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Sample records for human medium-chain acyl-coa

  1. cDNA cloning of rat and human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Y.; Kraus, J.P.; Rosenberg, L.E.; Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    MCAD is one of three mitochondrial flavoenzymes which catalyze the first step in the β-oxidation of straight chain fatty acids. It is a tetramer with a subunit Mr of 45 kDa. MCAD is synthesized in the cytosol as a 49 kDa precursor polypeptide (pMCAD), imported into mitochondria, and cleaved to the mature form. Genetic deficiency of MCAD causes recurrent episodes of hypoglycemic coma accompanied by medium chain dicarboxylic aciduria. Employing a novel approach, the authors now report isolation of partial rat and human cDNA clones encoding pMCAD. mRNA encoding pMCAD was purified to near homogeneity by polysome immunoadsorption using polyclonal monospecific antibody. Single-stranded [ 32 P]labeled cDNA probe was synthesized using the enriched mRNA as template, and was used to screen directly 16,000 colonies from a total rat liver cDNA library constructed in pBR322. One clone (600 bp) was detected by in situ hybridization. Hybrid-selected translation with this cDNA yielded a 49 kDa polypeptide indistinguishable in size from rat pMCAD and immunoprecipitable with anti-MCAD antibody. Using the rat cDNA as probe, 43,000 colonies from a human liver cDNA library were screened. Four identical positive clones (400 bp) were isolated and positively identified by hybrid-selected translation and immunoprecipitation. The sizes of rat and human mRNAs encoding pMCAD were 2.2 kb and 2.4 kb, respectively, as determined by Northern blotting

  2. Medium-chain, triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions increase human neutrophil beta2 integrin expression, adhesion, and degranulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanten, G J; Geijtenbeek, T B; Raymakers, R A; van Kooyk, Y; Roos, D; Jansen, J B; Naber, A H

    2000-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that lipid emulsions with different triglyceride structures have distinct immunomodulatory properties, we analyzed human neutrophil adhesion and degranulation after lipid incubation. Neutrophils, isolated from the blood of 10 healthy volunteers, were incubated in medium or physiologic (2.5 mmol/L) emulsions containing long-chain (LCT), medium-chain (MCT), mixed LCT/MCT, or structured (SL) triglycerides. Expression of adhesion molecules and degranulation markers was evaluated by flow cytometry. Also, functional adhesion was investigated by means of a flow cytometric assay using fluorescent beads coated with the integrin ligand intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. Although LCT and SL had no effect, LCT/MCT significantly increased expression of the beta2 integrins lymphocyte-function-associated antigen 1 (+18%), macrophage antigen 1 (+387%), p150,95 (+82%), and (alphaDbeta2 (+230%). Degranulation marker expression for azurophilic (CD63, +210%) and specific granules (CD66b, +370%) also significantly increased, whereas L-selectin (CD62L, -70%) decreased. The effects of LCT/MCT were mimicked by the MCT emulsion. ICAM-1 adhesion (% beads bound) was increased by LCT/MCT (34% +/- 4%), whereas LCT (19% +/-3%) and SL (20% +/- 2%) had no effect compared with medium (17% +/- 3%). LCT/MCT and MCT, contrary to LCT and SL emulsions, increased neutrophil beta2 integrin expression, adhesion, and degranulation. Apart from other emulsion constituents, triglyceride chain length might therefore be a key feature in the interaction of lipid emulsions and the phagocyte immune system.

  3. Medium chain acylcarnitines dominate the metabolite pattern in humans under moderate intensity exercise and support lipid oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Lehmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exercise is an extreme physiological challenge for skeletal muscle energy metabolism and has notable health benefits. We aimed to identify and characterize metabolites, which are components of the regulatory network mediating the beneficial metabolic adaptation to exercise. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we investigated plasma from healthy human subjects who completed two independent running studies under moderate, predominantly aerobic conditions. Samples obtained prior to and immediately after running and then 3 and 24 h into the recovery phase were analyzed by a non-targeted (NT- metabolomics approach applying liquid chromatography-qTOF-mass spectrometry. Under these conditions medium and long chain acylcarnitines were found to be the most discriminant plasma biomarkers of moderately intense exercise. Immediately after a 60 min (at 93% V(IAT or a 120 min run (at 70% V(IAT a pronounced, transient increase dominated by octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine was observed. The release of acylcarnitines as intermediates of partial beta-oxidation was verified in skeletal muscle cell culture experiments by probing (13C-palmitate metabolism. Further investigations in primary human myotubes and mouse muscle tissue revealed that octanoyl-, decanoyl-, and dodecanoyl-carnitine were able to support the oxidation of palmitate, proving more effective than L-carnitine. CONCLUSIONS: Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. This physiological production and efflux of acylcarnitines might exert beneficial biological functions in muscle tissue.

  4. Medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acids in beverage form increase satiety and reduce food intake in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Hannah; Quinn, Paul; Clegg, Miriam E

    2016-06-01

    Both developed and developing countries are seeing increasing trends of obesity in people young and old. It is thought that satiety may play a role in the prevention of obesity by increasing satiety and reducing energy intake. We hypothesized that medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) would increase satiety and decrease food intake compared with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and a control oil. Nineteen healthy participants were tested on 3 separate occasions, where they consumed a beverage test breakfast containing (1) vegetable oil (control), (2) CLA, or (3) MCT. Participants self-requested an ad libitum sandwich buffet lunch. Time between meals, satiety from visual analog scales, energy intake at lunch, and intake for the rest of the day using weighed food diaries were measured. The results indicated that the time until a meal request was significantly different between the 3 meals (P=.016); however, there were no differences in intakes at the ad libitum lunch (P>.05). The CLA breakfast generated the greatest delay in meal time request. There was a difference between the control lipid compared with both the CLA and MCT for energy intake over the remainder of the test day and for total energy intake on the test day (P.05). Both CLA and MCT increased satiety and reduced energy intake, indicating a potential role in aiding the maintenance of energy balance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Medium-chain, triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions increase human neutrophil beta2 integrin expression, adhesion, and degranulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G. J.; Geijtenbeek, T. B.; Raymakers, R. A.; van Kooyk, Y.; Roos, D.; Jansen, J. B.; Naber, A. H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that lipid emulsions with different triglyceride structures have distinct immunomodulatory properties, we analyzed human neutrophil adhesion and degranulation after lipid incubation. METHODS: Neutrophils, isolated from the blood of 10 healthy volunteers, were

  6. Anticarcinogenic properties of medium chain fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Amoolya; Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-03-05

    Colorectal cancer, breast cancer and skin cancer are commonly-reported cancer types in the U.S. Although radiation and chemotherapy are routinely used to treat cancer, they produce side effects in patients. Additionally, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs has been noticed in cancers. Thus, there is a need for effective and safe bioprophylactics and biotherapeutics in cancer therapy. The medicinal value of goat milk has been recognized for centuries and is primarily attributed to three fatty acids, namely capric, caprylic and caproic acids. This research investigates the anticancer property of these fatty acids on human colorectal, skin and mammary gland cancer cells. The cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of fatty acids for 48 h, and cell viability was monitored by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Additionally, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was performed to elucidate the potential anti-cancer mechanisms of the three fatty acids under investigation. Capric, caprylic and caproic acids reduced cancer cell viability by 70% to 90% (p acids in an appropriate in vivo model.

  7. Binding of the human "electron transferring flavoprotein" (ETF) to the medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) involves an arginine and histidine residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Antony R

    2003-10-01

    The interaction between the "electron transferring flavoprotein" (ETF) and medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) enables successful flavin to flavin electron transfer, crucial for the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. The exact biochemical determinants for ETF binding to MCAD are unknown. Here we show that binding of human ETF, to MCAD, was inhibited by 2,3-butanedione and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) and reversed by incubation with free arginine and hydroxylamine respectively. Spectral analyses of native ETF vs modified ETF suggested that flavin binding was not affected and that the loss of ETF activity with MCAD involved modification of one ETF arginine residue and one ETF histidine residue respectively. MCAD and octanoyl-CoA protected ETF against inactivation by both 2,3-butanedione and DEPC indicating that the arginine and histidine residues are present in or around the MCAD binding site. Comparison of exposed arginine and histidine residues among different ETF species, however, indicates that arginine residues are highly conserved but that histidine residues are not. These results lead us to conclude that this single arginine residue is essential for the binding of ETF to MCAD, but that the single histidine residue, although involved, is not.

  8. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, Christoph; Kaemmerer, Ulrike; Illert, Bertram; Muehling, Bettina; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wittig, Rainer; Voelker, Hans Ullrich; Thiede, Arnulf; Coy, Johannes F

    2008-01-01

    Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12) or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12) ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm 3 to 700 mm 3 . The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume). The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT delayed tumour growth in a mouse xenograft model. Further

  9. Growth of human gastric cancer cells in nude mice is delayed by a ketogenic diet supplemented with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voelker Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the most prominent metabolic alterations in cancer cells are the increase in glucose consumption and the conversion of glucose to lactic acid via the reduction of pyruvate even in the presence of oxygen. This phenomenon, known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, may provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies that inhibit tumour growth by administration of a ketogenic diet with average protein but low in carbohydrates and high in fat enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT. Methods Twenty-four female NMRI nude mice were injected subcutaneously with tumour cells of the gastric adenocarcinoma cell line 23132/87. The animals were then randomly split into two feeding groups and fed either a ketogenic diet (KD group; n = 12 or a standard diet (SD group; n = 12 ad libitum. Experiments were ended upon attainment of the target tumor volume of 600 mm3 to 700 mm3. The two diets were compared based on tumour growth and survival time (interval between tumour cell injection and attainment of target tumour volume. Results The ketogenic diet was well accepted by the KD mice. The tumour growth in the KD group was significantly delayed compared to that in the SD group. Tumours in the KD group reached the target tumour volume at 34.2 ± 8.5 days versus only 23.3 ± 3.9 days in the SD group. After day 20, tumours in the KD group grew faster although the differences in mean tumour growth continued significantly. Importantly, they revealed significantly larger necrotic areas than tumours of the SD group and the areas with vital tumour cells appear to have had fewer vessels than tumours of the SD group. Viable tumour cells in the border zone surrounding the necrotic areas of tumours of both groups exhibited a glycolytic phenotype with expression of glucose transporter-1 and transketolase-like 1 enzyme. Conclusion Application of an unrestricted ketogenic diet enriched with omega-3 fatty acids and MCT

  10. 5,5'-Dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) as a probe for a non-essential cysteine residue at the medium chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase binding site of the human 'electron transferring flavoprotein' (ETF).

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    Parker, A; Engel, P C

    1999-01-01

    Human 'electron transferring flavoprotein' (ETF) was inactivated by the thiol-specific reagent 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). The kinetic profile showed the reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics during the initial phase of inactivation. Monitoring the release of 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate (TNB) showed that modification of 1 cysteine residue was responsible for the loss of activity. The inactivation of ETF by DTNB could be reversed upon incubation with thiol-containing reagents. The loss of activity was prevented by the inclusion of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) and octanoyl-CoA. Cyanolysis of the DTNB modified-ETF with KCN led to the release of TNB accompanied presumably by the formation of the thio-cyano enzyme and with almost full recovery of activity. Conservation studies and the lack of 100% inactivation, however, suggested that this cysteine residue is not essential for the interaction with MCAD.

  11. Detection of carrier heterogeneity by rate of ligand dialysis: medium-chain fatty acid interaction with human serum albumin and competition with chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Brodersen, R

    1988-01-01

    Binding equilibria for decanoate, octanoate, and hexanoate to defatted human serum albumin were investigated by dialysis exchange rate determinations in 66 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, 37 degrees C. The binding isotherms for decanoate and octanoate could not be fitted by the general binding......(5) M-1, respectively, for decanoate; 1.6 X 10(6) and 3.5 X 10(4) for octanoate; and 7.1 X 10(4) and 8.0 X 10(2) M-1 for hexanoate. The high-affinity albumin component binds 1 mol decanoate, 1 mol octanoate, or 2 mol hexanoate more than is bound to the low-affinity component. Chloride ions compete...

  12. Similarities and differences between the responses induced in human phagocytes through activation of the medium chain fatty acid receptor GPR84 and the short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Martina; Christenson, Karin; Holdfeldt, André; Gabl, Michael; Mårtensson, Jonas; Björkman, Lena; Dieckmann, Regis; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei

    2018-05-01

    GPR84 is a recently de-orphanized member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family recognizing medium chain fatty acids, and has been suggested to play important roles in inflammation. Due to the lack of potent and selective GPR84 ligands, the basic knowledge related to GPR84 functions is very limited. In this study, we have characterized the GPR84 activation profile and regulation mechanism in human phagocytes, using two recently developed small molecules that specifically target GPR84 agonistically (ZQ16) and antagonistically (GLPG1205), respectively. Compared to our earlier characterization of the short chain fatty acid receptor FFA2R which is functionally expressed in neutrophils but not in monocytes, GPR84 is expressed in both cell types and in monocyte-derived macrophages. In neutrophils, the GPR84 agonist had an activation profile very similar to that of FFA2R. The GPR84-mediated superoxide release was low in naïve cells, but the response could be significantly primed by TNFα and by the actin cytoskeleton disrupting agent Latrunculin A. Similar to that of FFA2R, a desensitization mechanism bypassing the actin cytoskeleton was utilized by GPR84. All ZQ16-mediated cellular responses were sensitive to GLPG1205, confirming the GPR84-dependency. Finally, our data of in vivo transmigrated tissue neutrophils indicate that both GPR84 and FFA2R are involved in neutrophil recruitment processes in vivo. In summary, we show functional similarities but also some important differences between GPR84 and FFA2R in human phagocytes, thus providing some mechanistic insights into GPR84 regulation in blood neutrophils and cells recruited to an aseptic inflammatory site in vivo. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Importance of medium chain fatty acids in animal nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltić, B.; Starčević, M.; Đorđević, J.; Mrdović, B.; Marković, R.

    2017-09-01

    Fats in animal and human nutrition are a common subject of research. These studies most often pay attention to particular fat groups (saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated fats or fats grouped by the length of their fatty acid chains into short, medium or long chain fatty acids). Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have two main sources: milk and coconut oil. To date, research has shown these acids have positive effects on health, production, feed digestibility and lower body and muscle fats in broilers and swine. MCFAs possess antibacterial, anticoccidial and antiviral effects. Also, it has been proven that these acids act synergistically if they are used together with organic acids, essential oils, or probiotics. Nowadays, commercial MCFA products are available for use in animal nutrition as feed additives.

  14. Two novel variants of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). K364R, a folding mutation, and R256T, a catalytic-site mutation resulting in a well-folded but totally inactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Linda P; Andresen, Brage S; Engel, Paul C

    2005-01-01

    was again totally inactive. Neither mutant showed marked depletion of FAD. The pure K364R protein was considerably less thermostable than wild-type MCAD. Western blots indicated that, although the R256T mutant protein is less thermostable than normal MCAD, it is much more stable than K364R. Though......Two novel rare mutations, MCAD approximately 842G-->C (R256T) and MCAD approximately 1166A-->G (K364R), have been investigated to assess how far the biochemical properties of the mutant proteins correlate with the clinical phenotype of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency. When...... the gene for K364R was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, the synthesized mutant protein only exhibited activity when the gene for chaperonin GroELS was co-overexpressed. Levels of activity correlated with the amounts of native MCAD protein visible in western blots. The R256T mutant, by contrast, displayed...

  15. Inhibition of gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion by medium-chain triglycerides and long-chain triglycerides in healthy young men.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.I.M.; Hopman, W.P.M.; Katan, M.B.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Long-chain triglycerides inhibit gastric acid secretion, but the effect of medium-chain triglycerides in humans is unknown. We compared the effects of intraduodenally perfused saline, medium-chain and long-chain triglycerides on gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion and cholecystokinin release.

  16. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waddell, Leigh; Wiley, Veronica; Carpenter, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The fatty acid oxidation disorder most commonly identified by tandem mass spectrometry newborn screening is the potentially fatal medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). In clinically presenting cases, 80% are homozygous for the common mutation, c.985A > G and 18% heterozygous. We ...

  17. Molecular diagnosis and characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G

    1995-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most common defect in mitochondrial beta-oxidation in humans. It is an autosomal recessive disorder which usually presents in infancy. The disease manifests itself in periods of metabolic stress to the beta-oxidation system and may...... of correct enzyme structure, and does not directly affect the catalytically active regions of the enzyme. We find that our diagnostic set up, consisting of an initial testing by the G985 assay, followed by semi-automated sequencing of DNA from those patients who were indicated to be compound heterozygous...

  18. Calculation of Physicochemical Properties for Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüge, Juliane; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Buser, Andreas M.; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2013-06-01

    Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins are potential PBT chemicals (persistent, bioaccumulative, toxic) and short-chain chlorinated paraffins are under review for inclusion in the UNEP Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Despite their high production volume of more than one million metric tonnes per year, only few data on their physicochemical properties are available. We calculated subcooled-liquid vapor pressure, subcooled-liquid solubility in water and octanol, Henry's law constant for water and octanol, as well as the octanol-water partition coefficient with the property calculation methods COSMOtherm, SPARC, and EPI Suite™, and compared the results to experimental data from the literature. For all properties, good or very good agreement between calculated and measured data was obtained for COSMOtherm; results from SPARC were in good agreement with the measured data except for subcooled-liquid water solubility, whereas EPI Suite™ showed the largest discrepancies for all properties. After critical evaluation of the three property calculation methods, a final set of recommended property data for short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins was derived. The calculated property data show interesting relationships with chlorine content and carbon chain length. Increasing chlorine content does not cause pronounced changes in water solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) as long as it is below 55%. Increasing carbon chain length leads to strong increases in KOW and corresponding decreases in subcooled-liquid water solubility. The present data set can be used in further studies to assess the environmental fate and human exposure of this relevant compound class.

  19. Effects of two mutations detected in medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)-deficient patients on folding, oligomer assembly, and stability of MCAD enzyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Jespersen, C; Jensen, T G

    1995-01-01

    We have used expression of human medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) in Escherichia coli as a model system for dissecting the molecular effects of two mutations detected in patients with MCAD deficiency. We demonstrate that the R28C mutation predominantly affects polypeptide folding...

  20. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raudsepp, P.; Brüggemann, D.A.; Lenferink, Aufrid T.M.; Otto, Cornelis; Andersen, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during storage

  1. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenet, Jonathan; De Marchi, Umberto; Domingo, Jaime Santo; Christinat, Nicolas; Bultot, Laurent; Lefebvre, Gregory; Sakamoto, Kei; Descombes, Patrick; Masoodi, Mojgan; Wiederkehr, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides have been used as part of a ketogenic diet effective in reducing epileptic episodes. The health benefits of the derived medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are thought to result from the stimulation of liver ketogenesis providing fuel for the brain. We tested whether MCFAs have direct effects on energy metabolism in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human astrocytes and neurons. Using single-cell imaging, we observed an acute pronounced reduction of the mitochondrial electrical potential and a concomitant drop of the NAD(P)H signal in astrocytes, but not in neurons. Despite the observed effects on mitochondrial function, MCFAs did not lower intracellular ATP levels or activate the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase. ATP concentrations in astrocytes were unaltered, even when blocking the respiratory chain, suggesting compensation through accelerated glycolysis. The MCFA decanoic acid (300 μM) promoted glycolysis and augmented lactate formation by 49.6%. The shorter fatty acid octanoic acid (300 μM) did not affect glycolysis but increased the rates of astrocyte ketogenesis 2.17-fold compared with that of control cells. MCFAs may have brain health benefits through the modulation of astrocyte metabolism leading to activation of shuttle systems that provide fuel to neighboring neurons in the form of lactate and ketone bodies.-Thevenet, J., De Marchi, U., Santo Domingo, J., Christinat, N., Bultot, L., Lefebvre, G., Sakamoto, K., Descombes, P., Masoodi, M., Wiederkehr, A. Medium-chain fatty acids inhibit mitochondrial metabolism in astrocytes promoting astrocyte-neuron lactate and ketone body shuttle systems. © FASEB.

  2. Medium-chain fatty acid-sensing receptor, GPR84, is a proinflammatory receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masakatsu; Takaishi, Sachiko; Nagasaki, Miyuki; Onozawa, Yoshiko; Iino, Ikue; Maeda, Hiroaki; Komai, Tomoaki; Oda, Tomiichiro

    2013-04-12

    G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a putative receptor for medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), whose pathophysiological roles have not yet been clarified. Here, we show that GPR84 was activated by MCFAs with the hydroxyl group at the 2- or 3-position more effectively than nonhydroxylated MCFAs. We also identified a surrogate agonist, 6-n-octylaminouracil (6-OAU), for GPR84. These potential ligands and the surrogate agonist, 6-OAU, stimulated [(35)S]GTP binding and accumulated phosphoinositides in a GPR84-dependent manner. The surrogate agonist, 6-OAU, internalized GPR84-EGFP from the cell surface. Both the potential ligands and 6-OAU elicited chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages and amplified LPS-stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 from PMNs and TNFα from macrophages. Furthermore, the intravenous injection of 6-OAU raised the blood CXCL1 level in rats, and the inoculation of 6-OAU into the rat air pouch accumulated PMNs and macrophages in the site. Our results indicate a proinflammatory role of GPR84, suggesting that the receptor may be a novel target to treat chronic low grade inflammation associated-disease.

  3. Enabling the synthesis of medium chain alkanes and 1-alkenes in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Yongjin J.; Kang, Min Kyoung

    2017-01-01

    Microbial synthesis of medium chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, attractive drop-in molecules to gasoline and jet fuels, is a promising way to reduce our reliance on petroleum-based fuels. In this study, we enabled the synthesis of straight chain hydrocarbons (C7–C13) by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae...

  4. Medium-chain fatty acids as ligands for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinghong; Wu, Xiaosu; Simonavicius, Nicole; Tian, Hui; Ling, Lei

    2006-11-10

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) play important physiological roles in many tissues as an energy source and as signaling molecules in various cellular processes. Elevated levels of circulating FFAs are associated with obesity, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Here we show that GPR84, a previously orphan G protein-coupled receptor, functions as a receptor for medium-chain FFAs with carbon chain lengths of 9-14. Medium-chain FFAs elicit calcium mobilization, inhibit 3',5'-cyclic AMP production, and stimulate [35S]guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) binding in a GPR84-dependent manner. The activation of GPR84 by medium-chain FFAs couples primarily to a pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i/o) pathway. In addition, we show that GPR84 is selectively expressed in leukocytes and markedly induced in monocytes/macrophages upon activation by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, we demonstrate that medium-chain FFAs amplify lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-12 p40 through GPR84. Our results indicate a role for GPR84 in directly linking fatty acid metabolism to immunological regulation.

  5. Mechanisms of action for the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet in neurological and metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katrin; Khabbush, Aziza; Williams, Sophie; Eaton, Simon; Orford, Michael; Cross, J Helen; Heales, Simon J R; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2018-01-01

    High-fat, low-carbohydrate diets, known as ketogenic diets, have been used as a non-pharmacological treatment for refractory epilepsy. A key mechanism of this treatment is thought to be the generation of ketones, which provide brain cells (neurons and astrocytes) with an energy source that is more efficient than glucose, resulting in beneficial downstream metabolic changes, such as increasing adenosine levels, which might have effects on seizure control. However, some studies have challenged the central role of ketones because medium-chain fatty acids, which are part of a commonly used variation of the diet (the medium-chain triglyceride ketogenic diet), have been shown to directly inhibit AMPA receptors (glutamate receptors), and to change cell energetics through mitochondrial biogenesis. Through these mechanisms, medium-chain fatty acids rather than ketones are likely to block seizure onset and raise seizure threshold. The mechanisms underlying the ketogenic diet might also have roles in other disorders, such as preventing neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, the proliferation and spread of cancer, and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. Analysing medium-chain fatty acids in future ketogenic diet studies will provide further insights into their importance in modified forms of the diet. Moreover, the results of these studies could facilitate the development of new pharmacological and dietary therapies for epilepsy and other disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk assessment of Short and Medium Chain Chlorinated Paraffin’s (SCCP and MCCP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Frans Møller; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2002-01-01

    findings of the Short Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (SCCP) and the draft Medium Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) risk assessments. The political actions taken as a consequence of the assessments are also described. The risk assessments have been prepared according to the EU Technical Guidance Document (TGD...

  7. Two-stage medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) production from municipal solid waste and ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootscholten, T.I.M.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chain elongation is an anaerobic fermentation that produces medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) from volatile fatty acids and ethanol. These MCFAs can be used as biochemical building blocks for fuel production and other chemical processes. Producing MCFAs from the organic fraction of municipal solid

  8. Medium chain glycerides of coconut oil for microwave-enhanced conversion of polycarbonate into polyols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Paruzel, Aleksandra; Trhlíková, Olga; Paruzel, Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 86, January (2017), s. 173-187 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : medium chain triglycerides * coconut oil * polycarbonate Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.531, year: 2016

  9. Incorporation of medium chain fatty acids into fish oil triglycerides by chemical and enzymatic inter esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feltes, M. M. C.; Oliveira de Pilot, L.; Gomes Correira, F.; Grimaldi, R.; Mara Block, J.; Ninow, J. L.

    2009-07-01

    Structured triglycerides (STs) containing both medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs), while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM) and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic) on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after inter esterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermo grams obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) showed that inter esterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced. (Author) 70 refs.

  10. The Role of GPR84 in Medium-chain Saturated Fatty Acid Taste Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown the gustatory recognition of the long-chain unsaturated fatty acids. In this study, I showed for the first time that medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MCFAs) are effective taste stimuli at both the cellular and behavioral levels. The mechanisms of gustatory recognition of MCFAs in mice were also partially elucidated using pharmaceutical approaches. The inward currents induced by capric acid in mouse taste cells were significantly inhibited by the antagonists of G...

  11. Fermentative Extraction of Coconut Oil to Maintain a Quality of Medium Chain Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Salahudin, Farid; Supriyatna, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Coconut oil is healthy vegetable oil because it contains Medium Chain Fatty Acid (MCFA). The used of bleaching agent and excessive heating in coconut oil process will produce low quality oil (rancid). Therefore, it is necessary to processing that does not use chemicals and excessive heating such as fermentation using microbe and enzyme. The aim of this study was to find out the effect of bromelin enzyme concentration and Saccharomyces cereviceae fermentation to MCFA content in coconut oil. Th...

  12. Medium-chain fatty acids undergo elongation before β-oxidation in fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Butt, Yasmeen; Messmer, Bette; Boriak, Richard; Bennett, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Although mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation (FAO) is considered to be well understood, further elucidation of the pathway continues through evaluation of patients with FAO defects. The FAO pathway can be examined by measuring the 3-hydroxy-fatty acid (3-OHFA) intermediates. We present a unique finding in the study of this pathway: the addition of medium-chain fatty acids to the culture media of fibroblasts results in generation of 3-OHFAs which are two carbons longer than the precursor substrate. Cultured skin fibroblasts from normal and LCHAD-deficient individuals were grown in media supplemented with various chain-length fatty acids. The cell-free medium was analyzed for 3-OHFAs by stable-isotope dilution gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Our finding suggests that a novel carbon chain-length elongation process precedes the oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids. This previously undescribed metabolic step may have important implications for the metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides, components in the dietary treatment of a number of disorders

  13. Evidence for involvement of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in the metabolism of phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormanik, Kaitlyn; Kang, Heejung; Cuebas, Dean; Vockley, Jerry; Mohsen, Al-Walid

    2012-12-01

    Sodium phenylbutyrate is used for treating urea cycle disorders, providing an alternative for ammonia excretion. Following conversion to its CoA ester, phenylbutyryl-CoA is postulated to undergo one round of β-oxidation to phenylacetyl-CoA, the active metabolite. Molecular modeling suggests that medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD; EC 1.3.99.3), a key enzyme in straight chain fatty acid β-oxidation, could utilize phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate. Moreover, phenylpropionyl-CoA has been shown to be a substrate for MCAD and its intermediates accumulate in patients with MCAD deficiency. We have examined the involvement of MCAD and other acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) in the metabolism of phenylbutyryl-CoA. Anaerobic titration of purified recombinant human MCAD with phenylbutyryl-CoA caused changes in the MCAD spectrum that are similar to those induced by octanoyl-CoA, its bona fide substrate, and unique to the development of the charge transfer ternary complex. The calculated apparent dissociation constant (K(D app)) for these substrates was 2.16 μM and 0.12 μM, respectively. The MCAD reductive and oxidative half reactions were monitored using the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) fluorescence reduction assay. The catalytic efficiency and the K(m) for phenylbutyryl-CoA were 0.2 mM 34(-1)·sec(-1) and 5.3 μM compared to 4.0 mM(-1)·sec(-1) and 2.8 μM for octanoyl-CoA. Extracts of wild type and MCAD-deficient lymphoblast cells were tested for the ability to reduce ETF using phenylbutyryl-CoA as substrate. While ETF reduction activity was detected in extracts of wild type cells, it was undetectable in extracts of cells deficient in MCAD. The results are consistent with MCAD playing a key role in phenylbutyrate metabolism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by INEOS Chlor Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  16. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Dover Chemical

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  17. Standard Review Risk Assessment on Medium-chain and Long-chain Chlorinated paraffin PMN submissions by Qualice, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This assessment was conducted under EPA’s TSCA Section 5 New Chemicals Program. EPA is assessing Medium-chain Chlorinated Paraffin (MCCP) and Long-Chain Chlorinated Paraffin (LCCP) chemicals as part of its New Chemicals Review program.

  18. Oxidative stabilization of mixed mayonnaises made with linseed oil and saturated medium-chain triglyceride oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudsepp, Piret; Brüggemann, Dagmar A.; Lenferink, Aufried

    2014-01-01

    Mayonnaises, made with either saturated medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil or unsaturated purified linseed oil (LSO), were mixed. Raman confocal microspectrometry demonstrated that lipid droplets in mixed mayonnaise remained intact containing either MCT oil or LSO. Peroxide formation during...... showed radicals are formed in the aqueous phase with the same rate independent of the lipids. This was also reflected in decay of α-tocopherol during storage being similar in MCT and LSO mayonnaises, but being stable in mixed oil mayonnaise and mixed mayonnaise. Results suggest that other effects than...

  19. Perspectives of medium chain length poly(hydroxyalkanoates), a versatile set of bacterial bioplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witholt; Kessler

    1999-06-01

    Medium chain length (mcl) poly(hydroxyalkanoic acids) (PHAs) are polyesters accumulated by fluorescent Pseudomonads and other bacteria. Work on the genetics of mcl-PHA formation has led to polymer synthesis in recombinant bacteria and plants. Several high and medium cost applications are now emerging. With optimized bacterial mcl-PHA synthesis on inexpensive agro-substrates and the development of plant-based mcl-PHAs in the next decade, the production economics of these bioplastics will ultimately permit their sustainable production for bulk applications.

  20. Enhanced Bioavailability of Curcumin Nanoemulsions Stabilized with Phosphatidylcholine Modified with Medium Chain Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-Flores, Angélica A; Hernández-Becerra, Josafat A; Cavazos-Garduño, Adriana; Soto-Rodríguez, Ida; Sanchez-Otero, Maria Guadalupe; Vernon-Carter, Eduardo J; García, Hugo S

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural, oil-soluble polyphenolic compound with potent anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activities. In its free form, it is very poorly absorbed in the gut due to its very low solubility. The use of nanoemulsions as carrier is a feasible way for improving curcumin bioavailability. To this end, the choice of emulsifying agent for stabilizing the nanoemulsions is of the upmost importance for achieving a desired functionality. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidycholine enriched (PCE) with medium chain fatty acids (42.5 mol %) in combination with glycerol as co-surfactant, were used for preparing oil-in water nanoemulsions coded as NEPC and NEPCE, respectively. NEPCE displayed significantly smaller mean droplet size (30 nm), equal entrapment efficiency (100%), better droplet stability and suffered lower encapsulation efficiency loss (3%) during storage time (120 days, 4ºC) than NEPC. Bioavailability, measured in terms of area under the curve of curcumin concentration versus time, and maximum curcumin plasma concentration, was in general terms significantly higher for NEPCE than for NEPC, and for curcumin coarse aqueous suspension (CCS). Also, NEPCE produced significantly higher curcumin concentrations in liver and lung than NEPC and CCS. These data support the role of phosphatidylcholine enriched with medium chain fatty acids to increase the bioavailability of nanoemulsions for therapeutic applications. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Parental Experiences of Raising a Child With Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary Piercy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Newborn screening enabling early diagnosis of medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD has dramatically improved health outcomes in children with MCADD. Achieving those outcomes depends on effective management by parents. Understanding parental management strategies and associated anxieties and concerns is needed to inform provision of appropriate care and support. Semistructured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of parents of children aged 2 to 12 years. Thematic analysis identified two main themes. Managing dietary intake examined how parents managed day-to-day dietary intake to ensure adequate intake and protection of safe fasting intervals. Managing and preventing illness events explored parental experiences of managing illness events and their approach to preventing these events. Management strategies were characterized by caution and vigilance and influenced by a lack of confidence in others to manage the condition. The study identifies the need for increased awareness of the condition, particularly in relation to emergency treatment.

  2. Nonclinical safety and pharmacokinetics of Miglyol 812: A medium chain triglyceride in exenatide once weekly suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Nicholas; Ryan, Patricia; Baughman, Todd; Roy, Denis; Patterson, Claire; Gordon, Carolyn; Dixit, Rakesh

    2018-05-28

    Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist was originally developed as either a twice daily or once weekly injectable therapeutic for patients with type 2 diabetes. Exenatide QW suspension was developed for use with an autoinjector device, in which the microspheres are suspended in Miglyol 812, a mixture of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). MCTs are a class of lipids whose fatty acid chains contain from six to 12 carbon atoms (medium chain fatty acids or MCFAs). While MCTs are edible oils present in many foods, including foodstuffs containing coconut and palm kernel oils, limited information is available regarding the oral and subcutaneous bioavailability of MCTs as well as safety following subcutaneous injection. These studies were designed to investigate the non-clinical pharmacokinetics and safety of MCTs. In a single dose pharmacokinetic study, MCFAs were rapidly detected in the plasma of rats following oral administration of either Miglyol 812 or tricaprylin at doses of 10 or 9.48 g kg -1 , respectively. Following subcutaneous dosing with Miglyol 812, MCFAs were rapidly absorbed with a similar profile to that following oral dosing. Furthermore, the toxicity of Miglyol 812 alone was evaluated in a 3 month repeat dose toxicology studies in cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, weekly subcutaneous doses of 0.15 g kg -1 did not elicit any treatment-related effects in cynomolgus monkeys. In conclusion, these studies alongside the available literature data show that Miglyol 812 is a safe excipient for use in subcutaneously administered therapeutics. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Selective deuteration for molecular insights into the digestion of medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salentinig, Stefan; Yepuri, Nageshwar Rao; Hawley, Adrian; Boyd, Ben J; Gilbert, Elliot; Darwish, Tamim A

    2015-09-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are a unique form of dietary fat that have a wide range of health benefits. They are molecules with a glycerol backbone esterified with medium chain (6-12 carbon atoms) fatty acids on the two outer (sn-1 and sn-3) and the middle (sn-2) positions. During lipid digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic lipase stereoselectively hydrolyses the ester bonds of these triglycerides on the sn-1 and sn-3 positions resulting in sn-2 monoglyceride and fatty acids as major products. However, the sn-2 monoglycerides are thermodynamically less stable than their sn-1/3 counterparts. Isomerization or fatty acid migration from the sn-2 monoglyceride to sn-1/3 monoglyceride may occur spontaneously and would lead to glycerol and fatty acid as final products. Here, tricaprin (C10) with selectively deuterated fatty acid chains was used for the first time to monitor chain migration and the stereoselectivity of the pancreatic lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of ester bonds. The intermediate and final digestion products were studied using NMR and mass spectrometry under biologically relevant conditions. The hydrolysis of the sn-2 monocaprin to glycerol and capric acid did not occur within biologically relevant timescales and fatty acid migration occurs only in limited amounts as a result of the presence of undigested diglyceride species over long periods of time in the digestion medium. The slow kinetics for the exchange of the sn-2 fatty acid chain and the stereoselectivity of pancreatic lipase on MCTs is relevant for industrial processes that involve enzymatic interesterification and the production of high-value products such as specific structured triacylglycerols, confectionery fats and nutritional products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for medium chain triglycerides in the treatment of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, A P; Guvenc, B H; Carachi, R

    2009-08-01

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is an uncommon congenital anomaly. It is an intrinsic abnormality of the intestinal lymphatics system. Over the years, various treatment options such as diuretics, albumin transfusions and a medium chain triglycerides (MCT) diet as well as surgical options such as resection of isolated segments and peritoneal-venous shunts have been used. An MCT diet, which is a low fat, high protein diet, is increasingly used in the management of this anomaly. The aim was to review the evidence for medium chain triglycerides as a therapeutic option in patients with primary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A literature search was performed and individual case details were extracted. We found 55 cases, of which 3 were from our own institute. The cases were divided in 2 groups: Group A (n=27) consisted of patients treated with MCT, and Group B (n=28) consisted patients not treated with MCT. Cases were analysed for symptomatic response to MCT as well as mortality. 17 of 27 cases (63%) treated with MCT had complete resolution of symptoms while only 10 of 28 (35.7%) patients in group B showed complete resolution. Mortality for Group A was 1 out of 27 (3.7%), while mortality in group B was 5 of 28 (17.85%) patients. We conclude that, although an MCT diet is not completely curative in all cases, it does improve the symptoms of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia and reduces mortality. Hence it is a valid option in the paediatric age group. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  5. Minor amounts of plasma medium-chain fatty acids and no improved time trial performance after consuming lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Bodil; Nybo, L.; Xu, Xuebing

    2003-01-01

    after consumption of specific structured triacylglycerol, consisting of a mixture of medium-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids, to prevent the adverse effects observed by MCT (pure medium-chain fatty acids) regarding gastrointestinal distress. Seven well-trained subjects cycled 3 h at 55......% of maximum 02 uptake during which they ingested CHO or CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerols. Immediately after the constant-load cycling, the subjects performed a time trial of similar to50-min duration. Breath and blood samples were obtained regularly during the experiment. Fatty acid composition...... of plasma triacylglycerols, fatty acids, and phospholipids was determined. Performance was similar after administration of CHO plus specific structured triacylglycerol [medium-, long-, and medium-chain fatty acid (MLM)] compared with CHO (50.0 +/- 1.8 and 50.8 +/- 3.6 min, respectively). No plasma 8...

  6. Incorporation of medium chain fatty acids into fish oil triglycerides by chemical and enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Structured triglycerides (STs containing both medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in the same molecule offer nutritional and therapeutic benefits. The aim of this work was to establish the incorporation of MCFA into fish oil triglycerides (TAGs, while maintaining substantial levels of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids. The effects of different acyl donors (capric acid methyl ester/MeC10 or medium chain triglyceride/TCM and of the catalyst (chemical or enzymatic on the fatty acid composition of the reaction product were studied. The fatty acid composition of the fish oil TAG was modified after interesterification to contain MCFA, and it depended on the catalyst and on the substrates. Thermograms obtained by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC showed that interesterification promoted noteworthy changes in the melting profile of the samples. STs of clinical nutrition interest containing both EPA and DHA obtained from fish oil along with MCFA were successfully produced.

    Triglicéridos estructurados (SL conteniendo ácidos grasos de cadena media (MCFA y ácidos grasos poliinsaturados (PUFA en la misma molécula de glicerol tienen ventajas nutricionales y terapéuticas. Se establece la incorporación de MCFA a los triglicéridos (TAGs de aceite de pescado, conservando un contenido considerable de ácidos docosahexaenóico (DHA y eicosapentaenóico (EPA. El efecto de diferentes acil donadores (éster metílico de ácido cáprico/MeC10 o triglicéridos de cadena media/TCM y de catalizador (químico o enzimático sobre la composición del producto de las reacciones fue estudiado. La composición de ácidos grasos de los TAGs del aceite de pescado fue modificada después de las reacciones para contener MCFA y dependió del catalizador y de los substratos. Los termogramas obtenidos por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC indicaron que la interesterificación provocó alteraciones considerables de

  7. Parenteral medium-chain triglyceride-induced neutrophil activation is not mediated by a Pertussis Toxin sensitive receptor.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versleijen, M.W.J.; Esterik, J.C. van; Schaap-Roelofs, H.M.J.; Emst-de Vries, S.E. van; Willems, P.H.G.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lipid-induced immune modulation might contribute to the increased infection rate that is observed in patients using parenteral nutrition. We previously showed that emulsions containing medium-chain triglycerides (LCT/MCTs or pure MCTs), but not pure long-chain triglycerides

  8. Effects of a meal rich in medium-chain saturated fat on postprandial lipemia in relatives of type 2 diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietraszek, Anna; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2013-01-01

    tissue in REL and CON. METHODS: Seventeen REL and 17 CON received a fat-rich meal (79 energy percent from fat) based on medium-chain SFA (coconut oil). Plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG), free-fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulintropic peptide...

  9. Link between lipid metabolism and voluntary food intake in rainbow trout fed coconut oil rich in medium-chain TAG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo-Silva, A.C.; Kaushik, S.; Terrier, F.; Schrama, J.W.; Médale, F.; Geurden, I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the long-term effect of feeding coconut oil (CO; rich in lauric acid, C12) on voluntary food intake and nutrient utilisation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), with particular attention to the metabolic use (storage or oxidation) of ingested medium-chain TAG. Trout were fed for 15

  10. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metabolic syndrome is often accompanied by development of hepatic steatosis and less frequently by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) leading to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Replacement of corn oil with medium chain triacylglycerols (MCT) in the diets of alcohol-fed rats has been show...

  11. Development of environmentally friendly coatings and paints using medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) as the polymer binder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walle, van der G.A.M.; Buisman, F.J.H.; Weusthuis, R.A.; Eggink, G.

    1999-01-01

    Unsaturated medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) produced by Pseudomonas putida from linseed oil fatty acids (LOFA) and tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), were used as the polymer binder in the formulation of high solid alkyd-like paints. The relatively high concentration of

  12. Alterations of hippocampal glucose metabolism by even versus uneven medium chain triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Tanya S; Tan, Kah Ni; Hodson, Mark P; Borges, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs) are used to treat neurologic disorders with metabolic impairments, including childhood epilepsy and early Alzheimer's disease. However, the metabolic effects of MCTs in the brain are still unclear. Here, we studied the effects of feeding even and uneven MCTs on brain glucose metabolism in the mouse. Adult mice were fed 35% (calories) of trioctanoin or triheptanoin (the triglycerides of octanoate or heptanoate, respectively) or a matching control diet for 3 weeks. Enzymatic assays and targeted metabolomics by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry were used to quantify metabolites in extracts from the hippocampal formations (HFs). Both oils increased the levels of β-hydroxybutyrate, but no other significant metabolic alterations were observed after triheptanoin feeding. The levels of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate were increased in the HF of mice fed trioctanoin, whereas levels of metabolites further downstream in the glycolytic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway were reduced. This indicates that trioctanoin reduces glucose utilization because of a decrease in phosphofructokinase activity. Trioctanoin and triheptanoin showed similar anticonvulsant effects in the 6 Hz seizure model, but it remains unknown to what extent the anticonvulsant mechanism(s) are shared. In conclusion, triheptanoin unlike trioctanoin appears to not alter glucose metabolism in the healthy brain. PMID:24169853

  13. The effect of massage with medium-chain triglyceride oil on weight gain in premature neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prematurity and poor weight gaining are important causes for neonatal hospitalization. The present study aimed to investigate the role of medium-chain triglyceride (MCT oil via massage therapy as a supplementary nutritional method on the weight gain of Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU-hospitalized neonates. This randomized clinical trial performed among 121 stable premature neonates hospitalized in the NICU of Qaem Educational Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. They were randomly divided into three groups: oil-massage, massage alone and control groups. These groups were compared on the basis of weight gain during a one-week interval. The three groups were matched for sex, mean gestational age, birth weight, head circumference, delivery, and feeding type (P>0.05. The mean weight gain on the 7th day in the oil massage group was 105±1.3gr and 52±0.1gr in the massage group; whereas 54±1.3gr weight loss was observed in the control group. Significant differences were observed between the oil-massage group and the other two groups, respectively (P=0.002 and P=0.000. The findings of this study suggest that transcutaneous feeding with MCT oil massage therapy in premature neonates can result in accelerated weight gain in this age group with no risk of NEC.

