interactions between BM-EPCs and MSCs in an in vitro co-culture system were investigated to further clarify their roles in vascularization. BM-EPC/MSC co-cultures established close cell-cell contacts soon after seeding and self-assembled to form elongated structures at 3 days. Besides direct contact, cells also exhibited vesicle transport phenomena. When co-cultured in Matrigel, tube formation was greatly enhanced even in serum-starved, growth factor free medium. Both MSCs and BM-EPCs contributed to these tubes. However, cell proliferation was greatly reduced in co-culture and morphological differences were observed. Gene expression and cluster analysis for wide panel of angiogenesis-related transcripts demonstrated up-regulation of angiogenic markers but down-regulation of many other cytokines. These data suggest that cross-talk occurs in between BM-EPCs and MSCs through paracrine and direct cell contact mechanisms leading to modulation of the angiogenic response.

  12. Amniotic fluid promotes the appearance of neural retinal progenitors and neurons in human RPE cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davari, Maliheh; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Sanie-Jahromi, Fateme; Ghaderi, Shima; Kanavi, Mozhgan Rezaei; Samiei, Shahram; Akrami, Hassan; Haghighi, Massoud; Javidi-Azad, Fahimeh

    2013-01-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are capable of differentiating into retinal neurons when induced by the appropriate growth factors. Amniotic fluid contains a variety of growth factors that are crucial for the development of a fetus. In this study, the effects of human amniotic fluid (HAF) on primary RPE cell cultures were evaluated. RPE cells were isolated from the globes of postnatal human cadavers. The isolated cells were plated and grown in DMEM/F12 with 10% fetal bovine serum. To confirm the RPE identity of the cultured cells, they were immunocytochemically examined for the presence of the RPE cell-specific marker RPE65. RPE cultures obtained from passages 2-7 were treated with HAF and examined morphologically for 1 month. To determine whether retinal neurons or progenitors developed in the treated cultures, specific markers for bipolar (protein kinase C isomer α, PKCα), amacrine (cellular retinoic acid-binding protein I, CRABPI), and neural progenitor (NESTIN) cells were sought, and the amount of mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR. Treating RPE cells with HAF led to a significant decrease in the number of RPE65-positive cells, while PKCα- and CRABPI-positive cells were detected in the cultures. Compared with the fetal bovine serum-treated cultures, the levels of mRNAs quantitatively increased by 2-, 20- and 22-fold for NESTIN, PKCα, and CRABPI, respectively. The RPE cultures treated with HAF established spheres containing both pigmented and nonpigmented cells, which expressed neural progenitor markers such as NESTIN. This study showed that HAF can induce RPE cells to transdifferentiate into retinal neurons and progenitor cells, and that it provides a potential source for cell-based therapies to treat retinal diseases.

  13. Effect of 3D-scaffold formation on differentiation and survival in human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Stefanie; Schmich, Jürgen; Block, Stephan; Liedmann, Andrea; Jonas, Ludwig; Weiss, Dieter G; Helm, Christiane A; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2010-11-11

    3D-scaffolds have been shown to direct cell growth and differentiation in many different cell types, with the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment being important in determining the fate of the embedded cells. Here we used a hydrogel-based scaffold to investigate the influences of matrix concentration and functionalisation with laminin on the formation of the scaffolds, and the effect of these scaffolds on human neural progenitor cells cultured within them. In this study we used different concentrations of the hydrogel-based matrix PuraMatrix. In some experiments we functionalised the matrix with laminin I. The impact of concentration and treatment with laminin on the formation of the scaffold was examined with atomic force microscopy. Cells from a human fetal neural progenitor cell line were cultured in the different matrices, as well as in a 2D culture system, and were subsequently analysed with antibody stainings against neuronal markers. In parallel, the survival rate of the cells was determined by a live/dead assay. Atomic force microscopy measurements demonstrated that the matrices are formed by networks of isolated PuraMatrix fibres and aggregates of fibres. An increase of the hydrogel concentration led to a decrease in the mesh size of the scaffolds and functionalisation with laminin promoted aggregation of the fibres (bundle formation), which further reduces the density of isolated fibres. We showed that laminin-functionalisation is essential for human neural progenitor cells to build up 3D-growth patterns, and that proliferation of the cells is also affected by the concentration of matrix. In addition we found that 3D-cultures enhanced neuronal differentiation and the survival rate of the cells compared to 2D-cultures. Taken together, we have demonstrated a direct influence of the 3D-scaffold formation on the survival and neuronal differentiation of human neural progenitor cells. These findings emphasize the importance of optimizing 3

  14. The complexity of the calretinin-expressing progenitors in the human cerebral cortex

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    Nevena V Radonjic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex structure and function of the cerebral cortex critically depend on the balance of excitation and inhibition provided by the pyramidal projection neurons and GABAergic interneurons, respectively. The calretinin-expressing (CalR+ cell is a subtype of GABAergic cortical interneurons that is more prevalent in humans than in rodents. In rodents, CalR+ interneurons originate in the caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE from Gsx2+ progenitors, but in humans it has been suggested that a subpopulation of CalR+ cells can also be generated in the cortical ventricular/subventricular zone (VZ/SVZ. The progenitors for cortically generated CalR+ subpopulation in primates are not yet characterized. Hence, the aim of this study was to identify patterns of expression of the transcription factors (TFs that commit cortical stem cells to the CalR fate, with a focus on Gsx2. First, we studied the expression of Gsx2 and its downstream effectors, Ascl1 and Sp8 in the cortical regions of the fetal human forebrain at midgestation. Next, we established that a subpopulation of cells expressing these TFs are proliferating in the cortical SVZ, and can be co-labeled with CalR. The presence and proliferation of Gsx2+ cells, not only in the ventral telencephalon (GE as previously reported, but also in the cerebral cortex suggests cortical origin of a subpopulation of CalR+ neurons in humans. In vitro treatment of human cortical progenitors with Sonic hedgehog (Shh, an important morphogen in the specification of interneurons, decreased levels of Ascl1 and Sp8 proteins, but did not affect Gsx2 levels. Taken together, our ex-vivo and in vitro results on human fetal brain suggest complex endogenous and exogenous regulation of TFs implied in the specification of different subtypes of CalR+ cortical interneurons.

  15. Human Mammary Luminal Epithelial Cells Contain Progenitors to Myoepithelial Cells

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    Pechoux, Christine; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J; Petersen, Ole

    1999-02-01

    The origin of the epithelial and myoepithelial cells in the human breast has not been delineated. In this study we have addressed whether luminal epithelial cells and myoepithelial cells are vertically connected, i.e., whether one is the precursor for the other. We used a primary culture assay allowing preservation of basic phenotypic traits of luminal epithelial and myoepithelial cells in culture. The two cell types were then separated immunomagnetically using antibodies directed against lineage-specific cell surface antigens into at best 100% purity. The cellular identity was ascertained by cytochemistry, immunoblotting, and 2-D gel electrophoresis. Luminal epithelial cells were identified by strong expression of cytokeratins 18 and 19 while myoepithelial cells were recognized by expression of vimentin and {alpha}-smooth muscle actin. We used a previously devised culture medium (CDM4) that allows vigorous expansion of proliferative myoepithelial cells and also devised a medium (CDM6) that allowed sufficient expansion of differentiated luminal epithelial cells based on addition of hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor. The two different culture media supported each lineage for at least five passages without signs of interconversion. We used parallel cultures where we switched culture media, thus testing the ability of each lineage to convert to the other. Whereas the myoepithelial lineage showed no signs of interconversion, a subset of luminal epithelial cells, gradually, but distinctly, converted to myoepithelial cells. We propose that in the mature human breast, it is the luminal epithelial cell compartment that gives rise to myoepithelial cells rather than the other way around.

  16. In vitro cardiomyogenic potential of human umbilical vein-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadivar, Mehdi; Khatami, Shohreh; Mortazavi, Yousef; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2006-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte loss in the ischemically injured human heart often leads to irreversible defects in cardiac function. Recently, cellular cardiomyoplasty with mesenchymal stem cells, which are multipotent cells with the ability to differentiate into specialized cells under appropriate stimuli, has emerged as a new approach for repairing damaged myocardium. In the present study, the potential of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells to differentiate into cells with characteristics of cardiomyocyte was investigated. Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from endothelial/subendothelial layers of the human umbilical cords using a method similar to that of human umbilical vein endothelial cell isolation. Isolated cells were characterized by transdifferentiation ability to adipocytes and osteoblasts, and also with flow cytometry analysis. After treatment with 5-azacytidine, the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were morphologically transformed into cardiomyocyte-like cells and expressed cardiac differentiation markers. During the differentiation, cells were monitored by a phase contrast microscope and their morphological changes were demonstrated. Immunostaining of the differentiated cells for sarcomeric myosin (MF20), desmin, cardiac troponin I, and sarcomeric α-actinin was positive. RT-PCR analysis showed that these differentiated cells express cardiac-specific genes. Transmission electron microscopy revealed a cardiomyocyte-like ultrastructure and typical sarcomers. These observations confirm that human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells can be chemically transformed into cardiomyocytes and can be considered as a source of cells for cellular cardiomyoplasty

  17. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    suggest that Notch signaling plays a critical role in normal human mammary development by acting on both stem cells and progenitor cells, affecting self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation. Based on these findings we propose that abnormal Notch signaling may contribute to mammary carcinogenesis by deregulating the self-renewal of normal mammary stem cells

  18. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Deciduous Teeth Pulp

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    Aileen I. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify predictors of success rate of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC isolation from human deciduous teeth pulp. A total of 161 deciduous teeth were extracted at the dental clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital. The MSCs were isolated from dental pulps using a standard protocol. In total, 128 colonies of MSCs were obtained and the success rate was 79.5%. Compared to teeth not yielding MSCs successfully, those successfully yielding MSCs were found to have less severe dental caries (no/mild-to-moderate/severe: 63.3/24.2/12.5% versus 12.5/42.4/42.4%, P<0.001 and less frequent pulpitis (no/yes: 95.3/4.7% versus 51.5/48.5%, P<0.001. In a multivariate regression model, it was confirmed that the absence of dental caries (OR = 4.741, 95% CI = 1.564–14.371, P=0.006 and pulpitis (OR = 9.111, 95% CI = 2.921–28.420, P<0.001 was significant determinants of the successful procurement of MSCs. MSCs derived from pulps with pulpitis expressed longer colony doubling time than pulps without pulpitis. Furthermore, there were higher expressions of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin- (IL- 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP- 1, P<0.01, and innate immune response [toll-like receptor 1 (TLR1 and TLR8, P<0.05; TLR2, TLR3, and TLR6, P<0.01] in the inflamed than noninflamed pulps. Therefore, a carious deciduous tooth or tooth with pulpitis was relatively unsuitable for MSC processing and isolation.

  19. Irradiation sensitivity of human and porcine mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Surgical resection, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and combinations thereof are a plethora of possible treatment modalities of head and neck malignancies. Treatment regimens including radiotherapy however put jaws at risk of subsequent osteoradionecrosis. Besides cancer cells, irradiation impacts on all tissue-inherent cells, including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Since it is the bone and bone marrow MSC, which contributes to bone regeneration through proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of its progeny, the influence of irradiation on MSC viability and the respective differentiation capacity appears to be critical. However to date, only a few reports picked MSCs role out as a pivotal topic. As a first attempt, we irradiated human bone derived MSC in vitro. With increasing doses the cells self-renewal capabilities were greatly reduced. Notably however, the mitotically stalled cells were still capable of differentiating into osteoblasts and preadipocytes. Next, the mandibles of Sus scrofa domestica were irradiated with a total dose of 18 Gy. At different time points post radiatio, MSCs were isolated from bone autopsies. In comparison between irradiated and non- irradiated samples, no significant differences regarding the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation potential of tissue specific MSC became apparent Therefore, pig mandibles were irradiated with doses of 9 and 18 Gy, and MSCs were isolated immediately afterwards. No significant differences between the untreated and bone irradiated with 9 Gy with respect of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation were observed. Cells isolated from 18 Gy irradiated specimens exhibited a greatly reduced osteogenic differentiation capacity, and during the first two weeks proliferation rates of explanted cells were greatly diminished. Thereafter, cells recovered and showed proliferation behaviour comparable to control samples. These results imply that MSCs can cope with irradiation up to relatively high doses

  20. Titanium phosphate glass microcarriers induce enhanced osteogenic cell proliferation and human mesenchymal stem cell protein expression

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    Nilay J Lakhkar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have developed 50- to 100-µm-sized titanium phosphate glass microcarriers (denoted as Ti5 that show enhanced proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteosarcoma cells, as well as enhanced human mesenchymal stem cell expression of bone differentiation markers, in comparison with commercially available glass microspheres at all time points. We also demonstrate that these microcarriers provide superior human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation with conventional Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle medium than with a specially developed commercial stem cell medium. The microcarrier proliferative capacity is revealed by a 24-fold increase in MG63 cell numbers in spinner flask bioreactor studies performed over a 7-day period, versus only a 6-fold increase in control microspheres under the same conditions; the corresponding values of Ti5 and control microspheres under static culture are 8-fold and 7-fold, respectively. The capability of guided osteogenic differentiation is confirmed by ELISAs for bone morphogenetic protein-2 and osteopontin, which reveal significantly greater expression of these markers, especially osteopontin, by human mesenchymal stem cells on the Ti5 microspheres than on the control. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy images reveal favorable MG63 and human mesenchymal stem cell adhesion on the Ti5 microsphere surfaces. Thus, the results demonstrate the suitability of the developed microspheres for use as microcarriers in bone tissue engineering applications.

  1. Efficient Generation of NKX6-1+ Pancreatic Progenitors from Multiple Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines

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    M. Cristina Nostro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs represent a renewable source of pancreatic beta cells for both basic research and therapeutic applications. Given this outstanding potential, significant efforts have been made to identify the signaling pathways that regulate pancreatic development in hPSC differentiation cultures. In this study, we demonstrate that the combination of epidermal growth factor (EGF and nicotinamide signaling induces the generation of NKX6-1+ progenitors from all hPSC lines tested. Furthermore, we show that the size of the NKX6-1+ population is regulated by the duration of treatment with retinoic acid, fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10, and inhibitors of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP and hedgehog signaling pathways. When transplanted into NOD scid gamma (NSG recipients, these progenitors differentiate to give rise to exocrine and endocrine cells, including monohormonal insulin+ cells. Together, these findings provide an efficient and reproducible strategy for generating highly enriched populations of hPSC-derived beta cell progenitors for studies aimed at further characterizing their developmental potential in vivo and deciphering the pathways that regulate their maturation in vitro.

  2. Parvovirus B19 integration into human CD36+ erythroid progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovitz, Tyler; Wong, Susan; Young, Neal S; Oliveira, Thiago; Falck-Pedersen, Erik

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenic autonomous human parvovirus B19 (B19V) productively infects erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs). Functional similarities between B19V nonstructural protein (NS1), a DNA binding endonuclease, and the Rep proteins of Adeno-Associated Virus (AAV) led us to hypothesize that NS1 may facilitate targeted nicking of the human genome and B19 vDNA integration. We adapted an integration capture sequencing protocol (IC-Seq) to screen B19V infected human CD36+ EPCs for viral integrants, and discovered 40,000 unique B19V integration events distributed throughout the human genome. Computational analysis of integration patterns revealed strong correlations with gene intronic regions, H3K9me3 sites, and the identification of 41 base pair consensus sequence with an octanucleotide core motif. The octanucleotide core has homology to a single region of B19V, adjacent to the P6 promoter TATA box. We present the first direct evidence that B19V infection of erythroid progenitor cells disrupts the human genome and facilitates viral DNA integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Calcium phosphate thin films enhance the response of human mesenchymal stem cells to nanostructured titanium surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura M McCafferty

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of biomaterial surfaces possessing the topographical cues that can promote mesenchymal stem cell recruitment and, in particular, those capable of subsequently directing osteogenic differentiation is of increasing importance for the advancement of tissue engineering. While it is accepted that it is the interaction with specific nanoscale topography that induces mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, the potential for an attendant bioactive chemistry working in tandem with such nanoscale features to enhance this effect has not been considered to any great extent. This article presents a study of mesenchymal stem cell response to conformal bioactive calcium phosphate thin films sputter deposited onto a polycrystalline titanium nanostructured surface with proven capability to directly induce osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells. The sputter deposited surfaces supported high levels of human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell adherence and proliferation, as determined by DNA quantification. Furthermore, they were also found to be capable of directly promoting significant levels of osteogenic differentiation. Specifically, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression and immunocytochemical localisation of key osteogenic markers revealed that the nanostructured titanium surfaces and the bioactive calcium phosphate coatings could direct the differentiation towards an osteogenic lineage. Moreover, the addition of the calcium phosphate chemistry to the topographical profile of the titanium was found to induce increased human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cell differentiation compared to that observed for either the titanium or calcium phosphate coating without an underlying nanostructure. Hence, the results presented here highlight that a clear benefit can be achieved from a surface engineering strategy that combines a defined surface topography with an attendant, conformal

  4. Effect of silver nanoparticles on human mesenchymal stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Sengstock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP are one of the fastest growing products in nano-medicine due to their enhanced antibacterial activity at the nanoscale level. In biomedicine, hundreds of products have been coated with Ag-NP. For example, various medical devices include silver, such as surgical instruments, bone implants and wound dressings. After the degradation of these materials, or depending on the coating technique, silver in nanoparticle or ion form can be released and may come into close contact with tissues and cells. Despite incorporation of Ag-NP as an antibacterial agent in different products, the toxicological and biological effects of silver in the human body after long-term and low-concentration exposure are not well understood. In the current study, we investigated the effects of both ionic and nanoparticulate silver on the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs into adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages and on the secretion of the respective differentiation markers adiponectin, osteocalcin and aggrecan.Results: As shown through laser scanning microscopy, Ag-NP with a size of 80 nm (hydrodynamic diameter were taken up into hMSCs as nanoparticulate material. After 24 h of incubation, these Ag-NP were mainly found in the endo-lysosomal cell compartment as agglomerated material. Cytotoxicity was observed for differentiated or undifferentiated hMSCs treated with high silver concentrations (≥20 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≥1.5 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions but not with low-concentration treatments (≤10 µg·mL−1 Ag-NP; ≤1.0 µg·mL−1 Ag+ ions. Subtoxic concentrations of Ag-NP and Ag+ ions impaired the adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas chondrogenic differentiation was unaffected after 21 d of incubation. In contrast to aggrecan, the inhibitory effect of adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation was confirmed by a decrease in the secretion of

  5. Differential expression of CCN-family members in primary human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells during osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrich Christian

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human cysteine rich protein 61 (CYR61, CCN1 as well as the other members of the CCN family of genes play important roles in cellular processes such as proliferation, adhesion, migration and survival. These cellular events are of special importance within the complex cellular interactions ongoing in bone remodeling. Previously, we analyzed the role of CYR61/CCN1 as an extracellular signaling molecule in human osteoblasts. Since mesenchymal stem cells of bone marrow are important progenitors for various differentiation pathways in bone and possess increasing potential for regenerative medicine, here we aimed to analyze the expression of CCN family members in bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells and along the osteogenic, the adipogenic and the chondrogenic differentiation. Results Primary cultures of human mesenchymal stem cells were obtained from the femoral head of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Differentiation into adipocytes and osteoblasts was done in monolayer culture, differentiation into chondrocytes was induced in high density cell pellet cultures. For either pathway, established differentiation markers and CCN-members were analyzed at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and the CYR61/CCN1 protein was analyzed by immunocytochemistry. RT-PCR and histochemical analysis revealed the appropriate phenotype of differentiated cells (Alizarin-red S, Oil Red O, Alcian blue, alkaline phosphatase; osteocalcin, collagen types I, II, IX, X, cbfa1, PPARγ, aggrecan. Mesenchymal stem cells expressed CYR61/CCN1, CTGF/CCN2, CTGF-L/WISP2/CCN5 and WISP3/CCN6. The CYR61/CCN1 expression decreased markedly during osteogenic differentiation, adipogenic differentiation and chondrogenic differentiation. These results were confirmed by immuncytochemical analyses. WISP2/CCN5 RNA expression declined during adipogenic differentiation and WISP3/CCN6 RNA expression was markedly reduced in chondrogenic differentiation. Conclusion The

  6. A comparative transcriptomic analysis of astrocytes differentiation from human neural progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magistri, Marco; Khoury, Nathalie; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Velmeshev, Dmitry; Lee, Jae K; Bicciato, Silvio; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Faghihi, Mohammad Ali

    2016-11-01

    Astrocytes are a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells that play critical roles in neurodevelopment and in the regulation of central nervous system homeostasis. Studies of human astrocytes have been hampered by the lack of specific molecular markers and by the difficulties associated with purifying and culturing astrocytes from adult human brains. Human neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewal and multipotent properties represent an appealing model system to gain insight into the developmental genetics and function of human astrocytes, but a comprehensive molecular characterization that confirms the validity of this cellular system is still missing. Here we used an unbiased transcriptomic analysis to characterize in vitro culture of human NPCs and to define the gene expression programs activated during the differentiation of these cells into astrocytes using FBS or the combination of CNTF and BMP4. Our results demonstrate that in vitro cultures of human NPCs isolated during the gliogenic phase of neurodevelopment mainly consist of radial glial cells (RGCs) and glia-restricted progenitor cells. In these cells the combination of CNTF and BMP4 activates the JAK/STAT and SMAD signaling cascades, leading to the inhibition of oligodendrocytes lineage commitment and activation of astrocytes differentiation. On the other hand, FBS-derived astrocytes have properties of reactive astrocytes. Our work suggests that in vitro culture of human NPCs represents a valuable cellular system to study human disorders characterized by impairment of astrocytes development and function. Our datasets represent an important resource for researchers studying human astrocytes development and might set the basis for the discovery of novel human-specific astrocyte markers. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells | Nasef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have elicited a great clinical interest, particularly in the areas of regenerative medicine and induction of tolerance in allogeneic transplantation. Previous reports demonstrated the feasibility of transplanting MSCs, which generates new prospects in cellular therapy. Recently, injection of ...

  8. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated by gradient density centrifugation from umbilical cord blood. Spindle-shaped adherent cells were permitted to grow to 70% confluence in primary culture media which was reached by day 12. Induction of differentiation started by culturing cells with differentiation medium ...

  9. Human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Abdallah, Basem M

    2008-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are a group of cells present in bone-marrow stroma and the stroma of various organs with the capacity for mesoderm-like cell differentiation into, for example, osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. MSC are being introduced in the clinic for the treatment...

  10. Development of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tong; Wang, Fen; Wu, Mengyao; Wang, Zack Z

    2015-07-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), provide a new cell source for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, drug discovery, and preclinical toxicity screening. Understanding of the onset and the sequential process of hematopoietic cells from differentiated hPSCs will enable the achievement of personalized medicine and provide an in vitro platform for studying of human hematopoietic development and disease. During embryogenesis, hemogenic endothelial cells, a specified subset of endothelial cells in embryonic endothelium, are the primary source of multipotent hematopoietic stem cells. In this review, we discuss current status in the generation of multipotent hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from hPSCs via hemogenic endothelial cells. We also review the achievements in direct reprogramming from non-hematopoietic cells to hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Further characterization of hematopoietic differentiation in hPSCs will improve our understanding of blood development and expedite the development of hPSC-derived blood products for therapeutic purpose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells in the treatment of postoperative temporal bone defect: an animal model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Školoudík, L.; Chrobok, V.; Kalfert, D.; Kočí, Zuzana; Syková, Eva; Chumak, Tetyana; Popelář, Jiří; Syka, Josef; Laco, J.; Dědková, J.; Dayanithi, Govindan; Filip, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 7 (2016), s. 1405-1414 ISSN 0963-6897 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Human bone marrow * Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) * Middle ear surgery * Temporal bone Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 3.006, year: 2016

  12. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn

    2001-01-01

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neopl...

  13. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    There is a great demand for cell models to study human adipocyte function. Here we describe the adipogenic differentiation of a telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-Tert) that maintains numerous features of terminally differentiated adipocytes even after prolonged...

  14. Brief Report: Robo1 Regulates the Migration of Human Subventricular Zone Neural Progenitor Cells During Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Cazares, Hugo; Lavell, Emily; Chen, Linda; Schiapparelli, Paula; Lara-Velazquez, Montserrat; Capilla-Gonzalez, Vivian; Clements, Anna Christina; Drummond, Gabrielle; Noiman, Liron; Thaler, Katrina; Burke, Anne; Quiñones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2017-07-01

    Human neural progenitor cell (NPC) migration within the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ganglionic eminence is an active process throughout early brain development. The migration of human NPCs from the SVZ to the olfactory bulb during fetal stages resembles what occurs in adult rodents. As the human brain develops during infancy, this migratory stream is drastically reduced in cell number and becomes barely evident in adults. The mechanisms regulating human NPC migration are unknown. The Slit-Robo signaling pathway has been defined as a chemorepulsive cue involved in axon guidance and neuroblast migration in rodents. Slit and Robo proteins expressed in the rodent brain help guide neuroblast migration from the SVZ through the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb. Here, we present the first study on the role that Slit and Robo proteins play in human-derived fetal neural progenitor cell migration (hfNPC). We describe that Robo1 and Robo2 isoforms are expressed in the human fetal SVZ. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Slit2 is able to induce a chemorepellent effect on the migration of hfNPCs derived from the human fetal SVZ. In addition, when Robo1 expression is inhibited, hfNPCs are unable to migrate to the olfactory bulb of mice when injected in the anterior SVZ. Our findings indicate that the migration of human NPCs from the SVZ is partially regulated by the Slit-Robo axis. This pathway could be regulated to direct the migration of NPCs in human endogenous neural cell therapy. Stem Cells 2017;35:1860-1865. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Human mammary progenitor cell fate decisions are productsof interactions with combinatorial microenvironments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    LaBarge, Mark A.; Nelson, Celeste M.; Villadsen, René

    2009-01-01

    factors, ECM, and other cells, as well as physical properties of the ECM. To understand regulation of fate decisions, therefore, would require a means of understanding carefully choreographed combinatorial interactions. Here we used microenvironment protein microarrays to functionally identify...... combinations of cell-extrinsic mammary gland proteins and ECM molecules that imposed specific cell fates on bipotent human mammary progenitor cells.Micropatterned cell culture surfaces were fabricated to distinguish between the instructive effects of cell-cell versus cell-ECM interactions, as well...

  16. Carvacrol promotes angiogenic paracrine potential and endothelial differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells at low concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matluobi, Danial; Araghi, Atefeh; Maragheh, Behnaz Faramarzian Azimi; Rezabakhsh, Aysa; Soltani, Sina; Khaksar, Majid; Siavashi, Vahid; Feyzi, Adel; Bagheri, Hesam Saghaei; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Montazersaheb, Soheila

    2018-01-01

    Phenolic monoterpene compound, named Carvacrol, has been found to exert different biological outcomes. It has been accepted that the angiogenic activity of human mesenchymal stem cells was crucial in the pursuit of appropriate regeneration. In the current experiment, we investigated the contribution of Carvacrol on the angiogenic behavior of primary human mesenchymal stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells were exposed to Carvacrol in a dose ranging from 25 to 200μM for 48h. We measured cell survival rate by MTT assay and migration rate by a scratch test. The oxidative status was monitored by measuring SOD, GPx activity. The endothelial differentiation was studied by evaluating the level of VE-cadherin and vWF by real-time PCR and ELISA analyses. The content of VEGF and tubulogenesis behavior was monitored in vitro. We also conducted Matrigel plug in vivo CAM assay to assess the angiogenic potential of conditioned media from human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to Carvacrol. Carvacrol was able to increase mesenchymal stem cell survival and migration rate (pcells by detecting vWF and VE-cadherin expression (pmesenchymal stem cells conditioned media improved angiogenesis tube formation in vitro (pmesenchymal stem cells by modulating cell differentiation and paracrine angiogenic response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Data on isolating mesenchymal stromal cells from human adipose tissue using a collagenase-free method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassim Shebaby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present dataset describes a detailed protocol to isolate mesenchymal cells from human fat without the use of collagenase. Human fat specimen, surgically cleaned from non-fat tissues (e.g., blood vessels and reduced into smaller fat pieces of around 1–3 mm size, is incubated in complete culture media for five to seven days. Then, cells started to spread out from the fat explants and to grow in cultures according to an exponential pattern. Our data showed that primary mesenchymal cells presenting heterogeneous morphology start to acquire more homogenous fibroblastic-like shape when cultured for longer duration or when subcultured into new flasks. Cell isolation efficiency as well as cell doubling time were also calculated throughout the culturing experimentations and illustrated in a separate figure thereafter. This paper contains data previously considered as an alternative protocol to isolate adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell published in “Proliferation and differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs into osteoblastic lineage are passage dependent” [1]. Keywords: Adipose tissue, mesenchymal stromal cell, cell culture, doubling time

  18. A novel serum-free monolayer culture for orderly hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent cells via mesodermal progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Niwa

    Full Text Available Elucidating the in vitro differentiation of human embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells is important for understanding both normal and pathological hematopoietic development in vivo. For this purpose, a robust and simple hematopoietic differentiation system that can faithfully trace in vivo hematopoiesis is necessary. In this study, we established a novel serum-free monolayer culture that can trace the in vivo hematopoietic pathway from ES/iPS cells to functional definitive blood cells via mesodermal progenitors. Stepwise tuning of exogenous cytokine cocktails induced the hematopoietic mesodermal progenitors via primitive streak cells. These progenitors were then differentiated into various cell lineages depending on the hematopoietic cytokines present. Moreover, single cell deposition assay revealed that common bipotential hemoangiogenic progenitors were induced in our culture. Our system provides a new, robust, and simple method for investigating the mechanisms of mesodermal and hematopoietic differentiation.

  19. Autonomous Agents on Expedition: Humans and Progenitor Ants and Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilee, M. L.; Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Truszkowski, W. F.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Nano-Technology Swarm (ANTS) is an advanced mission architecture based on a social insect analog of many specialized spacecraft working together to achieve mission goals. The principal mission concept driving the ANTS architecture is a Main Belt Asteroid Survey in the 2020s that will involve a thousand or more nano-technology enabled, artificially intelligent, autonomous pico-spacecraft (architecture. High level, mission-oriented behaviors are to be managed by a control / communications layer of the swarm, whereas common low level functions required of all spacecraft, e.g. attitude control and guidance and navigation, are handled autonomically on each spacecraft. At the higher levels of mission planning and social interaction deliberative techniques are to be used. For the asteroid survey, ANTS acts as a large community of cooperative agents while for precursor missions there arises the intriguing possibility of Progenitor ANTS and humans acting together as agents. For optimal efficiency and responsiveness for individual spacecraft at the lowest levels of control we have been studying control methods based on nonlinear dynamical systems. We describe the critically important autonomous control architecture of the ANTS mission concept and a sequence of partial implementations that feature increasingly autonomous behaviors. The scientific and engineering roles that these Progenitor ANTS could play in human missions or remote missions with near real time human interactions, particularly to the Moon and Mars, will be discussed.

  20. A single splice site mutation in human-specific ARHGAP11B causes basal progenitor amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Marta; Namba, Takashi; Pääbo, Svante; Hiller, Michael; Huttner, Wieland B.

    2016-01-01

    The gene ARHGAP11B promotes basal progenitor amplification and is implicated in neocortex expansion. It arose on the human evolutionary lineage by partial duplication of ARHGAP11A, which encodes a Rho guanosine triphosphatase–activating protein (RhoGAP). However, a lack of 55 nucleotides in ARHGAP11B mRNA leads to loss of RhoGAP activity by GAP domain truncation and addition of a human-specific carboxy-terminal amino acid sequence. We show that these 55 nucleotides are deleted by mRNA splicing due to a single C→G substitution that creates a novel splice donor site. We reconstructed an ancestral ARHGAP11B complementary DNA without this substitution. Ancestral ARHGAP11B exhibits RhoGAP activity but has no ability to increase basal progenitors during neocortex development. Hence, a single nucleotide substitution underlies the specific properties of ARHGAP11B that likely contributed to the evolutionary expansion of the human neocortex. PMID:27957544

  1. Towards consistent generation of pancreatic lineage progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostovskaya, Maria; Bredenkamp, Nicholas; Smith, Austin

    2015-10-19

    Human pluripotent stem cells can in principle be used as a source of any differentiated cell type for disease modelling, drug screening, toxicology testing or cell replacement therapy. Type I diabetes is considered a major target for stem cell applications due to the shortage of primary human beta cells. Several protocols have been reported for generating pancreatic progenitors by in vitro differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. Here we first assessed one of these protocols on a panel of pluripotent stem cell lines for capacity to engender glucose sensitive insulin-producing cells after engraftment in immunocompromised mice. We observed variable outcomes with only one cell line showing a low level of glucose response. We, therefore, undertook a systematic comparison of different methods for inducing definitive endoderm and subsequently pancreatic differentiation. Of several protocols tested, we identified a combined approach that robustly generated pancreatic progenitors in vitro from both embryo-derived and induced pluripotent stem cells. These findings suggest that, although there are intrinsic differences in lineage specification propensity between pluripotent stem cell lines, optimal differentiation procedures may consistently direct a substantial fraction of cells into pancreatic specification. © 2015 The Authors.

  2. What is the potential of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells to successfully treat human spinal cord injury?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Trevor M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal cord injury is a serious and debilitating condition, affecting millions of people worldwide. Long seen as a permanent injury, recent advances in stem cell research have brought closer the possibility of repairing the spinal cord. One such approach involves injecting oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells, into the injured spinal cord in the hope that they will initiate repair. A phase I clinical trial of this therapy was started in mid 2010 and is currently underway. Discussion The theory underlying this approach is that these myelinating progenitors will phenotypically replace myelin lost during injury whilst helping to promote a repair environment in the lesion. However, the importance of demyelination in the pathogenesis of human spinal cord injury is a contentious issue and a body of literature suggests that it is only a minor factor in the overall injury process. Summary This review examines the validity of the theory underpinning the on-going clinical trial as well as analysing published data from animal models and finally discussing issues surrounding safety and purity in order to assess the potential of this approach to successfully treat acute human spinal cord injury.

  3. Protection of visual functions by human neural progenitors in a rat model of retinal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Gamm

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A promising clinical application for stem and progenitor cell transplantation is in rescue therapy for degenerative diseases. This strategy seeks to preserve rather than restore host tissue function by taking advantage of unique properties often displayed by these versatile cells. In studies using different neurodegenerative disease models, transplanted human neural progenitor cells (hNPC protected dying host neurons within both the brain and spinal cord. Based on these reports, we explored the potential of hNPC transplantation to rescue visual function in an animal model of retinal degeneration, the Royal College of Surgeons rat.Animals received unilateral subretinal injections of hNPC or medium alone at an age preceding major photoreceptor loss. Principal outcomes were quantified using electroretinography, visual acuity measurements and luminance threshold recordings from the superior colliculus. At 90-100 days postnatal, a time point when untreated rats exhibit little or no retinal or visual function, hNPC-treated eyes retained substantial retinal electrical activity and visual field with near-normal visual acuity. Functional efficacy was further enhanced when hNPC were genetically engineered to secrete glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Histological examination at 150 days postnatal showed hNPC had formed a nearly continuous pigmented layer between the neural retina and retinal pigment epithelium, as well as distributed within the inner retina. A concomitant preservation of host cone photoreceptors was also observed.Wild type and genetically modified human neural progenitor cells survive for prolonged periods, migrate extensively, secrete growth factors and rescue visual functions following subretinal transplantation in the Royal College of Surgeons rat. These results underscore the potential therapeutic utility of hNPC in the treatment of retinal degenerative diseases and suggest potential mechanisms underlying their effect in

  4. Spontaneous calcium transients in human neural progenitor cells mediated by transient receptor potential channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Peter J; Hübner, Rayk; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2013-09-15

    Calcium signals affect many developmental processes, including proliferation, migration, survival, and apoptosis, processes that are of particular importance in stem cells intended for cell replacement therapies. The mechanisms underlying Ca(2+) signals, therefore, have a role in determining how stem cells respond to their environment, and how these responses might be controlled in vitro. In this study, we examined the spontaneous Ca(2+) activity in human neural progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation. Pharmacological characterization indicates that in proliferating cells, most activity is the result of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels that are sensitive to Gd(3+) and La(3+), with the more subtype selective antagonist Ruthenium red also reducing activity, suggesting the involvement of transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels. In differentiating cells, Gd(3+) and La(3+)-sensitive TRP channels also appear to underlie the spontaneous activity; however, no sub-type-specific antagonists had any effect. Protein levels of TRPV2 and TRPV3 decreased in differentiated cells, which is demonstrated by western blot. Thus, it appears that TRP channels represent the main route of Ca(2+) entry in human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs), but the responsible channel types are subject to substitution under differentiating conditions. The level of spontaneous activity could be increased and decreased by lowering and raising the extracellular K(+) concentration. Proliferating cells in low K(+) slowed the cell cycle, with a disproportionate increased percentage of cells in G1 phase and a reduction in S phase. Taken together, these results suggest a link between external K(+) concentration, spontaneous Ca(2+) transients, and cell cycle distribution, which is able to influence the fate of stem and progenitor cells.

  5. Tissue-resident Sca1+ PDGFRα+ mesenchymal progenitors are the cellular source of fibrofatty infiltration in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/17s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Paylor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC is a disease of the heart involving myocardial dystrophy leading to fibrofatty scarring of the myocardium and is associated with an increased risk of both ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. It often affects the right ventricle but may also involve the left. Although there has been significant progress in understanding the role of underlying desmosomal genetic defects in AC, there is still a lack of data regarding the cellular processes involved in its progression. The development of cardiac fibrofatty scarring is known to be a principal pathological process associated with ventricular arrhythmias, and it is vital that we elucidate the role of various cell populations involved in the disease if targeted therapeutics are to be developed. The known role of mesenchymal progenitor cells in the reparative process of both the heart and skeletal muscle has provided inspiration for the identification of the cellular basis of fibrofatty infiltration in AC. Here we hypothesize that reparative processes triggered by myocardial degeneration lead to the differentiation of tissue-resident Sca1+ PDGFRα+ mesenchymal progenitors into adipocytes and fibroblasts, which compose the fibrofatty lesions characteristic of AC.

