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Sample records for human male urogenital

  1. Expression and characterization of preproVIP derived peptides in the human male urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, B; Bredkjaer, H E; Ekblad, E

    1995-01-01

    and preproVIP 156-170. Using region specific radioimmunoassays and antisera against the functional domains of the VIP precursor in combination with immunocytochemistry and chromatography, the localization, distribution and identity of the preproVIP derived peptides within the human male urogenital tract were...... investigated. Postmortem as well as fresh tissue specimens were used. All the preproVIP derived peptides were expressed and could be demonstrated in nerve fibres throughout the urogenital tract in close relation to the epithelial lining and in vascular as well as non-vascular smooth muscle. The VIP......-related peptide containing fibres were most abundant in the prostate parenchyma and the seminal vesicle. Using double immunostaining, co-localization of the various preproVIP derived peptides could be evidenced. The fact that all preproVIP derived peptides are present in the urogenital tract, should be taken...

  2. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

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    Ibadin, K. O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323 samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72 age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8% infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%, Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%, Escherichia coli (4.3%, Micoplasma genitalium (4.0% Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%. Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%, Schistosoma haematobium (0.9% Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%, Human immune virus (2.7%. Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.

  3. N- and E-cadherin expression in human ovarian and urogenital duct development.

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    Smith, Sarah R; Fulton, Norma; Collins, Craig S; Welsh, Michelle; Bayne, Rosey A L; Coutts, Shiona M; Childs, Andrew J; Anderson, Richard A

    2010-05-01

    To investigate expression of N- and E-cadherin in the developing human ovary. The expression of N- and E-cadherin was analyzed in 18 human fetal ovaries between 8 and 20 weeks' gestation using immunohistochemistry. Fetal human male and rat urogenital tracts were used for comparison of expression. Academic research institute. Women undergoing termination of pregnancy. Immunofluorescent analysis of cadherin expression. In fetal ovary, N- and E-cadherins were expressed at all gestations with overlapping but not identical patterns. Expression was associated with germ cells and adjacent somatic cells, including within newly formed primordial follicles, but neither cadherin was expressed in the somatic cell cords. The epithelia of the müllerian and wolffian ducts expressed only N- and E-cadherin, respectively, in a mutually exclusive fashion. This pattern of cadherin expression was found to be conserved between human and rat fetuses of both genders. The demonstration of N- and E-cadherin expression in the human fetal ovary indicates likely roles in gonadal development from germ cell proliferation to primordial follicle formation, as well as in the development of the urogenital ducts of both genders. This is consistent with animal studies identifying cadherins as key regulators of early germ cell development. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Information about male chronic pelvic and urogenital pain on the Internet: an evaluation of Internet resources.

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    Showghi, Natasha N; Williams, Amanda C de C

    2012-10-01

      The objective of this study was to describe and evaluate the Internet resources available to patients searching for information about chronic urogenital/pelvic pain.   As far as possible, we applied systematic review methods to search, retrieve, sort, and critique Websites, using common search engines and terms in the English language. Evaluation from a patient viewpoint focused particularly on the quality of explanations for chronic urogenital/pelvic pain in men, and on the psychological content of the Websites.   While the 23 Websites reviewed were generally accessible and open, authorial attribution was largely missing and the nomenclature were inconsistent and confusing. Explanations of chronic pain were diverse and often inaccurate or only partially accurate; none represented current neurophysiologic models of chronic pain. Eight described psychological aspects of pain, five in a simple way and three with more complexity, but only one approximated a contemporary biopsychosocial model. As in other areas of chronic pain, there is a wealth of information available online, but much is of poor quality, and taken together, is likely to confuse more than enlighten patients attempting to understand male urogenital/pelvic pain symptoms or supplement information from health care professionals. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Urinary catheterization of male rabbits: a new technique and a review of urogenital anatomy.

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    Uthamanthil, Rajesh K; Hachem, Ray Y; Gagea, Mihai; Reitzel, Ruth A; Borne, Agatha T; Tinkey, Peggy T

    2013-03-01

    Rabbits are widely used as an animal model for urologic research studies in which urinary bladder catheterization is required. However, standard manual retrograde urinary catheterization proved to be difficult to perform on anesthetized male rabbits in a research study, with frequent misplacement of the catheter into the vesicular gland. Attempts to reposition the catheter into the bladder after initial entry into the vesicular gland frequently failed and resulted in exclusion of the animal from the study. We assessed the normal anatomy of the lower urinary tract of male rabbits to determine the cause of catheterization misdirection into the vesicular gland and to develop a more reliable technique for urinary bladder catheterization. A modified 'digital (finger) pressure' catheterization technique was developed for successful urinary catheterization of male rabbits. Retrospective statistical analysis of 45 rabbits used for urinary catheterization studies showed improvement in the success rate of catheterization by using the digital pressure technique over the standard method of retrograde urinary catheter insertion. In addition, we here review the relevant gross and histologic anatomy of the urogenital tract of male rabbits.

  6. Medical Students’ First Male Urogenital Examination: Investigating the Effects of Instruction and Gender on Anxiety

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    Lisa D. Howley

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect that standardized instruction of the male urogenital examination had on the anxiety levels of students and to determine what influence, if any, the gender of the student had on this experience. Methods: One hundred thirty six second year medical students were asked to report their level of anxiety before and after participation in a small group teaching session on the male urogenital examination. We gathered both qualitative and quantitative information to better understand students’ anxiety surrounding this instruction. Results: Students had significantly lower state-anxiety scores following the instruction than before (F(1, 76=102.353, p=.000, eta2=.574 and female students were more likely to have greater state-anxiety than male students (F=6.952, p=.010, eta2=.084. Ninety-nine percent of students reported that the teaching associates successfully reduced their anxiety. This decrease was attributed predominantly to the personal qualities of the teaching associates and to the format of the instruction. Conclusions: This study provides both quantitative and qualitative evidence that the use of male teaching associates to provide standardized instruction on the urogenital exam is effective at reducing students’ anxiety, particularly with regard to female students. Added standardized instruction may lead to increased confidence, skill, and future compliance with intimate physical exam screening practices

  7. Missing the mark: Current practices in teaching the male urogenital examination to Canadian undergraduate medical students.

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    McAlpine, Kristen; Steele, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The urogenital physical examination is an important aspect of patient encounters in various clinical settings. Introductory clinical skills sessions are intended to provide support and alleviate students' anxiety when learning this sensitive exam. The techniques each Canadian medical school uses to guide their students through the initial urogenital examination has not been previously reported. This study surveyed pre-clerkship clinical skills program directors at the main campus of English-speaking Canadian medical schools regarding the curriculum they use to teach the urogenital examination. A response rate of 100% was achieved, providing information on resources and faculty available to students, as well as the manner in which students were evaluated. Surprisingly, over one-third of the Canadian medical schools surveyed failed to provide a setting in which students perform a urogenital examination on a patient in their pre-clinical years. Additionally, there was no formal evaluation of this skill set reported by almost 50% of Canadian medical schools prior to clinical training years. To ensure medical students are confident and accurate in performing a urogenital examination, it is vital they be provided the proper resources, teaching, and training. As we progress towards a competency-based curriculum, it is essential that increased focus be placed on patient encounters in undergraduate training. Further research to quantify students' exposure to the urogenital examination during clinical years would be of interest. Without this commitment by Canadian medical schools, we are doing a disservice not only to the medical students, but also to our patient population.

  8. OCT4 and downstream factors are expressed in human somatic urogenital epithelia and in culture of epididymal spheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audouze, Karine Marie Laure; Brunak, Søren; Kristensen, DM

    2010-01-01

    The transcription factor OCT4 plays a crucial role in the earliest differentiation of the mammalian embryo and in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. However, it remains controversial whether this gene is also expressed in somatic tissues. Here we use a combination of RT-PCR on whole and microd......The transcription factor OCT4 plays a crucial role in the earliest differentiation of the mammalian embryo and in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. However, it remains controversial whether this gene is also expressed in somatic tissues. Here we use a combination of RT-PCR on whole...... and microdissected tissues, in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting to show that OCT4 and SOX2 together with downstream targets, UTF1 and REX1, are expressed in the human male urogenital tract. We further supported these results by analysis of DNA methylation of a region in the OCT4......, stimulation with retinoic acid resulted in down-regulation of OCT4 expression, however, without multilineage differentiation. Our results show that OCT4 and associated genes are expressed in somatic epithelial cells from the urogenital tract and that these cells can form spheres, a general marker of stem cell...

  9. Human Urogenital Myiasis Caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) in Markazi Province of Iran

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    Salimi, M; Goodarzi, D; Karimfar, MH; Edalat, H

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of human urogenital myiasis in an 86-year-old rural man with a penil ulcer and numerous alive and motile larvae from urethra and glans penis. Entomological studies on adult flies showed the larvae were Lucilia sericata and Wohlfahrtia magnifica. The clinical presentation and treatment strategies are discussed. PMID:22808392

  10. Male urogenital function after confirmed nerve-sparing total mesorectal excision with dissection in front of Denonvilliers' fascia.

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    Kneist, W; Junginger, T

    2007-06-01

    This prospective study addresses the rate of male genital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal carcinoma using the anterior extramesorectal plane and its correlation with early urinary function, pelvic autonomic nerve preservation (PANP), and intraoperative neurostimulation (INS). A consecutive series of 44 men operated on by the same surgical team was analyzed. After excluding 18 patients considered to be impotent preoperatively, urogenital function was evaluated in 26 patients on the basis of the International Prostatic Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function. PANP was assessed with INS of parasympathetic nerves. PANP was complete in 21 patients (80.8%). Deterioration of urinary function was observed in six patients (23.1%) at early follow-up. Postoperative erectile dysfunction assessed in seven patients (26.9%) was associated with micturition disturbances in four (57%). Despite dissection in front of Denonvilliers fascia, the incidence of erectile dysfunction was low in patients with nonanterior tumors (1/10). INS results had higher sensitivity for predicting urinary dysfunction than for predicting erectile dysfunction (67% vs. 43%). Values for specificity and accuracy were 95% and 90%, and 89% and 77%, respectively. The correlation between the findings on INS and urinary function was good (kappa = 0.66) at a fair (kappa = 0.36) correlation for erectile function. Nerve-sparing TME using the anterior extramesorectal plane results in a justifiable rate of postoperative impotence in patients with nonanterior tumors. Patients with negative results on INS or early urinary dysfunction are at greater risk of erectile dysfunction.

  11. Urogenital tumors

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    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Adolescent Males with Urogenital Anomalies: Their Body Image and Psychosexual Development

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    Cogan, Steven F.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Three adolescent male patients with major congenital anomalies are described as to their self concept and body images. The results of the study reveal the need for an emphasis on therapy for these children to be able to develop into sound adults able to cope with stress. (Author/DEP)

  13. Isolation and identification of anaerobic organisms from the male and female urogenital tracts.

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    Moss, S

    1983-06-01

    Since Bacteroides spp may play an important role together with Gardnerella vaginalis in the pathogenesis of non-specific vaginitis and balanoposthitis, anaerobic organisms were isolated and identified from 34 female and 20 male patients attending a department of genitourinary medicine, and the results compared with the clinical findings and the presence of other routinely isolated pathogens. Twenty-three different organisms were recovered from 13 of the 20 men; of these organisms, 20 were of the Bacteroides spp. Most isolates were of the B melaninogenicus/oralis group, which forms part of the commensal vaginal flora in women. A definite association between the presence of anaerobes and other pathogens needs to be firmly established, as this obviously causes important complications in treating these conditions.

  14. Exposición a disruptores endocrinos y alteraciones del tracto urogenital masculino (criptorquidia e hipospadias Exposure to endocrine disruptors and male urogenital tract malformations [cryptorchidism and hypospadias

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    Mariana F. Fernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: Se ha sugerido que la exposición maternoinfantil a compuestos hormonalmente activos (disruptores endocrinos tiene en la etapa intrauterina una de sus fases más comprometidas. Objetivo: Revisar los estudios epidemiológicos, nacionales e internacionales, publicados entre 1990 y el primer trimestre de 2006, que tuvieran como hipótesis la asociación entre la exposición humana a disruptores endocrinos y el riesgo de criptorquidia e hipospadias. Métodos: Se han buscado artículos en MEDLINE/PubMed mediante las palabras clave: disruptores endocrinos, xenoestrógenos, pesticidas organoclorados y criptorquidia e hipospadias. La selección de los 16 trabajos incluidos se hizo atendiendo al diseño y la población de estudio, las medidas de exposición empleadas, los criterios de exclusión e inclusión establecidos y el análisis estadístico utilizado. Resultados y conclusiones: Aunque los estudios aquí revisados no son concluyentes para confirmar la asociación entre disruptores endocrinos y riesgo de malformación del tracto genitourinario, tampoco demuestran la falta de tal asociación. Por este motivo parece razonable sugerir que este aspecto de la patología hormonal debería investigarse más en profundidad, resolviendo, al menos, el diagnóstico adecuado de los individuos y la estimación de la exposición a múltiples compuestos químicos, contaminantes ambientales, que actúan conjuntamente a través de mecanismos similares a las hormonas endógenas.Background: It has been proposed that the intrauterine period of child-mother exposure to hormonally active compounds (endocrine disruptors is of critical importance. Objective: We reviewed all Spanish and English-language epidemiological studies published between 1990 and the first trimester of 2006 that studied the possible association between human exposure to chemical compounds and the risk of cryptorchidism and/or hypospadias. Methods: The MEDLINE (PubMed database was

  15. Immunity in urogenital protozoa.

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    Malla, N; Goyal, K; Dhanda, R S; Yadav, M

    2014-09-01

    Innate and adaptive immunity play a significant role in urogenital infections. Innate immunity is provided by the epithelial cells and mucus lining along with acidic pH, which forms a strong physical barrier against the pathogens in female reproductive tract. Cells of innate immune system, antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, chemokines and adaptive immunity in the reproductive tract are evolved during infection, and a pro-inflammatory response is generated to fight against the invading pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis, a primary urogenital protozoa, the etiological agent of human trichomoniasis, a curable sexually transmitted infection. The involvement of the urogenital tract by other protozoal infections such as P. falciparum, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Toxoplasma, Entamoeba histolytica and Acanthamoeba infection is rarely reported. Trichomonas induce pro-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses in infected subjects. Multifactorial pathogenic mechanisms including parasite adherence, cysteine proteases, lipophosphoglycan, free radical, cytokine generation and Toll-like receptors appear to interplay with the induction of local and systemic immune responses that ultimately determine the outcome of the infection. However, the involvement of urogenital pathogen-specific immune mechanisms and effect of normal local resident flora on the outcome (symptomatic vs. asymptomatic) of infection are poorly understood. Moreover, immune interactions in trichomoniasis subjects co-infected with bacterial and viral pathogens need to be elucidated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Absorption of the Wolffian duct and duplicated ureter by the urogenital sinus: morphological study using human fetuses and embryos.

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    Naito, Michiko; Hinata, Nobuyuki; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Aizawa, Shin; Fujisawa, Masato

    2015-07-01

    To describe the embryological origin of the duplicated ureter and to investigate whether the urogenital sinus absorbs not only the Wolffian duct (WD) but also the ureter. During studies using sections of human fetuses (45 specimens), we incidentally found a specific type of ureteric duplication (at ~7 weeks) in which two unilateral ureters joined at the vesico-ureteric junction, apparently representing a morphology arising at an intermediate stage between complete and partial ureteric duplication. The existing literature lacks any photographic representation of early development of the vesico-ureteric junction, and we therefore studied horizontal sections of 10 human embryos (at ~5-6 weeks' gestation) in which the ureter did not join the urogenital sinus (future bladder) but instead joined the WD (future vas deferens). The sinus consistently showed a reversed Y-shape, the arms of which extended posteriorly to receive the WD. When absorption of the duct into the sinus wall reached the distal end of the ureter, the arm-like parts appeared to enlarge posteriorly for further involvement of the duct, with little or no incorporation of the ureter; therefore, the future trigone of the bladder might develop from these arm-like parts of the sinus posterior wall. Consequently, in the case of ureteric duplication included in the present study, it is considered that the ureters would probably have merged with the WD at closely adjacent sites. The present study represents the first photographic illustration of the early development of the human vesico-ureteric junction. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Extracellular vesicles in blood, milk and body fluids of the female and male urogenital tract and with special regard to reproduction.

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    Foster, B P; Balassa, T; Benen, T D; Dominovic, M; Elmadjian, G K; Florova, V; Fransolet, M D; Kestlerova, A; Kmiecik, G; Kostadinova, I A; Kyvelidou, C; Meggyes, M; Mincheva, M N; Moro, L; Pastuschek, J; Spoldi, V; Wandernoth, P; Weber, M; Toth, B; Markert, U R

    2016-12-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are released from almost all cells and tissues. They are able to transport substances (e.g. proteins, RNA or DNA) at higher concentrations than in their environment and may adhere in a receptor-controlled manner to specific cells or tissues in order to release their content into the respective target structure. Blood contains high concentrations of EVs mainly derived from platelets, and, at a smaller amount, from erythrocytes. The female and male reproductive tracts produce EVs which may be associated with fertility or infertility and are released into body fluids and mucosas of the urogenital organs. In this review, the currently relevant detection methods are presented and critically compared. During pregnancy, placenta-derived EVs are dynamically detectable in peripheral blood with changing profiles depending upon progress of pregnancy and different pregnancy-associated pathologies, such as preeclampsia. EVs offer novel non-invasive diagnostic tools which may reflect the situation of the placenta and the foetus. EVs in urine have the potential of reflecting urogenital diseases including cancers of the neighbouring organs. Several methods for detection, quantification and phenotyping of EVs have been established, which include electron microscopy, flow cytometry, ELISA-like methods, Western blotting and analyses based on Brownian motion. This review article summarises the current knowledge about EVs in blood and cord blood, in the different compartments of the male and female reproductive tracts, in trophoblast cells from normal and pre-eclamptic pregnancies, in placenta ex vivo perfusate, in the amniotic fluid, and in breast milk, as well as their potential effects on natural killer cells as possible targets.

  18. Clinical significance of asymptomatic urogenital Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in relation to seminal fluid parameters among infertile Jordanian males

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    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The differences in the occurrence of M. hominis were statistically insignificant among infertility and control groups, but it was significant for U. urealyticum (p=0.046. M. hominis occurs more frequently in the semen of infertile-varicose male and normal seminal fluid quality. It seems to have no adverse effects on sperm motility but it might decline the fertility potential in such cases. U. urealyticum on the other hand have no clear significant impacts on sperm motility. The mean values for sperm motility, concentrations, and viscosity were not affected by the presence of the two species. Despite the significant presence of Ureaplasma among infertility, further studies were needed to clarify their potential effect on semen quality and infertility status.

  19. Comparative genomics of four Mycoplasma species of the human urogenital tract: Analysis of their core genomes and virulence genes.

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    Roachford, Orville St E; Nelson, Karen E; Mohapatra, Bidyut R

    2017-12-01

    The variation in Mycoplasma lipoproteins attributed to genome rearrangements and genetic insertions leads to phenotypic plasticity that allows for the evasion of the host's defence system and pathogenesis. This paper compared for the first time the genomes of four human urogenital Mycoplasma species (M. penetrans HF-2, M. fermentans JER, M. genitalium G37 and M. hominis PG21) to categorise the metabolic functions of the core genes and to assess the effects of tandem repeats, phage-like genetic elements and prophages on the virulence genes. The results of this comparative in silico genomic analysis revealed that the genes constituting their core genomes can be separated into three distinct categories: nuclear metabolism, protein metabolism and energy generation each making up 52%, 31% and 23%, respectively. The genomes have repeat sequences ranging from 3.7% in M. hominis PG21 to 9.5% in M. fermentans JER. Tandem repeats (mostly minisatellites) and phage-like proteins (including DNA gyrases/topoisomerases) were randomly distributed in the Mycoplasma genomes. Here, we identified a coiled-coil structure containing protein in M. penetrans HF-2 which is significantly similar to the Mem protein of M. fermentans ɸMFV1. Therefore, a Mycoplasma prophage seems to be embedded within M. penetrans HF-2 unannotated genome. To the best of our knowledge, no Mycoplasma phages or prophages have been detected in M. penetrans. This study is important not only in understanding the complex genetic factors involved in phenotypic plasticity and virulence in the relatively understudied Mycoplasma species but also in elucidating the effective arrangement of their redundant minimal genomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Urogenital tuberkulose hos danskere

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    Almasi, Charlotte Elberling; Holm, Mette; Meyhoff, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is rare in natives of Denmark, who are not exposed to risk factors, such as homelessness and drug or alcohol abuse. Two patients diagnosed with advanced urogenital tuberculosis are reported.......Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is rare in natives of Denmark, who are not exposed to risk factors, such as homelessness and drug or alcohol abuse. Two patients diagnosed with advanced urogenital tuberculosis are reported....

  1. Profiles and technological requirements of urogenital probiotics.

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    Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina

    2015-09-15

    Probiotics, defined as live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host, are considered a valid and novel alternative for the prevention and treatment of female urogenital tract infections. Lactobacilli, the predominant microorganisms of the healthy human vaginal microbiome, can be included as active pharmaceutical ingredients in probiotics products. Several requirements must be considered or criteria fulfilled during the development of a probiotic product or formula for the female urogenital tract. This review deals with the main selection criteria for urogenital probiotic microorganisms: host specificity, potential beneficial properties, functional specifications, technological characteristics and clinical trials used to test their effect on certain physiological and pathological conditions. Further studies are required to complement the current knowledge and support the clinical applications of probiotics in the urogenital tract. This therapy will allow the restoration of the ecological equilibrium of the urogenital tract microbiome as well as the recovery of the sexual and reproductive health of women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Urogenital Reconstructive Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lotte Kaasgaard

    Urogenital reconstructive surgery Lotte Kaasgaard Jakobsen1 Professor Henning Olsen1 Overlæge Gitte Hvistendahl1 Professor Karl-Erik Andersson2 1 – Dept. of Urology, Aarhus University Hospital 2 – Dept. of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University hospital Background: Congenital obstruction...

  3. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

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    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  4. Gender aspects of epidemiology and laboratory diagnostics of urogenital trichomoniasis

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    Gorchakov D.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital trichomoniasis is still one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Evolutionary vaginal Tricho-monas parazited initially in female genital tract, and later adapted to the conditions of the male genital tract. This contributed to the formation of certain gender biology of the parasite, epidemiology and clinics of trichomoniasis. Existing gender differences should be taken into account in prevention, diagnostics and treatment of urogenital trichomoniasis.

  5. Point-of-care management of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis via Gram-stained smear analysis in male high-risk patients. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness before and after changing the screening indication at the STI Clinic in Amsterdam.

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    Bartelsman, M; van Rooijen, M S; Alba, S; Vaughan, K; Faber, W R; Straetemans, M; de Vries, H J C

    2015-11-01

    To measure the effect of changing the point-of-care (POC) testing algorithm of urogenital chlamydia for all male high-risk patients to those with only symptoms with respect to: diagnostic accuracy, loss to follow-up, correctly managed consultations and costs. Retrospective comparison of the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of Gram-stained urethral smear analysis for the POC management of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections. Between 2008 and 2009 Gram-stained urethral smear analysis was offered to all men irrespective of symptoms; between 2010 and 2011 only to those with symptoms. The Aptima CT assay was the reference diagnostic test. The number of examined Gram-stained smears in the two periods was respectively 7185 (2008-2009 period) and 18,852 (2010-2011 period). The sensitivity of the Gram stain analysis was respectively 83.8% (95% CI 81.2% to 86.1%) and 91.0% (95% CI 89.5% to 92.3%) (pcost per correctly managed consultation was 14.3% lower in the 2010-2011 period (€94.31 vs €80.82). The percentage of delayed treated infections was significantly lower in the 2008-2009 period (10.5%) compared with the 2010-2011 period (22.8%) (pcost per correctly managed consultation is reduced with 14.3% without a significant difference in loss to follow-up but with a significantly higher rate of delayed treatment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Estradiol plays a role in regulating the expression of lysyl oxidase family genes in mouse urogenital tissues and human Ishikawa cells.

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    Zong, Wen; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jian; Gao, Jian-gang

    2015-10-01

    The lysyl oxidase (LOX) family encodes the copper-dependent amine oxidases that play a key role in determining the tensile strength and structural integrity of connective tissues by catalyzing the crosslinking of elastin or collagen. Estrogen may upregulate the expression of LOX and lysyl oxidase-like 1 (LOXL1) in the vagina. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of estrogen on the expression of all LOX family genes in the urogenital tissues of accelerated ovarian aging mice and human Ishikawa cells. Mice and Ishikawa cells treated with estradiol (E2) showed increased expression of LOX family genes and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). Ishikawa cells treated with TGF-β1 also showed increased expression of LOX family genes. The Ishikawa cells were then treated with either E2 plus the TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) inhibitor SB431542 or E2 alone. The expression of LOX family genes induced by E2 was reduced in the Ishikawa cells treated with TGFBR inhibitor. Our results showed that E2 increased the expression of the LOX family genes, and suggest that this induction may be mediated by the TGF-β signal pathway. E2 may play a role in regulating the expression of LOX family genes.

  7. Goldenhar syndrome and urogenital abnormalities

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    Mohan Marulaiah

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Goldenhar syndrome (oculo-auriculo-vertebral syn-drome or 1st and 2nd branchial arch syndrome is a com-plex of craniofacial anomalies. It has been associated with anomalies in other systems and with abnormalities of the urogenital system. We present a case of Goldenhar syn-drome with multiple renal anomalies and a urogenital si-nus, which has not been reported before.

  8. Prevention of urogenital infections by oral administration of probiotic lactobacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedran Slačanac

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, lactobacilli are nonpathogenic part of the normal urogenital microflora and have been recognized as a barrier against colonization of unwanted (pathogen microflora. The results of many in vitro studies suggest following mechanisms of probiotic lactobacilli action in urogenital tract: adhesion to urogenital cells, competition with pathogens for adhesive sites, production of biosurfactants, co-aggregation with pathogens, production of antimicrobial substances (organic acids, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins and stimulation of immune system. From 80 different lactobacilli species isolated from human or animal intestinal and urogenital tract, only few lactobacilli strains possess optimal properties to be effective as probiotic therapeutics against infections in the urogenital tract. Combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus fermentum RC-14 was proposed as the best one for epithelial vaginal cells colonization and inhibition of uropathogens adhesion. The results of a number of clinical studies confirmed beneficial role of oral lactobacilli. However, the most of commercially available Lactobacillus strains, which are ordinary used in fermented dairy products,are seriously limited in protection of urogenital tract when they are ingested orally.

  9. Prevalence of urogenital chlamydia infection among asymptomatic male and female young adults; results of a sponsored study: »i don’t have it, do you?«

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borut Kobal

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urogenital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (CT is among more common curable sexually transmitted diseases (STD in Slovenia; however, the data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infections are insufficient. The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic chlamydia infection among male and female young adults in various Slovenian urban environments and to determine the risk factors for the infection.Methods: The study took place between October 15 and November 15 2004 in selected medical centres in Ljubljana, Maribor and Izola. Subjects were volunteers and were sexually active healthy males and females who appeared to be healthy and were aged between 18 and 35. All subjects gave consent to participation in the study. All participants filled in an anonymous questionnaire which included questions on education, sexual behaviour patterns, use of contraceptives and contraceptive methods and history of STDs. The presence of CT in urine samples was determined by the nucleic acid amplification test PCR. All positive subjects were appropriately treated. Significant risk factors were determined by logistic regression.Results: 2027 volunteers participated in the study. They gave a urine sample and filled in the questionnaire. The prevalence of chlamydia infection was 5.8 %. Age analysis showed a 6.5 % prevalence among subjects under 25 years of age and, among subjects above 25, 4.8 %. Both groups revealed similarities in sexual behaviour patterns and use of barrier contraceptives which was 10.9 % in younger and 9.1 % in older participants. Independent factors related to the asymptomatic chlamydia infection were shown to be the number of sexual partners in the past (p = 0.008, more than one sexual partner in the last three months (p = 0.000 and improper use of condoms (p = 0.032.Conclusions: Relatively high prevalence of chlamydia infection among asymptomatic participants demonstrates that the problem is

  10. Epidemiology of Genitourinary Injuries among Male U.S. Service Members Deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan: Early Findings from the Trauma Outcomes and Urogenital Health (TOUGH) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janak, Judson C; Orman, Jean A; Soderdahl, Douglas W; Hudak, Steven J

    2017-02-01

    In this study we report the number, nature and severity of genitourinary injuries among male U.S. service members deployed to Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. This retrospective cross-sectional study of the Department of Defense Trauma Registry used ICD-9-CM codes to identify service members with genitourinary injuries, and used Abbreviated Injury Scale codes to determine injury severity, genitourinary organs injured and comorbid injuries. From October 2001 to August 2013, 1,367 male U.S. service members sustained 1 or more genitourinary injuries. The majority of injuries involved the external genitalia (1,000, 73.2%), including the scrotum (760, 55.6%), testes (451, 33.0%), penis (423, 31%) and/or urethra (125, 9.1%). Overall more than a third of service members with genitourinary injury sustained at least 1 severe genitourinary injury (502, 36.7%). Loss of 1 or both testes was documented in 146 men, including 129 (9.4%) unilateral orchiectomies and 17 (1.2%) bilateral orchiectomies. Common comorbid injuries included traumatic brain injury (549, 40.2%), pelvic fracture (341, 25.0%), colorectal injury (297, 21.7%) and lower extremity amputations (387, 28.7%). An unprecedented number of U.S. service members sustained genitourinary injury while deployed to Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom. Further study is needed to describe the long-term impact of genitourinary injury and determine the potential need for novel treatments to improve sexual, urinary and/or reproductive function among service members with severe genital injury. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First Record of Urogenital Myiasis Induced by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae) from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavami, Mohammad Bagher; Djalilvand, Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of organs and tissues of human and animals with fly larvae. This article reports an 18 year-old man with urogenital myiasis, the passing of live Megaselia scalaris larvae in the urine, from Zanjan City, northwest of Iran. We discourse the importance of diagnosis and management of urogenital myiasis in medicine.

  12. First Record of Urogenital Myiasis Induced by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadBagher Ghavami

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infestation of organs and tissues of human and animals with fly larvae. This article reports an 18 year-old man with urogenital myiasis, the passing of live Megaselia scalaris larvae in the urine, from Zanjan City, northwest of Iran. We discourse the importance of diagnosis and management of urogenital myiasis in medicine.

  13. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  14. Urogenital leiomyosarcoma in an alpaca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, Laura Y.; Poulsen, Keith P.; McGuirk, Sheila M.; Livesey, Michael A.; Koch, Christoph; Perrier, Melanie P.; Pinkerton, Marie E.