  14. Effects of medium-chain triacylglycerols on Maillard reaction in bread baking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyosaki, Toshiyuki

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between the fatty acid composition of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) and the Maillard reaction induced during bread baking, a comparison with various fatty acids was conducted. Saturated fatty acids had a remarkable inhibitory effect on the amount of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) generated from the Maillard reaction in bread baking compared to unsaturated fatty acids. The amount of AGEs produced by each fatty acid (mg kg -1 ) was as follows: C18:0, 18.7; C12:0, 35.2; C16:0, 21.4; C18:0, 38.2; C18:1, 68.7; C18:2, 80.1; C20:4, 80.8; C22:4, 89.8. Saturated fatty acids were possibly involved in the Maillard reaction and, as a result, acted to inhibit it. In the case of unsaturated fatty acids, amounts of AGEs during the Maillard reaction in baking tended to increase as the degree of unsaturation increased. In other words, there was a positive correlation between the degree of unsaturation and the amount of AGEs. It was also confirmed that the air pore distribution in baked bread was closely related to AGEs. These results led us to conclude that the fatty acid composition of the added lipids also influences properties that determine the tastiness of bread. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. A medium-chain fatty acid as an alternative energy source in mouse preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Takanashi, Kazumi; Hamatani, Toshio; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Akutsu, Hidenori; Fukunaga, Tomoko; Ogawa, Seiji; Sugawara, Kana; Shinoda, Kosaku; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Umezawa, Akihiro; Kuji, Naoaki; Yoshimura, Yasunori; Tomita, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    To further optimize the culturing of preimplantation embryos, we undertook metabolomic analysis of relevant culture media using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). We detected 28 metabolites: 23 embryo-excreted metabolites including 16 amino acids and 5 media-derived metabolites (e.g., octanoate, a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA)). Due to the lack of information on MCFAs in mammalian preimplantation development, this study examined octanoate as a potential alternative energy source for preimplantation embryo cultures. No embryos survived in culture media lacking FAs, pyruvate, and glucose, but supplementation of octanoate rescued the embryonic development. Immunoblotting showed significant expression of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, important enzymes for ß-oxidation of MCFAs, in preimplantation embryo. Furthermore, CE-TOFMS traced [1-(13)C(8)] octanoate added to the culture media into intermediate metabolites of the TCA cycle via ß-oxidation in mitochondria. These results are the first demonstration that octanoate could provide an efficient alternative energy source throughout preimplantation development.

  16. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Biosynthesis of medium chain length alkanes for bio-aviation fuel by metabolic engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Xu, Haijun; Fang, Yunming; Tan, Tianwei; Baeyens, Jan; Liu, Luo

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study the synthesis of medium-chain length alkanes (MCLA), as bio-aviation product. To control the chain length of alkanes and increase the production of MCLA, Escherichia coli cells were engineered by incorporating (i) a chain length specific thioesterase from Umbellularia californica (UC), (ii) a plant origin acyl carrier protein (ACP) gene and (iii) the whole fatty acid synthesis system (FASs) from Jatropha curcas (JC). The genetic combination was designed to control the product spectrum towards optimum MCLA. Decanoic, lauric and myristic acid were produced at concentrations of 0.011, 0.093 and 1.657mg/g, respectively. The concentration of final products nonane, undecane and tridecane were 0.00062mg/g, 0.0052mg/g, and 0.249mg/g respectively. Thioesterase from UC controlled the fatty acid chain length in a range of 10-14 carbons and the ACP gene with whole FASs from JC significantly increased the production of MCLA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular characterization of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    1991-01-01

    . All clones sequenced from the patient exhibited a single base substitution from adenine (A) to guanine (G) at position 985 in the MCAD cDNA as the only consistent base-variation compared with control cDNA. In contrast, the parents contained cDNA with the normal and the mutated sequence, revealing......A series of experiments has established the molecular defect in the medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene in a family with MCAD deficiency. Demonstration of intra-mitochondrial mature MCAD indistinguishable in size (42.5-kDa) from control MCAD, and of mRNA with the correct...... size of 2.4 kb, indicated a point-mutation in the coding region of the MCAD gene to be disease-causing. Consequently, cloning and DNA sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplified complementary DNA (cDNA) from messenger RNA of fibroblasts from the patient and family members were performed...

  19. Energy metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides versus carbohydrates during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décombaz, J; Arnaud, M J; Milon, H; Moesch, H; Philippossian, G; Thélin, A L; Howald, H

    1983-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are known to be rapidly digested and oxidized. Their potential value as a source of dietary energy during exercise was compared with that of maltodextrins (MD). Twelve subjects exercised for 1 h on a bicycle ergometer (60% VO2 max), 1 h after the test meal (1MJ). The metabolism of MCT was followed using 1-13C-octanoate (Oc) as tracer and U-13C-glucose (G) was added to the 13C-naturally enriched MD. After MCT ingestion no insulin peak was observed with some accumulation of ketone bodies (KB), blood levels not exceeding 1 mM. Total losses of KB during exercise in urine, sweat and as breath acetone were small (less than 0.2 mmol X h-1). Hence, the influence of KB loss and storage on gas exchange data was negligible. The partition of fat and carbohydrate utilization during exercise as obtained by indirect calorimetry was practically the same after the MCT and the CHO meals. Oxidation over the 2-h period was 30% of dose for Oc and 45% for G. Glycogen decrements in the Vastus lateralis muscle were equal. It appears that with normal carbohydrate stores, a single meal of MCT or CHO did not alter the contribution of carbohydrates during 1 h of high submaximal exercise. The moderate ketonemia after MCT, despite substantial oxidation of this fat, led to no difference in muscle glycogen sparing between the diets.

  20. Characterization of a Novel Subgroup of Extracellular Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Depolymerases from Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangoiti, Joana; Santos, Marta; Prieto, María Auxiliadora; de la Mata, Isabel; Llama, María J.

    2012-01-01

    Nineteen medium-chain-length (mcl) poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA)-degrading microorganisms were isolated from natural sources. From them, seven Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria were identified. The ability of these microorganisms to hydrolyze other biodegradable plastics, such as short-chain-length (scl) PHA, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene succinate) (PES), and poly(l-lactide) (PLA), has been studied. On the basis of the great ability to degrade different polyesters, Streptomyces roseolus SL3 was selected, and its extracellular depolymerase was biochemically characterized. The enzyme consisted of one polypeptide chain of 28 kDa with a pI value of 5.2. Its maximum activity was observed at pH 9.5 with chromogenic substrates. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed mcl PHA and PCL but not scl PHA, PES, and PLA. Moreover, the mcl PHA depolymerase can hydrolyze various substrates for esterases, such as tributyrin and p-nitrophenyl (pNP)-alkanoates, with its maximum activity being measured with pNP-octanoate. Interestingly, when poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate [11%]) was used as the substrate, the main hydrolysis product was the monomer (R)-3-hydroxyoctanoate. In addition, the genes of several Actinobacteria strains, including S. roseolus SL3, were identified on the basis of the peptide de novo sequencing of the Streptomyces venezuelae SO1 mcl PHA depolymerase by tandem mass spectrometry. These enzymes did not show significant similarity to mcl PHA depolymerases characterized previously. Our results suggest that these distinct enzymes might represent a new subgroup of mcl PHA depolymerases. PMID:22865072

  1. The odd-carbon medium-chain fatty triglyceride triheptanoin does not reduce hepatic steatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comhair, Tine M; Garcia Caraballo, Sonia C; Dejong, Cornelis H C; Lamers, Wouter H; Koehler, S Eleonore

    2017-02-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Previously, we showed that a high-protein diet minimized diet-induced development of fatty liver and even reversed pre-existing steatosis. A high-protein diet leads to amino-acid catabolism, which in turn causes anaplerosis of the tricarboxylic-acid (TCA) cycle. Therefore, we hypothesized that anaplerosis of the TCA cycle could be responsible for the high-protein diet-induced improvement of NAFLD by channeling amino acids into the TCA cycle. Next we considered that an efficient anaplerotic agent, the odd-carbon medium-chain triglyceride triheptanoin (TH), might have similar beneficial effects. C57BL/6J mice were fed low-fat (8en%) or high-fat (42en%) oleate-containing diets with or without 15en% TH for 3 weeks. TH treatment enhanced the hepatic capacity for fatty-acid oxidation by a selective increase in hepatic Ppara, Acox, and Cd36 expression, and a decline in plasma acetyl-carnitines. It also induced pyruvate cycling through an increased hepatic PCK1 protein concentration and it increased thermogenesis reflected by an increased Ucp2 mRNA content. TH, however, did not reduce hepatic lipid content. The comparison of the present effects of dietary triheptanoin with a previous study by our group on protein supplementation shows that the beneficial effects of the high-protein diet are not mimicked by TH. This argues against anaplerosis as the sole explanatory mechanism for the anti-steatotic effect of a high-protein diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Coconut oil has less satiating properties than medium chain triglyceride oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsella, R; Maher, T; Clegg, M E

    2017-10-01

    It is well established that the consumption of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) can increase satiety and reduce food intake. Many media articles promote the use of coconut oil for weight loss advocating similar health benefits to that of MCT. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of MCT oil compared to coconut oil and control oil on food intake and satiety. Following an overnight fast, participants consumed a test breakfast smoothie containing 205kcal of either (i) MCT oil (ii) coconut oil or (iii) vegetable oil (control) on three separate test days. Participants recorded appetite ratings on visual analogue scales and were presented with an ad libitum lunch meal of preselected sandwiches 180min after consumption of the breakfast. The results showed a significant difference in energy and macronutrient intakes at the ad libitum meal between the three oils with the MCT oil reducing food intake compared to the coconut and control oil. Differences in food intake throughout the day were found for energy and fat, with the control having increased food intake compared to the MCT and coconut. The MCT also increased fullness over the three hours after breakfast compared to the control and coconut oils. The coconut oil was also reported as being less palatable than the MCT oil. The results of this study confirm the differences that exist between MCT and coconut oil such that coconut oil cannot be promoted as having similar effects to MCT oil on food intake and satiety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Accumulation of medium-chain, saturated fatty acyl moieties in seed oils of transgenic Camelina sativa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Hu

    Full Text Available With its high seed oil content, the mustard family plant Camelina sativa has gained attention as a potential biofuel source. As a bioenergy crop, camelina has many advantages. It grows on marginal land with low demand for water and fertilizer, has a relatively short life cycle, and is stress tolerant. As most other crop seed oils, camelina seed triacylglycerols (TAGs consist of mostly long, unsaturated fatty acyl moieties, which is not desirable for biofuel processing. In our efforts to produce shorter, saturated chain fatty acyl moieties in camelina seed oil for conversion to jet fuel, a 12:0-acyl-carrier thioesterase gene, UcFATB1, from California bay (Umbellularia californica Nutt. was expressed in camelina seeds. Up to 40% of short chain laurate (C12:0 and myristate (C14:0 were present in TAGs of the seed oil of the transgenics. The total oil content and germination rate of the transgenic seeds were not affected. Analysis of positions of these two fatty acyl moieties in TAGs indicated that they were present at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions, but not sn-2, on the TAGs. Suppression of the camelina KASII genes by RNAi constructs led to higher accumulation of palmitate (C16:0, from 7.5% up to 28.5%, and further reduction of longer, unsaturated fatty acids in seed TAGs. Co-transformation of camelina with both constructs resulted in enhanced accumulation of all three medium-chain, saturated fatty acids in camelina seed oils. Our results show that a California bay gene can be successfully used to modify the oil composition in camelina seed and present a new biological alternative for jet fuel production.

  4. Treatment with medium chain fatty acids milk of CD36-deficient preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaka, Hironori; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Yorifuji, Tohru; Komatsu, Haruki; Takatani, Tomonozumi; Morioka, Ichiro; Hirayama, Satoshi; Miida, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    CD36 deficiency is characterized by limited cellular long chain fatty acid uptake in the skeletal and cardiac muscles and often causes energy crisis in these muscles. However, suitable treatment for CD36 deficiency remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and metabolic effects of medium chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) in two CD36-deficient preschool children who often developed fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia. Fasting blood glucose, total ketone bodies, and free fatty acids were examined and compared for usual supper diets and for diets with replacement of one component with 2 g/kg of 9% MCT-containing milk (MCT milk). Changes in serum creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase levels, resulting from replacement of glucose water intake with 1 g/kg of MCT milk and determined by using bicycle pedaling tasks, were examined and compared. Hypoglycemic and/or myalgia episodes in daily life were also investigated. Biochemically, participants' blood glucose and total ketone bodies levels after overnight fasting substantially increased after dietary suppers containing MCT milk. Increases in serum creatine kinase and alanine aminotransferase levels resulting from the bicycle pedaling task were suppressed by MCT milk. Hypoglycemia leading to unconsciousness and tachycardia before breakfast decreased after introduction of dietary suppers containing MCT milk. Occurrence of myalgia in the lower limbs also decreased after intakes of MCT milk before long and/or strenuous exercising. Our results suggest that MCTs can prevent fasting hypoglycemia and exercise-induced myalgia in CD36-deficient young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in selected riverine sediments and sludge from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribylová, Petra; Klánová, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    Wide distribution of chlorinated paraffins in the environment has already been demonstrated in several studies; however, information about their levels in the Central Europe is still very limited. First study focused on the SCCP contamination of the Czech aquatic environment have been performed recently, and its results motivated the authors to analyze sediments from a wide set of the Czech rivers in order to obtain more detailed information. Thirty-six sediment samples from eleven rivers and five drainage vents neighboring the chemical factories were analyzed; special attention was paid to the industrial areas. For the first time in the Czech Republic, medium-chain in addition to short-chain chlorinated paraffins were analyzed using GC-ECNI-MS. Chlorinated paraffins were detected in sediment samples on the concentration levels up to 347 ngg(-1) for short-chain chlorinated paraffins, and 5575 ngg(-1) for medium-chain chlorinated paraffins. Average chlorination degree of SCCPs was 65%.

  6. Dietary exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in meat and meat products from 20 provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yongning; Wang, Runhua; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Cui, Lili; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui

    2018-02-01

    Food intake is one of the main pathways of human exposure to chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study assessed the dietary exposure for the general Chinese population to short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) through meat and meat products. Twenty samples of meat and meat products from 20 Chinese provinces were collected in 2011. As the sampling sites covered about two-thirds of the Chinese population, the meat samples were considered to be representative of the true characteristics of CPs contamination in Chinese meat products. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs in the meat samples were measured using the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Forty-eight SCCP and MCCP homolog groups were detected in the meat samples. The mean SCCP and MCCP concentrations in all meat samples were 129 ± 4.1 ng g -1 wet weight and 5.7 ± 0.59 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs varied in samples from different provinces. The geographical distribution of CP concentrations was similar to the distribution of CPs manufacturing plants in China. The most abundant groups of SCCPs in all samples were C 10-11 Cl 6-7 , and the most abundant groups of MCCPs in most samples were C 14 Cl 7-8 . The possible sources of SCCPs and MCCPs in meat and meat products might be CP-42 and CP-52. The 50th percentile estimated daily intakes of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption for a "standard" Chinese adult male were 0.13 and 0.0047 μg kg -1 bw d -1 , respectively, both much lower than the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) for SCCPs and MCCPs. This preliminary risk assessment has indicated that the indirect exposure of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption does not pose significant risk to human health in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The addition of medium-chain triglycerides to a purified fish oil-based diet alters inflammatory profiles in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Sarah J; Nandivada, Prathima; Chang, Melissa I; Mitchell, Paul D; O'Loughlin, Alison; Cowan, Eileen; Gura, Kathleen M; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R; Puder, Mark

    2015-02-01

    Parenteral nutrition associated liver disease (PNALD) is a deadly complication of long term parenteral nutrition (PN) use in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsion has been shown in recent years to effectively treat PNALD. Alternative fat sources free of essential fatty acids have recently been investigated for health benefits related to decreased inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the addition of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) to a purified fish oil-based diet would decrease the response to inflammatory challenge in mice, while allowing for sufficient growth and development. Six groups of ten adult male C57/Bl6 mice were pair-fed different dietary treatments for a period of twelve weeks, varying only in fat source (percent calories by weight): 10.84% soybean oil (SOY), 10% coconut oil (HCO), 10% medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), 3% purified fish oil (PFO), 3% purified fish oil with 3% medium-chain triglycerides (50:50 MCT:PFO) and 3% purified fish oil with 7.59% medium-chain triglycerides (70:30 MCT:PFO). An endotoxin challenge was administered to half of the animals in each group at the completion of dietary treatment. All groups demonstrated normal growth throughout the study period. Groups fed MCT and HCO diets demonstrated biochemical essential fatty acid deficiency and decreased IL-6 and TNF-α response to endotoxin challenge. Groups containing PFO had increased inflammatory response to endotoxin challenge, and the addition of MCT to PFO mitigated this inflammatory response. These results suggest that the addition of MCT to PFO formulations may decrease the host response to inflammatory challenge, which may pose potential for optimized PN formulations. Inclusion of MCT in lipid emulsions given with PN formulations may be of use in therapeutic interventions for disease states resulting from chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Bioaccumulation and biomagnification of short and medium chain polychlorinated paraffins in different species of fish from Liaodong Bay, North China

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are highly complex technical mixtures, and the short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are classed as persistent and have been included in the Stockholm Convention. However, there have been few studies of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) and their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in different species of fish. The present study investigated the levels, congener group profiles, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of SCCPs and MCCPs in diff...

  9. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hamers, Françoise F; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Five diseases are currently screened on dried blood spots in France through the national newborn screening programme. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technology that is increasingly used to screen newborns for an increasing number of hereditary metabolic diseases. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is among these diseases. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing MCADD screening in France. Methods We developed a decision model t...

  10. Medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs): a review of bioaccumulation potential in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Roy; Vaughan, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high molecular weight organochlorine compounds that have been used in a variety of industrial applications for many years. Medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) (CAS 85535-85-9; Alkanes, C14-17 , chloro) are currently under investigation as potential persistent bioaccumulative toxic (PBT) compounds. In this article, the bioaccumulation potential of MCCPs is assessed using a tiered framework proposed after a recent Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Pellston Workshop in 2008. The framework proposes the use of physicochemical properties and modeling assessment, bioconcentration/bioaccumulation (BCF/BAF) assessment, biomagnification (BMF) assessment, and trophic magnification factor (TMF) assessment. It is hoped that use of this framework could harmonize and improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the chemical substance evaluation screening process for PBT properties. When applied to MCCPs, the following conclusions were made: empirical physiochemical data is available negating the use of models; laboratory BCFs range from 1000 to 15 000 (growth-corrected lipid normalized values) for 2 MCCP structures; field BAFs were an order of magnitude higher than the trigger criterion for "B status possible"; although results may not meet acceptance criteria for field studies, laboratory-derived BMFs for a number of C14-17 chlorinated alkanes were less than the trigger value of 1 (based on whole-body concentrations) whereas field-derived BMFs were less than 1 (based on lipid corrected values [generally used for field data] excluding one measure for sculpin, [Cottus cognatus]-Diporeia that was based on only one detectable sample); and finally, TMFs were less than the trigger criterion value of 1, which are considered the most convincing evidence for bioaccumulative properties of a compound and the "Gold Standard" measure of bioaccumulation. This article also discusses the uncertainties surrounding the published data

  11. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yu; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, Li-Na; Chen, Qi-Kui

    2013-01-14

    Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy. A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  12. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphangiectasia. A polymeric diet containing medium-chain triglycerides and total parenteral nutrition may be a useful therapy. Case presentation A 17-year-old girl of Mongoloid ethnicity was admitted to our hospital with a history of diarrhea and edema. She was diagnosed with protein-losing enteropathy caused by intestinal lymphangiectasia. This was confirmed by a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy. After treatment with total parenteral nutrition in hospital, which was followed by a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet at home, she was totally relieved of her symptoms. Conclusion Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be diagnosed with a double-balloon enteroscopy and multi-dot biopsy, as well as the pathology of small intestinal tissue showing edema of the submucosa and lymphangiectasia. Because intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A positive clinical response to the special diet therapy, namely a low-fat and medium-chain triglyceride diet, can further confirm the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia.

  13. Knocking out the MFE-2 gene of Candida bombicola leads to improved medium-chain sophorolipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Inge N A; Sabirova, Julia; Develter, Dirk; Soetaert, Wim; Vandamme, Erick J

    2009-06-01

    The nonpathogenic yeast Candida bombicola synthesizes sophorolipids. These biosurfactants are composed of the disaccharide sophorose linked to a long-chain hydroxy fatty acid and have potential applications in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and cleaning industries. In order to expand the range of application, a shift of the fatty acid moiety towards medium-chain lengths would be recommendable. However, the synthesis of medium-chain sophorolipids by C. bombicola is a challenging objective. First of all, these sophorolipids can only be obtained by fermentations on unconventional carbon sources, which often have a toxic effect on the cells. Furthermore, medium-chain substrates are partially metabolized in the beta-oxidation pathway. In order to redirect unconventional substrates towards sophorolipid synthesis, the beta-oxidation pathway was blocked on the genome level by knocking out the multifunctional enzyme type 2 (MFE-2) gene. The total gene sequence of the C. bombicola MFE-2 (6033 bp) was cloned (GenBank accession number EU371724), and the obtained nucleotide sequence was used to construct a knock-out cassette. Several knock-out mutants with the correct geno- and phenotype were evaluated in a fermentation on 1-dodecanol. All mutants showed a 1.7-2.9 times higher production of sophorolipids, indicating that in those strains the substrate is redirected towards the sophorolipid synthesis.

  14. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on weight loss and body composition: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumme, Karen; Stonehouse, Welma

    2015-02-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) may result in negative energy balance and weight loss through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation. However, results from human intervention studies investigating the weight reducing potential of MCTs, have been mixed. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing the effects of MCTs, specifically C8:0 and C10:0, to long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) on weight loss and body composition in adults. Changes in blood lipid levels were secondary outcomes. Randomized controlled trials >3 weeks' duration conducted in healthy adults were identified searching Web of Knowledge, Discover, PubMed, Scopus, New Zealand Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL until March 2014 with no language restriction. Identified trials were assessed for bias. Mean differences were pooled and analyzed using inverse variance models with fixed effects. Heterogeneity between studies was calculated using I(2) statistic. An I(2)>50% or P<0.10 indicated heterogeneity. Thirteen trials (n=749) were identified. Compared with LCTs, MCTs decreased body weight (-0.51 kg [95% CI-0.80 to -0.23 kg]; P<0.001; I(2)=35%); waist circumference (-1.46 cm [95% CI -2.04 to -0.87 cm]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), hip circumference (-0.79 cm [95% CI -1.27 to -0.30 cm]; P=0.002; I(2)=0%), total body fat (standard mean difference -0.39 [95% CI -0.57 to -0.22]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%), total subcutaneous fat (standard mean difference -0.46 [95% CI -0.64 to -0.27]; P<0.001; I(2)=20%), and visceral fat (standard mean difference -0.55 [95% CI -0.75 to -0.34]; P<0.001; I(2)=0%). No differences were seen in blood lipid levels. Many trials lacked sufficient information for a complete quality assessment, and commercial bias was detected. Although heterogeneity was absent, study designs varied with regard to duration, dose, and control of energy intake. Replacement of LCTs with MCTs in the diet could potentially induce modest reductions in body weight and composition

  15. Distribution of medium-chain FA in different lipid classes after administration of specific structured TAG in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Høy, Carl-Erik

    2002-01-01

    Structured TAG (STAG) containing medium-chain FA (MCFA) in the sn-1,3 positions and essential FA in the sn-2 position were synthesized by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis. In our previous studies we found that part of the MCFA from STAG could be absorbed in the small intestine; however, it was unclear...... how they were absorbed. In order to get a better understanding of the metabolism of STAG to improve future design and application of STAG, in the present study lymph lipids collected after feeding STAG were fractionated into different classes and the FA composition of each lipid class was studied...

  16. Efficacious Intestinal Permeation Enhancement Induced by the Sodium Salt of 10-undecylenic Acid, A Medium Chain Fatty Acid Derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Brayden, David J.; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-01-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to t...

  17. Development of environmentally friendly coatings and paints using medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) as the polymer binder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walle, G A; Buisman, G J; Weusthuis, R A; Eggink, G

    1999-01-01

    Unsaturated medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (mcl-PHAs) produced by Pseudomonas putida from linseed oil fatty acids (LOFA) and tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), were used as the polymer binder in the formulation of high solid alkyd-like paints. The relatively high concentration of unsaturated alkyl side chains incorporated into the PHA resins resulted in oxidative drying PHA paints having excellent coating properties. The homogeneously pigmented PHA coatings yielded high-gloss, smooth and strong films upon curing and showed an excellent flexibility, a good adhesion to different substrates, cohesive film properties and resistance to chipping.

  18. Activation and Repression of Epstein-Barr Virus and Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus Lytic Cycles by Short- and Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorres, Kelly L.; Daigle, Derek; Mohanram, Sudharshan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The lytic cycles of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are induced in cell culture by sodium butyrate (NaB), a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Valproic acid (VPA), another SCFA and an HDAC inhibitor, induces the lytic cycle of KSHV but blocks EBV lytic reactivation. To explore the hypothesis that structural differences between NaB and VPA account for their functional effects on the two related viruses, we investigated the capacity of 16 structurally related short- and medium-chain fatty acids to promote or prevent lytic cycle reactivation. SCFAs differentially affected EBV and KSHV reactivation. KSHV was reactivated by all SCFAs that are HDAC inhibitors, including phenylbutyrate. However, several fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as isobutyrate and phenylbutyrate, did not reactivate EBV. Reactivation of KSHV lytic transcripts could not be blocked completely by any fatty acid tested. In contrast, several medium-chain fatty acids inhibited lytic activation of EBV. Fatty acids that blocked EBV reactivation were more lipophilic than those that activated EBV. VPA blocked activation of the BZLF1 promoter by NaB but did not block the transcriptional function of ZEBRA. VPA also blocked activation of the DNA damage response that accompanies EBV lytic cycle activation. Properties of SCFAs in addition to their effects on chromatin are likely to explain activation or repression of EBV. We concluded that fatty acids stimulate the two related human gammaherpesviruses to enter the lytic cycle through different pathways. IMPORTANCE Lytic reactivation of EBV and KSHV is needed for persistence of these viruses and plays a role in carcinogenesis. Our direct comparison highlights the mechanistic differences in lytic reactivation between related human oncogenic gammaherpesviruses. Our findings have therapeutic implications, as fatty acids are found in the diet and produced by the human microbiota

  19. Xenobiotic/medium chain fatty acid: CoA ligase - a critical review on its role in fatty acid metabolism and the detoxification of benzoic acid and aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, Rencia; Erasmus, Elardus

    2016-10-01

    Activation of fatty acids by the acyl-CoA synthetases (ACSs) is the vital first step in fatty acid metabolism. The enzymatic and physiological characterization of the human xenobiotic/medium chain fatty acid: CoA ligases (ACSMs) has been severely neglected even though xenobiotics, such as benzoate and salicylate, are detoxified through this pathway. This review will focus on the nomenclature and substrate specificity of the human ACSM ligases; the biochemical and enzymatic characterization of ACSM1 and ACSM2B; the high sequence homology of the ACSM2 genes (ACSM2A and ACSM2B) as well as what is currently known regarding disease association studies. Several discrepancies exist in the current literature that should be taken note of. For example, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported to be associated with aspirin metabolism and multiple risk factors of metabolic syndrome are incorrect. Kinetic data on the substrate specificity of the human ACSM ligases are non-existent and currently no data exist on the influence of SNPs on the enzyme activity of these ligases. One of the biggest obstacles currently in the field is that glycine conjugation is continuously studied as a one-step process, which means that key regulatory factors of the two individual steps remain unknown.

  20. The Peroxisomal Enzyme L-PBE Is Required to Prevent the Dietary Toxicity of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ding

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Specific metabolic pathways are activated by different nutrients to adapt the organism to available resources. Although essential, these mechanisms are incompletely defined. Here, we report that medium-chain fatty acids contained in coconut oil, a major source of dietary fat, induce the liver ω-oxidation genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 to increase the production of dicarboxylic fatty acids. Furthermore, these activate all ω- and β-oxidation pathways through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR α and PPARγ, an activation loop normally kept under control by dicarboxylic fatty acid degradation by the peroxisomal enzyme L-PBE. Indeed, L-pbe−/− mice fed coconut oil overaccumulate dicarboxylic fatty acids, which activate all fatty acid oxidation pathways and lead to liver inflammation, fibrosis, and death. Thus, the correct homeostasis of dicarboxylic fatty acids is a means to regulate the efficient utilization of ingested medium-chain fatty acids, and its deregulation exemplifies the intricate relationship between impaired metabolism and inflammation.

  1. Screening of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in selected riverine sediments and sludge from the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pribylova, Petra; Klanova, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Wide distribution of chlorinated paraffins in the environment has already been demonstrated in several studies; however, information about their levels in the Central Europe is still very limited. First study focused on the SCCP contamination of the Czech aquatic environment have been performed recently, and its results motivated the authors to analyze sediments from a wide set of the Czech rivers in order to obtain more detailed information. Thirty-six sediment samples from eleven rivers and five drainage vents neighboring the chemical factories were analyzed; special attention was paid to the industrial areas. For the first time in the Czech Republic, medium-chain in addition to short-chain chlorinated paraffins were analyzed using GC-ECNI-MS. Chlorinated paraffins were detected in sediment samples on the concentration levels up to 347 ng g -1 for short-chain chlorinated paraffins, and 5575 ng g -1 for medium-chain chlorinated paraffins. Average chlorination degree of SCCPs was 65%. - Data on contamination of sediments from industrial areas fill the informational gap in the field of contamination of the Central Europe by chlorinated paraffins

  2. Expression of wild-type and mutant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) cDNA in eucaryotic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    1992-01-01

    An effective EBV-based expression system for eucaryotic cells has been developed and used for the study of the mitochondrial enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD). 1325 bp of PCR-generated MCAD cDNA, containing the entire coding region, was placed between the SV40 early promoter...... and polyadenylation signals in the EBV-based vector. Both wild-type MCAD cDNA and cDNA containing the prevalent disease-causing mutation A to G at position 985 of the MCAD cDNA were tested. In transfected COS-7 cells, the steady state amount of mutant MCAD protein was consistently lower than the amount of wild......-type human enzyme. The enzyme activity in extracts from cells harbouring the wild-type MCAD cDNA was dramatically higher than in the controls (harbouring the vector without the MCAD gene) while only a slightly higher activity was measured with the mutant MCAD. The mutant MCAD present behaves like wild...

  3. Discovery and Characterization of a Novel Small-Molecule Agonist for Medium-Chain Free Fatty Acid Receptor G Protein-Coupled Receptor 84.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Yang, Hui; Li, Jing; Xie, Xin

    2016-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) is a free fatty acid receptor activated by medium-chain free fatty acids with 9-14 carbons. It is expressed mainly in the immune-related tissues, such as spleen, bone marrow, and peripheral blood leukocytes. GPR84 plays significant roles in inflammatory processes and may represent a novel drug target for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases. However, the lack of potent and specific ligands for GPR84 hindered the study of its functions and the development of potential clinical applications. Here, we report the screen of 160,000 small-molecule compounds with a calcium mobilization assay using a human embryonic kidney 293 cell line stably expressing GPR84 and Gα16, and the identification of 2-(hexylthio)pyrimidine-4,6-diol (ZQ-16) as a potent and selective agonist of GPR84 with a novel structure. ZQ-16 activates several GPR84-mediated signaling pathways, including calcium mobilization, inhibition of cAMP accumulation, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2, receptor desensitization and internalization, and receptor-β-arrestin interaction. This compound may be a useful tool to study the functions of GPR84 and a potential candidate for further structural optimization. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  4. High levels of medium-chain chlorinated paraffins and polybrominated diphenyl ethers on the inside of several household baking oven doors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistl, Christoph; Sprengel, Jannik; Vetter, Walter

    2018-02-15

    Fat obtained by wipe tests on the inner surface of 21 baking ovens from Stuttgart (Germany) were analyzed for halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), namely polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), dechlorane plus (DP), short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs, MCCPs), as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In ~50% of the samples chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were present in the mg/g fat range, i.e. three to four orders of magnitude higher concentrated than the sum of all other target compounds. In contrast the remaining ~50% of the samples were free of CPs, while the other HFRs were comparable in CP-positive and CP-negative samples. The exceptionally high concentrations and exclusive presence of CPs in half of the samples produced strong evidence that these compounds were released from the baking oven itself. This hypothesis was supported by detection of MCCPs at even higher concentrations in the inner components of one dismantled baking oven. The release of substantial amounts of HFRs from the oven casing during its use may contribute to human exposure to these compounds, especially MCCPs and SCCPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Diet Rich in Medium-Chain Fatty Acids Improves Systolic Function and Alters the Lipidomic Profile in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhart, Sophia; Cade, W Todd; Jiang, Hui; Coggan, Andrew R; Racette, Susan B; Korenblat, Kevin; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; O'Connor, Robert; Bashir, Adil; Ory, Daniel S; Schaffer, Jean E; Novak, Eric; Farmer, Marsha; Waggoner, Alan D; Dávila-Román, Víctor G; Javidan-Nejad, Cylen; Peterson, Linda R

    2016-02-01

    Excessive cardiac long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) metabolism/storage causes cardiomyopathy in animal models of type 2 diabetes. Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are absorbed and oxidized efficiently. Data in animal models of diabetes suggest MCFAs may benefit the heart. Our objective was to test the effects of an MCFA-rich diet vs an LCFA-rich diet on plasma lipids, cardiac steatosis, and function in patients with type 2 diabetes. This was a double-blind, randomized, 2-week matched-feeding study. The study included ambulatory patients in the general community. Sixteen patients, ages 37-65 years, with type 2 diabetes, an ejection fraction greater than 45%, and no other systemic disease were included. Fourteen days of a diet rich in MCFAs or LCFAs, containing 38% as fat in total, was undertaken. Cardiac steatosis and function were the main outcome measures, with lipidomic changes considered a secondary outcome. The relatively load-independent measure of cardiac contractility, S', improved in the MCFA group (P diet decreased several plasma sphingolipids, ceramide, and acylcarnitines implicated in diabetic cardiomyopathy, and changes in several sphingolipids correlated with improved fasting insulins. Although a diet high in MCFAs does not change cardiac steatosis, our findings suggest that the MCFA-rich diet alters the plasma lipidome and may benefit or at least not harm cardiac function and fasting insulin levels in humans with type 2 diabetes. Larger, long-term studies are needed to further evaluate these effects in less-controlled settings.

  6. Elevated Medium-Chain Acylcarnitines Are Associated With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Early Progression to Type 2 Diabetes and Induce Pancreatic β-Cell Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchuluun, Battsetseg; Al Rijjal, Dana; Prentice, Kacey J; Eversley, Judith A; Burdett, Elena; Mohan, Haneesha; Bhattacharjee, Alpana; Gunderson, Erica P; Liu, Ying; Wheeler, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    Specific circulating metabolites have emerged as important risk factors for the development of diabetes. The acylcarnitines (acylCs) are a family of metabolites known to be elevated in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and linked to peripheral insulin resistance. However, the effect of acylCs on pancreatic β-cell function is not well understood. Here, we profiled circulating acylCs in two diabetes cohorts: 1 ) women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and 2 ) women with recent GDM who later developed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), new-onset T2D, or returned to normoglycemia within a 2-year follow-up period. We observed a specific elevation in serum medium-chain (M)-acylCs, particularly hexanoyl- and octanoylcarnitine, among women with GDM and individuals with T2D without alteration in long-chain acylCs. Mice treated with M-acylCs exhibited glucose intolerance, attributed to impaired insulin secretion. Murine and human islets exposed to elevated levels of M-acylCs developed defects in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and this was directly linked to reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and subsequent ability to couple glucose metabolism to insulin secretion. In conclusion, our study reveals that an elevation in circulating M-acylCs is associated with GDM and early stages of T2D onset and that this elevation directly impairs β-cell function. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  7. A kinetic model for growth and biosynthesis of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates in Pseudomonas putida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. M. Annuar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A kinetic model is presented giving a mathematical description of batch culture of Pseudomonas putida PGA1 grown using saponified palm kernel oil as carbon source and ammonium as the limiting nutrient. The growth of the micro-organism is well-described using Tessier-type model which takes into account the inhibitory effect of ammonium at high concentrations. The ammonium consumption rate by the cells is related in proportion to the rate of growth. The intracellular production of medium-chain-length poly-(3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA MCL by P. putida PGA1 cells is reasonably modeled by the modified Luedeking-Piret kinetics, which incorporate a function of product synthesis inhibition (or reduction by ammonium above a threshold level.

  8. Effects of calcitriol, seocalcitol, and medium-chain triglyceride on a canine transitional cell carcinoma cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaewsakhorn, T.; Kisseberth, W.C.; Capen, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in dogs is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Calcitriol and its analog seocalcitol, combined with medium-chain triglyceride (MCT), have potential for the treatment of this disease. Materials and Methods: TCC cells were treated with calcitr...... inhibited TCC cell growth via induction of cell cycle arrest and MCT enhanced this effect. Therefore, calcitriol and seocalcitol with MCT may have therapeutic potential for canine bladder cancer....... with calcitriol or seocalcitol, alone or combined with MCT. Cell growth, cell cycle kinetics, vitamin D receptor (VDR) localization and expression, and Bcl-2 expression were measured. Results: Canine TCC expresses high levels of nuclear VDR. Furthermore, calcitriol and seocalcitol significantly inhibited cell...

  9. Production of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates From Oleic Acid Using Pseudomonas putida PGA1 by Fed Batch Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidik Marsudi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are a class of p0lymers currently receiving much attention because of their potential as renewable and biodegradable plastics. A wide variety of bacteria has been reported to produce PHAs including Pseudomonas strains. These strains are known as versatile medium chain length PHAs (PHAs-mcl producers using fatty acids as carbon source. Oleic acid was used to produce PHAs-mcl using Pseudomonas putida PGA 1 by continuous feeding of both nitrogen and carbon source, in a fed batch culture. During cell growth, PHAs also accumulated, indicating that PHA production in this organism is growth associated. Residual cell increased until the nitrogen source was depleted. At the end of fermentation, final cell concentration, PHA content, and roductivity were 30.2 g/L, 44.8 % of cell dry weight, and 0.188 g/l/h, respectively.

  10. Parenteral medium-chain triglyceride-induced neutrophil activation is not mediated by a Pertussis Toxin sensitive receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versleijen, Michelle W J; van Esterik, Joantine C J; Roelofs, Hennie M J; van Emst-de Vries, Sjenet E; Willems, Peter H G M; Wanten, Geert J A

    2009-02-01

    Lipid-induced immune modulation might contribute to the increased infection rate that is observed in patients using parenteral nutrition. We previously showed that emulsions containing medium-chain triglycerides (LCT/MCTs or pure MCTs), but not pure long-chain triglycerides (LCTs), impair neutrophil functions, modulate cell-signaling and induce neutrophil activation in vitro. It has recently been shown that medium-chain fatty acids are ligands for GPR84, a pertussis toxin (PT)-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). This finding urged us to investigate whether MCT-induced neutrophil activation is mediated by PT-sensitive GPCRs. Neutrophils isolated from blood of healthy volunteers were pre-incubated with PT (0.5-1 microg/mL, 1.5 h) and analyzed for the effect of this pre-incubation on LCT/MCT (2.5 mmol/L)-dependent modulation of serum-treated zymosan (STZ)-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and on LCT/MCT (5 mmol/L)-induced expression of cell surface adhesion (CD11b) and degranulation (CD66b) markers and oxygen radical (ROS) production. PT did not inhibit the effects of LCT/MCT on the STZ-induced increase in cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration. LCT/MCT increased ROS production to 146% of unstimulated cells. However, pre-incubation with PT did not inhibit the LCT/MCT-induced ROS production. Furthermore, the LCT/MCT-induced increase in CD11b and CD66b expression (196% and 235% of unstimulated cells, respectively) was not inhibited by pre-incubation with PT. LCT/MCT-induced neutrophil activation does not involve the action of a PT-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptor.

  11. Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Deficiency: Outlines from Newborn Screening, In Silico Predictions, and Molecular Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catarzi, Serena; Caciotti, Anna; Thusberg, Janita; Tonin, Rodolfo; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo; Pasquini, Elisabetta; Cavicchi, Catia; Ferri, Lorenzo; Donati, Maria A.; Baronio, Federico; Guerrini, Renzo; Mooney, Sean D.; Morrone, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation characterized by hypoglycemic crisis under fasting or during stress conditions, leading to lethargy, seizures, brain damage, or even death. Biochemical acylcarnitines data obtained through newborn screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were confirmed by molecular analysis of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM) gene. Out of 324.000 newborns screened, we identified 14 MCADD patients, in whom, by molecular analysis, we found a new nonsense c.823G>T (p.Gly275∗) and two new missense mutations: c.253G>C (p.Gly85Arg) and c.356T>A (p.Val119Asp). Bioinformatics predictions based on both phylogenetic conservation and functional/structural software were used to characterize the new identified variants. Our findings confirm the rising incidence of MCADD whose existence is increasingly recognized due to the efficacy of an expanded newborn screening panel by LC-MS/MS making possible early specific therapies that can prevent possible crises in at-risk infants. We noticed that the “common” p.Lys329Glu mutation only accounted for 32% of the defective alleles, while, in clinically diagnosed patients, this mutation accounted for 90% of defective alleles. Unclassified variants (UVs or VUSs) are especially critical when considering screening programs. The functional and pathogenic characterization of genetic variants presented here is required to predict their medical consequences in newborns. PMID:24294134

  12. Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Deficiency: Outlines from Newborn Screening, In Silico Predictions, and Molecular Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Catarzi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD is a disorder of fatty acid oxidation characterized by hypoglycemic crisis under fasting or during stress conditions, leading to lethargy, seizures, brain damage, or even death. Biochemical acylcarnitines data obtained through newborn screening by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS were confirmed by molecular analysis of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM gene. Out of 324.000 newborns screened, we identified 14 MCADD patients, in whom, by molecular analysis, we found a new nonsense c.823G>T (p.Gly275* and two new missense mutations: c.253G>C (p.Gly85Arg and c.356T>A (p.Val119Asp. Bioinformatics predictions based on both phylogenetic conservation and functional/structural software were used to characterize the new identified variants. Our findings confirm the rising incidence of MCADD whose existence is increasingly recognized due to the efficacy of an expanded newborn screening panel by LC-MS/MS making possible early specific therapies that can prevent possible crises in at-risk infants. We noticed that the “common” p.Lys329Glu mutation only accounted for 32% of the defective alleles, while, in clinically diagnosed patients, this mutation accounted for 90% of defective alleles. Unclassified variants (UVs or VUSs are especially critical when considering screening programs. The functional and pathogenic characterization of genetic variants presented here is required to predict their medical consequences in newborns.

  13. Cognition and Synaptic-Plasticity Related Changes in Aged Rats Supplemented with 8- and 10-Carbon Medium Chain Triglycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wang

    Full Text Available Brain glucose hypometabolism is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Previous studies have shown that cognition is improved by providing AD patients with an alternate energy source: ketones derived from either ketogenic diet or supplementation with medium chain triglycerides (MCT. Recently, data on the neuroprotective capacity of MCT-derived medium chain fatty acids (MCFA suggest 8-carbon and 10-carbon MCFA may have cognition-enhancing properties which are not related to ketone production. We investigated the effect of 8 week treatment with MCT8, MCT10 or sunflower oil supplementation (5% by weight of chow diet in 21 month old Wistar rats. Both MCT diets increased ketones plasma similarly compared to control diet, but MCT diets did not increase ketones in the brain. Treatment with MCT10, but not MCT8, significantly improved novel object recognition memory compared to control diet, while social recognition increased in both MCT groups. MCT8 and MCT10 diets decreased weight compared to control diet, where MCFA plasma levels were higher in MCT10 groups than in MCT8 groups. Both MCT diets increased IRS-1 (612 phosphorylation and decreased S6K phosphorylation (240/244 but only MCT10 increased Akt phosphorylation (473. MCT8 supplementation increased synaptophysin, but not PSD-95, in contrast MCT10 had no effect on either synaptic marker. Expression of Ube3a, which controls synaptic stability, was increased by both MCT diets. Cortex transcription via qPCR showed that immediate early genes related to synaptic plasticity (arc, plk3, junb, egr2, nr4a1 were downregulated by both MCT diets while MCT8 additionally down-regulated fosb and egr1 but upregulated grin1 and gba2. These results demonstrate that treatment of 8- and 10-carbon length MCTs in aged rats have slight differential effects on synaptic stability, protein synthesis and behavior that may be independent of brain ketone levels.