  6. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    William Petersen, Ole; Lind Nielsen, Helga; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, René; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J

    2001-01-01

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression

  7. The plasticity of human breast carcinoma cells is more than epithelial to mesenchymal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Ole William; Nielsen, Helga Lind; Gudjonsson, Thorarinn; Villadsen, Ren& #233; ; Ronnov-Jessen, Lone; Bissell, Mina J.

    2001-05-12

    The human breast comprises three lineages: the luminal epithelial lineage, the myoepithelial lineage, and the mesenchymal lineage. It has been widely accepted that human breast neoplasia pertains only to the luminal epithelial lineage. In recent years, however, evidence has accumulated that neoplastic breast epithelial cells may be substantially more plastic in their differentiation repertoire than previously anticipated. Thus, along with an increasing availability of markers for the myoepithelial lineage, at least a partial differentiation towards this lineage is being revealed frequently. It has also become clear that conversions towards the mesenchymal lineage actually occur, referred to as epithelial to mesenchymal transitions. Indeed, some of the so-called myofibroblasts surrounding the tumor may indeed have an epithelial origin rather than a mesenchymal origin. Because myoepithelial cells, epithelial to mesenchymal transition-derived cells, genuine stromal cells and myofibroblasts share common markers, we now need to define a more ambitious set of markers to distinguish these cell types in the microenvironment of the tumors. This is necessary because the different microenvironments may confer different clinical outcomes. The aim of this commentary is to describe some of the inherent complexities in defining cellular phenotypes in the microenvironment of breast cancer and to expand wherever possible on the implications for tumor suppression and progression.

  8. Transcriptomic comparisons between cultured human adipose tissue-derived pericytes and mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, sometimes called mesenchymal stem cells, are cultured cells able to give rise to mature mesenchymal cells such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes, and to secrete a wide range of trophic and immunomodulatory molecules. Evidence indicates that pericytes, cells that surround and maintain physical connections with endothelial cells in blood vessels, can give rise to MSCs (da Silva Meirelles et al., 2008 [1]; Caplan and Correa, 2011 [2]. We have compared the transcriptomes of highly purified, human adipose tissue pericytes subjected to culture-expansion in pericyte medium or MSC medium, with that of human adipose tissue MSCs isolated with traditional methods to test the hypothesis that their transcriptomes are similar (da Silva Meirelles et al., 2015 [3]. Here, we provide further information and analyses of microarray data from three pericyte populations cultured in pericyte medium, three pericyte populations cultured in MSC medium, and three adipose tissue MSC populations deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE67747. Keywords: Mesenchymal stromal cells, Mesenchymal stem cells, Pericytes, Microarrays

  9. Isolation and characterization of multipotent progenitor cells from the Bowman's capsule of adult human kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagrinati, Costanza; Netti, Giuseppe Stefano; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Lazzeri, Elena; Liotta, Francesco; Frosali, Francesca; Ronconi, Elisa; Meini, Claudia; Gacci, Mauro; Squecco, Roberta; Carini, Marco; Gesualdo, Loreto; Francini, Fabio; Maggi, Enrico; Annunziato, Francesco; Lasagni, Laura; Serio, Mario; Romagnani, Sergio; Romagnani, Paola

    2006-09-01

    Regenerative medicine represents a critical clinical goal for patients with ESRD, but the identification of renal adult multipotent progenitor cells has remained elusive. It is demonstrated that in human adult kidneys, a subset of parietal epithelial cells (PEC) in the Bowman's capsule exhibit coexpression of the stem cell markers CD24 and CD133 and of the stem cell-specific transcription factors Oct-4 and BmI-1, in the absence of lineage-specific markers. This CD24+CD133+ PEC population, which could be purified from cultured capsulated glomeruli, revealed self-renewal potential and a high cloning efficiency. Under appropriate culture conditions, individual clones of CD24+CD133+ PEC could be induced to generate mature, functional, tubular cells with phenotypic features of proximal and/or distal tubules, osteogenic cells, adipocytes, and cells that exhibited phenotypic and functional features of neuronal cells. The injection of CD24+CD133+ PEC but not of CD24-CD133- renal cells into SCID mice that had acute renal failure resulted in the regeneration of tubular structures of different portions of the nephron. More important, treatment of acute renal failure with CD24+CD133+ PEC significantly ameliorated the morphologic and functional kidney damage. This study demonstrates the existence and provides the characterization of a population of resident multipotent progenitor cells in adult human glomeruli, potentially opening new avenues for the development of regenerative medicine in patients who have renal diseases.

  10. Generation of functional islets from human umbilical cord and placenta derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Sachin; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been used for allogeneic application in tissue engineering but have certain drawbacks. Therefore, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from other adult tissue sources have been considered as an alternative. The human umbilical cord and placenta are easily available noncontroversial sources of human tissue, which are often discarded as biological waste, and their collection is noninvasive. These sources of MSCs are not subjected to ethical constraints, as in the case of embryonic stem cells. MSCs derived from umbilical cord and placenta are multipotent and have the ability to differentiate into various cell types crossing the lineage boundary towards endodermal lineage. The aim of this chapter is to provide a detailed reproducible cookbook protocol for the isolation, propagation, characterization, and differentiation of MSCs derived from human umbilical cord and placenta with special reference to harnessing their potential towards pancreatic/islet lineage for utilization as a cell therapy product. We show here that mesenchymal stromal cells can be extensively expanded from umbilical cord and placenta of human origin retaining their multilineage differentiation potential in vitro. Our report indicates that postnatal tissues obtained as delivery waste represent a rich source of mesenchymal stromal cells, which can be differentiated into functional islets employing three-stage protocol developed by our group. These islets could be used as novel in vitro model for screening hypoglycemics/insulin secretagogues, thus reducing animal experimentation for this purpose and for the future human islet transplantation programs to treat diabetes.

  11. Generation of mesenchymal stromal cells in the presence of platelet lysate: a phenotypic and functional comparison of umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-derived progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzini, Maria Antonietta; Bernardo, Maria Ester; Cometa, Angela Maria; Perotti, Cesare; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Novara, Francesca; Visai, Livia; Moretta, Antonia; Del Fante, Claudia; Villa, Raffaella; Ball, Lynne M.; Fibbe, Willem E.; Maccario, Rita; Locatelli, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells are employed in various different clinical settings in order to modulate immune response. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms responsible for their immunomodulatory effects, which could be influenced by both the cell source and culture conditions. Design and Methods We tested the ability of a 5% platelet lysate-supplemented medium to support isolation and ex vivo expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells from full-term umbilical-cord blood. We also investigated the biological/functional properties of umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells, in comparison with platelet lysate-expanded bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells. Results The success rate of isolation of mesenchymal stromal cells from umbilical cord blood was in the order of 20%. These cells exhibited typical morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. Although they have a low clonogenic efficiency, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells may possess high proliferative potential. The genetic stability of these cells from umbilical cord blood was demonstrated by a normal molecular karyotype; in addition, these cells do not express hTERT and telomerase activity, do express p16ink4a protein and do not show anchorage-independent cell growth. Concerning alloantigen-specific immune responses, umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stromal cells were able to: (i) suppress T- and NK-lymphocyte proliferation, (ii) decrease cytotoxic activity and (iii) only slightly increase interleukin-10, while decreasing interferon-γ secretion, in mixed lymphocyte culture supernatants. While an indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-specific inhibitor did not reverse mesenchymal stromal cell-induced suppressive effects, a prostaglandin E2-specific inhibitor hampered the suppressive effect of both umbilical cord blood- and bone marrow-mesenchymal stromal cells on alloantigen-induced cytotoxic activity. Mesenchymal stromal cells from both sources expressed HLA

  12. Treating fat grafts with human endothelial progenitor cells promotes their vascularization and improves their survival in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Saher; Ben-Nun, Ohad; Egozi, Dana; Keren, Aviad; Malyarova, Nastya; Kruchevsky, Danny; Gilhar, Amos; Ullmann, Yehuda

    2012-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells are required for vascularization of a fat graft to form a functional microvasculature within the graft and to facilitate its integration into the surrounding tissues. Organ transplantation carries a high risk of graft loss and rejection in patients with diabetes mellitus because endothelial progenitor cell function is impaired. The authors investigated the influence of endothelial progenitor cell treatment on the phenotype and survival of human fat grafts in immunocompromised mice with experimentally induced diabetes mellitus. The authors injected 1 ml of human fat tissue into the scalps of 14 nondiabetic and 28 diabetic immunocompromised mice, and then treated some of the grafts with endothelial progenitor cells that was isolated from the blood of a human donor. The phenotype of the endothelial progenitor cell-treated fat grafts from the 14 diabetic mice was compared with that of the untreated fat grafts from 14 nondiabetic and 14 diabetic mice, 18 days and 15 weeks after fat transplantation. Determination of graft phenotype included measurements of weight and volume, vascular endothelial growth factor levels, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and caspase 3 expression levels, and histologic analysis of the extent of vascularization. The untreated grafts from the diabetic mice were fully resorbed 15 weeks after fat transplantation. The phenotype of endothelial progenitor cell-treated fat grafts from the diabetic mice was similar to that of the untreated fat grafts from the nondiabetic mice. Endothelial progenitor cell treatment of transplanted fat can increase the survival of a fat graft by inducing its vascularization and decreasing the extent of apoptosis.

  13. Activation of the Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling Is Critical for Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell Osteogenic Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Shuang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are recognized as candidate progenitor cells for bone regeneration. However, the mechanism of hUCMSC osteogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we revealed that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs signaling is involved in hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Particularly, the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK and p38 signaling pathways maintained a consistent level in hUCMSCs through the entire 21-day osteogenic differentiation period. At the same time, the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK signaling significantly increased from day 5, peaked at day 9, and declined thereafter. Moreover, gene profiling of osteogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity measurement, and alizarin red staining demonstrated that the application of U0126, a specific inhibitor for ERK activation, completely prohibited hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation. However, when U0126 was removed from the culture at day 9, ERK activation and osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs were partially recovered. Together, these findings demonstrate that the activation of ERK signaling is essential for hUCMSC osteogenic differentiation, which points out the significance of ERK signaling pathway to regulate the osteogenic differentiation of hUCMSCs as an alternative cell source for bone tissue engineering.

  14. Monomeric, porous type II collagen scaffolds promote chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddon, M.; Burrows, M.; Ferreira, S. A.; Dazzi, F.; Apperley, J. F.; Bradshaw, A.; Brand, D. D.; Czernuszka, J.; Gentleman, E.

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common cause of pain and disability and is often associated with the degeneration of articular cartilage. Lesions to the articular surface, which are thought to progress to OA, have the potential to be repaired using tissue engineering strategies; however, it remains challenging to instruct cell differentiation within a scaffold to produce tissue with appropriate structural, chemical and mechanical properties. We aimed to address this by driving progenitor cells to adopt a chondrogenic phenotype through the tailoring of scaffold composition and physical properties. Monomeric type-I and type-II collagen scaffolds, which avoid potential immunogenicity associated with fibrillar collagens, were fabricated with and without chondroitin sulfate (CS) and their ability to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells was assessed. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that cells produced abundant collagen type-II on type-II scaffolds and collagen type-I on type-I scaffolds. Gene expression analyses indicated that the addition of CS - which was released from scaffolds quickly - significantly upregulated expression of type II collagen, compared to type-I and pure type-II scaffolds. We conclude that collagen type-II and CS can be used to promote a more chondrogenic phenotype in the absence of growth factors, potentially providing an eventual therapy to prevent OA.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Hypomethylation Is a Biomarker Associated with Induced Senescence in Human Fetal Heart Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Dehai Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fetal heart can regenerate to restore its normal anatomy and function in response to injury, but this regenerative capacity is lost within the first week of postnatal life. Although the specific molecular mechanisms remain to be defined, it is presumed that aging of cardiac stem or progenitor cells may contribute to the loss of regenerative potential. Methods. To study this aging-related dysfunction, we cultured mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs from human fetal heart tissues. Senescence was induced by exposing cells to chronic oxidative stress/low serum. Mitochondrial DNA methylation was examined during the period of senescence. Results. Senescent MSCs exhibited flattened and enlarged morphology and were positive for the senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal. By scanning the entire mitochondrial genome, we found that four CpG islands were hypomethylated in close association with senescence in MSCs. The mitochondrial COX1 gene, which encodes the main subunit of the cytochrome c oxidase complex and contains the differentially methylated CpG island 4, was upregulated in MSCs in parallel with the onset of senescence. Knockdown of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3B also upregulated COX1 expression and induced cellular senescence in MSCs. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that mitochondrial CpG hypomethylation may serve as a critical biomarker associated with cellular senescence induced by chronic oxidative stress.

  16. A scalable system for production of functional pancreatic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells.

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    Thomas C Schulz

    Full Text Available Development of a human embryonic stem cell (hESC-based therapy for type 1 diabetes will require the translation of proof-of-principle concepts into a scalable, controlled, and regulated cell manufacturing process. We have previously demonstrated that hESC can be directed to differentiate into pancreatic progenitors that mature into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells in vivo. In this study we describe hESC expansion and banking methods and a suspension-based differentiation system, which together underpin an integrated scalable manufacturing process for producing pancreatic progenitors. This system has been optimized for the CyT49 cell line. Accordingly, qualified large-scale single-cell master and working cGMP cell banks of CyT49 have been generated to provide a virtually unlimited starting resource for manufacturing. Upon thaw from these banks, we expanded CyT49 for two weeks in an adherent culture format that achieves 50-100 fold expansion per week. Undifferentiated CyT49 were then aggregated into clusters in dynamic rotational suspension culture, followed by differentiation en masse for two weeks with a four-stage protocol. Numerous scaled differentiation runs generated reproducible and defined population compositions highly enriched for pancreatic cell lineages, as shown by examining mRNA expression at each stage of differentiation and flow cytometry of the final population. Islet-like tissue containing glucose-responsive, insulin-secreting cells was generated upon implantation into mice. By four- to five-months post-engraftment, mature neo-pancreatic tissue was sufficient to protect against streptozotocin (STZ-induced hyperglycemia. In summary, we have developed a tractable manufacturing process for the generation of functional pancreatic progenitors from hESC on a scale amenable to clinical entry.

  17. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors: new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goralczyk, Anna; van Vijven, Marc; Koch, Mathilde; Badowski, Cedric; Yassin, M Shabeer; Toh, Sue-Anne; Shabbir, Asim; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Raghunath, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal cell sensors responding to diverse stimuli and widely implicated in the developmental programs of numerous tissues. The evidence for an involvement of TRP family members in adipogenesis, however, is scant. We present the first comprehensive expression profile of all known 27 human TRP genes in mesenchymal progenitors cells during white or brown adipogenesis. Using positive trilineage differentiation as an exclusion criterion, TRP polycystic (P)3, and TPR melastatin (M)8 were found to be uniquely adipospecific. Knockdown of TRPP3 repressed the expression of the brown fat signature genes uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator (PGC)-1α as well as attenuated forskolin-stimulated uncoupled respiration. However, indices of generalized adipogenesis, such as lipid droplet morphology and fatty acid binding protein (FAPB)-4 expression, were not affected, indicating a principal mitochondrial role of TRPP3. Conversely, activating TRPM8 with menthol up-regulated UCP-1 expression and augmented uncoupled respiration predominantly in white adipocytes (browning), whereas streptomycin antagonized TRPM8-mediated calcium entry, downregulated UCP-1 expression, and mitigated uncoupled respiration; menthol was less capable of augmenting uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in brown adipocytes. TRPP3 and TRPM8 hence appear to be involved in the priming of mitochondria to perform uncoupled respiration downstream of adenylate cyclase. Our results also underscore the developmental caveats of using antibiotics in adipogenic studies.-Goralczyk, A., van Vijven, M., Koch, M., Badowski, C., Yassin, M. S., Toh, S.-A., Shabbir, A., Franco-Obregón, A., Raghunath, M. TRP channels in brown and white adipogenesis from human progenitors: new therapeutic targets and the caveats associated with the common antibiotic, streptomycin. © FASEB.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of PDX1 target genes in human pancreatic progenitors

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    Xianming Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the gene coding for the homeobox transcription factor (TF PDX1 leads to pancreatic agenesis, whereas heterozygous mutations can cause Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young 4 (MODY4. Although the function of Pdx1 is well studied in pre-clinical models during insulin-producing β-cell development and homeostasis, it remains elusive how this TF controls human pancreas development by regulating a downstream transcriptional program. Also, comparative studies of PDX1 binding patterns in pancreatic progenitors and adult β-cells have not been conducted so far. Furthermore, many studies reported the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and T2DM, and it has been shown that islet enhancers are enriched in T2DM-associated SNPs. Whether regions, harboring T2DM-associated SNPs are PDX1 bound and active at the pancreatic progenitor stage has not been reported so far. Methods: In this study, we have generated a novel induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line that efficiently differentiates into human pancreatic progenitors (PPs. Furthermore, PDX1 and H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq was used to identify PDX1 transcriptional targets and active enhancer and promoter regions. To address potential differences in the function of PDX1 during development and adulthood, we compared PDX1 binding profiles from PPs and adult islets. Moreover, combining ChIP-seq and GWAS meta-analysis data we identified T2DM-associated SNPs in PDX1 binding sites and active chromatin regions. Results: ChIP-seq for PDX1 revealed a total of 8088 PDX1-bound regions that map to 5664 genes in iPSC-derived PPs. The PDX1 target regions include important pancreatic TFs, such as PDX1 itself, RFX6, HNF1B, and MEIS1, which were activated during the differentiation process as revealed by the active chromatin mark H3K27ac and mRNA expression profiling, suggesting that auto-regulatory feedback regulation

  19. The Origin of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Dictates Their Reparative Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naftali-Shani, Nili; Itzhaki-Alfia, Ayelet; Landa-Rouben, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) from adipose cardiac tissue have attracted considerable interest in regard to cell-based therapies. We aimed to test the hypothesis that hMSCs from the heart and epicardial fat would be better cells for infarct repair....

  20. Mesenchymal stem cells in human placental chorionic villi reside in a vascular Niche

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castrechini, N. M.; Murthi, P.; Gude, N. M.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Gronthos, S.; Zannettino, A.; Brennecke, S. R.; Kalionis, B.; Brennecke, S.P.

    The chorionic villi of human term placentae are a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (PMSCs) The stem cell "niche" within the chorionic villi regulates how PMSCs participate in placental tissue generation, maintenance and repair, but the anatomic location of the niche has not been defined A

  1. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with various pore sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lea; Bünger, Cody; Baatrup, Anette

    2011-01-01

    of this study was to obtain a clinically relevant substitute size using a direct perfusion culture system. Human bone marrowderived mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on coralline hydroxyapatite scaffolds with 200 μm or 500 μm pores, and resulting constructs were cultured in a perfusion bioreactor or in static...

  2. Telomerase promoter reprogramming and interaction with general transcription factors in the human mesenchymal stem cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serakinci, Nedime; Hoare, Stacey F.; Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    The human adult mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) does not express telomerase and has been shown to be the target for neoplastic transformation after transduction with hTERT. These findings lend support to the stem cell hypothesis of cancer development but by supplying hTERT, the molecular events requ...

  3. Interaction of human mesenchymal stem cells with osteopontin coated hydroxyapatite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Foss, Morten

    2010-01-01

    In vitro studies of the initial attachment, spreading and motility of human bone mesenchymal stem cells have been carried out on bovine osteopontin (OPN) coated hydroxyapatite (HA) and gold (Au) model surfaces. The adsorption of OPN extracted from bovine milk was monitored by the quartz crystal...

  4. Direct Genesis of Functional Rodent and Human Schwann Cells from Skin Mesenchymal Precursors

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    Matthew P. Krause

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent reports of directed reprogramming have raised questions about the stability of cell lineages. Here, we have addressed this issue, focusing upon skin-derived precursors (SKPs, a dermally derived precursor cell. We show by lineage tracing that murine SKPs from dorsal skin originate from mesenchymal and not neural crest-derived cells. These mesenchymally derived SKPs can, without genetic manipulation, generate functional Schwann cells, a neural crest cell type, and are highly similar at the transcriptional level to Schwann cells isolated from the peripheral nerve. This is not a mouse-specific phenomenon, since human SKPs that are highly similar at the transcriptome level can be made from neural crest-derived facial and mesodermally derived foreskin dermis and the foreskin SKPs can make myelinating Schwann cells. Thus, nonneural crest-derived mesenchymal precursors can differentiate into bona fide peripheral glia in the absence of genetic manipulation, suggesting that developmentally defined lineage boundaries are more flexible than widely thought.

  5. Generation of a transplantable erythropoietin-producer derived from human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoo, Takashi; Fukui, Akira; Matsumoto, Kei; Ohashi, Toya; Sado, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Hideaki; Kawamura, Tetsuya; Okabe, Masataka; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2008-06-15

    Differentiation of autologous stem cells into functional transplantable tissue for organ regeneration is a promising regenerative therapeutic approach for cancer, diabetes, and many human diseases. Yet to be established, however, is differentiation into tissue capable of producing erythropoietin (EPO), which has a critical function in anemia. We report a novel EPO-producing organ-like structure (organoid) derived from human mesenchymal stem cells. Using our previously established relay culture system, a human mesenchymal stem cell-derived, human EPO-competent organoid was established in rat omentum. The organoid-derived levels of human EPO increased in response to anemia induced by rapid blood withdrawal. In addition, the presence of an organoid in rats suppressed for native (rat) EPO production enhanced recovery from anemia when compared with control animals lacking the organoid. Together these results confirmed the generation of a stem cell-derived organoid that is capable of producing EPO and sensitive to physiological regulation.

  6. MicroRNA Levels as Prognostic Markers for the Differentiation Potential of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgi, Nicole; Taipaleenmaeki, H.; Raiss, C.C.; Groen, N.; Portalska, K.K.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan; Post, Janine Nicole; van Wijnen, A.; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into various mesenchymal cell lineages makes them a promising cell source for the use in tissue repair strategies. Because the differentiation potential of hMSCs differs between donors, it is necessary to establish

  7. Long-Term Culture of Self-renewing Pancreatic Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Jamie Trott

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent stem cells have been proposed as an unlimited source of pancreatic β cells for studying and treating diabetes. However, the long, multi-step differentiation protocols used to generate functional β cells inevitably exhibit considerable variability, particularly when applied to pluripotent cells from diverse genetic backgrounds. We have developed culture conditions that support long-term self-renewal of human multipotent pancreatic progenitors, which are developmentally more proximal to the specialized cells of the adult pancreas. These cultured pancreatic progenitor (cPP cells express key pancreatic transcription factors, including PDX1 and SOX9, and exhibit transcriptomes closely related to their in vivo counterparts. Upon exposure to differentiation cues, cPP cells give rise to pancreatic endocrine, acinar, and ductal lineages, indicating multilineage potency. Furthermore, cPP cells generate insulin+ β-like cells in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that they offer a convenient alternative to pluripotent cells as a source of adult cell types for modeling pancreatic development and diabetes.

  8. Neural differentiation of novel multipotent progenitor cells from cryopreserved human umbilical cord blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Moon, Young Joon; Yang, Mal Sook; Kim, Sun Kyung; Jang, In Keun; Eom, Young-woo; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hugh C.; Song, Kye Yong; Park, Soon Cheol; Lim, Hwan Sub; Kim, Young Jin

    2007-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a rich source of hematopoietic stem cells, with practical and ethical advantages. To date, the presence of other stem cells in UCB remains to be established. We investigated whether other stem cells are present in cryopreserved UCB. Seeded mononuclear cells formed adherent colonized cells in optimized culture conditions. Over a 4- to 6-week culture period, colonized cells gradually developed into adherent mono-layer cells, which exhibited homogeneous fibroblast-like morphology and immunophenotypes, and were highly proliferative. Isolated cells were designated 'multipotent progenitor cells (MPCs)'. Under appropriate conditions for 2 weeks, MPCs differentiated into neural tissue-specific cell types, including neuron, astrocyte, and oligodendrocyte. Differentiated cells presented their respective markers, specifically, NF-L and NSE for neurons, GFAP for astrocytes, and myelin/oligodendrocyte for oligodendrocytes. In this study, we successfully isolated MPCs from cryopreserved UCB, which differentiated into the neural tissue-specific cell types. These findings suggest that cryopreserved human UCB is a useful alternative source of neural progenitor cells, such as MPCs, for experimental and therapeutic applications

  9. Integration of adeno-associated virus vectors in CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells after transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, K K; Podsakoff, G; Forman, S J; Chatterjee, S

    1996-07-15

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear promising because of their high transduction frequencies regardless of cell cycle status and ability to integrate into chromosomal DNA. We tested AAV-mediated gene transfer into a panel of human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, using vectors encoding several transgenes under the control of viral and cellular promoters. Gene transfer was evaluated by (1) chromosomal integration of vector sequences and (2) analysis of transgene expression. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of transduced CD34 genomic DNA showed the presence of integrated vector sequences in chromosomal DNA in a portion of transduced cells and showed that integrated vector sequences were replicated along with cellular DNA during mitosis. Transgene expression in transduced CD34 cells in suspension cultures and in myeloid colonies differentiating in vitro from transduced CD34 cells approximated that predicted by the multiplicity of transduction. This was true in CD34 cells from different donors, regardless of the transgene or selective pressure. Comparisons of CD34 cell transduction either before or after cytokine stimulation showed similar gene transfer frequencies. Our findings suggest that AAV transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells is efficient, can lead to stable integration in a population of transduced cells, and may therefore provide the basis for safe and efficient ex vivo gene therapy of the hematopoietic system.

  10. Direct evaluation of radiation damage in human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; McCune, J.M.; Namikawa, Reiko

    1994-01-01

    We have developed techniques by which normal functional elements of human bone marrow can be implanted into immunodeficient C.B-17 scid/scid (SCID) mice. Afterward, long-term multilineage human hematopoiesis is sustained in vivo. We evaluated the effect of irradiation on the function of human bone marrow with this in vivo model. After whole-body X irradiation of the engrafted animals, it was determined that the D 0 value of human committed progenitor cells within the human marrow was 1.00 ± 0.09 (SEM) Gy for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM) and 0.74 ± 0.12 Gy for erythroidburst-forming units (BFU-E). The effects of irradiation on the hematopoietic elements were reduced when the radioprotective agent WR-2721 was administered prior to irradiation. After low-dose irradiation, recovery of human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). This small animal model may prove amenable for the analysis of the risk of the exposure of humans to irradiation as well as for the development of new modalities for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced hematopoietic damage. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Low-frequency, low-magnitude vibrations (LFLM enhances chondrogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stromal stem cells (hASCs

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    Krzysztof Marycz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate if low-frequency, low-magnitude vibrations (LFLM could enhance chondrogenic differentiation potential of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs with simultaneous inhibition of their adipogenic properties for biomedical purposes. We developed a prototype device that induces low-magnitude (0.3 g low-frequency vibrations with the following frequencies: 25, 35 and 45 Hz. Afterwards, we used human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cell (hASCS, to investigate their cellular response to the mechanical signals. We have also evaluated hASCs morphological and proliferative activity changes in response to each frequency. Induction of chondrogenesis in hASCs, under the influence of a 35 Hz signal leads to most effective and stable cartilaginous tissue formation through highest secretion of Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP-2, and Collagen type II, with low concentration of Collagen type I. These results correlated well with appropriate gene expression level. Simultaneously, we observed significant up-regulation of α3, α4, β1 and β3 integrins in chondroblast progenitor cells treated with 35 Hz vibrations, as well as Sox-9. Interestingly, we noticed that application of 35 Hz frequencies significantly inhibited adipogenesis of hASCs. The obtained results suggest that application of LFLM vibrations together with stem cell therapy might be a promising tool in cartilage regeneration.

  12. Characteristics of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells and their tropism to human ovarian cancer.

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    Liru Li

    Full Text Available The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs derived from amniotic fluid (AF have become an attractive stem cells source for cell-based therapy because they can be harvested at low cost and avoid ethical disputes. In human research, stem cells derived from AF gradually became a hot research direction for disease treatment, specifically for their plasticity, their reduced immunogenicity and their tumor tropism regardless of the tumor size, location and source. Our work aimed to obtain and characterize human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSCs and detect their ovarian cancer tropsim in nude mice model. Ten milliliters of twenty independent amniotic fluid samples were collected from 16-20 week pregnant women who underwent amniocentesis for fetal genetic determination in routine prenatal diagnosis in the first affiliated hospital of Harbin medical university. We successfully isolated the AFMSCs from thirteen of twenty amniotic fluid samples. AFMSCs presented a fibroblastic-like morphology during the culture. Flow cytometry analyses showed that the cells were positive for specific stem cell markers CD73,CD90, CD105, CD166 and HLA-ABC (MHC class I, but negative for CD 45,CD40, CD34, CD14 and HLA-DR (MHC class II. RT-PCR results showed that the AFMSCs expressed stem cell marker OCT4. AFMSCs could differentiate into bone cells, fat cells and chondrocytes under certain conditions. AFMSCs had the high motility to migrate to ovarian cancer site but didn't have the tumorigenicity. This study enhances the possibility of AFMSCs as drug carrier in human cell-based therapy. Meanwhile, the research emphasis in the future can also put in targeting therapy of ovarian cancer.

  13. Noncoding RNA in the Transcriptional Landscape of Human Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation

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    Patrick eHecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that noncoding RNAs play key roles in cellular processes, particularly in the brain. The present study used RNA sequencing to identify the transcriptional landscape of two human neural progenitor cell lines, SK-N-SH and ReNcell CX, as they differentiate into human cortical projection neurons. Protein coding genes were found to account for 54.8% and 57.0% of expressed genes, respectively, and alignment of RNA sequencing reads revealed that only 25.5-28.1% mapped to exonic regions of the genome. Differential expression analysis in the two cell lines identified altered gene expression in both protein coding and noncoding RNAs as they undergo neural differentiation with 222 differentially expressed genes observed in SK-N-SH cells and 19 differentially expressed genes in ReNcell CX. Interestingly, genes showing differential expression in SK-N-SH cells are enriched in genes implicated in autism spectrum disorder, but not in gene sets related to cancer or Alzheimer’s disease. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA was used to detect modules of co-expressed protein coding and noncoding RNAs in SK-N-SH cells and found four modules to be associated with neural differentiation. These modules contain varying levels of noncoding RNAs ranging from 10.7% to 49.7% with gene ontology suggesting roles in numerous cellular processes important for differentiation. These results indicate that noncoding RNAs are highly expressed in human neural progenitor cells and likely hold key regulatory roles in gene networks underlying neural differentiation and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  14. Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells stimulates rejuvenation of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Jin; Yoo, Sae Mi; Park, Hwan Hee; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Yu-Lee; Lee, Seunghee; Seo, Kwang-Won; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2017-11-18

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) play an important role in cutaneous wound healing, and recent studies suggested that MSC-derived exosomes activate several signaling pathways, which are conducive in wound healing and cell growth. In this study, we investigated the roles of exosomes that are derived from USC-CM (USC-CM Exos) in cutaneous collagen synthesis and permeation. We found that USC-CM has various growth factors associated with skin rejuvenation. Our in vitro results showed that USC-CM Exos integrate in Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFs) and consequently promote cell migration and collagen synthesis of HDFs. Moreover, we evaluated skin permeation of USC-CM Exos by using human skin tissues. Results showed that Exo-Green labeled USC-CM Exos approached the outermost layer of the epidermis after 3 h and gradually approached the epidermis after 18 h. Moreover, increased expressions of Collagen I and Elastin were found after 3 days of treatment on human skin. The results showed that USC-CM Exos is absorbed into human skin, it promotes Collagen I and Elastin synthesis in the skin, which are essential to skin rejuvenation and shows the potential of USC-CM integration with the cosmetics or therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Markers of Pluripotency in Human Amniotic Epithelial Cells and Their Differentiation to Progenitor of Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Castro, Irma Lydia; García-López, Guadalupe; Ávila-González, Daniela; Flores-Herrera, Héctor; Molina-Hernández, Anayansi; Portillo, Wendy; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva; Díaz, Néstor Fabián

    2015-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC) have promise for regenerative medicine due to their auto-renovation and differentiation capacities. Nevertheless, there are several ethical and methodological issues about these cells that have not been resolved. Human amniotic epithelial cells (hAEC) have been proposed as source of pluripotent stem cells. Several groups have studied hAEC but have reported inconsistencies about their pluripotency properties. The aim of the present study was the in vitro characterization of hAEC collected from a Mexican population in order to identify transcription factors involved in the pluripotency circuitry and to determine their epigenetic state. Finally, we evaluated if these cells differentiate to cortical progenitors. We analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively the expression of the transcription factors of pluripotency (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, KLF4 and REX1) by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR in hAEC. Also, we determined the presence of OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60, E-cadherin, KLF4, TFE3 as well as the proliferation and epigenetic state by immunocytochemistry of the cells. Finally, hAEC were differentiated towards cortical progenitors using a protocol of two stages. Here we show that hAEC, obtained from a Mexican population and cultured in vitro (P0-P3), maintained the expression of several markers strongly involved in pluripotency maintenance (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, TFE3, KLF4, SSEA3, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and E-cadherin). Finally, when hAEC were treated with growth factors and small molecules, they expressed markers characteristic of cortical progenitors (TBR2, OTX2, NeuN and β-III-tubulin). Our results demonstrated that hAEC express naïve pluripotent markers (KLF4, REX1 and TFE3) as well as the cortical neuron phenotype after differentiation. This highlights the need for further investigation of hAEC as a possible source of hPSC. PMID:26720151

  16. Accumulation of multipotent progenitors with a basal differentiation bias during aging of human mammary epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbe, James C; Pepin, Francois; Pelissier, Fanny A

    2012-01-01

    of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlies these observations is lacking. In this study, we generated a large collection of normal human mammary epithelial cell strains from women ages 16 to 91 years, derived from primary tissues, to investigate the molecular changes that occur in aging breast cells....... We found that in finite lifespan cultured and uncultured epithelial cells, aging is associated with a reduction of myoepithelial cells and an increase in luminal cells that express keratin 14 and integrin-a6, a phenotype that is usually expressed exclusively in myoepithelial cells in women younger...... than 30 years. Changes to the luminal lineage resulted from age-dependent expansion of defective multipotent progenitors that gave rise to incompletely differentiated luminal or myoepithelial cells. The aging process therefore results in both a shift in the balance of luminal/myoepithelial lineages...

  17. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, P.; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per

    2017-01-01

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast...... to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem...... cells (CD133+/CD24lo), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology...

  18. [Teratologic cranio-encephalic effects of chronic thinner inhalation in progenitors, in rats and humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Moguel, R; Villeda-Hernández, J; Méndez-Armenta, M

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of thinner by youngsters and adolescents is an increasing drug abuse problem in Mexico. It presents serious repercussions upon socio-economic, cultural, legal and health (neurologic and psychiatric) problems. We report a comparative study in humans and rats which demonstrate the embryotoxic and craneo encephalic teratologic effects in the children and brood of progenitors who have chronically inhaled thinner (in the case of pregnant women, before, at the beginning and throughout pregnancy). Inhaled thinner passes directly to the blood stream and crosses the placentary barrier freely reaching the embryo. It may cause craneal bone and partial or total encephalon agenesia, added to macro and microscopic lesions secondary to direct aggression to the neuroepithelial germ cells. Abortions and premature labor with weight and size underdeveloped products and placentary hemorrhages occur. Usually these die, but if they survive they show trascendental mental retardation, as well as neurologic and psychiatric sequels.

  19. Generation of mature T cells from human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in artificial thymic organoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Christopher S; He, Chongbin; Bethune, Michael T; Li, Suwen; Chick, Brent; Gschweng, Eric H; Zhu, Yuhua; Kim, Kenneth; Kohn, Donald B; Baltimore, David; Crooks, Gay M; Montel-Hagen, Amélie

    2017-05-01

    Studies of human T cell development require robust model systems that recapitulate the full span of thymopoiesis, from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) through to mature T cells. Existing in vitro models induce T cell commitment from human HSPCs; however, differentiation into mature CD3 + TCR-αβ + single-positive CD8 + or CD4 + cells is limited. We describe here a serum-free, artificial thymic organoid (ATO) system that supports efficient and reproducible in vitro differentiation and positive selection of conventional human T cells from all sources of HSPCs. ATO-derived T cells exhibited mature naive phenotypes, a diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and TCR-dependent function. ATOs initiated with TCR-engineered HSPCs produced T cells with antigen-specific cytotoxicity and near-complete lack of endogenous TCR Vβ expression, consistent with allelic exclusion of Vβ-encoding loci. ATOs provide a robust tool for studying human T cell differentiation and for the future development of stem-cell-based engineered T cell therapies.