    2010-01-01

    A mass in the pelvic canal of a 4-year-old pregnant alpaca hembra diagnosed as leiomyosarcoma of the urogenital tract was confirmed by biopsy. Following a tube cystotomy, the alpaca was presented 33 d later, 2 d after the tube cystotomy had been dislodged. A dead cria was delivered by caesarean section. PMID:21358933

  15. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  16. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  17. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  18. Urogenital Applications of Probiotic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Gregor

    The urogenital tract extends from the perineal skin close to the anus, to the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, urethra, bladder and kidneys. The uterus, bladder and kidneys are regarded as being sterile, although it will not be surprising if molecular techniques discover that this is not necessarily the case. The importance of the urogenital tract in the health of women cannot be understated. Given its proximity to potential pathogens emerging from the rectum, exposure to sexually transmitted organisms, hormonal fluctuations that affect cells, use of tampons, contraceptives and douches, and the birthing process, it is remarkable that this area is not constantly infected. Nevertheless, it has been estimated that almost every female will have a vaginal or bladder infection at some point in her life.

  19. Molecular Imaging of Urogenital Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Steve Y.; Szabo, Zsolt; Morgan, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    There is an expanding and exciting repertoire of PET imaging radiotracers for urogenital diseases, particularly in prostate cancer, renal cell cancer, and renal function. Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in men. With growing therapeutics options for the treatment of metastatic and advanced prostate cancer, improved functional imaging of prostate cancer beyond the limitations of conventional computed tomography (CT) and bone scan (BS) is becoming increasingly important for...

  20. Lymphangioma involving the urogenital system in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangioma of the urogenital system is extremely rare and we present two cases treated at our institution over a one year period. The first case is a 3 year-old boy who presented with scrotal swelling and was initially thought to have a complex hydrocele. On surgical exploration, an extratesticular multiloculated cystic mass was discovered and testis-sparing excision of the mass was performed. Pathology revealed lymphangioma. The second case is a 5 year-old male who initially presented with gross hematuria. Ultrasound was unremarkable but cystoscopy revealed varicosities extending from the bladder wall. On transurethral resection, histology showed non-specific benign vascular malformation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was obtained because of persistent hematuria and showed multiple bladder lesions suggestive of lymphatic malformation. Partial cystectomy was ultimately performed and histology confirmed lymphangioma. To the author's knowledge, this represents the fifth reported case of lymphangioma of bladder.

  1. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  2. Brain activation during human male ejaculation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Reinders, A. A. T. Simone; Van der Graaf, Ferdinand H. C. E.; Paans, Anne M. J.; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2007-01-01

    In a prior [O-15]-H2O positron emission tomographic study we reported brain regions involved in human male ejaculation. Here, we used another, more recently acquired data set to evaluate the methodological approach of this previous study, and discovered that part of the reported activation pattern

  3. Tumor Biomarker Glycoproteins in the Seminal Plasma of Healthy Human Males Are Endogenous Ligands for DC-SIGN*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gary F.; Grassi, Paola; Pang, Poh-Choo; Panico, Maria; Lafrenz, David; Drobnis, Erma Z.; Baldwin, Michael R.; Morris, Howard R.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Sun, Wei; Dell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    DC-SIGN is an immune C-type lectin that is expressed on both immature and mature dendritic cells associated with peripheral and lymphoid tissues in humans. It is a pattern recognition receptor that binds to several pathogens including HIV-1, Ebola virus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori, and Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence is now mounting that DC-SIGN also recognizes endogenous glycoproteins, and that such interactions play a major role in maintaining immune homeostasis in humans and mice. Autoantigens (neoantigens) are produced for the first time in the human testes and other organs of the male urogenital tract under androgenic stimulus during puberty. Such antigens trigger autoimmune orchitis if the immune response is not tightly regulated within this system. Endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN could play a role in modulating such responses. Human seminal plasma glycoproteins express a high level of terminal Lewisx and Lewisy carbohydrate antigens. These epitopes react specifically with the lectin domains of DC-SIGN. However, because the expression of these sequences is necessary but not sufficient for interaction with DC-SIGN, this study was undertaken to determine if any seminal plasma glycoproteins are also endogenous ligands for DC-SIGN. Glycoproteins bearing terminal Lewisx and Lewisy sequences were initially isolated by lectin affinity chromatography. Protein sequencing established that three tumor biomarker glycoproteins (clusterin, galectin-3 binding glycoprotein, prostatic acid phosphatase) and protein C inhibitor were purified by using this affinity method. The binding of DC-SIGN to these seminal plasma glycoproteins was demonstrated in both Western blot and immunoprecipitation studies. These findings have confirmed that human seminal plasma contains endogenous glycoprotein ligands for DC-SIGN that could play a role in maintaining immune homeostasis both in the male urogenital tract and the vagina after coitus. PMID:21986992

  4. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  5. Urogenital function in robotic vs laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleimonitis, Sofoklis; Ahmed, Jamil; Ramachandra, Meghana; Farooq, Muhammad; Harper, Mick; Parvaiz, Amjad

    2017-02-01

    Urological and sexual dysfunction are recognised risks of rectal cancer surgery; however, there is limited evidence regarding urogenital function comparing robotic to laparoscopic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the urogenital functional outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic and robotic rectal cancer surgery. Urological and sexual functions were assessed using gender-specific validated standardised questionnaires. Questionnaires were sent a minimum of 6 months after surgery, and patients were asked to report their urogenital function pre- and post-operatively, allowing changes in urogenital function to be identified. Questionnaires were sent to 158 patients (89 laparoscopy, 69 robotic) of whom 126 (80 %) responded. Seventy-eight (49 male, 29 female) of the responders underwent laparoscopic and 48 (35 male, 13 female) robotic surgery. Male patients in the robotic group deteriorated less across all components of sexual function and in five components of urological function. Composite male urological and sexual function score changes from baseline were better in the robotic cohort (p robotic group (p = 0.003). Robotic rectal cancer surgery might offer better post-operative urological and sexual outcomes compared to laparoscopic surgery in male patients and better urological outcomes in females. Larger scale, prospective randomised control studies including urodynamic assessment of urogenital function are required to validate these results.

  6. Human Escherichia coli isolates from hemocultures: Septicemia linked to urogenital tract infections is caused by isolates harboring more virulence genes than bacteraemia linked to other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micenková, Lenka; Beňová, Alžbeta; Frankovičová, Lucia; Bosák, Juraj; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Kmeťová, Marta; Šmajs, David

    2017-04-01

    Escherichia coli is the most common cause of bloodstream infections and community-acquired sepsis. The main aim of this study was to determine virulence characteristics of E. coli isolates from hemocultures of patients with a primary disease of urogenital tract, digestive system, a neoplastic blood disease, or other conditions. Results from a set of 314 E. coli isolates from hemocultures were compared to data from a previously published analysis of 1283 fecal commensal E. coli isolates. Genetic profiling of the 314 E. coli isolates involved determination of phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, D, C, E, and F), identification of 21 virulence factors, as well as 30 bacteriocin-encoding determinants. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was used to analyze clonal character of the hemoculture-derived isolates. The E. coli isolates from hemocultures belonged mainly to phylogenetic groups B2 (59.9%) and D (21.0%), and less frequently to phylogroups A (10.2%) and B1 (5.7%). Commonly detected virulence factors included adhesins (fimA 92.0%, pap 47.1%, and sfa 26.8%), and iron-uptake encoding genes (fyuA 87.9%, fepC 79.6%, aer 70.7%, iucC 68.2%, and ireA 13.7%), followed by colibactin (pks island 31.5%), and cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf1 11.1%). A higher frequency of microcin producers (and microcin M determinant) and a lower frequency of colicin Ib and microcin B17 was found in hemoculture-derived isolates compared to commensal fecal isolates. E. coli isolates from hemocultures harbored more virulence genes compared to fecal E. coli isolates. In addition, hemoculture E. coli isolates from patients with primary diagnosis related to urogenital tract were clearly different and more virulence genes were detected in these isolates compared to both fecal isolates and hemoculture-derived isolates from patients with blood and gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. [Human papillomavirus infection in male genitalia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Garfias, R; Villarreal Peral, C; Juárez Azpilcueta, A

    1995-10-01

    A prospective and transversal study in 100 patients since January to December of 1994, was done, to know the human papiloma virus infection prevalence in male genitals. The patients were studied by a clinical history, genital area colposcopic revision after acetic acid 5% application, biopsy of the lesion and histopathology study. The patients age was among 16 to 71 years old, with a media of 38.8 years old. The sexual activity beginning was from 12 to 27 years old, with an average of 18 years old. Forty one percent of the patients have had sexual relations with prostitutes, 26% have had sexually transmitted diseases, 9% of the patients referred only 1 sexual mate and 82% had human papiloma virus infection.

  8. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    Full Text Available In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

  9. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Toshinobu Miyamoto; Akira Tsujimura; Yasushi Miyagawa; Eitetsu Koh; Mikio Namiki; Kazuo Sengoku

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male i...

  10. Role of probiotics in urogenital healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh S Waigankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital infections are one of the most common causes for a woman to visit a gynecologist or a urologist. The well-known association between abnormal vaginal microbial flora and its formidable risk in the increased incidence of urinary tract infection underscores the importance of understanding the microbial flora and the efforts needed to maintain it, for ensuring urogenital health. Surprisingly in spite of the increased incidence urogenital infections receive very less attention from the medical fraternity. Growing awareness among people and newer advances in the medical field has brought them into the limelight. The importance of replenishing these depleting commensals with ′probiotics′ has resurfaced in a big way. As the days go by science and medicines will touch new milestones, which will include probiotics. The value of a probiotics cannot be taken at face value. Probiotics must not be considered a panacea for treating urogenital infections. However, the available data promises that it will be a strong option in improving and maintaining urogenital health.

  11. Azithromycin versus Doxycycline for Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, William M; Uniyal, Apurva; Lee, Jeannette Y; Lensing, Shelly Y; Johnson, Shacondra; Perry, Raymond C W; Kadrnka, Carmel M; Kerndt, Peter R

    2015-12-24

    Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection remains prevalent and causes substantial reproductive morbidity. Recent studies have raised concern about the efficacy of azithromycin for the treatment of chlamydia infection. We conducted a randomized trial comparing oral azithromycin with doxycycline for the treatment of urogenital chlamydia infection among adolescents in youth correctional facilities, to evaluate the noninferiority of azithromycin (1 g in one dose) to doxycycline (100 mg twice daily for 7 days). The treatment was directly observed. The primary end point was treatment failure at 28 days after treatment initiation, with treatment failure determined on the basis of nucleic acid amplification testing, sexual history, and outer membrane protein A (OmpA) genotyping of C. trachomatis strains. Among the 567 participants enrolled, 284 were randomly assigned to receive azithromycin, and 283 were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline. A total of 155 participants in each treatment group (65% male) made up the per-protocol population. There were no treatment failures in the doxycycline group. In the azithromycin group, treatment failure occurred in 5 participants (3.2%; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 7.4%). The observed difference in failure rates between the treatment groups was 3.2 percentage points, with an upper boundary of the 90% confidence interval of 5.9 percentage points, which exceeded the prespecified absolute 5-percentage-point cutoff for establishing the noninferiority of azithromycin. In the context of a closed population receiving directly observed treatment for urogenital chlamydia infection, the efficacy of azithromycin was 97%, and the efficacy of doxycycline was 100%. The noninferiority of azithromycin was not established in this setting. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00980148.).

  12. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M. de; Vosters, S.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Wansink, D.G.; Ramos, L.; Boer, P. de

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly

  13. Obstetric urogenital fistula: The Ilorin experience, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1998-12-31

    Dec 31, 1998 ... tula managed over a ten-year period (lst January, 1989 to. 31st December, 1998) at the University of Ilorin Teaching. Hospital is reported. The incidence of obstetric urogenital fistula is 1.1 per 1000 births. The condition is associated with illiteracy and poorly supervised delivery. The peak incidence is in 15 ...

  14. Vesicovaginal fistula presenting as urogenital prolapse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urogenital prolapse is a common condition, which along with urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and voiding dysfunctions make up an interrelated group of conditions collectively known as disorders of the pelvic floor. In our case, there was a history of direct trauma from an automobile accident with associated pelvic ...

  15. Microbiologic picture of microflora offemale urogenital organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyudyun A.D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report authors give a detailed analysis of microorganisms that can contaminate mucous membranes of female urogenital system in normal range and in the formation of certain dysbiotic position. The composition of microorganisms that colonize the mucous membrane of the urogenital tract depends on many exogenous and endogenous factors. The main microorganisms that provide colonizing resistance of vaginal biotop (VB are lactobacilli and lactobacteria. The protective properties of lactobacillus are implemented by antagonistic activity and ability to produce lysozyme and hydrogen peroxide. L. acidophilus, L. spp.; Propionbacterium spp.; Fusobacterium spp.; Porphyromonas spp.; Prevotella spp.; S. epidermidis and S. Saprophyticus novobionrezistentni and Streptococcus spp. and others are of definite importance in supporting normobiots of mucous membranes of urogenital system of women. Decreasing number of lactobacilli and other microorganisms of normobiota leads to colonization of mucous membranes of the vagina with G.vaginalis, B.bivies, B.disiens, B.melaninigenius, Mobiluncus, E.coli, E.fecalis, S.epidermidis and development of clinical manifestation of VB. The authors show microscopic and bacteriological characteristics of microorganisms that form normal microbiota and pathological states. The development of basic subjects promotes increasing number of the known microorganisms, important in the development of VB.

  16. An illustrated anatomical ontology of the developing mouse lower urogenital tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Kylie M.; Armstrong, Jane; Keast, Janet R.; Larkins, Christine E.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Southard-Smith, E. Michelle; Cohn, Martin J.; Batourina, Ekatherina; Dan, Hanbin; Schneider, Kerry; Buehler, Dennis P.; Wiese, Carrie B.; Brennan, Jane; Davies, Jamie A.; Harding, Simon D.; Baldock, Richard A.; Little, Melissa H.; Vezina, Chad M.; Mendelsohn, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Malformation of the urogenital tract represents a considerable paediatric burden, with many defects affecting the lower urinary tract (LUT), genital tubercle and associated structures. Understanding the molecular basis of such defects frequently draws on murine models. However, human anatomical terms do not always superimpose on the mouse, and the lack of accurate and standardised nomenclature is hampering the utility of such animal models. We previously developed an anatomical ontology for the murine urogenital system. Here, we present a comprehensive update of this ontology pertaining to mouse LUT, genital tubercle and associated reproductive structures (E10.5 to adult). Ontology changes were based on recently published insights into the cellular and gross anatomy of these structures, and on new analyses of epithelial cell types present in the pelvic urethra and regions of the bladder. Ontology changes include new structures, tissue layers and cell types within the LUT, external genitalia and lower reproductive structures. Representative illustrations, detailed text descriptions and molecular markers that selectively label muscle, nerves/ganglia and epithelia of the lower urogenital system are also presented. The revised ontology will be an important tool for researchers studying urogenital development/malformation in mouse models and will improve our capacity to appropriately interpret these with respect to the human situation. PMID:25968320

  17. Toxicology of male reproduction in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Celis, R; Pedrón-Nuevo, N; Feria-Velasco, A

    1996-01-01

    Environmental contaminants can interfere with the male reproduction function. A review is presented of those pollutants with adverse effects on human reproduction. The possible effects of occupational and environmental exposure to various substances on male reproductive health are evaluated. This analysis considers studies showing damage of men exposed to halogenated hydrocarbons, other organic compounds, heavy metals and some physical agents, and some lifestyles, such as continuous stress, alcohol consumption, cigarette and marijuana smoking, and other addictions. Possible influences of these agents on the neuroendocrine system with the decrease of male fertility during the last decades are also discussed.

  18. Sperm DNA fragmentation affects epigenetic feature in human male pronucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, H; Mohseni-Kouchesfehani, H; Eslami-Arshaghi, T; Salehi, M

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate whether the sperm DNA fragmentation affects male pronucleus epigenetic factors, semen analysis was performed and DNA fragmentation was assessed by the method of sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA). Human-mouse interspecies fertilisation was used to create human male pronucleus. Male pronucleus DNA methylation and H4K12 acetylation were evaluated by immunostaining. Results showed a significant positive correlation between the level of sperm DNA fragmentation and DNA methylation in male pronuclei. In other words, an increase in DNA damage caused an upsurge in DNA methylation. In the case of H4K12 acetylation, no correlation was detected between DNA damage and the level of histone acetylation in the normal group, but results for the group in which male pronuclei were derived from sperm cells with DNA fragmentation, increased DNA damage led to a decreased acetylation level. Sperm DNA fragmentation interferes with the active demethylation process and disrupts the insertion of histones into the male chromatin in the male pronucleus, following fertilisation. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Impact of asymptomatic urogenital tract infections on ejaculate parameters in infertile men with varicocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Kurilo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele, a pathology developing in 15 % males, is associated with 30 % male infertility cases. The role of urogenital infections coinciding with varicocele in infertile men has not been studied in sufficient detail.Objective: to examine the effects of bacterial and viral infections on ejaculate parameters in infertile patients with varicocele. The study included 49 patients with infertility and varicocele and 26 healthy males undergoing prophylactic medical examination. Highlevel infection was recorded after examination of ejaculates and urethral scrapes of 49 patients: bacterial (30.6 % and viral (14.3 % pathogens. Quantitative analysis of viral DNA showed high contamination of ejaculates with herpes viruses (> 3 lg10/ml. Detailed analysis of spermatograms demonstrated a decrease in all basic parameters in patients with varicocele and infertility compared with those in healthy subjects. The presence of infectious agents had a statistically significant negative effect on ejaculate parameters. Spermiological examination revealed high level of sperm abnormalities (astenozoospermia, oligoteratozoospermia, and oligoastenoteratozoospermia in patients with infertility, varicocele and bacterioviral infection of urogenital tract compared with uninfected infertile patients with varicocele. Laboratory tests for bacterial and viral infections should be recommended in infertility associated with varicocele even in the absence of clinical signs of these infections. Quantitative analysis of urogenital pathogens allows one to determine the necessity of etiotherapy of hidden infection and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

  20. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  1. An alternate dissection approach to the female urogenital triangle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Margaret I; Walters, Linda M

    2013-09-01

    Traditional dissections of the female urogenital (UG) triangle can lead to early destruction of the erectile tissues, associated musculature, and neurovascular structures. Here, we present an alternate dissection of the female UG triangle. Rather than begin the female UG triangle dissection with the fatty tissue of the labia majora, we utilize an early identification of the suspensory ligament of the clitoris to organize the dissection. The suspensory ligament leads to the body of the clitoris, which can be palpated from distal to proximal to find the crura of the clitoris with overlying ischiocavernosus muscles. Once the crura have been defined, the bulbs of the vestibule with overlying bulbospongiosus muscles can be palpated medially and posteriorly. This dissection approach results in a clean dissection that well demonstrates homologies between male and female external genitalia. Through the use of this method, most student dissection attempts are able to demonstrate the erectile tissues and associated musculature that comprise the female UG triangle. This technique can also be used for male UG triangle dissections, encouraging identification of male and female homologies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Treatment of urogenital and anal condylomata acuminata with Neodym: YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dann, Thomas; Knipper, Ansgar; Thomas, Stephen; Jocham, Dieter

    1994-02-01

    Condylomata acuminata of the urogenital and anal region are sexually transmitted warts caused by infection of human papilloma virus. In the literature different treatment modalities are reported. We report the treatment of 323 patients (315 male, 8 female) with a mean age of 27.9 years using the Nd:YAG laser. In 65% the lesions were located in the fossa navicularis, in 37% at the glans, in 30% at the foreskin. Thirty-five percent of all patients required endoscopic treatment of the distal urethra. Two-hundred-seventy-nine patients had recurrence after unsuccessful pretreatment with surgical and chemical therapy. After a mean follow-up of 15.5 months (2 - 43 months) of 95 evaluable patients 15 showed recurrences all within the first 6 months. The advantages of Nd:YAG laser treatment of condylomata acuminata, which might be done in local anaesthesia, are a low rate of recurrences and complications, the option of endoscopic treatment and the excellent cosmetic results.

  3. Human males and females body thermoregulation: perfusion effect analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Saraswati; Gurung, D B; Saxena, V P

    2014-10-01

    Skin temperature is a common physiological parameter that reflects thermal responses. Blood perfusion is an important part of the physiological processes that the human body undergoes in order to maintain homeostasis. This study focuses on the effect of perfusion on the temperature distribution in human males and females body in different thermal environment. The study has been carried out for one dimensional steady cases using finite element method. The input parameter of the model is the blood perfusion or volumetric flow rate within the tissue. The appropriate physical and physiological parameters together with suitable boundary conditions that affect the heat regulations have been incorporated in the model. The study is to have a better understanding that how does thermoregulation change in human males and females skin layered due to perfusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Human leukocyte antigen-G within the male reproductive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly...... by “priming” the woman’s immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast...

  5. [Examination of urogenital tract microorganism infection and antibiotic susceptibility test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-wen; Yan, Zu-wei; Dai, Gan

    2003-06-01

    To isolate bacteria, mycoplasma and chlamydia from the urogenital tract, and to determine their antibiotic susceptibility. Bacteria, mycoplasma and chlamydia were isolated from the urogenital tract secretion by artifical culture, and their antibiotic susceptibility was detected by disk diffusion. The common microorganisms were S. epidermidis and corynebacberium, and the minority microorganisms were G- bacteria or E. coli. Bacteria were susceptible to amikacin, cephazolin V, rifampin, gentamycin, and docycyclin. S. epidermidis and corynebacterium are important pathogens of the urogenital tract infection. Disk susceptibility test can be used to screen the susceptible antibiotic.

  6. Development of a regional urogenital pain network: Sharing good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbonmwan, Daisy; Graham, Yitka; Hotonu, Oluseyi; Hussey, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Within the North East of England, there are an increasing number of complex patients presenting with urogenital pain; many of whom are under the care of multiple specialities. To understand and plan a cohesive strategy for this cohort, we have established a multi-disciplinary regional urogenital pain network meeting. The quarterly meetings allow us to share expertise, best practice and identify areas for improvement with the aim of therefore streamlining the patient journey and enhancing the quality of care patients with urogenital pain receive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Case of heterochronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cell carcinoma, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Akiou; Tsuritani, Shinji; Takagawa, Kiyoshi; Fuse, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old male with heterochronous triple urogenital cancer. The patient was referred to our hospital because serum PSA was elevated (7.0 ng/ml) in 1998. Prostatic needle biopsy revealed prostatic cancer in the right lobe, and total prostatectomy was performed. The histopathological diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (TlcNOMO). Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) was detected during an examination for microhematuria in 2002. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) procedure was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 urothelial carcinoma (pTa). A right renal mass was detected incidentally on follow-up CT for bladder cancer in 2008. Renal enucleation was performed in 2009. The histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 clear cell renal cell carcinoma (pTlaNXMO). NMIBC was detected on follow-up urethrocystoscopy in 2011. The TURBT procedure was performed, and the histopathological diagnosis was grade 2 urothelial carcinoma (pTa). On follow-up for urogenital cancer patients, it is important to investigate recurrence of the primary cancer and also heterochronous canceration of other urogenital organs.

  8. Circumcision of male infants as a human rights violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, J Steven

    2013-07-01

    Every infant has a right to bodily integrity. Removing healthy tissue from an infant is only permissible if there is an immediate medical indication. In the case of infant male circumcision there is no evidence of an immediate need to perform the procedure. As a German court recently held, any benefit to circumcision can be obtained by delaying the procedure until the male is old enough to give his own fully informed consent. With the option of delaying circumcision providing all of the purported benefits, circumcising an infant is an unnecessary violation of his bodily integrity as well as an ethically invalid form of medical violence. Parental proxy 'consent' for newborn circumcision is invalid. Male circumcision also violates four core human rights documents-the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the Convention Against Torture. Social norm theory predicts that once the circumcision rate falls below a critical value, the social norms that currently distort our perception of the practice will dissolve and rates will quickly fall.

  9. An association study of four candidate loci for human male fertility traits with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Youichi; Tajima, Atsushi; Tsunematsu, Kouki; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Imoto, Issei; Yamauchi, Aiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2015-06-01

    Are the four candidate loci (rs7867029, rs7174015, rs12870438 and rs724078) for human male fertility traits, identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a Hutterite population in the USA, associated with male infertility in a Japanese population? rs7867029, rs7174015 and rs12870438 are significantly associated with the risk of male infertility in a Japanese population. Recently, a GWAS of a Hutterite population in the USA revealed that 41 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were significantly correlated with family size or birth rate. Of these, four SNPs (rs7867029, rs7174015, rs12870438 and rs724078) were found to be associated with semen parameters in ethnically diverse men from Chicago. This is a case-control association study in a total of 917 Japanese subjects, including 791 fertile men, 76 patients with azoospermia and 50 patients with oligozoospermia. Azoospermia was diagnosed on the basis of semen analysis (the absence of sperm in ejaculate), serum hormone levels and physical examinations. Oligozoospermia was defined as a sperm concentration of Japan (1013201) (to T.I.), Grant-in-Aids for Scientific Research (C) (23510242) (to A.Ta.) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, the European Union (BMH4-CT96-0314) (to T. I.) and the Takeda Science Foundation (to A.Ta.). None of the authors has any competing interests to declare. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Rome Consensus Conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Andrea; Mirone, Vincenzo; Gentile, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Foresta, Carlo; Mariani, Luciano; Mazzoli, Sandra; Parisi, Saverio G; Perino, Antonio; Picardo, Mauro; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2013-02-07

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3-72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16-26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2-98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6-93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6-99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males gained no benefit at all. Males with

  11. Electrical characteristics of female and male human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalauzi A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS is a popular method for characterizing the electrical properties of biological tissues. In this study, BIS measurement data of female and male human skin were analyzed and compared. The electrical characteristics of tissue were followed according to four-parameters of the Cole-Cole model: low frequency resistance R0; high frequency resistance R∞; relaxation time t and parameter a. Individual electrical characteristics of human skin were determined for 30 women and 30 men. The distribution and one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA of the Cole-Cole parameters R0, R∞, t, a within the human population indicated their different dependence on gender. Parameter a, which is higher in the female subjects (a =0.83±0.03 than in the male subjects (a=0.7±0.05, is strongly dependent on gender (p=0. Parameter R∞ also significantly depends on gender (p=0.002, while t and R0 seem to be slightly related to gender (p>0.05. [Acknowledgments - This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Serbia (41006.

  12. [Urogenital lymphoma presenting with obstructive anuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Guessous, Hicham; Essaki, Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Rachid, Mohamed; Quessar, Asmaa; Benchekroun, Said; El Mrini, Mohamed

    2004-02-01

    The authors report a case of urogenital lymphoma with multiple sites in a patient presenting with oligo-anuria. Clinical examination revealed a hard hypogastric and prostatic mass and an enlarged left scrotum. Abdominopelvic and scrotal ultrasound demonstrated a prostatic tumour, a hypogastric mass, hepatic nodular lesions and coeliac lymphadenopathy with bilateral ureterohydronephrosis and a heterogeneous intrascrotal mass in contact with the lower pole of the left testis. The laboratory assessment revealed severe renal failure. After a haemodialysis session and ultrasound-guided right percutaneous nephrostomy, pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a very large pelvic mass between the bladder and the rectum and transrectal biopsy of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of high-grade malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) with a type B lymphoblastic phenotype. Treatment consisted of chemotherapy according to the LMB 93 protocol. The course was favourable with return of normal renal function and complete remission 1 month after induction. The patient is currently in complete remission with a follow-up of 12 months. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic aspects of this rare site of lymphoma.

  13. Urogenital abnormalities in men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer Julie R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diethylstilbestrol (DES, a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s–70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results. Methods In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities. Exposure status was determined through review of prenatal records. Mailed questionnaires (1994, 1997, 2001 asked about specified abnormalities of the urogenital tract. Risk ratios (RR were estimated by Cox regression with constant time at risk and control for year of birth. Results Prenatal DES exposure was not associated with varicocele, structural abnormalities of the penis, urethral stenosis, benign prostatic hypertrophy, or inflammation/infection of the prostate, urethra, or epididymus. However, RRs were 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.1–3.4 for cryptorchidism, 2.5 (1.5–4.3 for epididymal cyst, and 2.4 (1.5–4.4 for testicular inflammation/infection. Stronger associations were observed for DES exposure that began before the 11th week of pregnancy: RRs were 2.9 (1.6–5.2 for cryptorchidism, 3.5 (2.0–6.0 for epididymal cyst, and 3.0 (1.7–5.4 for inflammation/infection of testes. Conclusion These results indicate that prenatal exposure to DES increases risk of male urogenital abnormalities and that the association is strongest for exposure that occurs early in gestation. The findings support the hypothesis that endocrine disrupting chemicals may be a cause of the increased prevalence of cryptorchidism that has been seen in recent years.

  14. Human vocal organ: visible-human-male-based three-dimensional visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-woo; Lee, Donghun; Han, Jong H.; Kim, Bohyung; Kim, Dongsung; Kang, Heung Sik

    2002-05-01

    The Visible Human Project planned and promoted by National Library of Medicine (NLM) provides cryosection images of the normal male and female human bodies. The anatomy of human vocal organ is difficult to understand and to imagine due to its complexity. The purpose of this study is to develop the three-dimensionally computerized atlas of the human vocal organ using Visible Human male dataset. A self-developed program with C language and a recent personal computer can show specific organs and structures separately or together, rotate them at three axes, cross-section them transparently at any angles, and zoom them in and out. As a result, our own PC-based program will be a more interactive, more detailed, and more realistic three-dimensional computerized atlas of a human vocal organ including larygopharynx.

  15. Adult Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ Male and Female Mice Display a Spectrum of Genital Malformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei He

    Full Text Available Disorders of sexual development (DSD encompass a broad spectrum of urogenital malformations and are amongst the most common congenital birth defects. Although key genetic factors such as the hedgehog (Hh family have been identified, a unifying postnatally viable model displaying the spectrum of male and female urogenital malformations has not yet been reported. Since human cases are diagnosed and treated at various stages postnatally, equivalent mouse models enabling analysis at similar stages are of significant interest. Additionally, all non-Hh based genetic models investigating DSD display normal females, leaving female urogenital development largely unknown. Here, we generated compound mutant mice, Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+, which exhibit a spectrum of urogenital malformations in both males and females upon birth, and also carried them well into adulthood. Analysis of embryonic day (E18.5 and adult mice revealed shortened anogenital distance (AGD, open ventral urethral groove, incomplete fusion of scrotal sac, abnormal penile size and structure, and incomplete testicular descent with hypoplasia in male mice, whereas female mutant mice displayed reduced AGD, urinary incontinence, and a number of uterine anomalies such as vaginal duplication. Male and female fertility was also investigated via breeding cages, and it was identified that male mice were infertile while females were unable to deliver despite becoming impregnated. We propose that Gli2+/-;Gli3Δ699/+ mice can serve as a genetic mouse model for common DSD such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, and incomplete fusion of the scrotal sac in males, and a spectrum of uterine and vaginal abnormalities along with urinary incontinence in females, which could prove essential in revealing new insights into their equivalent diseases in humans.