  14. PRODUCTION OF MEDIUM-CHAIN ACYLGLYCEROLS BY LIPASE ESTERIFICATION IN PACKED BED REACTOR: PROCESS OPTIMIZATION BY RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZANARIAH MOHD DOM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Medium-chain acylglycerols (or glycerides are formed of mono-, di- and triacylglycerol classes. In this study, an alternative method to produce MCA from esterifying palm oil fatty acid distillate (PFAD with the presence of oil palm mesocarp lipase (OPML which is a plant-sourced lipase and PFAD is also cheap by-product is developed in a packed bed reactor. The production of medium-chain acylglycerols (MCA by lipase-catalysed esterification of palm oil fatty acid distillate with glycerol are optimize in order to determine the factors that have significant effects on the reaction condition and high yield of MCA. Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to optimize the reaction conditions. The reaction conditions, namely, the reaction time (30-240 min, enzyme load (0.5-1.5 kg, silica gel load (0.2-1.0 kg, and solvent amount (200-600 vol/wt. Reaction time, enzyme loading and solvent amount strongly effect MCA synthesis (p0.05 influence on MCA yield. Best-fitting models were successfully established for MCA yield (R 2 =0.9133. The optimum MCA yield were 75% from the predicted value and 75.4% from the experimental data for 6 kg enzyme loading, a reaction time of 135min and a solvent amount of 350 vol/wt at 65ºC reaction temperature. Verification of experimental results under optimized reaction conditions were conducted, and the results agreed well with the predicted range. Esterification products (mono-, di- and triacylglycerol from the PBR were identified using Thin Layer Chromatography method. The chromatograms showed the successful fractionation of esterified products in this alternative method of process esterification.

  15. Health risks posed to infants in rural China by exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Li-Rong; Zheng, Ming-Hui; Li, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yong-Ning; Qiao, Lin; Tian, Qi-Chang; Huang, Hui-Ting; Liu, Wen-Bin; Su, Gui-Jin; Liu, Guo-Rui

    2017-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of synthetic chemicals found widely in environmental matrices. Short-chain CPs (SCCPs) are candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention. There should be great concern about human exposure to SCCPs. Data on CP concentrations in human breast milk is scarce. This is the first study in which background SCCP and medium-chain CP (MCCP) body burdens in the general rural population of China have been estimated and health risks posed to nursing infants by CPs in breast milk assessed. The concentrations of 48 SCCP and MCCP formula congeners were determined in 24 pooled human milk samples produced from 1412 individual samples from eight provinces in 2007 and 16 provinces in 2011. The samples were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The median SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 303 and 35.7ngg -1 lipid weight, respectively, for the 2007 samples and 360 and 45.4ngg -1 lipid weight, respectively, for the 2011 samples. The C 10 and C 14 homologs were the dominant CP carbon-chain-length groups, contributing 51% and 82% of the total SCCP and MCCP concentrations, respectively. There are probably multiple CP sources to the general Chinese population and numerous exposure pathways. The median estimated daily SCCP and MCCP intakes for nursing infants were 1310 and 152ngkg -1 d -1 , respectively, in 2007 and 1520 and 212ngkg -1 d -1 , respectively, in 2011. SCCPs do not currently pose significant risks to infants in China. However, it is necessary to continuously monitor CP concentrations and health risks because CP concentrations in Chinese human breast milk are increasing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme a dehydrogenase deficiency have impaired oxidation of fat during exercise but no effect of L-carnitine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, K L; Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C

    2013-01-01

    It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified.......It is not clear to what extent skeletal muscle is affected in patients with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD). l-Carnitine is commonly used as a supplement in patients with MCADD, although its beneficial effect has not been verified....

  17. Occurrences, sources and risk assessment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments from the middle reaches of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Lin; Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Huang, Huiting; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-12-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs), one class of hydrophobic and toxic compounds, are easily adsorbed into sediments and then pose potential risks to the ecosystem and human health. However, few researches on short- and medium-chain CPs (SCCPs and MCCPs) in sediments have been performed. In order to comprehensively investigate the spatial distributions, sources, and ecological risks of CPs, sediments collected from the middle reaches of the Yellow River were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOFMS). The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 11.6 to 9.76 × 10 3  ng/g dry weight (dw) and from 8.33 to 168 ng/g dw, respectively. No significant correlation was found between total organic carbon (TOC) and CP concentrations (P > 0.05). The spatial distributions showed that contamination levels of CPs were relevant to human activities. In addition, two types of sediment samples were classified by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and results indicated the predominant congener groups were C 10 Cl 6-7 for SCCPs and C 14 Cl 7-8 for MCCPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that SCCPs and MCCPs in the sediments may have different sources, and SCCPs are likely to come from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Moreover, complex environmental processes, including long-range transportation via the atmosphere and/or river, deposition and degradation of CPs, resulted in increased abundances of short chain and low chlorinated congeners in sediment samples compared with commercial mixtures, and different homolog patterns among samples. The significant negative correlation between SCCP concentrations and MCCP/SCCP ratios could be related to long-range transport of CPs. A preliminary risk assessment indicated that CPs at current levels posed no significant ecological risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Production of medium-chain fatty acids and higher alcohols by a synthetic co-culture grown on carbon monoxide or syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diender, M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Machado de Sousa, D.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Background
    Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H2, and CO2, is a promising renewable feedstock for bio-based production of organic chemicals. Production of medium-chain fatty acids can be performed via chain elongation, utilizing acetate and ethanol as main substrates. Acetate and ethanol are main

  19. The domain-specific and temperature-dependent protein misfolding phenotype of variant medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jank, Johanna M.; Maier, Esther M.; Reiβ, Dunja D.; Haslbeck, Martin; Kemter, Kristina F.; Truger, Marietta S.; Sommerhoff, Christian P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Wanders, Ronald J.; Gersting, Søren W.; Muntau, Ania C.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of expanded newborn screening programs reduced mortality and morbidity in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) caused by mutations in the ACADM gene. However, the disease is still potentially fatal. Missense induced MCADD is a protein misfolding disease with a

  20. Immune activation by medium-chain triglyceride-containing lipid emulsions is not modulated by n-3 lipids or toll-like receptor 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, E.D.; Gulich, A.F.; Renne, M.F.; Landman, S.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Roelofs, H.M.; Wanten, G.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Saturated medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) as part of the parenteral lipid regimen (50% MCT and 50% long chain triglycerides (LCT)) activate the immune system in vitro. Fish oil (FO)-derived n-3 fatty acids (FA) inhibit saturated FA-induced immune activation via a toll-like receptor

  1. Effect of supplementing coconut or krabok oil, rich in medium-chain fatty acids on ruminal fermentation, protozoa and archaeal population of bulls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panyakaew, P.; Boon, N.; Goel, G.; Yuangklang, C.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.; Fievez, V.

    2013-01-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA), for example, capric acid (C10:0), myristic (C14:0) and lauric (C12:0) acid, have been suggested to decrease rumen archaeal abundance and protozoal numbers. This study aimed to compare the effect of MCFA, either supplied through krabok (KO) or coconut (CO) oil, on

  2. Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids induce gene expression of energy metabolism-related pathways in adipose tissue of abdominally obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matualatupauw, J.C.; Bohl, Mette; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, K.; Afman, L.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background:Dietary medium-chain saturated fatty acids (MC-SFAs) have been shown to reduce total body fat. Previously, we showed that MC-SFAs prevent body fat accumulation, despite weight gain. Here, we aim to explore potential molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MC-SFAs on body

  3. The Effects of Long-or Medium-Chain Fat Diets on Glucose Toleance and Myocellular Content of Lipid Intermediates in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel-van den Bosch, de H.M.; Hoeks, J.; Timmers, S.; Houten, S.M.; Dijk, P.J.; Boon, W.P.C.; Beurden, van D.; Schaart, G.; Kersten, A.H.; Voshol, P.J.; Wanders, R.J.A.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle upon high-fat (HF) feeding is the resultant of fatty acid uptake and oxidation and is associated with insulin resistance. As medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are preferentially ß-oxidized over long-chain fatty acids, we

  4. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...

  5. Role of medium-chain fatty acids in the emulsification mechanistics of self-micro-emulsifying lipid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Naser M Y

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to design and develop stable o/w microemulsions comprising Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO as a non ionic surfactant. This was based on particle size measurements and phase behavior studies. The empirical role of incorporating medium-chain mono/di-glycerides in the lipid matrix in the mechanistic processes of emulsification was also established in various simulating physiological conditions. The efficiency of self-emulsification was evaluated under conditions of varying key compositions in the lipid mixtures; oil, cosurfactant and surfactant. Droplet diameter was measured using laser diffraction and light scattering techniques. Equilibrium phase studies were performed and phase boundaries were determined for the lipid-water systems. Microemulsion systems were produced from blends of Miglyol 812, Imwitor 988 and Tagat TO. An optimized formulation consisted of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO spontaneously self-emulsified in water producing dispersions with droplet diameters of ∼50 nm. Phase equilibrium diagrams have revealed significant enhancement in the water-solubilized region (L2) without any presence of liquid crystalline materials. Potential SMEDDS formulations for the bioavailability enhancement of poorly water-soluble compounds were developed by mixing blends of {Miglyol 812/Imwitor 988} and Tagat TO as a non-ionic surfactant. 'Diffusion and stranding' appears to be the dominant mechanism of emulsification.

  6. Gut Microbiota and Metabolic Health: The Potential Beneficial Effects of a Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet in Obese Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rial, Sabri Ahmed; Karelis, Antony D.; Bergeron, Karl-F.; Mounier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and associated metabolic complications, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), are in constant increase around the world. While most obese patients show several metabolic and biometric abnormalities and comorbidities, a subgroup of patients representing 3% to 57% of obese adults, depending on the diagnosis criteria, remains metabolically healthy. Among many other factors, the gut microbiota is now identified as a determining factor in the pathogenesis of metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO) individuals and in obesity-related diseases such as endotoxemia, intestinal and systemic inflammation, as well as insulin resistance. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that an optimal healthy-like gut microbiota structure may contribute to the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype. Here, we describe how dietary medium chain triglycerides (MCT), previously found to promote lipid catabolism, energy expenditure and weight loss, can ameliorate metabolic health via their capacity to improve both intestinal ecosystem and permeability. MCT-enriched diets could therefore be used to manage metabolic diseases through modification of gut microbiota. PMID:27187452

  7. Role of Medium Chain Triglycerides (Axona®) in the Treatment of Mild to Moderate Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Bemis, Marc; Desilets, Alicia R

    2014-08-01

    Treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists provides symptomatic relief but do not prevent its progression. Thus, additional approaches aimed at slowing the progression of the disease have been investigated. Reports detailing reduced brain glucose metabolism in the early stages of AD led to the hypothesis that alternate energy sources aimed at increasing neuronal metabolism may protect neurons and thus benefit patients with AD. Medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are metabolized to ketone bodies that serve as an alternative source of energy for neurons. Data from clinical trials suggest that MCTs improve cognition in patients with mild to moderate AD in apolipoprotein E4-negative patients. Adverse events observed were mild and included minor gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, dyspepsia, and flatulence. However, since genomic profiles are not routinely conducted in patients with AD in a clinical setting, the role of MCTs in clinical practice seems to be minimal. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Insulin, glucose and beta-hydroxybutyrate responses to a medium-chain triglyceride-based sports supplement: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Wood

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a current trend in endurance sports to move athletes towards a low-carbohydrate diet or use periods of low carbohydrate consumption to increase both health and performance. As a result, a market is developing for sports supplements to provide nutritional support during training and racing for athletes who follow a low-carbohydrate lifestyle. PHAT FIBRE (PF is a powdered sports supplement that includes medium-chain triglycerides suspended in a digestion-resistant carbohydrate and is tailored to the needs of low-carb athletes. Eleven healthy participants were administered 25 g of PF after an overnight fast. After 30 minutes, median blood glucose increased by 6 mg/dl from 94 mg/dl to 100 mg/dl (p = 0.002. At the same time points, median blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB increased from 0.3 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L. The increase in BHB was significant (p = 0.02 after excluding one outlier who had elevated levels of fasting BHB. Insulin levels did not change significantly at any point during the study. In a single participant, a revised formulation of PF (PFv2 produced a 0.6 mmol/L increase in BHB with no effect on blood glucose. These data suggest that PF can provide a source of energy for the low-carb athlete by supporting ketone production without negatively impacting insulin or blood glucose levels.

  9. Evaluation of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 using biodiesel by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jilagamazhi; Sharma, Umesh; Sparling, Richard; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B

    2014-07-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA) production by Pseudomonas putida LS46 was analyzed in shake-flask-based batch reactions, using pure chemical-grade glycerol (PG), biodiesel-derived "waste" glycerol (WG), and biodiesel-derived "waste" free fatty acids (WFA). Cell growth, substrate consumption, mcl-PHA accumulation within the cells, and the monomer composition of the synthesized biopolymers were monitored. The patterns of mcl-PHA synthesis in P. putida LS46 cells grown on PG and WG were similar but differed from that of cells grown with WFA. Polymer accumulation in glycerol-based cultures was stimulated by nitrogen limitation and plateaued after 48 h in both PG and WG cultures, with a total accumulation of 17.9% cell dry mass and 16.3% cell dry mass, respectively. In contrast, mcl-PHA synthesis was independent of nitrogen concentration in P. putida LS46 cells cultured with WFA, which accumulated to 29% cell dry mass. In all cases, the mcl-PHAs synthesized consisted primarily of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C(8)) and 3-hydroxydecanoate (C(10)). WG and WFA supported similar or greater cell growth and mcl-PHA accumulation than PG under the experimental conditions used. These results suggest that biodiesel by-product streams could be used as low-cost carbon sources for sustainable mcl-PHA production.

  10. Long-term effect of medium-chain triglyceride on hepatic enzymes catalyzing lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Sachiko; Morimoto, Ayami; Nakanishi, Mayumi; Muto, Yasutoshi.

    1977-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the long-term effect of dietary medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) as compared with that of corn oil feeding on lipid metabolism in rats. Both serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in MCT-fed rats showed significant decrease during the experimental period of eight weeks, although liver cholesterol and triglyceride contents were not distinguishable between the two groups. Significant elevation of the activity of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) of the liver, was observed in MCT-fed rats without any fat accumulation of the liver (fatty liver). The increase of lipogenic enzyme activity was accompanied by a significant reduction of essential fatty acids (EFA) such as 18:2 (ωsigma) and 20:4 (ωsigma) in total liver lipid. In contrast, hepatic β-hydroxy-β-methylglutaryl CoA(HMG-CoA) reductase activity was significantly decreased in MCT-fed rats, that would play an important role in achieving hypocholesterolemia. From these results obtained in a long-term experiment, it is concluded that exogenous MCT depresses the key enzyme catalyzing cholesterol synthesis with a concomitant elevation of lipogenic enzyme activity in the rat liver. (auth.)

  11. A medium-chain fatty acid receptor Gpr84 in zebrafish: expression pattern and roles in immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiaoyan; Feng, Dong; Liu, Kai; Wang, Peng; Xiao, Hongyan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Shicui; Liu, Zhenhui

    2014-08-01

    Gpr84 was recently identified as a receptor for medium-chain fatty acids, but its functions remain to be clarified. We reported the identification of a zebrafish Gpr84 homologue (zGpr84), which has a higher gene expression in the tissues of intestine, heart and liver. During embryogenesis, zGpr84 is maternally expressed and a significant increase is observed at segmentation period, and it is mainly restricted to the head region, pectoral fins, branchial arches, intestine and lateral line neuromast. Fasting or treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce significant up-regulation of zGpr84. We further demonstrated that zGpr84 is involved in the accumulation of lipid droplets in cells. Moreover, undecanoic acid (UA) can amplify LPS induced production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 p40 through zGpr84, supporting the proposal that Gpr84 may play a role in directly linking fatty acid metabolism to immunological regulation. The resulting data in fish lay a foundation for a comprehensive exploration of the functions and evolution of Gpr84. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Vizoná Liberato

    Full Text Available Thiazolidinediones (TZDs act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM, but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs. We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10 bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5, linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  13. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in weaned rats fed a high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitose Sugiyama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We explored the effects of Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT on gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis in the liver of weaned male rats fed high fat, carbohydrate-free diets. The rats of three experimental groups and control were fed for 10 days. The diets were high fat, carbohydrate-free diets consisting either of a corn oil or MCT, and high protein carbohydrate-free diet and a control (high carbohydrate diet. The hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase activity increased in the experimental groups. Despite the elevated G6Pase activity in these groups, hepatic activities of glutamic alanine transaminase (GAT, pyruvate carboxylase (PC and arginase differed among the experimental groups. The HF-corn oil rats showed elevation of PC activity, but no elevation of GAT activity, and the lowest arginase activity among the three groups. The HF-MCT diet-fed rats showed higher GAT and arginase activities than the HF-corn oil group. In the HP diet-fed rats, GAT and arginase activities enhanced, PC did not.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations of diffusion and clustering along critical isotherms of medium-chain n-alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutoru, J W; Smith, W; O'Hern, C S; Firoozabadi, A

    2013-01-14

    Understanding the transport properties of molecular fluids in the critical region is important for a number of industrial and natural systems. In the literature, there are conflicting reports on the behavior of the self diffusion coefficient D(s) in the critical region of single-component molecular systems. For example, D(s) could decrease to zero, reach a maximum, or remain unchanged and finite at the critical point. Moreover, there is no molecular-scale understanding of the behavior of diffusion coefficients in molecular fluids in the critical regime. We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations in the critical region of single-component fluids composed of medium-chain n-alkanes-n-pentane, n-decane, and n-dodecane-that interact via anisotropic united-atom potentials. For each system, we calculate D(s), and average molecular cluster sizes κ(cl) and numbers N(cl) at various cluster lifetimes τ, as a function of density ρ in the range 0.2ρ(c) ≤ ρ ≤ 2.0ρ(c) at the critical temperature T(c). We find that D(s) decreases with increasing ρ but remains finite at the critical point. Moreover, for any given τ critical point.

  15. Medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates-carbon nanotubes composite anode enhances the performance of microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindatu, Y; Annuar, M S M; Subramaniam, R; Gumel, A M

    2017-06-01

    Insufficient power generation from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) hampers its progress towards utility-scale development. Electrode modification with biopolymeric materials could potentially address this issue. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA)/carbon nanotubes (C) composite (CPHA) was successfully applied to modify the surface of carbon cloth (CC) anode in MFC. Characterization of the functional groups on the anodic surface and its morphology was carried out. The CC-CPHA composite anode recorded maximum power density of 254 mW/m 2 , which was 15-53% higher than the MFC operated with CC-C (214 mW/m 2 ) and pristine CC (119 mW/m 2 ) as the anode in a double-chambered MFC operated with Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry showed that power enhancement was attributed to better electron transfer capability by the bacteria for the MFC setup with CC-CPHA anode.

  16. Tracking Dietary Sources of Short- and Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins in Marine Mammals through a Subtropical Marine Food Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Chen, Hui; Du, Bibai; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-09-05

    Our previous study revealed an elevated accumulation of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in marine mammals from Hong Kong waters in the South China Sea. To examine the bioaccumulation potential and biomagnification in these apex predators, we sampled the dietary items of marine mammals and tracked the sources of SCCPs and MCCPs through a marine food web in this region. Sixteen fish species, seven crustacean species, and four mollusk species were collected, and the main prey species were identified for two species of marine mammals. Concentrations of ∑SCCPs and ∑MCCPs in these collected species suggested a moderate pollution level in Hong Kong waters compared to the global range. Lipid content was found to mediate congener-specific bioaccumulation in these marine species. Significantly positive correlations were observed between trophic levels and concentrations of ∑SCCPs or ∑MCCPs (p mammals was observed. This is the first report of dietary source tracking of SCCPs and MCCPs in marine mammals. The elevated biomagnification between prey and marine mammals raises environmental concerns about these contaminants.

  17. Megasphaera hexanoica sp. nov., a medium-chain carboxylic acid-producing bacterium isolated from a cow rumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byoung Seung; Kim, Seil; Sang, Byoung-In

    2017-07-01

    Strain MHT, a strictly anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative, non-spore-forming, spherical coccus or coccoid-shaped microorganism, was isolated from a cow rumen during a screen for hexanoic acid-producing bacteria. The microorganism grew at 30-40 °C and pH 5.5-7.5 and exhibited production of various short- and medium-chain carboxylic acids (acetic acid, butyric acid, pentanoic acid, isobutyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid and octanoic acid), as well as H2 and CO2 as biogas. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that MHT represents a member of the genus Megasphaera, with the closest relatives being Megapsphaera indica NMBHI-10T (94.1 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity), Megasphaera elsdenii DSM 20460T (93.8 %) and Megasphaera paucivorans DSM 16981T (93.8 %). The major cellular fatty acids produced by MHT included C12 : 0, C16 : 0, C18 : 1cis 9, and C18 : 0, and the DNA G+C content of the MHT genome is 51.8 mol%. Together, the distinctive phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of MHT indicate that this microorganism represents a novel species of the genus Megasphaera, for which the name Megasphaera hexanoica sp. nov. is herein proposed. The type strain of this species is MHT (=KCCM 43214T=JCM 31403T).

  18. Preliminary study of the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides for use as an intraocular tamponading agent in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Vincent J; Laurent, Camille; Sakr, Frédéric; Regnier, Alain; Tricoire, Cyrielle; Cases, Olivier; Kozyraki, Renata; Douet, Jean-Yves; Pagot-Mathis, Véronique

    2017-08-01

    To date, only silicone oils and gases have the appropriate characteristics for use in vitreo-retinal surgery as vitreous substitutes with intraocular tamponading properties. This preliminary study evaluated the safety and efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) for use as a tamponading agent in minipigs. In 15 minipigs, 15 right eyes underwent vitrectomies followed by injection of MCT tamponade (day 1). Two groups were defined. In Group A (ten eyes), the surgical procedure before MCT injection included induced rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), retina flattening, and retinopexy. In Group B (five eyes), MCT was injected without inducing RRD; in these eyes, MCT was removed on day 90. Pigs were sacrificed on day 45 (Group A) or 120 (Group B). Eyes were examined on days 1, 5, 15, and 45 in both groups and on days 90 and 120 in Group B. In Group B only, we performed bilateral electroretinography examinations on days 1 and 120, and histological examinations of MCTs and controlateral eyes were performed after sacrifice. In Group A eyes (n = 9; one eye was non-assessable), on day 45, the retina was flat in seven eyes and two RRD detachments were observed in insufficiently MCT-filled eyes. In Group B, electroretinography showed no significant differences between MCT eyes and controls on days 1 or 120. Histological analyses revealed no signs of retinal toxicity. This study showed that MCT tamponade seems to be effective and safe; however, additional studies are needed before it becomes commonly used as a tamponading agent in humans.

  19. Molecular Characterization of the Elaeis guineensis Medium-Chain Fatty Acid Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase DGAT1-1 by Heterologous Expression in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laure Aymé

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol acyltransferases (DGAT are involved in the acylation of sn-1,2-diacylglycerol. Palm kernel oil, extracted from Elaeis guineensis (oil palm seeds, has a high content of medium-chain fatty acids mainly lauric acid (C12:0. A putative E. guineensis diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (EgDGAT1-1 is expressed at the onset of lauric acid accumulation in the seed endosperm suggesting that it is a determinant of medium-chain triacylglycerol storage. To test this hypothesis, we thoroughly characterized EgDGAT1-1 activity through functional complementation of a Yarrowia lipolytica mutant strain devoid of neutral lipids. EgDGAT1-1 expression is sufficient to restore triacylglycerol accumulation in neosynthesized lipid droplets. A comparative functional study with Arabidopsis thaliana DGAT1 highlighted contrasting substrate specificities when the recombinant yeast was cultured in lauric acid supplemented medium. The EgDGAT1-1 expressing strain preferentially accumulated medium-chain triacylglycerols whereas AtDGAT1 expression induced long-chain triacylglycerol storage in Y. lipolytica. EgDGAT1-1 localized to the endoplasmic reticulum where TAG biosynthesis takes place. Reestablishing neutral lipid accumulation in the Y. lipolytica mutant strain did not induce major reorganization of the yeast microsomal proteome. Overall, our findings demonstrate that EgDGAT1-1 is an endoplasmic reticulum DGAT with preference for medium-chain fatty acid substrates, in line with its physiological role in palm kernel. The characterized EgDGAT1-1 could be used to promote medium-chain triacylglycerol accumulation in microbial-produced oil for industrial chemicals and cosmetics.

  20. Disrupted fat distribution and composition due to medium-chain triglycerides in mice with a β-oxidation defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Flögel, Ulrich; Sturm, Marga; Borsch, Elena; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2011-08-01

    Because of the enhanced recognition of inherited long-chain fatty acid oxidation disorders by worldwide newborn screening programs, an increasing number of asymptomatic patients receive medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) supplements to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and myopathy. MCT supplementation has been recognized as a safe dietary intervention, but long-term observations into later adulthood are still not available. We investigated the consequences of a prolonged MCT diet on abdominal fat distribution and composition and on liver fat. Mice with very-long-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD(-/-)) were supplemented for 1 y with a diet in which MCTs replaced long-chain triglycerides without increasing the total fat content. The dietary effects on abdominal fat accumulation and composition were analyzed by in vivo (1)H- and (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (9.4 Tesla). After 1 y of MCT supplementation, VLCAD(-/-) mice accumulated massive visceral fat and had a dramatic increase in the concentration of serum free fatty acids. Furthermore, we observed a profound shift in body triglyceride composition, ie, concentrations of physiologically important polyunsaturated fatty acids dramatically decreased. (1)H-Magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis and histologic evaluation of the liver also showed pronounced fat accumulation and marked oxidative stress. Although the MCT-supplemented diet has been reported to prevent the development of cardiomyopathy and skeletal myopathy in fatty acid oxidation disorders, our data show that long-term MCT supplementation results in a severe clinical phenotype similar to that of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and the metabolic syndrome.

  1. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum proteinnutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  2. Effect of medium-chain triglycerides on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites and antioxidant capacity in weanling pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites and antioxidant capacity in weanling pigs. A total of 160 weanling (Duroc × Landrace × Yorkshire pigs (age: 21 ± 1 d; body weight: 7.50 ± 0.28 kg were randomly allotted to 4 treatments, receiving the following diets for 28 d: control diet [containing 3.5% soybean oil (SO], MCT1 diet (containing 0.7% MCTs and 2.8% SO, MCT2 diet (containing 1.4% MCTs and 2.1% SO and MCT3 diet (containing 2.1% MCTs and 1.4% SO. Dietary inclusion of MCTs improved the average daily gain and feed efficiency (FE of pigs compared with the control during the first 2 weeks post-weaning (P < 0.05. A similar positive effect was also observed for the overall FE in MCT2 group (P < 0.05. Compared with the control, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of ether extract was improved by MCT2 and MCT3 treatment from day 12–14 post-weaning (P < 0.05. In addition, MCT2 treatment also exerted a beneficial effect on the ATTD of dry matter (P < 0.05. The increased total protein concentration and decreased urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde levels of plasma were observed in both MCT2 and MCT3 groups on day 14 post-weaning (P < 0.05. In conclusion, MCTs could improve growth performance, nutrients utilization, and antioxidant ability of weanling piglets.

  3. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides promote oral allergic sensitization and orally induced anaphylaxis to peanut protein in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianing; Wang, Yu; Tang, Lihua; de Villiers, Willem JS; Cohen, Donald; Woodward, Jerold; Finkelman, Fred D; Eckhardt, Erik RM

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The prevalence of peanut allergies is rising. Peanuts and many other allergen sources contain significant amounts of triglycerides, which affect absorption of antigens but have unknown effects on sensitization and anaphylaxis. We recently reported that dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), which bypass mesenteric lymph and directly enter portal blood, reduce intestinal antigen absorption into blood compared to long-chain triglycerides (LCT), which stimulate mesenteric lymph flow and are absorbed in chylomicrons via mesenteric lymph. OBJECTIVE Test how dietary MCT affect food allergy. METHODS C3H/HeJ mice were fed peanut butter protein in MCT, LCT (peanut oil), or LCT plus an inhibitor of chylomicron formation (Pluronic L81; “PL81”). Peanut-specific antibodies in plasma, responses of the mice to antigen challenges, and intestinal epithelial cytokine expression were subsequently measured. RESULTS MCT suppressed antigen absorption into blood, but stimulated absorption into Peyer's patches. A single gavage of peanut protein with MCT as well as prolonged feeding in MCT-based diets caused spontaneous allergic sensitization. MCT-sensitized mice experienced IgG-dependent anaphylaxis upon systemic challenge and IgE-dependent anaphylaxis upon oral challenge. MCT feeding stimulated jejunal-epithelial TSLP, IL-25 and IL-33 expression compared to LCT, and promoted Th2 cytokine responses in splenocytes. Moreover, oral challenges of sensitized mice with antigen in MCT significantly aggravated anaphylaxis compared to challenges with LCT. Importantly, effects of MCT could be mimicked by adding PL81 to LCT, and in vitro assays indicated that chylomicrons prevent basophil activation. CONCLUSION Dietary MCT promote allergic sensitization and anaphylaxis by affecting antigen absorption and availability and by stimulating Th2 responses. PMID:23182172

  4. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in biota from the European Arctic -- differences in homologue group patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reth, Margot; Ciric, Anita; Christensen, Guttorm N; Heimstad, Eldbjørg S; Oehme, Michael

    2006-08-15

    Congener and homologue group patterns of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in biota can be influenced by different processes, but these are not well studied yet. Short- (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) were quantified in liver from Arctic char and seabirds (little auk and kittiwake) collected at Bear Island (European Arctic) as well as in cod from Iceland and Norway. CP concentrations were between 5 and 88 ng/g wet weight (ww) for SCCPs and between 5 and 55 ng/g ww for MCCPs with one exception of 370 ng/g measured in a liver sample from little auk. The SCCP homologue group patterns were compared with those of technical mixtures and of SCCPs present in cod liver from the Baltic Sea. The latter showed a more common SCCP homologue distribution (sum of C(11) and C(12)>60%) in contrast to cod liver from the Northwest of Europe, which had a high abundance of C(10) and C(12) congeners. Seabirds from Bear Island contained an equally distributed SCCP homologue group pattern. In Arctic char, the SCCP distribution was closer to technical products, but with a high proportion (average of 18.9%) of C(10) congeners. A comparison of C(10)/C(12) ratios confirmed the higher abundance of C(10) congeners in samples from higher latitudes. For the first time, MCCPs could be detected in Arctic samples. The average proportion of C(14) congeners was 65.8%. The C(14)/C(15) abundance ratio was similar to technical mixtures. High-chlorinated CPs (Cl(>7)) were also detectable. The average chlorine content of the SCCPs was 61.9% (59.0-63.3%), and that of the MCCPs 55.8% (54.5-57.4%).

  5. Synthesis of Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Homopolymers, Random Copolymers, and Block Copolymers by an Engineered Strain of Pseudomonas entomophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chung, Ahleum; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-04-01

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs), widely used in medical area, are commonly synthesized by Pseudomonas spp. This study tries to use β-oxidation pathways engineered P. entomophila to achieve single source of a series of mcl-monomers for microbial production of PHA homopolymers. The effort is proven successful for the first time to obtain a wide range of mcl-PHA homopolymers from engineered P. entomophila LAC23 grown on various fatty acids, respectively, ranging from poly(3-hydroxyheptanoate) to poly(3-hydroxytetradecanoate). Effects of a PHA monomer chain length on thermal and crystallization properties including the changes of T m , T g , and T d5% are investigated. Additionally, strain LAC23 is used to synthesize random copolymers of 3-hydroxyoctanoate (3HO) and 3-hydroxydodecanoate (3HDD) or 3-hydroxytetradecanoates, their compositions could be controlled by adjusting the ratios of two related fatty acids. Meanwhile, block copolymer P(3HO)-b-P(3HDD) is synthesized by the same strain. It is found for the first time that even- and odd number mcl-PHA homopolymers have different physical properties. When the gene of the PHA synthase in the engineered P. entomophila is replaced by phaC from Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-30 mol%-3-hydroxyhexanoate) is synthesized. Therefore, P. entomophila can be used to synthesize the whole range of PHA (C7-C14) homopolymers, random- and block copolymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Efficacious intestinal permeation enhancement induced by the sodium salt of 10-undecylenic acid, a medium chain fatty acid derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brayden, David J; Walsh, Edwin

    2014-09-01

    10-undecylenic acid (UA) is an OTC antifungal therapy and a nutritional supplement. It is an unsaturated medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) derivative, so our hypothesis was that its 11-mer sodium salt, uC11, would improve intestinal permeation similar to the established enhancer, sodium caprate (C10), but without the toxicity of the parent saturated MCFA, decylenic acid (C11). MTT assay and high-content screening (HCS) confirmed a cytotoxicity ranking in Caco-2 cells: C11 > C10 = uC11. Five to ten millimolars of the three agents reduced TEER and increased the Papp of [(14)C]-mannitol across Caco-2 monolayers and rat intestinal mucosae, a concentration that matched increases in plasma membrane permeability seen in HCS. Although C11 was the most efficacious enhancer in vitro, it damaged monolayers and tissue mucosae more than the other two agents at similar concentrations and exposure times and was therefore not pursued further. Rat jejunal and colonic in situ intestinal instillations of 100 mM C10 or uC11 with FITC-dextran 4000 (FD4) solutions yielded comparable regional enhancement ratios of ~10 and 30%, respectively, for each agent with acceptable tissue histology. Mini-tablets of uC11 and FD4 however delivered more FD4 compared to C10-FD-4 mini-tablets in both regions, as reflected by a statistically higher AUC, and with no evidence of membrane perturbation. The unsaturated bond in uC11 therefore confers a reduction in lipophilicity and cytotoxicity compared to C11, and the resulting permeation enhancement is on a par with or superior to that of C10, a key component of formulations in current phase II oral peptide clinical trials.

  7. The conversion of BTEX compounds by single and defined mixed cultures to medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Kenny, Shane T; Babu, Ramesh P; Woods, Trevor; Blau, Werner J; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2008-09-01

    Here, we report the use of petrochemical aromatic hydrocarbons as a feedstock for the biotechnological conversion into valuable biodegradable plastic polymers--polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs). We assessed the ability of the known Pseudomonas putida species that are able to utilize benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene (BTEX) compounds as a sole carbon and energy source for their ability to produce PHA from the single substrates. P. putida F1 is able to accumulate medium-chain-length (mcl) PHA when supplied with toluene, benzene, or ethylbenzene. P. putida mt-2 accumulates mcl-PHA when supplied with toluene or p-xylene. The highest level of PHA accumulated by cultures in shake flask was 26% cell dry weight for P. putida mt-2 supplied with p-xylene. A synthetic mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene, and styrene (BTEXS) which mimics the aromatic fraction of mixed plastic pyrolysis oil was supplied to a defined mixed culture of P. putida F1, mt-2, and CA-3 in the shake flasks and fermentation experiments. PHA was accumulated to 24% and to 36% of the cell dry weight of the shake flask and fermentation grown cultures respectively. In addition a three-fold higher cell density was achieved with the mixed culture grown in the bioreactor compared to shake flask experiments. A run in the 5-l fermentor resulted in the utilization of 59.6 g (67.5 ml) of the BTEXS mixture and the production of 6 g of mcl-PHA. The monomer composition of PHA accumulated by the mixed culture was the same as that accumulated by single strains supplied with single substrates with 3-hydroxydecanoic acid occurring as the predominant monomer. The purified polymer was partially crystalline with an average molecular weight of 86.9 kDa. It has a thermal degradation temperature of 350 degrees C and a glass transition temperature of -48.5 degrees C.

  8. Impact of carbon monoxide partial pressures on methanogenesis and medium chain fatty acids production during ethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Elizondo, Sofia; Miceli, Joseph; Torres, Cesar I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are important biofuel precursors. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a sustainable electron and carbon donor for fatty acid elongation, since it is metabolized to MCFA precursors, it is toxic to most methanogens, and it is a waste product generated in the gasification of waste biomass. The main objective of this work was to determine if the inhibition of methanogenesis through the continuous addition of CO would lead to increased acetate or MCFA production during fermentation of ethanol. The effects of CO partial pressures (P CO ; 0.08-0.3 atm) on methanogenesis, fatty acids production, and the associated microbial communities were studied in batch cultures fed with CO and ethanol. Methanogenesis was partially inhibited at P CO  ≥ 0.11 atm. This inhibition led to increased acetate production during the first phase of fermentation (0-19 days). However, a second addition of ethanol (day 19) triggered MCFA production only at P CO  ≥ 0.11 atm, which probably occurred through the elongation of acetate with CO-derived ethanol and H 2 :CO 2 . Accordingly, during the second phase of fermentation (days 20-36), the distribution of electrons to acetate decreased at higher P CO , while electrons channeled to MCFA increased. Most probably, Acetobacterium, Clostridium, Pleomorphomonas, Oscillospira, and Blautia metabolized CO to H 2 :CO 2 , ethanol and/or fatty acids, while Peptostreptococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, and other Clostridiales utilized these metabolites, along with the provided ethanol, for MCFA production. These results are important for biotechnological systems where fatty acids production are preferred over methanogenesis, such as in chain elongation systems and microbial fuel cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of medium-chain fatty acids and oleic acid on blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Ehnholm, C.; Jauhiainen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Dietary medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are of nutritional interest because they are more easily absorbed from dietary medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCTs) than are long-chain fatty acids from, for example, vegetable oils. It has generally been claimed that MCFAs do not increase plasma...... cholesterol, although this claim is poorly documented. Objective: We compared the effects of a diet rich in either MCFAs or oleic acid on fasting blood lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, and lipid transfer protein activities in healthy men. Design: In a study with a double-blind, randomized, crossover...... plasma total triacylglycerol (P = 0.0361), and higher plasma glucose (P = 0.033). Plasma HDL-cholesterol and insulin concentrations and activities of cholesterol ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein did not differ significantly between the diets. Conclusions: Compared with fat high...

  10. The frequency of a disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase in sudden infant death syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, Jytte; Gregersen, N; Kølvraa, S

    1993-01-01

    A number of rare inherited metabolic disorders are known to lead to death in infancy. Deficiency of medium-chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase has, on clinical grounds, been related particularly to sudden infant death syndrome. The contribution of this disorder to the etiology of sudden infant death...... syndrome is still a matter of controversy. The present study investigated 120 well-defined cases of sudden infant death syndrome in order to detect the frequency of the most common disease-causing point mutation in the gene coding for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (G985) compared with the frequency...... in the general population. A highly specific polymerase chain reaction assay was applied on dried blood spots. No over-representation of homo- or heterozygosity for G985 appears to exist in such a strictly defined population, for which reason it may be more relevant to look at a broader spectrum of clinical...

  11. A Clostridium Group IV Species Dominates and Suppresses a Mixed Culture Fermentation by Tolerance to Medium Chain Fatty Acids Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stephen J.; De Groof, Vicky; Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Props, Ruben; Coma, Marta; Rabaey, Korneel

    2017-01-01

    A microbial community is engaged in a complex economy of cooperation and competition for carbon and energy. In engineered systems such as anaerobic digestion and fermentation, these relationships are exploited for conversion of a broad range of substrates into products, such as biogas, ethanol, and carboxylic acids. Medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), for example, hexanoic acid, are valuable, energy dense microbial fermentation products, however, MCFA tend to exhibit microbial toxicity to a broad range of microorganisms at low concentrations. Here, we operated continuous mixed population MCFA fermentations on biorefinery thin stillage to investigate the community response associated with the production and toxicity of MCFA. In this study, an uncultured species from the Clostridium group IV (related to Clostridium sp. BS-1) became enriched in two independent reactors that produced hexanoic acid (up to 8.1 g L−1), octanoic acid (up to 3.2 g L−1), and trace concentrations of decanoic acid. Decanoic acid is reported here for the first time as a possible product of a Clostridium group IV species. Other significant species in the community, Lactobacillus spp. and Acetobacterium sp., generate intermediates in MCFA production, and their collapse in relative abundance resulted in an overall production decrease. A strong correlation was present between the community composition and both the hexanoic acid concentration (p = 0.026) and total volatile fatty acid concentration (p = 0.003). MCFA suppressed species related to Clostridium sp. CPB-6 and Lactobacillus spp. to a greater extent than others. The proportion of the species related to Clostridium sp. BS-1 over Clostridium sp. CPB-6 had a strong correlation with the concentration of octanoic acid (p = 0.003). The dominance of this species and the increase in MCFA resulted in an overall toxic effect on the mixed community, most significantly on the Lactobacillus spp., which resulted in a decrease in total

  12. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal morphology and energy metabolism of intrauterine growth retarded weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Li; Zhang, Hao; Li, Yue; Wang, Tian

    2017-06-01

    It has been shown that there is a relationship between intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal intestinal damage involved in energy deficits. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) on the intestinal morphology, intestinal function and energy metabolism of piglets with IUGR. At weaning (21 ± 1.1 d of age), 24 IUGR piglets and 24 normal birth weight (NBW) piglets were selected according to their birth weights (BW) (IUGR: 0.95 ± 0.04 kg BW; NBW: 1.58 ± 0.04 kg BW) and their weights at the time of weaning (IUGR: 5.26 ± 0.15 kg BW; NBW: 6.98 ± 0.19 kg BW). The piglets were fed a diet of either long-chain triglycerides (LCT) (containing 5% LCT) or MCT (containing 1% LCT and 4% MCT) for 28 d. Then, the piglets' intestinal morphology, biochemical parameters and mRNA abundance related to intestinal damage and energy metabolism were determined. IUGR was found to impair intestinal morphology, with evidence of decreased villus height and increased crypt depth; however, these negative effects of IUGR were ameliorated by MCT treatment. IUGR piglets showed compromised intestinal digestion and absorption functions when compared with NBW piglets. However, feeding MCT increased the maltase activity in the jejunum and alleviated IUGR-induced reductions in plasma d-xylose concentrations and jejunal sucrase activity. IUGR decreased the efficiency of the piglets' intestinal energy metabolism; however, piglets fed an MCT diet exhibited increased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentrations and ATP synthase F1 complex beta polypeptide expression, as well as decreased adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase alpha 1 expression in the jejunum of piglets. In addition, up-regulation of the piglets' citrate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase levels was found to occur following MCT treatment at both the activity and the transcriptional levels of the jejunum. Therefore, it can be postulated that

  13. The first three years of screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD by newborn screening ontario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisher Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD is a disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and is one of the most common inborn errors of metabolism. Identification of MCADD via newborn screening permits the introduction of interventions that can significantly reduce associated morbidity and mortality. This study reports on the first three years of newborn screening for MCADD in Ontario, Canada. Methods Newborn Screening Ontario began screening for MCADD in April 2006, by quantification of acylcarnitines (primarily octanoylcarnitine, C8 in dried blood spots using tandem mass spectrometry. Babies with positive screening results were referred to physicians at one of five regional Newborn Screening Treatment Centres, who were responsible for diagnostic evaluation and follow-up care. Results From April 2006 through March 2009, approximately 439 000 infants were screened for MCADD in Ontario. Seventy-four infants screened positive, with a median C8 level of 0.68 uM (range 0.33-30.41 uM. Thirty-one of the screen positive infants have been confirmed to have MCADD, while 36 have been confirmed to be unaffected. Screening C8 levels were higher among infants with MCADD (median 8.93 uM compared to those with false positive results (median 0.47 uM. Molecular testing was available for 29 confirmed cases of MCADD, 15 of whom were homozygous for the common c.985A > G mutation. Infants homozygous for the common mutation tended to have higher C8 levels (median 12.13 uM relative to compound heterozygotes for c.985A > G and a second detectable mutation (median 2.01 uM. Eight confirmed mutation carriers were identified among infants in the false positive group. The positive predictive value of a screen positive for MCADD was 46%. The estimated birth prevalence of MCADD in Ontario is approximately 1 in 14 000. Conclusions The birth prevalence of MCADD and positive predictive value of the screening test were similar to those

  14. Effect of Medium-chain Triglyceride (MCT on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics in Weanling Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Hong

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty weanling pigs in experiment 1 (Exp. 1 (6.91±0.99 kg; 21 d of age and Exp. 2 (10.20±1.09 kg; 28 d of age were used in two 42-d and 35-d experiments to evaluate the effect of medium-chain-triglyceride (MCT on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD of nutrients and blood profile. In both of Exp. 1 and Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were utilized as follows : i negative control (NC, ii positive control (PC, NC+antibiotics (40 mg/kg Tiamulin, 110 mg/kg Tylosin, and 10 mg/kg Enramycin, iii MCT3, NC+0.32% (phase 1, 2 and 3 MCT, and iv MCT5, NC+0.55% (phase 1, 0.32% (phase 2 and 3 MCT. In Exp. 1, the pigs fed MCT5 diets had higher (p<0.05 ADG compared to NC treatment during the first 2 wk. From d 15 to 28, the ATTD of energy was improved (p<0.05 by MCT3 compared to the PC treatment. No effect has been observed on the blood profiles [red blood cell (RBC, white blood cell (WBC, immunoglobulin-G (IgG, lymphocyte concentration] measured in this study. In Exp. 2, the ADG were increased (p<0.05 by the MCT5 treatment than the PC treatment from d 0 to 14. Pigs fed PC treatment diet had lower ADFI (p<0.05 and better FCR (p<0.05 than NC treatment, whereas no differences were shown between MCT treatments and NC or PC treatment from d 15 to 35 and overall phase. The ATTD of DM and nitrogen were improved (p<0.05 by the effect of MCT5 related to the NC and PC treatment at the end of 2nd and 5th wk. The pigs fed MCT3 had higher (p<0.05 energy digestibility than PC treatment. No effects were seen in the blood profiles we measured (WBC, RBC, lymphocyte and immunoglobulin-G. In conclusion, the addition of MCT in the weanling pigs diet can improve the ADG and digestibility during the earlier period (first 2 wks, but had little effect on the blood characteristics.