  20. High purity of human oligodendrocyte progenitor cells obtained from neural stem cells: suitable for clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caiying; Luan, Zuo; Yang, Yinxiang; Wang, Zhaoyan; Wang, Qian; Lu, Yabin; Du, Qingan

    2015-01-30

    Recent studies have suggested that the transplantation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) may be a promising potential therapeutic strategy for a broad range of diseases affecting myelin, such as multiple sclerosis, periventricular leukomalacia, and spinal cord injury. Clinical interest arose from the potential of human stem cells to be directed to OPCs for the clinical application of treating these diseases since large quantities of high quality OPCs are needed. However, to date, there have been precious few studies about OPC induction from human neural stem cells (NSCs). Here we successfully directed human fetal NSCs into highly pure OPCs using a cocktail of basic fibroblast growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and neurotrophic factor-3. These cells had typical morphology of OPCs, and 80-90% of them expressed specific OPC markers such as A2B5, O4, Sox10 and PDGF-αR. When exposed to differentiation medium, 90% of the cells differentiated into oligodendrocytes. The OPCs could be amplified in our culture medium and passaged at least 10 times. Compared to a recent published method, this protocol had much higher stability and repeatability, and OPCs could be obtained from NSCs from passage 5 to 38. It also obtained more highly pure OPCs (80-90%) via simpler and more convenient manipulation. This study provided an easy and efficient method to obtain large quantities of high-quality human OPCs to meet clinical demand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells via re-specification of lineage-restricted precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulatov, Sergei; Vo, Linda T.; Chou, Stephanie S.; Kim, Peter G.; Arora, Natasha; Li, Hu; Hadland, Brandon K.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Collins, James J.; Zon, Leonard I.; Daley, George Q.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a promising source of patient-specific cells for disease modeling, drug screens, and cellular therapies. However, the inability to derive engraftable human hematopoietic stem and progenitor (HSPCs) has limited their characterization to in vitro assays. We report a strategy to re-specify lineage-restricted CD34+CD45+ myeloid precursors derived from hPSCs into multilineage progenitors that can be expanded in vitro and engraft in vivo. HOXA9, ERG, and RORA conferred self-renewal and multilineage potential in vitro and maintained primitive CD34+CD38− cells. Screening cells via transplantation revealed that two additional factors, SOX4 and MYB, were required for engraftment. Progenitors specified with all five factors gave rise to reproducible short-term engraftment with myeloid and erythroid lineages. Erythroid precursors underwent hemoglobin switching in vivo, silencing embryonic and activating adult globin expression. Our combinatorial screening approach establishes a strategy for obtaining transcription factor-mediated engraftment of blood progenitors from human pluripotent cells. PMID:24094326

  2. Intra-Articular Injection of Human Meniscus Stem/Progenitor Cells Promotes Meniscus Regeneration and Ameliorates Osteoarthritis Through Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1/CXCR4-Mediated Homing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Weiliang; Chen, Jialin; Zhu, Ting; Chen, Longkun; Zhang, Wei; Fang, Zhi; Heng, Boon Chin; Yin, Zi; Chen, Xiao; Ji, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Meniscus injury is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Current surgical therapy involving partial or complete meniscectomy relieves pain in the short-term but often leads to osteoarthritis (OA) in the long-term. In this study, we report a new strategy of articular cartilage protection by intra-articular injection of novel human meniscus stem/progenitor cells (hMeSPCs). We found that hMeSPCs displayed both mesenchymal stem cell characteristics and high expression levels of collagen II. In the rat meniscus injury model, hMeSPC transplantation not only led to more neo-tissue formation and better-defined shape but also resulted in more rounded cells and matured extracellular matrix. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) enhanced the migration of hMeSPCs, whereas AMD3100 abolished the chemotactic effects of SDF-1 on hMeSPCs, both in vitro and in vivo. In an experimental OA model, transplantation of hMeSPCs effectively protected articular cartilage, as evidenced by reduced expression of OA markers such as collagen I, collagen X, and hypoxia-inducible factor 2α but increased expression of collagen II. Our study demonstrated for the first time that intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs enhanced meniscus regeneration through the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis. Our study highlights a new strategy of intra-articular injection of hMeSPCs for meniscus regeneration. PMID:24448516

  3. Generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells using recombinant adeno-associated virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Suh, Hwal

    2007-02-28

    The purpose of current experiment is the generation of insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells as therapeutic source for the cure of type 1 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally caused by insulin deficiency accompanied by the destruction of islet beta-cells. In various trials for the treatment of type 1 diabetes, cell-based gene therapy using stem cells is considered as one of the most useful candidate for the treatment. In this experiment, human mesenchymal stem cells were transduced with AAV which is containing furin-cleavable human preproinsulin gene to generate insulin-producing cells as surrogate beta-cells for the type 1 diabetes therapy. In the rAAV production procedure, rAAV was generated by transfection of AD293 cells. Human mesenchymal stems cells were transduced using rAAV with a various multiplicity of infection. Transduction of recombinant AAV was also tested using beta-galactosidse expression. Cell viability was determined by using MTT assay to evaluate the toxicity of the transduction procedure. Expression and production of Insulin were tested using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Secretion of human insulin and C-peptide from the cells was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Production of insulin and C-peptide from the test group represented a higher increase compared to the control group. In this study, we examined generation of insulin-producing cells from mesenchymal stem cells by genetic engineering for diabetes therapy. This work might be valuable to the field of tissue engineering for diabetes treatment.

  4. The effects of X-irradiation on ex vivo expansion of cryopreserved human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Naoki; Takahashi, Kenji; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    In our previous study (Life Sciences 84: 598, 2009), we demonstrated that placental/umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell-like stromal cells have the effect to support the regeneration of freshly prepared X-irradiated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Generally, HSPCs are supplied from companies, institutions, and cell banks that cryopreserve them for clinical and experimental use. In this study, the influence of cryopreservation on the responses of HSPCs to irradiation and co-culture with stromal cells is assessed. After cryopreservation with the optimal procedure, 2 Gy-irradiated HSPCs were cultured with or without stromal cells supplemented with combination of interleukin-3, stem cell factor, and thrombopoietin. The population of relatively immature CD34 + /CD38 - cells in cryopreserved cells was significantly higher than in fresh cells prior to cryopreservation; furthermore, the hematopoietic progenitor populations of CD34 + /CD45RA + cells and CD34 + /CD117 + cells in cryopreserved cells were significantly lower than that in fresh cells. However, the rate of expansion in the cryopreserved HSPCs was lower than in the fresh HSPCs. In the culture of cryopreserved cells irradiated with 2 Gy, the growth rates of CD34 + cells, CD34 + /CD38 - cells, and hematopoietic progenitors were greater than growth rates of their counter parts in the culture of fresh cells. Surprisingly, the effect to support the hematopoiesis in co-culture with stromal cells was never observed in the X-irradiated HSPCs after cryopreservation. The present results demonstrated that cryopreserving process increased the rate of immature and radio-resistant HSPCs but decreased the effects to support the hematopoiesis by stromal cells, thus suggesting that cryopreservation changes the character of HSPCs. (author)

  5. Evolution of the clonogenic potential of human epidermal stem/progenitor cells with age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zobiri O

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Olivia Zobiri, Nathalie Deshayes, Michelle Rathman-JosserandDepartment of Biological Research, L'Oréal Advanced Research, Clichy Cedex, FranceAbstract: A number of clinical observations have indicated that the regenerative potential and overall function of the epidermis is modified with age. The epidermis becomes thinner, repairs itself less efficiently after wounding, and presents modified barrier function recovery. In addition, the dermal papillae flatten out with increasing age, suggesting a modification in the interaction between epidermal and dermal compartments. As the epidermal regenerative capacity is dependent upon stem and progenitor cell function, it is naturally of interest to identify and understand age-related changes in these particular keratinocyte populations. Previous studies have indicated that the number of stem cells does not decrease with age in mouse models but little solid evidence is currently available concerning human skin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clonogenic potential of keratinocyte populations isolated from the epidermis of over 50 human donors ranging from 18 to 71 years old. The data indicate that the number of epidermal cells presenting high regenerative potential does not dramatically decline with age in human skin. The authors believe that changes in the microenvironment controlling epidermal basal cell activity are more likely to explain the differences in epidermal function observed with increasing age.Keywords: skin, epidermal stem cells, aging, colony-forming efficiency test

  6. Staurosporine Increases Lentiviral Vector Transduction Efficiency of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Lewis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vector (LVV-mediated transduction of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs holds tremendous promise for the treatment of monogenic hematological diseases. This approach requires the generation of a sufficient proportion of gene-modified cells. We identified staurosporine, a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, as a small molecule that could be added to the transduction process to increase the proportion of genetically modified HSPCs by overcoming a LVV entry barrier. Staurosporine increased vector copy number (VCN approximately 2-fold when added to mobilized peripheral blood (mPB CD34+ cells prior to transduction. Limited staurosporine treatment did not affect viability of cells post-transduction, and there was no difference in in vitro colony formation compared to vehicle-treated cells. Xenotransplantation studies identified a statistically significant increase in VCN in engrafted human cells in mouse bone marrow at 4 months post-transplantation compared to vehicle-treated cells. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is known to increase transduction efficiency of HSPCs through a different mechanism. Combining staurosporine and PGE2 resulted in further enhancement of transduction efficiency, particularly in short-term HSPCs. The combinatorial use of small molecules, such as staurosporine and PGE2, to enhance LVV transduction of human CD34+ cells is a promising method to improve transduction efficiency and subsequent potential therapeutic benefit of gene therapy drug products. Keywords: lentiviral, HSPC, transduction

  7. Generation of polyhormonal and multipotent pancreatic progenitor lineages from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korytnikov, Roman; Nostro, Maria Cristina

    2016-05-15

    Generation of pancreatic β-cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) has enormous importance in type 1 diabetes (T1D), as it is fundamental to a treatment strategy based on cellular therapeutics. Being able to generate β-cells, as well as other mature pancreatic cells, from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) will also enable the development of platforms that can be used for disease modeling and drug testing for a variety of pancreas-associated diseases, including cystic fibrosis. For this to occur, it is crucial to develop differentiation strategies that are robust and reproducible across cell lines and laboratories. In this article we describe two serum-free differentiation protocols designed to generate specific pancreatic lineages from hPSCs. Our approach employs a variety of cytokines and small molecules to mimic developmental pathways active during pancreatic organogenesis and allows for the in vitro generation of distinct pancreatic populations. The first protocol is designed to give rise to polyhormonal cells that have the potential to differentiate into glucagon-producing cells. The second protocol is geared to generate multipotent pancreatic progenitor cells, which harbor the potential to generate all pancreatic lineages including: monohormonal endocrine cells, acinar, and ductal cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Low antigenicity of hematopoietic progenitor cells derived from human ES cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Mi Kim

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Mi Kim1, Nicholas Zavazava1,21Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Iowa City, Iowa, USA; 2Immunology Graduate Program, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USAAbstract: Human embryonic stem (hES cells are essential for improved understanding of diseases and our ability to probe new therapies for use in humans. Currently, bone marrow cells and cord blood cells are used for transplantation into patients with hematopoietic malignancies, immunodeficiencies and in some cases for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, due to the high immunogenicity of these hematopoietic cells, toxic regimens of drugs are required for preconditioning and prevention of rejection. Here, we investigated the efficiency of deriving hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs from the hES cell line H13, after co-culturing with the murine stromal cell line OP9. We show that HPCs derived from the H13 ES cells poorly express major histocompatibility complex (MHC class I and no detectable class II antigens (HLA-DR. These characteristics make hES cell-derived hematopoietic cells (HPCs ideal candidates for transplantation across MHC barriers under minimal immunosuppression.Keywords: human embryonic stem cells, H13, hematopoiesis, OP9 stromal cells, immunogenicity

  9. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, Anita [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Nerlich, Michael [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Angele, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Angele@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  10. The postischemic environment differentially impacts teratoma or tumor formation after transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seminatore, Christine; Polentes, Jerome; Ellman, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    Risk of tumorigenesis is a major obstacle to human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell therapy. Likely linked to the stage of differentiation of the cells at the time of implantation, formation of teratoma/tumors can also be influenced by factors released by the host tissue. We have...... analyzed the relative effects of the stage of differentiation and the postischemic environment on the formation of adverse structures by transplanted human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitors....

  11. Proof of region-specific multipotent progenitors in human breast epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridriksdottir, Agla J; Villadsen, René; Morsing, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    in luminal progenitors to interrogate the differentiation repertoire of candidate stem cells in TDLUs. We show that stem-like activity in serial passage culture and in vivo breast morphogenesis relies on the preservation of a myoepithelial phenotype. By enrichment for region-specific progenitors, we identify...

  12. CULTIVATION OF HUMAN LIVER CELLS AND ADIPOSE-DERIVED MESENCHYMAL STROMAL CELLS IN PERFUSION BIOREACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. В. Basok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to show the progress of the experiment of cultivation of human liver cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells in perfusion bioreactor.Materials and methods. The cultivation of a cell-engineered construct, consisting of a biopolymer microstructured collagen-containing hydrogel, human liver cells, adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells, and William’s E Medium, was performed in a perfusion bioreactor.Results. On the 7th day large cells with hepatocyte morphology – of a polygonal shape and a centrally located round nucleus, – were present in the culture chambers of the bioreactor. The metabolic activity of hepatocytes in cell-engineered constructs was confi rmed by the presence of urea in the culture medium on the seventh day of cultivation in the bioreactor and by the resorption of a biopolymer microstructured collagen-containing hydrogel.

  13. Individual differences in the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitor cells detected in steady-state human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriya, Asami; Takahashi, Kenji; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori; Miura, Toshiaki; Abe, Yoshinao

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the individual differences in radiosensitivity of lineage-committed myeloid hematopoietic progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), detected in steady-state human peripheral blood (PB). Mononuclear cells were prepared from the buffy-coat of 30 individuals PB, and were assayed for CFC by semi-solid culture supplemented with cytokines. X irradiation was performed in the range of 0.5-4 Gy at a dose rate of about 80 cGy/min. The mean number of hematopoietic progenitor cells is 5866±3408 in 1 ml of buffy-coat, suggesting that the erythroid progenitor cells are the major population. The total CFC radiosensitivity parameter D 0 and n value are 1.18±0.24 and 1.89±0.98, respectively. Using a linear regression analysis, a statistically significant correlation is observed between the D 0 value and the surviving fraction at 4 Gy (r=0.611 p 0 parameter and the level of antioxidants, plasma uric acid, plasma bilirubin, and intracellular glutathione. The present study demonstrates that there are large individual differences in the radiosensitivity of hematopoietic progenitor cells as detected in steady-state human PB. These differences demonstrate almost no correlation with plasma or intracellular antioxidants. The prediction of individual differences in radiosensitivity of CFC can only be measured by 4 Gy irradiation. (author)

  14. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    Selleri, Silvia; Bifsha, Panojot; Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Ren?e; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-...

  15. Ameloblastin Peptides Modulates the Osteogenic Capacity of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stakkestad, O.; Lyngstadaas, S. P.; Vondrášek, Jiří; Gordeladze, J. O.; Reseland, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Feb 7 (2017), č. článku 58. ISSN 1664-042X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ameloblastin * biomineralization * bone growth * exon 5 * human mesenchymal stem cells * osteogenesis * proliferation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Physiology (including cytology) Impact factor: 4.134, year: 2016 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5293776/pdf/fphys-08-00058.pdf

  16. Effect of low oxygen tension on the biological characteristics of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Dae Seong; Ko, Young Jong; Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Hyun Jin; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dong-Ik; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under ambient conditions does not replicate the low oxygen environment of normal physiological or pathological states and can result in cellular impairment during culture. To overcome these limitations, we explored the effect of hypoxia (1 % O2) on the biological characteristics of MSCs over the course of different culture periods. The following biological characteristics were examined in human bone marrow-derived MSCs cultured under hypoxia for 8 week...

  17. Comparison of Gene Expression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells, hESC-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbet, Romain; Peiffer, Isabelle; Hatzfeld, Antoinette; Charbord, Pierre; Hatzfeld, Jacques A

    2011-01-01

    We present a strategy to identify developmental/differentiation and plasma membrane marker genes of the most primitive human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). Using sensitive and quantitative TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA) methodology, we compared the expression of 381 genes in human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs), hESC-derived MSCs (hES-MSCs), and hMSCs. Analysis of differentiation genes indicated that hES-MSCs express the sarcomeric muscle lineage in addition to the classical mesenchymal lineages, suggesting they are more primitive than hMSCs. Transcript analysis of membrane antigens suggests that IL1R1(low), BMPR1B(low), FLT4(low), LRRC32(low), and CD34 may be good candidates for the detection and isolation of the most primitive hMSCs. The expression in hMSCs of cytokine genes, such as IL6, IL8, or FLT3LG, without expression of the corresponding receptor, suggests a role for these cytokines in the paracrine control of stem cell niches. Our database may be shared with other laboratories in order to explore the considerable clinical potential of hES-MSCs, which appear to represent an intermediate developmental stage between hESCs and hMSCs.

  18. The negative impact of Wnt signaling on megakaryocyte and primitive erythroid progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasuna Paluru

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wnt gene family consists of structurally related genes encoding secreted signaling molecules that have been implicated in many developmental processes, including regulation of cell fate and patterning during embryogenesis. Previously, we found that Wnt signaling is required for primitive or yolk sac-derived-erythropoiesis using the murine embryonic stem cell (ESC system. Here, we examine the effect of Wnt signaling on the formation of early hematopoietic progenitors derived from human ESCs. The first hematopoietic progenitor cells in the human ESC system express the pan-hematopoietic marker CD41 and the erythrocyte marker, glycophorin A or CD235. We have developed a novel serum-free, feeder-free, adherent differentiation system that can efficiently generate large numbers of CD41 + CD235+ cells. We demonstrate that this cell population contains progenitors not just for primitive erythroid and megakaryocyte cells but for the myeloid lineage as well and term this population the primitive common myeloid progenitor (CMP. Treatment of mesoderm-specified cells with Wnt3a led to a loss of hematopoietic colony-forming ability while the inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling with DKK1 led to an increase in the number of primitive CMPs. Canonical Wnt signaling also inhibits the expansion and/or survival of primitive erythrocytes and megakaryocytes, but not myeloid cells, derived from this progenitor population. These findings are in contrast to the role of Wnt signaling during mouse ESC differentiation and demonstrate the importance of the human ESC system in studying species-specific differences in development.

  19. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Salamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies.

  20. Gelatin-Based Hydrogels Promote Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Achim; van Vlierberghe, Sandra; van Nieuwenhove, Ine; Baudisch, Frank; Graulus, Geert-Jan; Benecke, Verena; Alberti, Kristin; Neumann, Hans-Georg; Rychly, Joachim; Martins, José C.; Dubruel, Peter; Peters, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Due to the weak regeneration potential of cartilage, there is a high clinical incidence of articular joint disease, leading to a strong demand for cartilaginous tissue surrogates. The aim of this study was to evaluate a gelatin-based hydrogel for its suitability to support chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Gelatin-based hydrogels are biodegradable, show high biocompatibility, and offer possibilities to introduce functional groups and/or ligands. In order to prove their chondrogenesis-supporting potential, a hydrogel film was developed and compared with standard cell culture polystyrene regarding the differentiation behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells. Cellular basis for this study were human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, which exhibit differentiation potential along the adipogenic, osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage. The results obtained show a promotive effect of gelatin-based hydrogels on chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro and therefore encourage subsequent in vivo studies. PMID:28788517

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord ameliorate testicular dysfunction in a male rat hypogonadism model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is a physical disorder that not only affects adults but can also jeopardize children′s health. Because there are many disadvantages to using traditional androgen replacement therapy, we have herein attempted to explore the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of androgen deficiency. We transplanted CM-Dil-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testes of an ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS-induced male rat hypogonadism model. Twenty-one days after transplantation, we found that blood testosterone levels in the therapy group were higher than that of the control group (P = 0.037, and using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we observed that some of the CM-Dil-labeled cells expressed Leydig cell markers for cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We then recovered these cells and observed that they were still able to proliferate in vitro. The present study shows that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord may constitute a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of male hypogonadism patients.

  2. Establishing criteria for human mesenchymal stem cell potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonraj, Rebekah M; Rai, Bina; Sathiyanathan, Padmapriya; Puan, Kia Joo; Rötzschke, Olaf; Hui, James H; Raghunath, Michael; Stanton, Lawrence W; Nurcombe, Victor; Cool, Simon M

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to identify critical determinants of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) potency using in vitro and in vivo attributes of cells isolated from the bone marrow of age- and sex-matched donors. Adherence to plastic was not indicative of potency, yet capacity for long-term expansion in vitro varied considerably between donors, allowing the grouping of MSCs from the donors into either those with high-growth capacity or low-growth capacity. Using this grouping strategy, high-growth capacity MSCs were smaller in size, had greater colony-forming efficiency, and had longer telomeres. Cell-surface biomarker analysis revealed that the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) criteria did not distinguish between high-growth capacity and low-growth capacity MSCs, whereas STRO-1 and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha were preferentially expressed on high-growth capacity MSCs. These cells also had the highest mean expression of the mRNA transcripts TWIST-1 and DERMO-1. Irrespective of these differences, both groups of donor MSCs produced similar levels of key growth factors and cytokines involved in tissue regeneration and were capable of multilineage differentiation. However, high-growth capacity MSCs produced approximately double the volume of mineralized tissue compared to low-growth capacity MSCs when assessed for ectopic bone-forming ability. The additional phenotypic criteria presented in this study when combined with the existing ISCT minimum criteria and working proposal will permit an improved assessment of MSC potency and provide a basis for establishing the quality of MSCs prior to their therapeutic application. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Focal Transplantation of Human iPSC-Derived Glial-Rich Neural Progenitors Improves Lifespan of ALS Mice

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    Takayuki Kondo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Transplantation of glial-rich neural progenitors has been demonstrated to attenuate motor neuron degeneration and disease progression in rodent models of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-mediated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. However, translation of these results into a clinical setting requires a renewable human cell source. Here, we derived glial-rich neural progenitors from human iPSCs and transplanted them into the lumbar spinal cord of ALS mouse models. The transplanted cells differentiated into astrocytes, and the treated mouse group showed prolonged lifespan. Our data suggest a potential therapeutic mechanism via activation of AKT signal. The results demonstrated the efficacy of cell therapy for ALS by the use of human iPSCs as cell source.

  4. Differentiation of Inflammation-Responsive Astrocytes from Glial Progenitors Generated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

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    Renata Santos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Astrocyte dysfunction and neuroinflammation are detrimental features in multiple pathologies of the CNS. Therefore, the development of methods that produce functional human astrocytes represents an advance in the study of neurological diseases. Here we report an efficient method for inflammation-responsive astrocyte generation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and embryonic stem cells. This protocol uses an intermediate glial progenitor stage and generates functional astrocytes that show levels of glutamate uptake and calcium activation comparable with those observed in human primary astrocytes. Stimulation of stem cell-derived astrocytes with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor α elicits a strong and rapid pro-inflammatory response. RNA-sequencing transcriptome profiling confirmed that similar gene expression changes occurred in iPSC-derived and primary astrocytes upon stimulation with interleukin-1β. This protocol represents an important tool for modeling in-a-dish neurological diseases with an inflammatory component, allowing for the investigation of the role of diseased astrocytes in neuronal degeneration.

  5. Differentiation of Inflammation-Responsive Astrocytes from Glial Progenitors Generated from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Renata; Vadodaria, Krishna C; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Mei, Arianna; Lefcochilos-Fogelquist, Sabrina; Mendes, Ana P D; Erikson, Galina; Shokhirev, Maxim; Randolph-Moore, Lynne; Fredlender, Callie; Dave, Sonia; Oefner, Ruth; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Pena, Monique; Barron, Jerika J; Ku, Manching; Denli, Ahmet M; Kerman, Bilal E; Charnay, Patrick; Kelsoe, John R; Marchetto, Maria C; Gage, Fred H

    2017-06-06

    Astrocyte dysfunction and neuroinflammation are detrimental features in multiple pathologies of the CNS. Therefore, the development of methods that produce functional human astrocytes represents an advance in the study of neurological diseases. Here we report an efficient method for inflammation-responsive astrocyte generation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and embryonic stem cells. This protocol uses an intermediate glial progenitor stage and generates functional astrocytes that show levels of glutamate uptake and calcium activation comparable with those observed in human primary astrocytes. Stimulation of stem cell-derived astrocytes with interleukin-1β or tumor necrosis factor α elicits a strong and rapid pro-inflammatory response. RNA-sequencing transcriptome profiling confirmed that similar gene expression changes occurred in iPSC-derived and primary astrocytes upon stimulation with interleukin-1β. This protocol represents an important tool for modeling in-a-dish neurological diseases with an inflammatory component, allowing for the investigation of the role of diseased astrocytes in neuronal degeneration. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Traumatic Brain Injury Results in Oligodendrocyte Death and Increases the Number of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygt, Johanna; Gumucio, Astrid; Ingelsson, Martin; Skoglund, Karin; Holm, Jonatan; Alafuzoff, Irina; Marklund, Niklas

    2016-06-01

    Oligodendrocyte (OL) death may contribute to white matter pathology, a common cause of network dysfunction and persistent cognitive problems in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) persist throughout the adult CNS and may replace dead OLs. OL death and OPCs were analyzed by immunohistochemistry of human brain tissue samples, surgically removed due to life-threatening contusions and/or focal brain swelling at 60.6 ± 75 hours (range 4-192 hours) postinjury in 10 severe TBI patients (age 51.7 ± 18.5 years). Control brain tissue was obtained postmortem from 5 age-matched patients without CNS disorders. TUNEL and CC1 co-labeling was used to analyze apoptotic OLs, which were increased in injured brain tissue (p The OPC markers Olig2, A2B5, NG2, and PDGFR-α were used. In contrast to the number of single-labeled Olig2, A2B5, NG2, and PDGFR-α-positive cells, numbers of Olig2 and A2B5 co-labeled cells were increased in TBI samples (p human TBI results in OL death and increases in OPCs postinjury, which may influence white matter function following TBI. © 2016 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. ERK-dependent and -independent pathways trigger human neural progenitor cell migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moors, Michaela; Cline, Jason E.; Abel, Josef; Fritsche, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Besides differentiation and apoptosis, cell migration is a basic process in brain development in which neural cells migrate several centimeters within the developing brain before reaching their proper positions and forming the right connections. For identifying signaling events that control neural migration and are therefore potential targets of chemicals to disturb normal brain development, we developed a human neurosphere-based migration assay based on normal human neural progenitor (NHNP) cells, in which the distance is measured that cells wander over time. Applying this assay, we investigated the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the regulation of NHNP cell migration. Exposure to model substances like ethanol or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) revealed a correlation between ERK1/2 activation and cell migration. The participation of phospho-(P-) ERK1/2 was confirmed by exposure of the cells to the MEK inhibitor PD98059, which directly prohibits ERK1/2 phosphorylation and inhibited cell migration. We identified protein kinase C (PKC) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as upstream signaling kinases governing ERK1/2 activation, thereby controlling NHNP cell migration. Additionally, treatments with src kinase inhibitors led to a diminished cell migration without affecting ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Based on these results, we postulate that migration of NHNP cells is controlled via ERK1/2-dependent and -independent pathways

  8. Generation of Regionally Specified Neural Progenitors and Functional Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells under Defined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnete Kirkeby

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To model human neural-cell-fate specification and to provide cells for regenerative therapies, we have developed a method to generate human neural progenitors and neurons from human embryonic stem cells, which recapitulates human fetal brain development. Through the addition of a small molecule that activates canonical WNT signaling, we induced rapid and efficient dose-dependent specification of regionally defined neural progenitors ranging from telencephalic forebrain to posterior hindbrain fates. Ten days after initiation of differentiation, the progenitors could be transplanted to the adult rat striatum, where they formed neuron-rich and tumor-free grafts with maintained regional specification. Cells patterned toward a ventral midbrain (VM identity generated a high proportion of authentic dopaminergic neurons after transplantation. The dopamine neurons showed morphology, projection pattern, and protein expression identical to that of human fetal VM cells grafted in parallel. VM-patterned but not forebrain-patterned neurons released dopamine and reversed motor deficits in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Li; Kidwai, Fahad K.; Kopher, Ross A.; Motl, Jason; Kellum, Cory A.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Kaufman, Dan S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo studies demonstrate the hESC-derived YFP+ cells can repair a calvarial defect in immunodeficient mice. Using the engineered hESCs, we monitored the osteogenic development and explored the roles of osteogenic supplements BMP2 and FGF9 in osteogenic differentiation of these hESCs in vitro. Taken together, this reporter system provides a novel system to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of hESCs and becomes useful to identify soluble agents and cell signaling pathways that mediate early stages of human bone development. PMID:25680477

  10. Use of RUNX2 Expression to Identify Osteogenic Progenitor Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We generated a RUNX2-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP reporter system to study osteogenic development from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs. Our studies demonstrate the fidelity of YFP expression with expression of RUNX2 and other osteogenic genes in hESC-derived osteoprogenitor cells, as well as the osteogenic specificity of YFP signal. In vitro studies confirm that the hESC-derived YFP+ cells have similar osteogenic phenotypes to osteoprogenitor cells generated from bone-marrow mesenchymal stem cells. In vivo studies demonstrate the hESC-derived YFP+ cells can repair a calvarial defect in immunodeficient mice. Using the engineered hESCs, we monitored the osteogenic development and explored the roles of osteogenic supplements BMP2 and FGF9 in osteogenic differentiation of these hESCs in vitro. Taken together, this reporter system provides a novel system to monitor the osteogenic differentiation of hESCs and becomes useful to identify soluble agents and cell signaling pathways that mediate early stages of human bone development.

  11. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toshiko; Nogami, Makiko; Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori; Noto, Zenko; Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto; Nikaido, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAMα cells and induced to osteogenic status—their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAMα cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAMα cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAMα cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAMα cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: ► Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAMα cells) that have the properties of MSCs. ► HAMα cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. ► Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAMα was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. ► HAMα cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  12. Application of human amniotic mesenchymal cells as an allogeneic transplantation cell source in bone regenerative therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuno, Hiroaki [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Yoshida, Toshiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nogami, Makiko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Koike, Chika; Okabe, Motonori [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Noto, Zenko [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Arai, Naoya; Noguchi, Makoto [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Nikaido, Toshio, E-mail: tnikaido@med.u-toyama.ac.jp [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences for Research, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani Toyama, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

    2012-12-01

    Autogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have therapeutic applications in bone regenerative therapy due to their pluripotency. However, the ability of MSCs to proliferate and differentiate varies between donors. Furthermore, alternative sources of MSCs are required for patients with contraindications to autogenous cell therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of mesenchymal cells from the human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a source of cells for allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. Cells that retained a proliferative capacity of more than 50 population doubling level were distinguished from other HAM cells as HAM{alpha} cells and induced to osteogenic status-their in vivo osteogenesis was subsequently investigated in rats. It was found that HAM{alpha} cells were spindle shaped and were positive for MSC markers and negative for hematopoietic stem cell markers. Alkaline phosphatase activity and calcium deposition increased with osteogenic status of HAM{alpha} cells. The expression of osteocalcin mRNA was increased in HAM{alpha} cells cultured on calcium phosphate scaffolds. Moreover, xenografted HAM{alpha} cells remained viable and produced extracellular matrix for several weeks. Thus, this study suggests that human amniotic mesenchymal cells possess osteogenic differentiation potential and could be applied to allogeneic transplantation in bone regenerative therapy. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human amniotic mesenchymal cells include cells (HAM{alpha} cells) that have the properties of MSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells have excellent osteogenic differentiation potential. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteogenic differentiation ability of HAM{alpha} was amplified by calcium phosphate scaffolds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HAM{alpha} cells can be applicable to allogeneic cell transplantation in bone regenerative therapy.

  13. Differential effects of x-rays and high-energy 56Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li, Song; Wang, Daojing

    2009-03-01

    Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) (56)Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and (56)Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. X-rays and (56)Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and (56)Fe ions, with more significant effects from (56)Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy (56)Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. (56)Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation.

  14. Differential Effects of X-Rays and High-Energy 56Fe Ions on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Jang, Deok-Jin; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Rydberg, Bjorn; Chu, Julia; So, Joanna; Wyrobek, Andy; Li Song; Wang Daojing

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Stem cells hold great potential for regenerative medicine, but they have also been implicated in cancer and aging. How different kinds of ionizing radiation affect stem cell biology remains unexplored. This study was designed to compare the biological effects of X-rays and of high-linear energy transfer (LET) 56 Fe ions on human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Methods and Materials: A multi-functional comparison was carried out to investigate the differential effects of X-rays and 56 Fe ions on hMSC. The end points included modulation of key markers such as p53, cell cycle progression, osteogenic differentiation, and pathway and networks through transcriptomic profiling and bioinformatics analysis. Results: X-rays and 56 Fe ions differentially inhibited the cell cycle progression of hMSC in a p53-dependent manner without impairing their in vitro osteogenic differentiation process. Pathway and network analyses revealed that cytoskeleton and receptor signaling were uniquely enriched for low-dose (0.1 Gy) X-rays. In contrast, DNA/RNA metabolism and cell cycle regulation were enriched for high-dose (1 Gy) X-rays and 56 Fe ions, with more significant effects from 56 Fe ions. Specifically, DNA replication, DNA strand elongation, and DNA binding/transferase activity were perturbed more severely by 1 Gy 56 Fe ions than by 1 Gy X-rays, consistent with the significant G2/M arrest for the former while not for the latter. Conclusions: 56 Fe ions exert more significant effects on hMSC than X-rays. Since hMSC are the progenitors of osteoblasts in vivo, this study provides new mechanistic understandings of the relative health risks associated with low- and high-dose X-rays and high-LET space radiation

  15. Effects of flow configuration on bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells in 3D chitosan composite scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellgren, Katelyn L; Ma, Teng

    2015-08-01

    Perfusion bioreactor plays important role in supporting 3D bone construct development. Scaffolds of chitosan composites have been studied to support bone tissue regeneration from osteogenic progenitor cells including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). In this study, porous scaffolds of hydroxyapatite (H), chitosan (C), and gelatin (G) were fabricated by phase-separation and press-fitted in the perfusion bioreactor system where media flow is configured either parallel or transverse with respect to the scaffolds to investigate the impact of flow configuration on hMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. The in vitro results showed that the interstitial flow in the transverse flow (TF) constructs reduced cell growth during the first week of culture but improved spatial cell distribution and early onset of osteogenic differentiation measured by alkaline phosphatase and expression of osteogenic genes. After 14 days of bioreactor culture, the TF constructs have comparable cell number but higher expression of bone markers genes and proteins compared to the parallel flow constructs. To evaluate ectopic bone formation, the HCG constructs seeded with hMSCs pre-cultured under two flow configurations for 7 days were implanted in CD-1 nude mice. While Masson's Trichrom staining revealed bone formation in both constructs, the TF constructs have improved spatial cell and osteoid distribution throughout the 2.0 mm constructs. The results highlight the divergent effects of media flow over the course of construct development and suggest that the flow configuration is an important parameter regulating the cellular events leading to bone construct formation in the HCG scaffolds. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Effect of Human Adipose Tissue Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Regeneration of Ovine Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alessandro R; Amstalden, Eliane M I; Plepis, Ana Maria G; Martins, Virginia C A; Ferretti, Mario; Antonioli, Eliane; Duarte, Adriana S S; Luzo, Angela C M; Miranda, João B

    2015-11-09

    Cell therapy is a promising approach to improve cartilage healing. Adipose tissue is an abundant and readily accessible cell source. Previous studies have demonstrated good cartilage repair results with adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells in small animal experiments. This study aimed to examine these cells in a large animal model. Thirty knees of adult sheep were randomly allocated to three treatment groups: CELLS (scaffold seeded with human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells), SCAFFOLD (scaffold without cells), or EMPTY (untreated lesions). A partial thickness defect was created in the medial femoral condyle. After six months, the knees were examined according to an adaptation of the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS 1) score, in addition to a new Partial Thickness Model scale and the ICRS macroscopic score. All of the animals completed the follow-up period. The CELLS group presented with the highest ICRS 1 score (8.3 ± 3.1), followed by the SCAFFOLD group (5.6 ± 2.2) and the EMPTY group (5.2 ± 2.4) (p = 0.033). Other scores were not significantly different. These results suggest that human adipose tissue mesenchymal stem cells promoted satisfactory cartilage repair in the ovine model.

  17. Simultaneous isolation of vascular endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells from the human umbilical cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam, Sachin S; Tiwari, Shubha; Bhonde, Ramesh R

    2009-01-01

    The umbilical cord represents the link between mother and fetus during pregnancy. This cord is usually discarded as a biological waste after the child's birth; however, its importance as a "store house" of stem cells has been explored recently. We developed a method of simultaneous isolation of endothelial cells (ECs) from the vein and mesenchymal stem cells from umbilical cord Wharton's jelly of the same cord. The isolation protocol has been simplified, modified, and improvised with respect to choice of enzyme and enzyme mixture, digestion time, cell yield, cell growth, and culture medium. Isolated human umbilical vascular ECs (hUVECs) were positive for von-Willibrand factor, a classical endothelial marker, and could form capillary-like structures when seeded on Matrigel, thus proving their functionality. The isolated human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) were found positive for CD44, CD90, CD 73, and CD117 and were found negative for CD33, CD34, CD45, and CD105 surface markers; they were also positive for cytoskeleton markers of smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The hUCMSCs showed multilineage differentiation potential and differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic, and neuronal lineages under influence of lineage specific differentiation medium. Thus, isolating endothelial cells as well as mesenchymal cells from the same umbilical cord could lead to complete utilization of the available tissue for the tissue engineering and cell therapy.

  18. Epigenetic modulation of cancer-germline antigen gene expression in tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells: implications for cancer therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerstorff, Morten; Burns, Jorge S; Nielsen, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Cancer-germline antigens are promising targets for cancer immunotherapy, but whether such therapies will also eliminate the primary tumor stem cell population remains undetermined. We previously showed that long-term cultures of telomerized adult human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can...... spontaneously evolve into tumor-initiating, mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC-TERT20), which have characteristics of clinical sarcoma cells. In this study, we used the hMSC-TERT20 tumor stem cell model to investigate the potential of cancer-germline antigens to serve as tumor stem cell targets. We found...... of cancer-germline antigens in hMSC-TERT20 cells, while their expression levels in primary human mesenchymal stem cells remained unaffected. The expression pattern of cancer-germline antigens in tumorigenic mesenchymal stem cells and sarcomas, plus their susceptibility to enhancement by epigenetic...

  19. Phosphorylated STAT5 directly facilitates parvovirus B19 DNA replication in human erythroid progenitors through interaction with the MCM complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganaie, Safder S; Zou, Wei; Xu, Peng; Deng, Xuefeng; Kleiboeker, Steve; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-05-01

    Productive infection of human parvovirus B19 (B19V) exhibits high tropism for burst forming unit erythroid (BFU-E) and colony forming unit erythroid (CFU-E) progenitor cells in human bone marrow and fetal liver. This exclusive restriction of the virus replication to human erythroid progenitor cells is partly due to the intracellular factors that are essential for viral DNA replication, including erythropoietin signaling. Efficient B19V replication also requires hypoxic conditions, which upregulate the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathway, and phosphorylated STAT5 is essential for virus replication. In this study, our results revealed direct involvement of STAT5 in B19V DNA replication. Consensus STAT5-binding elements were identified adjacent to the NS1-binding element within the minimal origins of viral DNA replication in the B19V genome. Phosphorylated STAT5 specifically interacted with viral DNA replication origins both in vivo and in vitro, and was actively recruited within the viral DNA replication centers. Notably, STAT5 interacted with minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, suggesting that STAT5 directly facilitates viral DNA replication by recruiting the helicase complex of the cellular DNA replication machinery to viral DNA replication centers. The FDA-approved drug pimozide dephosphorylates STAT5, and it inhibited B19V replication in ex vivo expanded human erythroid progenitors. Our results demonstrated that pimozide could be a promising antiviral drug for treatment of B19V-related diseases.