  16. Relaxin-like peptides in male reproduction - a human perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivell, Richard; Agoulnik, Alexander I; Anand-Ivell, Ravinder

    2017-05-01

    The relaxin family of peptide hormones and their cognate GPCRs are becoming physiologically well-characterized in the cardiovascular system and particularly in female reproductive processes. Much less is known about the physiology and pharmacology of these peptides in male reproduction, particularly as regards humans. H2-relaxin is involved in prostate function and growth, while insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) is a major product of the testicular Leydig cells and, in the adult, appears to modulate steroidogenesis and germ cell survival. In the fetus, INSL3 is a key hormone expressed shortly after sex determination and is responsible for the first transabdominal phase of testicular descent. Importantly, INSL3 is becoming a very useful constitutive biomarker reflecting both fetal and post-natal development. Nothing is known about roles for INSL4 in male reproduction and only very little about relaxin-3, which is mostly considered as a brain peptide, or INSL5. The former is expressed at very low levels in the testes, but has no known physiology there, whereas the INSL5 knockout mouse does exhibit a testicular phenotype with mild effects on spermatogenesis, probably due to a disruption of glucose homeostasis. INSL6 is a major product of male germ cells, although it is relatively unexplored with regard to its physiology or pharmacology, except that in mice disruption of the INSL6 gene leads to a disruption of spermatogenesis. Clinically, relaxin analogues may be useful in the control of prostate cancer, and both relaxin and INSL3 have been considered as sperm adjuvants for in vitro fertilization. This article is part of a themed section on Recent Progress in the Understanding of Relaxin Family Peptides and their Receptors. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v174.10/issuetoc. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. TvMP50 is an Immunogenic Metalloproteinase during Male Trichomoniasis*

    OpenAIRE

    Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Villalpando, José Luis; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Arroyo, Rossana; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Álvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a human urogenital tract parasite, is capable of surviving in the male microenvironment, despite of the presence of Zn2+. Concentrations > 1.6 mm of Zn2+ have a trichomonacidal effect; however, in the presence of ≤1.6 mm Zn2+, several trichomonad proteins are up- or down-regulated. Herein, we analyzed the proteome of a T. vaginalis male isolate (HGMN01) grown in the presence of Zn2+ and found 32 protein spots that were immunorecognized by male trichomoniasis patient ser...

  18. Urogenital schistosomiasis and associated determinant factors among senior high school students in the Dutsin-Ma and Safana Local Government Areas of Katsina State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalabi, Tolulope Ebenezer; Lawal, Umar; Akinluyi, Francis Omowonuola

    2016-08-02

    Human schistosomiasis is a chronic parasitic disease of poverty caused by the cercariae of digenetic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. The disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality in 77 low- and middle-income countries in the tropics where 700 million people are at risk. In a bid to provide relevant epidemiological information to boost control of urogenital schistosomiasis at the state level in Nigeria, we conducted this study with the aim of investigating the disease's prevalence and intensity, and the determinant factors responsible for its endemicity. Data on risk factors were obtained from a total of 645 students aged 12─25 years using well- designed questionnaires. Samples were collected between 09:45 and 14:00 in universal bottles. Each10μl centrifuged sample was examined for the eggs of S. haematobium using Motic® (Binocular) Light Microscope (model S-10-P) with a x10 objective. Average infection intensity was recorded as number of eggs per 10 ml of urine sample. Survey data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and analyzed using Epi Info™ 7. Associations among variables were determined using the chi square test and bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Prevalence of urogenital schistosomiasis was 30.54 % among the study population, with a mean infection intensity of 30.27 eggs/10 ml of urine. Prevalence and average intensity were higher in males (28.37 % and 32.21 eggs/10 ml of urine respectively) than in females (2.17 % and 5 eggs/10 ml of urine respectively). Water contact activities (X (2)   = 29.031, P = 0.0000), sex (male) [X (2)   = 109.82; PGovernment Areas for urogenital schistosomiasis. The strong association between the disease and mother's occupation is of utmost importance and suggests a promising control measure: that is, directing health education as well as grassroots mass chemotherapeutic intervention with praziquantel at mothers. A good network including treated pipe-borne water

  19. Female urogenital dysfunction following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ashraf

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of Total Mesorectal Excision (TME on sexual function in the male is well documented. However, there is little literature in female patients. The aim of this study was to review the pelvic autonomic nervous anatomy in the female and to perform a retrospective audit of urinary and sexual function in women following surgery for rectal cancer where TME had been performed. Urogenital dysfunction was assessed through interview and questionnaire. Method Twenty-three questionnaires, eighteen returned, were sent to women with a mean age 65.5 yrs (range 34–86. All had undergone total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer between 1998–2001. Mean follow-up was 18.8 months (range 3–35. Results Preoperatively 5/18 (28% were sexually active, 3/18 (17% of patients described urinary frequency and nocturia and 7/18 (39% described symptoms of stress incontinence prior to surgery. Postoperatively all sexually active patients remained active although all described some discomfort with penetration. Two of the patients sexually active described reduced libido secondary to the stoma. Postoperative urinary symptoms developed with 59% reporting the development of nocturia, 18% developed stress incontinence and one patient required a permanent catheter. Of those with symptoms, 80% persisted longer than three months from surgery. Symptoms were predominant in those patients with low rectal cancers, particularly those undergoing abdomino-perineal excision and in those who had previously undergone abdominal hysterectomy. Conclusion The treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery to the pelvic floor. Despite nerve preservation this is associated with the development of worsening nocturia and stress incontinence. This is most marked in those patients who had previously undergone a hysterectomy. Further studies are warranted to assess the interaction with previous gynaecological surgery.

  20. Examining the relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Sabina Mbabazi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge.We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV.Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis, is an important public health priority. Our

  1. Expression of Attractin in male reproductive tract of human and mice and its correlation with male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan; Ming, Yu; Li, Jie; Chi, Yan; Li, Hong-Gang; Zou, Yu-Jie; Xiong, Cheng-Liang

    2014-10-01

    The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis and semen of human and male mice was investigated. Human testis and semen samples were all collected from Reproductive Center of Renmin Hospital, Wuhan University in December, 2012. Testis samples were collected from 7 cases of obstructive azoospermias when they were subjected to diagnosed testis biopsy, and 30 normal human semen samples were obtained from those cases of semen analysis. Adult mice testis tissues were obtained from 10 2-month-old male BALB/c mice, and 60 male mice at different ages were classified into 10 groups (day 1, 5, 10, 15, 21, 28, 35, 42, 56, and 120 respectively, n=6 each). The expression of Attractin mRNA and protein in testis was detected by RT-PCR and Western blotting respectively. Human semen samples were centrifuged into sperm plasma (SP) and sperm extract (SE), and mice sperm samples were collected from the epididymis of 10 adult male BALB/c mice. Western blotting was used to determine the Attractin protein expression level. Attractin mRNA and protein were expressed in the testis of both patients with obstructive azoospermias and adult Bcl/B mice. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that no Attractin mRNA was detectable in day 1 male BALB/c mice group. The Attractin mRNA and protein levels were low on the day 10, and increased with age until day 56. On the day 120, the expression levels of Attractin were decreased. As for human semen samples, Attractin protein was expressed in both SP and SE, but didn't exist in samples from the epididymis of male BALB/c mice. It was suggested that Attractin acted as a novel active substance and was involved in male reproduction in both human and BALB/c mice, but it exerted a different expression profile in different mammal species.

  2. Synchronous triple urogenital cancer (renal cancer, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer). A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takada, Tsuyoshi; Honda, Masahito; Momohara, Chikahiro; Komori, Kazuhiko; Fujioka, Hideki [Osaka Police Hospital (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    A case of synchronous triple urogenital cancer, which was comprised of renal cell carcinoma of the left kidney, transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and adenocarcinoma of the prostate, is reported. A 72-year-old Japanese male patient was referred to our outpatient clinic with the complaint of asymptomatic hematuria. At that time, his serum of level of PSA was elevated to 20 ng/ml. Cystourethroscopy showed a papillary bladder tumor and coagula through the left urinary orifice. Ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm in the left kidney. Angiography showed a hypervascular lesion measuring about 6 cm by 5 cm at the same site. Double cancer, consisting of renal cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, was suspected and we performed left total nephroureterectomy, hilar lymphadenectomy, and transurethral rection of the bladder tumor, one month later. At the same time, we performed a biopsy of the prostate. Histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma and transitional cell carcinoma of urinary bladder. Histological diagnosis of the prostate biopsy was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. Since this case fulfilled the criteria of Warren and Gates, it was classified as synchronous triple urogenital cancer. A review of the literature revealed 17 authentic cases of triple urogenital cancer, of which 14 and 10 cases were reported as a combination of renal cancer, bladder cancer and prostatic cancer, in the world and in Japan, respectively. Furthermore, he had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in 1945. This carcinogenic precursor may be related to the development of the triple cancer. (author)

  3. Inducing sex reversal of the urogenital system of marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfree, Marilyn B; Chew, Keng Yih; Shaw, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Marsupials differ from eutherian mammals in their reproductive strategy of delivering a highly altricial young after a short gestation. The young, with its undeveloped organ systems completes its development post-natally, usually within a pouch. The young is dependent on milk with a composition that varies through lactation to support its growth and changing needs as it matures over a lengthy period. Gonadal differentiation occurs after birth, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effects of hormonal manipulations on its sexual differentiation of the highly accessible young. In marsupials a difference in the migration of the urinary ducts around the genital ducts from eutherian mammals results in the unique tammar reproductive tract which has three vaginae and two cervices, and two distinctly separate uteri. In the tammar wallaby, a small member of the kangaroo family, we showed that virilisation of the Wolffian duct, prostate and phallus depends on an alternate androgen pathway, which has now been shown to be important for virilisation in humans. Through hormonal manipulations over differing time periods we have achieved sex reversal of both ovaries and testes, germ cells, genital ducts, prostate and phallus. Whilst we understand many of the mechanisms behind sexual differentiation there are still many lessons to be learned from understanding how sex reversal is achieved by using a model such as the tammar wallaby. This will help guide investigations into the major questions of how and why sex determination is achieved in other species. This review discusses the control and development of the marsupial urogenital system, largely drawn from our studies in the tammar wallaby and our ability to manipulate this system to induce sex reversal. Copyright © 2013 International Society of Differentiation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction and objectives: Over the last few decades, congenital anomalies of the urogenital system have increased globally as a consequence of advanced maternal age at pregnancy and developments in assisted reproductive techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of apparent congenital ...

  5. The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Bhat

    2016-07-18

    Jul 18, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction and objectives: Over the last few decades, congenital anomalies of the urogenital system have increased globally as a consequence of advanced maternal age at pregnancy and developments in assisted reproductive techniques. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of ...

  6. Isolation of Proteus mirabilis from Clinical Urogenital Specimens: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This retrospective study was designed to ascertain the epidemiological sources and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Proteus mirabilis strains recovered from urogenital specimens in Jos University Teaching Hospital; (JUTH) over a five year period (Janurary 2000 – December 2004). Information on epidemiological and ...

  7. Isolation and antibiotic resistance of Ureaplasma spp. isolated from urogenital specimen between 2002 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tito Del Gaudio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis are frequently isolated from urogenital samples. Ureaplasma spp is responsible for cervicovaginitis, salpingitis, urethritis, epididymitis, male and female infertility, spontaneous abortion, and during pregnancy, for the premature rupture of the membranes, because of chorionamnionitis. Our study aimed to establish the pattern of antimicrobial resistance among Ureaplasma spp isolated in the area of Andria,Apulia Region, from January 2002 to December 2007. 240/781 (30.7% of the urogenital samples examined were found Ureaplasma spp.-positive. 152/240 (63.3 % were >104 UFC/ml and 88/240 (36.7 % were <104 UFC/ml. With regard to the resistance rate, we observed significant increase in resistance to ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin. While we did not observe resistance to doxycycline, strains resistant to tetracycline, josamycin, and pristinamycins, were isolated during last years of investigation. Our data may help improve the management of these infections above all in consideration of the differences among isolates in different geographic regions.

  8. Detection of Human Herpesviruses (HHVs) in Semen of Human Male Infertile Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHEN, Mo; CAI, Li-Yi; KANNO, Naoko; KATO, Takako; LU, Jinxing; JIN, Fan; WANG, Honghua; SEKITA, Masayo; HIGUCHI, Masashi; YOSHIDA, Saishu; YAKO, Hideji; UEHARU, Hiroki; IZUMI, Shun-Ichiro; KATO, Yukio

    2013-01-01

    Recently we demonstrated an ectopic expression of the human herpesvirus 1 thymidine kinase (HHV1-TK) gene by functioning of an intrinsic endogenous promoter in the transgenic rat (TG-rat), suggesting that HHV1 infection in humans induces expression of the TK gene with the ectopic promoter in the testis and results in accumulation of HHV1-TK protein, triggering male infertility similar to that in the TG-rat. Hence, in this study, we started to investigate a relationship between infection of herpesvirus and human male infertility. Semen was donated by Chinese male infertile patients (153 men, aged 21–49 years) with informed consent, followed by DNA preparation and analysis by PCR and DNA sequencing. Semen volume, sperm number and density, and sperm motility were examined. DNAs of HHV1, HHV4, HHV5 and HHV6 were confirmed by PCR, electrophoresis and DNA sequencing. Finally, virus DNA was identified in 59 patients (39%). The number of carriers was 39 (25%) for HHV1, 6 (4%) for HHV4, 33 (22%) for HHV5 and 3 (2%) for HHV6, respectively. Moreover, double-infection was found in 22 out of 59 specimens (37%), most of which were double-infection of HHV1 and HHV5 (15 out of 22 carriers). Though slight severity was present in some of the carriers, the relationship between virus infection and sperm impairment was not conclusive. Accordingly, it is essential to examine whether the viral HHV1-TK gene is expressed in the testis of the infertile human HHV carrier. PMID:23748714

  9. Delineation of potential urban urogenital schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though, none of the exposed snails shed cercaria, the human activities were observed at the sites. The results showed that 49.7% of the human contacts were for swimming followed by Fishing (32.2%), cloth-washing (10.1%) and spiritual/ritual bath (8.0%). Swimming has the highest relative index of exposure ...

  10. Male Participation in Family Planning: Human Behaviour Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, L R

    2015-01-01

    Family planning (FP) is one of the major components of reproductive health and its goal is to prevent unwanted pregnancies and regulate wanted pregnancies, thereby ensuring the health of mothers and children. It also aims at regulating the population in order to maintain the vital balance between development and the environment. Ideally, FP depends on the efforts of a couple where the man and woman are equally responsible and accountable. In reality, however, this is not the case. It is in this background that the present study aims at examining the nature and level of male participation in preventing unwanted pregnancies and the factors that influence male participation in FP. The data for the study was derived using mixed methods, drawing from both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The research design was cross-sectional, descriptive and observational. Despite the high level of knowledge and awareness about FP among the respondents, it was found that male participation in FP continues to remain very low. The multidimensional factors influencing their participation include education of the couple (the unadjusted odds ratio of higher education level of respondents is 2.182 and the adjusted OR is 1.972; and the unadjusted OR of higher education level of the spouse is 2.030, and the adjusted OR is 1.570), and economic condition (the unadjusted OR of higher income is 2.272 and the adjusted OR is 2.436) of family. Male participation in FP was found to be higher in rural areas (69.8 %) and among Dalits (72.5%). Other factors include social stigma and religious practice, patriarchal notions, gender roles and individual characteristics. Male participation plays a crucial role in population management, but patriarchal notions, socioculturally defined gender roles, combined with the inefficiency of the current FP programme, and biological factors contribute towards keeping male participation very low.

  11. Environmental hexachlorobenzene exposure and human male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Ina Olmer; Bonde, Jens Peter; Toft, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental fungicide that may disrupt androgen regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HCB levels and biomarkers of male reproductive function. 589 Spouses of pregnant women from Greenland, Poland and Ukraine were enroll...

  12. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  13. Clinical and epidemiological aspects of urogenital chlamidiosis of men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectve: the study of the clinical and epidemiological features of urogenital chlamydia infection in men.Subjects and methods. We have studied 132 men with urogenital Chlamydia infection. Laboratory methods – polymerase chain reaction, ELISA, immunofluorescence, bacterioscopic, bacteriological. The sperms were examined in accordance with the WHO recommendations.Results. Сlinical and laboratory studies have revealed: the chronic infection in 84.9 %; prostatitis in 59.1 %, with its frequency higer with chronic course; pathospermia in 72.2 %; mixed infection in 67.4 % with greater frequency with mycoplasmas (49.4 %, Ureaplasma urealyticum (38.2 % and Trichomonas vaginalis (47.2 %. Copulative function disorders in 40 % of men, significantly often observed violations of erection and ejaculation.Conclusions. Urogenital chlamydia infection – a cause of various disorders of the reproductive system, with its frequency higer in pathients with mixt-infection. Involvement of the reproductive glands (prostate, epididymis and others. In the inflammatory process manifested pathospermia and copulative dysfunctions.

  14. Human male infertility, the Y chromosome, and dinosaur extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman J. Silber

    2011-06-01

    Our studies of the Y chromosome and male infertility suggest that the default mechanism for determining the sex of offspring is the temperature of egg incubation, and that genetic sex determination (based on sex chromosomes like X and Y has evolved many times over and over again in different ways, in different genera, as a more foolproof method than temperature variation of assuring a balanced sex ratio in offspring. The absence of such a genetic sex determining mechanism in dinosaurs may have led to a skewed sex ratio when global temperature dramatically changed 65,000,000 years ago, resulting in a preponderance of males, and consequentially a rapid decline in population.

  15. Constraints on the coevolution of contemporary human males and females

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stearns, Stephen C.; Govindaraju, Diddahally R.; Ewbank, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    sex. Although intralocus sexual conflict can restrict sexes from reaching their phenotypic optima, no direct evidence currently supports its operation in humans. Here, we show that the pattern of multivariate selection acting on human height, weight, blood pressure and glucose, total cholesterol...

  16. Androgenic regulation of ventral epithelial bud number and pattern in mouse urogenital sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgeier, Sarah H; Lin, Tien-Min; Moore, Robert W; Vezina, Chad M; Abler, Lisa L; Peterson, Richard E

    2010-02-01

    The ventral urogenital sinus (UGS) of control male mice has two rows of 3-4 prostatic buds at birth, but how androgens regulate ventral bud (VB) number and patterning is unclear. VBs in both sexes appeared to be a mixture of prostatic and urethral buds. UGSs from Tfm male and antiandrogen (flutamide)-exposed mice had small VBs, suggesting that initiation of some VBs is androgen independent. Tfm male mice are widely considered completely androgen insensitive yet their UGSs were 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT)- responsive. VBs (6-8) were generally distributed bimodally on the left-right axis at both minimal and normal male androgen signaling. Yet control females and DHT-exposed Tfm males had 13-14 VBs, whose left-right distribution was fairly uniform. These results suggest that VB number and distribution respond biphasically as androgen signaling increases from minimal, and that androgens regulate bud specification. Complete VB agenesis by the selective budding inhibitor 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) required high androgen signaling.

  17. Male germline stem cells in non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few decades, several studies have attempted to decipher the biology of mammalian germline stem cells (GSCs. These studies provide evidence that regulatory mechanisms for germ cell specification and migration are evolutionarily conserved across species. The characteristics and functions of primate GSCs are highly distinct from rodent species; therefore the findings from rodent models cannot be extrapolated to primates. Due to limited availability of human embryonic and testicular samples for research purposes, two non-human primate models (marmoset and macaque monkeys are extensively employed to understand human germline development and differentiation. This review provides a broader introduction to the in vivo and in vitro germline stem cell terminology from primordial to differentiating germ cells. Primordial germ cells (PGCs are the most immature germ cells colonizing the gonad prior to sex differentiation into testes or ovaries. PGC specification and migratory patterns among different primate species are compared in the review. It also reports the distinctions and similarities in expression patterns of pluripotency markers (OCT4A, NANOG, SALL4 and LIN28 during embryonic developmental stages, among marmosets, macaques and humans. This review presents a comparative summary with immunohistochemical and molecular evidence of germ cell marker expression patterns during postnatal developmental stages, among humans and non-human primates. Furthermore, it reports findings from the recent literature investigating the plasticity behavior of germ cells and stem cells in other organs of humans and monkeys. The use of non-human primate models would enable bridging the knowledge gap in primate GSC research and understanding the mechanisms involved in germline development. Reported similarities in regulatory mechanisms and germ cell expression profile in primates demonstrate the preclinical significance of monkey models for development of

  18. Estrogen receptors in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra, and prostate. An immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, A; Balslev, E; Juul, B R

    1995-01-01

    The distribution and quantity of estrogen receptors (ERs) in the human male bladder, prostatic urethra and the prostate were studied in eight males with recurrent papillomas of the bladder or monosymptomatic hematuria (median age 61 years), 14 men undergoing transurethral resection due to benign...

  19. A curvilinear effect of height on reproductive success in human males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Pollet, T.V.; Verhulst, S.; Buunk, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear

  20. A curvilinear effect of height on reproductive success in human males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Pollet, Thomas V.; Verhulst, Simon; Buunk, Abraham P.

    Human male height is associated with mate choice and intra-sexual competition, and therefore potentially with reproductive success. A literature review (n = 18) on the relationship between male height and reproductive success revealed a variety of relationships ranging from negative to curvilinear

  1. Pharmacokinetic Study of Nifedipine in Healthy Adult Male Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: This study confirms the rapid absorption of nifedipine in humans. AUC was similar to that previously reported for Nigerians but slightly lower than that stated in the literature for other south Asian races. Further studies on large segments of the local population using the non-compartmental model for

  2. Pharmacokinetic Study of Nifedipine in Healthy Adult Male Human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Conclusion: This study confirms the rapid absorption of nifedipine in humans. AUC was similar to that previously reported for Nigerians but slightly lower than that stated in the literature for other south Asian races. Further studies on large segments of the local population using the non-compartmental model for.

  3. Early infant male circumcision for human immunodeficiency virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Swaziland has the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world at 26% of the adult population. ... Acceptability of medical circumcision was high in this study, but concerns about safety, pain, autonomy and cultural factors reduce the acceptability of infant circumcision more specifically.

  4. Variations in regional sweat composition in normal human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, M J; Galloway, S D; Nimmo, M A

    2000-11-01

    This project aimed to quantify the regional distribution of sweat composition over the skin surface and to determine whether sweat constituent concentrations collected from regional sites can estimate whole-body concentrations. Ten males cycled for 90 min in a 20 degrees C (50% relative humidity) environment at 45% peak aerobic power. Sweat was collected from eleven skin regions and the whole body, using a wash-down technique. Strong relationships were evident between the regional and whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-], such that the thigh and calf exhibited greater correlation coefficients than area-weighted means derived from four and eight skin regions. Therefore, in this particular protocol the whole-body sweat [Na+] and [Cl-] could be predicted from regional sweat collections. Relationships between sweat constituents were evident for sweat [Na+] and pH, and sweat [K+] and [lactate] when data were pooled between skin regions and subjects. To our knowledge this is the first investigation to report a positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate]. The exact mechanism responsible for the positive relationship between sweat [K+] and [lactate] is uncertain although it is speculated to occur at the secretory coil.

  5. Systemic chimerism in human female recipients of male livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Trucco, Massimo; Zeevi, Adriana; Kocova, Mirjana; Ildstad, Suzanne; Demetris, Antony J.; Ramos, Hector; Rudert, William A.; Ricordi, Camillo; Murase, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    We have previously reported data from clinical and laboratory animal observations which suggest that organ tolerance after transplantation depends on a state of balanced lymphodendritic cell chimerism between the host and donor graft. We have sought further evidence to support this hypothesis by investigating HLA-mismatched liver allograft recipients. 9 of 9 female recipients of livers from male donors had chimerism in their allografts and extrahepatic tissues, according to in-situ hybridisation and molecular techniques 10 to 19 years post-transplantation. In 8 women with good graft function, evidence of the Y chromosome was found in the blood (6/8), skin (8/8), and lymph nodes (7/8). A ninth patient whose transplant failed after 12 years from recurrent chronic viral hepatitis had chimerism in her lymph nodes, skin, jejunum, and aorta at the time of retransplantation. Although cell migration is thought to take place after all types of transplantation, the large population of migratory cells in, and the extent of their seeding from, hepatic grafts may explain the privileged tolerogenicity of the liver compared with other organs. PMID:1357298

  6. Systematic reviews of point-of-care tests for the diagnosis of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Helen; Coltart, Cordelia E M; Pant Pai, Nitika; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Unemo, Magnus; Toskin, Igor; Peeling, Rosanna W

    2017-12-01

    WHO estimates that 131 million new cases of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections occur globally every year. Most infections are asymptomatic. Untreated infection in women can lead to severe complications. Screening and treatment of at-risk populations is a priority for prevention and control. To summarise systematic reviews of the performance characteristics of commercially available point-of-care tests (POCT) for screening and diagnosis of urogenital CT infection. Two separate systematic reviews covering the periods 2004-2013 and 2010-2015 were conducted on rapid CT POCTs. Studies were included if tests were evaluated against a valid reference standard. In the first review, 635 articles were identified, of which 11 were included. Nine studies evaluated the performance of eight antigen detection rapid POCTs on 10 280 patients and two studies evaluated a near-patient nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) on 3518 patients. Pooled sensitivity of antigen detection tests was 53%, 37% and 63% for cervical swabs, vaginal swabs and male urine, and specificity was 99%, 97% and 98%, respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the near-patient NAAT for all specimen types were >98% and 99.4%, respectively. The second review identified two additional studies on four antigen detection POCTs with sensitivities and specificities of 22.7%-37.7% and 99.4%-100%, respectively. A new two-step 15 min rapid POCT using fluorescent nanoparticles showed performance comparable to that of near-patient NAATs. The systematic reviews showed that antigen detection POCTs for CT, although easy to use, lacked sufficient sensitivity to be recommended as a screening test. A near-patient NAAT shows acceptable performance as a screening or diagnostic test but requires electricity, takes 90 min and is costly. More affordable POCTs are in development.

  7. Human sperm chromatin epigenetic potential: genomics, proteomics, and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Castillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical idea about the function of the mammalian sperm chromatin is that it serves to transmit a highly protected and transcriptionally inactive paternal genome, largely condensed by protamines, to the next generation. In addition, recent sperm chromatin genome-wide dissection studies indicate the presence of a differential distribution of the genes and repetitive sequences in the protamine-condensed and histone-condensed sperm chromatin domains, which could be potentially involved in regulatory roles after fertilization. Interestingly, recent proteomic studies have shown that sperm chromatin contains many additional proteins, in addition to the abundant histones and protamines, with specific modifications and chromatin affinity features which are also delivered to the oocyte. Both gene and protein signatures seem to be altered in infertile patients and, as such, are consistent with the potential involvement of the sperm chromatin landscape in early embryo development. This present work reviews the available information on the composition of the human sperm chromatin and its epigenetic potential, with a particular focus on recent results derived from high-throughput genomic and proteomic studies. As a complement, we provide experimental evidence for the detection of phosphorylations and acetylations in human protamine 1 using a mass spectrometry approach. The available data indicate that the sperm chromatin is much more complex than what it was previously thought, raising the possibility that it could also serve to transmit crucial paternal epigenetic information to the embryo.

  8. The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies in North Indian newborns: A study of 20,432 pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhat

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: The incidence of apparent congenital urogenital anomalies was 3.91%. Infertility treatment, parity >2 and a maternal age >30 years were independently associated with an increased risk of congenital urogenital anomalies.

  9. Human leukocyte antigen-G in the male reproductive system and in seminal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Bzorek, Michael; Pass, Malene B

    2011-01-01

    -eclampsia. We have investigated whether HLA-G protein is present in human seminal plasma and in different tissue samples of the male reproductive system. Western blot technique and a soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) assay were used to detect sHLA-G in human seminal plasma samples. Immunohistochemical staining...

  10. Evaluation of microbiological diagnostics in urogenital infections in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Hunjak,

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To establish the percentage of infections in postmenopausal women with urinary symptoms which can be confirmed by microbiological analysis, the most common causative agents and whether the urethra and vagina in patients with cystitis are concurrently colonized by pathogenic microorganisms. Methods Laboratories of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb, in the period of two years, analyzed 245 samples taken from patients with urinary symptoms who had been postmenopausal at least for a year. Urine samples, as well as urethral and vaginal swabs were taken from each patient and tested for causative agents of urogenital infections, genital mycoplasma and Chlamydia trachomatis.Results Cystitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis in 31.4% women, urethritis in 24.8%, and vaginitis in 15.1%. The most common causative agent of urethritis was Ureaplasma urealyticum, while Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common in vaginal infections. E. coli was concurrently isolated in urine, urethral and vaginal samples in 65.1% of patients with E. coli cystitis, while Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in urethral and vaginal samples in each patient with Streptococcus agalactiae cystitis.Conclusion Mucosal colonization of the urethra and vagina contributes to the incidence of cystitis in postmenopausal women. Microbiological diagnostics is necessary to distinguish between the symptoms of ageing of the urogenital system and infection, with a view to preventing unnecessary antibiotic therapy.

  11. Prevalence of urogenital symptoms among Colombian indigenous postmenopausal women = Prevalencia de la sintomatología urogenital en mujeres indígenas colombianas enposmenopausia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márquez Vega, Jhonmer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Deterioration of life quality in postmenopausal women differs according to their ethnicity.Objective: To compare the frequency of urogenital symptoms and the deterioration of the urogenital dimension in indigenous postmenopausal women belonging to three different communities.Methods: By means of the Menopausal Rating Scale, 609 indigenous postmenopausal women, aged between 40-59 years, were studied: 161 (26.4% belonged to different Amazonic tribes, 297 (48.8% were Zenu and 151 (24.8%, Wayuu.Results: Scores in the urogenital dimension were as follows: 3.8 ± 3.2 in the Amazonic women; 6.2 ± 1.3 in the Zenu community, and 2.9 ± 2.6 among the Wayuu. The score for the whole group was 4.8 ± 2.7; all these scores are higher than those of other Colombian and Latinamerican populations. Total score in the MRS was 13.8 ± 8.2 (Amazonic women, 14.7 ± 2.5 (Zenu, and 10.0 ± 6.7 (Wayuu. In the whole group, 9.1% had severe symptoms concerning sexual problems, 48.0% had urinary incontinence, and 12.1% suffered from vaginal dryness. The urogenital dimension was altered in 42%.Conclusion: Indigenous postmenopausal Colombian women belonging to different communities have high prevalence and early appearance of symptoms related to the urogenital dimension. Half of the studied population, with average age 53 years, have urogenital deterioration.