  15. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamers Françoise F

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Five diseases are currently screened on dried blood spots in France through the national newborn screening programme. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS is a technology that is increasingly used to screen newborns for an increasing number of hereditary metabolic diseases. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD is among these diseases. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing MCADD screening in France. Methods We developed a decision model to evaluate, from a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, the cost-effectiveness of expanding the French newborn screening programme to include MCADD. Published and, where available, routine data sources were used. Both costs and health consequences were discounted at an annual rate of 4%. The model was applied to a French birth cohort. One-way sensitivity analyses and worst-case scenario simulation were performed. Results We estimate that MCADD newborn screening in France would prevent each year five deaths and the occurrence of neurological sequelae in two children under 5 years, resulting in a gain of 128 life years or 138 quality-adjusted life years (QALY. The incremental cost per year is estimated at €2.5 million, down to €1 million if this expansion is combined with a replacement of the technology currently used for phenylketonuria screening by MS/MS. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER is estimated at €7 580/QALY. Sensitivity analyses indicate that while the results are robust to variations in the parameters, the model is most sensitive to the cost of neurological sequelae, MCADD prevalence, screening effectiveness and screening test cost. The worst-case scenario suggests an ICER of €72 000/QALY gained. Conclusions Although France has not defined any threshold for judging whether the implementation of a health intervention is an efficient allocation of public resources, we conclude that the expansion of the French

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of universal newborn screening for medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamers, Françoise F; Rumeau-Pichon, Catherine

    2012-06-08

    Five diseases are currently screened on dried blood spots in France through the national newborn screening programme. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is a technology that is increasingly used to screen newborns for an increasing number of hereditary metabolic diseases. Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) is among these diseases. We sought to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing MCADD screening in France. We developed a decision model to evaluate, from a societal perspective and a lifetime horizon, the cost-effectiveness of expanding the French newborn screening programme to include MCADD. Published and, where available, routine data sources were used. Both costs and health consequences were discounted at an annual rate of 4%. The model was applied to a French birth cohort. One-way sensitivity analyses and worst-case scenario simulation were performed. We estimate that MCADD newborn screening in France would prevent each year five deaths and the occurrence of neurological sequelae in two children under 5 years, resulting in a gain of 128 life years or 138 quality-adjusted life years (QALY). The incremental cost per year is estimated at €2.5 million, down to €1 million if this expansion is combined with a replacement of the technology currently used for phenylketonuria screening by MS/MS. The resulting incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is estimated at €7 580/QALY. Sensitivity analyses indicate that while the results are robust to variations in the parameters, the model is most sensitive to the cost of neurological sequelae, MCADD prevalence, screening effectiveness and screening test cost. The worst-case scenario suggests an ICER of €72 000/QALY gained. Although France has not defined any threshold for judging whether the implementation of a health intervention is an efficient allocation of public resources, we conclude that the expansion of the French newborn screening programme to MCADD would appear to be cost

  17. Subdivision of the MDR superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases through iterative hidden Markov model refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Bengt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medium-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases (MDR form a protein superfamily whose size and complexity defeats traditional means of subclassification; it currently has over 15000 members in the databases, the pairwise sequence identity is typically around 25%, there are members from all kingdoms of life, the chain-lengths vary as does the oligomericity, and the members are partaking in a multitude of biological processes. There are profile hidden Markov models (HMMs available for detecting MDR superfamily members, but none for determining which MDR family each protein belongs to. The current torrential influx of new sequence data enables elucidation of more and more protein families, and at an increasingly fine granularity. However, gathering good quality training data usually requires manual attention by experts and has therefore been the rate limiting step for expanding the number of available models. Results We have developed an automated algorithm for HMM refinement that produces stable and reliable models for protein families. This algorithm uses relationships found in data to generate confident seed sets. Using this algorithm we have produced HMMs for 86 distinct MDR families and 34 of their subfamilies which can be used in automated annotation of new sequences. We find that MDR forms with 2 Zn2+ ions in general are dehydrogenases, while MDR forms with no Zn2+ in general are reductases. Furthermore, in Bacteria MDRs without Zn2+ are more frequent than those with Zn2+, while the opposite is true for eukaryotic MDRs, indicating that Zn2+ has been recruited into the MDR superfamily after the initial life kingdom separations. We have also developed a web site http://mdr-enzymes.org that provides textual and numeric search against various characterised MDR family properties, as well as sequence scan functions for reliable classification of novel MDR sequences. Conclusions Our method of refinement can be readily applied to

  18. Medium-chain triglyceride ameliorates insulin resistance and inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Shanshan; Zhu, Weiwei; Xie, Chunfeng; Li, Xiaoting; Wu, Jieshu; Liang, Zhaofeng; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jianyun; Huang, Cong; Zhu, Mingming; Wu, Rui; Zhong, Caiyun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vivo effects of dietary medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) on inflammation and insulin resistance as well as the underlying potential molecular mechanisms in high fat diet-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6J mice (n = 24) were fed one of the following three diets for a period of 12 weeks: (1) a modified AIN-76 diet with 5 % corn oil (normal diet); (2) a high-fat control diet (17 % w/w lard and 3 % w/w corn oil, HFC); (3) an isocaloric high-fat diet supplemented with MCT (17 % w/w MCT and 3 % w/w corn oil, HF-MCT). Glucose metabolism was evaluated by fasting blood glucose levels and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by fasting serum insulin levels and the index of homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. The levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured by ELISA, and hepatic activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was determined using western blot analysis. Compared to HFC diet, consumption of HF-MCT did not induce body weight gain and white adipose tissue accumulation in mice. HFC-induced increases in serum fasting glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose intolerance were prevented by HF-MCT diet. Meanwhile, HF-MCT resulted in significantly lower serum IL-6 level and higher IL-10 level, and lower expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein in liver tissues when compared to HFC. In addition, HF-MCT attenuated HFC-triggered hepatic activation of NF-κB and p38 MAPK. Our study demonstrated that MCT was efficacious in suppressing body fat accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammatory response, and NF-κB and p38 MAPK activation in high fat diet-fed mice. These data suggest that MCT may exert beneficial effects against high fat diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation.

  19. Evaluation of even- and odd-chain medium-chain triglycerides as energy sources for neonatal piglets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odle, J.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were evaluated as a supplemental energy source for the newborn piglet. In three experiments, piglets were force-fed 12 mi of MCT, varying in fatty acid (FA) composition. Blood fatty acid and ketone body concentrations peaked 1-2 h after force feeding then returned to baseline by 4 h, illustrating rapid digestion, absorption and oxidation. Peak 3-OH-butyrate concentrations never exceeded 80 μM which is dramatically lower than observed in rats (>2 mM). Improved clinical energy status was also documented by elevated blood glucose concentration and lower nitrogen excretion than observed in fasted controls. Piglets showed an improvement in ability to utilize MCT between 6 and 18 h of age based on a two fold increase in blood concentration of FA and 3-OH-butyrate but no further change between 18 and 48 h. Peak plasma FA concentration decreased progressively as triglyceride-FA chain length increased from C7 (2.1 mM) to C10 (0.4 mM). In two subsequent experiments, hepatocyte metabolism of FA was studied. Hepatocytes oxidized [1- 14 C]- C7 or C9 (1 mM) greater than 40% faster and consumed oxygen 7% faster than cells given C8 or C10. L-carnitine (1 mM) was without effect. Theoretical calculations from FA flux accounted for 95-140% of observed O 2 consumption, indicating the FA were the major fuel source for the cells. Hepatocytes from 2 d pigs oxidized FA 48% faster than cells from 6 h pigs, but this was likely due to an increased metabolic rate observed in the older animals. No differences were detected in ability of small (700-950 g) pigs to oxidize FA relative to large (1,050-1,800 g) littermates. In a final in vivo experiment, pigs were continuously infused with 10 μCi of [1- 14 C]-C7,C8, C9 or C10 via a catheter passed through the umbilical artery to the heart at a rate of 20, 50 or 100 mole FA/min for 5 h

  20. Characterization of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in outdoor/indoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1.0 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Runhua; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui

    2017-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention, because of their adverse health effects, persistence, bioaccumulation and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), chlorinated derivatives of n-alkanes, have been listed as candidate POPs under Stockholm Convention. Inhalation uptake was an important exposure pathway for non-occupational adult human and the pollution of particle matter has caused great concern. There are some studies focused on POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different size particles. However, there were no studies that discussed CP concentrations in particulate matter (PM) with different sizes. In this study, a total of 30 PM samples were collected both outdoors and indoors at a sampling site in Beijing. These samples were used to investigate the concentrations and distributions of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM fractions of different sizes, and to evaluate inhalation exposure risks. The results showed that the average SCCPs and MCCPs in the outdoor PM 10 were 23.9 and 3.6 ng m -3 , while the mean values in indoor were 61.1 and 6.9 ng m -3 , respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in indoor and outdoor were relatively high. SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the indoor PM 10 /PM 2.5 /PM 1.0 samples were higher than the corresponding values in the outdoor, because of the using of some products containing CPs in the indoors, like paints and coatings, leather and rubber products. In both outdoor and indoor air, CPs are mainly associated with particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter. The main homolog groups for both SCCPs and MCCPs were C 10-11 Cl 7-8 . It is assumed that SCCPs in the outdoor and indoor PM samples may mainly derive from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  2. Disruption of the acyl-coa binding protein gene delays hepatic adaptation to metabolic changes at weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neess, Ditte; Bloksgaard, Maria; Sørensen, Signe Bek

    2011-01-01

    The acyl-CoA binding protein/diazepam binding inhibitor (ACBP/DBI) is an intracellular protein that binds C14-C22 acyl-CoA esters and is thought to act as an acyl-CoA transporter. In vitro analyses have indicated that ACBP can transport acyl-CoA esters between different enzymatic systems; however....... The delayed induction of SREBP target genes around weaning is caused by a compromised processing and decreased expression of SREBP precursors leading to reduced binding of SREBP to target sites in chromatin. In conclusion, lack of ACBP interferes with the normal metabolic adaptation to weaning and leads...

  3. Medium-chain triglyceride as an alternative of in-feed colistin sulfate to improve growth performance and intestinal microbial environment in newly weaned pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hung-Che; Lai, Wei-Kang; Lin, Chuan-Shun; Chiang, Shu-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Five hundred and twenty-eight newly weaned pigs were given four treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. Sixteen to 18 pigs were assigned per replicate and were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 3% medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and 0 or 40 ppm colistin sulfate (CS) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement for 2 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation with MCT improved the gain-to-feed ratio during days 3-7 and in the overall period (P environment and the feed utilization efficiency of newly weaned pigs. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Khoramnia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO, respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Improvement of medium chain fatty acid content and antimicrobial activity of coconut oil via solid-state fermentation using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Anahita; Ebrahimpour, Afshin; Ghanbari, Raheleh; Ajdari, Zahra; Lai, Oi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil is a rich source of beneficial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) particularly lauric acid. In this study, the oil was modified into a value-added product using direct modification of substrate through fermentation (DIMOSFER) method. A coconut-based and coconut-oil-added solid-state cultivation using a Malaysian lipolytic Geotrichum candidum was used to convert the coconut oil into MCFAs-rich oil. Chemical characteristics of the modified coconut oils (MCOs) considering total medium chain glyceride esters were compared to those of the normal coconut oil using ELSD-RP-HPLC. Optimum amount of coconut oil hydrolysis was achieved at 29% moisture content and 10.14% oil content after 9 days of incubation, where the quantitative amounts of the modified coconut oil and MCFA were 0.330 mL/g of solid media (76.5% bioconversion) and 0.175 mL/g of solid media (53% of the MCO), respectively. MCOs demonstrated improved antibacterial activity mostly due to the presence of free lauric acid. The highest MCFAs-rich coconut oil revealed as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. The results of the study showed that DIMOSFER by a local lipolytic G. candidum can be used to produce MCFAs as natural, effective, and safe antimicrobial agent. The produced MCOs and MCFAs could be further applied in food and pharmaceutical industries.

  6. Effects of medium-chain triglycerides, long-chain triglycerides, or 2-monododecanoin on fatty acid composition in the portal vein, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Qian Nancy; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine.

  7. Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides, Long-Chain Triglycerides, or 2-Monododecanoin on Fatty Acid Composition in the Portal Vein, Intestinal Lymph, and Systemic Circulation in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy You, Yi-Qian; Ling, Pei-Ra; Qu, Jason Zhensheng; Bistrian, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Fatty acid absorption patterns can have a major impact on the fatty acid composition in the portal, intestinal lymph, and systemic circulation. This study sought to determine the effects of long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), and 2-monododecanoin (2mono) on intestinal fatty acid composition during continuous feeding over a brief period. Methods The lipid sources were 100% LCT, 100% MCT, a 50:50 mixture of LCT and MCT (LCT/MCT), and a 50:50 mixture of LCT and 2mono (LCT/2mono). A total of 27 rats were randomly given 1 of the 4 diets at 200 kcal/kg/d, with 30% of total calories from lipids over 3 hours. Results MCT significantly increased each of the medium-chain fatty acids (C6:0, C8:0, and C10:0) as free fatty acids in the portal vein and about 10%/mol of C10:0 as triglycerides in the lymph compared with the other groups. There was significantly less C10:0 in lymphatic triglycerides with LCT/MCT than with MCT, but more than in the LCT and LCT/2mono diets. MCT also significantly increased the contents of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C20:4 in the lymphatic triglycerides compared with all other groups including LCT/MCT. The amount of linoleic acid (C18:2) in lymphatic triglycerides followed the relative amounts of this fatty acid in the diet, with the greatest in LCT followed by LCT/MCT and LCT/2mono and least in MCT. A so-called structured lipid composed of the medium-chain fatty acid dodecanoic acid on the 2 position and long-chain fatty acids on the 1 and 3 positions appeared to be endogenously synthesized in response to the LCT/2mono diet. Conclusions The original differences in MCT and LCT content in the diets were preserved in the fatty acid composition in the intestinal free fatty acids and triglycerides during feeding. In addition, the duration of lipid administration can play a role in altering fatty acid composition in the intestine. PMID:18407910

  8. Inflammatory changes in adipose tissue enhance expression of GPR84, a medium-chain fatty acid receptor: TNFα enhances GPR84 expression in adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaaki; Fuchigami, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Arima, Hiroshi; Ota, Akira; Oiso, Yutaka; Hamada, Yoji

    2012-02-17

    In this study we aimed to identify the physiological roles of G protein-coupled receptor 84 (GPR84) in adipose tissue, together with medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs), the specific ligands for GPR84. In mice, high-fat diet up-regulated GPR84 expression in fat pads. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, co-culture with a macrophage cell line, RAW264, or TNFα remarkably enhanced GPR84 expression. In the presence of TNFα, MCFAs down-regulated adiponectin mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that GPR84 emerges in adipocytes in response to TNFα from infiltrating macrophages and exacerbates the vicious cycle between adiposity and diabesity. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of Water/Oil/Surfactant System for Preparation of Medium-Chain-Length Poly-3-Hydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA)-Incorporated Nanoparticles via Nanoemulsion Templating Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, K A; Annuar, M Suffian M; Ahmad, N

    2017-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles gain a widespread interest in food and pharmaceutical industries as delivery systems that encapsulate, protect, and release lipophilic compounds such as omega-3 fatty acids, fat-soluble vitamins, carotenoids, carvedilol, cyclosporine, and ketoprofen. In this study, medium-chain-length poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate (mcl-PHA)-incorporated nanoparticle was developed via facile organic solvent-free nanoemulsion templating technique. The water content (W/surfactant-to-oil (S/O)), S/O, and Cremophor EL-to-Span 80 (Cremo/Sp80) ratios were first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) to obtain nanoemulsion template prior to incorporation of mcl-PHA. Their effects on nanoemulsion formation were investigated. The mcl-PHA-incorporated nanoparticle system showed a good preservation capability of β-carotene and extended storage stability.

  10. The most common mutation causing medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency is strongly associated with a particular haplotype in the region of the gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kølvraa, S; Gregersen, N; Blakemore, A I

    1991-01-01

    RFLP haplotypes in the region containing the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene on chromosome 1 have been determined in patients with MCAD deficiency. The RFLPs were detected after digestion of patient DNA with the enzymes BanII. PstI and TaqI and with an MCAD cDNA-clone as a probe....... Of 32 disease-causing alleles studied, 31 possessed the previously published A----G point-mutation at position 985 of the cDNA. This mutation has been shown to result in inactivity of the MCAD enzyme. In at least 30 of the 31 alleles carrying this G985 mutation a specific RFLP haplotype was present...

  11. Effect of Difference in Fatty Acid Chain Lengths of Medium- Chain Lipids on Lipid/Surfactant/Water Phase Diagrams and Drug Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetal N. Prajapati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipids consisting of medium chain fatty acids are commonly used in the development of lipid-based selfemulsifying and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems. However, no systematic approach to selecting one lipid over another has been reported in the literature. In this study, propylene glycol (PG monoester (PG monocaprylate, Capmul PG-8® and PG diester (PG dicaprylocaprate, Captex 200P® of C8-fatty acids were compared with PG monoester (PG monolaurate, Capmul PG-12® and PG diester (PG dilaurate, Capmul PG-2L® of C12-fatty acids with respect to their phase diagrams, and especially for their ability to form microemulsions in the presence of a common surfactant, Cremophor EL®, and water. The solubility of two model drugs, danazol and probucol, in the lipids and lipid/surfactant mixtures were also compared. The effect of the chain length of medium-chain fatty acids (C8 versus C12 on the phase diagrams of the lipids was minimal. Both shorter and longer chain lipids formed essentially similar microemulsion and emulsion regions in the presence of Cremophor EL® and water, although the C12-fatty acid esters formed larger gel regions in the phase diagrams than the C8-fatty acid esters. When monoesters were mixed with their respective diesters at 1:1 ratios, larger microemulsion regions with lower lipid particle sizes were observed compared to those obtained with individual lipids alone. While the solubility of both danazol and probucol increased greatly in all lipids studied, compared to their aqueous solubility, the solubility in C12-fatty acid esters was found to be lower than in C8-fatty acid esters when the lipids were used alone. This difference in solubility due to the difference in fatty acid chain length, practically disappeared when the lipids were combined with the surfactant.

  12. Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of complementary DNA encoding rat mammary gland medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safford, R.; de Silva, J.; Lucas, C.

    1987-01-01

    Poly(A) + RNA from pregnant rat mammary glands was size-fractionated by sucrose gradient centrifugation, and fractions enriched in medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thio ester hydrolase (MCH) were identified by in vitro translation and immunoprecipitation. A cDNA library was constructed, in pBR322, from enriched poly(A) + RNA and screened with two oligonucleotide probes deduced from rat MCH amino acid sequence data. Cross-hybridizing clones were isolated and found to contain cDNA inserts ranging from ∼ 1100 to 1550 base pairs (bp). A 1550-bp cDNA insert, from clone 43H09, was confirmed to encode MCH by hybrid-select translation/immunoprecipitation studies and by comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence of the clone to the amino acid sequence of the MCH peptides. Northern blot analysis revealed the size of the MCH mRNA to be 1500 nucleotides, and it is therefore concluded that the 1550-bp insert (including G x C tails) of clone 43H09 represents a full- or near-full-length copy of the MCH gene. The rat MCH sequence is the first reported sequence of a thioesterase from a mammalian source, but comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of MCH and the recently published mallard duck medium-chain S-acyl fatty acid synthetase thioesterase reveals significant homology. In particular, a seven amino acid sequence containing the proposed active serine of the duck thioesterase is found to be perfectly conserved in rat MCH

  13. Effect of GPR84 deletion on obesity and diabetes development in mice fed long chain or medium chain fatty acid rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Toit, Eugene; Browne, Liam; Irving-Rodgers, Helen; Massa, Helen M; Fozzard, Nicolette; Jennings, Michael P; Peak, Ian R

    2017-04-20

    Although there is good evidence showing that diets rich in medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have less marked obesogenic and diabetogenic effects than diets rich in long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the role of the pro-inflammatory, medium chain fatty acid receptor (GPR84) in the aetiology of obesity and glucose intolerance is not well characterised. We set out to determine whether GPR84 expression influences obesity and glucose intolerance susceptibility in MCFA and LCFA rich diet fed mice. Wild type (WT) and GPR84 knockout (KO) mice were fed a control, MCFA or LCFA diet, and body mass, heart, liver and epididymal fat mass was assessed, as well as glucose tolerance and adipocyte size. LCFA diets increased body mass and decreased glucose tolerance in both WT and GPR84 KO animals while MCFA diets had no effect on these parameters. There were no differences in body weight when comparing WT and GPR84 KO mice on the respective diets. Glucose tolerance was also similar in WT and GPR84 KO mice irrespective of diet. Liver mass was increased following LCFA feeding in WT but not GPR84 KO mice. Hepatic triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed MCFA, and myocardial triglyceride content was increased in GPR84 KO animals fed LCFA. GPR84 deletion had no effects on body weight or glucose tolerance in mice fed either a high MCFA or LCFA diet. GPR84 may influence lipid metabolism, as GPR84 KO mice had smaller livers and increased myocardial triglyceride accumulation when fed LCFA diets, and increased liver triglyceride accumulation in responses to increased dietary MCFAs.

  14. Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutations identified by MS/MS-based prospective screening of newborns differ from those observed in patients with clinical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Dobrowolski, S F; O'Reilly, L

    2001-01-01

    Medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency is the most frequently diagnosed mitochondrial beta-oxidation defect, and it is potentially fatal. Eighty percent of patients are homozygous for a common mutation, 985A-->G, and a further 18% have this mutation in only one disease allele. In a...

  15. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Increase Muscle Strength and Function in Frail Elderly Adults in a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function, is common in elderly individuals but difficult to treat. A combination of nutrients was investigated to treat sarcopenia in very frail elderly adults. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (11 men and 27 women with a mean ± SD age of 86.6 ± 4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, single-blind, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups. The first group received a daily l-leucine (1.2 g) and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g medium-chain triglycerides (TGs) (MCTs) (LD + MCT); the second group received the same leucine and cholecalciferol-enriched supplement with 6 g long-chain TGs (LD + LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). The supplement and oils were taken at dinner, and changes in muscle mass, strength, and function were monitored. The increase in body weight in the LD + MCT (1.1 ± 1.0 kg) and LD + LCT (0.8 ± 1.1 kg) groups was greater than that in the control group (-0.5 ± 0.9 kg) (P elderly individuals. This trial was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry as UMIN000017567. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Medium-chain triglyceride-rich enteral nutrition is more effective than low-fat enteral nutrition in rat colitis, but is equal in enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, T; Ohta, N; Nakamura, T; Yasuoka, T; Satoh, J; Fukunaga, T; Itohi, A; Uda, K; Ihara, T; Andoh, A; Sasaki, M; Fujiyama, Y; Bamba, T

    2001-10-01

    Although enteral nutrition (EN) therapy for Crohn's disease has been confirmed to be as effective as steroid therapy, the precise mechanism responsible for the effects of EN remains unclear, although some of the therapeutic effects of EN are believed to be due to a low dietary fat content. In order to elucidate the influence of fat in EN, it is important to investigate not only the quantity of fat, but also the source of the fat. We compared two enteral nutritional formulae: Elental (Ajinomoto) (elemental diet; ED), which contains only 1.5% fat, provided as long-chain triglycerides (LCT), versus Twinline (Snow Brand Milk Products) (TL), which contains a high percentage of fat (20.4%), provided mainly as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). These formulae were tested on rat enteritis and rat colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Both ED and TL reduced the manifestations of enteritis. TL had a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than ED for colitis. TL also had nutritional advantages as compared with ED, as shown by the total serum protein in the TL group being significantly higher than that in the ED group. The results indicate that intraluminal MCT is suitable as a fat energy source during intestinal inflammation in rats. We suggest that Twinline may be more useful to improve nutritional status and to reduce the mucosal inflammation in rat colitis, but that Twinline is equal in effect to Elental for rat enteritis.

  17. Effects of solubilization of short and medium-chain molecules in the self-assembly of two amphiphilic drugs in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Silvia; Cheema, Mohammad Arif; Siddiq, Mohammad; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The effect of short and medium chain length alcohols ethanol, propanol, and butanol on the thermodynamic properties of aqueous solutions of the ionic amphiphilic antidepressants imipramine and clomipramine hydrochlorides has been investigated at T = 293 K. Critical concentrations of the drugs were obtained from ultrasound velocity measurements. Experimental results have shown a strong dependence of the ultrasound velocity with the alcohol concentration and chain length. Differences in the aggregate properties of both amphiphiles arise from the presence of the extra Cl - substituent on the ring system of clomipramine. Density and ultrasound measurements have been used to obtain the apparent molar volumes, V φ , and isentropic apparent molar compressibilities, K φ(S) , for the aqueous drug/water-alcohol solutions. The distribution coefficient of the amount solubilized between water and the aggregates, K, has been determined using an indirect method based on the pseudo-phase model by using apparent molar volume values. This method allows the calculation of the distribution coefficients at concentrations below saturation. The standard molar Gibbs free energy change on transfer from the aqueous to the micellar, ΔG 0 , phase was calculated from the partition coefficient. The results have highlighted the structural differences between both amphiphiles

  18. Acquired intestinal lymphangiectasia successfully treated with a low-fat and medium-chain triacylglycerol-enriched diet in a patient with liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Maurizio; Andreone, Pietro; Gramenzi, Annagiulia; Cursaro, Carmela; Lorenzini, Stefania; Bonvicini, Fiorenza; Bernardi, Mauro

    2006-05-01

    Intestinal lymphangiectasia is defined as a dilatation of small bowel lymphatic capillaries and a loss of lymph into the bowel lumen. Clinically it is characterized by hypoproteinaemia and oedema. We present here a case of protein-losing enteropathy due to intestinal lymphangiectasia after liver transplantation in a 57-year-old man who was transplanted for hepatitis C virus. Four years after liver transplantation, the patient developed hypoalbuminaemia and ascites associated with recurrence of cirrhosis. The sudden fall in serum albumin led us to look for a cause of reduction other than or in addition to cirrhosis. Duodenal biopsies showed tall villi with dilated lymphatic vessels and widening of the villi caused by oedema, demonstrating intestinal lymphangiectasia. In this case a low-fat diet supplemented with medium-chain triacylglycerols achieved an early clinical improvement with increased serum albumin levels and ascites disappearance. Intestinal lymphangiectasia should be suspected in liver-transplanted patients developing hypoproteinaemia and hypoalbuminaemia after the recurrence of cirrhosis.

  19. Randomized clinical trial of new intravenous lipid (SMOFlipid 20%) versus medium-chain triglycerides/long-chain triglycerides in adult patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hsun; Wang, Ming-Yang; Yang, Chin-Yao; Kuo, Min-Liang; Lin, Ming-Tsan

    2014-09-01

    SMOFlipid 20% is intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT), medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), olive oil, and fish oil as a mixed emulsion containing α-tocopherol. The aim was to assess the efficacy of this new ILE in gastrointestinal surgery compared with MCT/LCT. In this prospective study, 40 patients were randomized to SMOFlipid 20% or MCT/LCT (Lipovenoes 20%) group. Clinical and biochemistry data were collected. Inflammatory markers (CRP, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β1) and oxidative stress (ROS and superoxide) were measured. Thirty-five patients (17 males and 18 females) with a mean age of 57 years completed the study. The patients' demographic characteristics (age, gender, height, body weight, and BMI) were similar without significant differences between groups. The increment of triglyceride on day 6 from baseline was significantly lower in SMOFlipid group than in Lipovenoes MCT/LCT group. Inflammatory markers, as well as superoxide radical and total oxygen radical were not different between groups. Despite the comparable effect on inflammatory response, because of its well-balanced fatty acid pattern, relatively low n-6:n-3 ratio, and high vitamin E content, SMOFlipid had a better triglyceride-lowering effect as compared with MCT/LCT in adult patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. © 2013 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  20. The diverse nature of saturated fats and the case of medium-chain triglycerides: how one recommendation may not fit all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Nilam; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    The adverse cardiovascular health effects of saturated fats have been debated recently since the publication of studies reporting no increase in cardiovascular risk with saturated fat intakes. We purport that this may be because of the varied nature of saturated fats, which range in length from 2 to over 20 carbon atoms, and review evidence surrounding the cardiovascular health effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT). MCTs are saturated fats of shorter chain length than other, more readily consumed saturated fats. Studies have reported that consumption of MCT may lead to improvements in body composition without adversely affecting cardio-metabolic risk factors. There may also be synergistic actions between MCT and n-3 polyunsaturated fats that may lead to improvements in cardiovascular health. It is clinically relevant to distinguish between sources of saturated fats for cardiovascular health. Medium, and possibly shorter chain, saturated fats behave differently than long-chain saturated fats and should not be judged similarly when it comes to their cardio-metabolic health effects. Given their neutral, and potentially beneficial cardiovascular health effects, they should not be categorized together.

  1. COMPARISON OF PHYSICAL STABILITY PROPERTIES OF POMEGRANATE SEED OIL NANOEMULSION DOSAGE FORMS WITH LONG-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AND MEDIUM-CHAIN TRIGLYCERIDE AS THE OIL PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartanti Yuliani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate seed oil has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and chemo preventive activities. Pomegranate seed oil is lipophilic substance suitable to be prepared in emulsion dosage forms. Long-chain triglyceride (LCT and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT are commonly used as oil phase in emulsion dosage forms. This research aimed to compare the use of LCT and MCT in the Nano emulsion formula of pomegranate seed oil dosage forms. Formulation of pomegranate seed oil Nano emulsion was conducted using high energy emulsification. Parameters observed were pH, Nano emulsion type, percent transmittance, viscosity, turbidity, and droplet size before and after 3 cycles of freeze-thaw. The result showed that there was no significant difference between physical properties of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase and pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase. Moreover, physical stability of pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with LCT as oil phase was better than pomegranate oil Nano emulsion with MCT as oil phase.

  2. Quantification of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples by gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-06-24

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are technical products produced and used in bulk for a number of purposes. However, the analysis of CPs is challenging, as they are complex mixtures of compounds and isomers. We herein report the development of an analytical method for the analysis of short-chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) using quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-qTOF-HRMS). This method employs gas chromatography with a chemical ionization source working in negative mode. The linear relationship between chlorination and the CP total response factors was applied to quantify the CP content and the congener group distribution patterns. In a single injection, 24 SCCP formula groups and 24 MCCP formula groups were quantified. Extraction of accurate masses using qTOF-HRMS allowed the SCCPs and MCCPs to be distinguished, with interference from other chemicals (e.g., PCBs) being largely avoided. The SCCP and MCCP detection limits were 24-81ng/mL and 27-170ng/mL, respectively. Comparison of the obtained results with analytical results from gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) indicate that the developed technique is a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of CPs in samples from a range of matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spatial and temporal trends of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediments off the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lixi; Lam, James C W; Horii, Yuichi; Li, Xiaolin; Chen, Weifang; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Yamazaki, Eriko; Yamashita, Nobuyoshi; Lam, Paul K S

    2017-05-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, and assess the effectiveness of control measures on the contamination by chlorinated paraffins (CPs) in East Asia, surface and core sediments were sampled from the urbanized coastal zones in China and Japan (i.e., Pearl River Delta (PRD), Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay) and analyzed for short-chain (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs). Much higher concentrations of CPs were found in the industrialized PRD than in adjacent Hong Kong waters. Significant correlation between CP concentration and population density in the coastal district of Hong Kong was observed (r 2  = 0.72 for SCCPs and 0.55 for MCCPs, p chain groups within SCCPs in the PRD than in Hong Kong waters and Tokyo Bay implied the effect of industrialization. Comparison of temporal trends between Hong Kong outer harbor with Tokyo Bay shows the striking difference in historical deposition of CPs under different regulatory situations in China and Japan. For the first time, the declining CP concentrations in Tokyo Bay, Japan, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sudden unexpected infant death (SUDI in a newborn due to medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD deficiency with an unusual severe genotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovera Cristina

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Medium chain acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD is the most common inborn error of fatty acid oxidation. This condition may lead to cellular energy shortage and cause severe clinical events such as hypoketotic hypoglycemia, Reye syndrome and sudden death. MCAD deficiency usually presents around three to six months of life, following catabolic stress as intercurrent infections or prolonged fasting, whilst neonatal-onset of the disease is quite rare. We report the case of an apparently healthy newborn who suddenly died at the third day of life, in which the diagnosis of MCAD deficiency was possible through peri-mortem blood-spot acylcarnitine analysis that showed very high concentrations of octanoylcarnitine. Genetic analysis at the ACADM locus confirmed the biochemical findings by demonstrating the presence in homozygosity of the frame-shift c.244dup1 (p.Trp82LeufsX23 mutation, a severe genotype that may explain the unusual and very early fatal outcome in this newborn. This report confirms that inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation represent one of the genetic causes of sudden unexpected deaths in infancy (SUDI and underlines the importance to include systematically specific metabolic screening in any neonatal unexpected death.

  5. The critical micelle concentration of lecithin in bulk oils and medium chain triacylglycerol is influenced by moisture content and total polar materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JiSu; Kim, Mi-Ja; Lee, JaeHwan

    2018-09-30

    Effects of different moisture contents and oxidised compounds on the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of lecithin were determined in bulk oils and in medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT). CMC of lecithin in MCT was significantly higher than that in other vegetable oils including olive, soybean, corn, and rapeseed oils (p < 0.05). Presence of moisture significantly affected the CMC of lecithin in MCT (p < 0.05). CMC of lecithin was high when the moisture content was below 900 ppm, whereas at a moisture content of 1000 ppm, CMC of lecithin decreased significantly (p < 0.05), and then started to increase. Addition of total polar materials (TPM), which are oxidation products, at 3 and 5% concentrations, decreased CMC of lecithin significantly (p < 0.05) in MCT, compared to when 0, 1, and 1.5% of TPM was added to MCT. As the degree of oxidation increased in corn oil, CMC of lecithin gradually decreased. Additionally, under different moisture contents, corn oils showed a similar pattern of CMC of lecithin in MCT, whereas oxidised corn oil had a little lower CMC of lecithin than unoxidised corn oil. The results clearly showed that the concentration of lecithin for the formation of micelles is greatly influenced by the presence of oxidation products and the moisture content in bulk oils. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of Medium-Chain-Length Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates from Saponified Palm Kernel Oil by Pseudomonas putida: Kinetics of Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations

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    Annuar, M. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of medium-chain-length poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates, PHAMCL production by Pseudomonas putida PGA1 in batch and fed-batch fermentations were studied. With saponified palm kernel oil (SPKO supplying the free fatty acids mixture as the sole carbon and energy source, PHAMCL accumulation is encouraged under ammonium-limited condition, which is a nitrogen stress environment. The amount of PHAMCL accumulated and its specific production rate, qPHA were influenced by the residual ammonium concentration level in the culture medium. It was observed that in both fermentation modes, when the residual ammonium was exhausted (< 0.05 gL-1, the PHAMCL accumulation (11.9% and qPHA (0.0062 h-1 were significantly reduced. However, this effect can be reversed by feeding low amount of ammonium to the culture, resulting in significantly improved PHAMCL yield (71.4% and specific productivity (0.6 h-1. It is concluded that the feeding of low ammonium concentration to the culture medium during the PHAMCL accumulation has a positive effect on sustaining the PHAMCL biosynthetic capability of the organism. It was also found that increasing SPKO concentration in the medium significantly reduced (up to 50% the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (KLa of the fermentation system.

  7. Hepatic beta-oxidation and carnitine palmitoyltransferase I in neonatal pigs after dietary treatments of clofibric acid, isoproterenol, and medium-chain triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peffer, Pasha Lyvers; Lin, Xi; Odle, Jack

    2005-06-01

    A suckling piglet model was used to study nutritional and pharmacologic means of stimulating hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation. Newborn pigs were fed milk diets containing either long- or medium-chain triglycerides (LCT or MCT). The long-chain control diet was supplemented further with clofibric acid (0.5%) or isoproterenol (40 ppm), and growth was monitored for 10-12 days. Clofibrate increased rates of hepatic peroxisomal and mitochondrial beta-oxidation of [1-(14)C]-palmitate by 60 and 186%, respectively. Furthermore, malonyl-CoA sensitive carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) activity increased 64% (P clofibrate. Increased CPT I activity was not congruent with changes in message, as elevated abundance of CPT I mRNA was not detected (P = 0.16) when assessed by qRT-PCR. Neither rates of beta-oxidation nor CPT activities were affected by dietary MCT or by isoproterenol treatment (P > 0.1). Collectively, these findings indicate that clofibrate effectively induced hepatic CPT activity concomitant with increased fatty acid beta-oxidation.

  8. Dietary Intake of Structured Lipids with Different Contents of Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Obesity Prevention in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengmin; Wang, Yueqiang; Jiang, Yuanrong; Zhang, Zhongfei; Sun, Xiangjun; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-08-01

    Three medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols (MLCT) with different contents of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) (10% to 30%, w/w) were prepared and evaluated for their anti-obesity potential in C57BL/6J mice. The group fed with a high fat diet of MLCT containing 30% (w/w) MCFA showed significantly decreased body weight and fat mass (P obesity-inducing high fat rapeseed oil diet. In addition, serum parameters including triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, glucose, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and apolipoprotein B in the treatment group fed with 30% (w/w) MCFA were close to those of mice fed with a low fat rapeseed oil diet, but significantly different (P obesity control group. Moreover, the intake of MLCT with high content of MCFA reduced the size of adipocytes. In addition, the visceral fat and liver weights, as well as the liver triacylglycerol for 3 treatment groups were lower than those of the obesity control group. These results demonstrate the great potential of MLCT with high content of MCFA in weight loss. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Medium-chain Triglyceride Ketogenic Diet, An Effective Treatment for Drug-resistant Epilepsy and A Comparison with Other Ketogenic Diets

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    Yeou-mei Christiana Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The ketogenic diet (KD is one of the most effective therapies for drug-resistant epilepsy. The efficacy of the medium-chain triglyceride KD (MCTKD is as excellent as the classic KD (CKD, which has been documented in several subsequent retrospective, prospective, and randomized studies. MCT oil is more ketogenic than long-chain triglycerides. Therefore, the MCTKD allows more carbohydrate and protein food, which makes the diet more palatable than the CKD. The MCTKD is not based on diet ratios as is the CKD, but uses a percentage of calories from MCT oil to create ketones. There has also been literature which documents the associated gastrointestinal side effects from the MCTKD, such as diarrhea, vomiting, bloating, and cramps. Therefore, the MCTKD has been an underutilized diet therapy for intractable epilepsy among children.The author has used up to >70% MCTKD diet to maximize seizure control with gastrointestinal side effects optimally controlled. As long as health care professionals carefully manage MCTKD, many more patients with epilepsy who are not appropriate for CKD or modified Atkins diet or low glycemic index treatment will benefit from this treatment. A comparison between the MCTKD and other KDs is also discussed.

  10. The Effect of Medium Chain Triglycerides on Time to Nutritional Ketosis and Symptoms of Keto-Induction in Healthy Adults: A Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial

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    Cliff J. d C. Harvey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Medium chain triglycerides (MCTs are ketogenic and might reduce adverse effects of keto-induction and improve time to ketosis and the tolerability of very low carbohydrate diets. This study investigates whether MCT supplementation improves time to nutritional ketosis (NK, mood, and symptoms of keto-induction. We compared changes in beta-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB, blood glucose, symptoms of keto-induction, and mood disturbance, in 28 healthy adults prescribed a ketogenic diet, randomised to receive either 30 ml of MCT, or sunflower oil as a control, three times per day, for 20 days. The primary outcome measured was the achievement of NK (≥0.5 mmol·L−1 BOHB. Participants also completed a daily Profile of Mood States and keto-induction symptom questionnaire. MCT resulted in higher BOHB at all time points and faster time to NK, a result that failed to reach significance. Symptoms of keto-induction resulted from both diets, with a greater magnitude in the control group, except for abdominal pain, which occurred with greater frequency and severity in the MCT-supplemented diet. There was a possibly beneficial effect on symptoms by MCT, but the effect on mood was unclear. Based on these results, MCTs increase BOHB compared with LCT and reduce symptoms of keto-induction. It is unclear whether MCTs significantly improve mood or time to NK. The trial was registered by the Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12616001099415.

  11. In Silico and Wet Lab Studies Reveal the Cholesterol Lowering Efficacy of Lauric Acid, a Medium Chain Fat of Coconut Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekshmi Sheela, Devi; Nazeem, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla; Narayanankutty, Arunaksharan; Manalil, Jeksy Jos; Raghavamenon, Achuthan C

    2016-12-01

    The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis. The molecular docking studies were carried out using CDOCKER protocol in Accelery's Discovery Studio, by taking different proteins like HMG- CoA reductase and cholesterol esterase as targets and the different phytocompounds in coconut as ligands. Molecular docking highlighted the potential of lauric acid in inhibiting the protein targets involved in hyperlipidemics. Further, validation of in silico results was carried out through in vivo studies. The activity of key enzymes HMG- CoA reductase and lipoprotein lipase were found reduced in animals fed with lauric acid and CO.

  12. Effects of Dietary Coconut Oil as a Medium-chain Fatty Acid Source on Performance, Carcass Composition and Serum Lipids in Male Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianhong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Juntao; Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Zhang, Liying

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary coconut oil as a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) source on performance, carcass composition and serum lipids in male broilers. A total of 540, one-day-old, male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatments with each treatment being applied to 6 replicates of 18 chicks. The basal diet (i.e., R0) was based on corn and soybean meal and was supplemented with 1.5% soybean oil during the starter phase (d 0 to 21) and 3.0% soybean oil during the grower phase (d 22 to 42). Four experimental diets were formulated by replacing 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100% of the soybean oil with coconut oil (i.e., R25, R50, R75, and R100). Soybean oil and coconut oil were used as sources of long-chain fatty acid and MCFA, respectively. The feeding trial showed that dietary coconut oil had no effect on weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion. On d 42, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were linearly decreased as the coconut oil level increased (pcoconut oil level increased (poil in diets with coconut oil is the optimum level to reduce fat deposition and favorably affect lipid profiles without impairing performance in broilers.

  13. Diagnostic potential of stored dried blood spots for inborn errors of metabolism: a metabolic autopsy of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Noriyuki; Ihara, Kenji; Hirata, Yuichiro; Yamada, Kenji; Lee, Sooyoung; Kanemasa, Hikaru; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Baba, Haruhisa; Tanaka, Tamami; Sakai, Yasunari; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2018-05-02

    It is estimated that 1-5% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases might be caused by undiagnosed inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs); however, the postmortem identification of IEMs remains difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of dried blood spots (DBSs) stored after newborn screening tests as a metabolic autopsy to determine the causes of death in infants and children who died suddenly and unexpectedly. Infants or toddlers who had suddenly died without a definite diagnosis between July 2008 and December 2012 at Kyushu University Hospital in Japan were enrolled in this study. Their Guthrie cards, which had been stored for several years at 4-8°C, were used for an acylcarnitine analysis by tandem mass spectrometry to identify inborn errors of metabolism. Fifteen infants and children who died at less than 2 years of age and for whom the cause of death was unknown were enrolled for the study. After correcting the C0 and C8 values assuming the hydrolysation of acylcarnitine in the stored DBSs, the corrected C8 value of one case just exceeded the cut-off level for medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency screening. Genetic and biochemical analyses confirmed this patient to have MCAD deficiency. DBSs stored after newborn screening tests are a promising tool for metabolic autopsy. The appropriate compensation of acylcarnitine data and subsequent genetic and biochemical analyses are essential for the postmortem diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates by sequential feeding of xylose and octanoic acid in engineered Pseudomonas putida KT2440

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    Le Meur Sylvaine

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is able to synthesize large amounts of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHAs. To reduce the substrate cost, which represents nearly 50% of the total PHA production cost, xylose, a hemicellulose derivate, was tested as the growth carbon source in an engineered P. putida KT2440 strain. Results The genes encoding xylose isomerase (XylA and xylulokinase (XylB from Escherichia coli W3110 were introduced into P. putida KT2440. The recombinant KT2440 exhibited a XylA activity of 1.47 U and a XylB activity of 0.97 U when grown on a defined medium supplemented with xylose. The cells reached a maximum specific growth rate of 0.24 h-1 and a final cell dry weight (CDW of 2.5 g L-1 with a maximal yield of 0.5 g CDW g-1 xylose. Since no mcl-PHA was accumulated from xylose, mcl-PHA production can be controlled by the addition of fatty acids leading to tailor-made PHA compositions. Sequential feeding strategy was applied using xylose as the growth substrate and octanoic acid as the precursor for mcl-PHA production. In this way, up to 20% w w-1 of mcl-PHA was obtained. A yield of 0.37 g mcl-PHA per g octanoic acid was achieved under the employed conditions. Conclusions Sequential feeding of relatively cheap carbohydrates and expensive fatty acids is a practical way to achieve more cost-effective mcl-PHA production. This study is the first reported attempt to produce mcl-PHA by using xylose as the growth substrate. Further process optimizations to achieve higher cell density and higher productivity of mcl-PHA should be investigated. These scientific exercises will undoubtedly contribute to the economic feasibility of mcl-PHA production from renewable feedstock.