  20. DNA methylation patterns of imprinting centers for H19, SNRPN, and KCNQ1OT1 in single-cell clones of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Huei Peng

    2012-09-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells contain a unique epigenetic signature during in vitro cell culture. H19 and KCNQ1OT1 possessed a substantial degree of hypermethylation status, and variable DNA methylation patterns of SNRPN was observed during in vitro cell culture of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells. Our results urge further understanding of epigenetic status of human amniotic fluid mesenchymal stem cells before it is applied in cell replacement therapy.

  1. Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Human Trophoblast Cell Functions In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast cell dysfunction is involved in many disorders during pregnancy such as preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Few treatments exist, however, that target improving trophoblast cell function. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs are capable of self-renewing, can undergo multilineage differentiation, and have homing abilities; in addition, they have immunomodulatory effects and paracrine properties and thus are a prospective source for cell therapy. To identify whether hUCMSCs can regulate trophoblast cell functions, we treated trophoblast cells with hUCMSC supernatant or cocultured them with hUCMSCs. Both treatments remarkably enhanced the migration and invasion abilities of trophoblast cells and upregulated their proliferation ability. At a certain concentration, hUCMSCs also modulated hCG, PIGF, and sEndoglin levels in the trophoblast culture medium. Thus, hUCMSCs have a positive effect on trophoblast cellular functions, which may provide a new avenue for treatment of placenta-related diseases during pregnancy.

  2. Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Coculture on Calcium-Induced Differentiation of Normal Human Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Shyam Kishor; Kim, Hae Young; Lee, Ji Hae; Lee, Seong-Wook; Kim, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Kang, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2017-06-01

    The influence of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on keratinocytes in altered microenvironments is poorly understood. Here, we cocultured umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs with normal human epidermal keratinocytes to evaluate their paracrine effect in the presence of high extracellular calcium (Ca 2+ ) concentration. High Ca 2+ environment to keratinocytes can disrupt normal skin barrier function due to abnormal/premature differentiation of keratinocytes. Surprisingly, we found that MSCs suppress both proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes under a high Ca 2+ environment in transforming growth factors β1 (TGFβ1)-dependent manner. Furthermore, we determined that MSCs can regulate the mitogen-activated protein kinases, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B, and protein kinase C pathways in Ca 2+ -induced differentiated keratinocytes. Knockdown of TGFβ1 from MSCs results in decreased suppression of differentiation with significantly increased proliferation of keratinocytes compared with control MSCs. MSCs-derived TGFβ1 further induced growth inhibition of keratinocyte in high extracellular Ca 2+ environment as analyzed by a decrease in DNA synthesis, accumulation of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein, cdc2, and increased mRNA level of p21, and independent of TGFβ1/SMAD pathway. Taken together, we found that MSCs-derived TGFβ1 is a critical regulator of keratinocyte function, and involves multiple proximal signaling cascades. Stem Cells 2017;35:1592-1602. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  3. Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Elazar, Menashe; Xiong, Anming; Glenn, Jeffrey S [Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, CCSR Building Room 3115A, 269 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Lee, Wonjae [Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chiao, Eric; Baker, Julie [Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Frank, Curtis W, E-mail: jeffrey.glenn@stanford.ed, E-mail: curt.frank@stanford.ed [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from {approx}50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 +- 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies. (communication)

  4. Viral infection of human progenitor and liver-derived cells encapsulated in three-dimensional PEG-based hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Nam-Joon; Elazar, Menashe; Xiong, Anming; Glenn, Jeffrey S; Lee, Wonjae; Chiao, Eric; Baker, Julie; Frank, Curtis W

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the encapsulation of human progenitor cells into 3D PEG hydrogels. Replication-incompetent lentivirus promoter reporter vectors were found to efficiently detect the in vivo expression of human hepatic genes in hydrogel-encapsulated liver progenitor cells. Similarly, hydrogel-encapsulated cells could be efficiently infected with hepatitis C virus, and progeny infectious virus could be recovered from the media supernatants of the hydrogels. Provocatively, the diameters of these virus particles range from ∼50 to 100 nm, while the calculated mesh size of the 8 k hydrogel is 44.6 ± 1.7 A. To reconcile how viral particles can penetrate the hydrogels to infect the encapsulated cells, we propose that microfractures/defects of the hydrogel result in a functional pore size of up to 20 fold greater than predicted by theoretical mesh calculations. These results suggest a new model of hydrogel structure, and have exciting implications for tissue engineering and hepatitis virus studies. (communication)

  5. Lesion-induced increase in survival and migration of human neural progenitor cells releasing GDNF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Soshana; Ebert, Allison D.; Klein, Sandra; Schmitt, Melanie; Moore, Jeannette M.; Svendsen, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    The use of human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) has been proposed to provide neuronal replacement or astrocytes delivering growth factors for brain disorders such as Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease. Success in such studies likely requires migration from the site of transplantation and integration into host tissue in the face of ongoing damage. In the current study, hNPC modified to release glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (hNPCGDNF) were transplanted into either intact or lesioned animals. GDNF release itself had no effect on the survival, migration or differentiation of the cells. The most robust migration and survival was found using a direct lesion of striatum (Huntington’s model) with indirect lesions of the dopamine system (Parkinson’s model) or intact animals showing successively less migration and survival. No lesion affected differentiation patterns. We conclude that the type of brain injury dictates migration and integration of hNPC which has important consequences when considering transplantation of these cells as a therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19044202

  6. Generation of Neural Progenitor Spheres from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Suspension Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuanwei; Song, Liqing; Tsai, Ang-Chen; Ma, Teng; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Conventional two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems cannot provide large numbers of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and their derivatives that are demanded for commercial and clinical applications in in vitro drug screening, disease modeling, and potentially cell therapy. The technologies that support three-dimensional (3-D) suspension culture, such as a stirred bioreactor, are generally considered as promising approaches to produce the required cells. Recently, suspension bioreactors have also been used to generate mini-brain-like structure from hPSCs for disease modeling, showing the important role of bioreactor in stem cell culture. This chapter describes a detailed culture protocol for neural commitment of hPSCs into neural progenitor cell (NPC) spheres using a spinner bioreactor. The basic steps to prepare hPSCs for bioreactor inoculation are illustrated from cell thawing to cell propagation. The method for generating NPCs from hPSCs in the spinner bioreactor along with the static control is then described. The protocol in this study can be applied to the generation of NPCs from hPSCs for further neural subtype specification, 3-D neural tissue development, or potential preclinical studies or clinical applications in neurological diseases.

  7. Engineered matrix coatings to modulate the adhesion of CD133+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Katja; Pompe, Tilo; Bornhäuser, Martin; Werner, Carsten

    2007-02-01

    Interactions of hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) with their local microenvironments in the bone marrow are thought to control homing, differentiation, and self-renewal of the cells. To dissect the role of extracellular matrix (ECM) components of the niche microenvironment, a set of well-defined ECM coatings including fibronectin, heparin, heparan sulphate, hyaluronic acid, tropocollagen I, and co-fibrils of collagen I with heparin or hyaluronic acid was prepared and analysed with respect to the attachment of human CD133+ HPC in vitro. The extension of the adhesion areas of individual cells as well as the fraction of adherent cells were assessed by reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM). Intense cell-matrix interactions were found on surfaces coated with fibronectin, heparin, heparan sulphate, and on the collagen I based co-fibrils. Insignificant adhesion was found for tropocollagen I and hyaluronic acid. The strongest adhesion of HPC was observed on fibronectin with contact areas of about 7 microm(2). Interaction of HPC with coatings consisting of heparin, heparan sulphate, and co-fibrils result in small circular shaped contact zones of 3 microm(2) pointing to another, less efficient, adhesion mechanism. Analysing the specificity of cell-matrix interaction by antibody blocking experiments suggests an integrin(alpha(5)beta(1))-specific adhesion on fibronectin, while adhesion on heparin was shown to be mediated by selectins (CD62L). Taken together, our data provide a basis for the design of advanced culture carriers supporting site-specific proliferation or differentiation of HPC.

  8. A Fermented Whole Grain Prevents Lipopolysaccharides-Induced Dysfunction in Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Giusti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous and exogenous signals derived by the gut microbiota such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS orchestrate inflammatory responses contributing to development of the endothelial dysfunction associated with atherosclerosis in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, bone marrow derived stem cells, promote recovery of damaged endothelium playing a pivotal role in cardiovascular repair. Since healthy nutrition improves EPCs functions, we evaluated the effect of a fermented grain, Lisosan G (LG, on early EPCs exposed to LPS. The potential protective effect of LG against LPS-induced alterations was evaluated as cell viability, adhesiveness, ROS production, gene expression, and NF-kB signaling pathway activation. Our results showed that LPS treatment did not affect EPCs viability and adhesiveness but induced endothelial alterations via activation of NF-kB signaling. LG protects EPCs from inflammation as well as from LPS-induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress reducing ROS levels, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defense. Moreover, LG pretreatment prevented NF-kB translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus caused by LPS exposure. In human EPCs, LPS increases ROS and upregulates proinflammatory tone, proapoptotic factors, and antioxidants. LG protects EPCs exposed to LPS reducing ROS, downregulating proinflammatory and proapoptotic factors, and strengthening antioxidant defenses possibly by inhibiting NF-κB nuclear translocation.

  9. Expression of Pluripotency Markers in Nonpluripotent Human Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Per Henrik; Benedikz, Eirikur; Uhlén, Per; Hovatta, Outi; Sundström, Erik

    2017-06-15

    Nonpluripotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) derived from the human fetal central nervous system were found to express a number of messenger RNA (mRNA) species associated with pluripotency, such as NANOG, REX1, and OCT4. The expression was restricted to small subpopulations of NPCs. In contrast to pluripotent stem cells, there was no coexpression of the pluripotency-associated genes studied. Although the expression of these genes rapidly declined during the in vitro differentiation of NPCs, we found no evidence that the discrete expression was associated with the markers of multipotent neural stem cells (CD133 + /CD24 lo ), the capacity of sphere formation, or high cell proliferation rates. The rate of cell death among NPCs expressing pluripotency-associated genes was also similar to that of other NPCs. Live cell imaging showed that NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs continuously changed morphology, as did the nonexpressing cells. Depletion experiments showed that after the complete removal of the subpopulations of NANOG- and REX1-expressing NPCs, the expression of these genes appeared in other NPCs within a few days. The percentage of NANOG- and REX1-expressing cells returned to that observed before depletion. Our results are best explained by a model in which there is stochastic transient expression of pluripotency-associated genes in proliferating NPCs.

  10. Lentiviral vector-mediated genetic modification of human neural progenitor cells for ex vivo gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capowski, Elizabeth E; Schneider, Bernard L; Ebert, Allison D; Seehus, Corey R; Szulc, Jolanta; Zufferey, Romain; Aebischer, Patrick; Svendsen, Clive N

    2007-07-30

    Human neural progenitor cells (hNPC) hold great potential as an ex vivo system for delivery of therapeutic proteins to the central nervous system. When cultured as aggregates, termed neurospheres, hNPC are capable of significant in vitro expansion. In the current study, we present a robust method for lentiviral vector-mediated gene delivery into hNPC that maintains the differentiation and proliferative properties of neurosphere cultures while minimizing the amount of viral vector used and controlling the number of insertion sites per population. This method results in long-term, stable expression even after differentiation of the hNPC to neurons and astrocytes and allows for generation of equivalent transgenic populations of hNPC. In addition, the in vitro analysis presented predicts the behavior of transgenic lines in vivo when transplanted into a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. The methods presented provide a powerful tool for assessing the impact of factors such as promoter systems or different transgenes on the therapeutic utility of these cells.

  11. Emerging role of LRRK2 in human neural progenitor cell cycle progression, survival and differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anne K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite a comprehensive mapping of the Parkinson's disease (PD-related mRNA and protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2 in the mammalian brain, its physiological function in healthy individuals remains enigmatic. Based on its structural features and kinase properties, LRRK2 may interact with other proteins involved in signalling pathways. Here, we show a widespread LRRK2 mRNA and/or protein expression in expanded or differentiated human mesencephalic neural progenitor cells (hmNPCs and in post-mortem substantia nigra PD patients. Using small interfering RNA duplexes targeting LRRK2 in hmNPCs following their differentiation into glia and neurons, we observed a reduced number of dopaminergic neurons due to apoptosis in LRRK2 knockdown samples. LRRK2-deficient hmNPCs exhibited elevated cell cycle- and cell death-related markers. In conclusion, a reduction of LRRK2 expression in hmNPCs severely impaired dopaminergic differentiation and/or survival of dopaminergic neurons most likely via preserving or reactivating the cell cycle.

  12. Butein Inhibits Angiogenesis of Human Endothelial Progenitor Cells via the Translation Dependent Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hu Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Compelling evidence indicates that bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs can contribute to postnatal neovascularization and tumor angiogenesis. EPCs have been shown to play a “catalytic” role in metastatic progression by mediating the angiogenic switch. Understanding the pharmacological functions and molecular targets of natural products is critical for drug development. Butein, a natural chalcone derivative, has been reported to exert potent anticancer activity. However, the antiangiogenic activity of butein has not been addressed. In this study, we found that butein inhibited serum- and vascular endothelial growth factor- (VEGF- induced cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human EPCs in a concentration dependent manner without cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, butein markedly abrogated VEGF-induced vessels sprouting from aortic rings and suppressed microvessel formation in the Matrigel implant assay in vivo. In addition, butein concentration-dependently repressed the phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, and the major downstream effectors, p70S6K, 4E-BP1, and eIF4E in EPCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate for the first time that butein exhibits the antiangiogenic effect both in vitro and in vivo by targeting the translational machinery. Butein is a promising angiogenesis inhibitor with the potential for treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases.

  13. The effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on the proliferation and differentiation of human megakaryocytic progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Satoru; Takahashi, Kenji; Abe, Yoshinao; Kashiwakura, Ikuo; Mori, Takao; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-01-01

    Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCg) has been widely recognized as a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger. The effects of EGCg on the proliferation and differentiation of X-irradiated megakaryocytic progenitor cells (colony-forming unit-megakaryocyte, CFU-Meg) using CD34 + cells prepared from human placental and umbilical cord blood have been shown. In the absence of exogenous thrombopoietin (TPO), no colonies are observed in cultures containing or lacking EGCg (1 nM-100 μM). In the presence of TPO, in contrast, EGCg significantly promotes CFU-Meg-derived colony formations within the 10-100 nM range. A 1.5-fold increase in the total number of CFU-Meg has been counted compared with the control. These favorable effects of EGCg are also observed in the culture of CD34 + cells before and after X irradiation with 2 Gy. Moreover, in order to investigate the function of EGCg promoting megakaryocyto-poiesis and thrombopoiesis in ex vivo cultures, both non-irradiated and X-irradiated CD34 + cells are grown in liquid cultures supplemented with TPO. In both cultures, EGCg increases the total number of cells and megakaryocytes. It has been suggested that the favorable effects of EGCg reduce the risk factor from radiation damage in megakaryocytopoiesis. (author)

  14. In vitro differentiation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    May H. Hasan

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... c Experimental Biology, Urology & Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, ... Liver is dedicated to perform an extensive range of tissue speci- ..... tors to repair hepatic injury.29 Adult human bone marrow .... regeneration.

  15. The use of small interfering RNAs to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Mirmalek-Sani, S.-H.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Oreffo, R.O.C.

    2006-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been used in functional genomics and offers innovative approaches in the development of novel therapeutics. Human mesenchymal stem cells offer a unique cell source for tissue engineering/regeneration strategies. The current study examined the potential of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) against human peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) to suppress adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis) in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells. Adipogenesis was investigated using cellular and biochemical analysis. Transient transfection with PPARγ-siRNA using a liposomal-based strategy resulted in a significant inhibition of adipogenesis in human preadipocytes and fetal-femur-derived mesenchymal cells, compared to controls (cell, liposomal and negative siRNA). The inhibitory effect of PPARγ-siRNA was supported by testing human PPARγ mRNA and adipogenic associated genes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 as well as examination of fatty acid binding protein 3 (FABP 3 ) expression, an adipocyte-specific marker. The current studies indicate that PPARγ-siRNA is a useful tool to study adipogenesis in human cells, with potential applications both therapeutic and in the elucidation of mesenchymal cell differentiation in the modulation of cell differentiation in human mesenchymal cells

  16. Transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into rat spinal cord injuries does not cause harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Frank; Siegenthaler, Monica M; Nistor, Gabriel; Keirstead, Hans S

    2006-07-01

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function following spinal cord injury. We have shown previously that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into adult rat 200 kD contusive spinal cord injury sites enhances remyelination and promotes recovery of motor function. Previous studies using oligodendrocyte lineage cells have noted a correlation between the presence of demyelinating pathology and the survival and migration rate of the transplanted cells. The present study compared the survival and migration of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors injected 7 days after a 200 or 50 kD contusive spinal cord injury, as well as the locomotor outcome of transplantation. Our findings indicate that a 200 kD spinal cord injury induces extensive demyelination, whereas a 50 kD spinal cord injury induces no detectable demyelination. Cells transplanted into the 200 kD injury group survived, migrated, and resulted in robust remyelination, replicating our previous studies. In contrast, cells transplanted into the 50 kD injury group survived, exhibited limited migration, and failed to induce remyelination as demyelination in this injury group was absent. Animals that received a 50 kD injury displayed only a transient decline in locomotor function as a result of the injury. Importantly, human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor transplants into the 50 kD injury group did not cause a further decline in locomotion. Our studies highlight the importance of a demyelinating pathology as a prerequisite for the function of transplanted myelinogenic cells. In addition, our results indicate that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells into the injured spinal cord is not associated with a decline in locomotor function.

  17. Integration-deficient lentivectors: an effective strategy to purify and differentiate human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guanghua; Si-Tayeb, Karim; Corbineau, Sébastien; Vernet, Rémi; Gayon, Régis; Dianat, Noushin; Martinet, Clémence; Clay, Denis; Goulinet-Mainot, Sylvie; Tachdjian, Gérard; Tachdjian, Gérard; Burks, Deborah; Vallier, Ludovic; Bouillé, Pascale; Dubart-Kupperschmitt, Anne; Weber, Anne

    2013-07-19

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for applications in regenerative medicine. However, the safety of cell therapy using differentiated hPSC derivatives must be improved through methods that will permit the transplantation of homogenous populations of a specific cell type. To date, purification of progenitors and mature cells generated from either embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells remains challenging with use of conventional methods. We used lentivectors encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the liver-specific apoliprotein A-II (APOA-II) promoter to purify human hepatic progenitors. We evaluated both integrating and integration-defective lentivectors in combination with an HIV integrase inhibitor. A human embryonic stem cell line was differentiated into hepatic progenitors using a chemically defined protocol. Subsequently, cells were transduced and sorted at day 16 of differentiation to obtain a cell population enriched in hepatic progenitor cells. After sorting, more than 99% of these APOA-II-GFP-positive cells expressed hepatoblast markers such as α-fetoprotein and cytokeratin 19. When further cultured for 16 days, these cells underwent differentiation into more mature cells and exhibited hepatocyte properties such as albumin secretion. Moreover, they were devoid of vector DNA integration. We have developed an effective strategy to purify human hepatic cells from cultures of differentiating hPSCs, producing a novel tool that could be used not only for cell therapy but also for in vitro applications such as drug screening. The present strategy should also be suitable for the purification of a broad range of cell types derived from either pluripotent or adult stem cells.

  18. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells increase interleukin-9 production of CD4+ T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhou Xin; Chi, Ying; Ji, Yue Ru; Wang, You Wei; Zhang, Jing; Luo, Wei Feng; Li, Li Na; Hu, Cai Dong; Zhuo, Guang Sheng; Wang, Li Fang; Han, Zhi-Bo; Han, Zhong Chao

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into cells of multiple lineage, and additionally act to modulate the immune response. Interleukin (IL)-9 is primarily produced by cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells to regulate the immune response. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of human umbilical cord derived-MSC (UC-MSC) on IL-9 production of human CD4+ T cells. It was demonstrated that the addition of UC-MSC to the culture of CD4+ T cells significantly enhance...

  19. Chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells cultured in a cobweb-like biodegradable scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guoping; Liu Dechang; Tadokoro, Mika; Hirochika, Rei; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tanaka, Junzo; Tateishi, Tetsuya

    2004-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured in vitro in a cobweb-like biodegradable polymer scaffold: a poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-collagen hybrid mesh in serum-free DMEM containing TGF-β3 for 1-10 weeks. The cells adhered to the hybrid mesh, distributed evenly, and proliferated to fill the spaces in the scaffold. The ability of the cells to express gene encoding type I collagen decreased, whereas its ability to express type II collagen and aggrecan increased. Histological examination by HE staining indicated that the cells showed fibroblast morphology at the early stage and became round after culture for 4 weeks. The cartilaginous matrices were positively stained by safranin O and toluidine blue. Immunostaining with anti-type II collagen and anti-cartilage proteoglycan showed that type II collagen and cartilage proteoglycan were detected around the cells. In addition, a homogeneous distribution of cartilaginous extracellular matrices was detected around the cells. These results suggest the chondrogenic differentiation of the mesenchymal stem cells in the hybrid mesh. The PLGA-collagen hybrid mesh enabled the aggregation of mesenchymal stem cells and provided a promotive microenvironment for the chondrogenic differentiation of the MSCs

  20. Role of reactive oxygen species in the radiation response of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs, which are present in small numbers in hematopoietic tissues, can differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages and self-renew to maintain their undifferentiated phenotype. HSPCs are extremely sensitive to oxidative stressors such as anti-cancer agents, radiation, and the extensive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The quiescence and stemness of HSPCs are maintained by the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, ROS, and energy homeostasis in a special microenvironment called the stem cell niche. The present study evaluated the relationship between the production of intracellular ROS and mitochondrial function during the proliferation and differentiation of X-irradiated CD34(+ cells prepared from human placental/umbilical cord blood HSPCs. Highly purified CD34(+ HSPCs exposed to X-rays were cultured in liquid and semi-solid medium supplemented with hematopoietic cytokines. X-irradiated CD34(+ HSPCs treated with hematopoietic cytokines, which promote their proliferation and differentiation, exhibited dramatically suppressed cell growth and clonogenic potential. The amount of intracellular ROS in X-irradiated CD34(+ HSPCs was significantly higher than that in non-irradiated cells during the culture period. However, neither the intracellular mitochondrial content nor the mitochondrial superoxide production was elevated in X-irradiated CD34(+ HSPCs compared with non-irradiated cells. Radiation-induced gamma-H2AX expression was observed immediately following exposure to 4 Gy of X-rays and gradually decreased during the culture period. This study reveals that X-irradiation can increase persistent intracellular ROS in human CD34(+ HSPCs, which may not result from mitochondrial ROS due to mitochondrial dysfunction, and indicates that substantial DNA double-strand breakage can critically reduce the stem cell function.

  1. Impaired Angiogenic Potential of Human Placental Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Intrauterine Growth Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandò, Chiara; Razini, Paola; Novielli, Chiara; Anelli, Gaia Maria; Belicchi, Marzia; Erratico, Silvia; Banfi, Stefania; Meregalli, Mirella; Tavelli, Alessandro; Baccarin, Marco; Rolfo, Alessandro; Motta, Silvia; Torrente, Yvan; Cetin, Irene

    2016-04-01

    Human placental mesenchymal stromal cells (pMSCs) have never been investigated in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We characterized cells isolated from placental membranes and the basal disc of six IUGR and five physiological placentas. Cell viability and proliferation were assessed every 7 days during a 6-week culture. Expression of hematopoietic, stem, endothelial, and mesenchymal markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. We characterized the multipotency of pMSCs and the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial content and function. Cell viability was high in all samples, and proliferation rate was lower in IUGR compared with control cells. All samples presented a starting heterogeneous population, shifting during culture toward homogeneity for mesenchymal markers and occurring earlier in IUGR than in controls. In vitro multipotency of IUGR-derived pMSCs was restricted because their capacity for adipocyte differentiation was increased, whereas their ability to differentiate toward endothelial cell lineage was decreased. Mitochondrial content and function were higher in IUGR pMSCs than controls, possibly indicating a shift from anaerobic to aerobic metabolism, with the loss of the metabolic characteristics that are typical of undifferentiated multipotent cells. This study demonstrates that the loss of endothelial differentiation potential and the increase of adipogenic ability are likely to play a significant role in the vicious cycle of abnormal placental development in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). This is the first observation of a potential role for placental mesenchymal stromal cells in intrauterine growth restriction, thus leading to new perspectives for the treatment of IUGR. ©AlphaMed Press.

  2. Role of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells in promoting osteogenic differentiation by influencing p38 MAPK signaling in lipopolysaccharide -induced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuli; Wu, Hongxia; Shen, Ming; Ding, Siyang; Miao, Jing; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease induced by bacterial pathogens, which not only affect connective tissue attachments but also cause alveolar bone loss. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of Human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) on human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs) under lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory conditions. Proliferation levels were measured by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence staining of 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU). Osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization were investigated using chromogenic alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) activity substrate assays, Alizarin red S staining, and RT-PCR analysis of HBMSCs osteogenic marker expression. Oxidative stress induced by LPS was investigated by assaying reactive oxygen species (ROS) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Here, we demonstrated that HAMSCs increased the proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation, and SOD activity of LPS-induced HBMSCs, and down-regulated the ROS level. Moreover, our results suggested that the activation of p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway is essential for reversing the LPS-induced bone-destructive processes. SB203580, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK signaling, significantly suppressed the anti-inflammatory effects in HAMSCs. In conclusion, HAMSCs show a strong potential in treating inflammation-induced bone loss by influencing p38 MAPK signaling. - Highlights: • LPS inhibites osteogenic differentiation in HBMSCs via suppression of p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs promote LPS-induced HBMSCs osteogenic differentiation through p38 MAPK signaling pathway. • HAMSCs reverse LPS-induced oxidative stress in LPS-induced HBMSCs through p38 MAPK signaling pathway.

  3. Reversible immortalisation enables genetic correction of human muscle progenitors and engineering of next-generation human artificial chromosomes for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Sara; Uno, Narumi; Hoshiya, Hidetoshi; Ragazzi, Martina; Ferrari, Giulia; Kazuki, Yasuhiro; Moyle, Louise Anne; Tonlorenzi, Rossana; Lombardo, Angelo; Chaouch, Soraya; Mouly, Vincent; Moore, Marc; Popplewell, Linda; Kazuki, Kanako; Katoh, Motonobu; Naldini, Luigi; Dickson, George; Messina, Graziella; Oshimura, Mitsuo; Cossu, Giulio; Tedesco, Francesco Saverio

    2018-02-01

    Transferring large or multiple genes into primary human stem/progenitor cells is challenged by restrictions in vector capacity, and this hurdle limits the success of gene therapy. A paradigm is Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable disorder caused by mutations in the largest human gene: dystrophin. The combination of large-capacity vectors, such as human artificial chromosomes (HACs), with stem/progenitor cells may overcome this limitation. We previously reported amelioration of the dystrophic phenotype in mice transplanted with murine muscle progenitors containing a HAC with the entire dystrophin locus (DYS-HAC). However, translation of this strategy to human muscle progenitors requires extension of their proliferative potential to withstand clonal cell expansion after HAC transfer. Here, we show that reversible cell immortalisation mediated by lentivirally delivered excisable hTERT and Bmi1 transgenes extended cell proliferation, enabling transfer of a novel DYS-HAC into DMD satellite cell-derived myoblasts and perivascular cell-derived mesoangioblasts. Genetically corrected cells maintained a stable karyotype, did not undergo tumorigenic transformation and retained their migration ability. Cells remained myogenic in vitro (spontaneously or upon MyoD induction) and engrafted murine skeletal muscle upon transplantation. Finally, we combined the aforementioned functions into a next-generation HAC capable of delivering reversible immortalisation, complete genetic correction, additional dystrophin expression, inducible differentiation and controllable cell death. This work establishes a novel platform for complex gene transfer into clinically relevant human muscle progenitors for DMD gene therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Biocompatibility of quantum dots (CdSe/ZnS ) in human amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gongping; Zeng, Guangwei; Wang, Caie; Wang, Huasheng; Yang, Bo; Guan, Fangxia; Li, Dongpeng; Feng, Xiaoshan

    2015-06-01

    Amniotic membrane-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAM-dMSCs) are a potential source of mesenchymal stem cells which could be used to repair skin damage. The use of mesenchymal stem cells to repair skin damage requires safe, effective and biocompatible agents to evaluate the effectiveness of the result. Quantum dots (QDs) composed of CdSe/ZnS are semiconductor nanocrystals with broad excitation and narrow emission spectra, which have been considered as a new chemical and fluorescent substance for non-invasively labeling different cells in vitro and in vivo. This study investigated the cytotoxic effects of QDs on hAM-dMSCs at different times following labeling. Using 0.75, 1.5 and 3.0 μL between quantum dots, labeled human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells were collected on days 1, 2 and 4 and observed morphological changes, performed an MTT cell growth assay and flow cytometry for mesenchymal stem cells molecular markers. Quantum dot concentration 0.75 μg/mL labeled under a fluorescence microscope, cell morphology was observed, The MTT assay showed cells in the proliferative phase. Flow cytometry expression CD29, CD31, CD34, CD44, CD90, CD105 and CD106. Within a certain range of concentrations between quantum dots labeled human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells has good biocompatibility.

  5. Early osteoinductive human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal/stem cells support an enhanced hematopoietic cell expansion with altered chemotaxis- and adhesion-related gene expression profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Noriko [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Miura, Yasuo, E-mail: ym58f5@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Yao, Hisayuki [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Iwasa, Masaki; Fujishiro, Aya [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Division of Gastroenterology and Hematology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga 520-2192 (Japan); Fujii, Sumie [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hirai, Hideyo [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi [Department of Hematology/Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Ichinohe, Tatsuo [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Maekawa, Taira [Department of Transfusion Medicine and Cell Therapy, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment has a crucial role in supporting hematopoiesis. Here, by using a microarray analysis, we demonstrate that human BM mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) in an early osteoinductive stage (e-MSCs) are characterized by unique hematopoiesis-associated gene expression with an enhanced hematopoiesis-supportive ability. In comparison to BM-MSCs without osteoinductive treatment, gene expression in e-MSCs was significantly altered in terms of their cell adhesion- and chemotaxis-related profiles, as identified with Gene Ontology and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Noteworthy, expression of the hematopoiesis-associated molecules CXCL12 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 was remarkably decreased in e-MSCs. e-MSCs supported an enhanced expansion of CD34{sup +} hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and generation of myeloid lineage cells in vitro. In addition, short-term osteoinductive treatment favored in vivo hematopoietic recovery in lethally irradiated mice that underwent BM transplantation. e-MSCs exhibited the absence of decreased stemness-associated gene expression, increased osteogenesis-associated gene expression, and apparent mineralization, thus maintaining the ability to differentiate into adipogenic cells. Our findings demonstrate the unique biological characteristics of e-MSCs as hematopoiesis-regulatory stromal cells at differentiation stage between MSCs and osteoprogenitor cells and have significant implications in developing new strategy for using pharmacological osteoinductive treatment to support hematopoiesis in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell transplantation. - Highlights: • Human BM-MSCs in an early osteoinductive stage (e-MSCs) support hematopoiesis. • Adhesion- and chemotaxis-associated gene signatures are altered in e-MSCs. • Expression of CXCL12 and VCAM1 is remarkably decreased in e-MSCs. • e-MSCs are at differentiation stage between MSCs and osteoprogenitor cells. • Osteoinductive treatment

  6. Human induced pluripotent stem cells differentiation into oligodendrocyte progenitors and transplantation in a rat model of optic chiasm demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pouya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aims to differentiate human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs into oligodendrocyte precursors and assess their recovery potential in a demyelinated optic chiasm model in rats. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a cell population of oligodendrocyte progenitors from hiPSCs by using embryoid body formation in a defined medium supplemented with a combination of factors, positive selection and mechanical enrichment. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence analyses showed that stage-specific markers, Olig2, Sox10, NG2, PDGFRα, O4, A2B5, GalC, and MBP were expressed following the differentiation procedure, and enrichment of the oligodendrocyte lineage. These results are comparable with the expression of stage-specific markers in human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Transplantation of hiPSC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors into the lysolecithin-induced demyelinated optic chiasm of the rat model resulted in recovery from symptoms, and integration and differentiation into oligodendrocytes were detected by immunohistofluorescence staining against PLP and MBP, and measurements of the visual evoked potentials. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results showed that oligodendrocyte progenitors generated efficiently from hiPSCs can be used in future biomedical studies once safety issues have been overcome.

  7. H4 histamine receptors mediate cell cycle arrest in growth factor-induced murine and human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-France Petit-Bertron

    Full Text Available The most recently characterized H4 histamine receptor (H4R is expressed preferentially in the bone marrow, raising the question of its role during hematopoiesis. Here we show that both murine and human progenitor cell populations express this receptor subtype on transcriptional and protein levels and respond to its agonists by reduced growth factor-induced cell cycle progression that leads to decreased myeloid, erythroid and lymphoid colony formation. H4R activation prevents the induction of cell cycle genes through a cAMP/PKA-dependent pathway that is not associated with apoptosis. It is mediated specifically through H4R signaling since gene silencing or treatment with selective antagonists restores normal cell cycle progression. The arrest of growth factor-induced G1/S transition protects murine and human progenitor cells from the toxicity of the cell cycle-dependent anticancer drug Ara-C in vitro and reduces aplasia in a murine model of chemotherapy. This first evidence for functional H4R expression in hematopoietic progenitors opens new therapeutic perspectives for alleviating hematotoxic side effects of antineoplastic drugs.

  8. Overexpression of CXCR4 on human CD34+ progenitors increases their proliferation, migration, and NOD/SCID repopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Joy; Byk, Tamara; Jansson-Sjostrand, Lottie; Petit, Isabelle; Shivtiel, Shoham; Nagler, Arnon; Hardan, Izhar; Deutsch, Varda; Gazit, Zulma; Gazit, Dan; Karlsson, Stefan; Lapidot, Tsvee

    2004-04-15

    A major limitation to clinical stem cell-mediated gene therapy protocols is the low levels of engraftment by transduced progenitors. We report that CXCR4 overexpression on human CD34+ progenitors using a lentiviral gene transfer technique helped navigate these cells to the murine bone marrow and spleen in response to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signaling. Cells overexpressing CXCR4 exhibited significant increases in SDF-1-mediated chemotaxis and actin polymerization compared with control cells. A major advantage of CXCR4 overexpression was demonstrated by the ability of transduced CD34+ cells to respond to lower, physiologic levels of SDF-1 when compared to control cells, leading to improved SDF-1-induced migration and proliferation/survival, and finally resulting in significantly higher levels of in vivo repopulation of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice including primitive CD34+/CD38(-/low) cells. Importantly, no cellular transformation was observed following transduction with the CXCR4 vector. Unexpectedly, we documented lack of receptor internalization in response to high levels of SDF-1, which can also contribute to increased migration and proliferation by the transduced CD34+ cells. Our results suggest CXCR4 overexpression for improved definitive human stem cell motility, retention, and multilineage repopulation, which could be beneficial for in vivo navigation and expansion of hematopoietic progenitors.

  9. Alternative splicing events identified in human embryonic stem cells and neural progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene W Yeo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and neural progenitor (NP cells are excellent models for recapitulating early neuronal development in vitro, and are key to establishing strategies for the treatment of degenerative disorders. While much effort had been undertaken to analyze transcriptional and epigenetic differences during the transition of hESC to NP, very little work has been performed to understand post-transcriptional changes during neuronal differentiation. Alternative RNA splicing (AS, a major form of post-transcriptional gene regulation, is important in mammalian development and neuronal function. Human ESC, hESC-derived NP, and human central nervous system stem cells were compared using Affymetrix exon arrays. We introduced an outlier detection approach, REAP (Regression-based Exon Array Protocol, to identify 1,737 internal exons that are predicted to undergo AS in NP compared to hESC. Experimental validation of REAP-predicted AS events indicated a threshold-dependent sensitivity ranging from 56% to 69%, at a specificity of 77% to 96%. REAP predictions significantly overlapped sets of alternative events identified using expressed sequence tags and evolutionarily conserved AS events. Our results also reveal that focusing on differentially expressed genes between hESC and NP will overlook 14% of potential AS genes. In addition, we found that REAP predictions are enriched in genes encoding serine/threonine kinase and helicase activities. An example is a REAP-predicted alternative exon in the SLK (serine/threonine kinase 2 gene that is differentially included in hESC, but skipped in NP as well as in other differentiated tissues. Lastly, comparative sequence analysis revealed conserved intronic cis-regulatory elements such as the FOX1/2 binding site GCAUG as being proximal to candidate AS exons, suggesting that FOX1/2 may participate in the regulation of AS in NP and hESC. In summary, a new methodology for exon array analysis was introduced

  10. Potency testing of mesenchymal stromal cell growth expanded in human platelet lysate from different human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzina, R; Iudicone, P; Fioravanti, D; Bonanno, G; Totta, P; Zizzari, I G; Pierelli, L

    2016-08-25

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been largely investigated, in the past decade, as potential therapeutic strategies for various acute and chronic pathological conditions. MSCs isolated from different sources, such as bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord tissue (UCT) and adipose tissue (AT), share many biological features, although they may show some differences on cumulative yield, proliferative ability and differentiation potential. The standardization of MSCs growth and their functional amplification is a mandatory objective of cell therapies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative yield and the ex vivo amplification potential of MSCs obtained from various sources and different subjects, using defined culture conditions with a standardized platelet lysate (PL) as growth stimulus. MSCs isolated from BM, UCT and AT and expanded in human PL were compared in terms of cumulative yield and growth potential per gram of starting tissue. MSCs morphology, phenotype, differentiation potential, and immunomodulatory properties were also investigated to evaluate their biological characteristics. The use of standardized PL-based culture conditions resulted in a very low variability of MSC growth. Our data showed that AT has the greater capacity to generate MSC per gram of initial tissue, compared to BM and UCT. However, UCT-MSCs replicated faster than AT-MSCs and BM-MSCs, revealing a greater proliferation capacity of this source irrespective of its lower MSC yield. All MSCs exhibited the typical MSC phenotype and the ability to differentiate into all mesodermal lineages, while BM-MSCs showed the most prominent immunosuppressive effect in vitro. The adoption of standardized culture conditions may help researchers and clinicians to reveal particular characteristics and inter-individual variability of MSCs sourced from different tissues. These data will be beneficial to set the standards for tissue collection and MSCs clinical-scale expansion both for cell banking

  11. Knockdown of HSPA9 induces TP53-dependent apoptosis in human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

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    Tuoen Liu

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis. We show here that HSPA9 knockdown is associated with increased TP53 expression and activity, resulting in increased expression of target genes BAX and p21. HSPA9 protein interacts with TP53 in CD34+ cells and knockdown of HSPA9 increases nuclear TP53 levels, providing a possible mechanism for regulation of TP53 by HSPA9 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Concurrent knockdown of TP53 and HSPA9 rescued the increased apoptosis observed in CD34+ cells following knockdown of HSPA9. Reduction of HSPA9 below 50% results in severe inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that del(5q cells may be preferentially sensitive to further reductions of HSPA9 below 50%, thus providing a genetic vulnerability to del(5q cells. Treatment of bone marrow cells with MKT-077, an HSPA9 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in a higher percentage of cells from MDS patients with del(5q compared to non-del(5q MDS patients and normal donor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that reduced levels of HSPA9 may contribute to TP53 activation and increased apoptosis observed in del(5q-associated MDS.