  12. Amyloid precursor protein interaction network in human testis: sentinel proteins for male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Yoon, Sooyeon; Domingues, Sara; Guimarães, Sofia; Goltsev, Alexander V; da Cruz E Silva, Edgar Figueiredo; Mendes, José Fernando F; da Cruz E Silva, Odete Abreu Beirão; Fardilha, Margarida

    2015-01-16

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is widely recognized for playing a central role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Although APP is expressed in several tissues outside the human central nervous system, the functions of APP and its family members in other tissues are still poorly understood. APP is involved in several biological functions which might be potentially important for male fertility, such as cell adhesion, cell motility, signaling, and apoptosis. Furthermore, APP superfamily members are known to be associated with fertility. Knowledge on the protein networks of APP in human testis and spermatozoa will shed light on the function of APP in the male reproductive system. We performed a Yeast Two-Hybrid screen and a database search to study the interaction network of APP in human testis and sperm. To gain insights into the role of APP superfamily members in fertility, the study was extended to APP-like protein 2 (APLP2). We analyzed several topological properties of the APP interaction network and the biological and physiological properties of the proteins in the APP interaction network were also specified by gene ontologyand pathways analyses. We classified significant features related to the human male reproduction for the APP interacting proteins and identified modules of proteins with similar functional roles which may show cooperative behavior for male fertility. The present work provides the first report on the APP interactome in human testis. Our approach allowed the identification of novel interactions and recognition of key APP interacting proteins for male reproduction, particularly in sperm-oocyte interaction.

  13. New, male-specific microsatellite markers from the human Y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, P S; Tatum, O L; Deaven, L L; Longmire, J L

    1999-05-01

    Seven novel microsatellite markers have been developed from a new cosmid library constructed from flow-sorted human Y chromosomes. These microsatellites are tetranucleotide GATA repeats and are polymorphic among unrelated individuals. Five of the seven markers are male-specific, with no PCR product being generated from female DNA. One marker produces male-specific, polymorphic PCR products but occasionally produces a much larger, invariant product from female DNA. The remaining marker is polymorphic in both males and females with many shared alleles between the sexes. This report of six new, male-specific markers doubles the number of tetranucleotide markers that are currently available for the human Y chromosome. These new markers will be valuable where nonrecombining, gender-specific DNA markers are desired, including forensic investigations as well as studies of populations and their evolutionary histories. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  14. A review of human male field studies of hormones and behavioral reproductive effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; McHale, Timothy S; Carré, Justin M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review field studies of human male hormones and reproductive behavior. We first discuss life history theory and related conceptual considerations. As illustrations, distinctive features of human male life histories such as coalitional aggression, long-term partnering and paternal care are noted, along with their relevance to overall reproductive effort and developmental plasticity. We address broad questions about what constitutes a human male field study of hormones and behavior, including the kinds of hormone and behavioral measures employed in existing studies. Turning to several sections of empirical review, we present and discuss evidence for links between prenatal and juvenile androgens and sexual attraction and aggression. This includes the proposal that adrenal androgens-DHEA and androstenedione-may play functional roles during juvenility as part of a life-stage specific system. We next review studies of adult male testosterone responses to competition, with these studies emphasizing men's involvement in individual and team sports. These studies show that men's testosterone responses differ with respect to variables such as playing home/away, winning/losing, and motivation. Field studies of human male hormones and sexual behavior also focus on testosterone, showing some evidence of patterned changes in men's testosterone to sexual activity. Moreover, life stage-specific changes in male androgens may structure age-related differences in sexual behavior, including decreases in sexual behavior with senescence. We overview the considerable body of research on male testosterone, partnerships and paternal care, noting the variation in social context and refinements in research design. A few field studies provide insight into relationships between partnering and paternal behavior and prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin. In the third section of the review, we discuss patterns, limitations and directions for future research. This

  15. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh Pooneh; Hashemitabar Mahmoud; Zeinali Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoid...

  16. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    OpenAIRE

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (...

  17. Aberrant Expression of Dynein light chain 1 (DYNLT1) is Associated with Human Male Factor Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indu, Sivankutty; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Sengottaiyan, Jeeva; Kumar, Anil; Pillai, Sathy M; Laloraya, Malini; Kumar, Pradeep G

    2015-12-01

    DYNLT1 is a member of a gene family identified within the t-complex of the mouse, which has been linked with male germ cell development and function in the mouse and the fly. Though defects in the expression of this gene are associated with male sterility in both these models, there has been no study examining its association with spermatogenic defects in human males. In this study, we evaluated the levels of DYNLT1 and its expression product in the germ cells of fertile human males and males suffering from spermatogenic defects. We screened fertile (n = 14), asthenozoospermic (n = 15), oligozoospermic (n = 20) and teratozoospermic (n = 23) males using PCR and Western blot analysis. Semiquantitative PCR indicated either undetectable or significantly lower levels of expression of DYNLT1 in the germ cells from several patients from across the three infertility syndrome groups, when compared with that of fertile controls. DYNLT1 was localized on head, mid-piece, and tail segments of spermatozoa from fertile males. Spermatozoa from infertile males presented either a total absence of DYNLT1 or its absence in the tail region. Majority of the infertile individuals showed negligible levels of localization of DYNLT1 on the spermatozoa. Overexpression of DYNLT1 in GC1-spg cell line resulted in the up-regulation of several cytoskeletal proteins and molecular chaperones involved in cell cycle regulation. Defective expression of DYNLT1 was associated with male factor infertility syndromes in our study population. Proteome level changes in GC1-spg cells overexpressing DYNLT1 were suggestive of its possible function in germ cell development. We have discussed the implications of these observations in the light of the known functions of DYNLT1, which included protein trafficking, membrane vesiculation, cell cycle regulation, and stem cell differentiation. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Mycoplasma canis and urogenital disease in dogs in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L'Abee-Lund, T.M.; Heiene, R.; Friis, N.F.

    2003-01-01

    Mycoplasmas identified as Mycoplasma canis were isolated from nine dogs with clinical signs of urogenital disease in Norway over a period of 20 months. Some of the dogs had been treated unsuccessfully with antibiotics, and three were euthanased as a result of severe persistent disease. Seven...... of the dogs had a urinary tract infection, one had chronic purulent epididymitis and one had chronic prostatitis. Overt haematuria was frequently observed among the dogs with cystitis. M canis was isolated in pure culture from seven of the dogs and in mixed culture from the other two. In three cases...... the mycoplasma was cultivated only from urinary sediment, and it was typically obtained in smaller numbers than would be considered indicative of a urinary tract infection. In contrast with most mycoplasmas, the M canis isolated from all the dogs grew on ordinary blood agar plates used for routine...

  19. Contrast enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of urogenital pathology

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    Libero Barozzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is an innovative technique that employs microbubble contrast agents to demonstrate parenchymal perfusion. Although initial clinical application was focused on the liver pathology, a wide variety of clinical conditions can be assessed now with CEUS. CEUS is a well-tolerated technique and is acquiring an increasing role in the assessment of renal pathology because contrast agents are not excreted by the kidney and do not affect the renal function. CEUS demonstrated an accuracy similar to contrast enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (CEMDCT in detecting focal lesions, with the advantage of the real-time assessment of microvascular perfusion by using time-intensity curves. The aim of this paper is to review the main indications of CEUS in the assessment of renal and urogenital pathology. Imaging examples are presented and described. Advantages and limitations of CEUS with reference to conventional US and CE-MDCT are discussed.

  20. Morphology of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Characiformes: Characidae

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    Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva

    Full Text Available The histological description of the urogenital papilla is an important tool to comprehension of the reproductive mechanisms in fish, as well as a pre-requisite to germ cell transplantation in adult fish, besides to be a good biological indicator to environmental changes. Was performed the histological description of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in the tetra Astyanax altiparanae. The genital and urinay ducts pass separately throughout most part of its extension, joining in a single duct before opening. In males this opening is asymmetric and seems to have double origin, being completely surrounded by striated muscle fibers, while in females it is symmetric and the muscle fibers does not surround it totally. Spermatic duct and oviduct undergo changes throughout their extension, mainly in the morphology of the surrounding epithelium. In the spermatic duct, squamous epithelial cells change to columnar and cuboid with possible secretory activity, close to testes. In the oviduct, anteriorly epithelial cells are also squamous, however, close to ovary there are lamellae composed by a pseudostratified epithelium with columnar and cuboid cells. The urinary duct is highly similar for both sexes presenting globoid cells, which description is known in mammals, however, rare in fish.

  1. Steroid Tumor Environment in Male and Female Mice Model of Canine and Human Inflammatory Breast Cancer

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    Sara Caceres

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine inflammatory mammary cancer (IMC shares clinical and histopathological characteristics with human inflammatory breast cancer (IBC and has been proposed as a good model for studying the human disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capacity of female and male mice to reproduce IMC and IBC tumors and identify the hormonal tumor environment. To perform the study sixty 6–8-week-old male and female mice were inoculated subcutaneously with a suspension of 106 IPC-366 and SUM149 cells. Tumors and serum were collected and used for hormonal analysis. Results revealed that IPC-366 reproduced tumors in 90% of males inoculated after 2 weeks compared with 100% of females that reproduced tumor at the same time. SUM149 reproduced tumors in 40% of males instead of 80% of females that reproduced tumors after 4 weeks. Both cell lines produce distant metastasis in lungs being higher than the metastatic rates in females. EIA analysis revealed that male tumors had higher T and SO4E1 concentrations compared to female tumors. Serum steroid levels were lower than those found in tumors. In conclusion, IBC and IMC male mouse model is useful as a tool for IBC research and those circulating estrogens and intratumoral hormonal levels are crucial in the development and progression of tumors.

  2. Anogenital distance in human male and female newborns: a descriptive, cross-sectional study

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    Longnecker Matthew P

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal studies of the effects of hormonally active agents, measurement of anogenital distance (AGD is now routine, and serves as a bioassay of fetal androgen action. Although measurement of AGD in humans has been discussed in the literature, to our knowledge it has been measured formally in only two descriptive studies of females. Because AGD has been an easy-to-measure, sensitive outcome in animals studies, we developed and implemented an anthropometric protocol for measurement of AGD in human males as well as females. Methods We first evaluated the reliability of the AGD measures in 20 subjects. Then measurements were taken on an additional 87 newborns (42 females, 45 males. All subjects were from Morelos, Mexico. Results The reliability (Pearson r of the AGD measure was, for females 0.50, and for males, 0.64. The between-subject variation in AGD, however, was much greater than the variation due to measurement error. The AGD measure was about two-fold greater in males (mean, 22 mm than in females (mean, 11 mm, and there was little overlap in the distributions for males and females. Conclusion The sexual dimorphism of AGD in humans comprises prima facie evidence that this outcome may respond to in utero exposure to hormonally active agents.

  3. Reduced BMP signaling results in hindlimb fusion with lethal pelvic/urogenital organ aplasia: a new mouse model of sirenomelia.

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    Kentaro Suzuki

    Full Text Available Sirenomelia, also known as mermaid syndrome, is a developmental malformation of the caudal body characterized by leg fusion and associated anomalies of pelvic/urogenital organs including bladder, kidney, rectum and external genitalia. Most affected infants are stillborn, and the few born alive rarely survive beyond the neonatal period. Despite the many clinical studies of sirenomelia in humans, little is known about the pathogenic developmental mechanisms that cause the complex array of phenotypes observed. Here, we provide new evidences that reduced BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling disrupts caudal body formation in mice and phenocopies sirenomelia. Bmp4 is strongly expressed in the developing caudal body structures including the peri-cloacal region and hindlimb field. In order to address the function of Bmp4 in caudal body formation, we utilized a conditional Bmp4 mouse allele (Bmp4(flox/flox and the Isl1 (Islet1-Cre mouse line. Isl1-Cre is expressed in the peri-cloacal region and the developing hindimb field. Isl1Cre;Bmp4(flox/flox conditional mutant mice displayed sirenomelia phenotypes including hindlimb fusion and pelvic/urogenital organ dysgenesis. Genetic lineage analyses indicate that Isl1-expressing cells contribute to both the aPCM (anterior Peri-Cloacal Mesenchyme and the hindlimb bud. We show Bmp4 is essential for the aPCM formation independently with Shh signaling. Furthermore, we show Bmp4 is a major BMP ligand for caudal body formation as shown by compound genetic analyses of Bmp4 and Bmp7. Taken together, this study reveals coordinated development of caudal body structures including pelvic/urogenital organs and hindlimb orchestrated by BMP signaling in Isl1-expressing cells. Our study offers new insights into the pathogenesis of sirenomelia.

  4. Assessing Causal Pathways between Physical Formidability and Aggression in Human Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Dawes, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest the existence of an association between the physical formidability of human males and their level of aggression. This association is theoretically predictable from animal models of conflict behavior but could emerge from multiple different causal pathways. Previous studies have...

  5. Effect of endocrine disruptors on male reproduction in humans: why the evidence is still lacking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliatka, D; Lymperi, S; Mastorakos, G; Goulis, D G

    2017-05-01

    The so-called "endocrine disruption hypothesis" suggests that exposures to endocrine disruption (EDs) during fetal, neonatal and adult life may interfere with the development of reproductive organs and alter semen quality and reproductive hormone production. Even though animal studies provide substantial evidence of adverse effects of EDs on male reproductive system, epidemiological studies in humans arrive at conflicting results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature to locate methodological characteristics of the studies that struggle the formation of an association between EDs and human male reproduction. Such characteristics include: (i) definition of the exposed and the non-exposed population, (ii) age, (iii) insufficient control for confounders, (iv) ED assay and threshold, (v) time parameters of ED exposure, and (vi) study outcomes. Additional issues are: (i) the late effect of an early exposure, (ii) the multiple exposure effect, and (iii) the fact the same ED may exhibit different modes of action. Unfortunately, the nature of the field precludes the conduction of randomized-controlled trials, which could result to etiological associations between EDs and human male reproduction. Consequently, there is a great need to conduct well-designed studies of case-control or cohort type to evaluate EDs effects on human male reproductive health, and apply possible measures that could limit dangerous exposures. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Stages of Change among Male and Female University Students: Ready or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A.; Grunzweig, Katherine A.; Zochowski, Melissa K.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Carlos, Ruth C.; Dalton, Vanessa K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine gender differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine stages of change following the recommendations for permissive use of HPV vaccine in males. Participants: Students aged 18-26 attending a large, public, Midwest university in April 2010. Methods: Participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire. HPV…

  7. A randomised controlled trial comparing abdominal and vaginal prolapse surgery: effects on urogenital function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; van der Vaart, C. Huub; van der Bom, Johanna G.; van Leeuwen, Jules H. Schagen; Scholten, Piet C.; Heintz, A. Peter M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of vaginal hysterectomy (combined with anterior and/or posterior colporraphy) and abdominal sacro-colpopexy (with preservation of the uterus) on urogenital function. DESIGN: Randomised trial. SETTING: Three teaching hospitals in The Netherlands. POPULATION:

  8. Characterization of mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats after N-methyl-N-nitrosourea exposure--Potential for human male breast cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko; Yuki, Michiko; Kinoshita, Yuichi; Emoto, Yuko; Yuri, Takashi; Shikata, Nobuaki; Elmore, Susan A; Tsubura, Airo

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of breast cancer in men is extremely rare, reported to be less than 1% and there is currently no available animal model for male mammary tumors. We compared the characteristics of various immunohistochemical markers in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male and female Crj:CD(SD)IGS rats including: estrogen receptor α (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), androgen receptor (AR), receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2 (HER2), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Female mammary adenocarcinomas were strongly positive in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA and ER (100%) with only 60% and 53% expressing PgR and GATA3, respectively. 100% of male adenocarcinomas also exhibited strongly positive expression in the nuclei of tumor cells for PCNA, with 25% expressing AR and only 8% showing positivity for ER. Male carcinomas did not express PgR or GATA3 and none of the tumors, male or female, were positive for HER2. Based on the observed ER and PgR positivity and HER2 negativity within these tumors, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in female rats appear to be hormonally dependent, similar to human luminal A type breast cancer. In contrast, MNU-induced mammary adenocarcinomas in male rats showed no reactivity for ER, PgR, HER2 or GATA3, suggesting no hormonal dependency. Both male and female adenocarcinomas showed high proliferating activity by PCNA immunohistochemistry. Based on our literature review, human male breast cancers are mainly dependent on ER and/or PgR, therefore the biological pathogenesis of MNU-induced male mammary cancer in rats may differ from that of male breast cancer in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. [Practices and perception of risk in human immunodeficiency virus infected males who have sex with other males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L

    2014-04-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new

  10. Parasitological and malacological surveys reveal urogenital schistosomiasis on Mafia Island, Tanzania to be an imported infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Ameri, Haji; Khamis, I Simba; Blair, Lynsey; Nyandindi, Ursuline S; Kane, Richard A; Johnston, David A; Webster, Bonnie L; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    To confirm the local endemicity of Schistosoma haematobium on Mafia Island, Tanzania, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys were undertaken in July 2006 with parasitological investigations supplemented with case-history questionnaires. A total of 238 children (125 girls and 113 boys, mean age of 13.9 years) across 9 primary schools were examined. The prevalence of micro-haematuria and egg-patent infection was 18.1% (CI95=9.6-33.6) and 4.2% (CI95=1.9-7.6), respectively but a strong female bias was observed for micro-haematuria (5.6F:1M) contrasting with a strong male bias for the presence of eggs (1F:4M). All egg-patent infections were of light-intensity (Mafia and Unguja islands as well as DNA barcoding of snails and schistosomes. B. nasutus was shown refractory to infection. With the substantial travel to and from Mafia, the refractory nature of local snails and evidence from DNA barcoding in schistosomes and snails, we conclude that urogenital schistosomiasis is an imported infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. STUDY OF UROGENITAL TRACT MICROFLORA OF DNEPROPETROVSK FEMALES BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

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    Honcharova S.Y.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We isolated and identified the pathogens from the urogenital tract in 100 women of 26-55 years in Diagnostic Center of Dnepropetrovsk Medical Academy by polymerase chain reaction. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by HPV of high and low cancer risk - HSV type 1+2, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, and Candida yeast species. The most abundant pathogens from the urogenital tract were HPV, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and Chlamydia trachomatis.

  12. Assessment Of NPK In Human Male And Female Urine For Its Fertilising Potential In Agriculture

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    Alfred L.K. Kuwornu

    2015-08-01

    higher in male urine than in female urine during the 2nd and 3rd months of storage. Ecosan urinals a designed urinal that seeks to separately collect urine to optimize its usefulness should be designed to separately collect urine for specific NPK requirements for crop production. Results of this study suggest that concentration of NPK in human urine is comparable to commercial chemical fertilizers. Human urine in agriculture should progressively be promoted by governments and other agencies.

  13. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

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    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  14. Association of C677T transition of the human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, Mohammad; Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh

    2016-04-01

    The human methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene encodes one of the key enzymes in folate metabolism. This gene is located on chromosome 1 (1p36.3), which has 12 exons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible association of the two (C677T and A1298C) polymorphisms of this gene with male infertility. In a case-control study, 250 blood samples were collected from IVF centres in Sari and Babol (Iran): 118 samples were from oligospermic men and 132 were from controls. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms of the MTHFR genotype were detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was no association found between the A1298C variant and male infertility. However, carriers of the 677T allele (CT and TT genotypes) were at a higher risk of infertility than individuals with other genotypes (odds ratio 1.84; 95% confidence interval 1.11-3.04; P=0.0174). Structural analysis of human MTHFR flavoprotein showed that C677T transition played an important role in the change in affinity of the MTHFR-Flavin adenine dinucleotide binding site. Based on our results, we suggest that C677T transition in MTHFR may increase the risk of male infertility, and detection of the C677T polymorphism biomarker may be helpful in the screening of idiopathic male infertility.

  15. MR urography: the future gold standard in paediatric urogenital imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borthne, A.; Nordshus, T.; Reiseter, T. [Department of Paediatric Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Geitung, J.T. [Department of General Radiology, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Gjesdal, K.I. [Department of Medical Physics and Techniques, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Babovic, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Bjerre, A. [Department of Paediatrics, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Loe, B. [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Ullevaal University Hospital, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-09-01

    Background. Examination of the paediatric urogenital tract is traditionally performed using methods that utilise ionising radiation, such as intravenous urography (IVU), computerised tomography (CT), voiding cystourethrography (VCU), and scintigraphy, in addition to ultrasound (US). Objective. To determine the potential and effectiveness of MR urography (MRU) in infants and children. Materials and methods. 44 MRU examinations were prospectively performed in 39 patients (21 infants, mean age 3.5 months, and 18 children, mean age 6 years 2 months) with known or suspected pathology of the urinary tract. Non-enhanced, fast spin-echo sequences (TSE) were performed in all patients. In 70 % of the patients a contrast-enhanced, fast gradient-echo sequence (TFE) was included. The dynamic sequence was prolonged and supplemented with furosemide provocation in some patients with suspected urinary-tract obstruction. Results. Nine percent of examinations were non-diagnostic or interrupted due to movement. MRU contributed additional information in 66 %. Nine patients with suspected urinary-tract obstruction were examined with both contrast-enhanced MRU and scintigraphy. Three MRU examinations were less informative and one equal to scintigraphy when obstruction was the diagnosis. When using a technique with a prolonged dynamic sequence, including frusemide provocation, four MRU examinations were equal and one was superior to scintigraphy. Conclusions. MRU has the potential to replace traditional diagnostic methods which use ionising radiation in paediatric patients. Further studies are needed before definite conclusions can be drawn. (orig.) With 6 figs., 3 tabs., 34 refs.

  16. CAD Design of Human Male Body for Mass–Inertial Characteristics Studies

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    Nikolova Gergana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research is to present a 16-segmental biomechanical model of the Bulgarian male to determine the mass-inertial characteristics of the body of the Bulgarian male based on parameters available in the literature and its 3D generation within SolidWorks software. The motivation of the research is to support mainly sport, rehabilitation, wearable robots and furniture design users. The proposed CAD model of the human body of men is verified against the analytical results from our previous investigation, as well as through comparison with data available in the provided references. In this paper we model two basic human body positions: standing position and sitting with thighs elevated. The comparison performed between our model results and data reported in literature gives us confidence that this model can be reliably used to calculate the mass-inertial characteristics of male body at any postures of the body that is of interest. Therefore, our model can be used to obtain data for positions which the human body has to take in everyday live, in sport, leisure, including space exploration, for investigating criminology cases – body fall, car crash, etc. The model is suitable for performing computer simulation in robotics, medicine, sport and other areas.

  17. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Muenzner

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa.

  18. Uropathogenic E. coli Exploit CEA to Promote Colonization of the Urogenital Tract Mucosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, Petra; Kengmo Tchoupa, Arnaud; Klauser, Benedikt; Brunner, Thomas; Putze, Johannes; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Hauck, Christof R.

    2016-01-01

    Attachment to the host mucosa is a key step in bacterial pathogenesis. On the apical surface of epithelial cells, members of the human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family are abundant glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion and modulation of cell signaling. Interestingly, several gram-negative bacterial pathogens target these receptors by specialized adhesins. The prototype of a CEACAM-binding pathogen, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, utilizes colony opacity associated (Opa) proteins to engage CEA, as well as the CEA-related cell adhesion molecules CEACAM1 and CEACAM6 on human epithelial cells. By heterologous expression of neisserial Opa proteins in non-pathogenic E. coli we find that the Opa protein-CEA interaction is sufficient to alter gene expression, to increase integrin activity and to promote matrix adhesion of infected cervical carcinoma cells and immortalized vaginal epithelial cells in vitro. These CEA-triggered events translate in suppression of exfoliation and improved colonization of the urogenital tract by Opa protein-expressing E. coli in CEA-transgenic compared to wildtype mice. Interestingly, uropathogenic E. coli expressing an unrelated CEACAM-binding protein of the Afa/Dr adhesin family recapitulate the in vitro and in vivo phenotype. In contrast, an isogenic strain lacking the CEACAM-binding adhesin shows reduced colonization and does not suppress epithelial exfoliation. These results demonstrate that engagement of human CEACAMs by distinct bacterial adhesins is sufficient to blunt exfoliation and to promote host infection. Our findings provide novel insight into mucosal colonization by a common UPEC pathotype and help to explain why human CEACAMs are a preferred epithelial target structure for diverse gram-negative bacteria to establish a foothold on the human mucosa. PMID:27171273

  19. Hypothalamus, sexual arousal and psychosexual identity in human males: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, M; Babiloni, C; Ferretti, A; Del Gratta, C; Merla, A; Olivetti Belardinelli, M; Romani, G L

    2008-06-01

    In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, a complex neural circuit was shown to be involved in human males during sexual arousal [A. Ferretti et al. (2005) Neuroimage, 26, 1086]. At group level, there was a specific correlation between penile erection and activations in anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, hypothalamus and secondary somatosensory regions. However, it is well known that there are remarkable inter-individual differences in the psychological view and attitude to sex of human males. Therefore, a crucial issue is the relationship among cerebral responses, sexual arousal and psychosexual identity at individual level. To address this issue, 18 healthy male subjects were recruited. Their deep sexual identity (DSI) was assessed following the construct revalidation by M. Olivetti Belardinelli [(1994) Sci. Contrib. Gen. Psychol., 11, 131] of the Franck drawing completion test, a projective test providing, according to this revalidation, quantitative scores on 'accordance/non-accordance' between self-reported and psychological sexual identity. Cerebral activity was evaluated by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during hard-core erotic movies and sport movies. Results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in bilateral hypothalamus and the Franck drawing completion test score during erotic movies. The higher the blood oxygen level-dependent activation in bilateral hypothalamus, the higher the male DSI profile. These results suggest that, in male subjects, inter-individual differences in the DSI are strongly correlated with blood flow to the bilateral hypothalamus, a dimorphic brain region deeply implicated in instinctual drives including reproduction.

  20. Urogenital manifestations in Wegener granulomatosis: a study of 11 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Jean-François; Le Gallou, Thomas; Cordier, Jean-François; Aumaître, Olivier; Pinède, Laurent; Aslangul, Elisabeth; Pagnoux, Christian; Marie, Isabelle; Puéchal, Xavier; Decaux, Olivier; Dubois, Alain; Agard, Christian; Mahr, Alfred; Comoz, François; Boutemy, Jonathan; Broussolle, Christiane; Guillevin, Loïc; Sève, Pascal; Bienvenu, Boris

    2012-03-01

    We describe the main characteristics and treatment of urogenital manifestations in patients with Wegener granulomatosis (WG). We conducted a retrospective review of the charts of 11 patients with WG. All patients were men, and their median age at WG diagnosis was 53 years (range, 21-70 yr). Urogenital involvement was present at onset of WG in 9 cases (81%), it was the first clinical evidence of WG in 2 cases (18%), and was a symptom of WG relapse in 6 cases (54%). Symptomatic urogenital involvement included prostatitis (n = 4) (with suspicion of an abscess in 1 case), orchitis (n = 4), epididymitis (n = 1), a renal pseudotumor (n = 2), ureteral stenosis (n = 1), and penile ulceration (n = 1). Urogenital symptoms rapidly resolved after therapy with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. Several patients underwent a surgical procedure, either at the time of diagnosis (n = 3) (consisting of an open nephrectomy and radical prostatectomy for suspicion of carcinoma, suprapubic cystostomy for acute urinary retention), or during follow-up (n = 3) (consisting of ureteral double J stents for ureteral stenosis, and prostate transurethral resection because of dysuria). After a mean follow-up of 56 months, urogenital relapse occurred in 4 patients (36%). Urogenital involvement can be the first clinical evidence of WG. Some presentations, such as a renal or prostate mass that mimics cancer or an abscess, should be assessed to avoid unnecessary radical surgery. Urogenital symptoms can be promptly resolved with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive agents. However, surgical procedures, such as prostatic transurethral resection, may be mandatory in patients with persistent symptoms.

  1. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE).

  2. Mammary gland development in transgenic male mice expressing human P450 aromatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangdong; Wärri, Anni; Mäkelä, Sari; Ahonen, Tommi; Streng, Tomi; Santti, Risto; Poutanen, Matti

    2002-10-01

    We recently generated a transgenic mouse strain that expresses the human aromatase gene under the ubiquitin C promoter (AROM+). We have previously shown that in these mice the serum estradiol concentration is highly elevated, whereas the testosterone concentration is decreased. In the present study we examined mammary gland development in AROM+ male mice at different ages and found that the mammary glands of AROM+ males undergo ductal and alveolar development morphologically resembling that of terminally differentiated female mammary glands, expressing mRNA for a milk protein gene (beta-casein). The male mammary glands also express multiple hormone receptors typical for female mammary gland: estrogen receptor alpha and beta, progesterone receptor, and PRL receptor. Furthermore, data showed activation of the Stat5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) signaling pathway in the AROM+ male mammary gland. Interestingly, the phenotype observed is in part reversible. Treatment with finrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, caused an involution of the differentiated phenotype of the mammary gland, marked by the disappearance of alveolar structures and the majority of the tertiary side branches of the ducts. The present animal model is a valuable tool for better understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development of gynecomastia.

  3. Impunity or immunity: wartime male rape and sexual torture as a crime against humanity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawati, Hilmi M

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze the phenomenon of wartime rape and sexual torture of Croatian and Iraqi men and to explore the avenues for its prosecution under international humanitarian and human rights law. Male rape, in time of war, is predominantly an assertion of power and aggression rather than an attempt on the part of the perpetrator to satisfy sexual desire. The effect of such a horrible attack is to damage the victim's psyche, rob him of his pride, and intimidate him. In Bosnia- Herzegovina, Croatia, and Iraq, therefore, male rape and sexual torture has been used as a weapon of war with dire consequences for the victim's mental, physical, and sexual health. Testimonies collected at the Medical Centre for Human Rights in Zagreb and reports received from Iraq make it clear that prisoners in these conflicts have been exposed to sexual humiliation, as well as to systematic and systemic sexual torture. This paper calls upon the international community to combat the culture of impunity in both dictator-ruled and democratic countries by bringing the crime of wartime rape into the international arena, and by removing all barriers to justice facing the victims. Moreover, it emphasizes the fact that wartime rape is the ultimate humiliation that can be inflicted on a human being, and it must be regarded as one of the most grievous crimes against humanity. The international community has to consider wartime rape a crime of war and a threat to peace and security. It is in this respect that civilian community associations can fulfill their duties by encouraging victims of male rape to break their silence and address their socio-medical needs, including reparations and rehabilitation.