  15. Medium-chain triglycerides promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE-deficient mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Yinghua; Wang, Jin; Xu, Qing; Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Xueyan; Liu, Zhao; Xue, Changyong

    2016-09-01

    We previously observed that medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) could reduce body fat mass and improve the metabolism of cholesterol. We hypothesized that MCTs can improve atherosclerosis by promoting the reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the roles of MCTs in macrophage RCT and the progression of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, 30 4-week-old ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed a diet of 2% MCTs or long-chain triglycerides (LCTs) for 16 weeks. Ten age- and sex-matched C57BL/6J mice were fed a diet of 2% LCTs as the control. Macrophage-to-feces RCT was assessed in vivo by intraperitoneal injection of RAW 264.7 macrophages containing (3)H-labeled cholesterol, and atherosclerotic plaques were measured. The mRNA and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. There was a greater decrease in body fat mass, atherosclerotic plaques, and an improvement in serum lipid profiles. In addition, the MCT mice group showed an increase in (3)H-tracer in the feces and a decrease in the liver. Significantly higher levels of mRNA and protein expression of hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1, ATP-binding cassette transporter G5, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, and intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporter G8, as well as lower levels of expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1, were found in the MCT group. These results suggest that MCTs could obviously promote macrophage RCT and improve atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice, indicating that MCTs have the potential to prevent cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Humid Heat Autoclaving of Hybrid Nanoparticles Achieved by Decreased Nanoparticle Concentration and Improved Nanoparticle Stability Using Medium Chain Triglycerides as a Modifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jingxin; Chao, Yanhui; Liang, Yuheng; Zhang, Ning; He, Haibing; Yin, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Xu, Hui; Tang, Xing

    2016-09-01

    Humid heat autoclaving is a facile technique widely used in the sterilization of injections, but the high temperature employed would destroy nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether incorporation of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) could stabilize nanoparticles composed of poly (ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone (PEG-b-PCL) during autoclaving (121°C, 10 min). Polymeric nanoparticles with different MCT contents were prepared by dialysis. Block copolymer degradation was studied by GPC. The critical aggregation concentrations of nanoparticles at different temperatures were determined using pyrene fluorescence. The size, morphology and weight averaged molecular weight of pristine/autoclaved nanoparticles were studied using DLS, TEM and SLS, respectively. Drug loading content and release profile were determined using RP-HPLC. The protecting effect of MCT on nanoparticles was dependent on the amount of MCT incorporated. Nanoparticles with high MCT contents, which assumed an emulsion-like morphology, showed reduced block copolymer degradation and particle disassociation after incubation at 100°C for 24 h. Nanoparticles with high MCT content showed the lowest critical aggregation concentration (CAC) under either room temperature or 60°C and the lowest particle concentration among all samples. And the particle size, drug loading content, physical stability and release profile of nanoparticles with high MCT contents remained nearly unchanged after autoclaving. Incorporation of high amount of MCT changed the morphology of PEG-b-PCL based nanoparticles to an emulsion-like structure and the nanoparticles prepared could withstand autoclaving due to improved particle stability and decreased particle concentration caused by MCT incorporation.

  17. Medium-Chain Triglycerides in Combination with Leucine and Vitamin D Benefit Cognition in Frail Elderly Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sakiko; Ezaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Motohisa

    2017-01-01

    The combined supplementation of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs), L-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) increase muscle strength and function in frail elderly individuals. However, their effects on cognition are unknown. We enrolled 38 elderly nursing home residents (mean age±SD, 86.6±4.8 y) in a 3-mo randomized, controlled, parallel group trial. The participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: the first group received a L-leucine (1.2 g)- and cholecalciferol (20 μg)-enriched supplement with 6 g of MCT (LD+MCT); the second group received the same supplement with 6 g of long-chain triglycerides (LD+LCT); and the third group did not receive any supplements (control). Cognition was assessed at baseline and after the 3-mo intervention. The difference in changes among the groups was assessed with ANCOVA, adjusting for age and the baseline value as covariates. After 3 mo, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in the LD+MCT group increased by 10.6% (from 16.6 to 18.4 points, p<0.05). After 3 mo, the Nishimura geriatric rating scale for mental status (NM scale) score in the LD+MCT group increased by 30.6% (from 24.6 to 32.2 points, p<0.001), whereas that in the LD+LCT and control groups decreased by 11.2% (from 31.2 to 27.7 points, p<0.05) and 26.1% (from 27.2 to 20.1 points, p<0.001), respectively. The combined supplementation of MCTs (6 g), L-leucine-rich amino acids, and cholecalciferol may improve cognitive function in frail elderly individuals.

  18. Transcriptome analysis of Pseudomonas mediterranea and P. corrugata plant pathogens during accumulation of medium-chain-length PHAs by glycerol bioconversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Grazia; Ferraro, Rosario; Russo, Marcella; Strozzi, Francesco; Catara, Antonino F; Bella, Patrizia; Catara, Vittoria

    2017-07-25

    Pseudomonas corrugata and P. mediterranea are soil inhabitant bacteria, generally living as endophytes on symptomless plants and bare soil, but also capable of causing plant diseases. They share a similar genome size and a high proteome similarity. P. corrugata produces many biomolecules which play an important role in bacterial cell survival and fitness. Both species produce different medium-chain-length PHAs (mcl-PHAs) from the bioconversion of glycerol to a transparent film in P. mediterranea and a sticky elastomer in P. corrugata. In this work, using RNA-seq we investigated the transcriptional profiles of both bacteria at the early stationary growth phase with glycerol as the carbon source. Quantitative analysis of P. mediterranea transcripts versus P. corrugata revealed that 1756 genes were differentially expressed. A total of 175 genes were significantly upregulated in P. mediterranea, while 217 were downregulated. The largest group of upregulated genes was related to transport systems and stress response, energy and central metabolism, and carbon metabolism. Expression levels of most genes coding for enzymes related to PHA biosynthesis and central metabolic pathways showed no differences or only slight variations in pyruvate metabolism. The most relevant result was the significantly increased expression in P. mediterranea of genes involved in alginate production, an important exopolysaccharide, which in other Pseudomonas spp. plays a key role as a virulence factor or in stress tolerance and shows many industrial applications. In conclusion, the results provide useful information on the co-production of mcl-PHAs and alginate from glycerol as carbon source by P. mediterranea in the design of new strategies of genetic regulation to improve the yield of bioproducts or bacterial fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A rich medium-chain triacylglycerol diet benefits adiposity but has adverse effects on the markers of hepatic lipogenesis and beta-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamma, Carolina Maria de Oliveira; Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa

    2017-02-22

    We investigated the increasing amounts of medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT) in the diet on hepatic lipid metabolism. Mature C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into five groups (n = 10/group). The animals received their diet for 12 weeks, as a control (C group, 10% of energy from lipids); high-fat lard (HF group, isoenergetic diet, 50% of energy from lipids with lard); a mixture of lard and MCT oil (with a gradual replacement of lard by MCT: HF-MCT25%, HF-MCT75%, and HF-MCT100% groups). At euthanasia, we collected blood and dissected the liver for analyses (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, QUICK index, and triacylglycerol, light microscopy, western blotting, and RT-qPCR). The HF diet groups showed a greater body mass gain compared to the C group, but the HF-MCT100% group showed diminished adiposity and amelioration of insulin resistance. All the HF groups also showed a clear increase in hepatic lipid accumulation, increased lipogenesis and decreased PPAR-alpha expression, although HF-MCT groups showed improved local insulin signaling. Lastly, the HF-MCT100% group had raised markers of beta-oxidation (UCP3 and MCAD) and mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC1-alpha and NRF1). In conclusion, the findings demonstrated that a high amount of MCT (HF-MCT100% group) added to an HF diet reduces the body fat accumulation and insulin resistance. However, the lipid accumulation as well as the lipid metabolism is altered in the liver of animals fed with a very high MCT diet, indicating that higher doses of MCT may be harmful in a long-term.

  20. A salting out system for improving the efficiency of the headspace solid-phase microextraction of short and medium chain free fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Dennis; Pacetti, Deborah; Gabbianelli, Rosita; Gabrielli, Serena; Ballini, Roberto

    2015-08-28

    Given the importance of short and medium chain free fatty acids (FFAs) in several fields, this study sought to improve the extraction efficiency of the solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of FFAs by evaluating salting out agents that appear promising for this application. The salts ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) and sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4) were tried on their own and in combination (3.7/1), in four different total amounts, as salting out agents in the headspace-SPME-gas chromatographic (HS-SPME-GC) analysis of the FFAs from acetic acid (C2) to decanoic acid (C10). Their performance in a model system of an aqueous standard mixture of FFAs at a pH of 3.5 was compared to that of the more commonly used sodium chloride (NaCl) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). All of the salts and salt systems evaluated, in proper amount, gave improved results compared to NaCl (saturated), which instead gave interesting results only for the least volatile FFAs C8 and C10. For C2-C6, the salt system that gave the best results compared to NaCl was (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4, in the highest of the four amounts evaluated, with factor increases between 1.2 and 4.1-fold, and NaH2PO4, between 1.0 and 4.3-fold. The SPME extraction efficiency given by the mixture (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4 was also assessed on biological and food samples, confirming that overall it performed better than NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enhancing effect of medium-chain triglycerides on intestinal absorption of d-alpha-tocopherol acetate from lecithin-dispersed preparations in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, E; Kurohara, H; Kageyu, A; Kurosaki, Y; Nakayama, T; Kimura, T

    1989-02-01

    The effect of formulations of lecithin-dispersed preparation on the absorption of d-alpha-tocopherol acetate (VEA) from the small intestine was investigated in rats. When lecithin-dispersed preparations containing VEA or polysorbate 80 (PS-80)-solubilized solution of VEA were intraduodenally administered, VEA was hydrolyzed to d-alpha-tocopherol (VE) and was not detected in the plasma nor in the thoracic lymph. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of VE after the intraduodenal administration of a preparation consisting of VEA, soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTG) (VEA/PC/MCTG, 5/16/1 by weight) was highest among the VEA preparations, and PS-80-solubilized solution gave the lowest Cmax. AUC of VE up to 24 h was also increased by the addition of MCTG to VEA/PC preparation. In the thoracic duct-fistula rat, the transport of VE into the thoracic lymph was increased by the administration of the VEA/PC/MCTG preparation significantly more than the VEA/PC preparation; the cumulative amounts of VE recovered in the thoracic lymph up to 24 h were 23.2 +/- 0.5% and 10.9 +/- 1.5% of dose, respectively. The plasma concentration of VE was not increased in the thoracic duct-fistula rat even after the intraduodenal administration of VEA preparations, suggesting that VE is not transported directly to the systemic circulation, but by way of the lymphatic route. The lymphatic transport of VE following the intraduodenal administration of VEA/PC/MCTG preparation was markedly diminished by the simultaneous administration of Pluronic L-81 emulsion, an inhibitor of chylomicron formation. It is suggested that the chylomicron is essential to the lymphatic transport of VE from VEA preparations.

  2. Spectra-structure correlations of saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids. Near-infrared and anharmonic DFT study of hexanoic acid and sorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabska, Justyna; Beć, Krzysztof B; Ishigaki, Mika; Wójcik, Marek J; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2017-10-05

    Quantum chemical reproduction of entire NIR spectra is a new trend, enabled by contemporary advances in the anharmonic approaches. At the same time, recent increase of the importance of NIR spectroscopy of biological samples raises high demand for gaining deeper understanding of NIR spectra of biomolecules, i.e. fatty acids. In this work we investigate saturated and unsaturated medium-chain fatty acids, hexanoic acid and sorbic acid, in the near-infrared region. By employing fully anharmonic density functional theory (DFT) calculations we reproduce the experimental NIR spectra of these systems, including the highly specific spectral features corresponding to the dimerization of fatty acids. Broad range of concentration levels from 5·10 -4 M in CCl 4 to pure samples are investigated. The major role of cyclic dimers can be evidenced for the vast majority of these samples. A highly specific NIR feature of fatty acids, the elevation of spectral baseline around 6500-4000cm -1 , is being explained by the contributions of combination bands resulting from the vibrations of hydrogen-bonded OH groups in the cyclic dimers. Based on the high agreement between the calculated and experimental NIR spectra, a detailed NIR band assignments are proposed for hexanoic acid and sorbic acid. Subsequently, the correlations between the structure and NIR spectra are elucidated, emphasizing the regions in which clear and universal traces of specific bands corresponding to saturated and unsaturated alkyl chains can be established, thus demonstrating the wavenumber regions highly valuable for structural identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occurrence, homologue patterns and source apportionment of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in suburban soils of Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Xu, Si-Yue; Wang, Xi-Kui; Hu, Bao-Ping; Jia, Hao-Hao

    2017-08-01

    In order to systematically investigate the spatial distribution, homologue profiles, and sources of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in suburban soils in Shanghai, SCCPs and MCCPs in soils were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with low resolution mass spectrometry in electron capture negative ion (ECNI) mode (GC-ECNI-MS). The CP concentrations in soils were between not detected (ND) - 697 ng g -1 with a median value of 3.52 ng g -1 for SCCPs, and ND - 666 ng g -1 with a median value of 15.3 ng g -1 for MCCPs, respectively. The concentrations of MCCPs in most soils were higher than that of SCCPs. The total CP concentrations (sum of SCCPs and MCCPs) in soils varied from ND to 964 ng g -1 with a median value of 20.5 ng g -1 . The concentration of MCCPs was higher than that of SCCPs in most soils. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in suburban soils in Shanghai were at the medium level when compared to other areas around the world. No significant correlation was observed between soil CP concentrations and total organic carbon contents (p > 0.05). For different use type of soils, the median concentrations of CPs in soils were found higher in greenland than that in other areas probably due to busy traffic, sewage sludge application and/or wastewater irrigation. All soils were divided into two groups by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) both for SCCPs and MCCPs. Three discharge sources of CPs in suburban soil of Shanghai were identified by PMF model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of a fat spread enriched with medium-chain triacylglycerols and a special fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight patients with diabetes

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    Bitterlich Norman

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3-PUFA and micronutrients may be useful for weight and cardiometabolic risk management. However, studies analyzing the effect of a combination of both in individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk are lacking. Therefore, this randomized, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effect of a fat spread enriched with two different doses of MCT and a special long-chain fatty acid-micronutrient combination on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight diabetic patients. Methods Fifty-four patients received either a fat spread with 6 g/d MCT (MCT30% or 1.2 g/d (MCT6%. Forty-three completed the study. Analysis was performed according to the median of MCT intake (supplemented and food-derived MCT. Clinical, anthropometric, blood, 24 h-urine parameters and dietary intake were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results Total MCT intake > 7 g/d (MCT > 7 group significantly reduced waist circumference (WC by 1.81 ± 2.69 cm, whereas ≤ 7 g/d MCT (MCT ≤ 7 group increased WC by 0.32 ± 3.03 cm (p = 0.027, which was supported by a change in waist-to-height ratio (WHtR (p = 0.018. Fasting serum triglycerides (TG increased in both groups over time due to dietary habits. In contrast, diabetic metabolic situation and urinary albumin excretion did not alter. Urinary pH differed significantly between groups after 12 weeks. Conclusion An intake of >7 g/d MCT reduced WC in overweight diabetics, whereas the increase in the intake of fatty acids may have worsened fasting TG. Therefore, the suitability of a fat for nutrient enrichment remains to be challenged, and further studies in low-fat matrices are desirable.

  5. Sodium salt medium-chain fatty acids and Bacillus-based probiotic strategies to improve growth and intestinal health of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata

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    Paula Simó-Mirabet

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The increased demand for fish protein has led to the intensification of aquaculture practices which are hampered by nutritional and health factors affecting growth performance. To solve these problems, antibiotics have been used for many years in the prevention, control and treatment against disease as well as growth promoters to improve animal performance. Nowadays, the use of antibiotics in the European Union and other countries has been completely or partially banned as a result of the existence of antibiotic cross-resistance. Therefore, a number of alternatives, including enzymes, prebiotics, probiotics, phytonutrients and organic acids used alone or in combination have been proposed for the improvement of immunological state, growth performance and production in livestock animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate two commercially available feed additives, one based on medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs from coconut oil and another with a Bacillus-based probiotic, in gilthead sea bream (GSB, Sparus aurata, a marine farmed fish of high value in the Mediterranean aquaculture. Methods The potential benefits of adding two commercial feed additives on fish growth performance and intestinal health were assessed in a 100-days feeding trial. The experimental diets (D2 and D3 were prepared by supplementing a basal diet (D1 with MCFAs in the form of a sodium salt of coconut fatty acid distillate (DICOSAN®; Norel, Madrid, Spain, rich on C-12, added at 0.3% (D2 or with the probiotic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CECT 5940, added at 0.1% (D3. The study integrated data on growth performance, blood biochemistry, histology and intestinal gene expression patterns of selected markers of intestinal function and architecture. Results MCFAs in the form of a coconut oil increased feed intake, growth rates and the surface of nutrient absorption, promoting the anabolic action of the somatotropic axis. The probiotic (D3 induced anti

  6. Effects of parenteral infusion with medium-chain triglycerides and safflower oil emulsions on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acids and inflammatory mediators in septic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, S; Chao, C; Lin, M; Chen, W

    2000-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of preinfusion with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) versus safflower oil (SO) emulsion as fat sources on hepatic lipids, plasma amino acid profiles, and inflammatory-related mediators in septic rats. Normal rats, with internal jugular catheters, were divided into two groups and received TPN. TPN provided 300kcal/kg/day with 40% of the non-protein energy provided as fat. All TPN solutions were isonitrogenous and identical in nutrient composition except for the fat emulsion, which was made of SO or a mixture of MCT and soybean oil (9:1) (MO). After receiving TPN for 6 days, each group of rats was further divided into control and sepsis subgroups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture, whereas control rats received sham operation. All rats were classified into four groups as follows: MCT control group (MOC, n= 8), MCT sepsis group (MOS, n= 8), safflower oil control group (SOC, n= 8), and safflower oil sepsis group (SOS, n= 11). The results of the study demonstrated that the MOS group had lower hepatic lipids than did the SOS group. Plasma leucine and isoleucine levels were significantly lower in the SOS than in the SOC group, but no differences in these two amino acids were observed between the MOC and MOS groups. Plasma arginine levels were significantly lower in septic groups than in those without sepsis despite whether MCT or safflower oil was infused. Plasma glutamine and alanine levels, however, did not differ between septic and non-septic groups either in the SO or MO groups. No differences in interleukin-1b, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and leukotriene B(4)concentrations in peritoneal lavage fluid were observed between the two septic groups. These results suggest that catabolic reaction is septic rats preinfused MCT is not as obvious as those preinfused safflower oil. Compared with safflower oil, TPN with MCT administration has better effects on

  7. What is Result: Short-term Medium Chain Triglyceride Diet Effective on
Postoperative Outcome in Lung Cancer Surgery? A Prospective Randomized Study

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    Na DU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that medium chain triglyceride (MCT diet was contribute to fast track recovery after surgery in patients with operation. In this study, the benefit of postoperative short term MCT diet support was investigated for non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent anatomic resection. Methods A prospective study was planned with the approval of our institutional review board. 117 lung cancer patients who underwent anatomic resection in a single medical group between December 2015 and March 2016 were randomized. 62 patients were applied a MCT diet. and 55 patients in the control group who were fed with only normal diet, and the serum albumin levels, anus exhaust time, chest drainage, chest drainage time, the hospitalization time of post operation, average hospital cost were analysed. Results The mean anus exhaust time in MCT group [(27.87±14.38 h] was significantly shorter than that in RDG group [(45.18±8.62 h] (P<0.001; The mean chest tube drainage time in MCT group [(75.40±48.41 h] were less than that in RDG group [(110.64±94.19 h] (P=0.025. The mean chest tube drainage volume in MCT group [395 mL] were less than that in RDG group [590 mL] (P=0.027. The hospitalization time of post operation was (5.26±2.96 d in MCT group against (6.73±3.99 d in RGD group (P=0.030. The serum albumin levels of postoperative in MCT group [(37.26±2.70 g/L] was significantly higher than that in RDG group [(35.92±3.12 g/L] (P=0.023. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrated that postoperative short term MCT diet is beneficial in postoperative gastrointestinal function fast recovered and shorten the hospitalization time in non-small cell lung cancer patients after surgery.

  8. Whey and Casein Proteins and Medium-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids from Milk Do Not Increase Low-Grade Inflammation in Abdominally Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Mette; Bjørnshave, Ann; Gregersen, Søren; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade inflammation is involved in the development of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Inflammation can be modulated by dietary factors. Dairy products are rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA), which are known to possess pro-inflammatory properties. However, different fatty acid compositions may exert different effects. Other components such as milk proteins may exert anti-inflammatory properties which may compensate for the potential negative effects of SFAs. Generally, the available data suggest a neutral role of dairy product consumption on inflammation. To investigate the effects of, and potential interaction between, a dietary supplementation with whey protein and milk fat, naturally enriched in medium-chain SFA (MC-SFA), on inflammatory markers in abdominal obese adults. The study was a 12-week, randomized, double-blinded, intervention study. Sixty-three adults were equally allocated to one of four groups which received a supplement of either 60 g/day whey or 60 g/day casein plus 63 g/day milk fat either high or low in MC-SFA content. Fifty-two subjects completed the study. Before and after the intervention, changes in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), adiponectin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were measured. Changes in inflammatory genes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue were also documented. There were no differences in circulating inflammatory markers between protein types or fatty acid compositions in abdominally obese subjects, with the exception of an increase in adiponectin in response to high compared to low MC-SFA consumption in women. We found that combined dairy proteins and MC-SFAs influenced inflammatory gene expression in adipose tissue, while no effect was detected by dairy proteins or MC-SFA per se. Whey protein compared with casein and MC-SFA-enriched milk fat did not alter circulating markers of low-grade inflammation in

  9. A reduction in growth rate of Pseudomonas putida KT2442 counteracts productivity advances in medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate production from gluconate

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    Zinn Manfred

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substitution of plastics based on fossil raw material by biodegradable plastics produced from renewable resources is of crucial importance in a context of oil scarcity and overflowing plastic landfills. One of the most promising organisms for the manufacturing of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mcl-PHA is Pseudomonas putida KT2440 which can accumulate large amounts of polymer from cheap substrates such as glucose. Current research focuses on enhancing the strain production capacity and synthesizing polymers with novel material properties. Many of the corresponding protocols for strain engineering rely on the rifampicin-resistant variant, P. putida KT2442. However, it remains unclear whether these two strains can be treated as equivalent in terms of mcl-PHA production, as the underlying antibiotic resistance mechanism involves a modification in the RNA polymerase and thus has ample potential for interfering with global transcription. Results To assess PHA production in P. putida KT2440 and KT2442, we characterized the growth and PHA accumulation on three categories of substrate: PHA-related (octanoate, PHA-unrelated (gluconate and poor PHA substrate (citrate. The strains showed clear differences of growth rate on gluconate and citrate (reduction for KT2442 > 3-fold and > 1.5-fold, respectively but not on octanoate. In addition, P. putida KT2442 PHA-free biomass significantly decreased after nitrogen depletion on gluconate. In an attempt to narrow down the range of possible reasons for this different behavior, the uptake of gluconate and extracellular release of the oxidized product 2-ketogluconate were measured. The results suggested that the reason has to be an inefficient transport or metabolization of 2-ketogluconate while an alteration of gluconate uptake and conversion to 2-ketogluconate could be excluded. Conclusions The study illustrates that the recruitment of a pleiotropic mutation, whose effects might

  10. Synthesis of structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain and long-chain fatty acids by interesterification with a stereoespecific lipase from Mucor miehei.

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    Nieto, Susana

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of structured triacylglycerols sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-1, sn-3 dilauryl, sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol by enzymatic interesterification under restricted water availability is described. Laurie acid, one of the substrates for interesterification, was obtained by the controlled hydrolysis of coconut oil by a non-specific lipase obtained from Candida cylindracea. The fatty acid was separated from the hydrolysis products by silverresin column chromatography and converted to methyl ester, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoyl glycerol and sn-2 docosahexaenoyl glycerol were prepared by the hydrolysis of fish oil by the sn-1, sn-3 stereospecific immobilized lipase Lipozyme IM-20 obtained from Mucor miehei as described in the accompanying paper. The interesterification was carried out in a water jacketed glass reactor and the triacylglycerol products were separated and recovered through aluminum oxide column chromatography The interesterification procedure described allows to obtain In laboratory scale structured triacylglycerols containing medium-chain fatty acids at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid from marine origin at the sn-2 glycerol position.

    Se describe la preparación de triacilgliceroles estructurados sn-1, sn-3 dilauril, sn-2 ecosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-1, sn-3 diiauril, sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol por interesterificación enzimática bajo disponibilidad de agua reducida. Acido láurico, uno de los sustratos para la interesterificación, se obtuvo mediante hidrólisis controlada del aceite de coco por una lipasa no-específica obtenida de Candida cylindracea. Los ácidos grasos se separaron de los productos de hidrólisis mediante cromatografía en columna de resina de plata y convertidos en sus esteres metílicos, sn-2 Eicosapentaenoil glicerol y sn-2 docosahexaenoil glicerol se prepararon mediante hidrólisis de aceite de pescado por la sn-1, sn

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight (ID 643, 677, 1614) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to medium-chain triglycerides and reduction in body weight. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain triglycerides. In the context of the references provided, the Panel assumes that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claims is medium-chain fatty acids, which should replace long-chain fatty acids...... in triglycerides in order to obtain the claimed effect. The Panel considers that the food constituent, medium-chain fatty acids, which is the subject of the health claims, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect is “weight management”. The target population is assumed...

  12. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...... pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6-C14 methyl and ethyl...

  13. Determination of hydrophobic coenzyme a esters and other lipids using a biosensor comprising a modified coenzyme a- and acyl-coa binding protein (acbp)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    , food and feed preparations, tissue extracts, acyl-CoA synthetase reaction media and various laboratory conditions using a modified Coenzyme A- and acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) is provided. Furthermore the invention relates to a construct comprising a peptide and a signal moiety for performing...

  14. De novo fatty acid biosynthesis and elongation in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase-deficient mice supplemented with odd or even medium-chain fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Sara; Behringer, Sidney; Spiekerkoetter, Ute

    2015-11-01

    An even medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)-based diet is the mainstay of treatment in very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency (VLCADD). Previous studies with magnetic resonance spectroscopy have shown an impact of MCT on the average fatty acid chain length in abdominal fat. We therefore assume that medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are elongated and accumulate in tissue as long-chain fatty acids. In this study, we explored the hepatic effects of long-term supplementation with MCT or triheptanoin, an odd-chain C7-based triglyceride, in wild-type and VLCAD-deficient (VLCAD(-/-) ) mice after 1 year of supplementation as compared with a control diet. The de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids, and peroxisomal β-oxidation, were quantified by RT-PCR. This was followed by a comprehensive analysis of hepatic and cardiac fatty acid profiles by GC-MS. Long-term application of even and odd MCFAs strongly induced de novo biosynthesis and elongation of fatty acids in both wild-type and VLCAD(-/-) mice, leading to an alteration of the hepatic fatty acid profiles. We detected de novo-synthesized and elongated fatty acids, such as heptadecenoic acid (C17:1n9), eicosanoic acid (C20:1n9), erucic acid (C22:1n9), and mead acid (C20:3n9), that were otherwise completely absent in mice under control conditions. In parallel, the content of monounsaturated fatty acids was massively increased. Furthermore, we observed strong upregulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation in VLCAD(-/-) mice, especially when they were fed an MCT diet. Our data raise the question of whether long-term MCFA supplementation represents the most efficient treatment in the long term. Studies on the hepatic toxicity of triheptanoin are still ongoing. © 2015 FEBS.

  15. Benefits of use, and tolerance of, medium-chain triglyceride medical food in the management of Japanese patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a prospective, open-label pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnuma T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tohru Ohnuma, Aiko Toda, Ayako Kimoto, Yuto Takebayashi, Ryoko Higashiyama, Yuko Tagata, Masanobu Ito, Tsuneyoshi Ota, Nobuto Shibata, Heii Arai Department of Psychiatry, Juntendo University Alzheimer’s Disease Project, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan Objectives: This is the first clinical trial of this type in Japan, designed to analyze two important aspects of Alzheimer’s disease (AD management using medium-chain triglycerides. Axona was administered for 3 months (40 g of powder containing 20 g of caprylic triglycerides. We used an indurating, four-step dose-titration method (from 10 to 40 g per day for 7 days before the trial, and examined the tolerance and adverse effects of this intervention. We also investigated its effect on cognitive function in mild-to-moderate AD patients.Patients and methods: This was a clinical intervention in 22 Japanese patients with sporadic AD at a mild-to-moderate stage (ten females, 12 males, mean age (± standard deviation 63.9 (±8.5 years, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE score, 10–25, seven patients were ApoE4-positive. During Axona administration, we examined changes in cognitive function by obtaining MMSE and AD assessment-scale scores. Intolerance and serum ketone concentrations were also examined.Results: The tolerance of Axona was good, without severe gastrointestinal adverse effects. Axona did not improve cognitive function in our sample of AD patients, even in those patients without the ApoE4 allele. However, some ApoE4-negative patients with baseline MMSE score ≥14 showed improvement in their cognitive functions.Conclusion: The modified dose-titration method, starting with a low dose of Axona, decreased gastrointestinal adverse effects in Japanese patients. Axona might be effective for some relatively mildly affected patients with AD (with cognitive function MMSE score of ≥14 and lacking the ApoE4 allele. Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, medium-chain triglycerides

  16. The effects of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides on the gastric transcriptome profile of 2- or 3-week-old cesarean delivered piglets

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    Paolo Trevisi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The stomach is an underestimated key interface between the ingesta and the digestive system, affecting the digestion and playing an important role in several endocrine functions. The quality of starter microbiota and the early life feeding of medium chain triglycerides may affect porcine gastric maturation. Two trials (T1, T2 were carried out on 12 and 24 cesarean-delivered piglets (birth, d0, divided over two microbiota treatments, but slaughtered and sampled at two or three weeks of age, respectively. All piglets were fed orally: sow serum (T1 or pasteurized sow colostrum (T2 on d0; simple starter microbiota (Lactobacillus amylovorus, Clostridium glycolicum and Parabacteroides spp. (d1-d3; complex microbiota inoculum (sow diluted feces, CA or a placebo (simple association, SA (d3-d4 and milk replacer ad libitum (d0-d4. The The T1 piglets and half of the T2 piglets were then fed a moist diet (CTRL; the remaining half of the T2 piglets were fed the CTRL diet fortified with medium chain triglycerides and 7% coconut oil (MCT. Total mRNA from the oxyntic mucosa was analyzed using Affymetrix©Porcine Gene array strips. Exploratory functional analysis of the resulting values was carried out using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. Results Complex microbiota upregulated 11 gene sets in piglets of each age group vs. SA. Of these sets, 6 were upregulated at both ages, including the set of gene markers of oxyntic mucosa. In comparison with the piglets receiving SA, the CA enriched the genes in the sets related to interferon response when the CTRL diet was given while the same sets were impoverished by CA with the MCT diet. Conclusions Early colonization with a complex starter microbiota promoted the functional maturation of the oxyntic mucosa in an age-dependent manner. The dietary fatty acid source may have affected the recruitment and the maturation of the immune cells, particularly when the piglets were early associated with a

  17. Homozygosity for a severe novel medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) mutation IVS3-1G > C that leads to introduction of a premature termination codon by complete missplicing of the MCAD mRNA and is associated with phenotypic diversity ranging from sudden neonatal death to asymptomatic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korman, Stanley H; Gutman, Alisa; Brooks, Rivka

    2004-01-01

    Virtually all patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCADD) are homozygous or compound heterozygous for the 985A > G mutation, which limits the study of a possible genotype/phenotype correlation. A newborn Palestinian infant died suddenly on the second day of life. A previo...

  18. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  19. A Dietary Medium-Chain Fatty Acid, Decanoic Acid, Inhibits Recruitment of Nur77 to the HSD3B2 Promoter In Vitro and Reverses Endocrine and Metabolic Abnormalities in a Rat Model of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bao Hui; Indran, Inthrani Raja; Tan, Huey Min; Li, Yu; Zhang, Zhiwei; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong

    2016-01-01

    Hyperandrogenism is the central feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Due to the intricate relationship between hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS, 50%-70% of these patients also present with hyperinsulinemia. Metformin, an insulin sensitizer, has been used to reduce insulin resistance and improve fertility in women with PCOS. In previous work, we have noted that a dietary medium-chain fatty acid, decanoic acid (DA), improves glucose tolerance and lipid profile in a mouse model of diabetes. Here, we report for the first time that DA, like metformin, inhibits androgen biosynthesis in NCI-H295R steroidogenic cells by regulating the enzyme 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4-isomerase type 2 (HSD3B2). The inhibitory effect on HSD3B2 and androgen production required cAMP stimulation, suggesting a mechanistic action via the cAMP-stimulated pathway. Specifically, both DA and metformin reduced cAMP-enhanced recruitment of the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 to the HSD3B2 promoter, coupled with decreased transcription and protein expression of HSD3B2. In a letrozole-induced PCOS rat model, treatment with DA or metformin reduced serum-free testosterone, lowered fasting insulin, and restored estrous cyclicity. In addition, DA treatment lowered serum total testosterone and decreased HSD3B2 protein expression in the adrenals and ovaries. We conclude that DA inhibits androgen biosynthesis via mechanisms resulting in the suppression of HSD3B2 expression, an effect consistently observed both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of DA in reversing the endocrine and metabolic abnormalities of the letrozole-induced PCOS rat model are promising, raising the possibility that diets including DA could be beneficial for the management of both hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance in PCOS.

  20. Supplementing goat kids with coconut medium chain fatty acids in early life influences growth and rumen papillae development until 4 months after supplementation but effects on in vitro methane emissions and the rumen microbiota are transient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruyne, Sieglinde; Ruiz-González, Alexis; Artiles-Ortega, Einar; Ampe, Bart; Van Den Broeck, Wim; De Keyser, Ellen; Vandaele, Leen; Goossens, Karen; Fievez, Veerle

    2018-05-04

    The aim of this study was to investigate the methane (CH4) reducing potential of a combination of prenatal and/or postnatal treatment with coconut oil medium chain fatty acids (CO MCFA) in goat kids. The hypothesis is that influencing rumen function during early life has more chances for success than in the adult life, related to the resilience of the mature rumen microbiota. Forty-eight pregnant does were split into two experimental groups: treated does (D+) received 40 g/d of CO MCFA in a test compound feed, while control does (D-) received a control compound feed, during the last 3 wk of gestation. Twin kids from 10 does of each group were split up into a treated (K+) and nontreated (K-) group, resulting in four experimental groups: D+K+, D+K-, D-K+, and D-K-. The K+ kids received 1.8 mL/d of CO MCFA from birth until 2-wk postweaning (11 wk). Irrespective of treatment, the experimental rearing conditions resulted in absence of rumen protozoa at all sampling times, assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In vitro incubations with rumen fluid at 4 wk old showed 82% lower CH4 production of inoculum from D+K+ kids compared to D-K- kids (P = 0.01). However, this was accompanied by lower total volatile fatty acids (tVFA) production (P = 0.006) and higher hydrogen accumulation (P = 0.008). QPCR targeting the mcrA and rrs genes confirmed a lower abundance of total methanogens (P kids at 4 wk old. Methanogenic activity, as assessed by mcrA expression by RT-qPCR, was also lower in these kids. However, activity did not always reflect methanogen abundance. At 11 and 28 wk old, prenatal and postnatal effects on in vitro fermentation and rumen microbiota disappeared. Nevertheless, lower milk replacer intake in the first 4 wk resulted in reduced BW in K+ kids, persisting until 28 wk of age. Additionally, differences assigned to postnatal treatment were found in papillae density, width, and length in different areas of the rumen, recorded at 28 wk old. prenatal and postnatal

  1. Lipídios estruturados obtidos a partir da mistura de gordura de frango, sua estearina e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média: II- pontos de amolecimento e fusão Structured lipids from chicken fat, its stearin, and medium chain triacyglycerol blends: II- softening and melting points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chih Chiu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to investigate the effects of blending and chemical interesterification reactions on the softening and melting behavior of chicken fat, its stearin and medium chain triacylglycerols, and blends thereof in various ratios. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the physical properties of fats. In the experimental design 7 samples corresponding to 7 different blend proportions were used. The results were represented in triangular diagrams. The addition of stearin influenced the softening and melting points. The mixture response surface methodology proved to be an extremely useful tool for the optimization of the fat mixtures.

  2. Superhydrophilic surfaces from short and medium chain solvo-surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Romain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure monoglycerides (GM-Cs and glycerol carbonate esters (GCE-Cs are two families of oleochemical molecules composed of a polar part, glycerol for GM-Cs, glycerol carbonate for GCE-Cs, and a fatty acid lipophilic part. From a chemical point of view, GM-Cs include two free oxygen atoms in the hydroxyl functions and one ester function between the fatty acid and the glycerol parts. GCE-Cs contain two blocked oxygen atoms in the cyclic carbonate backbone and three esters functions: two endocyclic in the five-membered cyclic carbonate function, one exocyclic between the fatty acid and glycerol carbonate parts. At the physico-chemical level, GMCs and GCE-Cs are multifunctional molecules with amphiphilic structures: a common hydrophobic chain to the both families and a polar head, glycerol for GMs and glycerol carbonate for GCE-Cs. Physicochemical properties depend on chain lengths, odd or even carbon numbers on the chain, and glyceryl or cyclocarbonic polar heads. The solvo-surfactant character of GM-Cs and overall GCE-Cs were discussed through the measurements of critical micellar concentration (CMC or critical aggregation concentration (CAC. These surface active glycerol esters/glycerol carbonate esters were classified following their hydrophilic/hydrophobic character correlated to their chain length (LogPoctanol/water = f(atom carbon number. Differential scanning calorimetry and optical polarized light microscopy allow us to highlight the selfassembling properties of the glycerol carbonate esters alone and in presence of water. We studied by thermal analysis the polymorphic behaviour of GCE-Cs, and the correlation between their melting points versus the chain lengths. Coupling the self-aggregation and crystallization properties, superhydrophilic surfaces were obtained by formulating GM-Cs and GCE-Cs. An efficient durable water-repellent coating of various metallic and polymeric surfaces was allowed. Such surfaces coated by self-assembled fatty acid esters in a stable coagel state present a novel solution for the water-repellent coating of surfaces.

  3. Cellular and physiological effects of medium-chain triglycerides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanten, G.J.A.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    From a nutritional standpoint, saturated triglycerides with a medium (6 to 12) carbon chain length (MCT) have traditionally been regarded as biologically inert substances, merely serving as a source of fuel calories that is relatively easily accessible for metabolic breakdown compared with long

  4. Involvement of Human Estrogen Related Receptor Alpha 1 (hERR 1) in Breast Cancer and Hormonally Insensitive Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    SV40 early-to-late switch involves titration of cellular transcriptional repressors, Genes Dev. 7: 2206-19, 1993. 6. Bonnelye, E., Vanacker , J. M ...transcriptional regulator of the human medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene, Mol Cell Biol. 17: 5400-9, 1997. 8. Vanacker , J. M ., Bonnelye, E...related receptor-alpha), Mol Endocrinol. 13: 764-73, 1999. 9. Vanacker , J. M ., Pettersson, K., Gustafsson, J. A., and Laudet, V. Transcriptional

  5. Distribuição estereoespecífica de lipídios estruturados a partir de gorduras de palma, palmiste e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média Stereospecific distribution of structured lipids obtained from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise D'Agostini

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de interesterificação química foram sintetizados lipídios estruturados a partir das gorduras de palma, palmiste e triacilgliceróis de cadeia média. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a distribuição estereoespecífica dos ácidos graxos nos lipídios estruturados. Foi possível comprovar a ocorrência da interesterificação através da hidrólise enzimática, que permitiu conhecer a composição dos ácidos graxos em posições específicas dos triacilgliceróis. Foram estudadas 10 amostras, representadas por 3 amostras individuais, 3 misturas binárias e 4 misturas ternárias. As amostras foram submetidas à hidrólise com lipase pancreática suína à temperatura de 40 ºC e posteriormente analisadas por cromatografia gasosa quanto à composição em ácidos graxos na posição sn-2. A partir dos resultados foram calculados os grupos de triacilgliceróis nas amostras individuais e nas misturas antes e após a reação de interesterificação, utilizando as teorias 1,3-random 2-random e 1,2,3-random. Os resultados demonstraram que antes do rearranjo ao acaso houve preferência do ácido oléico pela posição sn-2, enquanto que os ácidos palmítico e esteárico distribuíram-se principalmente pelas posições sn-1 e sn-3. Nos lipídios estruturados, os ácidos graxos saturados aumentaram sua participação na posição central do triacilglicerol, enquanto que os ácidos graxos insaturados apresentaram diminuição nesta mesma posição.Structured lipids were synthesized by chemical interesterification from palm oil, palm kernel oil, and medium chain triacylglycerols. The objective of this study was to verify the fatty acids positional distribution in the structured lipids. It was possible to confirm the interesterification occurrence through enzymatic hydrolysis, which allowed to know the fatty acids composition in specific positions of the triacylglycerols. Ten samples composed by three individual samples, three binary

  6. Influência da fisioterapia complexa descongestiva associada à ingestão de triglicerídeos de cadeia média no tratamento do linfedema de membro superior Influence of complex descongestive physical therapy associated with intake of medium-chain triglycerides for treating upper-limb lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Oliveira

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a influência da utilização da fisioterapia complexa descongestiva associada à dietoterapia com triglicerídeos de cadeia média (TCM como forma de intervenção no linfedema de membro superior (MS. MÉTODOS: Para a avaliação do linfedema, foram utilizadas cirtometria, volumetria, pregas cutâneas e quantidade de água corporal total. A Escala Visual Análoga (EVA foi utilizada para avaliar as sensações de desconforto, peso e dor no MS. Participaram deste estudo dez mulheres mastectomizadas com linfedema de MS homolateral à cirurgia, com idade média de 65,9 ± 10,4 anos e índice de massa corpórea (IMC de 26,8 ± 3,0kg/m² que, após avaliação nutricional, foram divididas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: Grupo Controle (n= 5, submetido ao tratamento fisioterapêutico constando da terapia complexa descongestiva (massagem clássica, drenagem linfática manual, bandagem compressiva e cuidados com a pele três vezes na semana, durante quatro semanas; Grupo TCM (n= 5, submetido ao mesmo protocolo fisioterapêutico somado ao tratamento dietético diário com ingestão de TCM, por quatro semanas. RESULTADOS: Ao final da intervenção, a análise da cirtometria e da volumetria mostraram diferenças significativas entre os grupos (OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of complex decongestive physical therapy (CDP in association with diet therapy using medium-chain triglycerides (MCT, as an intervention in cases of upper-limb lymphedema. METHODS: The lymphedema was evaluated by measuring circumferences, volumes, skin folds and whole-body water content. Feelings of discomfort, pain and heaviness in the arms were evaluated using a visual analog scale. Ten women who had undergone mastectomy and presented upper-limb lymphedema homolateral to the surgery participated in this study. Their mean age was 65.9 ± 10.4 years and their mean body mass index (BMI was 26.8 ± 3.0kg/m². After nutritional evaluation, they were randomly

  7. Co-overexpression of bacterial GroESL chaperonins partly overcomes non-productive folding and tetramer assembly of E. coli-expressed human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) carrying the prevalent disease-causing K304E mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Andresen, B S; Winter, V

    1993-01-01

    , tetramer formation and yield of enzyme activity of wild-type MCAD is largely independent of GroESL co-overexpression; (ii) the larger part of the K304Q mutant is insoluble without and solubility is enhanced with GroESL co-overexpression; solubility correlates with the amount of tetramer detected...... and the enzyme activity measured as observed for the wild-type protein. (iii) Solubility of the K304E mutant is in a similar fashion GroESL responsive as the K304Q mutant, but the amount of tetramer observed and the enzyme activity measured do not correlate with the amount of soluble K304E MCAD protein detected...

  8. Co-overexpression of bacterial GroESL chaperonins partly overcomes non-productive folding and tetramer assembly of E. coli-expressed human medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) carrying the prevalent disease-causing K304E mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bross, P; Andresen, B S; Winter, V

    1993-01-01

    underlying MCAD deficiency caused by the prevalent K304E mutation. Depending on which of the three amino acids--lysine (wild-type), glutamic acid (K304E) or glutamine (K304Q) are present at position 304 of the mature polypeptide, three different patterns were observed in our assay system: (i) solubility...... in Western blotting. In a first attempt to estimate the specific activity, we show that tetrameric K304E and K304Q mutant MCAD display a specific activity in the range of the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, our results strongly suggest, that the K304E mutation primarily impairs the rate of folding...... with negative charge at position 304 (glutamic acid) but not with a neutral charge (glutamine) negatively affects conversion to active tetramers. A possible explanation for this latter effect--charge repulsion upon subunit docking--is discussed....