  12. Human neural progenitors derived from integration-free iPSCs for SCI therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a potentially unlimited autologous cell source, patient induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs provide great capability for tissue regeneration, particularly in spinal cord injury (SCI. However, despite significant progress made in translation of iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs to clinical settings, a few hurdles remain. Among them, non-invasive approach to obtain source cells in a timely manner, safer integration-free delivery of reprogramming factors, and purification of NPCs before transplantation are top priorities to overcome. In this study, we developed a safe and cost-effective pipeline to generate clinically relevant NPCs. We first isolated cells from patients' urine and reprogrammed them into iPSCs by non-integrating Sendai viral vectors, and carried out experiments on neural differentiation. NPCs were purified by A2B5, an antibody specifically recognizing a glycoganglioside on the cell surface of neural lineage cells, via fluorescence activated cell sorting. Upon further in vitro induction, NPCs were able to give rise to neurons, oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. To test the functionality of the A2B5+ NPCs, we grafted them into the contused mouse thoracic spinal cord. Eight weeks after transplantation, the grafted cells survived, integrated into the injured spinal cord, and differentiated into neurons and glia. Our specific focus on cell source, reprogramming, differentiation and purification method purposely addresses timing and safety issues of transplantation to SCI models. It is our belief that this work takes one step closer on using human iPSC derivatives to SCI clinical settings.

  13. microRNA-320/RUNX2 axis regulates adipocytic differentiation of human mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, D; Ali, D; Vishnubalaji, R

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human mesenchymal (skeletal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes (ADs) are not fully understood. Thus, we performed global microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression profiling during adipocytic differentiation of h...... differentiation and accelerated formation of mature ADs in ex vivo cultures. Integrated analysis of bioinformatics and global gene expression profiling in miR-320c overexpressing cells and during adipocytic differentiation of hMSC identified several biologically relevant gene targets for miR-320c including RUNX2...

  14. The proteomic dataset for bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stromal cells: Effect of in vitro passaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Mindaye

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BMSCs have been in clinical trials for therapy. One major bottleneck in the advancement of BMSC-based products is the challenge associated with cell isolation, characterization, and ensuring cell fitness over the course of in vitro cell propagation steps. The data in this report is part of publications that explored the proteomic changes following in vitro passaging of BMSCs [4] and the molecular heterogeneity in cultures obtained from different human donors [5,6].The methodological details involving cell manufacturing, proteome harvesting, protein identification and quantification as well as the bioinformatic analyses were described to ensure reproducibility of the results.

  15. MicroRNA-138 regulates osteogenic differentiation of human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Tilde; Taipaleenmäki, Hanna; Stenvang, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell (hMSC) differentiation into osteogenic lineage is important for the development of anabolic therapies for treatment of osteoporosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that act as key regulators......-regulated during osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs. Overexpression of miR-138 inhibited osteoblast differentiation of hMSCs in vitro, whereas inhibition of miR-138 function by antimiR-138 promoted expression of osteoblast-specific genes, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and matrix mineralization. Furthermore...

  16. Inhibition of adipocytogenesis by canonical WNT signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Longxiang; Glowacki, Julie; Zhou, Shuanhu

    2011-01-01

    The WNT signaling pathway plays important roles in the self-renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Little is known about WNT signaling in adipocyte differentiation of human MSCs. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that canonical and non-canonical WNTs differentially regulate in vitro adipocytogenesis in human MSCs. The expression of adipocyte gene PPARγ2, lipoprotein lipase, and adipsin increased during adipocytogenesis of hMSCs. Simultaneously, the expression of canonical WNT2, 10B, 13, and 14 decreased, whereas non-canonical WNT4 and 11 increased, and WNT5A was unchanged. A small molecule WNT mimetic, SB-216763, increased accumulation of β-catenin protein, inhibited induction of WNT4 and 11 and inhibited adipocytogenesis. In contrast, knockdown of β-catenin with siRNA resulted in spontaneous adipocytogenesis. These findings support the view that canonical WNT signaling inhibits and non-canonical WNT signaling promotes adipocytogenesis in adult human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  17. Bioprocessing strategies for the large-scale production of human mesenchymal stem cells: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchalingam, Krishna M; Jung, Sunghoon; Rosenberg, Lawrence; Behie, Leo A

    2015-11-23

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), also called mesenchymal stromal cells, have been of great interest in regenerative medicine applications because of not only their differentiation potential but also their ability to secrete bioactive factors that can modulate the immune system and promote tissue repair. This potential has initiated many early-phase clinical studies for the treatment of various diseases, disorders, and injuries by using either hMSCs themselves or their secreted products. Currently, hMSCs for clinical use are generated through conventional static adherent cultures in the presence of fetal bovine serum or human-sourced supplements. However, these methods suffer from variable culture conditions (i.e., ill-defined medium components and heterogeneous culture environment) and thus are not ideal procedures to meet the expected future demand of quality-assured hMSCs for human therapeutic use. Optimizing a bioprocess to generate hMSCs or their secreted products (or both) promises to improve the efficacy as well as safety of this stem cell therapy. In this review, current media and methods for hMSC culture are outlined and bioprocess development strategies discussed.

  18. Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Peng [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Yuan, Yasheng, E-mail: yuanyasheng@163.com [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China); Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114 (United States); Chi, Fanglu [Department of ENT-Head and Neck Surgery, EENT Hospital, Shanghai 200031 (China); Shanghai Medical School, Fudan University, 210029 (China)

    2014-09-01

    We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • ALG/PAAm hydrogels were prepared at different molar ratios for cartilage tissue engineering. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels feature an interpenetrating polymer network structure. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels demonstrate strengthened elastic and rubbery mechanical properties. • hMSCs could be cultured on the ALG/PAAm hydrogels for proliferation and chondrogenesis.

  19. Biomimetic alginate/polyacrylamide porous scaffold supports human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Peng; Yuan, Yasheng; Chi, Fanglu

    2014-01-01

    We describe the development of alginate/polyacrylamide (ALG/PAAm) porous hydrogels based on interpenetrating polymer network structure for human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and chondrogenesis. Three ALG/PAAm hydrogels at molar ratios of 10/90, 20/80, and 30/70 were prepared and characterized with enhanced elastic and rubbery mechanical properties, which are similar to native human cartilage tissues. Their elasticity and swelling properties were also studied under different physiological pH conditions. Finally, in vitro tests demonstrated that human mesenchymal stem cells could proliferate on the as-synthesized hydrogels with improved alkaline phosphatase activities. These results suggest that ALG/PAAm hydrogels may be a promising biomaterial for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • ALG/PAAm hydrogels were prepared at different molar ratios for cartilage tissue engineering. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels feature an interpenetrating polymer network structure. • ALG/PAAm hydrogels demonstrate strengthened elastic and rubbery mechanical properties. • hMSCs could be cultured on the ALG/PAAm hydrogels for proliferation and chondrogenesis

  20. Human Liver Cells Expressing Albumin and Mesenchymal Characteristics Give Rise to Insulin-Producing Cells

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    Irit Meivar-Levy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the pancreatic lineage in the liver has been suggested as a potential autologous cell replacement therapy for diabetic patients. Transcription factors-induced liver-to-pancreas reprogramming has been demonstrated in numerous species both in vivo and in vitro. However, human-derived liver cells capable of acquiring the alternate pancreatic repertoire have never been characterized. It is yet unknown whether hepatic-like stem cells or rather adult liver cells give rise to insulin-producing cells. Using an in vitro experimental system, we demonstrate that proliferating adherent human liver cells acquire mesenchymal-like characteristics and a considerable level of cellular plasticity. However, using a lineage-tracing approach, we demonstrate that insulin-producing cells are primarily generated in cells enriched for adult hepatic markers that coexpress both albumin and mesenchymal markers. Taken together, our data suggest that adult human hepatic tissue retains a substantial level of developmental plasticity, which could be exploited in regenerative medicine approaches.

  1. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carretta, M; Boer, de B.; Jaques, J.; Antonelli, A; Horton, S J; Yuan, H; de Bruijn, J D; Groen, R W J; Vellenga, E.; Schuringa, J J

    Recently, NOD-SLID IL2R gamma(-/-) (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice

  2. Fetal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Differentiating towards Chondrocytes Acquire a Gene Expression Profile Resembling Human Growth Plate Cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gool, S.A.; Emons, J.A.M.; Leijten, Jeroen Christianus Hermanus; Decker, E.; Sticht, C.; van Houwelingen, J.C.; Goeman, J.J.; Kleijburg, C.; Scherjon, S.; Gretz, N.; Wit, J.M.; Rappold, G.; Post, Janine Nicole; Karperien, Hermanus Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We used human fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hfMSCs) differentiating towards chondrocytes as an alternative model for the human growth plate (GP). Our aims were to study gene expression patterns associated with chondrogenic differentiation to assess whether

  3. Deletion of Core-binding factor β (Cbfβ) in mesenchymal progenitor cells provides new insights into Cbfβ/Runxs complex function in cartilage and bone development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mengrui; Li, Chenguan; Zhu, Guochun; Wang, Yiping; Jules, Joel; Lu, Yun; McConnell, Matthew; Wang, Yong-Jun; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yi-Ping; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Core-binding factor β (Cbfβ) is a subunit of the Cbf family of heterodimeric transcription factors which plays a critical role in skeletal development through its interaction with the Cbfα subunits, also known as Runt-related transcription factors (Runxs). However, the mechanism by which Cbfβ regulates cartilage and bone development remains unclear. Existing Cbfβ-deficient mouse models cannot specify the role of Cbfβ in skeletal cell lineage. Herein, we sought to specifically address the role of Cbfβ in cartilage and bone development by using a conditional knockout (CKO) approach. A mesenchymal-specific Cbfβ CKO mouse model was generated by using the Dermo1-Cre mouse line to specifically delete Cbfβ in mesenchymal stem cells, which give rise to osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Surprisingly, the mutant mice had under-developed larynx and tracheal cartilage causing alveolus defects which led to death shortly after birth from suffocation. Also, the mutant mice exhibited severe skeletal deformities from defective intramembranous and endochondral ossification, owing to delayed chondrocyte maturation and impaired osteoblast differentiation. Almost all bones of the mutant mice, including the calvariae, vertebrae, tibiae, femurs, ribs, limbs and sternums were defective. Importantly, we showed that Cbfβ was expressed throughout the skeleton during both embryonic and postnatal development, which explains the multiple-skeletal defects observed in the mutant mice. Consistently, Cbfβ deficiency impaired both chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy zone hypertrophy during growth-plate development in the long bones of mutant mice. Notably, Cbfβ, Runx1 and Runx2 displayed different expression patterns in the growth plates of the wildtype mice indicating that Cbfβ/Runx1 complex and Cbfβ/Runx2 complex may regulate chondrocyte proliferation and hypertrophy, respectively, in a spatial and temporal manner. Cbfβ deletion in the mesenchymal progenitors impacted bone

  4. Human Articular Cartilage Progenitor Cells Are Responsive to Mechanical Stimulation and Adenoviral-Mediated Overexpression of Bone-Morphogenetic Protein 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J Neumann

    Full Text Available Articular cartilage progenitor cells (ACPCs represent a new and potentially powerful alternative cell source to commonly used cell sources for cartilage repair, such as chondrocytes and bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. This is particularly due to the apparent resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy. The current study opted to investigate whether human ACPCs (hACPCs are responsive towards mechanical stimulation and/or adenoviral-mediated overexpression of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2. hACPCs were cultured in fibrin-polyurethane composite scaffolds. Cells were cultured in a defined chondro-permissive medium, lacking exogenous growth factors. Constructs were cultured, for 7 or 28 days, under free-swelling conditions or with the application of complex mechanical stimulation, using a custom built bioreactor that is able to generate joint-like movements. Outcome parameters were quantification of BMP-2 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 concentration within the cell culture medium, biochemical and gene expression analyses, histology and immunohistochemistry. The application of mechanical stimulation alone resulted in the initiation of chondrogenesis, demonstrating the cells are mechanoresponsive. This was evidenced by increased GAG production, lack of expression of hypertrophic markers and a promising gene expression profile (significant up-regulation of cartilaginous marker genes, specifically collagen type II, accompanied by no increase in the hypertrophic marker collagen type X or the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. To further investigate the resistance of ACPCs to hypertrophy, overexpression of a factor associated with hypertrophic differentiation, BMP-2, was investigated. A novel, three-dimensional, transduction protocol was used to transduce cells with an adenovirus coding for BMP-2. Over-expression of BMP-2, independent of load, led to an increase in markers associated with hypertropy. Taken together ACPCs

  5. Human adipose tissue-derived multilineage progenitor cells exposed to oxidative stress induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells through p38 MAPK signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moriyama Mariko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissues contain populations of pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells that also secrete various cytokines and growth factors to support repair of damaged tissues. In this study, we examined the role of oxidative stress on human adipose-derived multilineage progenitor cells (hADMPCs in neurite outgrowth in cells of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC12. Results We found that glutathione depletion in hADMPCs, caused by treatment with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, resulted in the promotion of neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells through upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2 transcription in, and secretion from, hADMPCs. Addition of N-acetylcysteine, a precursor of the intracellular antioxidant glutathione, suppressed the BSO-mediated upregulation of BMP2 and FGF2. Moreover, BSO treatment caused phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in hADMPCs. Inhibition of p38 MAPK was sufficient to suppress BMP2 and FGF2 expression, while this expression was significantly upregulated by overexpression of a constitutively active form of MKK6, which is an upstream molecule from p38 MAPK. Conclusions Our results clearly suggest that glutathione depletion, followed by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, stimulates the activation of p38 MAPK and subsequent expression of BMP2 and FGF2 in hADMPCs. Thus, transplantation of hADMPCs into neurodegenerative lesions such as stroke and Parkinson’s disease, in which the transplanted hADMPCs are exposed to oxidative stress, can be the basis for simple and safe therapies.

  6. Treating Diet-Induced Diabetes and Obesity with Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Pancreatic Progenitor Cells and Antidiabetic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E. Bruin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells effectively reverse hyperglycemia in rodent models of type 1 diabetes, but their capacity to treat type 2 diabetes has not been reported. An immunodeficient model of type 2 diabetes was generated by high-fat diet (HFD feeding in SCID-beige mice. Exposure to HFDs did not impact the maturation of macroencapsulated pancreatic progenitor cells into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells following transplantation, and the cell therapy improved glucose tolerance in HFD-fed transplant recipients after 24 weeks. However, since diet-induced hyperglycemia and obesity were not fully ameliorated by transplantation alone, a second cohort of HFD-fed mice was treated with pancreatic progenitor cells combined with one of three antidiabetic drugs. All combination therapies rapidly improved body weight and co-treatment with either sitagliptin or metformin improved hyperglycemia after only 12 weeks. Therefore, a stem cell-based therapy may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes, particularly in combination with antidiabetic drugs.

  7. Maturation and function of human embryonic stem cell-derived pancreatic progenitors in macroencapsulation devices following transplant into mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruin, Jennifer E; Rezania, Alireza; Xu, Jean; Narayan, Kavitha; Fox, Jessica K; O'Neil, John J; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2013-09-01

    Islet transplantation is a promising cell therapy for patients with diabetes, but it is currently limited by the reliance upon cadaveric donor tissue. We previously demonstrated that human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived pancreatic progenitor cells matured under the kidney capsule in a mouse model of diabetes into glucose-responsive insulin-secreting cells capable of reversing diabetes. However, the formation of cells resembling bone and cartilage was a major limitation of that study. Therefore, we developed an improved differentiation protocol that aimed to prevent the formation of off-target mesoderm tissue following transplantation. We also examined how variation within the complex host environment influenced the development of pancreatic progenitors in vivo. The hESCs were differentiated for 14 days into pancreatic progenitor cells and transplanted either under the kidney capsule or within Theracyte (TheraCyte, Laguna Hills, CA, USA) devices into diabetic mice. Our revised differentiation protocol successfully eliminated the formation of non-endodermal cell populations in 99% of transplanted mice and generated grafts containing >80% endocrine cells. Progenitor cells developed efficiently into pancreatic endocrine tissue within macroencapsulation devices, despite lacking direct contact with the host environment, and reversed diabetes within 3 months. The preparation of cell aggregates pre-transplant was critical for the formation of insulin-producing cells in vivo and endocrine cell development was accelerated within a diabetic host environment compared with healthy mice. Neither insulin nor exendin-4 therapy post-transplant affected the maturation of macroencapsulated cells. Efficient differentiation of hESC-derived pancreatic endocrine cells can occur in a macroencapsulation device, yielding glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells capable of reversing diabetes.

  8. Transmission of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells surviving radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, Daniela, E-mail: d.kraft@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Ritter, Sylvia, E-mail: s.ritter@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco, E-mail: m.durante@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Institute for Condensed Matter Physics, Physics Department, Technical University Darmstadt, Hochschulstraße 6-8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Seifried, Erhard, E-mail: e.seifried@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Fournier, Claudia, E-mail: c.fournier@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research, Department of Biophysics, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Tonn, Torsten, E-mail: t.tonn@blutspende.de [Institute for Transfusion Medicine und Immunohematology, DRK-Blutspendedienst Baden-Wuerttemberg—Hessen, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Hospital, Sandhofstrasse 1, 60528 Frankfurt (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Med. Fakultät Carl Gustav Carus, Institute for Transfusion Medicine Dresden, German Red Cross Blood Donation Service North-East, Blasewitzer Straße 68/70, 01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induced formation and transmission of chromosomal aberrations were assessed. • Cytogenetic analysis was performed in human CD34+ HSPC by mFISH. • We report transmission of stable aberrations in irradiated, clonally expanded HSPC. • Unstable aberrations in clonally expanded HSPC occur independently of irradiation. • Carbon ions and X-rays bear a similar risk for propagation of cytogenetic changes. - Abstract: In radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia (rAML), clonal chromosomal abnormalities are often observed in bone marrow cells of patients, suggesting that their formation is crucial in the development of the disease. Since rAML is considered to originate from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC), we investigated the frequency and spectrum of radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in human CD34{sup +} cells. We then measured stable chromosomal abnormalities, a possible biomarker of leukemia risk, in clonally expanded cell populations which were grown for 14 days in a 3D-matrix (CFU-assay). We compared two radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, sparsely ionizing X-rays and densely ionizing carbon ions (29 and 60–85 keV/μm, doses between 0.5 and 4 Gy). Only a negligible number of de novo arising, unstable aberrations (≤0.05 aberrations/cell, 97% breaks) were measured in the descendants of irradiated HSPC. However, stable aberrations were detected in colonies formed by irradiated HSPC. All cells of the affected colonies exhibited one or more identical aberrations, indicating their clonal origin. The majority of the clonal rearrangements (92%) were simple exchanges such as translocations (77%) and pericentric inversions (15%), which are known to contribute to the development of rAML. Carbon ions were more efficient in inducing cell killing (maximum of ∼30–35% apoptotic cells for 2 Gy carbon ions compared to ∼25% for X-rays) and chromosomal aberrations in the first cell-cycle after exposure (∼70% and

  9. Clinical-grade production of human mesenchymal stromal cells: occurrence of aneuploidy without transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarte, Karin; Gaillard, Julien; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques; Fouillard, Loic; Becker, Martine; Mossafa, Hossein; Tchirkov, Andrei; Rouard, Hélène; Henry, Catherine; Splingard, Marie; Dulong, Joelle; Monnier, Delphine; Gourmelon, Patrick; Gorin, Norbert-Claude; Sensebé, Luc

    2010-02-25

    Clinical-grade human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been expanded in vitro for tissue engineering or immunoregulatory purposes without standardized culture conditions or release criteria. Although human MSCs show poor susceptibility for oncogenic transformation, 2 recent studies described their capacity to accumulate chromosomal instability and to give rise to carcinoma in immunocompromised mice after long-term culture. We thus investigated the immunologic and genetic features of MSCs expanded with fetal calf serum and fibroblast growth factor or with platelet lysate in 4 cell-therapy facilities during 2 multicenter clinical trials. Cultured MSCs showed a moderate expression of human leukocyte antigen-DR without alteration of their low immunogenicity or their immunomodulatory capacity. Moreover, some transient and donor-dependent recurring aneuploidy was detected in vitro, independently of the culture process. However, MSCs with or without chromosomal alterations showed progressive growth arrest and entered senescence without evidence of transformation either in vitro or in vivo.

  10. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikirova, Nina A; Jackson, James A; Hunninghake, Ron; Kenyon, Julian; Chan, Kyle W H; Swindlehurst, Cathy A; Minev, Boris; Patel, Amit N; Murphy, Michael P; Smith, Leonard; Ramos, Famela; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H

    2010-04-08

    The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.

  11. Nutraceutical augmentation of circulating endothelial progenitor cells and hematopoietic stem cells in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minev Boris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The medical significance of circulating endothelial or hematopoietic progenitors is becoming increasing recognized. While therapeutic augmentation of circulating progenitor cells using G-CSF has resulted in promising preclinical and early clinical data for several degenerative conditions, this approach is limited by cost and inability to perform chronic administration. Stem-Kine is a food supplement that was previously reported to augment circulating EPC in a pilot study. Here we report a trial in 18 healthy volunteers administered Stem-Kine twice daily for a 2 week period. Significant increases in circulating CD133 and CD34 cells were observed at days 1, 2, 7, and 14 subsequent to initiation of administration, which correlated with increased hematopoietic progenitors as detected by the HALO assay. Augmentation of EPC numbers in circulation was detected by KDR-1/CD34 staining and colony forming assays. These data suggest Stem-Kine supplementation may be useful as a stimulator of reparative processes associated with mobilization of hematopoietic and endothelial progenitors.

  12. In vitro effects of Epidiferphane™ on adult human neural progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural stem cells have the capacity to respond to their environment, migrate to the injury site and generate functional cell types, and thus they hold great promise for cell therapies. In addition to representing a source for central nervous system (CNS) repair, neural stem and progenitor cells als...

  13. Primary mesenchymal stem cells in human transplanted lungs are CD90/CD105 perivascularly located tissue-resident cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolandsson, Sara; Andersson Sjöland, Annika; Brune, Jan C

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have not only been implicated in the development of lung diseases, but they have also been proposed as a future cell-based therapy for lung diseases. However, the cellular identity of the primary MSC in human lung tissues has not yet been reported. This st......BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have not only been implicated in the development of lung diseases, but they have also been proposed as a future cell-based therapy for lung diseases. However, the cellular identity of the primary MSC in human lung tissues has not yet been reported...

  14. * Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stromal Cells as Favorable Source for Cartilage Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiños-López, Emma; Hermida-Gómez, Tamara; Fuentes-Boquete, Isaac; de Toro-Santos, Javier; Blanco, Francisco Javier; Díaz-Prado, Silvia María

    2017-09-01

    Localized trauma-derived breakdown of the hyaline articular cartilage may progress toward osteoarthritis, a degenerative condition characterized by total loss of articular cartilage and joint function. Tissue engineering technologies encompass several promising approaches with high therapeutic potential for the treatment of these focal defects. However, most of the research in tissue engineering is focused on potential materials and structural cues, while little attention is directed to the most appropriate source of cells endowing these materials. In this study, using human amniotic membrane (HAM) as scaffold, we defined a novel static in vitro model for cartilage repair. In combination with HAM, four different cell types, human chondrocytes, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs), human amniotic epithelial cells, and human amniotic mesenchymal stromal cells (hAMSCs) were assessed determining their therapeutic potential. A chondral lesion was drilled in human cartilage biopsies simulating a focal defect. A pellet of different cell types was implanted inside the lesion and covered with HAM. The biopsies were maintained for 8 weeks in culture. Chondrogenic differentiation in the defect was analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry. HAM scaffold showed good integration and adhesion to the native cartilage in all groups. Although all cell types showed the capacity of filling the focal defect, hBMSCs and hAMSCs demonstrated higher levels of new matrix synthesis. However, only the hAMSCs-containing group presented a significant cytoplasmic content of type II collagen when compared with chondrocytes. More collagen type I was identified in the new synthesized tissue of hBMSCs. In accordance, hBMSCs and hAMSCs showed better International Cartilage Research Society scoring although without statistical significance. HAM is a useful material for articular cartilage repair in vitro when used as scaffold. In combination with hAMSCs, HAM showed better

  15. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G.; Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana; Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E.; Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth; Piña-Barba, María C.; Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects

  16. Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (∼ 6 weeks and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells.

  17. Directed Differentiation of Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Qizhou; Zhang, Yuelin; Liang, Xiaoting; Gao, Fei; Tse, Hung-Fat

    2016-01-01

    Multipotent stromal cells, also known as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), possess great potential to generate a wide range of cell types including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, bone, cartilage, and lipid cells. This protocol describes in detail how to perform highly efficient, lineage-specific differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with an MSCs fate. The approach uses a clinically compliant protocol with chemically defined media, feeder-free conditions, and a CD105 positive and CD24 negative selection to achieve a single cell-based MSCs derivation from differentiating human pluripotent cells in approximately 20 days. Cells generated with this protocol express typical MSCs surface markers and undergo adipogenesis, osteogenesis, and chondrogenesis similar to adult bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs). Nonetheless, compared with adult BM-MSCs, iPSC-MSCs display a higher proliferative capacity, up to 120 passages, without obvious loss of self-renewal potential and constitutively express MSCs surface antigens. MSCs generated with this protocol have numerous applications, including expansion to large scale cell numbers for tissue engineering and the development of cellular therapeutics. This approach has been used to rescue limb ischemia, allergic disorders, and cigarette smoke-induced lung damage and to model mesenchymal and vascular disorders of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS).

  18. Generation and characterisation of human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells by explant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Z; Maqbool, M; George, E; Hassan, R; Ramasamy, R

    2016-06-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from human umbilical cord (UC) have been considered as an important tool for treating various malignancies, tissue repair and organ regeneration. Umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs) are better alternative to MSCs that derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) as they are regarded as medical waste with little ethical concern for research and easily culture-expanded. In this present study, the foetal distal end of human UC was utilised to generate MSC by explant method. Upon in vitro culture, adherent cells with fibroblastic morphology were generated with rapid growth kinetics. Under the respective inductive conditions, these cells were capable of differentiating into adipocytes and osteocytes; express an array of standard MSC's surface markers CD29, CD73, CD90, CD106 and MHC-class I. Further assessment of immunosuppression activity revealed that MSCs generated from UC had profoundly inhibited the proliferation of mitogen-activated T lymphocytes in a dosedependent manner. The current laboratory findings have reinforced the application of explant method to generate UCMSCs thus, exploring an ideal platform to fulfil the increasing demand of MSCs for research and potential clinical use.

  19. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G. [Depto. Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana [Depto. Biología de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), México City 14000 (Mexico); Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E. [Subd. de Investigación, Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City 07370 (Mexico); Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth [Depto. Biología Molecular e Histocompatibilidad, Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, México City 4800 (Mexico); Piña-Barba, María C. [Depto. Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando [Depto. Biología Celular y Tisular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects.

  20. Titania-polymeric powder coatings with nano-topography support enhanced human mesenchymal cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumder, Mohammad Sayem; Zhu, Jesse; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2012-10-01

    Titanium implant osseointegration is dependent on the cellular response to surface modifications and coatings. Titania-enriched nanocomposite polymeric resin coatings were prepared through the application of advanced ultrafine powder coating technology. Their surfaces were readily modified to create nano-rough (topographies that supported human embryonic palatal mesenchymal cell responses. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy confirmed continuous and homogenous coatings with a similar composition and even distribution of titanium. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed complex micro-topographies, and atomic force microscopy revealed intricate nanofeatures and surface roughness. Cell counts, mitochondrial enzyme activity reduction of yellow 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) to dark purple, SEM, and inverted fluorescence microscopy showed a marked increase in cell attachment, spreading, proliferation, and metabolic activity on the nanostructured surfaces. Reverse Transcription- Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) analysis showed that type I collagen and Runx2 expression were induced, and Alizarin red staining showed that mineral deposits were abundant in the cell cultures grown on nanosurfaces. This enhancement in human mesenchymal cell attachment, growth, and osteogenesis were attributed to the nanosized surface topographies, roughness, and moderate wetting characteristics of the coatings. Their dimensional similarity to naturally occurring matrix proteins and crystals, coupled with their increased surface area for protein adsorption, may have facilitated the response. Therefore, this application of ultrafine powder coating technology affords highly biocompatible surfaces that can be readily modified to accentuate the cellular response. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Human mesenchymal stem cells and biomaterials interaction: a promising synergy to improve spine fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbanti Brodano, G; Mazzoni, E; Tognon, M; Griffoni, C; Manfrini, M

    2012-05-01

    Spine fusion is the gold standard treatment in degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. The bone regenerative medicine needs (i) in vitro functionally active osteoblasts, and/or (ii) the in vivo induction of the tissue. The bone tissue engineering seems to be a very promising approach for the effectiveness of orthopedic surgical procedures, clinical applications are often hampered by the limited availability of bone allograft or substitutes. New biomaterials have been recently developed for the orthopedic applications. The main characteristics of these scaffolds are the ability to induce the bone tissue formation by generating an appropriate environment for (i) the cell growth and (ii) recruiting precursor bone cells for the proliferation and differentiation. A new prototype of biomaterials known as "bioceramics" may own these features. Bioceramics are bone substitutes mainly composed of calcium and phosphate complex salt derivatives. In this study, the characteristics bioceramics bone substitutes have been tested with human mesenchymal stem cells obtained from the bone marrow of adult orthopedic patients. These cellular models can be employed to characterize in vitro the behavior of different biomaterials, which are used as bone void fillers or three-dimensional scaffolds. Human mesenchymal stem cells in combination with biomaterials seem to be good alternative to the autologous or allogenic bone fusion in spine surgery. The cellular model used in our study is a useful tool for investigating cytocompatibility and biological features of HA-derived scaffolds.

  2. Reversal of hyperglycemia in mice by using human expandable insulin-producing cells differentiated from fetal liver progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalzman, Michal; Gupta, Sanjeev; Giri, Ranjit K.; Berkovich, Irina; Sappal, Baljit S.; Karnieli, Ohad; Zern, Mark A.; Fleischer, Norman; Efrat, Shimon

    2003-06-01

    Beta-cell replacement is considered to be the most promising approach for treatment of type 1 diabetes. Its application on a large scale is hindered by a shortage of cells for transplantation. Activation of insulin expression, storage, and regulated secretion in stem/progenitor cells offers novel ways to overcome this shortage. We explored whether fetal human progenitor liver cells (FH) could be induced to differentiate into insulin-producing cells after expression of the pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 (Pdx1) gene, which is a key regulator of pancreatic development and insulin expression in beta cells. FH cells possess a considerable replication capacity, and this was further extended by introduction of the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase. Immortalized FH cells expressing Pdx1 activated multiple beta-cell genes, produced and stored considerable amounts of insulin, and released insulin in a regulated manner in response to glucose. When transplanted into hyperglycemic immunodeficient mice, the cells restored and maintained euglycemia for prolonged periods. Quantitation of human C-peptide in the mouse serum confirmed that the glycemia was normalized by the transplanted human cells. This approach offers the potential of a novel source of cells for transplantation into patients with type 1 diabetes.

  3. Human embryonic stem cell derived islet progenitors mature inside an encapsulation device without evidence of increased biomass or cell escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Kaitlyn; Hao, Ergeng; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    There are several challenges to successful implementation of a cell therapy for insulin dependent diabetes derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Among these are development of functional insulin producing cells, a clinical delivery method that eliminates the need for chronic immunosuppression, and assurance that hESC derived tumors do not form in the patient. We and others have shown that encapsulation of cells in a bilaminar device (TheraCyte) provides immunoprotection in rodents and primates. Here we monitored human insulin secretion and employed bioluminescent imaging (BLI) to evaluate the maturation, growth, and containment of encapsulated islet progenitors derived from CyT49 hESC, transplanted into mice. Human insulin was detectable by 7 weeks post-transplant and increased 17-fold over the course of 8 weeks, yet during this period the biomass of encapsulated cells remained constant. Remarkably, by 20 weeks post-transplant encapsulated cells secreted sufficient levels of human insulin to ameliorate alloxan induced diabetes. Further, bioluminescent imaging revealed for the first time that hESCs remained fully contained in encapsulation devices for up to 150 days, the longest period tested. Collectively, the data suggest that encapsulated hESC derived islet progenitors hold great promise as an effective and safe cell replacement therapy for insulin dependent diabetes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. γ-Secretase modulators reduce endogenous amyloid β42 levels in human neural progenitor cells without altering neuronal differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Avanzo, Carla; Sliwinski, Christopher; Wagner, Steven L.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Kim, Doo Yeon; Kovacs, Dora M.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble γ-secretase modulators (SGSMs) selectively decrease toxic amyloid β (Aβ) peptides (Aβ42). However, their effect on the physiologic functions of γ-secretase has not been tested in human model systems. γ-Secretase regulates fate determination of neural progenitor cells. Thus, we studied the impact of SGSMs on the neuronal differentiation of ReNcell VM (ReN) human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that treatment of neurosphere-like ReN cell aggregate cultures with γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs), but not SGSMs, induced a 2- to 4-fold increase in the expression of the neuronal markers Tuj1 and doublecortin. GSI treatment also induced neuronal marker protein expression, as shown by Western blot analysis. In the same conditions, SGSM treatment selectively reduced endogenous Aβ42 levels by ∼80%. Mechanistically, we found that Notch target gene expressions were selectively inhibited by a GSI, not by SGSM treatment. We can assert, for the first time, that SGSMs do not affect the neuronal differentiation of hNPCs while selectively decreasing endogenous Aβ42 levels in the same conditions. Our results suggest that our hNPC differentiation system can serve as a useful model to test the impact of GSIs and SGSMs on both endogenous Aβ levels and γ-secretase physiologic functions including endogenous Notch signaling.—D’Avanzo, C., Sliwinski, C., Wagner, S. L., Tanzi, R. E., Kim, D. Y., Kovacs, D. M. γ-Secretase modulators reduce endogenous amyloid β42 levels in human neural progenitor cells without altering neuronal differentiation. PMID:25903103

  5. PI3 kinase is important for Ras, MEK and Erk activation of Epo-stimulated human erythroid progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Enrico K

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin is a multifunctional cytokine which regulates the number of erythrocytes circulating in mammalian blood. This is crucial in order to maintain an appropriate oxygen supply throughout the body. Stimulation of primary human erythroid progenitors (PEPs with erythropoietin (Epo leads to the activation of the mitogenic kinases (MEKs and Erks. How this is accomplished mechanistically remained unclear. Results Biochemical studies with human cord blood-derived PEPs now show that Ras and the class Ib enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K family, PI3K gamma, are activated in response to minimal Epo concentrations. Surprisingly, three structurally different PI3K inhibitors block Ras, MEK and Erk activation in PEPs by Epo. Furthermore, Erk activation in PEPs is insensitive to the inhibition of Raf kinases but suppressed upon PKC inhibition. In contrast, Erk activation induced by stem cell factor, which activates c-Kit in the same cells, is sensitive to Raf inhibition and insensitive to PI3K and PKC inhibitors. Conclusions These unexpected findings contrast with previous results in human primary cells using Epo at supraphysiological concentrations and open new doors to eventually understanding how low Epo concentrations mediate the moderate proliferation of erythroid progenitors under homeostatic blood oxygen levels. They indicate that the basal activation of MEKs and Erks in PEPs by minimal concentrations of Epo does not occur through the classical cascade Shc/Grb2/Sos/Ras/Raf/MEK/Erk. Instead, MEKs and Erks are signal mediators of PI3K, probably the recently described PI3K gamma, through a Raf-independent signaling pathway which requires PKC activity. It is likely that higher concentrations of Epo that are induced by hypoxia, for example, following blood loss, lead to additional mitogenic signals which greatly accelerate erythroid progenitor proliferation.