  4. Clinical role of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum presence in female lower urogenital tract: Is there a place for routine screening and treatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruška Marovt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted infections represent major health problem in females all over the world if remained undiagnosed and untreated. They can have adverse influence on reproduction and health of a mother and a newborn. The development of molecular methods has permitted the detection of an array of microbes whose pathologic roles in urogenital infections need to be further studied. Ureaplasmas (Ureaplasma spp., being originally found in 1954 from male urogenital tract, are prokaryotic cells without a cell wall, ranging from 0.1 to 1 μm in length. Fourteen known Ureaplasma serovars have been divided in two species based on their phenotypic and genotypic features, Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum detected and identified separately using polymerase chain reaction assays. Both are generally considered as genital tract commensals. U. urealyticum is most probably associated with male urethritis which has not been found for U. parvum. Recent studies with supposedly healthy women reported their detection rate between 18-87 % for U. parvum and 6-10 % for U. urealyticum. Even though they have been found to be associated with chorioamnionitis, preterm birth and perinatal complications more commonly then other commensals in this region the rising question regarding their pathogenic role in females remains unsolved and the guidelines regarding the diagnostic screening and treatment are inconsistent. The aim of our paper is to review the microbiological characteristics, diagnostic methods and epidemiology of newly differentiated U. parvum and U. urealyticum, and to assess evidence speaking pro and contra their clinical role in causing lower urogenital tract infection in women. Since both bacteria are susceptible to antimicrobials it is of utmost importance for clinicians to decide whether or not to search for one or both of them routinely and treat accordingly in order to prevent ascending upper genital tract infection as well as complications in

  5. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence Among 88 Male Virgins Residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyue; Nyitray, Alan G; Hwang, Lu-Yu; Swartz, Michael D; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmerón, Jorge; Quiterio, Manuel; Villa, Luisa L; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Silva, Roberto J C; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for genital human papillomavirus (HPV) detection among men who deny ever engaging in penetrative sex. A questionnaire was administered to 4123 men from a cohort study of HPV natural history. Genital exfoliated cells were collected and genotyped for 36 HPV types. Eighty-eight men were classified as virgins. Log-binomial regression models identified factors associated with genital HPV detection. The prevalence of any and high-risk HPV types among 88 male virgins was 25.0% and 18.2%, respectively. Age and smoking status were associated with HPV detection. Further studies are needed to better understand the risk for HPV infection among male virgins. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Developmental validation of a real-time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of total human and male DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krenke, Benjamin E; Nassif, Nadine; Sprecher, Cynthia J; Knox, Curtis; Schwandt, Melissa; Storts, Douglas R

    2008-12-01

    Multiplex human short tandem repeat analysis demands reliable DNA quantification to consistently produce interpretable genotypes. The Plexor HY System is a multiplex quantitative PCR assay to quantify total human and male DNA. We performed developmental validation of the Plexor HY System to demonstrate the performance capabilities and limitations of the assay for forensic applications. Validation studies examined: (a) human specificity, (b) sensitivity, (c) quantification of degraded DNA, (d) impact of inhibitors, (e) male/female mixture and Y-assay male specificity, (f) reproducibility and concordance and (g) population studies.

  7. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions. This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male) epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons), hippocampus (n = 270), anterior cingulate cortex (n = 256), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n = 174). Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions. Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n = 15∕66) of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, vs. 8% (n = 6∕76) of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  8. Mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord ameliorate testicular dysfunction in a male rat hypogonadism model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yuan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Androgen deficiency is a physical disorder that not only affects adults but can also jeopardize children′s health. Because there are many disadvantages to using traditional androgen replacement therapy, we have herein attempted to explore the use of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of androgen deficiency. We transplanted CM-Dil-labeled human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells into the testes of an ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS-induced male rat hypogonadism model. Twenty-one days after transplantation, we found that blood testosterone levels in the therapy group were higher than that of the control group (P = 0.037, and using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, we observed that some of the CM-Dil-labeled cells expressed Leydig cell markers for cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily A, polypeptide 1, and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. We then recovered these cells and observed that they were still able to proliferate in vitro. The present study shows that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord may constitute a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of male hypogonadism patients.

  9. Endurance training enhances skeletal muscle interleukin-15 in human male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnov, Anders; Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    endurance running. With the present study we aimed to determine if muscular IL-15 production would increase in human male subjects following 12 weeks of endurance training. In two different studies we obtained plasma and muscle biopsies from young healthy subjects performing: (1) 12 weeks of ergometer...... weeks of regular endurance training induced a 40% increase in basal skeletal muscle IL-15 protein content (p......Regular endurance exercise promotes metabolic and oxidative changes in skeletal muscle. Overexpression of interleukin-15 (IL-15) in mice exerts similar metabolic changes in muscle as seen with endurance exercise. Muscular IL-15 production has been shown to increase in mice after weeks of regular...

  10. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Kitami

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  11. Ultrasonography of pediatric urogenital emergencies: review of classic and new techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitami, Masahiro [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    Urogenital emergencies are fairly common in the pediatric population, and a timely and correct diagnosis is necessary to avoid possible future infertility. In this field, ultrasonography is essential, as it has the advantages of being radiation-free and readily accessible. In particular, a high-frequency transducer allows precise evaluation of the morphology and vascularity of the scrotum, which is on the surface of the body. Beyond conventional techniques, new advanced imaging techniques have been developed, including elastography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. However, several pitfalls remain in the diagnosis of urogenital diseases using ultrasonography. Thus, accurate knowledge and sufficient experience with the technique are essential for making a correct diagnosis. This review provides an overview of pediatric urogenital emergency pathologies and recent ultrasonography techniques.

  12. The Role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-Related Stigma on HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among College Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Georden; Perez, Samara; Huta, Veronika; Rosberger, Zeev; Lebel, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goals of the present study are (1) to identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related stigma and (2) to examine the relationship between HPV-related stigma in predicting HPV vaccine decision-making among college males. Participants: Six hundred and eighty college males aged 18--26 from 3…

  13. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Risk Factors, Vaccination Patterns, and Vaccine Perceptions among a Sample of Male College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Holly B.; Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Charyk, Anna; Sutherland, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates, including initiation and completion of the vaccine series, and barriers to vaccination in a sample of male college students. Participants: Male students between the ages of 18 and 25 who reported being currently or previously sexually active (N = 735). Methods: A cross-sectional…

  14. Predicting Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Intentions of College-Aged Males: An Examination of Parents' and Son's Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Krieger, Janice L.; Roberto, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine male students' and their parents' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine communication in relation to males' willingness to discuss the vaccine with their health care provider and the likelihood of being vaccinated. Participants: Dyads (n = 111) of students and parents. Methods: Participants completed a HPV vaccine survey based…

  15. [Genotypes of human papilloma virus in male condyloma acuminata patients in Lishui area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Hai-ming; Wu, Shao-fang

    2015-11-01

    To explore the genotypes of human papilloma virus (HPV) in male patients with condyloma acuminate in Lishui area of Zhejiang Province, China. Using HybriMax, we identified the genotypes of HPV of the verruca samples from 110 male condyloma acuminate patients aged 16 - 65 years in Lishui area. HPV infection was detected in 107 (97.27%) of the condyloma acuminate patients, including 76 cases (71.02%) of simple infection and 31 cases (28.97%) of multiple infection. The peak age of infection was 21 - 40 years old. Totally, 14 genotypes of HPV were identified, including the high-risk genotypes as HPV16, 53, 52, 33, CP8304, 58, 51, 45, 66, 68, and 59, which accounted for 44.85% of the cases, and the low-risk ones as HPV6, 11, and 19 (43), with an infection rate of 93.45%. The low-risk genotype is a dominant type of HPV infection and the rates of high-risk genotype and multiple infection are high among the male condyloma acuminate patients in Lishui area.

  16. Male Partners of Infertile Couples with Seminal Infections of Human Papillomavirus Have Impaired Fertility Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Damke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have addressed the impact of viral infections on male infertility. However, it is still unknown whether human papillomavirus (HPV can alter seminal parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in the semen of male partners of couples seeking fertility evaluation. Additionally, we assessed the possibility that HPV infections affect seminal parameters. A total of 229 semen samples were collected from men in the Sperm Analysis Section of São Camilo Laboratory of Maringá, Brazil, between October 2015 and March 2016. Basic seminal parameters were analyzed, and HPV was detected and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. HPV DNA was detected in 16.6% of samples. Of these, 10.5% had single type HPV infections, 6.1% had multiple HPV infections, 5.7% had exclusively high-risk HPV, and 6.1% had exclusively low-risk HPV. Samples positive for single and multiple types of HPV were associated with abnormal viscosity, and samples positive for multiple HPV types were also associated with hypospermia, higher pH, and increased leukocyte numbers. These findings suggest that the male partners of infertile couples with seminal HPV infections may have prostate disturbances indicative of glandular dysfunction, which may influence fertility.

  17. Male Partners of Infertile Couples with Seminal Infections of Human Papillomavirus Have Impaired Fertility Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damke, Edilson; Kurscheidt, Fábio A; Balani, Valério A; Takeda, Karen I; Irie, Mary M T; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2017-01-01

    Several studies have addressed the impact of viral infections on male infertility. However, it is still unknown whether human papillomavirus (HPV) can alter seminal parameters. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HPV in the semen of male partners of couples seeking fertility evaluation. Additionally, we assessed the possibility that HPV infections affect seminal parameters. A total of 229 semen samples were collected from men in the Sperm Analysis Section of São Camilo Laboratory of Maringá, Brazil, between October 2015 and March 2016. Basic seminal parameters were analyzed, and HPV was detected and genotyped by polymerase chain reaction. HPV DNA was detected in 16.6% of samples. Of these, 10.5% had single type HPV infections, 6.1% had multiple HPV infections, 5.7% had exclusively high-risk HPV, and 6.1% had exclusively low-risk HPV. Samples positive for single and multiple types of HPV were associated with abnormal viscosity, and samples positive for multiple HPV types were also associated with hypospermia, higher pH, and increased leukocyte numbers. These findings suggest that the male partners of infertile couples with seminal HPV infections may have prostate disturbances indicative of glandular dysfunction, which may influence fertility.

  18. Association of genetic markers within the KIT and KITLG genes with human male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, J J; De Felici, M; Buch, B; Rivero, M C; Segura, A; Royo, J L; Cruz, N; Real, L M; Ruiz, A

    2006-12-01

    There is much evidence involving the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor and its ligand KITLG in the survival and proliferation of germ cells. Animal models and functional studies in humans suggest that this signalling pathway plays a role in male infertility. We studied three and two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3819392, rs3134885, rs2237012, rs10506957 and rs995030) located within the genomic region of the KIT and KITLG genes, respectively. A total of 167 idiopathic infertile men (sperm counts Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) law was observed for rs10506957 polymorphism within the KITLG gene only in the infertile group. Our data indicate that the KIT/KITLG system may be involved in a low sperm count trait in humans.

  19. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex......, since it is not solely dependent on VDR expression, but also on cellular uptake of circulating VD and presence and activity of VD metabolizing enzymes. Expression of VD metabolizing enzymes has not previously been investigated in human testis and male reproductive tract. Therefore, we performed...... a comprehensive analysis of the expression of VDR, VD activating (CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP27B1) and inactivating (CYP24A1) enzymes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle (SV), prostate and spermatozoa....

  20. THE METHODS OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS OF UROGENITAL INFECTIONS ASSOCIATED WITH MYCOPLASMA HOMINIS AND UREAPLASMA SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zarucheynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.

  1. Prenatal diagnosis of persistent urogenital sinus with duplicated hydrometrocolpos and ascites--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleta, Joana; Melo, Maria Antonieta; Borges, Gertrudes; Carvalho, Rui; Marques, João Paulo; Dupont, Juliette; Monteiro, Cecília Pardal; Graça, Luís Mendes

    2010-01-01

    We report a successful case of persistent urogenital sinus associated with a duplicated nonsyndromic form of hydrometrocolpos and ascites diagnosed prenatally. Though urogenital malformations are extremely rare and variable in presentation, the conjugation of those anomalies in a newborn is reported here for the first time. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis was suspected at 25 weeks' gestation and MRI imaging supported the diagnosis. Periodic ultrasound surveillance was conducted until birth at 35 weeks' gestation by cesarean section. The presumptive diagnosis was confirmed after birth. One month later, the newborn underwent reconstructive surgical intervention with good outcome. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Validation of ultrasonography in detecting structural disease of the urogenital tract of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, C; Flanagan, C; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective review of case records of ultrasonography and necropsy outcomes of 62 koalas was used to investigate the accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing koala urogenital tract structural disease at the Port Macquarie Koala Hospital. The results showed high concordance, supporting ultrasonography as an effective tool for evaluating structural disease of the koala urogenital tract, most commonly seen with chlamydiosis. The study also illustrates the advances benefiting animal welfare that can be made by wildlife carer groups through using a scientific, evidence-based approach. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of oral human papillomavirus infection among healthy males and females in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brian J; Walter, Leora; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrerra, Lilia; Gravitt, Patti E; Marks, Morgan A

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) associated head and neck cancers (HNCs) have been increasing in Peru. However, the burden of oral HPV infection in Peru has not been assessed. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of oral HPV infection in a population-based sample from males and females from Lima, Peru. Between January 2010 and June 2011, a population-based sample of 1099 individuals between the ages of 10 and 85 from a low-income neighbourhood in Lima, Peru was identified through random household sampling. Information on demographic, sexual behaviours, reproductive factors and oral hygiene were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires. Oral rinse specimens were collected from each participant, and these specimens were genotyped using the Roche Linear Array assay. ORs were used to assess differences in the prevalence of any oral HPV and any high-risk oral HPV infection by demographic factors, sexual practices and oral hygiene among individuals 15+ years of age. The prevalence of any HPV and any high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) was 6.8% and 2.0%, respectively. The three most common types were HPV 55 (3.4%), HPV 6 (1.5%) and HPV 16 (1.1%). Male sex (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.03) was associated with any HPV infection after adjustment. The prevalence of oral HPV in this study was similar to estimates observed in the USA. Higher prevalence of oral infections in males was consistent with a male predominance of HPV-associated HNCs and may signal a sex-specific aetiology in the natural history of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G Within the Male Reproductive System: Implications for Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2015-01-01

    In sexual reproduction in humans, a man has a clear interest in ensuring that the immune system of his female partner accepts the semi-allogenic fetus. Increasing attention has been given to soluble immunomodulatory molecules in the seminal fluid as one mechanism of ensuring this, possibly by "priming" the woman's immune system before conception and at conception. Recent studies have demonstrated the presence of the immunoregulatory and tolerance-inducible human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G in the male reproductive organs. The expression of HLA-G in the blastocyst and by extravillous trophoblast cells in the placenta during pregnancy has been well described. Highly variable amounts of soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) in seminal plasma from different men have been reported, and the concentration of sHLA-G is associated with HLA-G genotype. A first pilot study indicates that the level of sHLA-G in seminal plasma may even be associated with the chance of pregnancy in couples, where the male partner has reduced semen quality. More studies are needed to verify these preliminary findings.

  5. [DNA identification of human papillomavirus in anogenital condyloma of a male population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turazza, E I; Ojeda, R D; Ratto, P; Barrera, A; Ríos, A; Kahn, T; Bercovich, J; Jaimovich, L; Grinstein, S

    1993-01-01

    Human Papillomaviruses (HPV) are the cause of benign human anogenital lesions where HPV 6 and HPV 11 are most commonly found. Conversely, HPV 16, 18, 31 and 33 are frequently detected in genital carcinomas and are thus considered as oncogenic types. In order to analyze the prevalence of specific HPV types in an Argentine male population, 43 anogenital lesions from different patients with diagnosis of condyloma acuminata were analyzed. These lesions were localized in different regions of the male genitalia comprising the corona glandis, urethral meatus, skin of the penis, scrotum and anus. The biopsies were screened for the presence of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 30, 31 and 33 by Southern blot at different stringent conditions of hybridization (Tm -48 degrees C and Tm -20 degrees C). HPV DNA was found in 41 examined cases (95.3%) with a clear prevalence of HPV 6 and HPV 11 types (51.2% and 23.3% respectively). Six samples (14.0%) were positive only under nonstringent conditions of hybridization. Mixed infections between HPV 16, 18, 30, 31, 33 or a HPV 30 related type with HPV 6 or HPV 11 were detected in 8 specimens (18.6%). Only one case was between HPV 16 and HPV 30. Two additional samples were only positive for HPV 30. Experiments in progress about the prevalence of HPV types in female lesions as well as in normal subjects will contribute to complete the description of the epidemiology of these infections in Argentina.

  6. Male-female differences in upregulation of vasoconstrictor responses in human cerebral arteries.

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    Hilda Ahnstedt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Male-female differences may significantly impact stroke prevention and treatment in men and women, however underlying mechanisms for sexual dimorphism in stroke are not understood. We previously found in males that cerebral ischemia upregulates contractile receptors in cerebral arteries, which is associated with lower blood flow. The present study investigates if cerebral arteries from men and women differ in cerebrovascular receptor upregulation. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Freshly obtained human cerebral arteries were placed in organ culture, an established model for studying receptor upregulation. 5-hydroxtryptamine type 1B (5-HT1B, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 and endothelin-1 type A and B (ETA and ETB receptors were evaluated using wire myograph for contractile responses, real-time PCR for mRNA and immunohistochemistry for receptor expression. KEY RESULTS: Vascular sensitivity to angiotensin II and endothelin-1 was markedly lower in cultured cerebral arteries from women as compared to men. ETB receptor-mediated contraction occurred in male but not female arteries. Interestingly, there were similar upregulation in mRNA and expression of 5-HT1B, AT1, and ETB receptors and in local expression of Ang II after organ culture. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: In spite of receptor upregulation after organ culture in both sexes, cerebral arteries from women were significantly less responsive to vasoconstrictors angiotensin II and endothelin-1 as compared to arteries from men. This suggests receptor coupling and/or signal transduction mechanisms involved in cerebrovascular contractility may be suppressed in females. This is the first study to demonstrate sex differences in the vascular function of human brain arteries.

  7. Male human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance is enhanced by a brief intervention that emphasizes both male-specific vaccine benefits and altruistic motives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafide, Katherine E; Vanable, Peter A

    2015-02-01

    Although female human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine acceptance has been widely studied, research on vaccine uptake among boys and men is needed. Male HPV vaccination can provide both individual and community-level benefit by offering recipients personal health protection while concurrently minimizing HPV transmission and ultimately providing female health protection. As such, male vaccine acceptance may be enhanced by emphasizing both altruistic motives (female health protection) and personal health benefits. A university-based sample of young men completed computer-administered surveys and viewed informational interventions that varied in the inclusion or exclusion of altruistic motives and in the level of emphasis on male-specific HPV-related illnesses and vaccine benefits. Human papillomavirus vaccine acceptance was assessed immediately after intervention. Participants who received the intervention emphasizing both altruistic motives and male-specific information endorsed the greatest vaccine acceptance (mean [SD], 3.6 [1.0]). Provider and community-level interventions highlighting both altruistic motives and personal health vaccine benefits may enhance HPV vaccine uptake among young men.

  8. ON THE ASSESSMENT AND TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC PROSTATITIS IN PERSISTENT UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIOSIS

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    V. A. Molochkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urogenital chlamydial infection is the most prevalent among sexually transmitted disorders that is associated with high rates of complications (chronic prostatitis, salpingoophoritis, etc. and adverse outcomes, such as sexual and reproductive dysfunction. In the last years, the frequency of persistent antibiotic-resistant chlamydial infections has been persistently increasing that is diagnosed by immunoenzyme assay of IgG antibodies to the heat shock protein of chlamydia with a molecular weight of 60 KDa (HSP60 and by detection of secretory IgA to Chlamydia trachomatis in the semen plasma. Aim: To assess the rates of persistent chlamydial infection in patients with chronic prostatitis by measurement of serum IgG anti-HSP60 antibodies to C. trachomatis and presence of anti-chlamydial IgG in the semen plasma. Materials and methods: In a  prospective study we examined 18 patients with chronic prostatitis, aged from 21 to 58  years. The control group included 30 subjects without chlamydial urogenital disease. Clinical assessment included past history, instrumental investigations, ultrasound examination of prostate and semen vesicles. Serological tests were performed by immunoenzyme analysis in 4  test systems (“Medac”, Germany to two antigens: a  genus-specific chlamydial lipopolysaccharide r-ELISA (anti-chlamydial IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies and to the main outer membrain protein (МОМР of C.  trachomatis (IgG and IgA. Anti-HSP60 antibodies were measured in the test system with HSP60-IgG-ELISA (“Medac”. The levels of secretory IgA in the seminal fluid were assessed with a  test system Chlamydia trachomatis-IgA-pELISA. Results: In 13 (72.2% of 18 patients the chronic prostatitis was of chlamydial etiology, and in 7 (38.9% of 18 patients there was an underlying persistent chlamydial infections with concomitant high levels of serum IgG anti-HSP60 C. trachomatis and presence of anti-chlamydial IgA antibodies in

  9. Gender Differences in Human Single Neuron Responses to Male Emotional Faces

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    Morgan eNewhoff

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Well-documented differences in the psychology and behavior of men and women have spurred extensive exploration of gender's role within the brain, particularly regarding emotional processing. While neuroanatomical studies clearly show differences between the sexes, the functional effects of these differences are less understood. Neuroimaging studies have shown inconsistent locations and magnitudes of gender differences in brain hemodynamic responses to emotion. To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions.This study included recordings of single-neuron activity of 14 (6 male epileptic patients in four brain areas: amygdala (236 neurons, hippocampus (n=270, anterior cingulate cortex (n=256, and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (n=174. Neural activity was recorded while participants viewed a series of avatar male faces portraying positive, negative or neutral expressions.Significant gender differences were found in the left amygdala, where 23% (n=15/66 of neurons in men were significantly affected by facial emotion, versus 8% (n=6/76 of neurons in women. A Fisher's exact test comparing the two ratios found a highly significant difference between the two (p<0.01. These results show specific differences between genders at the single-neuron level in the human amygdala. These differences may reflect gender-based distinctions in evolved capacities for emotional processing and also demonstrate the importance of including subject gender as an independent factor in future studies of emotional processing by single neurons in the human amygdala.

  10. Primary cilia function regulates the length of the embryonic trunk axis and urogenital field in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainwright, Elanor N.; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee

    2014-01-01

    assembly, result in a range of embryo patterning defects, affecting the limbs, skeleton and neural system. Here, we show that embryos of the mouse mutant Ift144twt develop gonads that are larger than wild-type. Investigation of the early patterning of the urogenital ridge revealed that the anterior...

  11. Urogenital myiasis caused by Megaselia scalaris (Diptera: Phoridae): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, T S; Rana, D

    1989-05-01

    A case of urogenital myiasis in a patient with transverse myelitis is reported from Imphal, Manipur, India. The larvae of Megaselia scalaris Lowe were recovered repeatedly from the urine of the patient and were reared to adult to facilitate identification. This is the first known case of urinary myiasis caused by M. scalaris in India.

  12. Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Prevalence in Male Adolescents 4 Years After HPV-16/18 Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Tuomas; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Petäjä, Tiina; Eriksson, Tiina; Jokiranta, Sakari; Natunen, Kari; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti

    2017-11-15

    We assessed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence among HPV-16/18-vaccinated and unvaccinated Finnish male adolescents participating in chlamydia screening 4 years after vaccination with AS04-adjuvanted HPV-16/18 vaccine in 2007-2009. Previously vaccinated (n = 395) or unvaccinated (n = 149) male adolescents were enrolled in 12 municipalities. First-void urine samples were tested for HPV types 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59, 66, and 68, and prevalence rates for HPV-16/18, and HPV-11/16/18/31/33/45 were reduced profoundly (0% vs 2.1% [P = .02] and 0.8% vs 5.3 [P = .002], respectively). Overall HPV DNA prevalence was also significantly reduced among HPV-16/18-vaccinated (4.1%) compared with unvaccinated subjects (10.1%) (P = .01). In this post hoc study, a highly significant reduction in HPV prevalence 4 years after vaccination suggests that the bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine has protective efficacy in men. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

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    Ghaffari Mohammad Ali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, and lead chloride (PbCl4. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, and lead chloride (PbCl4 diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production.

  14. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production.

  15. Human papillomavirus found in sperm head of young adult males affects the progressive motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foresta, Carlo; Garolla, Andrea; Zuccarello, Daniela; Pizzol, Damiano; Moretti, Afra; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in a cohort of young adult males. Cross-sectional clinical study. Andrology and Microbiology sections at a university hospital. A cohort of 200 young adult male volunteers (18 years old), 100 with previous sexual intercourse and 100 without previous sexual intercourse. Seminal parameters, sperm culture for HPV and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis for HPV detection in the sperm head. Statistical analysis was performed with a two-tailed Student's t-test. Results of HPV investigation were compared to sperm parameters and results of FISH analysis. HPV infection was present in sperm cells of 10 subjects among those 100 young adults who already had unprotected intercourse and its presence was associated with reduced sperm motility. Furthermore, infected samples showed that about 25% of sperm had an HPV DNA positivity at the head site, but it is unclear whether it was integrated in the nucleus or not. This is the first report estimating the percentage of HPV-positive sperm in infected subjects and the association between HPV infection and sperm motility. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Detection of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes on spermatozoa from male partners of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Rosaria; Capra, Giuseppina; Bellavia, Carmela; Ruvolo, Giovanni; Scazzone, Concetta; Venezia, Renato; Perino, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sperm infection and its correlation with sperm parameters in patients who attended a fertility clinic. Cross-sectional clinical study. University-affiliated reproductive medicine clinic. A total of 308 male partners of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization techniques. Specimens of semen were collected from all patients. Sperm parameters were evaluated according to the World Health Organization manual. The presence of HPV DNA was researched by the combined use of two HPV assays and a highly sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay followed by HPV genotyping. To examine whether HPV was associated with the sperm, in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis was performed. Results of HPV investigation were compared with sperm parameters and ISH analysis. Twenty-four out of 308 semen samples (7.8%) were HPV DNA positive, but HPV infection did not seem to affect semen quality. Moreover, ISH revealed a clear HPV localization at the equatorial region of sperm head in infected samples. Oncogenic HPV genotypes were detected on spermatozoa from asymptomatic subjects, but a role of the infection in male infertility was not demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Sperm Quality and Metal Toxicants: Protective Effects of some Flavonoids on Male Reproductive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalan, Mostafa; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ali; Hoseinzadeh, Pooneh; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud; Zeinali, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background Metals can cause male infertility through affection of spermatogenesis and sperm quality. Strong evidences confirm that male infertility in metal-exposed humans is mediated via various mechanisms such as production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Flavonoids have antioxidant and metal chelating properties which make them suitable candidates for neutralizing adverse effects of metals on semen quality. In the current study, we have evaluated the effects of five types of flavonoids (rutin, naringin, kaempferol, quercetin, and catechin) on recovery of sperm motility and prevention of membrane oxidative damage from aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, motility and lipid peroxidation of metalexposed sperm was investigated in the presence of different concentrations of five kinds of flavonoids. Malondialdehyde (MDA) production was assessed as a lipid peroxidation marker. Results Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), cadmium chloride (CdCl2), and lead chloride (PbCl4) diminished sperm motility. Treatment of metal-exposed sperm with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol attenuated the negative effects of the metals on sperm motility. Quercetin and catechin decreased the motility of metal-exposed sperm. Conclusion Based on the MDA production results, only AlCl3 significantly induced lipid peroxidation. Treatment with rutin, naringin, and kaempferol significantly decreased MDA production. PMID:27441055

  18. Is there a significance of histamine in the control of the human male sexual response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uckert, S; Wilken, M; Stief, C; Trottmann, M; Kuczyk, M; Becker, A

    2012-05-01

    Although histamine has been suggested to be involved in the control of male sexual function, including the induction of penile erection, its role in the human corpus cavernosum penis is still poorly understood. The aim of our study was to evaluate the course of histamine plasma levels through different stages of sexual arousal in the systemic and cavernous blood of healthy male subjects. Thirty four (34) healthy men were exposed to erotic stimuli to elicit penile erection. Blood was aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and a cubital vein during the penile conditions flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence. Blood was also collected in the post-ejaculatory period. Plasma levels of histamine (ng ml(-1)) were determined by means of a radioimmunoassay. Histamine slightly decreased in the cavernous blood when the penis became tumescent. During rigidity, histamine decreased further but remained unaltered in the phase of detumescence and after ejaculation. In the systemic circulation, no alterations were observed with the initiation or termination of penile erection, whereas a significant drop was registered following ejaculation. Results are not in favour of the hypothesis of an excitatory role of histamine in the control of penile erection. Nevertheless, the amine might mediate biological events during the post-ejaculatory period. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. The cytogenetic theory of the pathogenesis of human adult male germ cell tumors. Review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, R S; Houldsworth, J

    1998-01-01

    Human male germ cell tumors (GCTs) represent a biological paradox because, in order to develop into a pluripotential tumor, a germ cell destined to a path of limited or no proliferation must acquire the potential for unlimited proliferation. In addition, it must acquire the ability to elicit embryonal differentiation patterns without the reciprocal inputs from fertilization and the imprinting-associated genomic changes which are a part of normal embryonal development. Although much speculated about, the genetic mechanisms underlying these properties of male GCTs remain enigmatic. Recent cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses of these tumors are providing new insights and new testable hypotheses. Based on our recent work, we propose two such hypotheses. One relates to the mechanism of germ cell transformation and germ cell tumor development. We suggest that the invariable 12p amplification noted as early as in carcinoma in situ/intratubular germ cell neoplasia (CIS/ITGCN) lesions leads to deregulated overexpression of cyclin D2, a cell cycle G1/S checkpoint regulator with oncogeneic potential. Such overexpression reinitiates the cell cycle. We visualize this happening during the pachytene stage of meiosis through aberrant recombinational events which lead to 12p amplification. The other hypothesis relates to the origin of primary extragonadal GCTs. By comparing cytogenetic changes in primary mediastinal versus gonadal lesions, we propose that, in contrast to long-standing speculation that primary extra-gonadal tumors arise from embryonally misplaced primordial germ cells, these lesions arise from migration of transformed gonadal germ cells.