  9. With medium-chain triglycerides, higher and faster oxygen radical production by stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes occurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruimel, J W; Naber, A H; Curfs, J H; Wenker, M A; Jansen, J B

    2000-01-01

    Parenteral lipid emulsions are suspected of suppressing the immune function. However, study results are contradictory and mainly concern the conventional long-chain triglyceride emulsions. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes were preincubated with parenteral lipid emulsions. The influence of the lipid emulsions on the production of oxygen radicals by these stimulated leukocytes was studied by measuring chemiluminescence. Three different parenteral lipid emulsions were tested: long-chain triglycerides, a physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides, and structured triglycerides. Structured triglycerides consist of triglycerides where the medium- and long-chain fatty acids are attached to the same glycerol molecule. Stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes preincubated with the physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides showed higher levels of oxygen radicals (p triglycerides or structured triglycerides. Additional studies indicated that differences in results of various lipid emulsions were not caused by differences in emulsifier. The overall production of oxygen radicals was significantly lower after preincubation with the three lipid emulsions compared with controls without lipid emulsion. A physical mixture of medium- and long-chain triglycerides induced faster production of oxygen radicals, resulting in higher levels of oxygen radicals, compared with long-chain triglycerides or structured triglycerides. This can be detrimental in cases where oxygen radicals play either a pathogenic role or a beneficial one, such as when rapid phagocytosis and killing of bacteria is needed. The observed lower production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the presence of parenteral lipid emulsions may result in immunosuppression by these lipids.

  10. Medium-chain fatty acid binding to albumin and transfer to phospholipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Temperature-dependent (5-42 degree C) 13 C NMR spectra of albumin complexes with 90% isotopically substituted [1- 13 C]octanoic or [1- 13 C]decanoic acids showed a single peak at >30 degree C but three peaks at lower temperatures. The chemical-shift differences result from different ionic and/or hydrogen-bonding interactions between amino acid side chains and the fatty acid carboxyl carbon. Rapid exchange of fatty acid among binding sites obscures these sites at temperatures >30 degree C. Rate constants for exchange at 33 degree C were 350 sec -1 for octanoate and 20 sec -1 for decanoate. Temperature-dependent data for octanoate showed an activation energy of 2 kcal/mol for exchange. Spectra of albumin complexes with the 12-carbon saturated fatty acid, lauric acid, had several narrow laurate carboxyl peaks at 35 degree C, indicating longer lifetimes in the different binding sites. Fatty acid exchange between albumin and model membranes (phosphatidylcholine bilayers) occurred on a time scale comparable to that for exchange among albumin binding sites, following the order octanoate > decanoate > laurate. The equilibrium distribution of fatty acid between lipid bilayers and protein was measured directly from NMR spectra. Decreasing pH increased the relative affinity of fatty acid for the lipid bilayer. The results predict that the relative affinity of octanoic acid for albumin and membranes will be similar to that of long-chain fatty acids, but the rate of equilibration will be ∼ 10 4 faster for octanoic acid

  11. Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsma, Sicco H; van Mourik, Louise; O'Brien, Jake W; Eaglesham, Geoff; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Gallen, Christie; Mueller, Jochen; Gaus, Caroline; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-03-21

    To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).

  12. Medium-Chain Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) Dominate in Australian Sewage Sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, Sicco H; van Mourik, Louise; O'Brien, Jake W; Eaglesham, Geoff; Leonards, Pim E G; de Boer, Jacob; Gallen, Christie; Mueller, Jochen; Gaus, Caroline; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-01-01

    To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass

  13. Genetics Home Reference: medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Resources Formal Diagnostic Criteria (1 link) ACT Sheet: Elevated C8 with Lesser Elevations of C6 and C10 Acylcarnitine (PDF) Formal Treatment/Management Guidelines (2 links) British Inherited Metabolic Disease Group: ...

  14. Morphological studies of DHSA/ DHSA-Octyl ester/ RBD palm kernel olein/ medium chain triglycerides system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anuar Kassim; Nadarajan, Rathidevi; Mohd Zaizi Desa; Atan Mohd Sharif; Dzulkefly Kuang; Mohd Jelas Haron

    2007-01-01

    Dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) and octyl dihydroxystearate (DHSA-octyl ester) have been previously prepared from palm oleic acid and preliminary results showed that these compounds are suitable in personal care and cosmetics products. The objective of this research is to study the phase behavior in ternary system of DHSA/DHSA-octyl ester/RBD Palm Kernel Olein (RBDPKOo) and MCT at 85 degree Celsius. From the ternary phase diagram, results showed that all ratios of were completely in two-phase region with various concentrations of RBDPKOo and MCT. The phase changes were observed through polarizing light while the formation of texture was confirmed using polarizing microscope combination with heating. Needles and spherulite textures were found in this system. (author)

  15. Lipidemic effects of an interesterified mixture of butter, medium-chain triacylglycerol and safflower oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mascioli, E.A.; McLennan, C.E.; Schaefer, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the positional structure of dietary triacylglycerol affected lipidemic responses. Thirty healthyadults (16 men and 14 postmenopausal women) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations >3.37 mM (130 mg/dL)enrolled in a prospective...

  16. Synthesis of medium-chain length capsinoids from coconut oil catalyzed by Candida rugosa lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojević Ivić, Jovana; Milosavić, Nenad; Dimitrijević, Aleksandra; Gavrović Jankulović, Marija; Bezbradica, Dejan; Kolarski, Dušan; Veličković, Dušan

    2017-03-01

    A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained. The findings presented here suggest that our experimental method can be applied for the enrichment of CO with capsinoids, thus giving it additional health promoting properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of a vegan diet on the human salivary microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tue H; Kern, Timo; Bak, Emilie G

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composi......Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity...... of vegans and omnivores is present at all taxonomic levels below phylum level and includes upper respiratory tract commensals (e.g. Neisseria subflava, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Rothia mucilaginosa) and species associated with periodontal disease (e.g. Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas...... endodontalis). Dietary intake of medium chain fatty acids, piscine mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibre was associated with bacterial diversity, community structure, as well as relative abundance of several species-level operational taxonomic units. Analysis of imputed genomic potential...

  18. A suplementação de ácidos graxos ômega 3 e triglicérides de cadeia média não alteram os indicadores metabólicos em um teste de exaustão La suplementacion de ácidos grasos omega 3 en los trigliceridos de cadena media como alteración en los indicadores metabólicos en un test de agotamiento The supplementation of omega-3 lipids and medium chain triglicerides do not affect metabolic indicators in the exhaustion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Fett

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available PROPÓSITO: Este estudo compara os efeitos do treinamento de força (TF com ou sem a suplementação de lipídios ômega 3 (W-3 ou triglicérides de cadeia média (TCM, nos indicadores metabólicos em um teste de exaustão (TE. MÉTODOS: Grupo W-3 (GW-3: n = 7, 26,7 ± 6 anos de idade; 82,6 ± 10kg e grupo TCM (GTCM: n = 5, 18,8 ± 1,3 ano de idade; 74,6 ± 9,7kg com 11 meses mínimos em TF. Houve dois momentos de TE: depois de 28 dias somente com TF e coletas de sangue antes (M1a e após (M1d, e após mais 28 dias de TF mais a suplementação com W-3 ou TCM e repetindo o mesmo procedimento (M2a e M2d. RESULTADOS: O hematócrito (Ht, osmolalidade (Os, sódio (Na+ e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PCO2 não tiveram mudanças significativas em nenhum momento, grupo ou D M2 (P > 0,05. A pressão de oxigênio (PO2 aumentou significativamente após TE nos dois momentos e grupos (P PROPÓSITO: Este estudio compara los efectos de entrenamiento de fuerza (TF con o sin la suplementación de lípidos omega 3 (W-3 o triglicéridos de cadena media (TCM, los indicadores metabólicos en un test de agotamiento (TE. MÉTODOS: Grupo W-3 (GW-3: n = 7, 26,7 ± 6 años de idade; 82,6 ± 10 kg y grupo TCM (GTCM: n = 5, 18,8 ± 1,3 año de edad; 74,6 ± 9,7 kg con 11 meses mínimos en TF. Hubo 2 momentos de TE: después de 28 días solamente con TF y colectas de sangre antes (M1a y después (M1d, y después de mas de 28 días de TF más la suplementación con W-3 o TCM y repitiendo el mismo procedimiento (M2a e M2d. RESULTADOS: El hematocrito (Ht, osmolalidad (Os, sodio (Na+ y presión de dióxido de carbono (PCO2 no tuvieron cambios significativos en ningún momento, grupo de D M2 (P > 0,05. La presión de oxígeno (PO2 aumentó significativamente después TE los dos momentos y grupos (P OBJECTIVE: This study compares the effects of strength training (ST with or without supplementation of omega-3 lipids (W-3 or medium chain triglycerides (MCT in metabolic

  19. Development of a bioprocess to convert PET derived terephthalic acid and biodiesel derived glycerol to medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, Shane T.; Nikodinovic Runic, Jasmina; O' Connor, Kevin E. [University College Dublin (Ireland). School of Biomolecular and Biomedical Sciences; Kaminsky, Walter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Technical and Macromolecular Chemistry; Woods, Trevor; Babu, Ramesh P. [Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Materials Ireland Polymer Research Center

    2012-08-15

    Sodium terephthalate (TA) produced from a PET pyrolysis product and waste glycerol (WG) from biodiesel manufacture were supplied to Pseudomonas putida GO16 in a fed-batch bioreactor. Six feeding strategies were employed by altering the sequence of TA and WG feeding. P. putida GO16 reached 8.70 g/l cell dry weight (CDW) and 2.61 g/l PHA in 48 h when grown on TA alone. When TA and WG were supplied in combination, biomass productivity (g/l/h) was increased between 1.3- and 1.7-fold and PHA productivity (g/l/h) was increased 1.8- to 2.2-fold compared to TA supplied alone. The monomer composition of the PHA accumulated from TA or WG was predominantly composed of 3-hydroxydecanoic acid. PHA monomers 3-hydroxytetradeeanoic acid and 3-hydroxytetradecenoic acid were not present in PHA accumulated from TA alone but were present when WG was supplied to the fermentation. When WG was either the sole carbon source or the predominant carbon source supplied to the fermentation the molecular weight of PHA accumulated was lower compared to PHA accumulated when TA was supplied as the sole substrate. Despite similarities in data for the properties of the polymers, PHAs produced with WG present in the PHA accumulation phase were tacky while PHA produced where TA was the sole carbon substrate in the polymer accumulation phase exhibited little or no tackiness at room temperature. The co-feeding of WG to fermentations allows for increased utilisation of TA. The order of feeding of WG and TA has an effect on TA utilisation and polymer properties. (orig.)

  20. Novel extracellular medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerase from Streptomyces exfoliatus K10 DSMZ 41693

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Virginia; de Santos, Patricia Gómez; García-Hidalgo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    reaction product. Markedly, PhaZSex2 is able to degrade functionalized polymers containing thioester groups in the side chain (PHACOS), releasing functional thioester-based monomers and oligomers demonstrating the potentiality of this novel biocatalyst for the industrial production of enantiopure (R)-3...

  1. The molecular basis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in compound heterozygous patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Udvari, S

    1997-01-01

    -causing mutations in 14 families in whom both mutations had not previously been reported. We then evaluated the severity of the mutations identified in these 14 families. Using expression of mutant MCAD in Escherichia coli with or without co-overexpression of the molecular chaperonins GroESL we showed that five...

  2. Comparison between medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase mutant proteins overexpressed in bacterial and mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T G; Bross, P; Andresen, B S

    1995-01-01

    ." Upon expression in E. coli, these mutant proteins produce activity levels in the range of the wild-type enzyme only if the chaperonins GroESL are co-overproduced. When overexpressed in COS cells, the pure folding mutants display enzyme activities comparable to the wild-type enzyme. The results suggest...

  3. Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia diagnosed by double-balloon enteroscopy and treated by medium-chain triglycerides: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Yu; Yu, Tao; Qiao, Xiao-yu; Zhao, Li-na; Chen, Qi-kui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Primary intestinal lymphangiectasia is a disorder characterized by exudative enteropathy resulting from morphologic abnormalities of the intestinal lymphatics. Intestinal lymphangiectasia can be primary or secondary, so the diagnosis of primary intestinal lymphangiectasia must first exclude the possibility of secondary intestinal lymphangiectasia. A double-balloon enteroscopy and biopsy, as well as the pathology can be used to confirm the diagnosis of intestinal lymphang...

  4. Medium chain triglycerides dose-dependently prevent liver pathology in a rat model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity is often associated with a cluster of increased health risks collectively known as "Metabolic Syndrome" (MS). MS is often accompanied by development of fatty liver. Sometimes fatty liver results in damage leading to reduced liver function, and need for a transplant. This condition is known...

  5. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of

  6. Production of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate by Pseudomonas oleovorans grown in sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Aires da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas oleovorans were grown on sugary cassava extracts supplemented with andiroba oil for the synthesis of a mediumchain- length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA MCL. The concentration of total sugars in the extract was approximately: 40 g/L in culture 1, 15 g/L in cultures 2 and 3, and 10 g/L in culture 4. Supplementation with 1% andiroba oil and 0.2 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed 6.5 hours after growth in culture 3, and supplementation with the same amount of andiroba oil and 2.4 g/L of (NH42HPO4 was performed at the beginning of growth in culture 4. The synthesis resulted mainly in 3-hydroxy-decanoate and 3-hydroxy-dodecanoate units; 3-hydroxy-butyrate, 3-hydroxy-hexanoate; and 3-hydroxy-octanoate monomers were also produced but in smaller proportions. P. oleovorans significantly accumulated PHA MCL in the deceleration phase of growth with an oxygen limitation but with sufficient nitrogen concentration to maintain cell growth. The sugary cassava extract supplemented with andiroba oil proved to be a potential substrate for PHA MCL production.

  7. Rigid polyurethane foam fabrication using medium chain glycerides of coconut oil and plastics from end-of-life vehicles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paruzel, Aleksandra; Michalowski, S.; Hodan, Jiří; Horák, Pavel; Prociak, A.; Beneš, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 7 (2017), s. 6237-6246 ISSN 2168-0485 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14PL021; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chemical recycling * degradation * microwave irradiation Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.951, year: 2016

  8. Biodegradation of Medium Chain Hydrocarbons by Acinetobacter venetianus 2AW Immobilized to Hair-Based Adsorbent Mats (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    open- water oil spills or treatment of large contaminated volumes such as ballast water or holding ponds. The practi- cal application of the mat is...SS, Al-Hasan RH, Salamah S, Al-Dabbous A. Biore- mediation of oily sea water by bacteria immobilized in biofilms coating macroalgae . Int Biodeter...adsorbent, for in situ degradation of hydrocarbons, has practical application in the bioremediation of oil in water emulsions. acinetobacter

  9. Disease-causing mutations in exon 11 of the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Jensen, T G; Bross, P

    1994-01-01

    spot. Here we describe the results from sequence analysis of exon 11 and part of the flanking introns from 36 compound heterozygous patients with MCAD deficiency. We have identified four previously unknown disease-causing mutations (M301T, S311R, R324X, and E359X) and two silent mutations in exon 11...

  10. Production of Medium Chain Fatty Acids by Yarrowia lipolytica: Combining Molecular Design and TALEN to Engineer the Fatty Acid Synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigouin, Coraline; Gueroult, Marc; Croux, Christian; Dubois, Gwendoline; Borsenberger, Vinciane; Barbe, Sophie; Marty, Alain; Daboussi, Fayza; André, Isabelle; Bordes, Florence

    2017-10-20

    Yarrowia lipolytica is a promising organism for the production of lipids of biotechnological interest and particularly for biofuel. In this study, we engineered the key enzyme involved in lipid biosynthesis, the giant multifunctional fatty acid synthase (FAS), to shorten chain length of the synthesized fatty acids. Taking as starting point that the ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain of Yarrowia lipolytica FAS is directly involved in chain length specificity, we used molecular modeling to investigate molecular recognition of palmitic acid (C16 fatty acid) by the KS. This enabled to point out the key role of an isoleucine residue, I1220, from the fatty acid binding site, which could be targeted by mutagenesis. To address this challenge, TALEN (transcription activator-like effector nucleases)-based genome editing technology was applied for the first time to Yarrowia lipolytica and proved to be very efficient for inducing targeted genome modifications. Among the generated FAS mutants, those having a bulky aromatic amino acid residue in place of the native isoleucine at position 1220 led to a significant increase of myristic acid (C14) production compared to parental wild-type KS. Particularly, the best performing mutant, I1220W, accumulates C14 at a level of 11.6% total fatty acids. Overall, this work illustrates how a combination of molecular modeling and genome-editing technology can offer novel opportunities to rationally engineer complex systems for synthetic biology.

  11. Impact of a vegan diet on the human salivary microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tue H; Kern, Timo; Bak, Emilie G; Kashani, Alireza; Allin, Kristine H; Nielsen, Trine; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2018-04-11

    Little is known about the effect of long-term diet patterns on the composition and functional potential of the human salivary microbiota. In the present study, we sought to contribute to the ongoing elucidation of dietary effects on the oral microbial community by examining the diversity, composition and functional potential of the salivary microbiota in 160 healthy vegans and omnivores using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We further sought to identify bacterial taxa in saliva associated with host inflammatory markers. We show that compositional differences in the salivary microbiota of vegans and omnivores is present at all taxonomic levels below phylum level and includes upper respiratory tract commensals (e.g. Neisseria subflava, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Rothia mucilaginosa) and species associated with periodontal disease (e.g. Campylobacter rectus and Porphyromonas endodontalis). Dietary intake of medium chain fatty acids, piscine mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and dietary fibre was associated with bacterial diversity, community structure, as well as relative abundance of several species-level operational taxonomic units. Analysis of imputed genomic potential revealed several metabolic pathways differentially abundant in vegans and omnivores indicating possible effects of macro- and micro-nutrient intake. We also show that certain oral bacteria are associated with the systemic inflammatory state of the host.

  12. Enzymatic characterization of a human acyltransferase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Ozawa

    to contribute to medium-chain protein lipidation.

  13. Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akito Kawai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound to human serum albumin (HSA in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2. However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The structure of the HSA–PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide useful basic information related to drug–HSA interactions. Moreover, the information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings. Keywords: Human serum albumin, X-ray crystallography, Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, Drug interaction, Drug site 2

  14. Identification of Human Semiochemicals Attractive to the Major Vectors of Onchocerciasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M.; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; McGaha, Tommy W.; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A.; Toé, Laurent D.; Adeleke, Monsuru A.; Sanfo, Moussa; Soungalo, Traore; Katholi, Charles R.; Noblet, Raymond; Fadamiro, Henry; Torres-Estrada, Jose L.; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Baker, Bill; Unnasch, Thomas R.; Cupp, Eddie W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. volvulus in the vector population. However, the key chemical components of human odor that are attractive to vector black flies have not been identified. Methodology/Principal Findings Human sweat compounds were analyzed using GC-MS analysis and compounds common to three individuals identified. These common compounds, with others previously identified as attractive to other hematophagous arthropods were evaluated for their ability to stimulate and attract the major onchocerciasis vectors in Africa (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) and Latin America (Simulium ochraceum s. l.) using electroantennography and a Y tube binary choice assay. Medium chain length carboxylic acids and aldehydes were neurostimulatory for S. damnosum s.l. while S. ochraceum s.l. was stimulated by short chain aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes. Both species were attracted to ammonium bicarbonate and acetophenone. The compounds were shown to be attractive to the relevant vector species in field studies, when incorporated into a formulation that permitted a continuous release of the compound over time and used in concert with previously developed trap platforms. Conclusions/Significance The identification of compounds attractive to the major vectors of O. volvulus will permit the development of optimized traps. Such traps may replace the use of human vector collectors for monitoring the effectiveness of onchocerciasis elimination programs and could find use as a contributing component in an integrated vector control/drug program aimed at eliminating river blindness in Africa. PMID:25569240

  15. Identification of human semiochemicals attractive to the major vectors of onchocerciasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ryan M; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; McGaha, Tommy W; Rodriguez-Perez, Mario A; Toé, Laurent D; Adeleke, Monsuru A; Sanfo, Moussa; Soungalo, Traore; Katholi, Charles R; Noblet, Raymond; Fadamiro, Henry; Torres-Estrada, Jose L; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Baker, Bill; Unnasch, Thomas R; Cupp, Eddie W

    2015-01-01

    Entomological indicators are considered key metrics to document the interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus, the etiological agent of human onchocerciasis. Human landing collection is the standard employed for collection of the vectors for this parasite. Recent studies reported the development of traps that have the potential for replacing humans for surveillance of O. volvulus in the vector population. However, the key chemical components of human odor that are attractive to vector black flies have not been identified. Human sweat compounds were analyzed using GC-MS analysis and compounds common to three individuals identified. These common compounds, with others previously identified as attractive to other hematophagous arthropods were evaluated for their ability to stimulate and attract the major onchocerciasis vectors in Africa (Simulium damnosum sensu lato) and Latin America (Simulium ochraceum s. l.) using electroantennography and a Y tube binary choice assay. Medium chain length carboxylic acids and aldehydes were neurostimulatory for S. damnosum s.l. while S. ochraceum s.l. was stimulated by short chain aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes. Both species were attracted to ammonium bicarbonate and acetophenone. The compounds were shown to be attractive to the relevant vector species in field studies, when incorporated into a formulation that permitted a continuous release of the compound over time and used in concert with previously developed trap platforms. The identification of compounds attractive to the major vectors of O. volvulus will permit the development of optimized traps. Such traps may replace the use of human vector collectors for monitoring the effectiveness of onchocerciasis elimination programs and could find use as a contributing component in an integrated vector control/drug program aimed at eliminating river blindness in Africa.

  16. Crystal structure analysis of human serum albumin complexed with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Akito; Yamasaki, Keishi; Enokida, Taisuke; Miyamoto, Shuichi; Otagiri, Masaki

    2018-03-01

    Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB) is an orphan drug for the treatment of urea cycle disorders. It also inhibits the development of endoplasmic reticulum stress, the action of histone deacetylases and as a regulator of the hepatocanalicular transporter. PB is generally considered to have the potential for use in the treatment of the diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic diseases. In a previous study, we reported that PB is primarily bound to human serum albumin (HSA) in plasma and its binding site is drug site 2. However, details of the binding mode of PB to HSA remain unknown. To address this issue, we examined the crystal structure of HSA with PB bound to it. The structure of the HSA-PB complex indicates that the binding mode of PB to HSA is quite similar to that for octanoate or drugs that bind to drug site 2, as opposed to that for other medium-chain length of fatty acids. These findings provide useful basic information related to drug-HSA interactions. Moreover, the information presented herein is valuable in terms of providing safe and efficient treatment and diagnosis in clinical settings.

  17. Protection against oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and preliminary photosafety assessment of Punica granatum seed oil nanoemulsions entrapping polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarin, Thaisa; Mitjans, Montserrat; Lemos-Senna, Elenara; Vinardell, Maria Pilar

    2015-12-25

    The main purpose of the present study is to evaluate the ability of nanoemulsion entrapping pomegranate peel polyphenol-rich ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) prepared from pomegranate seed oil and medium chain triglyceride to protect human erythrocyte membrane from oxidative damage and to assess preliminary in vitro photosafety. In order to evaluate the phototoxic effect of nanoemulsions, human red blood cells (RBCs) are used as a biological model and the rate of haemolysis and photohaemolysis (5 J cm(-2) UVA) is assessed in vitro. The level of protection against oxidative damage caused by the peroxyl radical generator AAPH in human RBCs as well as its effects on bilayer membrane characteristics such as fluidity, protein profile and RBCs morphology are determined. EAF-loaded nanoemulsions do not promote haemolysis or photohaemolysis. Anisotropy measurements show that nanoemulsions significantly retrain the increase in membrane fluidity caused by AAPH. SDS-PAGE analysis reveals that AAPH induced degradation of membrane proteins, but that nanoemulsions reduce the extension of degradation. Scanning electron microscopy examinations corroborate the interaction between AAPH, nanoemulsions and the RBC membrane bilayer. Our work demonstrates that Punica granatum nanoemulsions are photosafe and protect RBCs against oxidative damage and possible disturbance of the lipid bilayer of biomembranes. Moreover it suggests that these nanoemulsions could be promising new topical products to reduce the effects of sunlight on skin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers evaluated for studies of macromolecular permeability in the human colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallon, Conny; Braaf, Ylva; Wolving, Mats; Olaison, Gunnar; Söderholm, Johan D

    2005-05-01

    Studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens in humans are limited to in vitro techniques. The use of surgical specimens for such studies has major shortcomings. Endoscopic biopsies in Ussing chambers have been introduced as a means of studying secretion and transepithelial permeability, but have not been evaluated for studies of protein antigen uptake in human intestine. Standard forceps biopsies from the sigmoid colon of 24 healthy volunteers were mounted in Ussing chambers with an exposed tissue area of 1.76 mm2. 51Cr-EDTA (paracellular probe) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP; 45 kDa protein antigen) were used as permeability markers. Mucosal permeability, electrophysiology, histology and energy contents of the biopsies were studied over time. To evaluate the ability of the technique to detect permeability changes, the mucosa was modulated with capric acid, a medium-chain fatty acid, known to affect tight junctions. In the Ussing chamber the mucosal biopsies were viable for 160 min with stable levels of ATP and lactate, and only minor changes in morphology. Steady-state permeability with low variability was seen for both markers during the 30-90 min period. Exposure to capric acid induced a rapid decrease in short-circuit current (Isc) and a slower reversible decrease in transepithelial resistance (TER), as well as an increased permeability to 51Cr-EDTA and HRP. Endoscopic biopsies of human colon are viable in Ussing chambers and are reliable tools for studies of mucosal permeability to protein antigens. The technique offers a broad potential for studies of mucosal function in the pathophysiology of human gastrointestinal diseases.

  19. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  20. Mining microarray datasets in nutrition: expression of the GPR120 (n-3 fatty acid receptor/sensor) gene is down-regulated in human adipocytes by macrophage secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trayhurn, Paul; Denyer, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Microarray datasets are a rich source of information in nutritional investigation. Targeted mining of microarray data following initial, non-biased bioinformatic analysis can provide key insight into specific genes and metabolic processes of interest. Microarrays from human adipocytes were examined to explore the effects of macrophage secretions on the expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) genes that encode fatty acid receptors/sensors. Exposure of the adipocytes to macrophage-conditioned medium for 4 or 24 h had no effect on GPR40 and GPR43 expression, but there was a marked stimulation of GPR84 expression (receptor for medium-chain fatty acids), the mRNA level increasing 13·5-fold at 24 h relative to unconditioned medium. Importantly, expression of GPR120, which encodes an n-3 PUFA receptor/sensor, was strongly inhibited by the conditioned medium (15-fold decrease in mRNA at 24 h). Macrophage secretions have major effects on the expression of fatty acid receptor/sensor genes in human adipocytes, which may lead to an augmentation of the inflammatory response in adipose tissue in obesity.

  1. Hepatic-portal oleic acid inhibits feeding more potently than hepatic-portal caprylic acid in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jambor de Sousa, Ulrike L.; Benthem, Lambertus; Arsenijevic, Denis; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Langhans, Wolfgang; Geary, Noni; Leonhardt, Monika; Geary, Nori

    2006-01-01

    In several human and animal studies, medium-chain triglycerides decreased food intake more than did long-chain triglycerides. It is possible that faster uptake and metabolism of medium-chain fatty acids in the liver is responsible for this difference. To test this hypothesis we compared the feeding

  2. The 2-monoacylglycerol moiety of dietary fat appears to be responsible for the fat-induced release of GLP-1 in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandøe, Mette J; Hansen, Katrine B; Hartmann, Bolette; Rehfeld, Jens F; Holst, Jens J; Hansen, Harald S

    2015-09-01

    Dietary triglycerides can, after digestion, stimulate the intestinal release of incretin hormones through activation of G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 119 by 2-monoacylglycerol and by the activation of fatty acid receptors for long- and short-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids do not stimulate the release of intestinal hormones. To dissect the mechanism of fat-induced glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) release in humans, we compared the effects of tributyrin (containing short-chain fatty acids; i.e., butyric acid), olive oil [containing long-chain fatty acids; e.g., oleic acid plus 2-oleoyl glycerol (2-OG)], and 1,3-dioctanoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (C8-dietary oil), which is digested to form medium-chain fatty acids : i.e., octanoic acid : and 2-OG. In a randomized, single-blinded crossover study, 12 healthy white men [mean age: 24 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 22] were given the following 4 meals on 4 different days: 200 g carrots + 6.53 g tributyrin, 200 g carrots + 13.15 g C8-dietary oil, 200 g carrots + 19 g olive oil, or 200 g carrots. All of the lipids totaled 0.0216 mol. Main outcome measures were incremental areas under the curve for total GLP-1, GIP, and cholecystokinin (CCK) in plasma. C8-dietary oil and olive oil showed the same GLP-1 response [583 ± 101 and 538 ± 71 (pmol/L) × 120 min; P = 0.733], whereas the GIP response was higher for olive oil than for C8-dietary oil [3293 ± 404 and 1674 ± 270 (pmol/L) × 120 min; P = 0.002]. Tributyrin and carrots alone resulted in no increase in any of the measured hormones. Peptide YY (PYY) and neurotensin responses resembled those of GLP-1. Only olive oil stimulated CCK release. Under our study conditions, 2-OG and GPR119 activation can fully explain the olive oil-induced secretion of GLP-1, PYY, and neurotensin. In contrast, both oleic acid and 2-OG contributed to the GIP response. Dietary butyrate did not stimulate gut hormone secretion. Olive oil

  3. Fat content, energy value and fatty acid profile of donkey milk during lactation and implications for human nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martemucci Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims Milk contains numerous nutrients. The content of n-3 fatty acids, the n-6/n-3 ratio, and short- and medium-chain fatty acids may promote positive health effects. In Western societies, cow’s milk fat is perceived as a risk factor for health because it is a source of a high fraction of saturated fatty acids. Recently, there has been increasing interest in donkey’s milk. In this work, the fat and energetic value and acidic composition of donkey’s milk, with reference to human nutrition, and their variations during lactation, were investigated. We also discuss the implications of the acidic profile of donkey’s milk on human nutrition. Methods Individual milk samples from lactating jennies were collected 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 210days after foaling, for the analysis of fat, proteins and lactose, which was achieved using an infrared milk analyser, and fatty acids composition by gas chromatography. Results The donkey’s milk was characterised by low fat and energetic (1719.2kJ·kg-1 values, a high polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA content of mainly α-linolenic acid (ALA and linoleic acid (LA, a low n-6 to n-3 FA ratio or LA/ALA ratio, and advantageous values of atherogenic and thrombogenic indices. Among the minor PUFA, docosahesaenoic (DHA, eicosapentanoic (EPA, and arachidonic (AA acids were present in very small amounts ( The fatty acid patterns were affected by the lactation stage and showed a decrease (P Conclusions The high level of unsaturated/saturated fatty acids and PUFA-n3 content and the low n-6/n-3 ratio suggest the use of donkey’s milk as a functional food for human nutrition and its potential utilisation for infant nutrition as well as adult diets, particular for the elderly.

  4. Conformational changes in human serum albumin studied by fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy. Distance measurements as a function of pH and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Pedersen, A O

    1989-01-01

    pH- and fatty acid-induced conformational changes in human serum albumin were investigated by fluorescence-energy transfer, determining the distance between Trp-214 and bound bilirubin at 25 degrees C. This distance changes significantly with the pH, being 2.52 +/- 0.01 nm at pH 6, 2.31 +/- 0.04 nm...... at pH 9, 2.13 +/- 0.07 nm at pH 11.0 and 2.77 nm at pH 11.9. The influence of different fatty acids on the distance was also determined. At pH 7.4 medium-chain fatty acids seem to increase this distance, whereas long-chain fatty acids, at low concentrations, decrease the distance between the two...... chromophores. The contraction of the protein carrying long-chain saturated fatty acids is even more pronounced at pH 9. Udgivelsesdato: 1989-Feb-15...

  5. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  6. Characterization and Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Component AlkB of the Medium-Chain Alkane Hydroxylase System from Pseudomonas putida GPo1

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, Hernan; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The alkane hydroxylase system of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 allows it to use alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy. Bacterial alkane hydroxylases have tremendous potential as biocatalysts for the stereo- and regioselective transformation of a wide range of chemically inert unreactive alkanes into valuable reactive chemical precursors. We have produced and characterized the first 2-dimensional crystals of the integral membrane component of the P. putida alkane hydroxylase system, the no...

  7. Characterization and two-dimensional crystallization of membrane component AlkB of the medium-chain alkane hydroxylase system from Pseudomonas putida GPo1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Hernan; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2012-11-01

    The alkane hydroxylase system of Pseudomonas putida GPo1 allows it to use alkanes as the sole source of carbon and energy. Bacterial alkane hydroxylases have tremendous potential as biocatalysts for the stereo- and regioselective transformation of a wide range of chemically inert unreactive alkanes into valuable reactive chemical precursors. We have produced and characterized the first 2-dimensional crystals of the integral membrane component of the P. putida alkane hydroxylase system, the nonheme di-iron alkane monooxygenase AlkB. Our analysis reveals for the first time that AlkB reconstituted into a lipid bilayer forms trimers. Addition of detergents that do not disrupt the AlkB oligomeric state (decyl maltose neopentyl glycol [DMNG], lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol [LMNG], and octaethylene glycol monododecyl ether [C(12)E(8)]) preserved its activity at a level close to that of the detergent-free control sample. In contrast, the monomeric form of AlkB produced by purification in n-decyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DM), n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), octyl glucose neopentyl glycol (OGNG), and n-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylamine-N-oxide (LDAO) was largely inactive. This is the first indication that the physiologically active form of membrane-embedded AlkB may be a multimer. We present for the first time experimental evidence that 1-octyne acts as a mechanism-based inhibitor of AlkB. Therefore, despite the lack of any significant full-length sequence similarity with members of other monooxygenase classes that catalyze the terminal oxidation of alkanes, AlkB is likely to share a similar catalytic mechanism.

  8. Abnormal Newborn Screening in a Healthy Infant of a Mother with Undiagnosed Medium-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Christensen, Mette; Olesen, Jes

    2015-01-01

    A neonate with low blood free carnitine level on newborn tandem mass spectrometry screening was evaluated for possible carnitine transporter defect (CTD). The plasma concentration of free carnitine was marginally reduced, and the concentrations of acylcarnitines (including C6, C8, and C10:1) were...

  9. Occurrence and gas/particle partitioning of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in the atmosphere of Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xindong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhou, Hongqiang; Na, Guangshui; Wang, Zhen; Chen, Chen; Chen, Jingwen; Chen, Jiping

    2014-06-01

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) were measured in air samples at a remote air monitoring site established in Georgia King Island, Fildes Peninsula of Antarctica (Great Wall Station, China) to study the long-range atmospheric transport of these anthropogenic pollutants to the Antarctic. Gas- and particle-phase CPs were collected using polyurethane foam plugs (PUF) and glass fiber filters (GFF) respectively during summertime of 2012. The total atmospheric levels of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from 9.6 to 20.8 pg m-3 (average: 14.9 pg m-3) and 3.7-5.2 pg m-3 (average: 4.5 pg m-3), respectively. C10 and C11 carbon chain homologues with Cl5 and Cl6 chlorine atoms predominated in SCCP formula groups both in gas- and particle-phase. Significant linear correlation was found between gas/particle partition coefficients (KP) and sub-cooled liquid vapor pressures (pL°) (R2 = 0.437, p chlorinated CPs and overestimate the sorption of highly chlorinated CPs.

  10. Dietary inclusion of diallyl disulfide, yucca powder, calcium fumarate, an extruded linseed product, or medium-chain fatty acids does not affect methane production in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijderveld, van S.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Perdok, H.B.; Newbold, J.R.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to assess the effect of diallyl disulfide (DADS), yucca powder (YP), calcium fumarate (CAFU), an extruded linseed product (UNSAT), or a mixture of capric and caprylic acid (MCFA) on methane production, energy balance, and dairy cow performance. In experiment 1,

  11. Effect of triacylglycerols of medium-chain fatty acids on growth rate and mortality of rabbits weaned at 25 and 35 days of age

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skřivanová, E.; Skřivanová, V.; Volek, Z.; Marounek, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2009), s. 19-24 ISSN 0375-8427 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP 523/07/P340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : rabbits * early weaning * lipid supplements Subject RIV: GH - Livestock Nutrition Impact factor: 0.644, year: 2009

  12. Prenatal diagnosis of medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency in a family with a previous fatal case of sudden unexpected death in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Winter, V; Jensen, P K

    1995-01-01

    --involved in the expression of the disease. Thus, families who have experienced the death of a child from MCAD deficiency might have an increased risk of a seriously affected subsequent child. In such a family we have therefore performed a prenatal diagnosis on a chorionic villus sample by a highly specific and sensitive...... polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the G985 mutation. The analysis was positive and resulted in abortion. We verified the diagnosis by direct analysis on blood spots and other tissue material from the aborted fetus and from family members....

  13. Pilot feasibility and safety study examining the effect of medium chain triglyceride supplementation in subjects with mild cognitive impairment: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida J. Rebello

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Consumption of 56 g/day of MCTs for 24 weeks increases serum ketone concentrations and appears to be a candidate for larger randomized control trials in the future that quantify the modulation of cognitive function through supplementation with ketone precursors, in patients with MCI.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of medium-chain fatty acids and monoacylglycerols on Cronobacter sakazakii DBM 3157T and Cronobacter malonaticus DBM 3148

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marounek, Milan; Putthana, V.; Benada, Oldřich; Lukešová, D.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2012), s. 573-580 ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP503/10/0664 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Cronobacter sp. * fatty acids * bacterial activity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.685, year: 2012

  15. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards

  16. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  17. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  18. Human niche, human behaviour, human nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2017-10-06

    The concept of a 'human nature' or 'human natures' retains a central role in theorizing about the human experience. In Homo sapiens it is clear that we have a suite of capacities generated via our evolutionary past, and present, and a flexible capacity to create and sustain particular kinds of cultures and to be shaped by them. Regardless of whether we label these capacities 'human natures' or not, humans occupy a distinctive niche and an evolutionary approach to examining it is critical. At present we are faced with a few different narratives as to exactly what such an evolutionary approach entails. There is a need for a robust and dynamic theoretical toolkit in order to develop a richer, and more nuanced, understanding of the cognitively sophisticated genus Homo and the diverse sorts of niches humans constructed and occupied across the Pleistocene, Holocene, and into the Anthropocene. Here I review current evolutionary approaches to 'human nature', arguing that we benefit from re-framing our investigations via the concept of the human niche and in the context of the extended evolutionary synthesis (EES). While not a replacement of standard evolutionary approaches, this is an expansion and enhancement of our toolkit. I offer brief examples from human evolution in support of these assertions.

  19. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  20. Human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, S.; Neill, R.; Williams, R.; Bauser, M.; Channell, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper focused on the possible approaches to evaluating the impacts of human intrusion on nuclear waste disposal. Several major issues were reviewed. First, it was noted that human intrusion could be addressed either quantitatively through performance assessments or qualitatively through design requirements. Second, it was decided that it was impossible to construct a complete set of possible future human intrusion scenarios. Third, the question of when the effect of possible human intrusion should be considered, before or after site selection was reviewed. Finally, the time frame over which human intrusion should be considered was discussed

  1. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation...... will ask and try to answer. The mobile phone and its devices are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence, interaction, and affect. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity - soul....... The paper will investigate how technology, humanity, affects, and synaesthesia are presented and combined with examples from everyday aesthetics, e.g. early computer tv-commercial, net-commercial for mobile phones. Technology and affects point, is the conclusion, towards a forgotten pre-human and not he...

  2. Human Parvoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Young, Neal S.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Parvovirus B19 (B19V) and human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), members of the large Parvoviridae family, are human pathogens responsible for a variety of diseases. For B19V in particular, host features determine disease manifestations. These viruses are prevalent worldwide and are culturable in vitro, and serological and molecular assays are available but require careful interpretation of results. Additional human parvoviruses, including HBoV2 to -4, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4), and human bufavirus (BuV) are also reviewed. The full spectrum of parvovirus disease in humans has yet to be established. Candidate recombinant B19V vaccines have been developed but may not be commercially feasible. We review relevant features of the molecular and cellular biology of these viruses, and the human immune response that they elicit, which have allowed a deep understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:27806994

  3. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  4. Using hair, nail and urine samples for human exposure assessment of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Shi, Yali; Vestergren, Robin; Zhou, Zhen; Liang, Yong; Cai, Yaqi

    2018-09-15

    Non-invasive samples present ethical and practical benefits for investigating human exposure to hazardous contaminants, but analytical challenges and difficulties to interpret the results limit their application in biomonitoring. Here we investigated the potential for using hair, nail and urine samples as a measure of internal exposure to an array of legacy and emerging per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in two populations with different exposure conditions. Paired urine-serum measurements of PFASs from a group of highly exposed fishery employees displayed strong correlations for PFASs with three to eight perfluorinated carbons (ρ > 0.653; p < 0.01). Consistent statistical correlations and transfer ratios in nails and hair from both populations demonstrated that these non-invasive samples can be used as a measure of internal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and C8 chlorinated polyfluoralkyl ether sulfonic acid (C8 Cl-PFESA). Contrastingly, the infrequent detections and/or lack of consistent transfer ratios for perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid and short-chain PFASs in hair and nail samples indicate passive uptake from the external environment rather than uptake and internal distribution. Collectively, the study supports the use of urine samples as a valid measure of internal exposure for a range of short- and medium-chain PFASs, while the validity of nail and hair samples as a measure of internal exposure may vary for different PFASs and populations. The ubiquitous detection of C8 Cl-PFESA in all sample matrices from both populations indicates widespread exposure to this contaminant of emerging concern in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  6. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct homini...

  7. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  8. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  9. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  10. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...

  11. Human Computation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  12. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  13. Human Cloning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Judith A; Williams, Erin D

    2006-01-01

    .... Scientists in other labs, including Harvard University and the University of California at San Francisco, intend to produce cloned human embryos in order to derive stem cells for medical research...

  14. Human brucellosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franco, María Pía; Mulder, Maximilian; Gilman, Robert H.; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    Human brucellosis still presents scientists and clinicians with several challenges, such as the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of Brucella spp, the identification of markers for disease severity, progression, and treatment response, and the development of improved treatment regimens.

  15. Human settlements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Niekerk, Cornelia W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available risk of deaths and injuries by drowning in floods and migration- related health effects. • Increased migration, which can result in human suffering, human rights violations, conflicts and political instability. • Loss of property and livelihoods.... The vulnerability of settlements in southern Africa is impacted by various and complex socio-economic processes related to the cultural, political and institutional contexts and demographic pressure, as well as specific high-risk zones susceptible to flash floods...

  16. Human Cloning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-20

    Human Fertilization and Embryology Authority (HFEA). A team of scientists headed by Alison Murdoch at the University of Newcastle received permission...not yet reported success in isolating stem cells from a cloned human embryo. A research team headed by Ian Wilmut at the University of Edinburgh...research group, headed by Douglas Melton and Kevin Eggan, submitted their proposal to a Harvard committee composed of ethicists, scientists and public

  17. The effect of agave fructan products on the activity and composition of the microbiota determined in a dynamic in vitro model of the human proximal large intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, M.E.; Cruz Rubio, J.M.; Mueller, M.; Venema, K.

    2016-01-01

    Inulin and trans-galactooligosaccharides have so far fully met the criteria for prebiotics. This study shows the effect of putative prebiotics Metlos and Metlin (short and medium chain branched fructans from agave) on the activity and composition of the gut microbiota compared to the effects of two

  18. Human cognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of human cognition encompasses the study of all mental phenomena, from the receipt and interpretation of sensory information to the final control of the motor system in the performance of action. The cognitive scientist examines all intermediary processes, including thought, decision making, and memory and including the effects of motivation, states of arousal and stress, the study of language, and the effects of social factors. The field therefore ranges over an enormous territory, covering all that is known or that should be known about human behavior. It is not possible to summarize the current state of knowledge about cognition with any great confidence that we know the correct answer about any aspect of the work. Nontheless, models provide good characterizations of certain aspects of the data and situations. Even if these models should prove to be incorrect, they do provide good approximate descriptions of people's behavior in some situations, and these approximations will still apply even when the underlying theories have changed. A quick description is provided of models within a number of areas of human cognition and skill and some general theoretical frameworks with which to view human cognition. The frameworks are qualitative descriptions that provide a way to view the development of more detailed, quantitative models and, most important, a way of thinking about human performance and skill

  19. Beyond Humanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant) is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer t...