  6. Identificação do nicho de progenitores mesenquimais no fígado de embriões e fetos caninos: uma fonte de células-tronco para terapia celular Identification of mesenchymal progenitor niches from liver of embryo and fetuses of canines: a source of stem cells for cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele S. Martins

    2012-12-01

    potential. This organ during the fetal period in mammals acts as a transient hematopoietic niche, being the main organ responsible for hematopoiesis in the fetus, and contribute to the formation of permanent niche in the adult bone marrow, thus can be considered a niche for mesenchymal stem cells (MSC and parents. However, little is known about the location of these cells in FF, so the present study aims to identify the niche of mesenchymal progenitors in FF and dogs in order to contribute to the techniques of cell isolation and extraction. Together was performed to verify the expression of the transcription factor Oct-3/4 of the protein and DNA polymerase delta (PCNA. For the analysis of five embryos were used and 11 canine fetuses with gestational ages ranging from 25-60 days. The results elucidated from 25 days of gestation showed the FF is bulky and composed of all the typical structures, among them the portal triad, bile ducts and hepatic artery branches. With 30 days of gestation were identified the first requirements of mesenchymal progenitors (MP at 60 days while the niches were completely formed with location similar to adult liver (AL. However, cells immunoreactives for Oct-3/4 were not identified, therefore, point out that the FL is a source of PM, presenting as an alternative for therapeutic purposes as well as for studying the developmental biology of MSC and parents.

  7. Genetically-modified pig mesenchymal stromal cells: xenoantigenicity and effect on human T-cell xenoresponses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ezzelarab, Corin; Wilhite, Tyler; Kumar, Goutham; Hara, Hidetaka; Ayares, David; Cooper, David K C

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are being investigated as immunomodulatory therapy in the field of transplantation, particularly islet transplantation. While MSC can regenerate across species barriers, the immunoregulatory influence of genetically modified pig MSC (pMSC) on the human and non-human primate T-cell responses has not been studied. Mesenchymal stromal cells from wild-type (WT), α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) and GTKO pigs transgenic for the human complement-regulatory protein CD46 (GTKO/CD46) were isolated and tested for differentiation. Antibody binding and T-cell responses to WT and GTKO pMSC in comparison with GTKO pig aortic endothelial cells (pAEC) were investigated. The expression of swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II (SLA II) was tested. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 mRNA levels were measured. Human T-cell proliferation and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to GTKO and GTKO/CD46 pMSC in comparison with human MSC (hMSC) were evaluated. α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout and GTKO/CD46 pMSC isolation and differentiation were achieved in vitro. Binding of human antibodies and T-cell responses were lower to GTKO than those to WT pMSC. Human and baboon (naïve and sensitized) antibody binding were significantly lower to GTKO pMSC than to GTKO pAEC. Before activation, human CD4(+) T-cell response to GTKO pMSC was significantly weaker than that to GTKO pAEC, even after pIFN-γ activation. More than 99% of GTKO/CD46 pMSC expressed hCD46. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD4(+) T-cell responses to GTKO and GTKO/CD46 pMSC were comparable with those to hMSC, and all were significantly lower than to GTKO pAEC. GTKO/CD46 pMSC downregulated human T-cell proliferation as efficiently as hMSC. The level of proinflammatory cytokines IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and sCD40L correlated with the downregulation of T-cell proliferation by all types of MSC. Genetically modified pMSC is significantly less

  8. Unique CCT repeats mediate transcription of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkuma, Mizue; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Murakami, Masanori; Ohyama, Kimie; Nakamura, Masataka

    2007-01-01

    TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays critical roles in embryo development, cancer metastasis and mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 expression. Here we identified DNA sequences responsible for TWIST1 expression in mesenchymal lineage cell lines. Reporter assays with TWIST1 promoter mutants defined the -102 to -74 sequences that are essential for TWIST1 expression in human and mouse mesenchymal cell lines. Tandem repeats of CCT, but not putative CREB and NF-κB sites in the sequences substantially supported activity of the TWIST1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the DNA sequences with the CCT repeats formed complexes with nuclear factors, containing, at least, Sp1 and Sp3. These results suggest critical implication of the CCT repeats in association with Sp1 and Sp3 factors in sustaining expression of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cells

  9. Derivation of Stromal (Skeletal, Mesenchymal) Stem-like cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Abdallah, Basem

    2012-01-01

    EBs using BMP2 (bone morphogenic protein 2) combined with standard osteoblast induction medium led to weak osteoblastic induction. Conversely, subcutaneous in vivo implantation of day 20 hEBs in immune deficient mice, mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) as an osteoconductive scaffold......Derivation of bone forming cells (osteoblasts) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) is a pre-requisite for their use in clinical applications. However, there is no standard protocol for differentiating hESC into osteoblastic cells. The aim of this study was to identify the emergence of a human...... stromal (mesenchymal, skeletal) stem cell (hMSC)-like population, known to be osteoblastic cell precursors and to test their osteoblastic differentiation capacity in ex vivo cultures and in vivo. We cultured hESC in a feeder-free environment using serum replacement and as suspension aggregates (embryoid...

  10. Human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiate into insulin, somatostatin, and glucagon expressing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timper, Katharina; Seboek, Dalma; Eberhardt, Michael; Linscheid, Philippe; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Keller, Ulrich; Mueller, Beat; Zulewski, Henryk

    2006-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from mouse bone marrow were shown to adopt a pancreatic endocrine phenotype in vitro and to reverse diabetes in an animal model. MSC from human bone marrow and adipose tissue represent very similar cell populations with comparable phenotypes. Adipose tissue is abundant and easily accessible and could thus also harbor cells with the potential to differentiate in insulin producing cells. We isolated human adipose tissue-derived MSC from four healthy donors. During the proliferation period, the cells expressed the stem cell markers nestin, ABCG2, SCF, Thy-1 as well as the pancreatic endocrine transcription factor Isl-1. The cells were induced to differentiate into a pancreatic endocrine phenotype by defined culture conditions within 3 days. Using quantitative PCR a down-regulation of ABCG2 and up-regulation of pancreatic developmental transcription factors Isl-1, Ipf-1, and Ngn3 were observed together with induction of the islet hormones insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin

  11. Correlation between proliferative activity and cellular thickness of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hirose, Motohiro; Nakamura, Chikashi; Ohgushi, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    A cell's shape is known to be related to its proliferative activity. In particular, large and flat mammalian adult stem cells seem to show slow proliferation, however using quantitative analysis to prove the phenomenon is difficult. We measured the proliferation and cellular thickness of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) by atomic force microscopy and found that MSCs with high proliferative activity were thick while those with low proliferative activity were thin, even though these MSCs were early passage cells. Further, low proliferative MSCs contained many senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells together with high senescence-associated gene expression. These findings suggest that the measurement of cellular thickness is useful for estimating the proliferative activity of human MSCs and is expected to be a practical tool for MSC applications in regenerative medicine

  12. Adeno-associated viral vector transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Murphy, Mary; O'Brien, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. One aspect of MSC research focuses on genetically modifying the cells with the aim of enhancing their regenerative potential. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise as a vector...... in human MSCs and to assess whether AAV transduction affects MSC multipotentiality. The results indicated that human MSCs could indeed be transiently transduced in vitro by the AAV2 vector with efficiencies of up to 65%. The percentage of GFP-positive cells peaked at 4 days post-transduction and declined...... rapidly towards 0% after day 8. The level of transgene expression in the GFP-positive population increased 4-fold over a 10,000 fold viral dose increase. This dose-response contrasted with the 200-fold increase observed in similarly transduced 293-cells, indicating a relatively restricted transgene...

  13. In vitro cultured progenitors and precursors of cardiac cell lineages from human normal and post-ischemic hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Di Meglio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The demonstration of the presence of dividing primitive cells in damaged hearts has sparked increased interest about myocardium regenerative processes. We examined the rate and the differentiation of in vitro cultured resident cardiac primitive cells obtained from pathological and normal human hearts in order to evaluate the activation of progenitors and precursors of cardiac cell lineages in post-ischemic human hearts. The precursors and progenitors of cardiomyocyte, smooth muscle and endothelial lineage were identified by immunocytochemistry and the expression of characteristic markers was studied by western blot and RT-PCR. The amount of proteins characteristic for cardiac cells (a-SA and MHC, VEGFR-2 and FVIII, SMA for the precursors of cardiomyocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells, respectively inclines toward an increase in both a-SA and MHC. The increased levels of FVIII and VEGFR2 are statistically significant, suggesting an important re-activation of neoangiogenesis. At the same time, the augmented expression of mRNA for Nkx 2.5, the trascriptional factor for cardiomyocyte differentiation, confirms the persistence of differentiative processes in terminally injured hearts. Our study would appear to confirm the activation of human heart regeneration potential in pathological conditions and the ability of its primitive cells to maintain their proliferative capability in vitro. The cardiac cell isolation method we used could be useful in the future for studying modifications to the microenvironment that positively influence cardiac primitive cell differentiation or inhibit, or retard, the pathological remodeling and functional degradation of the heart.

  14. Isolation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Progenitors by Cell Sorting for Successful Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can provide a promising source of midbrain dopaminergic (DA neurons for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson’s disease. However, iPSC-derived donor cells inevitably contain tumorigenic or inappropriate cells. Here, we show that human iPSC-derived DA progenitor cells can be efficiently isolated by cell sorting using a floor plate marker, CORIN. We induced DA neurons using scalable culture conditions on human laminin fragment, and the sorted CORIN+ cells expressed the midbrain DA progenitor markers, FOXA2 and LMX1A. When transplanted into 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, the CORIN+ cells survived and differentiated into midbrain DA neurons in vivo, resulting in significant improvement of the motor behavior, without tumor formation. In particular, the CORIN+ cells in a NURR1+ cell-dominant stage exhibited the best survival and function as DA neurons. Our method is a favorable strategy in terms of scalability, safety, and efficiency and may be advantageous for clinical application.

  15. Isolation and cellular properties of mesenchymal cells derived from the decidua of human term placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanematsu, Daisuke; Shofuda, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Atsuyo; Ban, Chiaki; Ueda, Takafumi; Yamasaki, Mami; Kanemura, Yonehiro

    2011-09-01

    The clinical promise of cell-based therapies is generally recognized, and has driven an intense search for good cell sources. In this study, we isolated plastic-adherent cells from human term decidua vera, called decidua-derived-mesenchymal cells (DMCs), and compared their properties with those of bone marrow-derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs). The DMCs strongly expressed the mesenchymal cell marker vimentin, but not cytokeratin 19 or HLA-G, and had a high proliferative potential. That is, they exhibited a typical fibroblast-like morphology for over 30 population doublings. Cells phenotypically identical to the DMCs were identified in the decidua vera, and genotyping confirmed that the DMCs were derived from the maternal components of the fetal adnexa. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the expression pattern of CD antigens on the DMCs was almost identical to that on BM-MSCs, but some DMCs expressed the CD45 antigen, and over 50% of them also expressed anti-fibroblast antigen. In vitro, the DMCs showed good differentiation into chondrocytes and moderate differentiation into adipocytes, but scant evidence of osteogenesis, compared with the BM-MSCs. Gene expression analysis showed that, compared with BM-MSCs, the DMCs expressed higher levels of TWIST2 and RUNX2 (which are associated with early mesenchymal development and/or proliferative capacity), several matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1, 3, 10, and 12), and cytokines (BMP2 and TGFB2), and lower levels of MSX2, interleukin 26, and HGF. Although DMCs did not show the full multipotency of BM-MSCs, their higher proliferative ability indicates that their cultivation would require less maintenance. Furthermore, the use of DMCs avoids the ethical concerns associated with the use of embryonic tissues, because they are derived from the maternal portion of the placenta, which is otherwise discarded. Thus, the unique properties of DMCs give them several advantages for clinical use, making them an interesting and

  16. Growth factor combination for chondrogenic induction from human mesenchymal stem cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indrawattana, Nitaya; Chen Guoping; Tadokoro, Mika; Shann, Linzi H.; Ohgushi, Hajime; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Junzo; Bunyaratvej, Ahnond

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, many strategies for cartilage engineering have been emerging. Stem cell induction is one of the possible approaches for cartilage engineering. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with their pluripotency and availability have been demonstrated to be an attractive cell source. It needs the stimulation with cell growth factors to make the multipluripotent MSCs differentiate into chondrogenic lineage. We have shown particular patterns of in vitro chondrogenesis induction on human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs) by cycling the growth factors. The pellet cultures of hBMSCs were prepared for chondrogenic induction. Growth factors: TGF-β3, BMP-6, and IGF-1 were used in combination for cell induction. Gene expression, histology, immunohistology, and real-time PCR methods were measured on days 21 after cell induction. As shown by histology and immunohistology, the induced cells have shown the feature of chondrocytes in their morphology and extracellular matrix in both inducing patterns of combination and cycling induction. Moreover, the real-time PCR assay has shown the expression of gene markers of chondrogenesis, collagen type II and aggrecan. This study has demonstrated that cartilage tissue can be created from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, the combined growth factors TGF-β3 and BMP-6 or TGF-β3 and IGF-1 were more effective for chondrogenesis induction as shown by the real-time PCR assay. The combination of these growth factors may be the important key for in vitro chondrogenesis induction

  17. Usage of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Cell-based Therapy: Advantages and Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2017-03-01

    The use of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell-based therapy has attracted extensive interest in the field of regenerative medicine, and it shows applications to numerous incurable diseases. hMSCs show several superior properties for therapeutic use compared to other types of stem cells. Different cell types are discussed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages, with focus on the characteristics of hMSCs. hMSCs can proliferate readily and produce differentiated cells that can substitute for the targeted affected tissue. To maximize the therapeutic effects of hMSCs, a substantial number of these cells are essential, requiring extensive ex vivo cell expansion. However, hMSCs have a limited lifespan in an in vitro culture condition. The senescence of hMSCs is a double-edged sword from the viewpoint of clinical applications. Although their limited cell proliferation potency protects them from malignant transformation after transplantation, senescence can alter various cell functions including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, that are essential for their therapeutic efficacy. Numerous trials to overcome the limited lifespan of mesenchymal stem cells are discussed.

  18. Prospective Isolation of Murine and Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Based on Surface Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yo Mabuchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are currently defined as multipotent stromal cells that undergo sustained in vitro growth and can give rise to cells of multiple mesenchymal lineages, such as adipocytes, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts. The regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of MSCs have led to numerous clinical trials exploring their utility for the treatment of a variety of diseases (e.g., acute graft-versus-host disease, Crohn’s disease, multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, and cardiovascular diseases including heart failure and myocardial infarction. On the other hand, conventionally cultured MSCs reflect heterogeneous populations that often contain contaminating cells due to the significant variability in isolation methods and the lack of specific MSC markers. This review article focuses on recent developments in the MSC research field, with a special emphasis on the identification of novel surface markers for the in vivo localization and prospective isolation of murine and human MSCs. Furthermore, we discuss the physiological importance of MSC subtypes in vivo with specific reference to data supporting their contribution to HSC niche homeostasis. The isolation of MSCs using selective markers (combination of PDGFRα and Sca-1 is crucial to address the many unanswered questions pertaining to these cells and has the potential to enhance their therapeutic potential enormously.

  19. TiO2-enriched polymeric powder coatings support human mesenchymal cell spreading and osteogenic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozumder, Mohammad Sayem; Zhu, Jesse; Perinpanayagam, Hiran

    2011-01-01

    Novel polymeric powder coatings (PPC) were prepared by ultrafine powder coating technology and shown to support human mesenchymal cell attachment and growth. PPC surfaces enriched with nano-TiO 2 (nTiO 2 ) showed enhanced cellular responses, and were compared to commercially pure titanium (cpTi). After cell attachment and growth, osteogenic differentiation and bone matrix formation ensures osseointegration for implantable biomaterials. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if mesenchymal cells grown on PPC could undergo osteogenic differentiation by inducing Runx2 and bone matrix proteins, and then initiate mineralization. Atomic force microscopy revealed intricate three-dimensional micro-topographies, and the measures of nano-roughness and porosity were similar for all PPC surfaces. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the cells attached and spread out over all of the surfaces. After 1 week in osteogenic media, RT-PCR analysis showed the induction of Runx2, the up-regulation of type I collagen, and the initial detection of alkaline phosphatase and bone sialoprotein. After 4 weeks, Alizarin Red staining showed mineral deposition. However, cell spreading and osteogenic differentiation were significantly (P 2 additives may enhance their performance.

  20. Acquiring Chondrocyte Phenotype from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Inflammatory Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kondo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An inflammatory milieu breaks down the cartilage matrix and induces chondrocyte apoptosis, resulting in cartilage destruction in patients with cartilage degenerative diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis. Because of the limited regenerative ability of chondrocytes, defects in cartilage are irreversible and difficult to repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are expected to be a new tool for cartilage repair because they are present in the cartilage and are able to differentiate into multiple lineages of cells, including chondrocytes. Although clinical trials using MSCs for patients with cartilage defects have already begun, its efficacy and repair mechanisms remain unknown. A PubMed search conducted in October 2014 using the following medical subject headings (MeSH terms: mesenchymal stromal cells, chondrogenesis, and cytokines resulted in 204 articles. The titles and abstracts were screened and nine articles relevant to “inflammatory” cytokines and “human” MSCs were identified. Herein, we review the cell biology and mechanisms of chondrocyte phenotype acquisition from human MSCs in an inflammatory milieu and discuss the clinical potential of MSCs for cartilage repair.

  1. MUC-1-ESA+ progenitor cells in normal benign and malignant human breast epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xinquan; Li, Huixiang; Xu, Kejia; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2009-01-01

    The existence of mammary epithelial stem/progenitor cells has been demonstrated in MUC-1-/ ESA+ subpopulations of breast epithelial cells. However, knowledge about the expression and localization in benign and malignant breast lesions is unknown. Using a double-staining immunohistochemistry method, we investigated MUC-1-/ESA+ cells in 10 normal breast tissues, 49 cases with fibrocystic disease, 40 fibroadenomas, 36 invasive ductal carcinomas and the breast cancer ce...

  2. The Use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the Treatment of Autoimmunity: From Animals Models to Human Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierabracci, Alessandra; Del Fattore, Andrea; Muraca, Marta; Delfino, Domenico Vittorio; Muraca, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent progenitors able to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. These cells also exhibit remarkable immune regulatory properties, which stimulated both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies to unravel the underlying mechanisms as well as extensive clinical applications. Here, we describe the effects of MSCs on immune cells and their application in animal models as well as in clinical trials of autoimmune diseases. It should be pointed out that, while the number of clinical applications is increasing steadily, results should be interpreted with caution, in order to avoid rising false expectations. Major issues conditioning clinical application are the heterogeneity of MSCs and their unpredictable behavior following therapeutic administration. However, increasing knowledge on the interaction between exogenous cell and host tissue, as well as some encouraging clinical observations suggest that the therapeutic applications of MSCs will be further expanded on firmer grounds in the near future.

  3. Pluripotent cell models of fanconi anemia identify the early pathological defect in human hemoangiogenic progenitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Naoya M; Niwa, Akira; Yabe, Miharu; Hira, Asuka; Okada, Chihiro; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Watanabe, Ken-Ichiro; Heike, Toshio; Takata, Minoru; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Saito, Megumu K

    2015-04-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a disorder of genomic instability characterized by progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), developmental abnormalities, and an increased susceptibility to cancer. Although various consequences in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells have been attributed to FA-BMF, the quest to identify the initial pathological event is still ongoing. To address this issue, we established induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of six patients with FA and FANCA mutations. An improved reprogramming method yielded iPSC-like colonies from all patients, and iPSC clones were propagated from two patients. Quantitative evaluation of the differentiation ability demonstrated that the differentiation propensity toward the hematopoietic and endothelial lineages is already defective in early hemoangiogenic progenitors. The expression levels of critical transcription factors were significantly downregulated in these progenitors. These data indicate that the hematopoietic consequences in FA patients originate from the early hematopoietic stage and highlight the potential usefulness of iPSC technology for elucidating the pathogenesis of FA-BMF. ©AlphaMed Press.

  4. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafiee, Abbas [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology (QUT), Brisbane, QLD (Australia); Seyedjafari, Ehsan [Department of Biotechnology, College of Science, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dinarvand, Peyman [Stem Cell biology and Tissue Engineering Departments, Stem Cell Technology Research Center, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); The Edward A. Doisy Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Saint Louis University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO (United States); Soleimani, Masoud [Hematology Department, Faculty of Medical Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ai, Jafar, E-mail: jafar_ai@tums.ac.ir [Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, Imam Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers.

  5. Enhanced chondrogenesis of human nasal septum derived progenitors on nanofibrous scaffolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Abbas; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Sadat Taherzadeh, Elham; Dinarvand, Peyman; Soleimani, Masoud; Ai, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Topographical cues can be exploited to regulate stem cell attachment, proliferation, differentiation and function in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to investigate the influence of different nanofibrous topographies on the chondrogenic differentiation potential of nasal septum derived progenitors (NSP) in vitro. Aligned and randomly oriented Ploy (L-lactide) (PLLA)/Polycaprolactone (PCL) hybrid scaffolds were fabricated via electrospinning. First, scaffolds were fully characterized, and then NSP were seeded on them to study their capacity to support stem cell attachment, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Compared to randomly oriented nanofibers, aligned scaffolds showed a high degree of nanofiber alignment with much better tensile strength properties. Both scaffolds supported NSP adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. Despite the higher rate of cell proliferation on random scaffolds, a better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers as deduced from higher expression of chondrogenic markers such as collagen type II and aggrecan on aligned scaffolds. These findings demonstrate that electrospun constructs maintain NSP proliferation and differentiation, and that the aligned nanofibrous scaffolds can significantly enhance chondrogenic differentiation of nasal septum derived progenitors. - Highlights: • Electrospun nanofiber scaffolds with different topographies were fabricated. • Aligned nanofiber scaffolds had better tensile strength properties. • Nasal septum derived progenitors were cultured on nanofibrous scaffolds. • Both topographies support proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation. • Better chondrogenic differentiation was observed on aligned nanofibers

  6. Combinatorial programming of human neuronal progenitors using magnetically-guided stoichiometric mRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Sayyed M; Sheridan, Steven D; Ghannad-Rezaie, Mostafa; Eimon, Peter M; Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    2018-05-01

    Identification of optimal transcription-factor expression patterns to direct cellular differentiation along a desired pathway presents significant challenges. We demonstrate massively combinatorial screening of temporally-varying mRNA transcription factors to direct differentiation of neural progenitor cells using a dynamically-reconfigurable magnetically-guided spotting technology for localizing mRNA, enabling experiments on millimetre size spots. In addition, we present a time-interleaved delivery method that dramatically reduces fluctuations in the delivered transcription-factor copy-numbers per cell. We screened combinatorial and temporal delivery of a pool of midbrain-specific transcription factors to augment the generation of dopaminergic neurons. We show that the combinatorial delivery of LMX1A, FOXA2 and PITX3 is highly effective in generating dopaminergic neurons from midbrain progenitors. We show that LMX1A significantly increases TH -expression levels when delivered to neural progenitor cells either during proliferation or after induction of neural differentiation, while FOXA2 and PITX3 increase expression only when delivered prior to induction, demonstrating temporal dependence of factor addition. © 2018, Azimi et al.

  7. Serial in vivo imaging of the porcine heart after percutaneous, intramyocardially injected 111In-labeled human mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbaek, Stig; Ripa, Rasmus S; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana

    2010-01-01

    This pilot trial aimed to investigate the utilization of (111)In-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for in vivo tracking after intramyocardial transplantation in a xenotransplantation model with gender mismatched cells. Human male MSC were expanded ex vivo and labeled with (111)In...

  8. Serial in vivo imaging of the porcine heart after percutaneous, intramyocardially injected (111)In-labeled human mesenchymal stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbæk, Stig; Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana

    2009-01-01

    This pilot trial aimed to investigate the utilization of (111)In-labeling of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) for in vivo tracking after intramyocardial transplantation in a xenotransplantation model with gender mismatched cells. Human male MSC were expanded ex vivo and labeled with (111)In...

  9. UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants promote differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, María; Ramis, Joana M; Monjo, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are essential for bone regeneration and mineral homeostasis. The vitamin D precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol can be used after UV irradiation to locally produce active vitamin D by osteoblastic cells. Furthermore, UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol is a biocompatible coating for titanium implants with positive effects on osteoblast differentiation. In this study, we examined the impact of titanium implants surfaces coated with UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol on the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells. First, the synthesis of cholecalciferol (D3) was achieved through the incubation of the UV-activated 7-dehydrocholesterol coating for 48 h at 23℃. Further, we investigated in vitro the biocompatibility of this coating in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells and its potential to enhance their differentiation towards the osteogenic lineage. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured onto UV-irradiated 7-dehydrocholesterol-coated titanium implants surfaces, combined with osteogenic supplements, upregulated the gene expression of several osteogenic markers and showed higher alkaline phosphatase activity and calcein blue staining, suggesting increased mineralization. Thus, our results show that the use of UV irradiation on 7-dehydrocholesterol -treated titanium implants surfaces generates a bioactive coating that promotes the osteogenic differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, with regenerative potential for improving osseointegration in titanium-based bone anchored implants. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Human mesenchymal stem cells alter macrophage phenotype and promote regeneration via homing to the kidney following ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, Andrea F; Williams, Timothy M; Kiewiet, Mensiena B G; Payne, Natalie L; Siatskas, Christopher; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate injury and accelerate repair in many organs, including the kidney, although the reparative mechanisms and interaction with macrophages have not been elucidated. This study investigated the reparative potential of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and traced

  11. Investigating the role of the extracellular matrix on differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells and MC3T3 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandes, H.A.M.; Dechering, Koen; Someren, Eugene; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; de Boer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are a promising cell source for bone tissue engineering, but due to their limited number and donor variation, other cell types are used to answer relevant questions in bone tissue engineering. Since the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex entity with

  12. Influence of oxygen in the cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells in simulated microgravity: an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versari, S.; Klein-Nulend, J.; van Loon, J.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) in standard laboratory incubators alter their proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies on the stem cell (SC) niches and the influence of oxygen on SC

  13. Influence of Oxygen in the Cultivation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Simulated Microgravity: An Explorative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versari, S.; Klein-Nulend, J.; van Loon, J.J.W.A.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (AT-MSCs) cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) in standard laboratory incubators alter their proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies on the stem cell (SC) niches and the influence of oxygen on SC

  14. Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Dispersed DLC/PDMS Substrates and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture(Researches)

    OpenAIRE

    伴, 雅人; Masahito, Ban

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) dispersed DLC (diamond-like carbon) thin film deposited PDMS substrates were fabricated with plasma treatments and dip coating methods. It was found from cell culture tests using the substrates as scaffolds human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) indicated larger F-actin areas compared with the substrates without GO and/or DLC.

  15. A traditional Chinese medicine formula extracts stimulate proliferation and inhibit mineralization of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Muwan; Feng, Wenzhou; Cao, Hui

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula extract, named as ZD-I, on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: When hMSCs cultivated in the basal medium with ZD-I, cell...

  16. Direct Cell-Cell Contact between Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells Induces a Pericyte-Like Phenotype In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Loibl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering techniques for the regeneration of large bone defects require sufficient vascularisation of the applied constructs to ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients. In our previous work, prevascularised 3D scaffolds have been successfully established by coculture of bone marrow derived stem cells (MSCs and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. We identified stabilising pericytes (PCs as part of newly formed capillary-like structures. In the present study, we report preliminary data on the interactions between MSCs and EPCs, leading to the differentiation of pericyte-like cells. MSCs and EPCs were seeded in transwell cultures, direct cocultures, and single cultures. Cells were cultured for 10 days in IMDM 10% FCS or IMDM 5% FCS 5% platelet lysate medium. Gene expression of PC markers, CD146, NG2, αSMA, and PDGFR-β, was analysed using RT-PCR at days 0, 3, 7, and 10. The upregulation of CD146, NG2, and αSMA in MSCs in direct coculture with EPCs advocates the MSCs’ differentiation towards a pericyte-like phenotype in vitro. These results suggest that pericyte-like cells derive from MSCs and that cell-cell contact with EPCs is an important factor for this differentiation process. These findings emphasise the concept of coculture strategies to promote angiogenesis for cell-based tissue engineered bone grafts.

  17. Decellularized Matrix from Tumorigenic Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promotes Neovascularization with Galectin-1 Dependent Endothelial Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jorge S.; Kristiansen, Malthe; Kristensen, Lars P.; Larsen, Kenneth H.; Nielsen, Maria O.; Christiansen, Helle; Nehlin, Jan; Andersen, Jens S.; Kassem, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquisition of a blood supply is fundamental for extensive tumor growth. We recently described vascular heterogeneity in tumours derived from cell clones of a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) strain (hMSC-TERT20) immortalized by retroviral vector mediated human telomerase (hTERT) gene expression. Histological analysis showed that cells of the most vascularized tumorigenic clone, -BD11 had a pericyte-like alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA+) and CD146+ positive phenotype. Upon serum withdrawal in culture, -BD11 cells formed cord-like structures mimicking capillary morphogenesis. In contrast, cells of the poorly tumorigenic clone, -BC8 did not stain for ASMA, tumours were less vascularized and serum withdrawal in culture led to cell death. By exploring the heterogeneity in hMSC-TERT20 clones we aimed to understand molecular mechanisms by which mesenchymal stem cells may promote neovascularization. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative qRT-PCR analysis revealed similar mRNA levels for genes encoding the angiogenic cytokines VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 in both clones. However, clone-BD11 produced a denser extracellular matrix that supported stable ex vivo capillary morphogenesis of human endothelial cells and promoted in vivo neovascularization. Proteomic characterization of the -BD11 decellularized matrix identified 50 extracellular angiogenic proteins, including galectin-1. siRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression abrogated the ex vivo interaction between decellularized -BD11 matrix and endothelial cells. More stable shRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression did not prevent -BD11 tumorigenesis, but greatly reduced endothelial migration into -BD11 cell xenografts. Conclusions Decellularized hMSC matrix had significant angiogenic potential with at least 50 angiogenic cell surface and extracellular proteins, implicated in attracting endothelial cells, their adhesion and activation to form tubular structures. hMSC -BD11 surface galectin-1 expression was

  18. Transcriptional profiling of MEF2-regulated genes in human neural progenitor cells derived from embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shing Fai Chan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2 family of transcription factors is highly expressed in the brain and constitutes a key determinant of neuronal survival, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. However, genome-wide transcriptional profiling of MEF2-regulated genes has not yet been fully elucidated, particularly at the neural stem cell stage. Here we report the results of microarray analysis comparing mRNAs isolated from human neural progenitor/stem cells (hNPCs derived from embryonic stem cells expressing a control vector versus progenitors expressing a constitutively-active form of MEF2 (MEF2CA, which increases MEF2 activity. Microarray experiments were performed using the Illumina Human HT-12 V4.0 expression beadchip (GEO#: GSE57184. By comparing vector-control cells to MEF2CA cells, microarray analysis identified 1880 unique genes that were differentially expressed. Among these genes, 1121 genes were up-regulated and 759 genes were down-regulated. Our results provide a valuable resource for identifying transcriptional targets of MEF2 in hNPCs.

  19. Mesenchymal stromal cells improve human islet function through released products and extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzouni, Ahmed A; Vargas-Seymour, Andreia; Rackham, Chloe L; Dhadda, Paramjeet; Huang, Guo-Cai; Choudhary, Pratik; Nardi, Nance; King, Aileen J F; Jones, Peter M

    2017-12-01

    The aims of the present study were (i) to determine whether the reported beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on mouse islet function extend to clinically relevant human tissues (islets and MSCs), enabling translation into improved protocols for clinical human islet transplantation; and (ii) to identify possible mechanisms through which human MSCs influence human islet function. Human islets were co-cultured with human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hASCs) or pre-treated with its products - extracellular matrix (ECM) and annexin A1 (ANXA1). Mouse islets were pre-treated with mouse MSC-derived ECM. Islet insulin secretory function was assessed in vitro by radioimmunoassay. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to screen human adipMSCs for potential ligands of human islet G-protein-coupled receptors. We show that co-culture with hASCs improves human islet secretory function in vitro , as measured by glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, confirming previous reports using rodent tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these beneficial effects on islet function can be partly attributed to the MSC-derived products ECM and ANXA1. Our results suggest that hASCs have the potential to improve the quality of human islets isolated for transplantation therapy of Type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, it may be possible to achieve improvements in human islet quality in a cell-free culture system by using the MSC-derived products ANXA1 and ECM. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) enhances MAP2 + and HUC/D + neurons and influences neurite extension during differentiation of neural progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (L1F), a member of the Interleukin 6 cytokine family, has a role in differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor (hNP) cells in vitro. hNP cells, derived from Human Embryonic Stem (hES) cells, have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in monolayer cultu...

  1. Growth Factor-Activated Stem Cell Circuits and Stromal Signals Cooperatively Accelerate Non-Integrated iPSC Reprogramming of Human Myeloid Progenitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tea Soon; Huo, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Ann; Talbot, C. Conover; Verma, Karan; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Kaplan, Ian M.; Zambidis, Elias T.

    2012-01-01

    Nonviral conversion of skin or blood cells into clinically useful human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) occurs in only rare fractions (∼0.001%–0.5%) of donor cells transfected with non-integrating reprogramming factors. Pluripotency induction of developmentally immature stem-progenitors is generally more efficient than differentiated somatic cell targets. However, the nature of augmented progenitor reprogramming remains obscure, and its potential has not been fully explored for improving the extremely slow pace of non-integrated reprogramming. Here, we report highly optimized four-factor reprogramming of lineage-committed cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors with bulk efficiencies of ∼50% in purified episome-expressing cells. Lineage-committed CD33+CD45+CD34− myeloid cells and not primitive hematopoietic stem-progenitors were the main targets of a rapid and nearly complete non-integrated reprogramming. The efficient conversion of mature myeloid populations into NANOG+TRA-1-81+ hiPSC was mediated by synergies between hematopoietic growth factor (GF), stromal activation signals, and episomal Yamanaka factor expression. Using a modular bioinformatics approach, we demonstrated that efficient myeloid reprogramming correlated not to increased proliferation or endogenous Core factor expressions, but to poised expression of GF-activated transcriptional circuits that commonly regulate plasticity in both hematopoietic progenitors and embryonic stem cells (ESC). Factor-driven conversion of myeloid progenitors to a high-fidelity pluripotent state was further accelerated by soluble and contact-dependent stromal signals that included an implied and unexpected role for Toll receptor-NFκB signaling. These data provide a paradigm for understanding the augmented reprogramming capacity of somatic progenitors, and reveal that efficient induced pluripotency in other cell types may also require extrinsic activation of a molecular framework that commonly regulates self

  2. Characterization of progenitor cells derived from torn human rotator cuff tendons by gene expression patterns of chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagura, Issei; Kokubu, Takeshi; Mifune, Yutaka; Inui, Atsuyuki; Takase, Fumiaki; Ueda, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Takeshi; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2016-03-31

    It is important to regenerate the tendon-to-bone interface after rotator cuff repair to prevent re-tears. The cells from torn human rotator cuff were targeted, and their capacity for multilineage differentiation was investigated. The edges of the rotator cuff were harvested during arthroscopic rotator cuff repair from nine patients, minced into pieces, and cultured on dishes. Adherent cells were cultured, phenotypically characterized. Then expandability, differentiation potential and gene expression were analyzed. Flow cytometry revealed that the mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)-related markers CD29, CD44, CD105, and CD166 were positive. However, CD14, CD34, and CD45 were negative. On RT-PCR analyses, the cells showed osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic potential after 3 weeks of culture under the respective differentiation conditions. In addition, SOX9, type II collagen, and type X collagen expression patterns during chondrogenesis were similar to those of endochondral ossification at the enthesis. The cells derived from torn human rotator cuff are multipotent mesenchymal stem cells with the ability to undergo multilineage differentiation, suggesting that MSCs form this tissue could be regenerative capacity for potential self-repair.

  3. Reactive Oxygen Species Are Required for Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Initiate Proliferation after the Quiescence Exit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Lyublinskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the process of mesenchymal stem cells “waking up” and entering the cell cycle after the quiescence. Using human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs, we showed that intracellular basal ROS level is positively correlated with the proliferative status of the cell cultures. Our experiments with the eMSCs synchronized in the G0 phase of the cell cycle revealed a transient increase in the ROS level upon the quiescence exit after stimulation of the cell proliferation. This increase was registered before the eMSC entry to the S-phase of the cell cycle, and elimination of this increase by antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine, Tempol, and Resveratrol blocked G1–S-phase transition. Similarly, a cell cycle arrest which resulted from the antioxidant treatment was observed in the experiments with synchronized human mesenchymal stem cells derived from the adipose tissue. Thus, we showed that physiologically relevant level of ROS is required for the initiation of human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and that low levels of ROS due to the antioxidant treatment can block the stem cell self-renewal.

  4. Comparison of different culture conditions for human mesenchymal stromal cells for clinical stem cell therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haack-Sorensen, M.; Friis, T.; Bindslev, L.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from adult bone marrow (BM) are considered potential candidates for therapeutic neovascularization in cardiovascular disease. When implementing results from animal trials in clinical treatment, it is essential to isolate and expand the MSCs under...... conditions following good manufacturing practice (GMP). The aims of the study were first to establish culture conditions following GMP quality demands for human MSC expansion and differentiation for use in clinical trials, and second to compare these MSCs with MSCs derived from culture in four media commonly...... analysis showed that the plastic-adherent MSCs cultured in EMEA medium or in the other four media were identically negative for the haematopoietic surface markers CD45 and CD34 and positive for CD105, CD73, CD90, CD166 and CD13, which in combined expression is characteristic of MSCs. MSC stimulation...

  5. [Advance on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of ALI in severe burns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Hu, Xiaohong

    2017-01-01

    Severe burn is often accompanied by multiple organ damage. Acute lung injury (ALI) is one of the most common complications, and often occurs in the early stage of severe burns. If it is not treated in time, it will progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which will be a serious threat to the lives of patients. At present, the treatment of ALI in patients with severe burn is still remained in some common ways, such as the liquid resuscitation, the primary wound treatment, ventilation support, and anti-infection. In recently, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) have been found having some good effects on ALI caused by various causes, but few reports on the efficacy of ALI caused by severe burns were reported. By reviewing the mechanism of stem cell therapy for ALI, therapeutic potential of hUCMSCs in the treatment of severe burns with ALI and a new approach for clinical treatment was provided.