  20. Assessing Causal Pathways between Physical Formidability and Aggression in Human Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Dawes, Christopher T.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest the existence of an association between the physical formidability of human males and their level of aggression. This association is theoretically predictable from animal models of conflict behavior but could emerge from multiple different causal pathways. Previous studies have...... not been able to tease apart these paths, as they have almost exclusively relied on bivariate correlations and cross-sectional data. Here, we apply longitudinal twin data from two different samples to (1) estimate the direction of causality between formidability and aggression by means of quasi......-experimental methods and (2) estimate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors by means of twin modeling. Importantly, the results suggest, on the one hand, that the association between formidability and aggression is less reliable than previously thought. On the other hand, the results also...

  1. Human papillomavirus vaccine stages of change among male and female university students: ready or not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Divya A; Grunzweig, Katherine A; Zochowski, Melissa K; Dempsey, Amanda F; Carlos, Ruth C; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-01-01

    To examine gender differences in human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine stages of change following the recommendations for permissive use of HPV vaccine in males. Students aged 18-26 attending a large, public, Midwest university in April 2010. Participants completed a self-administered, online questionnaire. HPV vaccine stage of change was assessed according to core constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change. Logistic regression was used to identify associations of HPV-related beliefs and attitudes with stage of change. Although most (80.5%) of the 4,019 participants had at least contemplated HPV vaccination, more females had taken observable steps towards vaccination. Significant differences between genders in HPV-related beliefs and attitudes were observed, particularly perceived parental or perceived health care provider approval of HPV vaccination. University students generally agreed with the benefits of HPV vaccination, both for themselves and for society, and these attitudes were significantly associated with having at least contemplated vaccination.

  2. Awareness of human papillomavirus in 23 000 Danish men from the general male population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Munk, Christian; Liaw, Kai-Li

    2009-01-01

    Men play an important role in transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV). Both in men and in women HPV causes great morbidity, such as cervical cancer, penile and anal cancer, and genital warts. The awareness of HPV and its consequences is essential to a successful vaccination program against HPV....... In this study, we assessed awareness of HPV in Danish men. A random sample of men aged 18-45 years from the general male population was invited to participate in the study. The participants filled in a self-administered questionnaire with questions concerning awareness of HPV, lifestyle, and sexual habits...... educational level and history of self-reported genital warts were the strongest predictors of having heard of HPV. Furthermore, condom use and excellent self-rated health were significantly correlated with awareness of HPV. In contrast, no correlations were found with age, lifetime number of sexual partners...

  3. Genetic aspects of human male infertility: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in severe male factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicdan, Arzu; Vicdan, Kubilay; Günalp, Serdar; Kence, Aykut; Akarsu, Cem; Işik, Ahmet Zeki; Sözen, Eran

    2004-11-10

    The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of 208 patients, 119 had non-obstructive azoospermia and 89 had severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). Seventeen out of 119 (14.3%) azoospermic patients and two out of 89 (2.2%) patients with OAT had Y chromosome microdeletions. In total, 19 cases with deletions were detected in 208 infertile men, with a frequency of 9.1%. The AZFc locus, mainly DAZ gene cluster was the most frequently deleted region. Five other cases with azoospermia (4.2%) and two cases with OAT (2.2%) had a chromosomal abnormality, with a total number of seven (3.4%). Including Y chromosome deletions and structural chromosome abnormalities, the rate of genetic abnormalities was 12.5% (26/208) in our patients. On the other hand, 20 men with proven fertility and fathers of five cases with microdeletions were genetically normal. Y chromosome deletions and chromosomal abnormalities were associated with various histological alterations in testis. Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome and maturation arrest predominated in these cases, whereas hypospermatogenesis occurred more frequently in genetically normal patients. Various chromosomal abnormalities and deletions of Y chromosome can cause spermatogenic breakdown resulting in chromosomally derived infertility. All these findings strongly support the recommendation of genetic screening of infertile patients.

  4. Polyclonal VDAC3 antibody decreases human sperm motility: a novel approach to male contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC mediate transport of anions, cations and ATP which play an important role in sperm motility. This study was aimed to examine the effect of polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum to human sperm motility.Methods: Polyclonal VDAC3 antiserum used in this study was produced in rabbits by immunization of VDAC3-specific synthetic peptides.  Preimmunserum was collected before immunization and used for control experiment. Recognition of VDAC3 antiserum to antigen in human sperm was performed by western blot. Thirty sperm samples obtained from fertile men which had high quality of sperm motility were washed and collected by Percoll gradient. Sperm motility was assessed by means of evaluation of sperm velocity (seconds per 0.1 mm distance and the number of unmoved sperm (million per ml which were observed 0 minute, 30 minutes and 60 minutes after addition of VDAC3 antiserum and preimmunserum as a control. Both data were analyzed by SPSS 13.0 software.Results: VDAC3 antiserum recognized VDAC3 protein in human sperm. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there were increasing numbers of unmoved spermatozoa after addition of anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 60 minutes observation compared with preimmunserum (control. We found also that sperm velocity decreased signifi cantly after giving anti-VDAC3 antiserum in vitro for 0 minute, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with pre-immunee serum (control.Conclusion: VDAC3 antiserum can decrease motility of human sperm. and may provide a novel principle of male contraception in the future. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:5-10Keywords: VDAC3 antiserum, sperm, motility, contraception

  5. Sexual dimorphism in the human olfactory bulb: females have more neurons and glial cells than males.

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    Ana V Oliveira-Pinto

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the human olfactory function reportedly exist for olfactory sensitivity, odorant identification and memory, and tasks in which odors are rated based on psychological features such as familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and others. Which might be the neural bases for these behavioral differences? The number of cells in olfactory regions, and especially the number of neurons, may represent a more accurate indicator of the neural machinery than volume or weight, but besides gross volume measures of the human olfactory bulb, no systematic study of sex differences in the absolute number of cells has yet been undertaken. In this work, we investigate a possible sexual dimorphism in the olfactory bulb, by quantifying postmortem material from 7 men and 11 women (ages 55-94 years with the isotropic fractionator, an unbiased and accurate method to estimate absolute cell numbers in brain regions. Female bulbs weighed 0.132 g in average, while male bulbs weighed 0.137 g, a non-significant difference; however, the total number of cells was 16.2 million in females, and 9.2 million in males, a significant difference of 43.2%. The number of neurons in females reached 6.9 million, being no more than 3.5 million in males, a difference of 49.3%. The number of non-neuronal cells also proved higher in women than in men: 9.3 million and 5.7 million, respectively, a significant difference of 38.7%. The same differences remained when corrected for mass. Results demonstrate a sex-related difference in the absolute number of total, neuronal and non-neuronal cells, favoring women by 40-50%. It is conceivable that these differences in quantitative cellularity may have functional impact, albeit difficult to infer how exactly this would be, without knowing the specific circuits cells make. However, the reported advantage of women as compared to men may stimulate future work on sex dimorphism of synaptic microcircuitry in the olfactory bulb.

  6. Plasma vitellogenin in male teleost fish from 43 rivers worldwide is correlated with upstream human population size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desforges, Jean-Pierre W.; Peachey, Brendan D.L.; Sanderson, Pauline M. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Street, K1N 6N5, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); White, Paul A. [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie Curie Street, K1N 6N5, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-10-15

    It has been previously demonstrated that vitellogenin (VTG) - a precursor egg yolk protein - is produced in male fish exposed to estrogenic compounds in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. However, little attention has been given to examine whether any patterns of male VTG production exists across fish species on a global scale. We hypothesized that a composite measure of human population size over river discharge would best explain variations of protein levels in male fish. We compiled VTG data in 13 fish species from 43 rivers receiving municipal WWTP effluent on 3 continents. We found that human population size explained 28% of the variation in male VTG concentrations, whereas population/flow rate failed to significantly correlate with VTG. We suggest this result may be explained by the low solubility of estrogenic compounds, resulting in localized contamination near WWTP outfalls, rather than dilution by river water. - Concentrations of vitellogenin in riverine teleost fish were related to population size.

  7. Human herpesvirus 8 in primary effusion lymphoma in an HIV-seronegative male. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munichor, Mariana; Cohen, Hector; Sarid, Ronit; Manov, Irena; Iancu, Theodore C

    2004-01-01

    AIDS-related body cavity-based lymphoma, or primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), is a distinct clinicopathologic entity that occurs predominantly in immunosuppressed patients infected with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Although it rarely occurs in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients, we report such a case here. A 74-year-old male, who was HIV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) negative, was admitted to the hospital with dyspnea and chest pain. Chest radiography and computed tomography showed right pleural effusion. Cytologic analysis of the pleural effusion revealed a high grade lymphoma with round nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant cytoplasm. Polymerase chain reaction performed on the pleural effusion was positive for HHV-8 and negative for EBV. On molecular studies, the immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light chains were rearranged. Flow cytometry revealed a hyperploid fraction with DNA index of 1.29 expressing CD30. Immunostaining for HHV-8 from a cell block was positive. Electron microscopy revealed lymphomalike cells, many in various stages of apoptosis, with large nucleoli and clusters of viruslike particles in the nucleoplasm. A firm diagnosis of PEL can be established by the examination of cells from the lymphomatous effusion by a combination of cytology, molecular genetics, phenotypic features, immunostaining and electron microscopy. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which immunostaining for anti-HHV-8 monoclonal antibodies was used to support the diagnosis.

  8. Human personality traits are associated with individual environmental traits in male adolescents--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura-Tani, Toshiaki

    2005-01-01

    The human personality seems to be formed by biological (internal) and environmental (external) factors, which function interactively. This pilot study examined the relationship between fundamental personality traits and individual environmental traits in healthy adolescents. A complex relationship between personality traits and candidate environmental traits was found in this sample. Parental smoking, one of the hypothetical environmental traits, was significantly associated with the sociability personality trait of adolescent offspring. Another hypothetical environmental trait-parent/child attachment status-"was related to novelty-seeking personality. Unexpectedly, these associations were observed only in male but not in female adolescents. The present study suggested that (1) parental smoking behavior might directly or indirectly affect offspring social behavior and related personality by nongenetic transmission; (2) past and present data indicated that the triad of a poor parent/child relationship, novelty-seeking personality, and risky/delinquent behavior is closely connected. Investigations of environmental traits at a nonclinical level may lead us to understand the overall human personality, as with research on genes and biological traits that are implicated in the formation of mental activity.

  9. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, O. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among the total cases, 36 (41.4% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (9.1%, Escherichia Coli (6.9% Proteus mirabilis (3.4% Klebsiella spp (2.3% Pseudomonas aerouginosa (1.1% and Proteus vulgaris (2.3%. There was a significant relation between bacteriospermia and the rate of number of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms (p 0.05. It seems that leukocytopermia is not a good maker to predict bacteriospermia.

  10. Does Competition Really Bring Out the Worst? Testosterone, Social Distance and Inter-Male Competition Shape Parochial Altruism in Human Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Wittmer, Susanne; Reimers, Luise

    2014-01-01

    Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial behaviors and

  11. Does competition really bring out the worst? Testosterone, social distance and inter-male competition shape parochial altruism in human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Wittmer, Susanne; Reimers, Luise

    2014-01-01

    Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG), in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup) or were fans of other teams (outgroups) that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial behaviors and

  12. Does competition really bring out the worst? Testosterone, social distance and inter-male competition shape parochial altruism in human males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kristina Diekhof

    Full Text Available Parochial altruism, defined as increased ingroup favoritism and heightened outgroup hostility, is a widespread feature of human societies that affects altruistic cooperation and punishment behavior, particularly in intergroup conflicts. Humans tend to protect fellow group members and fight against outsiders, even at substantial costs for themselves. Testosterone modulates responses to competition and social threat, but its exact role in the context of parochial altruism remains controversial. Here, we investigated how testosterone influences altruistic punishment tendencies in the presence of an intergroup competition. Fifty male soccer fans played an ultimatum game (UG, in which they faced anonymous proposers that could either be a fan of the same soccer team (ingroup or were fans of other teams (outgroups that differed in the degree of social distance and enmity to the ingroup. The UG was played in two contexts with varying degrees of intergroup rivalry. Our data show that unfair offers were rejected more frequently than fair proposals and the frequency of altruistic punishment increased with increasing social distance to the outgroups. Adding an intergroup competition led to a further escalation of outgroup hostility and reduced punishment of unfair ingroup members. High testosterone levels were associated with a relatively increased ingroup favoritism and also a change towards enhanced outgroup hostility in the intergroup competition. High testosterone concentrations further predicted increased proposer generosity in interactions with the ingroup. Altogether, a significant relation between testosterone and parochial altruism could be demonstrated, but only in the presence of an intergroup competition. In human males, testosterone may promote group coherence in the face of external threat, even against the urge to selfishly maximize personal reward. In that way, our observation refutes the view that testosterone generally promotes antisocial

  13. The physiological effect of human grooming on the heart rate and the heart rate variability of laboratory non-human primates: a pilot study in male rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Clara Grandi; Hiroaki eIshida

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is a widespread, essential and complex behavior with social and affiliative valence in the non-human primate world. Its impact at the autonomous nervous system level has been studied during allogrooming among monkeys living in a semi-naturalistic environment. For the first time, we investigated the effect of human grooming to monkey in a typical experimental situation inside laboratory. We analyzed the autonomic response of male monkeys groomed by a familiar human (experimenter), in ...

  14. Pericentric Inversion of Human Chromosome 9 Epidemiology Study in Czech Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šípek, A; Panczak, A; Mihalová, R; Hrčková, L; Suttrová, E; Sobotka, V; Lonský, P; Kaspříková, N; Gregor, V

    2015-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of human chromosome 9 [inv(9)] is a relatively common cytogenetic finding. It is largely considered a clinically insignificant variant of the normal human karyotype. However, numerous studies have suggested its possible association with certain pathologies, e.g., infertility, habitual abortions or schizophrenia. We analysed the incidence of inv(9) and the spectrum of clinical indications for karyotyping among inv(9) carriers in three medical genetics departments in Prague. In their cytogenetic databases, among 26,597 total records we identified 421 (1.6 %) cases of inv(9) without any concurrent cytogenetic pathology. This study represents the world's largest epidemiological study on inv(9) to date. The incidence of inv(9) calculated in this way from diagnostic laboratory data does not differ from the incidence of inv(9) in three specific populationbased samples of healthy individuals (N = 4,166) karyotyped for preventive (amniocentesis for advanced maternal age, gamete donation) or legal reasons (children awaiting adoption). The most frequent clinical indication in inv(9) carriers was "idiopathic reproductive failure" - 37.1 %. The spectra and percentages of indications in individuals with inv(9) were further statistically evaluated for one of the departments (N = 170) by comparing individuals with inv(9) to a control group of 661 individuals with normal karyotypes without this inversion. The proportion of clinical referrals for "idiopathic reproductive failure" among inv(9) cases remains higher than in controls, but the difference is not statistically significant for both genders combined. Analysis in separated genders showed that the incidence of "idiopathic reproductive failure" could differ among inv(9) female and male carriers.

  15. Alopecia areata and vitiligo as primary presentations in a young male with human immunodeficiency virus

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    Li Xuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 26-year-old Chinese male consulted with the team regarding his alopecia areata and vitiligo for which previous treatment was ineffective. The patient, a homosexual man, denied having a history of drug abuse and of blood transfusion. No member of his family had vitiligo or alopecia. Laboratory studies revealed that the serum for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody was positive. The patient′s CD4 lymphocyte count and CD4/CD8 ratio were both strikingly low (20 cells/mL and 0.04, but no other complaints or opportunistic infections were reported. One month after antiretroviral therapy, the patient′s alopecia areata dramatically improved, but no evident improvement in his vitiligo was found. This case is a very rare case of alopecia areata and vitiligo associated with HIV infection that might be attributed to the generation and maintenance of self-reactive CD8+ T-cells due to chronic immune activation with progressive immune exhaustion in HIV infection.

  16. Walking economy at simulated high altitude in human healthy young male lowlanders

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    Masahiro Horiuchi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We measured oxygen consumption during walking per unit distance (Cw values for 12 human healthy young males at six speeds from 0.667 to 1.639 m s−1 (four min per stage on a level gradient under normobaric normoxia, moderate hypoxia (15% O2, and severe hypoxia (11% O2. Muscle deoxygenation (HHb was measured at the vastus lateralis muscle using near-infrared spectroscopy. Economical speed which can minimize the Cw in each individual was calculated from a U-shaped relationship. We found a significantly slower economical speed (ES under severe hypoxia [1.237 (0.056 m s−1; mean (s.d.] compared to normoxia [1.334 (0.070 m s−1] and moderate hypoxia [1.314 (0.070 m s−1, P0.05. HHb gradually increased with increasing speed under severe hypoxia, while it did not increase under normoxia and moderate hypoxia. Changes in HHb between standing baseline and the final minute at faster gait speeds were significantly related to individual ES (r=0.393 at 1.250 m s−1, r=0.376 at 1.444 m s−1, and r=0.409 at 1.639 m s−1, P<0.05, respectively. These results suggested that acute severe hypoxia slowed ES by ∼8%, but moderate hypoxia left ES unchanged.

  17. Prevalence of human papilloma virus infection in patients with male accessory gland infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; Franchina, C; Scalia, G; Morgia, G; Perino, A; Schillaci, R; Calogero, A E

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the semen of patients with male accessory gland infection (MAGI) was evaluated. One hundred infertile patients with MAGI were classified into group A: patients with an inflammatory MAGI (n = 48) and group B: patients with a microbial form (n = 52). Healthy age-matched fertile men (34.0 ± 4.0 years) made up the control group (n = 20). Amplification of HPV DNA was carried out by HPV-HS Bio nested polymerase chain reaction for the detection of HPV DNA sequences within the L1 ORF. Ten patients in group A (20.8%) and 15 patients in group B (28.8%) had a HPV infection; two controls (10.0%) had HPV infection. Patients with MAGI had a significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with controls; patients with a microbial MAGI had significantly higher frequency of HPV infection compared with patients with an inflammatory form (both P HPV had a slight, but significantly lower sperm progressive motility and normal morphology compared with patients with MAGI HPV-negative (P HPV infection occurred in patients with MAGI, suggesting that HPV should be investigated in the diagnostic work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A case with proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) and fibular A/hypoplasia (FA/H) associated with urogenital anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Hacer; Semerci, C Nur; Bican, Mevlüt; Düzcan, Füsun; Yagci, A Baki; Erdogan, Kadri Murat; Tufan, A Cevik

    2006-01-01

    Malformations of the lower limbs are rare and heterogeneous anomalies. Some congenital anomalies involving face, gastrointestinal system, skeletal system, urogenital system, heart, lung and diaphragma associated with lower limb malformations have been described in the literature. Here, we report a case of left proximal femoral focal deficiency (PFFD) together with fibular aplasia associated with left undescended testis and hypospadias. The putative embryologic mechanisms of lower limb defects and their possible association with lower urogenital tract malformations are also discussed.

  19. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males

    OpenAIRE

    Mokrysz, C.; Freeman, T. P.; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H.V.

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16?17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24?28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants complet...

  20. Imaging Diagnosis of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome- An Extremely Rare Urogenital Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Shibani; Chamaria, Komal; Garga, U C; Kataria, Ankur; Ahuja, Ashim

    2015-05-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract resulting from maldevelopment of both Mullerian and Wolffian ducts. It is characterized by the triad of uterus didelphys, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. It generally presents at puberty shortly following menarche with the symptom of acute pelvic pain. Management of these cases is surgical and consists mainly of vaginoplasty with excision of the vaginal septum in order to release the obstruction and prevent the long term complication of recurrent pyocolpos and infertility. We report here a case of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome in a 13-year-old adolescent girl, emphasizing the role of imaging in the accurate and prompt diagnosis of this rare developmental urogenital anomaly. Only a few hundred such cases have been reported in literature till date.

  1. What explains the different rates of human papillomavirus vaccination among adolescent males and females in the United States?

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    Yoonyoung Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To identify factors that explain differences in HPV vaccination rates for male and female adolescents and to determine self-reported barriers by parents affecting vaccination decisions. Methods: The sample included adolescents 13–17 years old with a vaccination record documented in the 2012 and 2013 National Immunization Survey-Teen dataset. A logistic regression model was developed with 13 socio-demographic factors and survey year, along with significant interaction pairs with gender. Results: Subjects included 20,355 and 18,350 adolescent boys and girls, respectively. About half of the females (56% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine, compared to 28% of males. Several factors differed between males and females, including higher vaccination rates among non-Hispanic Black males and lower vaccination rates for non-Hispanic Black females compared to Whites; and a stronger association with health care provider recommendation among males. The most common parental reasons for not vaccinating their children included ‘not recommended by a health care provider’ for males (24%, and ‘unnecessary’ for females (18%. Conclusion: We found a significant gender interaction with several socio-demographic variables in predicting vaccination uptake. These gender differences may be partially an artifact of timing, because male vaccination became routine approximately five years after female vaccination. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, Adolescent health, Vaccination, NIS-Teen, Gender interaction

  2. Two dimensional finite element method for metabolic effect in thermoregulation on human males and females skin layers

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    Saraswati Acharya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.

  3. Mathematical human body models representing a mid size male and a small female for frontal, lateral and rearward impact loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; Morsink, P.L.J.; Lange, R. de; Bours, R.; Ridella, S.; Nayef, A.; Hoof, J. van

    2000-01-01

    A human body model representing a mid size male has been presented at the 1998 STAPP conference. A combination of modeling techniques was applied using rigid bodies for most segments, but describing the thorax as a deformable structure. In this paper, this modeling strategy was employed to also

  4. Surgical management of urogenital injuries at a war hospital in Bosnia-Hrzegovina, 1992 to 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudolin, Tvrtko; Hudolin, Ivan

    2003-04-01

    Our experience with urogenital surgery during the Bosnia-Herzegovina conflict of 1992 to 1995 is compared with data from previous wars and peacetime practice. A total of 5,370 wounded patients, including 136 (2.5%) with 1 or more urogenital injuries, were treated at a war hospital in northern Bosnia-Herzegovina during 37 months. The hospital was based at a village school and was poorly equipped but it was only 10 to 16 km. from the front line and average transportation time was 30 minutes. Of the 136 patients 72 (52.9%) were injured by explosive weapons, while the other 64 (47.1%) had bullet wounds. The 169 urogenital injuries were to the kidney in 65 cases (38.5%), scrotum in 44 (26%), bladder in 23 (13.6%), penis in 16 (9.5%), urethra in 9 (5.3%), ureter in 6 (3.6%) and other in 6. There was associated damage to organs other than the urogenital system in 116 patients (85.3%). Preference was given to organ sparing operations when possible, but 33.8% of renal injuries required nephrectomy and orchidectomy was performed for 58.3% of testicular injuries. In war settings when injuries are often severe and multiple, and the hospital may lack staff, instruments and other medical supplies, the surgeon frequently must improvise. Even so, the results achieved need not fall far below those of peacetime surgery provided that, as in this hospital in Bosnia-Herzegovina, wounded patients present to the surgeon rapidly, they are young and the surgeons are experienced with the management of war injury.

  5. Transcriptional profiling of the bladder in urogenital schistosomiasis reveals pathways of inflammatory fibrosis and urothelial compromise.

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    Debalina Ray

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, chronic infection by Schistosoma haematobium, affects 112 million people worldwide. S. haematobium worm oviposition in the bladder wall leads to granulomatous inflammation, fibrosis, and egg expulsion into the urine. Despite the global impact of urogenital schistosomiasis, basic understanding of the associated pathologic mechanisms has been incomplete due to the lack of suitable animal models. We leveraged our recently developed mouse model of urogenital schistosomiasis to perform the first-ever profiling of the early molecular events that occur in the bladder in response to the introduction of S. haematobium eggs. Microarray analysis of bladders revealed rapid, differential transcription of large numbers of genes, peaking three weeks post-egg administration. Many differentially transcribed genes were related to the canonical Type 2 anti-schistosomal immune response, as reflected by the development of egg-based bladder granulomata. Numerous collagen and metalloproteinase genes were differentially transcribed over time, revealing complex remodeling and fibrosis of the bladder that was confirmed by Masson's Trichrome staining. Multiple genes implicated in carcinogenesis pathways, including vascular endothelial growth factor-, oncogene-, and mammary tumor-related genes, were differentially transcribed in egg-injected bladders. Surprisingly, junctional adhesion molecule, claudin and uroplakin genes, key components for maintaining the urothelial barrier, were globally suppressed after bladder exposure to eggs. This occurred in the setting of urothelial hyperplasia and egg shedding in urine. Thus, S. haematobium egg expulsion is associated with intricate modulation of the urothelial barrier on the cellular and molecular level. Taken together, our findings have important implications for understanding host-parasite interactions and carcinogenesis in urogenital schistosomiasis, and may provide clues for novel therapeutic

  6. Responses of NBT-II bladder carcinoma cells to conditioned medium from normal fetal urogenital sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, D R; Tindall, D J

    1987-06-01

    In vitro studies were conducted to determine whether conditioned medium from rat fetal urogenital sinus explants would affect phenotypic characteristics of NBT-II urinary bladder carcinoma cells in culture. NBT-II cells were exposed to medium (30%, v/v) conditioned for 48 h by intact urogenital sinus explants derived from 18-day fetal rats. Upon exposure for 23 h the [3H]thymidine incorporation by NBT-II cells was decreased by 40.3% relative to control cultures. This effect was paralleled by a similar decrease in proliferation. NBT-II cultures decreased in cell number by 32.1 and 45.8% on days 2 and 4, respectively, after exposure to conditioned medium. Although cell proliferation was inhibited, conditioned medium acted to induce an increase in protein secretion. An increase of 18.6% was observed in the incorporation of [35S]methionine into newly synthesized, secreted proteins by NBT-II cells exposed to conditioned medium for 23 h. Morphologically the NBT-II cells exposed to conditioned medium were larger, more spread out, and exhibited a greater array of lamellipodia and filopodia, although [35S]methionine incorporation into cellular proteins was decreased by 11.1%. These results suggest that diffusable factors produced by fetal urogenital sinus explants can induce changes in proliferation, protein synthesis, protein secretion, and phenotypic morphology of NBT-II carcinoma cells in culture.

  7. On Human Kinds and Role Models: A Critical Discussion about the African American Male Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the theoretical implications around positioning the Black male teacher as the central agent of social change for Black male students. In addressing such concerns, my intention is not to discourage efforts to recruit and retain more African American men as teachers, but to trouble the commonsense assumptions embedded in such…

  8. Human TNF-α induces differential protein phosphorylation in Schistosoma mansoni adult male worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Katia C; Carvalho, Mariana L P; Bonatto, José Matheus C; Schechtman, Debora; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Schistosoma mansoni and its vertebrate host have a complex and intimate connection in which several molecular stimuli are exchanged and affect both organisms. Human tumor necrosis factor alpha (hTNF-α), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is known to induce large-scale gene expression changes in the parasite and to affect several parasite biological processes such as metabolism, egg laying, and worm development. Until now, the molecular mechanisms for TNF-α activity in worms are not completely understood. Here, we aimed at exploring the effect of hTNF-α on S. mansoni protein phosphorylation by 2D gel electrophoresis followed by a quantitative analysis of phosphoprotein staining and protein identification by mass spectrometry. We analyzed three biological replicates of adult male worms exposed to hTNF-α and successfully identified 32 protein spots with a statistically significant increase in phosphorylation upon in vitro exposure to hTNF-α. Among the differentially phosphorylated proteins, we found proteins involved in metabolism, such as glycolysis, galactose metabolism, urea cycle, and aldehyde metabolism, as well as proteins related to muscle contraction and to cytoskeleton remodeling. The most differentially phosphorylated protein (30-fold increase in phosphorylation) was 14-3-3, whose function is known to be modulated by phosphorylation, belonging to a signal transduction protein family that regulates a variety of processes in all eukaryotic cells. Further, 75% of the identified proteins are known in mammals to be related to TNF-α signaling, thus suggesting that TNF-α response may be conserved in the parasite. We propose that this work opens new perspectives to be explored in the study of the molecular crosstalk between host and pathogen.

  9. Detection of serum antitrichomonal antibodies in urogenital trichomoniasis by immunofluorescence.

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    Bhatt R

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Trichomonas vaginalis is a frequently encountered genital pathogen in both males and females. In females, vaginitis due to this parasite is one of the most common manifestation. The indirect fluorescent technique (IFA test was carried out to detect antitrichomonal antibodies in 370 female patients using whole cell antigen. Seventy one (19.18% gave positive reaction for either of the class IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies. The level of the IgG class antibodies was found to be higher i.e. 58 (81.69% than IgM 11 (15.27% antibodies, which may be suggestive of past infection or a prolonged manifestation by the organisms.

  10. Menstrual Hygiene Practices, WASH Access and the Risk of Urogenital Infection in Women from Odisha, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padma Das

    Full Text Available Menstrual hygiene management (MHM practices vary worldwide and depend on the individual's socioeconomic status, personal preferences, local traditions and beliefs, and access to water and sanitation resources. MHM practices can be particularly unhygienic and inconvenient for girls and women in poorer settings. Little is known about whether unhygienic MHM practices increase a woman's exposure to urogenital infections, such as bacterial vaginosis (BV and urinary tract infection (UTI. This study aimed to determine the association of MHM practices with urogenital infections, controlling for environmental drivers. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted on 486 women at Odisha, India. Cases and controls were recruited using a syndromic approach. Vaginal swabs were collected from all the participants and tested for BV status using Amsel's criteria. Urine samples were cultured to assess UTI status. Socioeconomic status, clinical symptoms and reproductive history, and MHM and water and sanitation practices were obtained by standardised questionnaire. A total of 486 women were recruited to the study, 228 symptomatic cases and 258 asymptomatic controls. Women who used reusable absorbent pads were more likely to have symptoms of urogenital infection (AdjOR=2.3, 95%CI1.5-3.4 or to be diagnosed with at least one urogenital infection (BV or UTI (AdjOR=2.8, 95%CI1.7-4.5, than women using disposable pads. Increased wealth and space for personal hygiene in the household were protective for BV (AdjOR=0.5, 95%CI0.3-0.9 and AdjOR=0.6, 95%CI0.3-0.9 respectively. Lower education of the participants was the only factor associated with UTI after adjusting for all the confounders (AdjOR=3.1, 95%CI1.2-7.9. Interventions that ensure women have access to private facilities with water for MHM and that educate women about safer, low-cost MHM materials could reduce urogenital disease among women. Further studies of the effects of specific practices for managing

  11. Population-Level Herd Protection of Males From a Female Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Program: Evidence from Australian Serosurveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillsbury, Alexis J; Quinn, Helen E; Evans, TaNisha D; McIntyre, Peter B; Brotherton, Julia M L

    2017-09-01

    Australia instituted funded female human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization in 2007, followed by a targeted male vaccination program in 2013. To date, Australia is one of only several countries with a funded male HPV immunization program. In 2012-2013, we conducted a survey of HPV seroprevalence in males to assess whether or not a herd impact of female vaccination could be observed. We conducted a cross-sectional study of de-identified residual diagnostic test serum samples from males aged 15-39 years from laboratories in 3 Australian states and calculated the proportion seropositive to HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18. We compared type-specific results by age group against those from a baseline 2005 Australian HPV serosurvey. There were decreases in proportion seropositive for every HPV type across all age groups, many statistically significant. The largest decrease was observed for HPV-11, with decreases of 8- and 9-fold for ages 20-29 and 30-39 years, respectively. Despite substantial reductions in seroprevalence, at least 9% of males were seropositive for at least 1 of the 4 HPV types. This is the first serosurvey confirming broad population-level impact in males from female HPV vaccination. Our research may assist policy makers considering implementing HPV vaccination programs.