  20. Human Parechoviruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Harvala, Heli; Midgley, Sofie

    2017-01-01

    Infections with human parechoviruses (HPeV) are highly prevalent, particularly in neonates, where they may cause substantial morbidity and mortality. The clinical presentation of HPeV infection is often indistinguishable from that of enterovirus (EV) infection and may vary from mild disease...

  1. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  2. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  3. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  4. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...

  5. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  6. Human Rights and Human Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Javadi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper firstly explores some theories of Human Rights justification and then assents to the theory that Human Rights is based on justified moral values. In order to justify moral values, Aristotle’s approach called “Function Argument” is reviewed. Propounding this argument, the writer attempts to show that all analysis of human identity will directly contribute to the man’s view of his rights. Not only Human rights is really determined by human function or human distinguishing characteristic i.e. human identity, but in the world of knowledge the proper method to know human rights is to know human being himself. n cloning violates man’s rights due to two reasons: damage of human identity and violation of the right to be unique. Attempting to clarify the nature of human cloning, this article examines the aspects to be claimed to violate human rights and evaluates the strength of the reasons for this claim. این مقاله پس از بررسی اجمالی برخی از نظریه‌های توجیه حقوق بشر، نظریة ابتنای آن بر ارزش‌های اخلاقی موجّه را می‌پذیرد. دربارة چگونگی توجیه ارزش اخلاقی، رویکرد ارسطو که به «برهان ارگن» موسوم است، مورد بحث و بررسی قرار می‌گیرد. مؤلف با طرح این برهان می‌کوشد نشان دهد ارائه هرگونه تحلیل از هویت انسان در نگرش آدمی به حقوق خود تأثیر مستقیم خواهد گذاشت. حقوق آدمی نه فقط از ناحیة کارویژه یا فصل ممیز وی (هویت انسان تعیّن واقعی می‌گیرد، بلکه در عالم معرفت هم راه درست شناخت حقوق بشر، شناخت خود انسان است.

  7. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  8. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  9. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  10. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  11. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  12. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  13. Introduction: Digital Humanities, Public Humanities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Christie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available NANO: New American Notes Online: An Interdisciplinary Academic Journal for Big Ideas in a Small World. This special issue shows how both public and digital humanities research can be rendered more persuasive through engagement with cultures beyond the academy. More specifically, the aim of this special issue is to demonstrate how investments in technologies and computation are not necessarily antithetical to investments in critical theory and social justice.

  14. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  15. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  16. Humanized mouse models: Application to human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ryoji; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Mamoru

    2018-05-01

    Humanized mice are superior to rodents for preclinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of drug candidates using human cells or tissues. During the past decade, humanized mouse technology has been greatly advanced by the establishment of novel platforms of genetically modified immunodeficient mice. Several human diseases can be recapitulated using humanized mice due to the improved engraftment and differentiation capacity of human cells or tissues. In this review, we discuss current advanced humanized mouse models that recapitulate human diseases including cancer, allergy, and graft-versus-host disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading to the r......In the menstrual cycle, the mid-cycle surge of gonadotropins (both luteinising hormone [LH] and follicle-stimulating hormone [FSH]) signals the initiation of the periovulatory interval, during which the follicle augments progesterone production and begins to luteinise, ultimately leading...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  18. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  19. The Digital Humanities as a Humanities Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the digital humanities can be seen as a humanities project in a time of significant change in the academy. The background is a number of scholarly, educational and technical challenges, the multiple epistemic traditions linked to the digital humanities, the potential reach of the field across and outside the humanities,…

  20. Managing the Human in Human Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fournier Susan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The physical and social realities, mental biases and limitations of being human differentiate human brands from others. It is their very humanness that introduces risk while generating the ability for enhanced returns. Four particular human characteristics can create imbalance or inconsistency between the person and the brand: mortality, hubris, unpredictability and social embeddedness. None of these qualities manifest in traditional non-human brands, and all of them present risks requiring active managerial attention. Rather than treating humans as brands and making humans into brands for sale in the commercial marketplace, our framework forces a focus on keeping a balance between the person and the personified object.

  1. Human cloning and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Eslami

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Catholic Church and most of Muslims believe that human cloning is in contrast with human rights. They argue that applying Somatic Nuclear Transfer Technique or so-called cloning to humans is against human dignity. Their main reason is that the cloned person would be a copy or shadow of another person and lack his or her identity and uniqueness. They also argue that in the process of cloning human beings would be treated as laboratory mice. This article tries to evaluate this kind of argumentation and shows that the "human dignity" expression in the relevant writings is vague and has been used inappropriately. مسیحیان و برخی از مسلمانان استدلال می‌کنند که کاربست تکنیک شبیه‌سازی ناقض کرامت انسانی است. این دلیل خود به صورت‌های مختلفی بیان می‌شود، مانند آنکه انسان موضوع آزمایش‌های علمی قرار می‌گیرد و با او مانند حیوانات رفتار می‌شود. گاه نیز تغییر نحوة تولید مثل، مایة نقض کرامت انسانی قلمداد می‌گردد و گاه به مسئلة از بین رفتن هویت فردی اشاره می‌شود. نگارنده در دو قسمت، دیدگاه مسیحیان و مسلمانان را در این باره نقل و تحلیل کرده است و کوشیده است نشان دهد که استناد به مفهوم کرامت انسانی در این جا مبهم و ناگویاست و مخالفان کوشش دقیقی در جهت تبیین دلیل خود به عمل نیاورده‌اند.

  2. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...

  3. Modern Human Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-01

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  4. Modern Human Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Byeong Yong; Lee Dong Kyeong

    2005-08-15

    These are the titles of each chapter. They are as in the following; design of human-centerdness, human machine system, information processing process, sense of human, user interface, elements of human body, vital dynamics, measurement of reaction of human body, estimation and management of working environment, mental characteristic of human, human error, group, organization and leadership, safety supervision, process analysis, time studying, work sampling, work factor and methods time measurement, introduction of muscular skeletal disease and program of preventive management.

  5. HUMANISM OF ANTROPOCENTRISM AND ANTROPOCENTRISM WITHOUT HUMANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Shilovskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to the distinction of humanism and anthropocentrism which is based on the parity of the person and being. Genetic communication of humanism and anthropocentrism and their historical break comes to light.

  6. Superintelligence, Humans, and War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Recent studies of the human mind debunk the myth that humans only use 10-20 percent of the human mind. A healthy human mind uses up to 90 percent...way. They will eat what is in front of them to satiate their appetite not knowing if there is anymore food for the future. Humans can predict

  7. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  8. Human factors in training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, J.W.; Brown, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Human Factors concept is a focused effort directed at those activities which require human involvement. Training is, by its nature, an activity totally dependent on the Human Factor. This paper identifies several concerns significant to training situations and discusses how Human Factor awareness can increase the quality of learning. Psychology in the training arena is applied Human Factors. Training is a method of communication represented by sender, medium, and receiver. Two-thirds of this communications model involves the human element directly

  9. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  10. A rare disease-associated mutation in the medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) gene changes a conserved arginine, previously shown to be functionally essential in short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (SCAD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, B S; Bross, P; Jensen, T G

    1993-01-01

    157 mutation was verified in genomic DNA from the patient and her mother by a PCR-based assay. The mutation changes conserved arginine at position 28 (R28C) of the mature MCAD protein. The effect of the T157 mutation on MCAD protein was investigated by expression of mutant MCAD cDNA in COS-7 cells...

  11. Interstitial deletion of 1p22.2p31.1 and medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient with global developmental delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maegawa, Gustavo H B; Poplawski, Nicola K; Andresen, Brage Storstein

    2008-01-01

    We report on a 6-year-old girl who presented at 6 months of age with seizures, delayed psychomotor development and mild facial dysmorphism. A small muscular ventricular septal defect was documented on echocardiogram and brain MRI showed a frontal brain anomaly. Urine organic acid analysis revealed...

  12. Effects of feed access after hatch and inclusion of fish oil and medium chain fatty acids in a pre-starter diet on broiler chicken growth performance and humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamot, D.M.; Klein, van der S.A.S.; Linde, van de I.B.; Wijtten, P.J.A.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.; Lammers, A.

    2016-01-01

    Delayed feed and water access is known to impair growth performance of day old broiler chickens. Although effects of feed access on growth performance and immune function of broilers have been examined before, effects of dietary composition and its potential interaction with feed access are

  13. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  14. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  15. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  16. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  17. Boundaries of Humanities: Writing Medical Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Gillie

    2008-01-01

    Literature and medicine is a discipline within medical humanities, which challenges medicine to reconfigure its scientific model to become interdisciplinary, and be disciplined by arts and humanities as well as science. The psychological, emotional, spiritual and physical are inextricably linked in people, inevitably entailing provisionality,…

  18. Human algorithmic stability and human Rademacher complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vahdat, Mehrnoosh; Oneto, L.; Ghio, A; Anguita, D.; Funk, M.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    In Machine Learning (ML), the learning process of an algo- rithm given a set of evidences is studied via complexity measures. The way towards using ML complexity measures in the Human Learning (HL) domain has been paved by a previous study, which introduced Human Rademacher Complexity (HRC): in this

  19. Human errors and mistakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.

    1993-01-01

    Human errors have a major contribution to the risks for industrial accidents. Accidents have provided important lesson making it possible to build safer systems. In avoiding human errors it is necessary to adapt the systems to their operators. The complexity of modern industrial systems is however increasing the danger of system accidents. Models of the human operator have been proposed, but the models are not able to give accurate predictions of human performance. Human errors can never be eliminated, but their frequency can be decreased by systematic efforts. The paper gives a brief summary of research in human error and it concludes with suggestions for further work. (orig.)

  20. Defense Human Resources Activity > PERSEREC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Defense Human Resources Activity Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Search Defense Human Resources Activity: Search Defense Human Resources Activity U.S. Department of Defense Defense Human Resources Activity Overview

  1. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    This book assesses the scientific value and merit of research on human genetic differences--including a collection of DNA samples that represents the whole of human genetic diversity--and the ethical...

  2. Human Exposure and Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ROE is divided into 5 themes: Air, Water, Land, Human Exposure and Health and Ecological Condition. From these themes, the report indicators address fundamental questions that the ROE attempts to answer. For human health there are 3 questions.

  3. ECONOMICS OF HUMAN RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA - JULIETA JOSAN

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze human resources in terms of quantitative and qualitative side with special focus on the human capital accumulation influence. The paper examines the human resources trough human capital accumulation in terms of modern theory of human resources, educational capital, health, unemployment and migration. The findings presented in this work are based on theoretical economy publications and data collected from research materials. Sources of information include: documents from organizations - the EUROSTAT, INSSE - studies from publications, books, periodicals, and the Internet. The paper describes and analyzes human resources characteristics, human resource capacities, social and economic benefits of human capital accumulation based on economy, and the government plans and policies on health, education and labor market.

  4. Human bites (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  5. HPV (Human Papillomavirus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women HPV (human papillomavirus) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español In Chamorro In Urdu In Vietnamese HPV (human papillomavirus) is a sexually transmitted virus. It is ...

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Why get vaccinated?HPV vaccine prevents infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) types that are associated with cause ... at http://www.cdc.gov/hpv. HPV Vaccine (Human Papillomavirus) Information Statement. U.S. Department of Health and ...

  7. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  8. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  9. Human Use Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the...

  10. Human papillomavirus molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Mallory E; Munger, Karl

    Human papillomaviruses are small DNA viruses with a tropism for squamous epithelia. A unique aspect of human papillomavirus molecular biology involves dependence on the differentiation status of the host epithelial cell to complete the viral lifecycle. A small group of these viruses are the etiologic agents of several types of human cancers, including oral and anogenital tract carcinomas. This review focuses on the basic molecular biology of human papillomaviruses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  12. Humanities Review Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Humanities Review Journal is published in June and December by Humanities Research Forum. The Journal publishes original, well-researched papers, review essays, interviews, resume, and commentaries, which offer new insights into the various disciplines in the Humanities. The focus is on issues about Africa.

  13. Humanity at the Edge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mette N.; Gjødsbøl, Iben M.; Dam, Mie S.

    2017-01-01

    At the heart of anthropology and the social sciences lies a notion of human existence according to which humans and animals share the basic need for food, but only humans have the capacity for morality. Based on fieldwork in a pig laboratory, a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), and a dementia ...

  14. Human Document Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Manz, A; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2012-01-01

    “The Human Document Project‿ is a project which tries to answer all of the questions related to preserving information about the human race for tens of generations of humans to come or maybe even for a future intelligence which can emerge in the coming thousands of years. This document mainly

  15. Esprit: A Humanities Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donald G.; Capella, Barry John

    In March 1984, the first issue of "Esprit," a semi-annual humanities magazine for the 56 two-year colleges in New York State, was published. The magazine seeks to confront the apparent decline of student interest in the humanities, community doubts about the relevance of the humanities, and the seeming indifference to the special truths…

  16. A Human Rights Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Nancy

    1998-01-01

    Presents a human rights glossary that includes definitions of basic terms, treaties, charters, and groups/organizations that have been featured in previous articles in this edition of "Update on Law-Related Education"; the human rights terms have been compiled as part of the celebration of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…

  17. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  18. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  19. Skin and the non-human human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rösing, Lilian Munk

    2013-01-01

    The article puts forward an aesthetic and psychoanalytic analysis of Titian's painting, The Flaying of Marsyas, arguing that the painting is a reflection on the human subject as a being constituted by skin and by a core of non-humanity. The analysis is partly an answer to Melanie Hart's (2007) ar...... of the 'Muselmann', and Anton Ehrenzweig's psychoanalytic theory of artistic creation. Whereas Hart is focusing on form and colour, I also turn my attention towards the texture of the painting....

  20. Universe, human immortality and future human evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bolonkin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This book debates the universe, the development of new technologies in the 21st century and the future of the human race. Dr Bolonkin shows that a human soul is only the information in a person's head. He offers a new unique method for re-writing the main brain information in chips without any damage to the human brain. This is the scientific prediction of the non-biological (electronic) civilization and immortality of the human being. Such a prognosis is predicated upon a new law, discovered by the author, for the development of complex systems. According to this law, every self-copying system tends to be more complex than the previous system, provided that all external conditions remain the same. The consequences are disastrous: humanity will be replaced by a new civilization created by intellectual robots (which Dr Bolonkin refers to as "E-humans" and "E-beings"). These creatures, whose intellectual and mechanical abilities will far exceed those of man, will require neither food nor oxygen to sustain their...

  1. Modeling Human Leukemia Immunotherapy in Humanized Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Xia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The currently available human tumor xenograft models permit modeling of human cancers in vivo, but in immunocompromised hosts. Here we report a humanized mouse (hu-mouse model made by transplantation of human fetal thymic tissue plus hematopoietic stem cells transduced with a leukemia-associated fusion gene MLL-AF9. In addition to normal human lymphohematopoietic reconstitution as seen in non-leukemic hu-mice, these hu-mice showed spontaneous development of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, which was transplantable to secondary recipients with an autologous human immune system. Using this model, we show that lymphopenia markedly improves the antitumor efficacy of recipient leukocyte infusion (RLI, a GVHD-free immunotherapy that induces antitumor responses in association with rejection of donor chimerism in mixed allogeneic chimeras. Our data demonstrate the potential of this leukemic hu-mouse model in modeling leukemia immunotherapy, and suggest that RLI may offer a safe treatment option for leukemia patients with severe lymphopenia.

  2. Rethinking medical humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Boniolo, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    This paper questions different conceptions of Medical Humanities in order to provide a clearer understanding of what they are and why they matter. Building upon former attempts, we defend a conception of Medical Humanities as a humanistic problem-based approach to medicine aiming at influencing its nature and practice. In particular, we discuss three main conceptual issues regarding the overall nature of this discipline: (i) a problem-driven approach to Medical Humanities; (ii) the need for an integration of Medical Humanities into medicine; (iii) the methodological requirements that could render Medical Humanities an effective framework for medical decision-making.

  3. [Human factors in medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarovici, M; Trentzsch, H; Prückner, S

    2017-01-01

    The concept of human factors is commonly used in the context of patient safety and medical errors, all too often ambiguously. In actual fact, the term comprises a wide range of meanings from human-machine interfaces through human performance and limitations up to the point of working process design; however, human factors prevail as a substantial cause of error in complex systems. This article presents the full range of the term human factors from the (emergency) medical perspective. Based on the so-called Swiss cheese model by Reason, we explain the different types of error, what promotes their emergence and on which level of the model error prevention can be initiated.

  4. Integrated Environmental Modelling: Human decisions, human challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Pierre D.

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Environmental Modelling (IEM) is an invaluable tool for understanding the complex, dynamic ecosystems that house our natural resources and control our environments. Human behaviour affects the ways in which the science of IEM is assembled and used for meaningful societal applications. In particular, human biases and heuristics reflect adaptation and experiential learning to issues with frequent, sharply distinguished, feedbacks. Unfortunately, human behaviour is not adapted to the more diffusely experienced problems that IEM typically seeks to address. Twelve biases are identified that affect IEM (and science in general). These biases are supported by personal observations and by the findings of behavioural scientists. A process for critical analysis is proposed that addresses some human challenges of IEM and solicits explicit description of (1) represented processes and information, (2) unrepresented processes and information, and (3) accounting for, and cognizance of, potential human biases. Several other suggestions are also made that generally complement maintaining attitudes of watchful humility, open-mindedness, honesty and transparent accountability. These suggestions include (1) creating a new area of study in the behavioural biogeosciences, (2) using structured processes for engaging the modelling and stakeholder communities in IEM, and (3) using ‘red teams’ to increase resilience of IEM constructs and use.

  5. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI. The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in lower respiratory tract. Recently, a new human pathogen belonging to the subfamily Pneumovirinae was identified, the human metapneumovirus (hMPV, which is structurally similar to the hRSV, in genomic organization, viral structure, antigenicity and clinical symptoms.  The subfamily Pneumovirinae contains two genera: genus Pneumovirus contains hRSV, the bovine (bRSV, as well as the ovine and caprine respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonia virus of mice, the second genus Metapneumovirus, consists of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV and human metapneumovirus (hMPV. In this work, we present a brief narrative review of the literature on important aspects of the biology, epidemiology and clinical manifestations of infections by two respiratory viruses.

  6. Bursty human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Karsai, Márton; Kaski, Kimmo

    2018-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview on emergent bursty patterns in the dynamics of human behaviour. It presents common and alternative understanding of the investigated phenomena, and points out open questions worthy of further investigations. The book is structured as follows. In the introduction the authors discuss the motivation of the field, describe bursty phenomena in case of human behaviour, and relate it to other disciplines. The second chapter addresses the measures commonly used to characterise heterogeneous signals, bursty human dynamics, temporal paths, and correlated behaviour. These definitions are first introduced to set the basis for the discussion of the third chapter about the observations of bursty human patterns in the dynamics of individuals, dyadic interactions, and collective behaviour. The subsequent fourth chapter discusses the models of bursty human dynamics. Various mechanisms have been proposed about the source of the heterogeneities in human dynamics, which leads to the in...

  7. The Human Cell Atlas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A; Lander, Eric S; Amit, Ido; Benoist, Christophe; Birney, Ewan; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Campbell, Peter; Carninci, Piero; Clatworthy, Menna; Clevers, Hans; Deplancke, Bart; Dunham, Ian; Eberwine, James; Eils, Roland; Enard, Wolfgang; Farmer, Andrew; Fugger, Lars; Göttgens, Berthold; Hacohen, Nir; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Hemberg, Martin; Kim, Seung; Klenerman, Paul; Kriegstein, Arnold; Lein, Ed; Linnarsson, Sten; Lundberg, Emma; Lundeberg, Joakim; Majumder, Partha; Marioni, John C; Merad, Miriam; Mhlanga, Musa; Nawijn, Martijn; Netea, Mihai; Nolan, Garry; Pe'er, Dana; Phillipakis, Anthony; Ponting, Chris P; Quake, Stephen; Reik, Wolf; Rozenblatt-Rosen, Orit; Sanes, Joshua; Satija, Rahul; Schumacher, Ton N; Shalek, Alex; Shapiro, Ehud; Sharma, Padmanee; Shin, Jay W; Stegle, Oliver; Stratton, Michael; Stubbington, Michael J T; Theis, Fabian J; Uhlen, Matthias; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Wagner, Allon; Watt, Fiona; Weissman, Jonathan; Wold, Barbara; Xavier, Ramnik; Yosef, Nir

    2017-12-05

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early proofs-of-concept, and some design considerations for the Human Cell Atlas, including a commitment to open data, code, and community.

  8. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.; LaRhette, R.

    1988-01-01

    Evaluating human error or human performance problems and correcting the root causes can help preclude recurrence. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO), working with several members and participant utilities in an extended pilot program, has developed a nonpunitive program designed to identify, evaluate, and correct situations that cause human performance errors. The program is called the Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES). Its primary goal is to improve human reliability in overall nuclear plant operations by reducing human error through correction of the conditions that cause the errors. Workers at participating nuclear utilities are encouraged to report their errors and a specially trained plant coordinator investigates and recommends actions to correct the root causes of these errors

  9. Developing human technology curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teija Vainio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past ten years expertise in human-computer interaction has shifted from humans interacting with desktop computers to individual human beings or groups of human beings interacting with embedded or mobile technology. Thus, humans are not only interacting with computers but with technology. Obviously, this shift should be reflected in how we educate human-technology interaction (HTI experts today and in the future. We tackle this educational challenge first by analysing current Master’s-level education in collaboration with two universities and second, discussing postgraduate education in the international context. As a result, we identified core studies that should be included in the HTI curriculum. Furthermore, we discuss some practical challenges and new directions for international HTI education.

  10. Human Respiratory Syncytial Virus and Human Metapneumovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Helena Antoniassi da Silva; Fernando Rosado Spilki; Adriana Gut Lopes Riccetto; Emilio Elias Baracat; Clarice Weis Arns

    2009-01-01

    The human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) and the human metapneumovírus (hMPV) are main etiological agents of acute respiratory infections (ARI). The ARI is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide.  hRSV and hMPV are members of the Paramyxoviridae. They are enveloped, non-segmented viruses, with negative-sense single stranded genomes. Respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the best characterized agent viral of this group, associated with respiratory diseases in...

  11. Human intrusion: New ideas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    Inadvertent human intrusion has been an issue for the disposal of solid radioactive waste for many years. This paper discusses proposals for an approach for evaluating the radiological significance of human intrusion as put forward by ICRP with contribution from work at IAEA. The approach focuses on the consequences of the intrusion. Protective actions could, however, include steps to reduce the probability of human intrusion as well as the consequences. (author)

  12. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  13. The human genome project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worton, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Human Genome Project is a massive international research project, costing 3 to 5 billion dollars and expected to take 15 years, which will identify the all the genes in the human genome - i.e. the complete sequence of bases in human DNA. The prize will be the ability to identify genes causing or predisposing to disease, and in some cases the development of gene therapy, but this new knowledge will raise important ethical issues

  14. Modern Human Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Feldberger, Madita

    2008-01-01

    Title: Modern Human Capital Management Seminar date: 30th of May 2008 Course: Master thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS Authors: Madita Feldberger Supervisor: Lars Svensson Keywords: Human capital, SWOT Analysis, Strategic Map, Balanced Scorecard Research Problem: Despite of the success of Human Capital Management (HCM) in research it did not arrive yet in the HR departments of many companies. Numerous firms even have problems to set their strategic goals with focus on HR. The HR Bala...

  15. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  16. Human Engineering Procedures Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    Research Laboratory AFETR Air Force Eastern Test Range AFFTC Air Force Flight Test Center AFHRL Air Force Human Resources Laboratory AFR Air Force...performance requirements through the most effective use of man’s performance capability. 13 Human Engineering is one of five elements in the Human...applied judiciously and tailored to fit * the program or program phase and the acquisition strategy to achieve cost effective acquisition and life cycle

  17. Human babesiosis: Recent discoveries

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Sanja M.; Kranjčić-Zec Ivana F.; Arsić-Arsenijević Valentina S.; Džamić Aleksandar M.; Radonjić Ivana V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus Babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. This protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (Ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. Human babesiosis Human babesiosis is predominantly caused by Babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in North America) and by Babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in Europe). Occasionally, infection in A...

  18. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  19. Human Performance Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Biochemistry:Improvements in energy metabolism, muscular strength and endurance capacity have a basis in biochemical and molecular adaptations within the human body....

  20. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  1. Human Capital Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Ellen E

    2007-01-01

    ...: To provide an agile, adaptive, integrated, and innovative defense intelligence workforce through a deliberate process identifying, implementing, and directing human capital organizational, doctrinal...

  2. Developing Human Resources through Actualizing Human Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2012-01-01

    The key to human resource development is in actualizing individual and collective thinking, feeling and choosing potentials related to our minds, hearts and wills respectively. These capacities and faculties must be balanced and regulated according to the standards of truth, love and justice for individual, community and institutional development,…

  3. Challenges for Virtual Humans in Human Computing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Ruttkay, Z.M.; Huang, T; Nijholt, Antinus; Pantic, Maja; Pentland, A.

    The vision of Ambient Intelligence (AmI) presumes a plethora of embedded services and devices that all endeavor to support humans in their daily activities as unobtrusively as possible. Hardware gets distributed throughout the environment, occupying even the fabric of our clothing. The environment

  4. Human trafficking in Germany: strengthening victim's human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Follmar-Otto, Petra; Rabe, Heike

    2009-01-01

    The first study - "A human rights approach against human trafficking - International obligations and the status of implementation in Germany" - analyses how the prohibition of human trafficking and the resulting state obligations are anchored in human rights. The more recent specialised international agreements on human trafficking and law-making in the European Union are then presented. The emphasis is on the Council of Europe Convention, which professes to treat human trafficking in a human...

  5. Human Rights, History of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon; Wright, James

    2015-01-01

    In this article, six basic debates about human rights are clarified from a historical perspective: the origin of human rights as moral rights connected to the natural law doctrine and opposed to positive rights; the wave of criticism of their abstract and absolute character by nineteenth-century

  6. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  7. Human-centred Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bason, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Design approaches are now being applied all over the world as a powerful approach to innovating public policies and services. Christian Bason, author of Leading public design: Discovering human-centred governance, argues that by bringing design methods into play, public managers can lead change...... with citizens at the centre, and discover a new model for steering public organisations: human-centred governance....

  8. Translating the human microbiome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.; Vos, de W.M.; Distefano, P.S.; Doré, J.; Huttenhower, C.; Knight, R.; Lawley, T.D.; Raes, J.; Turnbaugh, P.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, an explosion of descriptive analyses from initiatives, such as the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) and the MetaHIT project, have begun to delineate the human microbiome. Inhabitants of the intestinal tract, nasal passages, oral cavities, skin, gastrointestinal tract and

  9. Incorporating Human Interindividual Biotransformation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The protection of sensitive individuals within a population dictates that measures other than central tendencies be employed to estimate risk. The refinement of human health risk assessments for chemicals metabolized by the liver to reflect data on human variability can be accomplished through (1) the characterization of enzyme expression in large banks of human liver samples, (2) the employment of appropriate techniques for the quantification and extrapolation of metabolic rates derived in vitro, and (3) the judicious application of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling. While in vitro measurements of specific biochemical reactions from multiple human samples can yield qualitatively valuable data on human variance, such measures must be put into the perspective of the intact human to yield the most valuable predictions of metabolic differences among humans. For quantitative metabolism data to be the most valuable in risk assessment, they must be tied to human anatomy and physiology, and the impact of their variance evaluated under real exposure scenarios. For chemicals metabolized in the liver, the concentration of parent chemical in the liver represents the substrate concentration in the MichaelisMenten description of metabolism. Metabolic constants derived in vitro may be extrapolated to the intact liver, when appropriate conditions are met. Metabolic capacity Vmax; the maximal rate of the reaction) can be scaled directly to the concentration

  10. Human Powered Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  11. Kinship and Human Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergendorff, Steen

    This book offers a exiting new explanation of human evolution. Based on insight from Anthropology is shows that human became 'cultured' beings capable of symbolic thought by developing rasting kinship based between groups that could not other wise survive in the harah climate condition during...

  12. Modeling human color categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Th.E.; Kisters, P.M.F.

    A unique color space segmentation method is introduced. It is founded on features of human cognition, where 11 color categories are used in processing color. In two experiments, human subjects were asked to categorize color stimuli into these 11 color categories, which resulted in markers for a

  13. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  14. Global Journal of Humanities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Humanities is aimed at promoting reasearch in all areas of Humanities including philosophy, languages, linguistics, literature, history, fine/applied arts, theater arts, architecture, etc. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: http://www.globaljournalseries.com/ ...

  15. Evaluating the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Howard

    2013-01-01

    How can one measure the value of teaching the humanities? The problem of assessment and accountability is prominent today, of course, in secondary and higher education. It is perhaps even more acute for those who teach the humanities in nontraditional settings, such as medical and other professional schools. The public assumes that academes can…

  16. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  17. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  18. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  19. Biodemography of human ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaupel, James W

    2010-01-01

    Human senescence has been delayed by a decade. This finding, documented in 1994 and bolstered since, is a fundamental discovery about the biology of human ageing, and one with profound implications for individuals, society and the economy. Remarkably, the rate of deterioration with age seems...

  20. Human Intestinal Spirochaetosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, L.J.

    2013-01-01

    Human intestinal spirochaetosis is a condition of the colon that is characterized by the presence of spirochaetes attached to the mucosal cells of the colon. These spirochaetes belong to the family Brachyspiraceae and two species are known to occur in humans: Brachyspira aalborgi and Brachyspira

  1. Human migraine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2001-01-01

    , which is a human experience. A set-up for investigations of experimental headache and migraine in humans, has been evaluated and headache mechanisms explored by using nitroglycerin and other headache-inducing agents. Nitric oxide (NO) or other parts of the NO activated cascade seems to be responsible...

  2. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  3. Introduction to human factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems

  4. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  5. Humane Education Projects Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior League of Ogden, UT.

    This handbook was developed to promote interest in humane education and to encourage the adoption of humane education projects. Although specifically designed to assist Junior Leagues in developing such projects, the content should prove valuable to animal welfare organizations, zoos, aquariums, nature centers, and other project-oriented groups…

  6. Human Mind Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Tom

    2016-01-01

    When students generate mind maps, or concept maps, the maps are usually on paper, computer screens, or a blackboard. Human Mind Maps require few resources and little preparation. The main requirements are space where students can move around and a little creativity and imagination. Mind maps can be used for a variety of purposes, and Human Mind…

  7. Urbanization and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mihr, A.

    Urban governance on the basis of human rights can help to set up problem solving mechanisms to guarantee social peace, economic growth and political participation.If states both integrate more in international or regional human rights regime and give more autonomy to urban governments and local

  8. The Human Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

     Bent Fausing  "The Humane Technology", abstract (for The Two Cultures: Balancing Choices and Effects Oxford University July 20-26, 2008). The paper will investigate the use of technology in everyday aesthetics such as TV-commercials for mobile phones for Nokia, which slogan is, as it is well known......, "Nokia - connecting people". Which function does this technology get in narratives, images, interactions and affects here?      The mobile phone and its digital camera are depicted as being able to make a unique human presence and interaction. The medium, the technology is a necessary helper to get...... towards this very special and lost humanity. Without the technology, no special humanity is the prophecy. This personification or anthropomorphism is important for the branding of new technology. The technology is seen as creating a technotranscendens towards a more qualified humanity, which is in contact...

  9. Human gliomas contain morphine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Peter; Rasmussen, Mads; Zhu, Wei

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogeno...... of the solutions used in the study nor was it present as a residual material in blank HPLC runs. CONCLUSIONS: Morphine is present in human gliomas, suggesting that it may exert an action that effects tumour physiology/pathology.......BACKGROUND: Morphine has been found in cancer cell lines originating from human and animal cells. Thus, it became important to demonstrate whether or not actual tumours contain this opiate alkaloid. MATERIAL/METHODS: Human glioma tissues were biochemically treated to isolate and separate endogenous...

  10. The human cell atlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regev, Aviv; Teichmann, Sarah A.; Lander, Eric S.

    2017-01-01

    The recent advent of methods for high-throughput single-cell molecular profiling has catalyzed a growing sense in the scientific community that the time is ripe to complete the 150-year-old effort to identify all cell types in the human body. The Human Cell Atlas Project is an international...... collaborative effort that aims to define all human cell types in terms of distinctive molecular profiles (such as gene expression profiles) and to connect this information with classical cellular descriptions (such as location and morphology). An open comprehensive reference map of the molecular state of cells...... in healthy human tissues would propel the systematic study of physiological states, developmental trajectories, regulatory circuitry and interactions of cells, and also provide a framework for understanding cellular dysregulation in human disease. Here we describe the idea, its potential utility, early...

  11. UN human rights council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Mlrjana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the structure, mechanisms, practices and perspectives of the Human Rights Council, the UN body that, at universal level is the most important body in this area. Introductory section provides for a brief overview of the origins of human rights and the work of the Commission on Human Rights, in whose jurisdiction were questions of human rights before the establishment of the Council. After the introductory section the author gives an analysis of the structure, objectives, mandate and main procedures for the protection of human rights within the united Nations. In the final section the authorpoints out the advantages of this authority and criticism addressed to it, with emphasis on the possibility and the need for its reform.

  12. Waste - the human factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaren, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Waste is a human concept, referring to things that have no use to human beings and arising entirely from human activities. It is the useless residue of any human process that affects the economy or environment. The changes brought about by the industrial revolution are enormous; fossil fuels, not just photosynthesis, now provide energy and wastes at rates far exceeding the capacity of the ecosystem to absorb or recycle. Three major problems face the Planet: accelerated population growth, accelerated use of resources for energy and industry, and the disproportionate use of resources and waste between the northern and southern parts of the Planet. Knowledge and science are in a position to provide both human creativity and the directed technology to take remedial action and rediscover harmony between nature and mankind. Only social and political will is lacking

  13. Managing human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strucic, M.; Kavsek, D.

    2004-01-01

    Human performance remains a significant factor for management attention not only from a reactor safety perspective, but also from a financial one. Recent significant events analysis shows that human errors are still dominant causes and contributors to them. An analysis of significant events in nuclear industry occurred through 15-years period revealed that three of four significant events were triggered by human error, although the number of events have dropped by more than a factor of four. A number of human performance breakdowns occurred in the application of errorprevention techniques. These included a lack of pre-job briefs, inadequate turnover of tasks, ineffective use of peer checking, inadequate procedure adherence, and failure to apply a questioning attitude when unexpected changes were encountered in the task. Attempts by the industry to improve human performance have traditionally focused at the worker level. However, human error occurs within the context of the organization, which can either foster or resist human error. The greatest room for improvement lies not only in the continued improvement of front-line worker performance but more so in the identification and elimination of weaknesses in the organizational and managerial domains that contributes to worker performance at the job site. Based on mentioned analysis, other industrial sources and own operating experience, NPP Krsko is paying more attention to improve human performance among own as well as contractor workers. Through series of programs and activities, such as Reactivity Management Program, Safety Culture Program, Self-assessment Program, Corrective Action Program, Plant Performance Monitoring Program, developed in last few years, and through new procedures, written guides and publications, training and management efforts, number of human errors is going to be reduced. Involvement of higher levels of NPP Krsko organization in promotion and use of Human Performance techniques is

  14. Digital Human Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dischinger, H. Charles, Jr.

    2017-01-01

    The development of models to represent human characteristics and behaviors in human factors is broad and general. The term "model" can refer to any metaphor to represent any aspect of the human; it is generally used in research to mean a mathematical tool for the simulation (often in software, which makes the simulation digital) of some aspect of human performance and for the prediction of future outcomes. This section is restricted to the application of human models in physical design, e.g., in human factors engineering. This design effort is typically human interface design, and the digital models used are anthropometric. That is, they are visual models that are the physical shape of humans and that have the capabilities and constraints of humans of a selected population. They are distinct from the avatars used in the entertainment industry (movies, video games, and the like) in precisely that regard: as models, they are created through the application of data on humans, and they are used to predict human response; body stresses workspaces. DHM enable iterative evaluation of a large number of concepts and support rapid analysis, as compared with use of physical mockups. They can be used to evaluate feasibility of escape of a suited astronaut from a damaged vehicle, before launch or after an abort (England, et al., 2012). Throughout most of human spaceflight, little attention has been paid to worksite design for ground workers. As a result of repeated damage to the Space Shuttle which adversely affected flight safety, DHM analyses of ground assembly and maintenance have been developed over the last five years for the design of new flight systems (Stambolian, 2012, Dischinger and Dunn Jackson, 2014). The intent of these analyses is to assure the design supports the work of the ground crew personnel and thereby protect the launch vehicle. They help the analyst address basic human factors engineering questions: can a worker reach the task site from the work platform

  15. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Human factors information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, P.C.; DiPalo, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear power plant safety is dependent upon human performance related to plant operations. To provide improvements in human performance, data collection and assessment play key roles. This paper reports on the Human factors Information System (HFIS) which is designed to meet the needs of the human factors specialists of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These specialists identify personnel errors and provide guidance designed to prevent such errors. HFIS is a simple and modular system designed for use on a personal computer. It is designed to contain four separate modules that provide information indicative of program or function effectiveness as well as safety-related human performance based on programmatic and performance data. These modules include the Human Factors Status module; the Regulatory Programs module; the Licensee Event Report module; and the Operator Requalification Performance module. Information form these modules can either be used separately or can be combined due to the integrated nature of the system. HFIS has the capability, therefore, to provide insights into those areas of human factors that can reduce the probability of events caused by personnel error at nuclear power plants and promote the health and safety of the public. This information system concept can be applied to other industries as well as the nuclear industry

  17. Genetics of human hydrocephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael A.; Rigamonti, Daniele

    2006-01-01

    Human hydrocephalus is a common medical condition that is characterized by abnormalities in the flow or resorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), resulting in ventricular dilatation. Human hydrocephalus can be classified into two clinical forms, congenital and acquired. Hydrocephalus is one of the complex and multifactorial neurological disorders. A growing body of evidence indicates that genetic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. An understanding of the genetic components and mechanism of this complex disorder may offer us significant insights into the molecular etiology of impaired brain development and an accumulation of the cerebrospinal fluid in cerebral compartments during the pathogenesis of hydrocephalus. Genetic studies in animal models have started to open the way for understanding the underlying pathology of hydrocephalus. At least 43 mutants/loci linked to hereditary hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models and humans. Up to date, 9 genes associated with hydrocephalus have been identified in animal models. In contrast, only one such gene has been identified in humans. Most of known hydrocephalus gene products are the important cytokines, growth factors or related molecules in the cellular signal pathways during early brain development. The current molecular genetic evidence from animal models indicate that in the early development stage, impaired and abnormal brain development caused by abnormal cellular signaling and functioning, all these cellular and developmental events would eventually lead to the congenital hydrocephalus. Owing to our very primitive knowledge of the genetics and molecular pathogenesis of human hydrocephalus, it is difficult to evaluate whether data gained from animal models can be extrapolated to humans. Initiation of a large population genetics study in humans will certainly provide invaluable information about the molecular and cellular etiology and the developmental mechanisms of human

  18. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  19. Human dignity and bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By opening the field of bioethics followed a new wave of intense debate on the theological, philosophical and legal significance of the concept of human dignity . Exactly ten years ago (December 2003 American bioethicist Ruth Maclin has proposed to divest ourselves of the concept of human dignity because it is vague, useless and redundant and that, without any loss, we can replace it by the ethical principle of personal autonomy. Her article was followed by harsh reactions and opposite views. What is this term in so broad, almost inflationary and opposite use is not a reason to deprive him, but, on the contrary, it shows how important it is and that it should be determined at least outline. As universal values and general concept, the human dignity has no pre-defined and narrow, precise meaning. It is more an evaluation horizon, the guiding principle and regulatory ideas that must constantly define and codify by many guaranted human rights and fundamental freedoms. As generic notion of each reasonable law, it is their foundation and a common denominator, legitimising basis of natural but also of positive law. As intrinsic and static value which means the humaneness, the humanity it is absolute, inherent to every human being without distinction and conditioning, as a unique and unrepeatable creation. In this meaning, the dignity is the obligation and limitation of the state, society and each of us. As an ethical and dynamic category, it is not given to us, but it is assign to us, and it is not in us, but always before us, as a guide of our actions in accordance with virtues, to treat ourselves, each other and the nature in a human way. The century in which we live is named the century of molecular biology and genetic engineering because of the enormous potential but also risks to human dignity. Because of that human dignity has become a central principle in all international documents relating to the human genome, genetics and bioethics, adopted

  20. Human Genome Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, S. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Cornwall, J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dally, W. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Dyson, F. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Fortson, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Joyce, G. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Kimble, H. J. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Lewis, N. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Max, C. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Prince, T. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Schwitters, R. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Weinberger, P. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office; Woodin, W. H. [The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA (US). JASON Program Office

    1998-01-04

    The study reviews Department of Energy supported aspects of the United States Human Genome Project, the joint National Institutes of Health/Department of Energy program to characterize all human genetic material, to discover the set of human genes, and to render them accessible for further biological study. The study concentrates on issues of technology, quality assurance/control, and informatics relevant to current effort on the genome project and needs beyond it. Recommendations are presented on areas of the genome program that are of particular interest to and supported by the Department of Energy.

  1. Aluminium in human sweat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshall, Clare; Nadal, Jodie; Exley, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is of burgeoning importance that the human body burden of aluminium is understood and is measured. There are surprisingly few data to describe human excretion of systemic aluminium and almost no reliable data which relate to aluminium in sweat. We have measured the aluminium content of sweat in 20 healthy volunteers following mild exercise. The concentration of aluminium ranged from 329 to 5329μg/L. These data equate to a daily excretion of between 234 and 7192μg aluminium and they strongly suggest that perspiration is the major route of excretion of systemic aluminium in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Human exposure to aluminium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    Human activities have circumvented the efficient geochemical cycling of aluminium within the lithosphere and therewith opened a door, which was previously only ajar, onto the biotic cycle to instigate and promote the accumulation of aluminium in biota and especially humans. Neither these relatively recent activities nor the entry of aluminium into the living cycle are showing any signs of abating and it is thus now imperative that we understand as fully as possible how humans are exposed to aluminium and the future consequences of a burgeoning exposure and body burden. The aluminium age is upon us and there is now an urgent need to understand how to live safely and effectively with aluminium.

  3. Avian and human metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broor, Shobha; Bharaj, Preeti

    2007-04-01

    Pneumovirus infection remains a significant problem for both human and veterinary medicine. Both avian pneumovirus (aMPV, Turkey rhinotracheitis virus) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are pathogens of birds and humans, which are associated with respiratory tract infections. Based on their different genomic organization and low level of nucleotide (nt) and amino acid (aa) identity with paramyxoviruses in the genus Pneumovirus, aMPV and hMPV have been classified into a new genus referred to as Metapneumovirus. The advancement of our understanding of pneumovirus biology and pathogenesis of pneumovirus disease in specific natural hosts can provide us with strategies for vaccine formulations and combined antiviral and immunomodulatory therapies.

  4. Refractoriness in human atria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsbye, Lasse; Jespersen, Thomas; Christ, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Refractoriness of cardiac cells limits maximum frequency of electrical activity and protects the heart from tonic contractions. Short refractory periods support major arrhythmogenic substrates and augmentation of refractoriness is therefore seen as a main mechanism of antiarrhythmic...... drugs. Cardiomyocyte excitability depends on availability of sodium channels, which involves both time- and voltage-dependent recovery from inactivation. This study therefore aims to characterise how sodium channel inactivation affects refractoriness in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS: Steady......-state activation and inactivation parameters of sodium channels measured in vitro in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes were used to parameterise a mathematical human atrial cell model. Action potential data were acquired from human atrial trabeculae of patients in either sinus rhythm or chronic atrial...

  5. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  6. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors for developing them, such as taking oral contraceptives . A safety review of Gardasil in Denmark and ... and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark ...

  7. Human-Machine Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farbrot, J.E.; Nihlwing, Ch.; Svengren, H.

    2005-01-01

    New requirements for enhanced safety and design changes in process systems often leads to a step-wise installation of new information and control equipment in the control room of older nuclear power plants, where nowadays modern digital I and C solutions with screen-based human-machine interfaces (HMI) most often are introduced. Human factors (HF) expertise is then required to assist in specifying a unified, integrated HMI, where the entire integration of information is addressed to ensure an optimal and effective interplay between human (operators) and machine (process). Following a controlled design process is the best insurance for ending up with good solutions. This paper addresses the approach taken when introducing modern human-machine communication in the Oskarshamn 1 NPP, the results, and the lessons learned from this work with high operator involvement seen from an HF point of view. Examples of possibilities modern technology might offer for the operators are also addressed. (orig.)