  6. Development of novel monoclonal antibodies that define differentiation stages of human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ditte Caroline; Kortesidis, Angela; Zannettino, Andrew C W

    2011-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) are currently being introduced for cell therapy, yet, antibodies specific for native and differentiated MSCs are required for their identification prior to clinical use. Herein, high quality antibodies against MSC surface proteins were developed by immunizing...... fewer differentiated alkaline phosphatase(+) cells compared to STRO-1(+/-)/Collagen VI(+) hMSC, suggesting that Collagen VI on the cell membrane exclusively defines differentiated MSCs. In conclusion, we have generated a panel of high quality antibodies to be used for characterization of MSCs...... mice with hMSC, and by using a panel of subsequent screening methods. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that 83.5, 1.1, and 8.5% of primary cultures of hMSC were double positive for STRO-1 and either of DJ 3, 9, and 18, respectively. However, none of the three DJ antibodies allowed enrichment...

  7. The control of human mesenchymal cell differentiation using nanoscale symmetry and disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Matthew J.; Gadegaard, Nikolaj; Tare, Rahul; Andar, Abhay; Riehle, Mathis O.; Herzyk, Pawel; Wilkinson, Chris D. W.; Oreffo, Richard O. C.

    2007-12-01

    A key tenet of bone tissue engineering is the development of scaffold materials that can stimulate stem cell differentiation in the absence of chemical treatment to become osteoblasts without compromising material properties. At present, conventional implant materials fail owing to encapsulation by soft tissue, rather than direct bone bonding. Here, we demonstrate the use of nanoscale disorder to stimulate human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to produce bone mineral in vitro, in the absence of osteogenic supplements. This approach has similar efficiency to that of cells cultured with osteogenic media. In addition, the current studies show that topographically treated MSCs have a distinct differentiation profile compared with those treated with osteogenic media, which has implications for cell therapies.

  8. Flow perfusion culture of human mesenchymal stem cells on silicate-substituted tricalcium phosphate scaffolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lea; Bünger, Cody E; Kassem, Moustapha

    2008-01-01

    Autologous bone grafts are currently the gold standard for treatment of large bone defects, but their availability is limited due to donor site morbidity. Different substitutes have been suggested to replace these grafts, and this study presents a bone tissue engineered alternative using silicate......-substituted tricalcium phosphate (Si-TCP) scaffolds seeded with human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). The cells were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultured either statically or in a perfusion bioreactor for up to 21 days and assessed for osteogenic differentiation by alkaline phosphatase activity...... assays and by quantitative real-time RT-PCR on bone markers. During culture, cells from the flow cultured constructs demonstrated improved proliferation and osteogenic differentiation verified by a more pronounced expression of several bone markers, e.g. alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, Runx2, bone...

  9. Induction of adipocyte-like phenotype in human mesenchymal stem cells by hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Trine; Abildtrup, Lisbeth Ann; Fogd, Kirsten

    2004-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have the capacity to differentiate along several pathways to form bone, cartilage, tendon, muscle, and adipose tissues. The adult hMSCs reside in vivo in the bone marrow in niches where oxygen concentration is far below the ambient air, which is the most...... commonly encountered laboratory condition. The study reported here was designed to determine whether oxygen has a role in the differentiation of hMSCs into adipocytes. Indeed, when exposed to atmosphere containing only 1% of oxygen, the formation of adipocyte-like phenotype with cytoplasmic lipid....... High level of induction, however, was observed with the PPAR-gamma-induced angiopoietin-related gene, PGAR. The lack of an adipocyte-specific transcription pattern thus indicates that despite accumulation of the lipid, true adipogenic differentiation did not take place. In conclusion, hypoxia appears...

  10. Taurine Promotes the Cartilaginous Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiuhua; Huang, Huiling; Li, Zhou; Liu, Xiaohua; Fan, Weijia; Wang, Xinping; Sun, Xuelian; Zhu, Jianmin; Zhou, Hongrui; Wei, Huaying

    2017-08-01

    Taurine has been reported to influence osteogenic differentiation, but the role of taurine on cartilaginous differentiation using human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine (0, 1, 5 and 10 mM) on the proliferation and chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs by analyzing cell proliferation, accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and expression of cartilage specific mRNA. The results show though taurine did not affected the proliferation of hUC-MSCs, 5 mM of taurine is sufficient to enhanced the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans and up-regulate cartilage specific mRNA expression, namely collagen type II, aggrecan and SOX9. Taurine also inhibits chondrocyte dedifferentiation by reducing expression of collagen type I mRNA. Taken together, our study reveals that taurine promotes and maintains the chondrogenesis of hUC-MSCs.

  11. Transplanted Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Facilitate Lesion Repair in B6.Fas Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-ping Ruan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a multisystem disease that is characterized by the appearance of serum autoantibodies. No effective treatment for SLE currently exists. Methods. We used human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (H-UC-MSC transplantation to treat B6.Fas mice. Results. After four rounds of cell transplantation, we observed a statistically significant decrease in the levels of mouse anti-nuclear, anti-histone, and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies in transplanted mice compared with controls. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in mouse peripheral blood significantly increased after H-UC-MSC transplantation. Conclusions. The results showed that H-UC-MSCs could repair lesions in B6.Fas mice such that all of the relevant disease indicators in B6.Fas mice were restored to the levels observed in normal C57BL/6 mice.

  12. Manufacturing human mesenchymal stem cells at clinical scale: process and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jossen, Valentin; van den Bos, Christian; Eibl, Regine; Eibl, Dieter

    2018-05-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-based therapies are of increasing interest in the field of regenerative medicine. As economic considerations have shown, allogeneic therapy seems to be the most cost-effective method. Standardized procedures based on instrumented single-use bioreactors have been shown to provide billion of cells with consistent product quality and to be superior to traditional expansions in planar cultivation systems. Furthermore, under consideration of the complex nature and requirements of allogeneic hMSC-therapeutics, a new equipment for downstream processing (DSP) was successfully evaluated. This mini-review summarizes both the current state of the hMSC production process and the challenges which have to be taken into account when efficiently producing hMSCs for the clinical scale. Special emphasis is placed on the upstream processing (USP) and DSP operations which cover expansion, harvesting, detachment, separation, washing and concentration steps, and the regulatory demands.

  13. Low physiologic oxygen tensions reduce proliferation and differentiation of human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handgretinger Rupert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC can be isolated from various tissues including bone marrow. Here, MSC participate as bone lining cells in the formation of the hematopoietic stem cell niche. In this compartment, the oxygen tension is low and oxygen partial pressure is estimated to range from 1% to 7%. We analyzed the effect of low oxygen tensions on human MSC cultured with platelet-lysate supplemented media and assessed proliferation, morphology, chromosomal stability, immunophenotype and plasticity. Results After transferring MSC from atmospheric oxygen levels of 21% to 1%, HIF-1α expression was induced, indicating efficient oxygen reduction. Simultaneously, MSC exhibited a significantly different morphology with shorter extensions and broader cell bodies. MSC did not proliferate as rapidly as under 21% oxygen and accumulated in G1 phase. The immunophenotype, however, was unaffected. Hypoxic stress as well as free oxygen radicals may affect chromosomal stability. However, no chromosomal abnormalities in human MSC under either culture condition were detected using high-resolution matrix-based comparative genomic hybridization. Reduced oxygen tension severely impaired adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human MSC. Elevation of oxygen from 1% to 3% restored osteogenic differentiation. Conclusion Physiologic oxygen tension during in vitro culture of human MSC slows down cell cycle progression and differentiation. Under physiological conditions this may keep a proportion of MSC in a resting state. Further studies are needed to analyze these aspects of MSC in tissue regeneration.

  14. A potential pro-anagogic cell therapy with human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishishita, Toshihide; Ouchi, Kunie; Zhang, Xiaohong; Inoue, Mariko; Inazawa, Takeshi; Yoshiura, Kenta; Kuwabara, Koichiro; Nakaoka, Takashi; Watanabe, Nobukazu; Igura, Koichi; Takahashi, Tsuneo A.; Yamashita, Naohide

    2004-01-01

    Recently several strategies to treat ischemic diseases have been proposed but the ideal way has to be determined. We explored whether human placenta-derived mesenchymal cells (hPDMCs) can be used for this purpose because placenta is very rich in vessels. First, production of human vascular endothelial growth factor (hVEGF) from hPDMCs was examined. The amount of hVEGF secreted by hPDMCs was similar to the amount produced by HeLa cells. hVEGF was barely detected in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) or human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. hVEGF secreted from hPDMCs stimulated the proliferation of hUVECs, indicating its biological activity. Transplantation of hPDMCs to the ischemic limbs of NOD/Shi-scid mice significantly improved the blood flow of the affected limbs. Blood vessel formation was more prominently observed in the limbs of treated mice as compared to the control mice. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that hPDMCs produced hVEGF for at least 7 days after transplantation. Thus, transplantation of hPDMCs could potentially be a promising treatment for human ischemic diseases

  15. Osteogenic response of human mesenchymal stem cells to well-defined nanoscale topography in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Peppo GM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Maria de Peppo,1–3 Hossein Agheli,2,3 Camilla Karlsson,2,3 Karin Ekström,2,3 Helena Brisby,3,4 Maria Lennerås,2,3 Stefan Gustafsson,3,5 Peter Sjövall,3,5,6 Anna Johansson,2,3 Eva Olsson,3,5 Jukka Lausmaa,3,6 Peter Thomsen,2,3 Sarunas Petronis3,6 1The New York Stem Cell Foundation Research Institute, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Biomaterials, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 3BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 5Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden; 6Chemistry, Materials and Surfaces, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden Background: Patterning medical devices at the nanoscale level enables the manipulation of cell behavior and tissue regeneration, with topographic features recognized as playing a significant role in the osseointegration of implantable devices. Methods: In this study, we assessed the ability of titanium-coated hemisphere-like topographic nanostructures of different sizes (approximately 50, 100, and 200 nm to influence the morphology, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs. Results: We found that the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was influenced by the size of the underlying structures, suggesting that size variations in topographic features at the nanoscale level, independently of chemistry, can be exploited to control hMSC behavior in a size-dependent fashion. Conclusion: Our studies demonstrate that colloidal lithography, in combination with coating technologies, can be exploited to investigate the cell response to well defined nanoscale topography and to develop next-generation surfaces that guide tissue regeneration and promote implant integration. Keywords: colloidal lithography, nanotopography, human mesenchymal stem cells, cell proliferation, osteogenic

  16. Enhanced human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell functions on cathodic arc plasma-treated titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1 George Teel,1 Christopher M O’Brien,1 Taisen Zhuang,1 Michael Keidar,1 Lijie Grace Zhang1–3 1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, 3Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: Surface modification of titanium for use in orthopedics has been explored for years; however, an ideal method of integrating titanium with native bone is still required to this day. Since human bone cells directly interact with nanostructured extracellular matrices, one of the most promising methods of improving titanium’s osseointegration involves inducing biomimetic nanotopography to enhance cell–implant interaction. In this regard, we explored an approach to functionalize the surface of titanium by depositing a thin film of textured titanium nanoparticles via a cathodic arc discharge plasma. The aim is to improve human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC attachment and differentiation and to reduce deleterious effects of more complex surface modification methods. Surface functionalization was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, contact angle testing, and specific protein adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy examination demonstrate the deposition of titanium nanoparticles and the surface roughness change after coating. The specific fibronectin adsorption was enhanced on the modified titanium surface that associates with the improved hydrophilicity. MSC adhesion and proliferation were significantly promoted on the nanocoated surface. More importantly, compared to bare titanium, greater production of total protein, deposition of calcium mineral, and synthesis of alkaline phosphatase were observed from MSCs on nanocoated titanium after 21 days. The method described herein presents a promising alternative method for inducing more cell favorable nanosurface for improved orthopedic applications

  17. Generation of megakaryocytic progenitors from human embryonic stem cells in a feeder- and serum-free medium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Pick

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The production of human platelets from embryonic stem cells in a defined culture system is a prerequisite for the generation of platelets for therapeutic use. As an important step towards this goal, we report the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs towards the megakaryocyte (Mk lineage using a 'spin embryoid body' method in serum-free differentiation medium. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunophenotypic analyses of differentiating hESC identified a subpopulation of cells expressing high levels of CD41a that expressed other markers associated with the Mk lineage, including CD110, CD42b and CD61. Differentiated cells were sorted on the basis of their expression of CD41a, CD34 and CD45 and assessed for Mk colony formation, expression of myeloid and Mk genes and ability to endoreplicate DNA. In a collagen-based colony assay, the CD41a⁺ cells sorted from these differentiation cultures produced 100-800 Mk progenitors at day 13 and 25-160 Mk progenitors at day 20 of differentiation per 100,000 cells assayed. Differentiated Mk cells produced platelet-like particles which expressed CD42b and were activated by ADP, similar to platelets generated from precursors in cord blood. These studies were complemented by real time PCR analyses showing that subsets of cells enriched for CD41a⁺ Mk precursors expressed high levels of Mk associated genes such as PF4 and MPL. Conversely, high levels of myeloid and erythroid related transcripts, such as GATA1, TAL1/SCL and PU.1, were detected in sorted fractions containing CD34⁺ and CD45⁺ cells. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a serum- and feeder-free culture system that enabled the generation of Mk progenitors from human embryonic stem cells. These cells formed colonies that included differentiated Mks that fragmented to form platelet-like particles. This protocol represents an important step towards the generation of human platelets for therapeutic use.

  18. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

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    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Jhaveri, Hiral M. [Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Dr. D.Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital, Pune (India); Mishra, Gyan C. [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India); Wani, Mohan R., E-mail: mohanwani@nccs.res.in [National Center for Cell Science, University of Pune Campus, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2010-03-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  19. Human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stem cells are superior to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for cell therapy in regenerative medicine

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    Tomar, Geetanjali B.; Srivastava, Rupesh K.; Gupta, Navita; Barhanpurkar, Amruta P.; Pote, Satish T.; Jhaveri, Hiral M.; Mishra, Gyan C.; Wani, Mohan R.

    2010-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of self-renewal and differentiation into multiple cell lineages. Presently, bone marrow is considered as a prime source of MSCs; however, there are some drawbacks and limitations in use of these MSCs for cell therapy. In this study, we demonstrate that human gingival tissue-derived MSCs have several advantages over bone marrow-derived MSCs. Gingival MSCs are easy to isolate, homogenous and proliferate faster than bone marrow MSCs without any growth factor. Importantly, gingival MSCs display stable morphology and do not loose MSC characteristic at higher passages. In addition, gingival MSCs maintain normal karyotype and telomerase activity in long-term cultures, and are not tumorigenic. Thus, we reveal that human gingiva is a better source of MSCs than bone marrow, and large number of functionally competent clinical grade MSCs can be generated in short duration for cell therapy in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.

  20. Comparative Effects of Human Neural Stem Cells and Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells on the Neurobehavioral Disorders of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice

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    Dae-Kwon Bae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since multiple sclerosis (MS is featured with widespread demyelination caused by autoimmune response, we investigated the recovery effects of F3.olig2 progenitors, established by transducing human neural stem cells (F3 NSCs with Olig2 transcription factor, in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein- (MOG- induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model mice. Six days after EAE induction, F3 or F3.olig2 cells (1 × 106/mouse were intravenously transplanted. MOG-injected mice displayed severe neurobehavioral deficits which were remarkably attenuated and restored by cell transplantation, in which F3.olig2 cells were superior to its parental F3 cells. Transplanted cells migrated to the injured spinal cord, matured to oligodendrocytes, and produced myelin basic proteins (MBP. The F3.olig2 cells expressed growth and neurotrophic factors including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, nerve growth factor (NGF, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF. In addition, the transplanted cells markedly attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, reduced cytokine levels in the spinal cord and lymph nodes, and protected host myelins. The results indicate that F3.olig2 cells restore neurobehavioral symptoms of EAE mice by regulating autoimmune inflammatory responses as well as by stimulating remyelination and that F3.olig2 progenitors could be a candidate for the cell therapy of demyelinating diseases including MS.

  1. In utero transplantation of human bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in mice.

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    Chou, Shiu-Huey; Kuo, Tom K; Liu, Ming; Lee, Oscar K

    2006-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells that can be isolated from human bone marrow and possess the potential to differentiate into progenies of embryonic mesoderm. However, current evidence is based predominantly on in vitro experiments. We used a murine model of in utero transplantation (IUT) to study the engraftment capabilities of human MSCs. MSCs were obtained from bone marrow by negative immunoselection and limiting dilution, and were characterized by flow cytometry and by in vitro differentiation into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. MSCs were transplanted into fetal mice at a gestational age of 14 days. Engraftment of human MSCs was determined by flow cytometry, polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). MSCs engrafted into tissues originating from all three germ layers and persisted for up to 4 months or more after delivery, as evidenced by the expression of the human-specific beta-2 microglobulin gene and by FISH for donor-derived cells. Donor-derived CD45+ cells were detectable in the peripheral blood of recipients, suggesting the participation of MSCs in hematopoiesis at the fetal stage. This model can further serve to evaluate possible applications of MSCs. Copyright 2006 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  2. [Progesterone Promotes Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Synthesize Fibronectin via ERK Pathway].

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    Wu, Zhen-Yong; Chen, Jing-Li; Huang, Shu; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yan; Bi, Xiao-Yun; Guo, Zi-Kuan

    2015-12-01

    To investigate whether the progesterone can promote fibronection (FN) synthesis by human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and to explore the potential underlying mechanism. The human bone marrow MSCs were cultured in a serum-free medium with progesterone for 72 hours, the MTT test was performed to observe the proliferation status and adhension ability of the treated cells. Western blot was used to detect the content of FN in MSDs with GAPDH as the internal reference, the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, as well as the FN content in MSC treated by PD98059, a specific inhibitor of ERK1/2. The progesterone at a range of certain doses not effect on the proliferation of human bone marrow MSCs. Progesterone (25 µg/L) treatment enhanced the FN expression and adherent ability of marrow MSCs. Progesterone could induce prompt phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and its promoting effects on FN synthesis was reversed by PD98059. The progesterone can promote FN synthesis by human bone marrow MSCs via ERK 1/2 pathway, and it might be used to culture MSCs in serum-free medium.

  3. Effects of mechanical loading on human mesenchymal stem cells for cartilage tissue engineering.

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    Choi, Jane Ru; Yong, Kar Wey; Choi, Jean Yu

    2018-03-01

    Today, articular cartilage damage is a major health problem, affecting people of all ages. The existing conventional articular cartilage repair techniques, such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI), microfracture, and mosaicplasty, have many shortcomings which negatively affect their clinical outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to develop an alternative and efficient articular repair technique that can address those shortcomings. Cartilage tissue engineering, which aims to create a tissue-engineered cartilage derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), shows great promise for improving articular cartilage defect therapy. However, the use of tissue-engineered cartilage for the clinical therapy of articular cartilage defect still remains challenging. Despite the importance of mechanical loading to create a functional cartilage has been well demonstrated, the specific type of mechanical loading and its optimal loading regime is still under investigation. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the effects of mechanical loading on human MSCs. First, the existing conventional articular repair techniques and their shortcomings are highlighted. The important parameters for the evaluation of the tissue-engineered cartilage, including chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation of human MSCs are briefly discussed. The influence of mechanical loading on human MSCs is subsequently reviewed and the possible mechanotransduction signaling is highlighted. The development of non-hypertrophic chondrogenesis in response to the changing mechanical microenvironment will aid in the establishment of a tissue-engineered cartilage for efficient articular cartilage repair. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells promote skin wound healing through paracrine signaling.

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    Arno, Anna I; Amini-Nik, Saeid; Blit, Patrick H; Al-Shehab, Mohammed; Belo, Cassandra; Herer, Elaine; Tien, Col Homer; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-02-24

    The prevalence of nonhealing wounds is predicted to increase due to the growing aging population. Despite the use of novel skin substitutes and wound dressings, poorly vascularized wound niches impair wound repair. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been reported to provide paracrine signals to promote wound healing, but the effect of human Wharton's jelly-derived MSCs (WJ-MSCs) has not yet been described in human normal skin. Human WJ-MSCs and normal skin fibroblasts were isolated from donated umbilical cords and normal adult human skin. Fibroblasts were treated with WJ-MSC-conditioned medium (WJ-MSC-CM) or nonconditioned medium. Expression of genes involved in re-epithelialization (transforming growth factor-β2), neovascularization (hypoxia-inducible factor-1α) and fibroproliferation (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) was upregulated in WJ-MSC-CM-treated fibroblasts (P≤0.05). WJ-MSC-CM enhanced normal skin fibroblast proliferation (P≤0.001) and migration (P≤0.05), and promoted wound healing in an excisional full-thickness skin murine model. Under our experimental conditions, WJ-MSCs enhanced skin wound healing in an in vivo mouse model.

  5. Conditioned Media from Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Efficiently Induced the Apoptosis and Differentiation in Human Glioma Cell Lines In Vitro

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    Chao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs have an intrinsic property for homing towards tumor sites and can be used as tumor-tropic vectors for tumor therapy. But very limited studies investigated the antitumor properties of MSCs themselves. In this study we investigated the antiglioma properties of two easily accessible MSCs, namely, human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs and umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UC-MSCs. We found (1 MSC conditioned media can significantly inhibit the growth of human U251 glioma cell line; (2 MSC conditioned media can significantly induce apoptosis in human U251 cell line; (3 real-time PCR experiments showed significant upregulation of apoptotic genes of both caspase-3 and caspase-9 and significant downregulation of antiapoptotic genes such as survivin and XIAP after MSC conditioned media induction in U 251 cells; (4 furthermore, MSCs conditioned media culture induced rapid and complete differentiation in U251 cells. These results indicate MSCs can efficiently induce both apoptosis and differentiation in U251 human glioma cell line. Whereas UC-MSCs are more efficient for apoptosis induction than ASCs, their capability of differentiation induction is not distinguishable from each other. Our findings suggest MSCs themselves have favorable antitumor characteristics and should be further explored in future glioma therapy.

  6. Decreased Intracellular pH Induced by Cariporide Differentially Contributes to Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation

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    Wei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (NHE1 is an important regulator of intracellular pH (pHi. High pHi is required for cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous study has proven that the pHi of mesenchymal stem cells is higher than that of normal differentiated cells and similar to tumor cells. NHE1 is highly expressed in both mesenchymal stem cells and tumor cells. Targeted inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of K562 leukemia cells. In the present paper we explored whether inhibition of NHE1 could induce differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Methods: MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord and both the surface phenotype and functional characteristics were analyzed. Selective NHE1 inhibitor cariporide was used to treat human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs. The pHi and the differentiation of hUC-MSCs were compared upon cariporide treatment. The putative signaling pathway involved was also explored. Results: The pHi of hUC-MSCs was decreased upon cariporide treatment. Cariporide up-regulated the osteogenic differentiation of hUC-MSCs while the adipogenic differentiation was not affected. For osteogenic differentiation, β-catenin expression was up-regulated upon cariporide treatment. Conclusion: Decreased pHi induced by cariporide differentially contributes to hUC-MSCs differentiation.

  7. One-step derivation of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells on a fibrillar collagen coating.

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    Yongxing Liu

    Full Text Available Controlled differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs into cells that resemble adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is an attractive approach to obtain a readily available source of progenitor cells for tissue engineering. The present study reports a new method to rapidly derive MSC-like cells from hESCs and hiPSCs, in one step, based on culturing the cells on thin, fibrillar, type I collagen coatings that mimic the structure of physiological collagen. Human H9 ESCs and HDFa-YK26 iPSCs were singly dissociated in the presence of ROCK inhibitor Y-27632, plated onto fibrillar collagen coated plates and cultured in alpha minimum essential medium (alpha-MEM supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 50 uM magnesium L-ascorbic acid phosphate and 100 nM dexamethasone. While fewer cells attached on the collagen surface initially than standard tissue culture plastic, after culturing for 10 days, resilient colonies of homogenous spindle-shaped cells were obtained. Flow cytometric analysis showed that a high percentage of the derived cells expressed typical MSC surface markers including CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146 and CD166 and were negative as expected for hematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45. The MSC-like cells derived from pluripotent cells were successfully differentiated in vitro into three different lineages: osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic. Both H9 hES and YK26 iPS cells displayed similar morphological changes during the derivation process and yielded MSC-like cells with similar properties. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that bioimimetic, fibrillar, type I collagen coatings applied to cell culture plates can be used to guide a rapid, efficient derivation of MSC-like cells from both human ES and iPS cells.

  8. Generation of human β-thalassemia induced pluripotent cell lines by reprogramming of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells using modified mRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Ioanna; Karagiannidou, Angeliki; Oikonomakis, Vasilis; Tzetis, Maria; Tzanoudaki, Marianna; Siapati, Elena-Konstantina; Vassilopoulos, George; Graphakos, Stelios; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Goussetis, Evgenios

    2014-12-01

    Synthetic modified mRNA molecules encoding pluripotency transcription factors have been used successfully in reprogramming human fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We have applied this method on bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) obtained from a patient with β-thalassemia (β-thal) with the aim to generate trangene-free β-thal-iPSCs. Transfection of 10(4) BM-MSCs by lipofection with mRNA encoding the reprogramming factors Oct4, Klf4, Sox2, cMyc, and Lin28 resulted in formation of five iPSC colonies, from which three were picked up and expanded in β-thal-iPSC lines. After 10 serial passages in vitro, β-thal-iPSCs maintain genetic stability as shown by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and are capable of forming embryoid bodies in vitro and teratomas in vivo. Their gene expression profile compared to human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and BM-MSCs seems to be similar to that of ESCs, whereas it differs from the profile of the parental BM-MSCs. Differentiation cultures toward a hematopoietic lineage showed the generation of CD34(+) progenitors up to 10%, but with a decreased hematopoietic colony-forming capability. In conclusion, we report herein the generation of transgene-free β-thal-iPSCs that could be widely used for disease modeling and gene therapy applications. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the mRNA-based reprogramming method, used mainly in fibroblasts, is also suitable for reprogramming of human BM-MSCs.

  9. [EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH OF DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN AMNIOTIC MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS INTO LIGAMENT CELLS IN VITRO].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Ying; Li, Yuwan; Zhang, Chenghao; Wu, Shuhong; Cheng, Daixiong; Liu, Yi

    2016-02-01

    To discuss whether human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) possesses the characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells, and could differentiate into ligament cells in vitro after induction. The hAMSCs were separated through enzyme digestion, and the phenotypic characteristics of hAMSCs were tested through flow cytometry. The cells at passage 3 were cultured with L-DMEM/F12 medium containing transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) + basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) (group A), containing hyaluronic acid (HA) (group B), containing TGF-beta1+bFGF+HA (group C), and simple L-DMEM/F12 medium (group D) as control group. The morphology changes of cells in each group were observed by inverted phase contrast microscope at 21 days after induction; the cellular activities and proliferation were examined by sulforhodamine (SRB) colorimetric method; and specific mRNA and protein expressions of ligament including collagen type I, collagen type III, and tenascin C (TNC) were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical staining. The flow cytometry result indicated that hAMSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell phenotype. After 21 days of induction, the cells in groups A, B, and C grew like spindle-shaped fibroblasts under inverted phase contrast microscope, and cells showed single shape, obvious directivity, and compact arrangement in group C. The SRB result indicated that the cells in each group reached the peak of growth curve at 6 days; the cellular activities of groups A, B, and C were significantly higher than that of group D at 6 days after induction. Also, the immunohistochemical staining results showed that no expressions of TNC were detected in 4 groups at 7 days; expressions of collagen type I in groups A, B, and C were significantly higher than that in group D at 7, 14, and 21 days (Pligament specific genes can be up-regulated and the synthesis of ligament specific proteins can be also strengthened. As a result, it can be used as

  10. Tracking fusion of human mesenchymal stem cells after transplantation to the heart.

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    Freeman, Brian T; Kouris, Nicholas A; Ogle, Brenda M

    2015-06-01

    Evidence suggests that transplanted mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can aid recovery of damaged myocardium caused by myocardial infarction. One possible mechanism for MSC-mediated recovery is reprogramming after cell fusion between transplanted MSCs and recipient cardiac cells. We used a Cre/LoxP-based luciferase reporter system coupled to biophotonic imaging to detect fusion of transplanted human pluripotent stem cell-derived MSCs to cells of organs of living mice. Human MSCs, with transient expression of a viral fusogen, were delivered to the murine heart via a collagen patch. At 2 days and 1 week later, living mice were probed for bioluminescence indicative of cell fusion. Cell fusion was detected at the site of delivery (heart) and in distal tissues (i.e., stomach, small intestine, liver). Fusion was confirmed at the cellular scale via fluorescence in situ hybridization for human-specific and mouse-specific centromeres. Human cells in organs distal to the heart were typically located near the vasculature, suggesting MSCs and perhaps MSC fusion products have the ability to migrate via the circulatory system to distal organs and engraft with local cells. The present study reveals previously unknown migratory patterns of delivered human MSCs and associated fusion products in the healthy murine heart. The study also sets the stage for follow-on studies to determine the functional effects of cell fusion in a model of myocardial damage or disease. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are transplanted to the heart, cartilage, and other tissues to recover lost function or at least limit overactive immune responses. Analysis of tissues after MSC transplantation shows evidence of fusion between MSCs and the cells of the recipient. To date, the biologic implications of cell fusion remain unclear. A newly developed in vivo tracking system was used to identify MSC fusion products in living mice. The migratory patterns of fusion products were determined both in the target organ (i

  11. A combination of shear and dynamic compression leads to mechanically induced chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells

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    O Schätti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available ere is great interest in how bone marrow derived stem cells make fate decisions. Numerous studies have investigated the role of individual growth factors on mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, leading to protocols for cartilage, bone and adipose tissue. However, these protocols overlook the role of biomechanics on stem cell differentiation. There have been various studies that have applied mechanical stimulation to constructs containing mesenchymal stem cells, with varying degrees of success. One critical fate decision is that between cartilage and bone. Articular motion is a combination of compressive, tensile and shear deformations; therefore, one can presume that compression alone is unlikely to be a sufficient mechanical signal to generate a cartilage-like tissue in vitro. Within this study, we aimed to determine the role of shear on the fate of stem cell differentiation. Specifically, we investigated the potential enhancing effect of surface shear, superimposed on cyclic axial compression, on chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived stem cells. Using a custom built loading device we applied compression, shear or a combination of both stimuli onto fibrin/polyurethane composites in which human mesenchymal stem cells were embedded, while no exogenous growth-factors were added to the culture medium. Both compression or shear alone was insufficient for the chondrogenic induction of human mesenchymal stem cells. However, the application of shear superimposed upon dynamic compression led to significant increases in chondrogenic gene expression. Histological analysis detected sulphated glycosaminoglycan and collagen II only in the compression and shear group. The results obtained may provide insight into post-operative care after cell therapy involving mesenchymal stromal cells.

  12. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances matrix assembly during chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem-Smith, Hana; Calderon, Raul; Song, Yingjie; Tuan, Rocky S; Chen, Faye H

    2012-04-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin-5 (COMP/TSP5) is an abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that interacts with major cartilage ECM components, including aggrecan and collagens. To test our hypothesis that COMP/TSP5 functions in the assembly of the ECM during cartilage morphogenesis, we have employed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro as a model to examine the effects of COMP over-expression on neo-cartilage formation. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were transfected with either full-length COMP cDNA or control plasmid, followed by chondrogenic induction in three-dimensional pellet or alginate hydrogel culture. MSC chondrogenesis and ECM production was estimated based on quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) accumulation, immunohistochemistry of the presence and distribution of cartilage ECM proteins, and real-time RT-PCR analyis of mRNA expression of cartilage markers. Our results showed that COMP over-expression resulted in increased total sGAG content during the early phase of MSC chondrogenesis, and increased immuno-detectable levels of aggrecan and collagen type II in the ECM of COMP-transfected pellet and alginate cultures, indicating more abundant cartilaginous matrix. COMP transfection did not significantly increase the transcript levels of the early chondrogenic marker, Sox9, or aggrecan, suggesting that enhancement of MSC cartilage ECM was effected at post-transcriptional levels. These findings strongly suggest that COMP functions in mesenchymal chondrogenesis by enhancing cartilage ECM organization and assembly. The action of COMP is most likely mediated not via direct changes in cartilage matrix gene expression but via interactions of COMP with other cartilage ECM proteins, such as aggrecan and collagens, that result in enhanced assembly and retention.

  13. In Vitro Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Functional Cardiomyocyte-like Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaraz, Peter; Gratch, Yarden S; Iqbal, Farwah; Librach, Clifford L

    2017-08-09

    Myocardial infarction and the subsequent ischemic cascade result in the extensive loss of cardiomyocytes, leading to congestive heart failure, the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising option for cell-based therapies to replace current, invasive techniques. MSCs can differentiate into mesenchymal lineages, including cardiac cell types, but complete differentiation into functional cells has not yet been achieved. Previous methods of differentiation were based on pharmacological agents or growth factors. However, more physiologically relevant strategies can also enable MSCs to undergo cardiomyogenic transformation. Here, we present a differentiation method using MSC aggregates on cardiomyocyte feeder layers to produce cardiomyocyte-like contracting cells. Human umbilical cord perivascular cells (HUCPVCs) have been shown to have a greater differentiation potential than commonly investigated MSC types, such as bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs). As an ontogenetically younger source, we investigated the cardiomyogenic potential of first-trimester (FTM) HUCPVCs compared to older sources. FTM HUCPVCs are a novel, rich source of MSCs that retain their in utero immunoprivileged properties when cultured in vitro. Using this differentiation protocol, FTM and term HUCPVCs achieved significantly increased cardiomyogenic differentiation compared to BMSCs, as indicated by the increased expression of cardiomyocyte markers (i.e., myocyte enhancer factor 2C, cardiac troponin T, heavy chain cardiac myosin, signal regulatory protein α, and connexin 43). They also maintained significantly lower immunogenicity, as demonstrated by their lower HLA-A expression and higher HLA-G expression. Applying aggregate-based differentiation, FTM HUCPVCs showed increased aggregate formation potential and generated contracting cells clusters within 1 week of co-culture on cardiac feeder layers, becoming the first MSC type to do so. Our results demonstrate that this

  14. Cyclic compression maintains viability and induces chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells in fibrin gel scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelaez, Daniel; Huang, Chun-Yuh Charles; Cheung, Herman S

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical loading has long been shown to modulate cartilage-specific extracellular matrix synthesis. With joint motion, cartilage can experience mechanical loading in the form of compressive, tensile or shearing load, and hydrostatic pressure. Recent studies have demonstrated the capacity of unconfined cyclic compression to induce chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) in agarose culture. However, the use of a nonbiodegradable material such as agarose limits the applicability of these constructs. Of the possible biocompatible materials available for tissue engineering, fibrin is a natural regenerative scaffold, which possesses several desired characteristics including a controllable degradation rate and low immunogenicity. The objective of the present study was to determine the capability of fibrin gels for supporting chondrogenesis of hMSCs under cyclic compression. To optimize the system, three concentrations of fibrin gel (40, 60, and 80 mg/mL) and three different stimulus frequencies (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 Hz) were used to examine the effects of cyclic compression on viability, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs. Our results show that cyclic compression (10% strain) at frequencies >0.5 Hz and gel concentration of 40 mg/mL fibrinogen appears to maintain cellular viability within scaffolds. Similarly, variations in gel component concentration and stimulus frequency can be modified such that a significant chondrogenic response can be achieved by hMSC in fibrin constructs after 8 h of compression spread out over 2 days. This study demonstrates the suitability of fibrin gel for supporting the cyclic compression-induced chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

  15. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate mice trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Dong, Chunlan; Chen, Xiaojun; Fang, Zhihong; Xu, Jie; Liu, Meng; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Gu, Dong Sheng; Wang, Ding; Du, Weiting; Zhu, Delin; Han, Zhong Chao

    2011-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which are poorly immunogenic and have potent immunosuppressive activities, have emerged as a promising candidate for cellular therapeutics for the treatment of disorders caused by abnormal immune responses. In this study we investigated whether human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) could ameliorate colitis in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model. TNBS-treated colitic mice were infused with hUC-MSCs or vehicle control. The mice were sacrificed on day 1, 3, and 5 after infusion, and their clinical and pathological conditions were evaluated by body weight, colon length, and histological analysis. The expression levels of proinflammatory cytokine proteins in colon were examined by ELISA. The homing of hUC-MSCs was studied by live in vivo imaging and immunofluorescent microscopy. hUC-MSCs were found to migrate to the inflamed colon and effectively treated the colitic mice with improved clinical and pathological signs. The levels of IL-17 and IL-23 as well as IFN-γ and IL-6 were significantly lower in the colon tissues of the hUC-MSC-treated mice in comparison with the vehicle-treated mice. Coculture experiments showed that hUC-MSCs not only could inhibit IFN-γ expression but also significantly inhibit IL-17 production by lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs) or splenocytes of the colitic mice or by those isolated from normal animals and stimulated with IL-23. Systemically infused hUC-MSCs could home to the inflamed colon and effectively ameliorate colitis. In addition to the known suppressive effects on Th1-type immune responses, hUC-MSC-mediated modulation of IL-23/IL-17 regulated inflammatory reactions also plays an important role in the amelioration of colitis.

  16. CARTILAGE OLIGOMERIC MATRIX PROTEIN ENHANCES MATRIX ASSEMBLY DURING CHONDROGENESIS OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem-Smith, Hana; Calderon, Raul; Song, Yingjie; Tuan, Rocky S.; Chen, Faye H.