  12. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus counseling services received by teen males, 1995-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Bell, David L; Lindberg, Laura D; Takruri, Adel

    2010-06-01

    To examine whether improvements have been made in the delivery of sexually transmitted infection and/or human immunodeficiency virus (STI/HIV) counseling services to teen males. Analysis was performed using the 1995 National Survey of Adolescent Males (N = 1,729, response rate = 75%) and the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (N = 1,121, response rate = 78%), which are two nationally representative surveys of 15-19-year-old males. Main outcome measure included discussion about STIs/HIV with a doctor/nurse. Weighted bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses examined the association of outcome measures and survey year among males engaging in various types of sexual behaviors (e.g., varying partner numbers, higher risk sex) unadjusted and adjusted for sociodemographic and health care access factors. In 2002, STI/HIV counseling receipt in the past year was reported by one-third of males who reported three or more female partners, anal sex with female partners, or oral/anal sex with male partners. Only 26% of males reporting high-risk sex (e.g., sex with prostitute, person with HIV or often/always high with sex) reported STI/HIV counseling receipt. Overall, no improvements were found between 1995 and 2002 in STI/HIV counseling, even after controlling for sociodemographic and health care access factors. Mechanisms are needed to raise the importance of STI/HIV counseling services among sexually active male teens as well as to improve health care providers' delivery of these services. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ambient air pollution exposure and damage to male gametes: human studies and in situ 'sentinel' animal experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Christopher M

    2011-02-01

    Globally there is concern that adverse reproductive outcomes and fertility impairment in humans may be caused by exposure to environmental contaminants. Air pollution in particular has been linked to DNA damage, abnormal sperm morphology, and reduced sperm performance in men. Experimental studies using model species (mice and rats) exposed in situ provide evidence that ambient air pollution can cause damage to the respiratory system and other tissues or organs. This can take the form of DNA damage and other genetic changes throughout the body, including induced mutations, DNA strand breaks, and altered methylation patterns in male germ cells. Human and animal studies together provide strong evidence that air pollution, especially airborne particulate matter, at commonly occurring ambient levels is genotoxic to male germ cells. The mechanistic link between air pollution exposure and induced genetic changes in male germ cells is currently unclear. 'Sentinel' animal experiments explicitly examining air pollution affects on sperm quality in laboratory rodents have not been conducted and would provide a critical link to observations in humans. The importance of air pollution compared to other factors affecting fertility and reproductive outcomes in humans is not clear and warrants further investigation.

  14. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    .... Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ...

  15. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Giedd Jay N; Raznahan Armin; Mills Kathryn L; Lenroot Rhoshel K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) literature of male/female brain differences with emphasi...

  16. Facial expression of fear in the context of human ethology: Recognition advantage in the perception of male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Radek; Tavel, Peter; Tavel, Peter; Hasto, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Facial expression is one of the core issues in the ethological approach to the study of human behaviour. This study discusses sex-specific aspects of the recognition of the facial expression of fear using results from our previously published experimental study. We conducted an experiment in which 201 participants judged seven different facial expressions: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness and surprise (Trnka et al. 2007). Participants were able to recognize the facial expression of fear significantly better on a male face than on a female face. Females also recognized fear generally better than males. The present study provides a new interpretation of this sex difference in the recognition of fear. We interpret these results within the paradigm of human ethology, taking into account the adaptive function of the facial expression of fear. We argue that better detection of fear might be crucial for females under a situation of serious danger in groups of early hominids. The crucial role of females in nurturing and protecting offspring was fundamental for the reproductive potential of the group. A clear decoding of this alarm signal might thus have enabled the timely preparation of females for escape or defence to protect their health for successful reproduction. Further, it is likely that males played the role of guardians of social groups and that they were responsible for effective warnings of the group under situations of serious danger. This may explain why the facial expression of fear is better recognizable on the male face than on the female face.

  17. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Shi (Wentao); Q. Ayub (Qasim); M. Vermeulen (Mark); R.G. Shao (Rong Guang); S.B. Zuniga (Sofia); K. van der Gaag (Kristiaan); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); Y. Xue (Yali); C. Tyler-Smith (Chris)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project-Centre d'Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and

  18. Endogenous retrovirus drives hitherto unknown proapoptotic p63 isoforms in the male germ line of humans and great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Ulrike; Moll-Rocek, Julian; Moll, Ute M; Dobbelstein, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    TAp63, but not its homolog p53, eliminates oocytes that suffered DNA damage. An equivalent gene for guarding the male germ line is currently not known. Here we identify hitherto unknown human p63 transcripts with unique 5'-ends derived from incorporated exons upstream of the currently mapped TP63 gene. These unique p63 transcripts are highly and specifically expressed in testis. Their most upstream region corresponds to a LTR of the human endogenous retrovirus 9 (ERV9). The insertion of this LTR upstream of the TP63 locus occurred only recently in evolution and is unique to humans and great apes (Hominidae). A corresponding p63 protein is the sole p63 species in healthy human testis, and is strongly expressed in spermatogenic precursors but not in mature spermatozoa. In response to DNA damage, this human male germ-cell-encoded TAp63 protein (designated GTAp63) is activated by caspase cleavage near its carboxyterminal domain and induces apoptosis. Human testicular cancer tissues and cell lines largely lost p63 expression. However, pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases completely restores p63 expression in testicular cancer cells (>3,000-fold increase). Our data support a model whereby testis-specific GTAp63 protects the genomic integrity of the male germ line and acts as a tumor suppressor. In Hominidae, this guardian function was greatly enhanced by integration of an endogenous retrovirus upstream of the TP63 locus that occurred 15 million years ago. By providing increased germ-line stability, this event may have contributed to the evolution of hominids and enabled their long reproductive periods.

  19. Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-06-01

    Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p semen samples, the concentrations of Sn, V, Cu, Pb, Cr and Hg exhibited high levels suggesting a recent human exposure to surrounding sources. In Pakistani human semen samples, the levels of trace metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan.

  20. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy.

  1. Novel aspects of human infertility: the role of the male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Havrylyuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article new aspects of the ‘male factor’ and its role in early stages of pregnancy are described. Among others, genetic and immunogenetic (KIR/KAR, HLA factors are underlined as well as immunological ones (e.g. microchimerism. A significant part of this review is dedicated to infectious agents and semen inflammation as well as to the TORCH syndrome and chlamydiosis, concentrating on the male part, in which there are a lot of unclarified consequences. The problem of somatic diseases and general homeostasis of the male and its influence on pregnancy with particular emphasis on previous cryptorchidism is also discussed. The role of sperm DNA integrity in the fertilization process as well as genetic polymorphisms on the male side is emphasised. Particularly, molecular aspects of HLA-G and HLA-C in developmental biology are raised. There is a discussion of the individual approach to assisted reproductive techniques, which cannot be treated as a panacea for infertility treatment, particularly considering early stages of embryonal and fetal development.

  2. Review: magnetic resonance imaging of male/female differences in human adolescent brain anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giedd Jay N

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improvements in neuroimaging technologies, and greater access to their use, have generated a plethora of data regarding male/female differences in the developing brain. Examination of these differences may shed light on the pathophysiology of the many illnesses that differ between the sexes and ultimately lead to more effective interventions. In this review, we attempt to synthesize the anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI literature of male/female brain differences with emphasis on studies encompassing adolescence – a time of divergence in physical and behavioral characteristics. Across all ages total brain size is consistently reported to be about 10% larger in males. Structures commonly reported to be different between sexes include the caudate nucleus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebellum – all noted to have a relatively high density of sex steroid receptors. The direction and magnitude of reported brain differences depends on the methodology of data acquisition and analysis, whether and how the subcomponents are adjusted for the total brain volume difference, and the age of the participants in the studies. Longitudinal studies indicate regional cortical gray matter volumes follow inverted U shaped developmental trajectories with peak size occurring one to three years earlier in females. Cortical gray matter differences are modulated by androgen receptor genotyope and by circulating levels of hormones. White matter volumes increase throughout childhood and adolescence in both sexes but more rapidly in adolescent males resulting in an expanding magnitude of sex differences from childhood to adulthood.

  3. Two bladders and two vaginas in two planes: one urogenital sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Matthew B K; Cain, Mark P; Rink, Richard C

    2003-07-01

    We report 2 cases of persistent urogenital sinus (UGS) with duplication of the bladder and vagina in different planes. Cystoscopy and vaginoscopy were used to diagnose persistent UGS with bladder and vaginal duplication in 2 infants with recurrent urinary tract infection. Surgical repair was done by way of a midline abdominal and perineal approach using tubularized UGS to reconstruct the urethra. Persistent UGS represents a major anomaly; these patients had the added complexity of duplication of the bladder and vagina. In these complex patients, the true anatomy may only become apparent during the surgical reconstruction, necessitating a flexible, individual approach.

  4. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    this project will result in a self-test kit for use on deployment and/or in other resource poor environments. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. N1 tUMER OF PAGES...cervical/vaginal STDs significantly increase the risk of HIV acquisition. 1",12 The most common forms of lower urogenital tract infections in women are...factors for HIV -1 transmission in women: Results from a cohort study. AIDS 1993; 7:95- 102. 21 1 3.Plummer FA, Simonsen JN, Cameron, et al. Cofactors in

  5. Pelvic floor physiotherapy for women with urogenital dysfunction: indications and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, T Y

    2011-03-01

    Pelvic floor physiotherapy (PFPT) is considered to be a salient component of the conservative management of women with urogenital dysfunction including urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse (POP). PFPT is an important adjunct to the management of female pelvic and sexual pain disorders which are often associated with bothersome bladder symptoms. Physiotherapists utilize a variety of treatment methods which include behavioral therapy, exercise instruction, manual therapy, biofeedback and electrical stimulation. This review article provides a literature-based update describing and highlighting current indications and methods for pelvic floor physiotherapy intervention.

  6. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Kramer, R.; Khoury, H. J.

    2010-01-01

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  7. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: I. Development of the anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V F; Lima, V J de Melo; Kramer, R; Khoury, H J

    2010-01-07

    Among computational models, voxel phantoms based on computer tomographic (CT), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or colour photographic images of patients, volunteers or cadavers have become popular in recent years. Although being true to nature representations of scanned individuals, voxel phantoms have limitations, especially when walled organs have to be segmented or when volumes of organs or body tissues, like adipose, have to be changed. Additionally, the scanning of patients or volunteers is usually made in supine position, which causes a shift of internal organs towards the ribcage, a compression of the lungs and a reduction of the sagittal diameter especially in the abdominal region compared to the regular anatomy of a person in the upright position, which in turn can influence organ and tissue absorbed or equivalent dose estimates. This study applies tools developed recently in the areas of computer graphics and animated films to the creation and modelling of 3D human organs, tissues, skeletons and bodies based on polygon mesh surfaces. Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been designed using software, such as MakeHuman, Blender, Binvox and ImageJ, based on anatomical atlases, observing at the same time organ masses recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the male and female reference adult in report no 89. 113 organs, bones and tissues have been modelled in the FASH and the MASH phantoms representing locations for adults in standing posture. Most organ and tissue masses of the voxelized versions agree with corresponding data from ICRP89 within a margin of 2.6%. Comparison with the mesh-based male RPI_AM and female RPI_AF phantoms shows differences with respect to the material used, to the software and concepts applied, and to the anatomies created.

  8. High resolution MR for evaluation of lower urogenital tract malformations in infants and children: Feasibility and preliminary experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehammer, T., E-mail: ehammer@live.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Riccabona, M. [Department of Radiology, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria); Maier, E. [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2011-06-15

    Introduction: This retrospective study aimed to assess the value of supplementing heavily T2-weighted, high resolution MR-imaging for detailed anatomic assessment in paediatric lower urogenital tract (UGT) malformations. Patients/methods: Sixteen patients (6 male and 10 female, median age = 1.8 years, range = 0-9 years) with suspected malformations of the lower UGT who were retrospectively identified from the PACS underwent a clinically indicated standard MR-urography study. In order to facilitate a better anatomic assessment of questioned specific lower UGT structures, an additional three-dimensional Constructive Interference in Steady State-sequence (3D-CISS) had been acquired in these patients. The final diagnosis was established by all imaging results and surgical or laprascopic findings. The findings from the CISS-sequence were compared to the results from standard MR-urography for complementary anatomic information and conspicuity. Results: Diagnostic 3D-CISS image quality was achieved in all patients. The 3D-CISS confirmed an ectopic ureteral insertion in six patients and reliably excluded ectopic insertion in 10 patients, whereas conventional MR-urography showed an ectopic insertion of the ureter in one case. In six patients with retrovesical complex formations (suspicious for an ectopic cystic renal bud or a cystic genital structure) the 3D-CISS showed increased conspicuity scores for image quality. Conclusion: The additional 3D-CISS-sequence increases the diagnostic yield in the pelvis in children with complex malformations of the lower UGT such as ectopic ureteral insertion or suspected cystic renal or genital malformations at only minimal additional time, compared to standard MR-urography.

  9. Sex differences in liver toxicity-do female and male human primary hepatocytes react differently to toxicants in vitro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Mennecozzi

    Full Text Available There is increasing amount of evidence for sex variation in drug efficiency and toxicity profiles. Women are more susceptible than men to acute liver injury from xenobiotics. In general, this is attributed to sex differences at a physiological level as well as differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, but neither of these can give a sufficient explanation for the diverse responses to xenobiotics. Existing data are mainly based on animal models and limited data exist on in vitro sex differences relevant to humans. To date, male and female human hepatocytes have not yet been compared in terms of their responses to hepatotoxic drugs. We investigated whether sex-specific differences in acute hepatotoxicity can be observed in vitro by comparing hepatotoxic drug effects in male and female primary human hepatocytes. Significant sex-related differences were found for certain parameters and individual drugs, showing an overall higher sensitivity of female primary hepatocytes to hepatotoxicants. Moreover, our work demonstrated that high content screening is feasible with pooled primary human hepatocytes in suspension.

  10. Gender differences in human single neuron responses to male emotional faces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newhoff, Morgan; Treiman, David M; Smith, Kris A; Steinmetz, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    .... To better understand the neurophysiology of these gender differences, we analyzed recordings of single neuron activity in the human brain as subjects of both genders viewed emotional expressions...

  11. Three-step method for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC-derived male germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Jin Lim

    Full Text Available The low efficiency of differentiation into male germ cell (GC-like cells and haploid germ cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs reflects the culture method employed in the two-dimensional (2D-microenvironment. In this study, we applied a three-step media and calcium alginate-based 3D-culture system for enhancing the differentiation of hESCs into male germ stem cell (GSC-like cells and haploid germ cells. In the first step, embryoid bodies (EBs were derived from hESCs cultured in EB medium for 3 days and re-cultured for 4 additional days in EB medium with BMP4 and RA to specify GSC-like cells. In the second step, the resultant cells were cultured in GC-proliferation medium for 7 days. The GSC-like cells were then propagated after selection using GFR-α1 and were further cultured in GC-proliferation medium for 3 weeks. In the final step, a 3D-co-culture system using calcium alginate encapsulation and testicular somatic cells was applied to induce differentiation into haploid germ cells, and a culture containing approximately 3% male haploid germ cells was obtained after 2 weeks of culture. These results demonstrated that this culture system could be used to efficiently induce GSC-like cells in an EB population and to promote the differentiation of ESCs into haploid male germ cells.

  12. Three-step method for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived male germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung Jin; Shim, Myung Sun; Lee, Jeoung Eun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-01-01

    The low efficiency of differentiation into male germ cell (GC)-like cells and haploid germ cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) reflects the culture method employed in the two-dimensional (2D)-microenvironment. In this study, we applied a three-step media and calcium alginate-based 3D-culture system for enhancing the differentiation of hESCs into male germ stem cell (GSC)-like cells and haploid germ cells. In the first step, embryoid bodies (EBs) were derived from hESCs cultured in EB medium for 3 days and re-cultured for 4 additional days in EB medium with BMP4 and RA to specify GSC-like cells. In the second step, the resultant cells were cultured in GC-proliferation medium for 7 days. The GSC-like cells were then propagated after selection using GFR-α1 and were further cultured in GC-proliferation medium for 3 weeks. In the final step, a 3D-co-culture system using calcium alginate encapsulation and testicular somatic cells was applied to induce differentiation into haploid germ cells, and a culture containing approximately 3% male haploid germ cells was obtained after 2 weeks of culture. These results demonstrated that this culture system could be used to efficiently induce GSC-like cells in an EB population and to promote the differentiation of ESCs into haploid male germ cells.

  13. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F

    2014-01-01

    ,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other...... concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study...... in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs...

  14. Associations between stress reactivity and sexual and nonsexual risk taking in young adult human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Campbell, Benjamin; Agnew, Christopher R; Thompson, Vaida; Udry, J Richard

    2002-12-01

    Release of the hormone cortisol represents a distress response to novel or stressful situations. Individual differences in such reactivity have been conceptualized as representing a relatively enduring, generalizable trait. In this study, cortisol responses to two experimentally manipulated "sexual" and "nonsexual" stressors were used to examine whether stress reactivity is related to sexual and nonsexual risk behavior in young adult males. Analyses were based on 150 males 18 to 25 years old; risk behavior was assessed in confidential, self-administered questionnaires. Analyses indicated that both stressors effectively elicited cortisol increases. Generalized reactivity, defined as a cortisol response to both stressors, was inversely associated with deviance (e.g., theft, substance use) and with two indicators of sexual risk taking (lifetime number of intercourse partners and frequency of condom use). Findings are discussed in terms of cross-situational consistency of stress responses, the utility of stress reactivity for understanding individual differences in risk taking, and the interpretive limitations imposed by study design.

  15. Male and Female Human Body Tissue Radiation Shielding Models Based upon CT-scan Data for Organ Dose Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, G.; Nealy, J.; Wilson, J.; Cucinotta, F.

    As present and future human space mission lengths are extended, it becomes increasingly important and valuable to have accurate analytic predictions of radiation doses to specific tissues within the body. New computational models are being developed to help predict the effective radiation shielding to points inside the human body provided by the surrounding body tissue. A female body tissue model, based upon a full-body CT-scan from the Visible Human Project, is presented along with a male body tissue model based upon a full-body CT-scan data set obtained from Johns Hopkins University. The advantages of using CT-scan based models are presented along with initial results and comparisons to previous models. Details of the data processing required to transform a raw CT-scan into a tissue shielding model are also presented.

  16. The effect of ageing on human lymphocyte subsets: comparison of males and females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderson Robert D

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is reported to be a decline in immune function and an alteration in the frequency of circulating lymphocytes with advancing age. There are also differences in ageing and lifespan between males and females. We performed this study to see if there were differences between males and females in the frequency of the different lymphocyte subsets with age. Results Using flow cytometry we have examined different populations of peripheral blood leukocytes purified from healthy subjects with age ranging from the third to the tenth decade. We used linear regression analysis to determine if there is a linear relationship between age and cell frequencies. For the whole group, we find that with age there is a significant decline in the percentage of naïve T cells and CD8+ T cells, and an increase in the percentage of effector memory cells, CD4+foxp3+ T cells and NK cells. For all cells where there was an effect of ageing, the slope of the curve was greater for men than for women and this was statistically significant for CD8+αβ+ T cells and CD3+CD45RA-CCR7- effector memory cells. There was also a difference for naïve cells but this was not significant. Conclusion The cause of the change in percentage of lymphocyte subsets with age, and the different effects on males and females is not fully understood but warrants further study.

  17. Continent cutaneous diversion and external genitalia reconstruction in a child with severe variety urogenital sinus and ambiguous genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajni I Khemchandani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis and management of a child with ambiguous genitalia and severe variety of urogenital sinus with a high vesico-vaginal confluence is challenging. This 4-year-old female child had solitary right kidney with ectopic ureter opening in high variety of urogenital sinus with hypo-plastic urinary bladder and incontinence. We describe genitourinary reconstruction with complete functional rehabilitation in this child. This complex problem was managed with continent urinary diversion with Penn pouch and refashioning of external genitalia, rendering continence and near normal female external genitalia. The child and parents are happy with continence and aesthetically normal external genitalia.

  18. Sickling Cells, Cyclic Nucleotides, and Protein Kinases: The Pathophysiology of Urogenital Disorders in Sickle Cell Anemia

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    Mário Angelo Claudino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell anemia is one of the best studied inherited diseases, and despite being caused by a single point mutation in the HBB gene, multiple pleiotropic effects of the abnormal hemoglobin S production range from vaso-occlusive crisis, stroke, and pulmonary hypertension to osteonecrosis and leg ulcers. Urogenital function is not spared, and although priapism is most frequently remembered, other related clinical manifestations have been described, such as nocturia, enuresis, increased frequence of lower urinary tract infections, urinary incontinence, hypogonadism, and testicular infarction. Studies on sickle cell vaso-occlusion and priapism using both in vitro and in vivo models have shed light on the pathogenesis of some of these events. The authors review what is known about the deleterious effects of sickling on the genitourinary tract and how the role of cyclic nucleotides signaling and protein kinases may help understand the pathophysiology underlying these manifestations and develop novel therapies in the setting of urogenital disorders in sickle cell disease.

  19. Human papillomavirus in semen and the risk for male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Zhangyan; Feng, Xiaoshuang; Li, Ni; Zhao, Wei; Wei, Luopei; Chen, Yuheng; Yang, Wenjing; Ma, Hongxia; Yao, Bing; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Hang, Dong; Dai, Min

    2017-11-09

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. Despite the increasing evidence of HPV prevalence in semen, the worldwide distribution of HPV types in semen and risk for male infertility remain inconclusive. Four electronic databases were searched for English language studies conducted between January 1990 and December 2016 that reported HPV DNA prevalence in semen. Based on the PRISMA guidelines, HPV prevalence was estimated among general population and fertility clinic attendees, respectively, and heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran's Q and I 2 statistics. The association between HPV positivity and male infertility was evaluated by a meta-analysis of case-control studies. A total of 31 eligible studies comprising 5194 males were included. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in semen was 11.4% (95% CI = 7.8-15.0%) in general population (n = 2122) and 20.4% (95% CI = 16.2-24.6%) in fertility clinic attendees (n = 3072). High-risk type prevalence was 10.0% (95% CI = 5.9-14.0%) and 15.5% (95% CI = 11.4-19.7%), respectively. HPV16 was the most common type, with a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI = 1.7-7.8%) in general population and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8-8.2%) in fertility clinic attendees. A significantly increased risk of infertility was found for males with HPV positivity in semen (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 2.03-4.24). Seminal HPV infection is common worldwide, which may contribute to the risk of male infertility.

  20. Human papillomavirus in semen and the risk for male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyan Lyu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted viruses. Despite the increasing evidence of HPV prevalence in semen, the worldwide distribution of HPV types in semen and risk for male infertility remain inconclusive. Methods Four electronic databases were searched for English language studies conducted between January 1990 and December 2016 that reported HPV DNA prevalence in semen. Based on the PRISMA guidelines, HPV prevalence was estimated among general population and fertility clinic attendees, respectively, and heterogeneity testing was performed using Cochran’s Q and I 2 statistics. The association between HPV positivity and male infertility was evaluated by a meta-analysis of case-control studies. Results A total of 31 eligible studies comprising 5194 males were included. The overall prevalence of HPV DNA in semen was 11.4% (95% CI = 7.8-15.0% in general population (n = 2122 and 20.4% (95% CI = 16.2-24.6% in fertility clinic attendees (n = 3072. High-risk type prevalence was 10.0% (95% CI = 5.9-14.0% and 15.5% (95% CI = 11.4-19.7%, respectively. HPV16 was the most common type, with a prevalence of 4.8% (95% CI = 1.7-7.8% in general population and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.8-8.2% in fertility clinic attendees. A significantly increased risk of infertility was found for males with HPV positivity in semen (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 2.03-4.24. Conclusions Seminal HPV infection is common worldwide, which may contribute to the risk of male infertility.

  1. Correlations between human somatotype components and some anthropometric parameters in male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltadjiev, Atanas G; Vladeva, Stefka V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find and compare the correlations between somatotype and some anthropological parameters in Bulgarian male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Anthropometric measurements were taken from 165 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients were ethnic Bulgarians. They were divided into two age groups: a 40-60-year group (58 patients, mean age 52.05 ± 0.73 yrs), and a 61-80-year group (111 patients, mean age 68.02 ± 0.53 yrs). The controls were allocated into similar age-matched groups. Direct anthropometric measurements were body height and weight, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus and biepicondylar breadth of the femur. Circumferential measurements were taken from the relaxed and contracted upper arm, the forearm, the waist, the hip, the thigh and the medial calf. Skin folds were measured below the inferior angle of the scapula, above the X rib, above the crista iliaca, at the abdomen, triceps brachii, forearm, thigh and the medial calf. The components of human somatotype according to the criteria of Heath-Carter, body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. We found very strong positive correlations (PC > 0.70) between BMI and the endomorphic and mesomorphic components of somatotype in 40-60-year-old male diabetic patients. The correlation between the endomorphic and mesomorphic components of somatotype and the anthropometric measurements characterizing the central accumulation of adipose tissue (waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR) was very strong positive (PC = 0.5-0.7). Male diabetic patients aged 61-80 years: we found a very strong positive correlation between endomorphic and mesomorphic components and BMI, a strong correlation between these components and the waist circumference, and a good correlation between the components and the circumferences of the waist and hip and WHR. In male patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40-60 years, the endomorphic and mesomorphic components

  2. CLINICAL AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL FACTORS DETERMINING PROPAGATION AND CLINIC OF UROGENITAL TRICHOMONIASIS IN WOMEN

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    K. S. Akyshbayeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of urogenital trichomoniasis (UGT is relevant not only due to its high prevalence and multiple organ lesions, but also to the ability to have a negative impact on reproductive health. In Kazakhstan, UGT is one of the leading infections in the structure of sexually transmitted infections: in 2011 51.5%; 2012 — 43.5%; 2013 — 42.0% with the prevalence of co-infection with other STIs, in which the rate of complications is increased by 2 times and are more profound with the involvement of inflammation in the upper urogenital tract. The recorded incidence of trichomoniasis in the RK is characterized by annual rate decrease (since 2011 a 1.5 times decrease due to small fluctuations of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia morbidity which indicates a large reservoir of latent infection, and low level of diagnostics. Most clearly demonstrates this situation an incidence of UGT in 2 cities: so in Astana in 2013, the recorded incidence decreased by 2.8 times compared to 2011; in Almaty — 6 times in 2012 and 4.3 times in 2013. Conducted clinical and epidemiological analysis of UGT morbidity in women allowed to identify the following: in recent years the tendency of UGT to growth with a significant proportion of latent asymptomatic forms (for more than one quarter of patients with UGT, UGT is most common in young adults, average age 30.5±2.5 years; in half of the cases recorded, mixed trichomonas infection, mostly in combination with Chlamydia, which causes a high incidence of complications of the upper urogenital tract; there is a high frequency of trichomonas infection combination with infections caused by Candida, mycoplasma, which determines the prospects of the combination therapy UGT in combination with drugs, correcting immunodeficiency. There is quite a high incidence of gynecological pathology, the severity of which depends on the frequency of the spectrum of pathogens that are associated with T. vaginalis. The data

  3. Voluntary medical male circumcision: strategies for meeting the human resource needs of scale-up in southern and eastern Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Curran

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC reduces female-to-male HIV transmission by approximately 60%; modeling suggests that scaling up VMMC to 80% of men 15- to 49-years-old within five years would avert over 3.3 million new HIV infections in 14 high priority countries/regions in southern and eastern Africa by 2025 and would require 20.33 million circumcisions. However, the shortage of health professionals in these countries must be addressed to reach these proposed coverage levels. To identify human resource approaches that are being used to improve VMMC volume and efficiency, we looked at previous literature and conducted a program review. We identified surgical efficiencies, non-surgical efficiencies, task shifting, task sharing, temporary redeployment of public sector staff during VMMC campaign periods, expansion of the health workforce through recruitment of unemployed, recently retired, newly graduating, or on-leave health care workers, and the use of volunteer medical staff from other countries as approaches that address human resource constraints. Case studies from Kenya, Tanzania, and Swaziland illustrate several innovative responses to human resource challenges. Although the shortage of skilled personnel remains a major challenge to the rapid scale-up of VMMC in the 14 African priority countries/regions, health programs throughout the region may be able to replicate or adapt these approaches to scale up VMMC for public health impact.

  4. Development of the Human Fetal Kidney from Mid to Late Gestation in Male and Female Infants

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    Danica Ryan

    2018-01-01

    Interpretation: These findings highlight spatial and temporal variability in nephrogenesis in the developing human kidney, whereas the relative cellular composition of glomeruli does not appear to be influenced by gestational age.

  5. Alprostadil Urogenital

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the penis to keep enough blood in the penis so that an erection can occur.Alprostadil does not cure erectile dysfunction ... be placed into the urinary opening of the penis). Alprostadil is used as needed before sexual activity. An erection may occur within 5 to 20 minutes after ...

  6. Co-infection of syphilis and hepatitis B with carcinoma penis in a human immunodeficiency virus male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Balaji; Subramanian, Kalaivani; Karunakaran, Maduravasagam

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have a high probability of co-infections with Syphilis and hepatitis B virus since they share the common routes of transmission. We report a 41-year-old HIV male (on antiretroviral therapy for the past 6 years) admitted for a complaint of penile ulcer for 2 months. Serology for syphilis and hepatitis B were positive. Skin biopsy of the penile ulcer confirmed squamous cell carcinoma. Henceforth, the patient was referred to oncology department for further management. We present this rare combination of syphilis and hepatitis B with carcinoma penis in an HIV patient.