  8. Human Bond Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    Modern dexterous communication technology is progressively enabling humans to communicate their information through them with speech (aural) and media (optical) as underpinning essence. Humans realize this kind of aural and optical information by their optical and auditory senses. However, due...... to certain constraints, the ability to incorporate the other three sensory features namely, olfactory, gustatory, and tactile are still far from reality. Human bond communication is a novel concept that incorporates olfactory, gustatory, and tactile that will allow more expressive and holistic sensory...... information exchange through communication techniques for more human sentiment centric communication. This concept endorses the need of inclusion of other three senses and proposes an innovative approach of holistic communication for future communication network....

  9. OAS :: Accountability :: Human Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    OAS, including its organizational structure, each organizational unit's staffing, vacant posts, and a list of procurement notices for formal bids, links to the performance contract and travel control Plan Human Resources Organizational Structure Functions of each organizational unit Vacant Posts

  10. Spaceflight Versus Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    Spaceflight is challenging. Human spaceflight is far more challenging,.Those familiar with spaceflight recognize that human spaceflight is more than tacking an environmental control system on an existing spacecraft, that there are a number of serious technical challenges involved in sending people out into space and bringing them back home safely.The return trip, bringing the crew back to the surface of the earth safely, is more than just an additional task, it's the new imperative. Differences between manned and unmanned spaceflight are more than technical. The human element forces a change in philosophy, a mindset that will likely touch every aspect of flight from launch through mission and return. Seasoned space professionals used to the paradigms and priorities of unmanned flight need to be cognizant of these differences and some of the implications, perhaps most especially because mission success and human safety priorities are sometimes contradictory.

  11. Calvin and human dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Vorster

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Human dignity has become a major moral directive in the contemporary ethical reflection on human rights and bio-ethics. This article examines the theological foundations laid by the reformer Calvin regarding the inherent dignity of people, and his influence on post-World War ethical reflection about the violations of human rights. In this article his views on the “imago dei” and common grace, the “lex naturae” and the obligations of the civil authority are investigated in order to illuminate his ideas about the dignity of human beings. The article then deals with the influence of these ideas in the influential works of the twentieth century’s reformed theologians Barth, Berkhouwer and Moltmann.

  12. Designing Human Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper

    and the design process, in ethical and society-related concerns, and in evaluating how designs fulfill needs and solve problems. Designing Human Technologies subscribes to a broad technology concept including information and communication, mobile, environmental/sustainable and energy technologies......Design is increasingly becoming a part of the university curriculum and research agenda. The keynote present and discuss Designing Human Technologies – an initiative aiming at establishing a design oriented main subject area alongside traditional main subject areas such as Natural Science......, the Humanities, and Social Science. The initiative broadens the perspective of IS and recognize reflections on aesthetics, ethics, values, connections to politics, and strategies for enabling a better future as legitimate parts of the research agenda. Designing Human Technologies is a design-oriented Strategic...

  13. Visible Human Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cryosections are associated with anatomical terminology. AnatLine : A prototype system consisting of an anatomical image database and ... further information is available Publications VHJOE: Visible Human Journal of Endoscopy. NLM's Current Bibliographies in Medicine, Visible ...

  14. BIOETHICS AND HUMAN CLONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors analyze the process of negotiating and beginning of the United Nations Declaration on Human Cloning as well as the paragraphs of the very Declaration. The negotiation was originally conceived as a clear bioethical debate that should have led to a general agreement to ban human cloning. However, more often it had been discussed about human rights, cultural, civil and religious differences between people and about priorities in case of eventual conflicts between different value systems. In the end, a non-binding Declaration on Human Cloning had been adopted, full of numerous compromises and ambiguous formulations, that relativized the original intention of proposer states. According to authors, it would have been better if bioethical discussion and eventual regulations on cloning mentioned in the following text had been left over to certain professional bodies, and only after the public had been fully informed about it should relevant supranational organizations have taken that into consideration.

  15. Human Research Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Strategically, the HRP conducts research and technology development that: 1) enables the development or modification of Agency-level human health and performance...

  16. Bridging Humanism and Behaviorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Humanistic behaviorism may provide the necessary bridge between behaviorism and humanism. Perhaps the most humanistic approach to teaching is to learn how certain changes will help students and how these changes can be accomplished. (Author/MLF)

  17. Humanism vs. Behaviorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Madeline

    1977-01-01

    Author argues that humanism and behaviorism are not necessarily exclusive of one another, and that principles of behaviorism, when thoughtfully applied, can lead to the achievement of humanistic goals. (RW)

  18. Human factors in aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Eduardo; Maurino, Daniel E

    2010-01-01

    .... HFA offers a comprehensive overview of the topic, taking readers from the general to the specific, first covering broad issues, then the more specific topics of pilot performance, human factors...

  19. Human Capital Tracking Tool -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — AVS is now required to collect, track, and report on data from the following Flight, Business and Workforce Plan. The Human Resource Management’s Performance Target...

  20. Human Factors Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The purpose of the Human Factors Laboratory is to further the understanding of highway user needs so that those needs can be incorporated in roadway design,...

  1. Evaluating human genetic diversity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ... into human evolution and origins and serving as a springboard for important medical research. It also addresses issues of confidentiality and individual privacy for participants in genetic diversity research studies.

  2. Biotechnology and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet-Le Mintier, B

    2001-12-01

    Biotechnology permits our world to progress. It's a tool to better apprehend the human being, but as well to let him go ahead. Applied to the living, biotechnologies present the same finality. But since their matter concerns effectively the living, they are the sources of specific dangers and particularly of that one to use the improvements obtained on the human to modify the human species. The right of the persons has to find its place to avoid that the fundamental rights of the human personality shall undergo harm. This mission assigned to the right of the persons is as so much invaluable that the economical stakes are particularly important in the domain of the biotechnologies.

  3. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  4. Human Assisted Assembly Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALTON,TERRI L.; PETERS,RALPH R.

    2000-01-01

    Automatic assembly sequencing and visualization tools are valuable in determining the best assembly sequences, but without Human Factors and Figure Models (HFFMs) it is difficult to evaluate or visualize human interaction. In industry, accelerating technological advances and shorter market windows have forced companies to turn to an agile manufacturing paradigm. This trend has promoted computerized automation of product design and manufacturing processes, such as automated assembly planning. However, all automated assembly planning software tools assume that the individual components fly into their assembled configuration and generate what appear to be a perfectly valid operations, but in reality the operations cannot physically be carried out by a human. Similarly, human figure modeling algorithms may indicate that assembly operations are not feasible and consequently force design modifications; however, if they had the capability to quickly generate alternative assembly sequences, they might have identified a feasible solution. To solve this problem HFFMs must be integrated with automated assembly planning to allow engineers to verify that assembly operations are possible and to see ways to make the designs even better. Factories will very likely put humans and robots together in cooperative environments to meet the demands for customized products, for purposes including robotic and automated assembly. For robots to work harmoniously within an integrated environment with humans the robots must have cooperative operational skills. For example, in a human only environment, humans may tolerate collisions with one another if they did not cause much pain. This level of tolerance may or may not apply to robot-human environments. Humans expect that robots will be able to operate and navigate in their environments without collisions or interference. The ability to accomplish this is linked to the sensing capabilities available. Current work in the field of cooperative

  5. Pushing Human Frontiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert

    2005-01-01

    With human colonization of Mars, I think you will see a higher standard of civilization, just as America set a higher standard of civilization which then promulgated back into Europe. I think that if you want to maximize human potential, you need a higher standard of civilization, and that becomes an example that benefits everyone. Without an open frontier, closed world ideologies, such as the Malthus Theory, tend to come to the forefront. It is that there are limited resources; therefore, we are all in deadly competition with each other for the limited pot. The result is tyrannical and potentially genocidal regimes, and we've already seen this in the twentieth century. There s no truth in the Malthus Theory, because human beings are the creators of their resources. With every mouth comes a pair of hands and a brain. But if it seems to be true, you have a vector in this direction, and it is extremely unfortunate. It is only in a universe of infinite resources that all humans can be brothers and sisters. The fundamental question which affects humanity s sense of itself is whether the world is changeable or fixed. Are we the makers of our world or just its inhabitants? Some people have a view that they re living at the end of history within a world that s already defined, and there is no fundamental purpose to human life because there is nothing humans can do that matters. On the other hand, if humans understand their own role as the creators of their world, that s a much more healthy point of view. It raises the dignity of humans. Indeed, if we do establish a new branch of human civilization on Mars that grows in time and potency to the point where it cannot really settle Mars, but transforms Mars, and brings life to Mars, we will prove to everyone and for all time the precious and positive nature of the human species and every member of it.

  6. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... in several areas of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicates the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational business governance suggests that this form...

  7. Quality and human society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  8. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Germline Genome Editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormond, Kelly E; Mortlock, Douglas P; Scholes, Derek T; Bombard, Yvonne; Brody, Lawrence C; Faucett, W Andrew; Garrison, Nanibaa' A; Hercher, Laura; Isasi, Rosario; Middleton, Anna; Musunuru, Kiran; Shriner, Daniel; Virani, Alice; Young, Caroline E

    2017-08-03

    With CRISPR/Cas9 and other genome-editing technologies, successful somatic and germline genome editing are becoming feasible. To respond, an American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG) workgroup developed this position statement, which was approved by the ASHG Board in March 2017. The workgroup included representatives from the UK Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors, Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors, International Genetic Epidemiology Society, and US National Society of Genetic Counselors. These groups, as well as the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, Asia Pacific Society of Human Genetics, British Society for Genetic Medicine, Human Genetics Society of Australasia, Professional Society of Genetic Counselors in Asia, and Southern African Society for Human Genetics, endorsed the final statement. The statement includes the following positions. (1) At this time, given the nature and number of unanswered scientific, ethical, and policy questions, it is inappropriate to perform germline gene editing that culminates in human pregnancy. (2) Currently, there is no reason to prohibit in vitro germline genome editing on human embryos and gametes, with appropriate oversight and consent from donors, to facilitate research on the possible future clinical applications of gene editing. There should be no prohibition on making public funds available to support this research. (3) Future clinical application of human germline genome editing should not proceed unless, at a minimum, there is (a) a compelling medical rationale, (b) an evidence base that supports its clinical use, (c) an ethical justification, and (d) a transparent public process to solicit and incorporate stakeholder input. Copyright © 2017 American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.

  10. Cytokines in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the past 30 years to investigate the protective functions of human milk strongly support the notion that breastfeeding prevents infantile infections, particularly those affecting the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. However, more recent clinical and experimental observations also suggest that human milk not only provides passive protection, but also can directly modulate the immunological development of the recipient infant. The study of this remarkable defense system in human milk has been difficult because of its biochemical complexity, the small concentration of certain bioactive components, the compartmentalization of some of these agents, the dynamic quantitative and qualitative changes of milk during lactation, and the lack of specific reagents to quantify these agents. However, a host of bioactive substances, including hormones, growth factors, and immunological factors such as cytokines, have been identified in human milk. Cytokines are pluripotent polypeptides that act in autocrine/paracrine fashions by binding to specific cellular receptors. They operate in networks and orchestrate the development and functions of immune system. Several different cytokines and chemokines have been discovered in human milk in the past years, and the list is growing very rapidly. This article will review the current knowledge about the increasingly complex network of chemoattractants, activators, and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in human milk and their potential role in compensating for the developmental delay of the neonate immune system. Copyright 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  11. Human Performance Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardwick, R.J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Operating nuclear power plants requires high standards of performance, extensive training and responsive management. Despite our best efforts inappropriate human actions do occur, but they can be managed. An extensive review of License Event Reports (LERs) was conducted which indicated continual inadequacy in human performance and in evaluation of root causes. Of some 31,000 LERs, about 5,000 or 16% were directly attributable to inappropriate actions. A recent analysis of 87 Significant Event Reports (issued by INPO in 1983) identified inappropriate actions as being the most frequent root cause (44% of the total). A more recent analysis of SERs issued in 1983 and 1984 indicate that 52% of the root causes were attributed to human performance. The Human Performance Evaluation System (HPES) is a comprehensive, coordinated utility/industry system for evaluating and reporting human performance situtations. HPES is a result of the realization that current reporting system provide limited treatment of human performance and rarely provide adequate information about root causes of inappropriate actions by individuals. The HPES was implemented to identify and eliminate root causes of inappropriate actions

  12. Human Factors Review Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management

  13. Human Factors Review Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R. (eds.)

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  14. A WORLD BEYOND HUMAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Abram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available From an initial project to investigate the relationship between magic and traditional medicine as practiced by shamans in Southern rural Asia, the focus of attention gradually shifted to an awareness of the negotiation traditional medicine people or shamans exert between the human community and the larger community of beings. This attentiveness to a more-than-human world does not occur at a supernatural domain above nature or inside her personal self but is the result of the shaman’s special ability to project her consciousness horizontally to other forms of sensibility with which human existence is interwoven. The ecological function of the shaman is to maintain a constant balance between what is taken and what is given from the human community to the larger community. The spirits of indigenous cultures are not defined in opposition to materiality but are essentially those modes of intelligence or awareness that do not possess a human form. By exploring different landscapes, and the sensibility living in them, a new sensitivity is awoken that allows for communication with those intelligences. However, the drowning of these other voices in Western culture, which reduces otherness to an object, creates an uneasiness that is hardly perceived except as an inability to interact with anything more-than-human and its dire consequences in the form of “civilization’s” destructive behavior.

  15. Deuteronomy and Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Braulik

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available If one compares the articles of the "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" dated December 10th, 1948, with the regulations of the book of Deuteronomy, one detects a surprising abundance of correspondences, or at least of similar tendencies, between them. As the social theorists of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the architects of the catalogue of Human Rights, knew the Scripture very well. References to Deuteronomy are historically well probable and factually hardly coincidental. Deuteronomy rightly boasts about its social laws (4:8 that are unique in the Ancient Near East. The paper orientates itself to the short formula of Human Rights and at the same time to the normative basic character of each human right, as it is formulated in the first article of the declaration: "liberty", "equality", "fraternity". Each of these basic categories are concretised in terms of several Deuteronomic regulations and prove themselves to be central matters of concern within the YHWH religion. Finally, it is outlined how the connection between Deuteronomy and modem expressions of human rights might be explained, and further it is shown what actually makes up the peculiarity of biblical thinking on human rights.

  16. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  17. Human bites - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bites - human - self-care ... Human bites can occur in 2 ways: If someone bites you If your hand comes into contact ... bite to express anger or other negative feelings. Human bites may be more dangerous than animal bites. ...

  18. Tabhu: tools for antibody humanization.

    KAUST Repository

    Olimpieri, Pier Paolo; Marcatili, Paolo; Tramontano, Anna

    2014-01-01

    for antibody humanization. Tabhu includes tools for human template selection, grafting, back-mutation evaluation, antibody modelling and structural analysis, helping the user in all the critical steps of the humanization experiment protocol. AVAILABILITY: http

  19. Human dignity, humiliation, and torture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luban, David

    2009-09-01

    Modern human rights instruments ground human rights in the concept of human dignity, without providing an underlying theory of human dignity. This paper examines the central importance of human dignity, understood as not humiliating people, in traditional Jewish ethics. It employs this conception of human dignity to examine and criticize U.S. use of humiliation tactics and torture in the interrogation of terrorism suspects.

  20. Towards a better understanding of human smuggling

    OpenAIRE

    Heckmann, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Contents: What is human smuggling?; How can we know about human smuggling?; Human smuggling as a migration phenomenon; Human smuggling as a business; The social organizing of human smuggling; Fighting against human smuggling.

  1. Why Geo-Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graells, Robert Casals i.; Sibilla, Anna; Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic global change is a composite process. It consists of societal processes (in the 'noosphere') and natural processes (in the 'bio-geosphere'). The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political insights ('shared subjective mental concepts') of people. Understanding the composite of societal and natural processes ('human geo-biosphere intersections'), which shapes the features of anthropogenic global change, would benefit from a description that draws equally on natural sciences, social sciences and humanities. To that end it is suggested to develop a concept of 'geo-humanities': This essay presents some aspects of its scope, discussing "knowledge that is to manage", "intentions that are to shape", "choices that are to justify" and "complexity that is to handle". Managing knowledge: That people understand anthropogenic global change requires their insights into how 'human geosphere intersections' function. Insights are formed ('processed') in the noosphere by means of interactions between people. Understanding how 'human geosphere intersections' functions combines scientific, engineering and economic studies with studies of the dynamics of the noosphere. Shaping intentions: During the last century anthropogenic global change developed as the collateral outcome of humankind's accumulated actions. It is caused by the number of people, the patterns of their consumption of resources, and the alterations of their environments. Nowadays, anthropogenic global chance is either an intentional negligence or a conscious act. Justifying choices: Humanity has alternatives how to alter Earth at planetary scale consciously. For example, there is a choice to alter the geo-biosphere or to adjust the noosphere. Whatever the choice, it will depend on people's world-views, cultures and preferences. Thus beyond issues whether science and technology are 'sound' overarching societal issues are to tackle, such as: (i) how to appropriate and distribute natural

  2. The Human Serum Metabolome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psychogios, Nikolaos; Hau, David D.; Peng, Jun; Guo, An Chi; Mandal, Rupasri; Bouatra, Souhaila; Sinelnikov, Igor; Krishnamurthy, Ramanarayan; Eisner, Roman; Gautam, Bijaya; Young, Nelson; Xia, Jianguo; Knox, Craig; Dong, Edison; Huang, Paul; Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Pedersen, Theresa L.; Smith, Steven R.; Bamforth, Fiona; Greiner, Russ; McManus, Bruce; Newman, John W.; Goodfriend, Theodore; Wishart, David S.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and blood. As part of an ongoing effort to systematically characterize the human metabolome through the Human Metabolome Project, we have undertaken the task of characterizing the human serum metabolome. In doing so, we have combined targeted and non-targeted NMR, GC-MS and LC-MS methods with computer-aided literature mining to identify and quantify a comprehensive, if not absolutely complete, set of metabolites commonly detected and quantified (with today's technology) in the human serum metabolome. Our use of multiple metabolomics platforms and technologies allowed us to substantially enhance the level of metabolome coverage while critically assessing the relative strengths and weaknesses of these platforms or technologies. Tables containing the complete set of 4229 confirmed and highly probable human serum compounds, their concentrations, related literature references and links to their known disease associations are freely available at http://www.serummetabolome.ca. PMID:21359215

  3. Human Performance Event Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trager, E. A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe several aspects of a Human Performance Event Database (HPED) that is being developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. These include the background, the database structure and basis for the structure, the process for coding and entering event records, the results of preliminary analyses of information in the database, and plans for the future. In 1992, the Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) within the NRC decided to develop a database for information on human performance during operating events. The database was needed to help classify and categorize the information to help feedback operating experience information to licensees and others. An NRC interoffice working group prepared a list of human performance information that should be reported for events and the list was based on the Human Performance Investigation Process (HPIP) that had been developed by the NRC as an aid in investigating events. The structure of the HPED was based on that list. The HPED currently includes data on events described in augmented inspection team (AIT) and incident investigation team (IIT) reports from 1990 through 1996, AEOD human performance studies from 1990 through 1993, recent NRR special team inspections, and licensee event reports (LERs) that were prepared for the events. (author)

  4. Humanity and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available So far our open access publishing company MDPI (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute has published mainly science, medicine and technology journals. To become a multidisciplinary publisher, we launched the journal Sustainability [1]. More recently, we started to run several social science journals, including Societies [2], Religions [3], Administrative Sciences [4] and Behavioral Sciences [5]. Today we published the first paper [6] of the inaugural issue of Humanities (ISSN 2076-0787. This will be an international open access journal, publishing scholarly papers of high quality across all humanities disciplines. As a publisher, I would like to publish journals surrounding the topics of sustainability and I believe the humanities as a discipline of academic studies are very important. As a scientist, I believed science and technology will only benefit human beings. I was raised in a small village, living a very primitive life in a peasant family: no electricity, no machines, of course no TV and no refrigerator. Now, the life of my children is completely different. Even my own life has completely changed. I have witnessed very rapid changes: more and more machines are used to consume mineral resources and energy and to pollute the environment, in order to produce more and more powerful machines (we are also launching a journal titled Machines, in which the relationship between Man and machine should be an interesting topic.. Machines are more and more like human individuals consuming resources themselves (we are launching a journal titled Resources. [...

  5. Healthy human gut phageome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T; van der Oost, John; de Vos, Willem M; Young, Mark J

    2016-09-13

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of humans, we analyzed a deep DNA sequence dataset of active bacteriophages and available metagenomic datasets of the gut bacteriophage community from healthy individuals. We found 23 shared bacteriophages in more than one-half of 64 healthy individuals from around the world. These shared bacteriophages were found in a significantly smaller percentage of individuals with gastrointestinal/irritable bowel disease. A network analysis identified 44 bacteriophage groups of which 9 (20%) were shared in more than one-half of all 64 individuals. These results provide strong evidence of a healthy gut phageome (HGP) in humans. The bacteriophage community in the human gut is a mixture of three classes: a set of core bacteriophages shared among more than one-half of all people, a common set of bacteriophages found in 20-50% of individuals, and a set of bacteriophages that are either rarely shared or unique to a person. We propose that the core and common bacteriophage communities are globally distributed and comprise the HGP, which plays an important role in maintaining gut microbiome structure/function and thereby contributes significantly to human health.

  6. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  7. Philosophical foundations of human rights

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    What makes something a human right? What is the relationship between the moral foundations of human rights and human rights law? What are the difficulties of appealing to human rights? This book offers the first comprehensive survey of current thinking on the philosophical foundations of human rights. Divided into four parts, this book focusses firstly on the moral grounds of human rights, for example in our dignity, agency, interests or needs. 'Secondly, it looks at the implications that different moral perspectives on human rights bear for human rights law and politics. Thirdly, it discusses specific and topical human rights including freedom of expression and religion, security, health and more controversial rights such as a human right to subsistence. The final part discusses nuanced critical and reformative views on human rights from feminist, Kantian and relativist perspectives among others. The essays represent new and canonical research by leading scholars in the field. Each part is comprised of a set...

  8. Movement coordination in applied human-human and human-robot interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubö, Anna; Vesper, Cordula; Wiesbeck, Mathey

    2007-01-01

    and describing human-human interaction in terms of goal-oriented movement coordination is considered an important and necessary step for designing and describing human-robot interaction. In the present scenario, trajectories of hand and finger movements were recorded while two human participants performed......The present paper describes a scenario for examining mechanisms of movement coordination in humans and robots. It is assumed that coordination can best be achieved when behavioral rules that shape movement execution in humans are also considered for human-robot interaction. Investigating...... coordination were affected. Implications for human-robot interaction are discussed....

  9. HUMAN MISSION OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Miovska Spaseva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the complex role and great responsibility of the education today in development of the moral strength and human values of the children and youth. At the beginning of the article the author reconsiders the pedagogical ideas of Maria Montessori and her concept of education for peace as an instrument for reconstruction of the society and for improvement of the human living. Than the analysis of the moral values in the contemporary society is made and several issues and dilemmas are discussed referring the value disorientation of the youth and the importance of the models of adult’s moral behavior in their search for personal identity. On the basis of this analysis, the human dimension of the education is elaborated enhancing the need for its understanding as support of development, which is based on several crucial elements: love, freedom and spirit of community.

  10. Seaweed and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Emma S; Allsopp, Philip J; Magee, Pamela J; Gill, Chris I R; Nitecki, Sonja; Strain, Conall R; McSorley, Emeir M

    2014-03-01

    Seaweeds may have an important role in modulating chronic disease. Rich in unique bioactive compounds not present in terrestrial food sources, including different proteins (lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, and amino acids), polyphenols, and polysaccharides, seaweeds are a novel source of compounds with potential to be exploited in human health applications. Purported benefits include antiviral, anticancer, and anticoagulant properties as well as the ability to modulate gut health and risk factors for obesity and diabetes. Though the majority of studies have been performed in cell and animal models, there is evidence of the beneficial effect of seaweed and seaweed components on markers of human health and disease status. This review is the first to critically evaluate these human studies, aiming to draw attention to gaps in current knowledge, which will aid the planning and implementation of future studies.

  11. Human Environmental Disease Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboureau, Olivier; Audouze, Karine

    2017-01-01

    During the past decades, many epidemiological, toxicological and biological studies have been performed to assess the role of environmental chemicals as potential toxicants for diverse human disorders. However, the relationships between diseases based on chemical exposure have been rarely studied...... by computational biology. We developed a human environmental disease network (EDN) to explore and suggest novel disease-disease and chemical-disease relationships. The presented scored EDN model is built upon the integration on systems biology and chemical toxicology using chemical contaminants information...... and their disease relationships from the reported TDDB database. The resulting human EDN takes into consideration the level of evidence of the toxicant-disease relationships allowing including some degrees of significance in the disease-disease associations. Such network can be used to identify uncharacterized...

  12. Human Systems Design Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of designing more humanised computer systems. This problem can be formally described as the need for defining human design criteria, which — if used in the design process - will secure that the systems designed get the relevant qualities. That is not only...... the necessary functional qualities but also the needed human qualities. The author's main argument is, that the design process should be a dialectical synthesis of the two points of view: Man as a System Component, and System as Man's Environment. Based on a man's presentation of the state of the art a set...... of design criteria is suggested and their relevance discussed. The point is to focus on the operator rather than on the computer. The crucial question is not to program the computer to work on its own conditions, but to “program” the operator to function on human conditions....

  13. Defining Human Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2017-01-01

    -matter definitions are vital legal tools to determine what is currently regulated in established fields of law and whether there is room for a new legal field – Enhancement Law. This paper provides a reflection on the relevance of establishing a legal definition of human enhancement and to what extent different...... legal fields and jurisdictions may warrant different understandings of such concept. It reviews a number of different and often divergent concepts and taxonomies of human enhancement and concludes with the proposal and analysis of a definition: Use of technological means with the intention to improve......Emerging technologies open the prospect of extraordinary interventions on the human body. These may go beyond what is strictly necessary to sustain health and well-being. While responding to social and ethical challenges of such advances, the Law simultaneously faces the challenge of reflecting...

  14. Human factors guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penington, J.

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  15. Human factors guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penington, J [PHF Services Inc., (Canada)

    1995-10-01

    This document presents human factors guides, which have been developed in order to provide licensees of the AECB with advice as to how to address human factors issues within the design and assessment process. This documents presents the results of a three part study undertaken to develop three guides which are enclosed in this document as Parts B, C and D. As part of the study human factors standards, guidelines, handbooks and other texts were researched, to define those which would be most useful to the users of the guides and for the production of the guides themselves. Detailed specifications were then produced to outline the proposed contents and format of the three guides. (author). 100 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  16. Human-Robot Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlis-Zumbado, Jennifer; Sandor, Aniko; Ezer, Neta

    2012-01-01

    Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI) is a new Human Research Program (HRP) risk. HRI is a research area that seeks to understand the complex relationship among variables that affect the way humans and robots work together to accomplish goals. The DRP addresses three major HRI study areas that will provide appropriate information for navigation guidance to a teleoperator of a robot system, and contribute to the closure of currently identified HRP gaps: (1) Overlays -- Use of overlays for teleoperation to augment the information available on the video feed (2) Camera views -- Type and arrangement of camera views for better task performance and awareness of surroundings (3) Command modalities -- Development of gesture and voice command vocabularies

  17. Bovine milk in human nutrition--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Anna; Høstmark, Arne T; Harstad, Odd M

    2007-09-25

    Milk and milk products are nutritious food items containing numerous essential nutrients, but in the western societies the consumption of milk has decreased partly due to claimed negative health effects. The content of oleic acid, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, short- and medium chain fatty acids, vitamins, minerals and bioactive compounds may promote positive health effects. Full-fat milk has been shown to increase the mean gastric emptying time compared to half-skimmed milk, thereby increasing the gastrointestinal transit time. Also the low pH in fermented milk may delay the gastric emptying. Hence, it may be suggested that ingesting full-fat milk or fermented milk might be favourable for glycaemic (and appetite?) regulation. For some persons milk proteins, fat and milk sugar may be of health concern. The interaction between carbohydrates (both natural milk sugar and added sugar) and protein in milk exposed to heat may give products, whose effects on health should be further studied, and the increasing use of sweetened milk products should be questioned. The concentration in milk of several nutrients can be manipulated through feeding regimes. There is no evidence that moderate intake of milk fat gives increased risk of diseases.

  18. The Role of Lipids in Human Milk and Infant Formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mazzocchi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The quantity and quality of dietary lipids in infant formulae have a significant impact on health outcomes, especially when fat storing and/or absorption are limited (e.g., preterm birth and short bowel disease or when fat byproducts may help to prevent some pathologies (e.g., atopy. The lipid composition of infant formulae varies according to the different fat sources used, and the potential biological effects are related to the variety of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. For example, since lipids are the main source of energy when the normal absorptive capacity of the digestive tract is compromised, medium-chain saturated fatty acids might cover this requirement. Instead, ruminant-derived trans fatty acids and metabolites of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids with their anti-inflammatory properties can modulate immune function. Furthermore, dietary fats may influence the nutrient profile of formulae, improving the acceptance of these products and the compliance with dietary schedules.

  19. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  20. Models of human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knee, H.E.; Schryver, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Models of human behavior and cognition (HB and C) are necessary for understanding the total response of complex systems. Many such models have come available over the past thirty years for various applications. Unfortunately, many potential model users remain skeptical about their practicality, acceptability, and usefulness. Such hesitancy stems in part to disbelief in the ability to model complex cognitive processes, and a belief that relevant human behavior can be adequately accounted for through the use of commonsense heuristics. This paper will highlight several models of HB and C and identify existing and potential applications in attempt to dispel such notions. (author)

  1. On human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Spijk, Piet

    2015-05-01

    If it is true that health is a priority objective of medicine, then medical practice can only be successful if the meaning of the term "health" is known. Various attempts have been made over the years to define health. This paper proposes a new definition. In addition to current health concepts, it also takes into account the distinction between specifically human (great) health and health as the absence of disease and illness-i.e. small health. The feeling of leading a life that makes sense plays a key role in determining specifically human great health.

  2. Human cryptosporidiosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuo, P O

    2009-02-01

    To provide an overview of risk factors, presentation and management of human cryptosporidium infection. Literature review was obtained through PubMed search. Published articles on the taxonomy of Cryptosporidium and the epidemiology, clinical presentation and management of cryptosporidiosis were reviewed. Abstracts and complete articles relevant to the objective were selected, read and analysed to extract information for this article. Human cryptosporidiosis is a severe diarrhoeal disease in malnourished children and immuno-compromised adults in whom it confers poor prognosis. Management is mainly supportive as drug therapy remains elusive. Fortunately the prevalence in AIDS patients is declining due to the widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

  3. When computers were human

    CERN Document Server

    Grier, David Alan

    2013-01-01

    Before Palm Pilots and iPods, PCs and laptops, the term ""computer"" referred to the people who did scientific calculations by hand. These workers were neither calculating geniuses nor idiot savants but knowledgeable people who, in other circumstances, might have become scientists in their own right. When Computers Were Human represents the first in-depth account of this little-known, 200-year epoch in the history of science and technology. Beginning with the story of his own grandmother, who was trained as a human computer, David Alan Grier provides a poignant introduction to the wider wo

  4. Human push capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ralph L; Liber, Theodore

    2006-02-22

    Use of unassisted human push capability arises from time to time in the areas of crowd and animal control, the security of locked doors, the integrity of railings, the removal of tree stumps and entrenched vehicles, the manoeuvering of furniture, and athletic pursuits such as US football or wrestling. Depending on the scenario, human push capability involves strength, weight, weight distribution, push angle, footwear/floor friction, and the friction between the upper body and the pushed object. Simple models are used to establish the relationships among these factors.

  5. Ayahuasca and human destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dennis J

    2005-06-01

    In this essay, the author shares his personal reflections gleaned from a lifetime of research with ayahuasca, and speculates on the societal, political, planetary, and evolutionary implications of humanity's aeons-old symbiosis with this shamanic plant. The thesis is developed that at this critical historical juncture, ayahuasca has developed a strategy to broadcast its message to a wider world--a reflection of the urgent need to avert global ecological catastrophe. While ayahuasca has much to teach us, the critical question is, will humanity hear it, and heed it, in time?

  6. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of Transnational Business Governance Interactions (TBGI) analytical framework (Eberlein et al. 2014). The article identifies and discusses...... that the UN Guiding Principles are unique in several respects of relevance to transnational business governance interaction and indicate the relevance of the TBGI approach to public regulatory transnational business governance initiatives. The analysis of the Guiding Principles as interactional transnational...... business governance suggests that this form of governance offers prospects for public institutions as a means towards regulating global sustainability concerns....

  7. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  8. Human Body Exergy Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Mady, Carlos Eduardo Keutenedjian

    2013-01-01

    The exergy analysis of the human body is a tool that can provide indicators of health and life quality. To perform the exergy balance it is necessary to calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis, or metabolic exergy, although there is not yet consensus in its calculation procedure. Hence, the aim of this work is to provide a general method to evaluate this physical quantity for human body based on indirect calorimetry data. To calculate the metabolism on an exergy basis it is necessary to d...

  9. Nature of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López Dawson

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of a new Constitution the constituents will require to know or reach an agreement on the nature of human rights; then, to determine how the State will enforce the respect to those rights. To do so, it is necessary to resort to the history and evolution of these rights, and the present work aims to contribute to an efficient productive debate about the nature of human rights, so that citizens can decide on the understanding that this is a thoughtful democratic and humanistic founded decision. The analysis is in the actual technical-ideological republican system which correspond to the current state of international law

  10. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  11. Business and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the United Nations (UN) Guidelines on Business and Human Rights adopted in 2011 by the UN Human Rights Council from the perspective of transnational business governance interactions (TBGI) analytical framework.1 The article identifies and discusses dimensions of interaction...... and components of regulatory governance which characterize the Guiding Principles, focusing in particular on rule formation and implementation. The article notes that the Guiding Principles actively enrolled other actors for the rule-making process, ensuring support in a politically and legally volatile field...

  12. Handbook of human computation

    CERN Document Server

    Michelucci, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    This volume addresses the emerging area of human computation, The chapters, written by leading international researchers, explore existing and future opportunities to combine the respective strengths of both humans and machines in order to create powerful problem-solving capabilities. The book bridges scientific communities, capturing and integrating the unique perspective and achievements of each. It coalesces contributions from industry and across related disciplines in order to motivate, define, and anticipate the future of this exciting new frontier in science and cultural evolution. Reade

  13. The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination

    OpenAIRE

    McClennen, Sophia A.

    2007-01-01

    In her paper "The Humanities, Human Rights, and the Comparative Imagination" Sophia A. McClennen argues that understanding the relationship between culture and human rights depends on humanist perspectives attentive to the relationship between storytelling and identity, mass culture and ideology, text and audience, critical thinking and engaged citizenship. After briefly considering how the divide between the humanities and human rights advocates developed and how it might best be overcome, s...

  14. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  15. Human Dignity – Constitutional Principle of Fundamental Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Pop

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a constitutional principle of the human rights, the human dignity is a supreme value, a norm and a right, thus that the reconfiguration of protection standards of fundamental human rights is made by cohesion of the legal, social and moral dimensions of human dignity. With this article, the author argues that legal meaning, social meaning and moral meaning of human dignity, are centerpiece of protection of freedom under law.

  16. The Case for the Humanities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Michael S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the current impoverishment of the humanities and the gulf separating the humanities from the sciences. Discusses the need for adequate humanities instruction at the elementary-secondary level. Suggests that humanities teachers rediscover the Italian Renaissance spirit to improve their teaching. (SB)

  17. Making IBM's Computer, Watson, Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlin, Howard

    2012-01-01

    This essay uses the recent victory of an IBM computer (Watson) in the TV game, "Jeopardy," to speculate on the abilities Watson would need, in addition to those it has, to be human. The essay's basic premise is that to be human is to behave as humans behave and to function in society as humans function. Alternatives to this premise are considered…

  18. Human Rights: The Essential Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol; Hansen, Carol Rae; Wilde, Ralph; Bronkhorst, Daan; Moritz, Frederic A.; Rolle, Baptiste; Sherman, Rebecca; Southard, Jo Lynn; Wilkinson, Robert; Poole, Hilary, Ed.

    This reference work documents the history of human rights theory, explains each article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, explores the contemporary human rights movement, and examines the major human rights issues facing the world today. This book is the first to combine historical and contemporary perspectives on these critical…

  19. Human modeling in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Furuta, Kazuo.

    1994-01-01

    Review on progress of research and development on human modeling methods is made from the viewpoint of its importance on total man-machine system reliability surrounding nuclear power plant operation. Basic notions on three different approaches of human modeling (behavioristics, cognitives and sociologistics) are firstly introduced, followed by the explanation of fundamental scheme to understand human cognitives at man-machine interface and the mechanisms of human error and its classification. Then, general methodologies on human cognitive model by AI are explained with the brief summary of various R and D activities now prevailing in the human modeling communities around the world. A new method of dealing with group human reliability is also introduced which is based on sociologistic mathematical model. Lastly, problems on human model validation are discussed, followed by the introduction of new experimental method to estimate human cognitive state by psycho-physiological measurement, which is a new methodology plausible for human model validation. (author)

  20. Human perspectives in horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Lewis

    1977-01-01

    Gardening produces not only vegetables and flowers, but also social and behavioral benefits. In low-income housing sites in New York, Philadelphia, and Chicago, gardening programs have resulted in reduced vandalism, new neighborliness, cleaned and painted buildings and streets, and other improvements. The human response to plants, and the qualities of plants that...

  1. Animal and human influenzas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, M; Yen, H-L

    2014-08-01

    Influenza type A viruses affect humans and other animals and cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic impact. Influenza A viruses are well adapted to cross species barriers and evade host immunity. Viruses that cause no clinical signs in wild aquatic birds may adapt in domestic poultry to become highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses which decimate poultry flocks. Viruses that cause asymptomatic infection in poultry (e.g. the recently emerged A/H7N9 virus) may cause severe zoonotic disease and pose a major pandemic threat. Pandemic influenza arises at unpredictable intervals from animal viruses and, in its global spread, outpaces current technologies for making vaccines against such novel viruses. Confronting the threat of influenza in humans and other animals is an excellent example of a task that requires a One Health approach. Changes in travel, trade in livestock and pets, changes in animal husbandry practices, wet markets and complex marketing chains all contribute to an increased risk of the emergence of novel influenza viruses with the ability to cross species barriers, leading to epizootics or pandemics. Coordinated surveillance at the animal- human interface for pandemic preparedness, risk assessment, risk reduction and prevention at source requires coordinated action among practitioners in human and animal health and the environmental sciences. Implementation of One Health in the field can be challenging because of divergent short-term objectives. Successful implementation requires effort, mutual trust, respect and understanding to ensure that long-term goals are achieved without adverse impacts on agricultural production and food security.

  2. Human Performance Westinghouse Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, A.; Gil, C.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the Program consists in the excellence actuation, achieving the client success with a perfect realisation project. This program consists of different basic elements to reduce the human mistakes: the HuP tools, coaching, learning clocks and iKnow website. There is, too, a document file to consult and practice. All these elements are expounded in this paper.

  3. Biotechnologies and Human Dignity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, William; Masciulli, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors review some contemporary cases where biotechnologies have been employed, where they have had global implications, and where there has been considerable debate. The authors argue that the concept of dignity, which lies at the center of such documents as the 2005 Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, the…

  4. Extraterritorial Human Rights Obligations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amsinck Boie, Hans Nikolaj; Torp, Kristian

    adequately be addressed without including the approach to the problem taken in practice; Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. The book therefore draws upon the concept of CSR and the approaches developed here and discusses whether states may utilize the CSR-based concept of human rights due diligence...

  5. Cultivating human nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary psychology claims to offer a unified perspective on human nature and culture, which can serve to further the integration of psychology and the social sciences. I describe four approaches to evolutionary psychology, and note increasing attention to the agency of the individual in

  6. Human Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This innovative textbook is the first to integrate learning and memory, behaviour, and cognition. It focuses on fascinating human research in both memory and learning (while also bringing in important animal studies) and brings the reader up to date with the latest developments in the subject. Students are encouraged to think critically: key…

  7. Haptic Physical Human Assistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, Arvid Quintijn Leon

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation covers three aspects of upper-extremity exoskeleton design: 1) Kinematics & motion: How to support the full range of motion of the human shoulder? We present a 2D visualization method that can show coupling between the range of motion (ROM) of rotations of the glenohumeral joint.

  8. Human Rights in Prisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Andrew M.; Gaborit, Liv Stoltze

    Drawing on participatory action research conducted in Sierra Leone, Kosovo and the Philippines, Human Rights in Prisons analyses encounters between rights-based non-governmental organisations and prisons. It explores the previously under-researched perspectives of prison staff and prisoners...

  9. Inconvenient Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Following an increase in Roma migration under the European “freedom of movement” laws, Swedish municipalities initiated more than 80 evictions of informal Roma settlements on the grounds of poor sanitation between 2013 and 2016. These evictions echo policies from earlier in the 20th century, when Roma living in Sweden were often marginalized through the denial of access to water and sanitation facilities. The recent Swedish evictions also follow similar government actions across Europe, where Roma settlements are controlled through the denial of access to water and sanitation. However, access to water and sanitation—central aspects of human health—are universal human rights that must be available to all people present in a jurisdiction, regardless of their legal status. The evictions described here violated Sweden’s obligations under both European and international human rights law. More positive government responses are required, such as providing shelters or camping sites, setting up temporary facilities, and directly engaging with communities to address water and sanitation issues. The authors conclude by providing guidance on how states and municipalities can meet their human rights obligations with respect to water and sanitation for vulnerable Roma individuals and informal settlements in their communities. PMID:29302163

  10. Social cognition in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frith, Christopher; Frith, Uta

    2007-01-01

    We review a diversity of studies of human social interaction and highlight the importance of social signals. We also discuss recent findings from social cognitive neuroscience that explore the brain basis of the capacity for processing social signals. These signals enable us to learn about...

  11. Human memory search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davelaar, E.J.; Raaijmakers, J.G.W.; Hills, T.T.; Robbins, T.W.; Todd, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of understanding human memory search is hard to exaggerate: we build and live our lives based on what whe remember. This chapter explores the characteristics of memory search, with special emphasis on the use of retrieval cues. We introduce the dependent measures that are obtained

  12. Marketing Human Resource Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Eric, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Describes three human resource development activities: training, education, and development. Explains marketing from the practitioners's viewpoint in terms of customer orientation; external and internal marketing; and market analysis, research, strategy, and mix. Shows how to design, develop, and implement strategic marketing plans and identify…

  13. Human Resource Outsourcing Success

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul-Halim; Elaine Ee; T. Ramayah; Noor Hazlina Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature on partnership seems to take the relationship between partnership quality and outsourcing success for granted. Therefore, this article aims at examining the role of service quality in strengthening the relationship between partnership quality and human resource (HR) outsourcing success. The samples were obtained from 96 manufacturing organizations in Penang, Malaysia. The results showed that par...

  14. Human Memory: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    The human mind has two types of memory: short-term and long-term. In all types of learning, it is best to use that structure rather than to fight against it. One way to do that is to ensure that learners can fit new information into patterns that can be stored in and more easily retrieved from long-term memory.

  15. Healthy human gut phageome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manrique, Pilar; Bolduc, Benjamin; Walk, Seth T.; Oost, van der John; Vos, de Willem M.; Young, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The role of bacteriophages in influencing the structure and function of the healthy human gut microbiome is unknown. With few exceptions, previous studies have found a high level of heterogeneity in bacteriophages from healthy individuals. To better estimate and identify the shared phageome of

  16. Mimicking human texture classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowitz, B.E.; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; van den Broek, Egon; Pappas, T.N.; Schouten, Theo E.; Daly, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    In an attempt to mimic human (colorful) texture classification by a clustering algorithm three lines of research have been encountered, in which as test set 180 texture images (both their color and gray-scale equivalent) were drawn from the OuTex and VisTex databases. First, a k-means algorithm was

  17. Human Actions Made Tangible

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Caglio, Agnese; Jensen, Lars Christian

    2014-01-01

    , a method developed to engage people from different backgrounds in collaboratively analysing videos with the help of physical objects. We will present one of these tools, Action Scrabble, for analysing temporal organisation of human actions. We work with a case of skilled forklift truck driving...

  18. Home heating & human health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, Sophie

    2008-01-01

    Human health is influenced by pollutants in the air. Since people spend over 80% of their time indoors, indoor air quality may be more related to health problems than outdoor air qual-ity. Indoor air quality is deteriorating because of energy conservation

  19. Human female meiosis revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capalbo, Antonio; Hoffmann, Eva R.; Cimadomo, Danilo

    2017-01-01

    to chromosome segregation in meiosis and mitosis. OUTCOMES Advances in genomic and imaging technologies are allowing unprecedented insight into chromosome segregation in human oocytes. This includes the identification of a novel chromosome segregation error, termed reverse segregation, as well as sister...

  20. HUMAN PARAGONIMIASIS IN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    this disease, training of technicians in anti-tuberculosis centers would be the most realistic attitude to detect mycobacteria and/or Paragonimus eggs during the same sputum examination. Key words: Paragonimus spp., Africa, human paragonimiasis, intermediate hosts, tuberculosis. Résumé. Une revue sur la paragonimose ...