    2011-01-01

    Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein/thrombospondin-5 (COMP/TSP5) is an abundant cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that interacts with major cartilage ECM components, including aggrecan and collagens. To test our hypothesis that COMP/TSP5 functions in the assembly of the ECM during cartilage morphogenesis, we have employed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) chondrogenesis in vitro as a model to examine the effects of COMP over-expression on neo-cartilage formation. Human bone marrow-derived MSCs were transfected with either full-length COMP cDNA or control plasmid, followed by chondrogenic induction in three-dimensional pellet or alginate-hydrogel culture. MSC chondrogenesis and ECM production was estimated based on quantitation of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) accumulation, immunohistochemistry of the presence and distribution of cartilage ECM proteins, and real-time RT-PCR analyis of mRNA expression of cartilage markers. Our results showed that COMP over-expression resulted in increased total sGAG content during the early phase of MSC chondrogenesis, and increased immuno-detectable levels of aggrecan and collagen type II in the ECM of COMP-transfected pellet and alginate cultures, indicating more abundant cartilaginous matrix. COMP transfection did not significantly increase the transcript levels of the early chondrogenic marker, Sox9, or aggrecan, suggesting that enhancement of MSC cartilage ECM was effected at post-transcriptional levels. These findings strongly suggest that COMP functions in mesenchymal chondrogenesis by enhancing cartilage ECM organization and assembly. The action of COMP is most likely mediated not via direct changes in cartilage matrix gene expression but via interactions of COMP with other cartilage ECM proteins, such as aggrecan and collagens, that result in enhanced assembly and retention. PMID:22095699

  17. PLAG1 and USF2 Co-regulate Expression of Musashi-2 in Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken S. Belew

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: MSI2, which is expressed predominantly in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs, enforces HSPC expansion when overexpressed and is upregulated in myeloid leukemias, indicating its regulated transcription is critical to balanced self-renewal and leukemia restraint. Despite this, little is understood of the factors that enforce appropriate physiological levels of MSI2 in the blood system. Here, we define a promoter region that reports on endogenous expression of MSI2 and identify USF2 and PLAG1 as transcription factors whose promoter binding drives reporter activity. We show that these factors co-regulate, and are required for, efficient transactivation of endogenous MSI2. Coincident overexpression of USF2 and PLAG1 in primitive cord blood cells enhanced MSI2 transcription and yielded cellular phenotypes, including expansion of CD34+ cells in vitro, consistent with that achieved by direct MSI2 overexpression. Global chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analyses confirm a preferential co-binding of PLAG1 and USF2 at the promoter of MSI2, as well as regulatory regions corresponding to genes with roles in HSPC homeostasis. PLAG1 and USF2 cooperation is thus an important contributor to stem cell-specific expression of MSI2 and HSPC-specific transcriptional circuitry. : MSI2 is an essential human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC regulator, but knowledge of the mechanisms ensuring its appropriate expression in this context are lacking. Here, Hope and colleagues map the MSI2 promoter functional in hematopoietic cells and identify USF2 and PLAG1 as essential, cooperative enforcers of endogenous MSI2 expression and stemness traits in human HSPCs. Keywords: human hematopoietic stem cells, self-renewal, promoter, transcriptional regulation, transcription factors, Musashi-2, genome-wide DNA binding site mapping, PLAG1, USF2

  18. Syndecan-1 suppresses epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration in human oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Zhao, Xiaoming; Qi, Tianyang; Zhang, Tianfu; Kong, Chenfei

    2018-04-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the major processes that contribute to the occurrence of cancer metastasis. EMT has been associated with the development of oral cancer. Syndecan‑1 (SDC1) is a key cell‑surface adhesion molecule and its expression level inversely correlates with tumor differentiation and prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to determine the role of SDC1 in oral cancer progression and investigate the molecular mechanisms through which SDC1 regulates the EMT and invasiveness of oral cancer cells. We demonstrated that basal SDC1 expression levels were lower in four oral cancer cell lines (KB, Tca8113, ACC2 and CAL‑27), than in normal human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. Ectopic overexpression of SDC1 resulted in morphological transformation, decreased expression of EMT‑associated markers, as well as decreased migration, invasiveness and proliferation of oral cancer cells. In contrast, downregulation of the expression of SDC1 caused the opposite results. Furthermore, the knockdown of endogenous SDC1 activated the extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK) cascade, upregulated the expression of Snail and inhibited the expression of E‑cadherin. In conclusion, our findings revealed that SDC1 suppressed EMT via the modulation of the ERK signaling pathway that, in turn, negatively affected the invasiveness of human oral cancer cells. Our results provided useful evidence about the potential use of SDC1 as a molecular target for therapeutic interventions in human oral cancer.

  19. Effects of murine and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on cuprizone induced demyelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Nessler

    Full Text Available For the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis there are no regenerative approaches to enhance remyelination. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been proposed to exert such regenerative functions. Intravenous administration of human MSC reduced the clinical severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model mimicking some aspects of multiple sclerosis. However, it is not clear if this effect was achieved by systemic immunomodulation or if there is an active neuroregeneration in the central nervous system (CNS. In order to investigate remyelination and regeneration in the CNS we analysed the effects of intravenously and intranasally applied murine and human bone marrow-derived MSC on cuprizone induced demyelination, a toxic animal model which allows analysis of remyelination without the influence of the peripheral immune system. In contrast to EAE no effects of MSC on de- and remyelination and glial cell reactions were found. In addition, neither murine nor human MSC entered the lesions in the CNS in this toxic model. In conclusion, MSC are not directed into CNS lesions in the cuprizone model where the blood-brain-barrier is intact and thus cannot provide support for regenerative processes.

  20. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

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    Varga, Nora [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Vereb, Zoltan; Rajnavoelgyi, Eva [Department of Immunology, Medical and Health Science Centre, University of Debrecen, Debrecen (Hungary); Nemet, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balazs [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary); Apati, Agota, E-mail: apati@kkk.org.hu [Membrane Research Group of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Semmelweis University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-10-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells generated from human embryonic stem cells support pluripotent cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, Nóra; Veréb, Zoltán; Rajnavölgyi, Éva; Német, Katalin; Uher, Ferenc; Sarkadi, Balázs; Apáti, Ágota

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► MSC like cells were derived from hESC by a simple and reproducible method. ► Differentiation and immunosuppressive features of MSCl cells were similar to bmMSC. ► MSCl cells as feeder cells support the undifferentiated growth of hESC. -- Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cell like (MSCl) cells were generated from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) through embryoid body formation, and isolated by adherence to plastic surface. MSCl cell lines could be propagated without changes in morphological or functional characteristics for more than 15 passages. These cells, as well as their fluorescent protein expressing stable derivatives, efficiently supported the growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells as feeder cells. The MSCl cells did not express the embryonic (Oct4, Nanog, ABCG2, PODXL, or SSEA4), or hematopoietic (CD34, CD45, CD14, CD133, HLA-DR) stem cell markers, while were positive for the characteristic cell surface markers of MSCs (CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105). MSCl cells could be differentiated toward osteogenic, chondrogenic or adipogenic directions and exhibited significant inhibition of mitogen-activated lymphocyte proliferation, and thus presented immunosuppressive features. We suggest that cultured MSCl cells can properly model human MSCs and be applied as efficient feeders in hESC cultures.

  2. Cells isolated from human periapical cysts express mesenchymal stem cell-like properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Massimo; Paduano, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    We provide a detailed description of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human periapical cysts, which we have termed hPCy-MSCs. These cells have a fibroblast-like shape and adhere to tissue culture plastic surfaces. hPCy-MSCs possess high proliferative potential and self-renewal capacity properties. We characterised the immunophenotype of hPCy-MSCs (CD73(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD13(+), CD29(+), CD44(+), CD45(-), STRO-1(+), CD146(+)) by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence. hPCy-MSCs possess the potential to differentiate into osteoblast- and adipocyte-like cells in vitro. Multi-potentiality was evaluated with culture-specific staining and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for osteo/odontogenic and adipogenic markers. This is the first report to indicate that human periapical cysts contain cells with MSC-like properties. Taken together, our findings indicate that human periapical cysts could be a rich source of MSCs.

  3. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calabrese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR, also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271− mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  4. Potential Effect of CD271 on Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Giovanna; Giuffrida, Raffaella; Lo Furno, Debora; Parrinello, Nunziatina Laura; Forte, Stefano; Gulino, Rosario; Colarossi, Cristina; Schinocca, Luciana Rita; Giuffrida, Rosario; Cardile, Venera; Memeo, Lorenzo

    2015-07-09

    The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (LNGFR), also known as CD271, is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. The CD271 cell surface marker defines a subset of multipotential mesenchymal stromal cells and may be used to isolate and enrich cells derived from bone marrow aspirate. In this study, we compare the proliferative and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells. Mesenchymal stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow aspirate and adipose tissue by plastic adherence and positive selection. The proliferation and differentiation potentials of CD271+ and CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells were assessed by inducing osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic in vitro differentiation. Compared to CD271+, CD271- mesenchymal stromal cells showed a lower proliferation rate and a decreased ability to give rise to osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. Furthermore, we observed that CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue displayed a higher efficiency of proliferation and trilineage differentiation compared to CD271+ mesenchymal stromal cells isolated from bone marrow samples, although the CD271 expression levels were comparable. In conclusion, these data show that both the presence of CD271 antigen and the source of mesenchymal stromal cells represent important factors in determining the ability of the cells to proliferate and differentiate.

  5. Isolation and characterization of mesenchymal stem cells derived from dental pulp and follicle tissue of human third molar tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadegary Z

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: In the last decade, several studies have reported the isolation of stem cell population from different dental sources, while their mesenchymal nature is still controversial. The aim of this study was to isolate stem cells from mature human dental pulp and follicle and to determine their mesenchymal nature before differentiation based on the ISCT (International Society for Cellular Therapy criteria."nMaterials and Methods: In this experimental study, intact human third molars extracted due to prophylactic or orthodontic reasons were collected from patients aged 18-25. After tooth extraction, dental pulp and follicle were stored at 4°C in RPMI 1640 medium containing antibiotics. Dental pulp and follicle were prepared in a sterile condition and digested using an enzyme solution containing 4mg/ml collagenase I and dispase (ratio: 1:1. The cells were then cultivated in α-MEM medium. Passage-3 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for the expression of CD34, CD45, CD 73, CD90 and CD105 surface markers."nResults: Dental pulp and follicle were observed to grow in colony forming units, mainly composed of a fibroblast-like cell population. Flow cytometry results showed that dental pulp and follicle are highly positive for CD73, CD90 and CD105 (mesenchymal stem cell markers and are negative for hematopoietic markers such as CD34 and CD 45."nConclusion: In this study we were able to successfully confirm that dental pulp and follicle stem cells isolated from permanent third molars have a mesenchymal nature before differentiation. Therefore, these two sources can be considered as an easy accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells for stem cell research and tissue engineering.

  6. Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cell transplants remyelinate and restore locomotion after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keirstead, Hans S; Nistor, Gabriel; Bernal, Giovanna; Totoiu, Minodora; Cloutier, Frank; Sharp, Kelly; Steward, Oswald

    2005-05-11

    Demyelination contributes to loss of function after spinal cord injury, and thus a potential therapeutic strategy involves replacing myelin-forming cells. Here, we show that transplantation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into adult rat spinal cord injuries enhances remyelination and promotes improvement of motor function. OPCs were injected 7 d or 10 months after injury. In both cases, transplanted cells survived, redistributed over short distances, and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. Animals that received OPCs 7 d after injury exhibited enhanced remyelination and substantially improved locomotor ability. In contrast, when OPCs were transplanted 10 months after injury, there was no enhanced remyelination or locomotor recovery. These studies document the feasibility of predifferentiating hESCs into functional OPCs and demonstrate their therapeutic potential at early time points after spinal cord injury.

  7. Decellularized matrix from tumorigenic human mesenchymal stem cells promotes neovascularization with galectin-1 dependent endothelial interaction.

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    Jorge S Burns

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acquisition of a blood supply is fundamental for extensive tumor growth. We recently described vascular heterogeneity in tumours derived from cell clones of a human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC strain (hMSC-TERT20 immortalized by retroviral vector mediated human telomerase (hTERT gene expression. Histological analysis showed that cells of the most vascularized tumorigenic clone, -BD11 had a pericyte-like alpha smooth muscle actin (ASMA+ and CD146+ positive phenotype. Upon serum withdrawal in culture, -BD11 cells formed cord-like structures mimicking capillary morphogenesis. In contrast, cells of the poorly tumorigenic clone, -BC8 did not stain for ASMA, tumours were less vascularized and serum withdrawal in culture led to cell death. By exploring the heterogeneity in hMSC-TERT20 clones we aimed to understand molecular mechanisms by which mesenchymal stem cells may promote neovascularization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Quantitative qRT-PCR analysis revealed similar mRNA levels for genes encoding the angiogenic cytokines VEGF and Angiopoietin-1 in both clones. However, clone-BD11 produced a denser extracellular matrix that supported stable ex vivo capillary morphogenesis of human endothelial cells and promoted in vivo neovascularization. Proteomic characterization of the -BD11 decellularized matrix identified 50 extracellular angiogenic proteins, including galectin-1. siRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression abrogated the ex vivo interaction between decellularized -BD11 matrix and endothelial cells. More stable shRNA knock down of galectin-1 expression did not prevent -BD11 tumorigenesis, but greatly reduced endothelial migration into -BD11 cell xenografts. CONCLUSIONS: Decellularized hMSC matrix had significant angiogenic potential with at least 50 angiogenic cell surface and extracellular proteins, implicated in attracting endothelial cells, their adhesion and activation to form tubular structures. hMSC -BD11 surface galectin-1

  8. Direct contact with endoderm-like cells efficiently induces cardiac progenitors from mouse and human pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uosaki

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs have emerged as a powerful tool to study cardiogenesis in vitro and a potential cell source for cardiac regenerative medicine. However, available methods to induce CPCs are not efficient or require high-cost cytokines with extensive optimization due to cell line variations. OBJECTIVE: Based on our in-vivo observation that early endodermal cells maintain contact with nascent pre-cardiac mesoderm, we hypothesized that direct physical contact with endoderm promotes induction of CPCs from pluripotent cells. METHOD AND RESULT: To test the hypothesis, we cocultured mouse embryonic stem (ES cells with the endodermal cell line End2 by co-aggregation or End2-conditioned medium. Co-aggregation resulted in strong induction of Flk1(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs in a dose-dependent manner, but the conditioned medium did not, indicating that direct contact is necessary for this process. To determine if direct contact with End2 cells also promotes the induction of committed cardiac progenitors, we utilized several mouse ES and induced pluripotent (iPS cell lines expressing fluorescent proteins under regulation of the CPC lineage markers Nkx2.5 or Isl1. In agreement with earlier data, co-aggregation with End2 cells potently induces both Nkx2.5(+ and Isl1(+ CPCs, leading to a sheet of beating cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, co-aggregation with End2 cells greatly promotes the induction of KDR(+ PDGFRa(+ CPCs from human ES cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our co-aggregation method provides an efficient, simple and cost-effective way to induce CPCs from mouse and human pluripotent cells.

  9. Human neural progenitor cells decrease photoreceptor degeneration, normalize opsin distribution and support synapse structure in cultured porcine retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollick, Tanzina; Mohlin, Camilla; Johansson, Kjell

    2016-09-01

    Retinal neurodegenerative disorders like retinitis pigmentosa, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal detachment decrease retinal functionality leading to visual impairment. The pathological events are characterized by photoreceptor degeneration, synaptic disassembly, remodeling of postsynaptic neurons and activation of glial cells. Despite intense research, no effective treatment has been found for these disorders. The current study explores the potential of human neural progenitor cell (hNPC) derived factors to slow the degenerative processes in adult porcine retinal explants. Retinas were cultured for 3 days with or without hNPCs as a feeder layer and investigated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL), immunohistochemical, western blot and quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) techniques. TUNEL showed that hNPCs had the capacity to limit photoreceptor cell death. Among cone photoreceptors, hNPC coculture resulted in better maintenance of cone outer segments and reduced opsin mislocalization. Additionally, maintained synaptic structural integrity and preservation of second order calbindin positive horizontal cells was also observed. However, Müller cell gliosis only seemed to be alleviated in terms of reduced Müller cell density. Our observations indicate that at 3 days of coculture, hNPC derived factors had the capacity to protect photoreceptors, maintain synaptic integrity and support horizontal cell survival. Human neural progenitor cell applied treatment modalities may be an effective strategy to help maintain retinal functionality in neurodegenerative pathologies. Whether hNPCs can independently hinder Müller cell gliosis by utilizing higher concentrations or by combination with other pharmacological agents still needs to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maintenance of differentiation potential of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase gene despite [corrected] extensive proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Basem M; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Burns, Jorge S

    2005-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) represent a population of stem cells that are capable of differentiation into multiple lineages. However, these cells exhibit senescence-associated growth arrest and phenotypic changes during long-term in vitro culture. We have recently demonstrated...

  11. Human mesenchymal stem cells towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in an immunodeficient mouse model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, Sandra; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Stock, Peggy; Brückner, Sandra; Dollinger, Matthias; Weiskirchen, Ralf; Christ, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a frequent clinical picture characterised by hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation and fibrosis. When untreated, NASH bears a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma requiring liver transplantation in its end-stage. However, donor organ scarcity has prompted the search for alternatives, of which hepatocyte or stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation are regarded auspicious options of treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and thus may represent an alternative cell source to primary hepatocytes. In addition these cells feature anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative characteristics, which might favour liver recovery from NASH. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of hepatocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow MSC in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Seven days post-transplant, human hepatocyte-like cells were found in the mouse liver parenchyma. Triglyceride depositions were lowered in the liver but restored to normal in the blood. Hepatic inflammation was attenuated as verified by decreased expression of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, inflammation-associated markers (e.g. lipocalin 2), as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Moreover, the proliferation of host hepatocytes that indicate the regenerative capacity in livers receiving cell transplants was enhanced. Transplantation of MSC-derived human hepatocyte-like cells corrects NASH in mice by restoring triglyceride depositions, reducing inflammation and augmenting the regenerative capacity of the liver. - Highlights: • First time to show NASH in an immune-deficient mouse model. • Human MSC attenuate NASH and improve lipid homeostasis. • MSC act anti-fibrotic and augment liver regeneration by stimulation of proliferation. • Pre-clinical assessment of human MSC for stem cell-based therapy of NASH

  12. Human mesenchymal stem cells towards non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in an immunodeficient mouse model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.pelz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Applied Molecular Hepatology Laboratory, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstraße 21, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan, E-mail: ekamphorst@ukaachen.de [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Stock, Peggy, E-mail: peggy.stock@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Applied Molecular Hepatology Laboratory, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstraße 21, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Applied Molecular Hepatology Laboratory, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstraße 21, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Dollinger, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dollinger@uniklinik-ulm.de [Department for Internal Medicine I, University Hospital Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Weiskirchen, Ralf, E-mail: rweiskirchen@ukaachen.de [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Pauwelsstraße 30, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Christ, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.christ@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [Applied Molecular Hepatology Laboratory, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstraße 21, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine (TRM), University of Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a frequent clinical picture characterised by hepatic inflammation, lipid accumulation and fibrosis. When untreated, NASH bears a high risk of developing liver cirrhosis and consecutive hepatocellular carcinoma requiring liver transplantation in its end-stage. However, donor organ scarcity has prompted the search for alternatives, of which hepatocyte or stem cell-derived hepatocyte transplantation are regarded auspicious options of treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells and thus may represent an alternative cell source to primary hepatocytes. In addition these cells feature anti-inflammatory and pro-regenerative characteristics, which might favour liver recovery from NASH. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefit of hepatocyte-like cells derived from human bone marrow MSC in a mouse model of diet-induced NASH. Seven days post-transplant, human hepatocyte-like cells were found in the mouse liver parenchyma. Triglyceride depositions were lowered in the liver but restored to normal in the blood. Hepatic inflammation was attenuated as verified by decreased expression of the acute phase protein serum amyloid A, inflammation-associated markers (e.g. lipocalin 2), as well as the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Moreover, the proliferation of host hepatocytes that indicate the regenerative capacity in livers receiving cell transplants was enhanced. Transplantation of MSC-derived human hepatocyte-like cells corrects NASH in mice by restoring triglyceride depositions, reducing inflammation and augmenting the regenerative capacity of the liver. - Highlights: • First time to show NASH in an immune-deficient mouse model. • Human MSC attenuate NASH and improve lipid homeostasis. • MSC act anti-fibrotic and augment liver regeneration by stimulation of proliferation. • Pre-clinical assessment of human MSC for stem cell-based therapy of NASH.

  13. Systematic microcarrier screening and agitated culture conditions improves human mesenchymal stem cell yield in bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Qasim A.; Coopman, Karen; Nienow, Alvin W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Production of human mesenchymal stem cells for allogeneic cell therapies requires scalable, cost‐effective manufacturing processes. Microcarriers enable the culture of anchorage‐dependent cells in stirred‐tank bioreactors. However, no robust, transferable methodology for microcarrier selection exists, with studies providing little or no reason explaining why a microcarrier was employed. We systematically evaluated 13 microcarriers for human bone marrow‐derived MSC (hBM‐MSCs) expansion from three donors to establish a reproducible and transferable methodology for microcarrier selection. Monolayer studies demonstrated input cell line variability with respect to growth kinetics and metabolite flux. HBM‐MSC1 underwent more cumulative population doublings over three passages in comparison to hBM‐MSC2 and hBM‐MSC3. In 100 mL spinner flasks, agitated conditions were significantly better than static conditions, irrespective of donor, and relative microcarrier performance was identical where the same microcarriers outperformed others with respect to growth kinetics and metabolite flux. Relative growth kinetics between donor cells on the microcarriers were the same as the monolayer study. Plastic microcarriers were selected as the optimal microcarrier for hBM‐MSC expansion. HBM‐MSCs were successfully harvested and characterised, demonstrating hBM‐MSC immunophenotype and differentiation capacity. This approach provides a systematic method for microcarrier selection, and the findings identify potentially significant bioprocessing implications for microcarrier‐based allogeneic cell therapy manufacture. PMID:26632496

  14. Identification of senescence-associated genes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eunsook; Hong, Su; Kang, Jaeku; Woo, Junghoon; Park, Jungjun; Lee, Jongho; Seo, Jeong-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into several specialized cell types, including bone, cartilage, and fat cells. The proliferative capacity of hBMMSCs paves the way for the development of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. However, long-term in vitro culture of hBMMSCs leads to a reduced life span of the cells due to senescence, which leads eventually to growth arrest. To investigate the molecular mechanism behind the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs, microarray analysis was used to compare the expression profiles of early passage hBMMSCs, late passage hBMMSCs and hBMMSCs ectopically expressing human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). Using an intersection analysis of 3892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) out of 27,171 total genes analyzed, we identified 338 senescence-related DEGs. GO term categorization and pathway network analysis revealed that the identified genes are strongly related to known senescence pathways and mechanisms. The genes identified using this approach will facilitate future studies of the mechanisms underlying the cellular senescence of hBMMSCs

  15. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfu; Duan, Li; Liang, Yujie; Zhu, Weimin; Xiong, Jianyi; Wang, Daping

    2016-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2) and decreased type I collagen (COL1) protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9) mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  16. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells increase interleukin-9 production of CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhou Xin; Chi, Ying; Ji, Yue Ru; Wang, You Wei; Zhang, Jing; Luo, Wei Feng; Li, Li Na; Hu, Cai Dong; Zhuo, Guang Sheng; Wang, Li Fang; Han, Zhi-Bo; Han, Zhong Chao

    2017-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are able to differentiate into cells of multiple lineage, and additionally act to modulate the immune response. Interleukin (IL)-9 is primarily produced by cluster of differentiation (CD)4+ T cells to regulate the immune response. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of human umbilical cord derived-MSC (UC-MSC) on IL-9 production of human CD4+ T cells. It was demonstrated that the addition of UC-MSC to the culture of CD4+ T cells significantly enhanced IL-9 production by CD4+ T cells. Transwell experiments suggested that UC-MSC promotion of IL-9 production by CD4+ T cells was dependent on cell-cell contact. Upregulated expression of CD106 was observed in UC-MSC co-cultured with CD4+ T cells, and the addition of a blocking antibody of CD106 significantly impaired the ability of UC-MSC to promote IL-9 production by CD4+ T cells. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that UC-MSC promoted the generation of IL-9 producing cells, which may be mediated, in part by CD106. The findings may act to expand understanding and knowledge of the immune modulatory role of UC-MSC. PMID:29042945

  17. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells promote peripheral nerve repair via paracrine mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yuan Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs represent a promising young-state stem cell source for cell-based therapy. hUCMSC transplantation into the transected sciatic nerve promotes axonal regeneration and functional recovery. To further clarify the paracrine effects of hUCMSCs on nerve regeneration, we performed human cytokine antibody array analysis, which revealed that hUCMSCs express 14 important neurotrophic factors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, neurotrophin-3, basic fibroblast growth factor, type I collagen, fibronectin and laminin were highly expressed. Treatment with hUCMSC-conditioned medium enhanced Schwann cell viability and proliferation, increased nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in Schwann cells, and enhanced neurite growth from dorsal root ganglion explants. These findings suggest that paracrine action may be a key mechanism underlying the effects of hUCMSCs in peripheral nerve repair.

  18. Efficient gene delivery to human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells by cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qingtong; Cao, Jin; Chen, Baoding; Deng, Wenwen; Cao, Xia; Chen, Jingjing; Wang, Yan; Wang, Shicheng; Yu, Jiangnan; Xu, Ximing; Gao, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    This study centered on an innovative application of Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PPS) with cationic modification as a safe and efficient nonviral gene vector to deliver a plasmid encoding human Wnt3a (pWnt3a) into human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs). After modification with branched low-molecular-weight (1,200 Da) polyethylenimine, the cationized PPS (CPPS) was combined with pWnt3a to form spherical nanoscale particles (CPPS-pWnt3a nanoparticles). Particle size and distribution indicated that the CPPS-pWnt3a nanoparticles at a CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio of 40:1 might be a potential candidate for DNA plasmid transfection. A cytotoxicity assay demonstrated that the nanoparticles prepared at a CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio of 40:1 were nontoxic to HUMSCs compared to those of Lipofectamine 2000 and polyethylenimine (25 kDa). These nanoparticles were further transfected to HUMSCs. Western blotting demonstrated that the nanoparticles (CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio 40:1) had the greatest transfection efficiency in HUMSCs, which was significantly higher than that of Lipofectamine 2000; however, when the CPPS:pWnt3a weight ratio was increased to 80:1, the nanoparticle-treated group showed no obvious improvement in translation efficiency over Lipofectamine 2000. Therefore, CPPS, a novel cationic polysaccharide derived from P. yezoensis, could be developed into a safe, efficient, nonviral gene vector in a gene-delivery system.

  19. Mechanisms Underlying the Osteo- and Adipo-Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

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    Yu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs are considered a promising cell source for regenerative medicine, because they have the potential to differentiate into a variety of lineages among which the mesoderm-derived lineages such adipo- or osteogenesis are investigated best. Human MSCs can be harvested in reasonable to large amounts from several parts of the patient’s body and due to this possible autologous origin, allorecognition can be avoided. In addition, even in allogenic origin-derived donor cells, hMSCs generate a local immunosuppressive microenvironment, causing only a weak immune reaction. There is an increasing need for bone replacement in patients from all ages, due to a variety of reasons such as a new recreational behavior in young adults or age-related diseases. Adipogenic differentiation is another interesting lineage, because fat tissue is considered to be a major factor triggering atherosclerosis that ultimately leads to cardiovascular diseases, the main cause of death in industrialized countries. However, understanding the differentiation process in detail is obligatory to achieve a tight control of the process for future clinical applications to avoid undesired side effects. In this review, the current findings for adipo- and osteo-differentiation are summarized together with a brief statement on first clinical trials.

  20. Octanoate in Human Albumin Preparations Is Detrimental to Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Culture

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    Way-Wua Wong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies hold great promise as the next major advance in medical treatment. To enable safe, effective ex vivo culture whilst maintaining cell phenotype, growth media constituents must be carefully controlled. We have used a chemically defined mesenchymal stromal cell culture medium to investigate the influence of different preparations of human serum albumin. We examined two aspects of cell culture, growth rate as measured by population doubling time and colony forming ability which is a representative measure of the stemness of the cell population. Albumin preparations showed comparative differences in both of these criteria. Analysis of the albumin bound fatty acids also showed differences depending on the manufacturing procedure used. We demonstrated that octanoate, an additive used to stabilize albumin during pasteurization, slows growth and lowers colony forming ability during ex vivo culture. Further to this we also found the level of Na+/K+ ATPase, a membrane bound cation pump inhibited by octanoate, is increased in cells exposed to this compound. We conclude that the inclusion of human serum albumin in ex vivo growth media requires careful consideration of not only the source of albumin, but also the associated molecular cargo, for optimal cell growth and behavior.

  1. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells: osteogenesis in vivo as seed cells for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Yinze; Ma, Qingjun; Cui, Fuzhai; Zhong, Yanfeng

    2009-10-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are ideal seed cells for bone tissue engineering. However, intrinsic deficiencies exist for the autologous transplantation strategy of constructing artificial bone with MSCs derived from bone marrow of patients. In this study, MSCs-like cells were isolated from human umbilical cords and were expanded in vitro. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that cells from the fourth passage were positive for CD29, CD44, CD71, CD73, CD90, and CD105 whereas they were negative for CD14, CD34, CD45, and CD117. Furthermore, these cells expressed HLA-A, B, C (MHC-I), but not HLA-DP, DQ, DR (MHC-II), or costimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86. Following incubation in specific inductive media for 3 weeks, cultured cells were shown to possess potential to differentiate into adipogenic, osteogenic or chondrogenic lineages in vitro. The umbilical cord-derived MSCs (UC-MSCs) were loaded with a biomimetic artificial bone scaffold material before being implanted subcutaneously in the back of Balb/c nude mice for four to twelve weeks. Our results revealed that UC-MSCs loaded with the scaffold displayed capacity of osteogenic differentiation leading to osteogenesis with human origin in vivo. As a readily available source of seed cells for bone tissue engineering, UC-MSCs should have broad application prospects.

  2. Exosomes Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Relieve Acute Myocardial Ischemic Injury

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    Yuanyuan Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at investigating whether human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell- (hucMSC- derived exosomes (hucMSC-exosomes have a protective effect on acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Exosomes were characterized under transmission electron microscopy and the particles of exosomes were further examined through nanoparticle tracking analysis. Exosomes (400 μg protein were intravenously administrated immediately following ligation of the left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery in rats. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and apoptotic cells were counted using TUNEL staining. The cardiac fibrosis was assessed using Masson’s trichrome staining. The Ki67 positive cells in ischemic myocardium were determined using immunohistochemistry. The effect of hucMSC-exosomes on blood vessel formation was evaluated through tube formation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EA.hy926 cells. The results indicated that ligation of the LAD coronary artery reduced cardiac function and induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Administration of hucMSC-exosomes significantly improved cardiac systolic function and reduced cardiac fibrosis. Moreover, hucMSC-exosomes protected myocardial cells from apoptosis and promoted the tube formation and migration of EA.hy926 cells. It is concluded that hucMSC-exosomes improved cardiac systolic function by protecting myocardial cells from apoptosis and promoting angiogenesis. These effects of hucMSC-exosomes might be associated with regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family.

  3. Generation of high-yield insulin producing cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Arefeh; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Abroun, Saeid; Pourpak, Zahra; Allahverdi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of β cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). This specific stepwise protocol induced differentiation of hMSCs into definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic endocrine cells that expressed of sox17, foxa2, pdx1, ngn3, nkx2.2, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glut2 transcripts respectively. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis confirmed protein expression of the above mentioned genes. Western blot analysis discriminated insulin from proinsulin in the final differentiated cells. In derived insulin producing cells (IPCs), secreted insulin and C-peptide was in a glucose dependent manner. We have developed a protocol that generates effective high-yield human IPCs from hBM-MSCs in vitro. These finding suggest that functional IPCs generated by this procedure can be used as a cell-based approach for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  4. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; Briesen, Hagen von; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4–21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  5. Effect of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Yvonne; Gorjup, Erwin; Katsen-Globa, Alisa; Büchel, Claudia; von Briesen, Hagen; Thielecke, Hagen

    2011-12-01

    Gold nanoparticles are very attractive for biomedical products. However, there is a serious lack of information concerning the biological activity of nanosized gold in human tissue cells. An influence of nanoparticles on stem cells might lead to unforeseen consequences to organ and tissue functions as long as all cells arising from the initial stem cell might be subsequently damaged. Therefore the effect of negatively charged gold nanoparticles (9 and 95 nm), which are certified as reference material for preclinical biomedical research, on the adipogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) is investigated here. Bone marrow hMSCs are chosen as differentiation model since bone marrow hMSCs are well characterized and their differentiation into the adipogenic lineage shows clear and easily detectable differentiation. In this study effects of gold nanoparticles on adipogenic differentiation are analyzed regarding fat storage and mitochondrial activity after different exposure times (4-21 days). Using time lapse microscopy the differentiation progress under chronically gold nanoparticle treatment is continuously investigated. In this preliminary study, chronically treatment of adipogenic differentiating hMSCs with gold nanoparticles resulted in a reduced number and size of lipid vacuoles and reduced mitochondrial activity depending on the applied concentration and the surface charge of the particles.

  6. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  7. Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Chondrogenesis in Coculture with Chondrocytes

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    Xingfu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs have been shown as the most potential stem cell source for articular cartilage repair. In this study, we aimed to develop a method for long-term coculture of human articular chondrocytes (hACs and hUCB-MSCs at low density in vitro to determine if the low density of hACs could enhance the hUCB-MSC chondrogenic differentiation as well as to determine the optimal ratio of the two cell types. Also, we compared the difference between direct coculture and indirect coculture at low density. Monolayer cultures of hUCB-MSCs and hACs were investigated at different ratios, at direct cell-cell contact groups for 21 days. Compared to direct coculture, hUCB-MSCs and hACs indirect contact culture significantly increased type II collagen (COL2 and decreased type I collagen (COL1 protein expression levels. SRY-box 9 (SOX9 mRNA levels and protein expression were highest in indirect coculture. Overall, these results indicate that low density direct coculture induces fibrocartilage. However, indirect coculture in conditioned chondrocyte cell culture medium can increase expression of chondrogenic markers and induce hUCB-MSCs differentiation into mature chondrocytes. This work demonstrates that it is possible to promote chondrogenesis of hUCB-MSCs in combination with hACs, further supporting the concept of novel coculture strategies for tissue engineering.

  8. Characterization of lipid metabolism in insulin-sensitive adipocytes differentiated from immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prawitt, Janne; Niemeier, Andreas; Kassem, Moustapha; Beisiegel, Ulrike; Heeren, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    There is a great demand for cell models to study human adipocyte function. Here we describe the adipogenic differentiation of a telomerase-immortalized human mesenchymal stem cell line (hMSC-Tert) that maintains numerous features of terminally differentiated adipocytes even after prolonged withdrawal of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone. Differentiated hMSC-Tert developed the characteristic monolocular phenotype of mature adipocytes. The expression of adipocyte specific markers was highly increased during differentiation. Most importantly, the presence of the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone was not required for the stable expression of lipoprotein lipase, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and perilipin on mRNA and protein levels. Adiponectin expression was post-transcriptionally down-regulated in the absence of rosiglitazone. Insulin sensitivity as measured by insulin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and S6 ribosomal protein was also independent of rosiglitazone. In addition to commonly used adipogenic markers, we investigated further PPARγ-stimulated proteins with a role in lipid metabolism. We observed an increase of lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR, LRP1) and apolipoprotein E expression during differentiation. Despite this increased expression, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of lipoproteins was decreased in differentiated adipocytes, suggesting that these proteins may have an additional function in adipose tissue beyond lipoprotein uptake

  9. HCMV Infection of Human Trophoblast Progenitor Cells of the Placenta Is Neutralized by a Human Monoclonal Antibody to Glycoprotein B and Not by Antibodies to the Pentamer Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Zydek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the major viral cause of congenital infection and birth defects. Primary maternal infection often results in virus transmission, and symptomatic babies can have permanent neurological deficiencies and deafness. Congenital infection can also lead to intrauterine growth restriction, a defect in placental transport. HCMV replicates in primary cytotrophoblasts (CTBs, the specialized cells of the placenta, and inhibits differentiation/invasion. Human trophoblast progenitor cells (TBPCs give rise to the mature cell types of the chorionic villi, CTBs and multi-nucleated syncytiotrophoblasts (STBs. Here we report that TBPCs are fully permissive for pathogenic and attenuated HCMV strains. Studies with a mutant virus lacking a functional pentamer complex (gH/gL/pUL128-131A showed that virion entry into TBPCs is independent of the pentamer. In addition, infection is blocked by a potent human neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb, TRL345, reactive with glycoprotein B (gB, but not mAbs to the pentamer proteins pUL130/pUL131A. Functional studies revealed that neutralization of infection preserved the capacity of TBPCs to differentiate and assemble into trophospheres composed of CTBs and STBs in vitro. Our results indicate that mAbs to gB protect trophoblast progenitors of the placenta and could be included in antibody treatments developed to suppress congenital infection and prevent disease.

  10. Reduced graphene oxide-coated hydroxyapatite composites stimulate spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Ho; Shin, Yong Cheol; Jin, Oh Seong; Kang, Seok Hee; Hwang, Yu-Shik; Park, Jong-Chul; Hong, Suck Won; Han, Dong-Wook

    2015-07-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite the potential biomedical applications of graphene and its derivatives, only limited information is available regarding their osteogenic activity. This study concentrates upon the effects of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-coated hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites on osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. The average particle sizes of HAp and rGO were 1270 +/- 476 nm and 438 +/- 180 nm, respectively. When coated on HAp particulates, rGO synergistically enhanced spontaneous osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, without hampering their proliferation. This result was confirmed by determining alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralization of calcium and phosphate as early and late stage markers of osteogenic differentiation. It is suggested that rGO-coated HAp composites can be effectively utilized as dental and orthopedic bone fillers since these graphene-based particulate materials have potent effects on stimulating the spontaneous differentiation of MSCs and show superior bioactivity and osteoinductive potential.Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have great potential as cell sources for bone tissue engineering and regeneration, but the control and induction of their specific differentiation into bone cells remain challenging. Graphene-based nanomaterials are considered attractive candidates for biomedical applications such as scaffolds in tissue engineering, substrates for SC differentiation and components of implantable devices, due to their biocompatible and bioactive properties. Despite

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 Enhances Expansion of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells without Diminishing Their Immunosuppressive Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Auletta, Jeffery J.; Zale, Elizabeth A.; Welter, Jean F.; Solchaga, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the main curative therapy for many hematologic malignancies. Its potential relies on graft-versus-tumor effects which associate with graft-versus-host disease. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) possess immunomodulatory properties that make them attractive therapeutic alternatives. We evaluated the in vitro immunosuppressive activity of medium conditioned by human MSCs from 5 donors expanded 13 passages with or without FGF-2. FGF-2 supplemen...

  12. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from cardiac progenitor cells: effects of selective ion channel