  7. Role of human- and animal-sperm studies in the evaluation of male reproductive hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyrobek, A.J.; Gordon, L.; Watchmaker, G.

    1982-04-07

    Human sperm tests provide a direct means of assessing chemically induced spermatogenic dysfunction in man. Available tests include sperm count, motility, morphology (seminal cytology), and Y-body analyses. Over 70 different human exposures have been monitored in various groups of exposed men. The majority of exposures studied showed a significant change from control in one or more sperm tests. When carefully controlled, the sperm morphology test is statistically the most sensitive of these human sperm tests. Several sperm tests have been developed in nonhuman mammals for the study of chemical spermatotoxins. The sperm morphology test in mice has been the most widely used. Results with this test seem to be related to germ-cell mutagenicity. In general, animal sperm tests should play an important role in the identification and assessment of potential human reproductive hazards. Exposure to spermatotoxins may lead to infertility, and more importantly, to heritable genetic damage. While there are considerable animal and human data suggesting that sperm tests may be used to detect agents causing infertility, the extent to which these tests detect heritable genetic damage remains unclear. (ERB)

  8. Factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research for urogenital schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths in rural villages of Kwale County, coastal Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Jacinta Wairimu; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah W; Njenga, Sammy Michugu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction helminthic infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths (STH) and schistosomes are among the most prevalent afflictions of humans who live in areas of poverty. An operational research was undertaken in 5 villages of Kwale County during a pilot control programme which included both the adults and school going children. Willingness of community members to participate in the treatment as well as in the research is critical. A cross sectional study sought to determine factors influencing community participation in control and related operational research and assess the treatment coverage for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms in rural villages of Kwale County. Methods cross-sectional survey utilized quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 220 households were recruited and household heads interviewed. Bivariate analysis was used to test association between different independent and dependent factors. Multivariate analysis was done using binary logistic regression to control for confounders and effect modification. Qualitative data was transcribed, coded and analyzed thematically. Results religion and levels of income were significantly (P =0.04 and P = 0.026 respectively) associated with participation in the research and control programme, history of ever suffering from schistosomiasis and intestinal worms was found to be significantly (P = 0.008) associated with participation in the research. The study established that 82% (178) of the respondents received treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis and hookworms and 67% (146) of the respondents had participated in the research. Conclusion this information will be useful in promoting health, enhancing learning and behaviour changes which will lead to increased community participation in similar disease control. PMID:27642474

  9. Cues to sex- and stress-hormones in the human male face: functions of glucocorticoids in the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, F R; Al Dujaili, E A S; Cornwell, R E; Smith, M J Law; Lawson, J F; Sharp, M; Perrett, D I

    2011-08-01

    The stress-linked version of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis has been proposed to account for inconsistencies in relationships between testosterone and immune response. The model has received some support from studies demonstrating roles of stress hormones in relationships between testosterone, immune function and secondary sexual ornamentation. Such work, however, has relied on artificial elevation of testosterone so may not reflect relationships in natural populations. We created human male facial stimuli on the basis of naturally co-occurring levels of salivary testosterone and the stress hormone cortisol. In Study 1 we tested female preferences for male faces with cues to combinations of the hormones across the menstrual cycle, and in Study 2 we tested perceptions of health and dominance in a novel set of facial stimuli. Females preferred cues to low cortisol, a preference that was strongest during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The effects of cortisol on attractiveness and perceived health and dominance were contingent upon level of testosterone: the effects of the stress hormone were reduced when testosterone was high. We propose explanations for our results, including low cortisol as a cue to a heritable component of health, attractiveness as a predictor of low social-evaluative threat (and, therefore, low baseline cortisol) and testosterone as a proxy of male ability to cope efficiently with stressors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Expressed prostate secretions in the study of human papillomavirus epidemiology in the male.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Smelov

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Exploring different sampling sites and methods is of interest for studies of the epidemiology of HPV infections in the male. Expressed prostate secretions (EPS are obtained during digital rectal examination (DRE, a daily routine urological diagnostic procedure, following massage of the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urethral swabs and EPS samples were obtained from a consecutive sample of 752 men (mean age 32.4 years; median life-time sex partners 34 visiting urology outpatient clinics in St. Petersburg, Russia and tested for HPV DNA by general primer PCR, followed by genotyping using Luminex. RESULTS: Overall, 47.9% (360/752 of men were HPV-positive, with 42.0% (316/752 being positive for high-risk (HR- HPV and 12.6% (95/752 for multiple HPV types. HPV-positivity in the EPS samples was 32.6% (27.7% HR-HPV and in the urethral samples 25.9% (24.5% HR-HPV. 10.6% were HPV positive in both EPS and urethral samples. 6.4% had the same HPV-type in both EPS and urethral samples. 10.6% were HPV positive in both EPS and urethral samples. 6.4% had the same HPV-type in both EPS and urethral samples. The concordance between the urethral samples and EPS was 62.5% (470/752, with 80 cases double positive and 390 cases double negative in both sites. The sensitivity of urethral samples for overall HPV detection was 54.2% (195/360. Compared to analysis of urethral samples only, the analysis of EPS increased the HPV prevalence in this population with 26.2%. CONCLUSION: EPS represent informative sampling material for the study of HPV epidemiology in the male.

  11. Vitamin D receptor and vitamin D metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the human male reproductive tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg Jensen, Martin; Nielsen, John E; Jørgensen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed in human testis, and vitamin D (VD) has been suggested to affect survival and function of mature spermatozoa. Indeed, VDR knockout mice and VD deficient rats show decreased sperm counts and low fertility. However, the cellular response to VD is complex...

  12. Type-specific human papillomavirus infections among young heterosexual male and female STI clinic attendees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Boot, Hein J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    BACKGROUND: Baseline genotype-specific human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence rates and associated risk factors per gender enable future assessment of the impact of vaccination on HPV dynamics. METHODS: Before the start of national HPV vaccination for girls, data were collected cross-sectionally in

  13. Polymeric matrix membrane sensors for stability-indicating potentiometric determination of oxybutynin hydrochloride and flavoxate hydrochloride urogenital system drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heba, Mohamed; Ramadan, Nesrin; El-Laithy, Moustafa

    2008-01-01

    Four polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix membrane electrodes responsive to 2 drugs affecting the urogenital system--oxybutynin hydrochloride (OX) and flavoxate hydrochloride (FX)--were developed, described, and characterized. A precipitation-based technique with tungstophosphate (TP) and ammonium reineckate (R) anions as electroactive materials in a PVC matrix with an OX cation was used for electrode 1 and 2 fabrication, respectively. Electrode 3 and 4 fabrication was based on use of the precipitation technique of FX cation with tetrakis (4-chlorophenyl) borate and R anions as electroactive materials. Fast and stable Nernstian responses in the range 1 x 10(-2)-1 x 10(-6) M for the 2 drugs over the pH range 5-8 revealed the performance characteristics of these electrodes, which were evaluated according to International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry recommendations. The method was applied to FX and OX in their pharmaceutical formulations and in human plasma samples. The 4 proposed sensors were found to be specific for the drugs in the presence of up to 60% of their degradation products. Validation of the method according to the quality assurance standards showed suitability of the proposed electrodes for use in the quality control assessment of these drugs. The recoveries for determination of the drugs by the 4 proposed selective electrodes were 99.5 +/- 0.5, 100.0 +/- 0.4, 99.9 +/- 0.4, and 100.1 +/- 0.4% for sensors 1-4, respectively. Statistical comparison between the results obtained by this method and the official method of the drugs was done, and no significant difference found.

  14. Prevalence and factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis among primary school children in barrage, Magba sub-division of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Longdoh Njunda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity as well as the factors associated with urogenital schistosomiasis (US in Barrage, a rural community around the Mape΄ dam, in the West region of Cameroon not previously documented for transmission. Methods In this cross sectional parasitological survey, 382 children were enrolled from three primary schools in the study area between March and May 2016. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, clinical and predisposing factors. The syringe filtration technique was used to analyse urine samples. Samples with visible or gross haematuria were recorded prior to filtration. The Pearson chi-square, the student T-test and logistic regression were all performed as part of the statistical analyses. Results The overall prevalence of US was 41.1% (95% CI: 36.1–46.2. Infection was more common in children below 10 years (p = 0.009, in males (p = 0.029, and in children who frequently come into contact with water from the dam (p < 0.001. Furthermore, US was more common in children attending Ecole Public (EP Manbonko Bord (81.1%, p < 0.001 which is very close to the dam and in children from a fishing background (80.9%, p < 0.001. On the contrary, knowledge about schistosomiasis was not observed to be associated with prevalence. In this study, the intensity of infection was observed to be higher in children below 10 years (p < 0.001, in males (p = 0.001, and in children attending EP Manbonko Bord (p < 0.001. The intensity of infection was also highest in children presenting with haematuria (p < 0.001. Frequent contact with water from the dam and having parents whose occupation was fishing were identified as the associated factors for US. Conclusion A high prevalence of US was observed in school-aged children in the study area especially in those attending EP Manbonko Bord. Limiting contact with water from the dam

  15. COMPARISON OF CONTACT ANGLES AND ADHESION TO HEXADECANE OF UROGENITAL, DAIRY, AND POULTRY LACTOBACILLI - EFFECT OF SERIAL CULTURE PASSAGES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REID, G; CUPERUS, PL; BRUCE, AW; VANDERMEI, HC; TOMECZEK, L; KHOURY, AH; BUSSCHER, HJ

    The aim of this study was to examine the hydrophobicities of 23 urogenital, dairy, poultry, and American Type Culture Collection isolates of lactobacilli and to determine the effect on hydrophobicity of serially passaging the strains in liquid medium. To this end, strains were grown after isolation

  16. Sex-Specific Biology of the Human Malaria Parasite Revealed from the Proteomes of Mature Male and Female Gametocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jun; Chen, Zhao; Wang, Zenglei; Shrestha, Sony; Li, Xiaolian; Li, Runze; Cui, Liwang

    2017-04-01

    The gametocytes of the malaria parasites are obligate for perpetuating the parasite's life cycle through mosquitoes, but the sex-specific biology of gametocytes is poorly understood. We generated a transgenic line in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum , which allowed us to accurately separate male and female gametocytes by flow cytometry. In-depth analysis of the proteomes by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified 1244 and 1387 proteins in mature male and female gametocytes, respectively. GFP-tagging of nine selected proteins confirmed their sex-partitions to be agreeable with the results from the proteomic analysis. The sex-specific proteomes showed significant differences that are consistent with the divergent functions of the two sexes. Although the male-specific proteome (119 proteins) is enriched in proteins associated with the flagella and genome replication, the female-specific proteome (262 proteins) is more abundant in proteins involved in metabolism, translation and organellar functions. Compared with the Plasmodium berghei sex-specific proteomes, this study revealed both extensive conservation and considerable divergence between these two species, which reflect the disparities between the two species in proteins involved in cytoskeleton, lipid metabolism and protein degradation. Comparison with three sex-specific proteomes allowed us to obtain high-confidence lists of 73 and 89 core male- and female-specific/biased proteins conserved in Plasmodium The identification of sex-specific/biased proteomes in Plasmodium lays a solid foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the unique sex-specific biology in this early-branching eukaryote. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Taekmin; Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho; Park, Sungchan

    2016-03-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections.

  18. Multiple Human Papillomavirus Infection Is Associated with High-Risk Infection in Male Genital Warts in Ulsan, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Kyung Hyun; Yang, Sung-Hak; Roh, Min Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Je Won; Kim, In Kyu; Roh, Kyoung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Further understanding of male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is necessary to prevent infection in men, as well as transmission to women. In our current study, we investigated patterns of HPV infection and genotype distributions in male genital warts using the Anyplex II HPV28 Detection kit. We reviewed the medical records of 80 male patients who presented to 5 neighborhood clinics in Ulsan, Korea, for the treatment of genital warts between April 2014 and January 2015. All patients underwent HPV genotyping. The prevalence and characteristics of HPV infection were analyzed, and the patterns of HPV infection according to age were assessed. Among the study patients, 13 (16.3%) were negative for HPV infection, 46 (57.3%) were infected with low-risk HPV, and 21 (26.3%) were infected with high-risk HPV. Patients with multiple HPV infection were more likely to have high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.001). The prevalence of HPV infection was much higher in samples obtained by tissue excision due to a definite lesion (P = 0.001). There were no differences in high-risk HPV infection (P = 0.459), multiple HPV infection (P = 0.185), and recurrence at diagnosis (P = 0.178) according to age. HPV-6 and HPV-11 were the most common type overall (39.7% and 13.8%, respectively). HPV-16 and HPV-18 were the most common high-risk infections (both 3.4%). HPV infection is not only commonly encountered in male genital warts, but is also accompanied by high-risk HPV and multiple infections. PMID:26955236

  19. Outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica (France): an epidemiological case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissier, Jérôme; Grech-Angelini, Sébastien; Webster, Bonnie L; Allienne, Jean-François; Huyse, Tine; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Toulza, Eve; Barré-Cardi, Hélène; Rollinson, David; Kincaid-Smith, Julien; Oleaga, Ana; Galinier, Richard; Foata, Joséphine; Rognon, Anne; Berry, Antoine; Mouahid, Gabriel; Henneron, Rémy; Moné, Hélène; Noel, Harold; Mitta, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak. We did parasitological and malacological surveys at nine potential sites of infection. With the snails found, we carried out snail-parasite compatibility experiments by exposing snails to schistosome larvae recovered from the urine of a locally infected Corsican patient. Genetic analysis of both mitochondrial (cox1) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) DNA data from the Schistosoma eggs or miracidia recovered from the infected patients was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology of this outbreak. We identified two main infection foci along the Cavu River, with many Bulinus truncatus snails found in both locations. Of the 3544 snails recovered across all sites, none were naturally infected, but laboratory-based experimental infections confirmed their compatibility with the schistosomes isolated from patients. Molecular characterisation of 73 eggs or miracidia isolated from 12 patients showed infection with Schistosoma haematobium, S haematobium-Schistosoma bovis hybrids, and S bovis. Further sequence data analysis also showed that the Corsican schistosomes were closely related to those from Senegal in west Africa. The freshwater swimming pools of the Cavu River harbour many B truncatus snails, which are capable of transmitting S haematobium-group schistosomes. Our molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal. Hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak, showing how easily and rapidly urogenital

  20. Interchromosomal insertional translocation at Xq26.3 alters SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Bryan; Hughes, James; Corbett, Mark; Shaw, Marie; Innes, Josie; Patel, Leena; Gecz, Jozef; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Thomas, Paul

    2015-05-01

    46,XX male sex reversal occurs in approximately 1: 20 000 live births and is most commonly caused by interchromosomal translocations of the Y-linked sex-determining gene, SRY. Rearrangements of the closely related SOX3 gene on the X chromosome are also associated with 46,XX male sex reversal. It has been hypothesized that sex reversal in the latter is caused by ectopic expression of SOX3 in the developing urogenital ridge where it triggers male development by acting as an analog of SRY. However, altered regulation of SOX3 in individuals with XX male sex reversal has not been demonstrated. Here we report a boy with SRY-negative XX male sex reversal who was diagnosed at birth with a small phallus, mixed gonads, and borderline-normal T. Molecular characterization of the affected individual was performed using array comparative genomic hybridization, fluorescent in situ hybridization of metaphase chromosomes, whole-genome sequencing, and RT-PCR expression analysis of lymphoblast cell lines. The affected male carries ∼774-kb insertion translocation from chromosome 1 into a human-specific palindromic sequence 82 kb distal to SOX3. Importantly, robust SOX3 expression was identified in cells derived from the affected individual but not from control XX or XY cells, indicating that the translocation has a direct effect on SOX3 regulation. This is the first demonstration of altered SOX3 expression in an individual with XX male sex reversal and suggests that SOX3 can substitute for SRY to initiate male development in humans.

  1. Cortical Activation Associated with Muscle Synergies of the Human Male Pelvic Floor

    OpenAIRE

    Asavasopon, Skulpan; Rana, Manku; Daniel J. Kirages; Yani, Moheb S.; Fisher, Beth E.; Hwang, Darryl H.; Everett B. Lohman; Berk, Lee S.; Kutch, Jason J.

    2014-01-01

    Human pelvic floor muscles have been shown to operate synergistically with a wide variety of muscles, which has been suggested to be an important contributor to continence and pelvic stability during functional tasks. However, the neural mechanism of pelvic floor muscle synergies remains unknown. Here, we test the hypothesis that activation in motor cortical regions associated with pelvic floor activation are part of the neural substrate for such synergies. We first use electromyographic reco...

  2. In utero exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants and reproductive health in the human male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vested, Anne; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Bonde, Jens Peter; Støvring, Henrik; Kristensen, Susanne L; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Rantakokko, Panu; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ernst, Emil H; Toft, Gunnar

    2014-12-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous, bioaccumulative compounds with potential endocrine-disrupting effects. They cross the placental barrier thereby resulting in in utero exposure of the developing fetus. The objective of this study was to investigate whether maternal serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) during pregnancy are associated with son's semen quality and reproductive hormone levels. During 2008-2009, we recruited 176 male offspring from a Danish cohort of pregnant women who participated in a study in 1988-1989. Each provided semen and blood samples that were analyzed for sperm concentration, total sperm count, motility, and morphology, and reproductive hormone levels, respectively. The maternal blood samples were collected in pregnancy week 30 and were analyzed for the concentrations of six PCBs (PCB-118, -138, -153, -156, -170, and -180) and p,p'-DDE. The potential associations between in utero exposure to ΣPCBs (pmol/ml), Σdioxin like-(DL) PCBs (PCB-118 and -156) (pmol/ml), and p,p'-DDE and semen quality and reproductive hormone levels were investigated using multiple regression. Maternal median (range) exposure levels of ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE were 10.0 (2.1-35.0) pmol/ml, 0.8 (0.2-2.7) pmol/ml, and 8.0 (0.7-55.3) pmol/ml, respectively, reflecting typical background exposure levels in the late 1980s in Denmark. Results suggested that in utero exposure to ΣPCB, ΣDL-PCB, and p,p'-DDE was not statistically significantly associated with semen quality measures or reproductive hormone levels. Thus, results based on maternal PCB and p,p'-DDE concentrations alone are not indicative of long-term consequences for male reproductive health; however, we cannot exclude that these POPs in concert with other endocrine-modulating compounds may have adverse effects. © 2014 The authors.

  3. Community Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices Associated with Urogenital Schistosomiasis among School-Aged Children in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobbie Person

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available On the Zanzibar islands, United Republic of Tanzania, elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis is strived for in the coming years. This qualitative study aimed to better understand community knowledge, perceptions, and practices associated with schistosomiasis among school-aged children on Unguja and Pemba islands, in order to inform the development of behavior change interventions contributing to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis.In 2011, we conducted 35 children's discussion groups, 41 in-depth interviews with parents and teachers, and 5 focus group discussions with community members in Zanzibar. Using a modified-grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes.Urogenital schistosomiasis is a common experience among children in Zanzibar and typically considered a boys' disease. Children engage in multiple high-risk behaviors for acquiring schistosomiasis because of poor knowledge on disease transmission, lack of understanding on severity of disease-associated consequences, and lack of alternative options for water related activities of daily living and recreational play. Local primary school teachers had little to no training about the disease and no teaching tools or materials for students.Conducting activities in open natural freshwater contaminated by S. haematobium larvae compromises the health of school-aged children in Zanzibar. The perception of urogenital schistosomiasis as a minor illness rather than a serious threat to a child's well-being contributes to the spread of disease. Understanding community perceptions of disease along with the barriers and facilitators to risk reduction behaviors among children can inform health promotion activities, campaigns, and programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.

  4. Effects of coconut oil on glycemia, inflammation, and urogenital microbial parameters in female Ossabaw mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Fugate, Annie E; Lenz, Katherine; Skenandore, Cassandra; Nowak, Romana A; White, Bryan A; Braundmeier-Fleming, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD) altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation. We utilized female Ossabaw mini-pigs to model a 'thrifty' metabolic phenotype associated with increased white adipose tissue mass. Pigs were fed HFD (~4570 kcal/pig/day) or lean (~2000 kcal/pig/day) diet for a total of 9 estrous cycles (~6 months). To determine the effect of cycle stage on cytokines and the microbiome, animals had samples collected during cycles 7 and 9 on certain days of the cycle: D1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18. Vaginal swabs or cervical flushes assessed urogenital microbiota. Systemic fatty acids, insulin, glucose, and cytokines were analyzed. Pig weights and morphometric measurements were taken weekly. Obese pigs had increased body weight, length, heart and belly girth but similar glucose concentrations. Obese pigs had decreased cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10), arachidonic acid and plasma insulin, but increased levels of vaccenic acid. Obese pigs had greater urogenital bacterial diversity, including several taxa known for anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, induction of obesity did not induce inflammation but shifted the microbial communities within the urogenital tract to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We postulate that the coconut oil in the HFD oil may have supported normal glucose homeostasis and modulated the immune response, possibly through regulation of microbial community dynamics and fatty acid metabolism. This animal model holds promise for the study of how different

  5. Effects of coconut oil on glycemia, inflammation, and urogenital microbial parameters in female Ossabaw mini-pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie E Newell-Fugate

    Full Text Available Forty percent of American women are obese and at risk for type II diabetes, impaired immune function, and altered microbiome diversity, thus impacting overall health. We investigated whether obesity induced by an excess calorie, high fat diet containing hydrogenated fats, fructose, and coconut oil (HFD altered glucose homeostasis, peripheral immunity, and urogenital microbial dynamics. We hypothesized that HFD would cause hyperglycemia, increase peripheral inflammation, and alter urogenital microbiota to favor bacterial taxonomy associated with inflammation. We utilized female Ossabaw mini-pigs to model a 'thrifty' metabolic phenotype associated with increased white adipose tissue mass. Pigs were fed HFD (~4570 kcal/pig/day or lean (~2000 kcal/pig/day diet for a total of 9 estrous cycles (~6 months. To determine the effect of cycle stage on cytokines and the microbiome, animals had samples collected during cycles 7 and 9 on certain days of the cycle: D1, 4, 8, 12, 16, 18. Vaginal swabs or cervical flushes assessed urogenital microbiota. Systemic fatty acids, insulin, glucose, and cytokines were analyzed. Pig weights and morphometric measurements were taken weekly. Obese pigs had increased body weight, length, heart and belly girth but similar glucose concentrations. Obese pigs had decreased cytokine levels (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10, arachidonic acid and plasma insulin, but increased levels of vaccenic acid. Obese pigs had greater urogenital bacterial diversity, including several taxa known for anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, induction of obesity did not induce inflammation but shifted the microbial communities within the urogenital tract to an anti-inflammatory phenotype. We postulate that the coconut oil in the HFD oil may have supported normal glucose homeostasis and modulated the immune response, possibly through regulation of microbial community dynamics and fatty acid metabolism. This animal model holds promise for the study of

  6. Human Trafficking and Health: A Survey of Male and Female Survivors in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, Siân; Abas, Melanie; Bick, Debra; Boyle, Adrian; French, Rebecca; Jakobowitz, Sharon; Khondoker, Mizanur; Stanley, Nicky; Trevillion, Kylee; Howard, Louise; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-06-01

    To investigate physical and mental health and experiences of violence among male and female trafficking survivors in a high-income country. Our data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 150 men and women in England who were in contact with posttrafficking support services. Interviews took place over 18 months, from June 2013 to December 2014. Participants had been trafficked for sexual exploitation (29%), domestic servitude (29.3%), and labor exploitation (40.4%). Sixty-six percent of women reported forced sex during trafficking, including 95% of those trafficked for sexual exploitation and 54% of those trafficked for domestic servitude. Twenty-one percent of men and 24% of women reported ongoing injuries, and 8% of men and 23% of women reported diagnosed sexually transmitted infections. Finally, 78% of women and 40% of men reported high levels of depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Psychological interventions to support the recovery of this highly vulnerable population are urgently needed.

  7. European society of urogenital radiology (ESUR) guidelines: MR imaging of pelvic endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazot, M.; Thomassin-Naggara, I. [Tenon Hospital, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Bharwani, N. [Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, St Mary' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Huchon, C. [CHI Poissy Saint-Germain en Laye, Versailles University France, Department of Obtetrics and Gynaecology, Poissy (France); Kinkel, K. [Institut de Radiologie, Chene-Bougeries (Switzerland); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Lisboa (Portugal); Guerra, A. [Hospital da Luz, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal); Manganaro, L. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Bunesch, L. [Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Department of Radiology (Urogenital Section), Barcelona (Spain); Kido, A.; Togashi, K. [Kyoto University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Rockall, A.G. [The Royal Marsden Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    Endometriosis is a common gynaecological condition of unknown aetiology that primarily affects women of reproductive age. The accepted first-line imaging modality is pelvic ultrasound. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly performed as an additional investigation in complex cases and for surgical planning. There is currently no international consensus regarding patient preparation, MRI protocols or reporting criteria. Our aim was to develop clinical guidelines for MRI evaluation of pelvic endometriosis based on literature evidence and consensus expert opinion. This work was performed by a group of radiologists from the European Society of Urogenital Radiology (ESUR), experts in gynaecological imaging and a gynaecologist expert in methodology. The group discussed indications for MRI, technical requirements, patient preparation, MRI protocols and criteria for the diagnosis of pelvic endometriosis on MRI. The expert panel proposed a final recommendation for each criterion using Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine (OCEBM) 2011 levels of evidence. (orig.)

  8. Chlamydia trachomatis Genotypes and the Swedish New Variant among Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Strains in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Niemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aims were to genotype Chlamydia trachomatis strains present in urogenital samples and to investigate the occurrence of the Swedish new variant of C. trachomatis in Finland. We genotyped 160 C. trachomatis positive samples with ompA real-time PCR and analyzed 495 samples for the new variant. The three most prevalent genotypes were E (40%, F (28%, and G (13%. Only two specimens containing bacteria with the variant plasmid were detected. It seems that in Finland the percentage of infections due to genotypes F and G has slightly increased during the last 20 years. Genotypes E and G appear to be more common, and genotypes J/Ja and I/Ia appear to be less common in Europe than in the USA. Although the genotype E was the most common genotype among C. trachomatis strains, the new variant was rarely found in Finland.

  9. Congenital abnormalities of the urogenital tract: the clue is in the cord?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoub, Ahmed; Drake, Thomas M

    2014-12-02

    Congenital abnormalities of the female urogenital tract are not uncommon, with an estimated incidence of 2-4% across the female population. Within this population, up to 40% will have associated renal tract abnormalities. A previously well 12-year-old girl presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, vomiting and a palpable pelvic mass. Ultrasound and MR scans were performed. The imaging revealed a didelphys uterus, an obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis, characteristic of Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome. The patient was noted at birth to have a single umbilical artery, which is associated with an increased risk of congenital abnormalities and useful information for the early identification of abnormalities that have implications for renal function and future fertility. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  10. Urogenital fistulae: A prospective study of 50 cases at a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur Rajkumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The misfortunate incident of formation of a urogenital fistula remains a major challenge for surgical urologists worldwide. Such fistulae may not be a life-threatening problem, but surely the women face demoralization, social boycott and even divorce and separation. The fistula may be vaginal, recto-vaginal or a combination of the two. The World Health Organization (WHO has estimated that in the developing nations, nearly 5 million women annually suffer severe morbidity with obstetric fistulae being the foremost on the list. The objective of our study was to enunciate the patient demography, patient profile, incidence, type of surgery, as well as the long-term outcomes encountered in the management of all types of genital fistulae at a tertiary care centre. Materials and Methods: 50 consecutive patients, attending the outpatient department with urogenital fistulae, were studied during the period of 5 years from July 2005 to July 2009. All female patients with complaints of urinary incontinence and fecal incontinence and dribbling, patients having a history of obstructed labor, radiotherapy, instrumental delivery, foreign body or trauma and with a history of hysterectomy (abdominal/ vaginal and lower segment caesarean section (LSCS were included. A thorough urological examination included a dye study using methylene blue, Renal function tests, X-ray KUB and intravenous urography (IVU. Cystoscopy along with examination under anaesthesia (EUA were done to assess the actual extent of injury. All patients were subjected to appropriate surgical interventions via the same combination of surgeons . Post operatively, prophylactic antibiotics were administered to all patients and patients were managed till discharge and followed thereafter via regular outpatient visits for a period of 3 years. Results: Age of patients ranged from 21 to 40 years. 64% patients hailed from rural areas, 76% were from the lower socio-economic strata, 40

  11. Expression of the innate defense receptor S5D-SRCRB in the urogenital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miro-Julia, C.; Escoda-Ferran, C.; Carrasco, E.

    2014-01-01

    S5D-SRCRB is a novel mouse secretory glycoprotein belonging to the ancient and highly conserved scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily of protein receptors. Available evidence indicates that S5D-SRCRB interacts with conserved microbial cell wall components, as well as with some endogenous...... proteins, and presents a restricted tissue expression pattern. This study further analyzes the expression of S5D-SRCRB along the mouse urogenital tract. Immunohistochemical staining for S5D-SRCRB was observed in spermatocytes from seminiferous tubules and in the epithelial surface from urethra and bladder......, as well as in kidney tubules, mainly from medulla and papilla. Double stainings showed that S5D-SRCRB is expressed in both principal (P) and intercalated (IC) cells from renal collecting ducts (CD). By using an in vitro cell model of IC cell differentiation, preferential expression of S5D...

  12. Urogenital involvement in the Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome: treatment options and results

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    Fabio C. Vicentini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber syndrome (KTWS is a congenital condition characterized by vascular malformations of the capillary, venous and lymphatic systems associated to soft tissue and bone hypertrophy in the affected areas. This syndrome may involve bladder, kidney, urethra, ureter and genitals. We report the treatment of 7 KTWS patients with urogenital involvement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1995 to 2005, 7 patients with KTWS were evaluated and the charts of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: Patients’ median age was 19-years (range 4 to 46-years and only 1 was female. The clinical presentation included genital deformities in 3 cases, hematuria in 2 and urethrorragia in 2, one of which associated with cryptorchidism and phimosis. Three patients had an association of pelvic and genital malformations, including 2 patients with hematuria due to vesical lesions and 1 patient with left ureterohydronephrosis due to a pelvic mass. Two patients had urethral lesions. Treatment included endoscopic laser coagulation for 1 patient with recurrent hematuria and 1 patient with urethrorrhagia, pelvic radiotherapy for 1 patient with hematuria and circumcision in 2 patients with genital deformities. One patient required placement of a double-J catheter to relieve obstruction. Hematuria and urethrorragia were safely and effectively controlled with laser applications. Circumcision was also effective. The patient treated with radiotherapy developed a contracted bladder and required a continent urinary diversion. CONCLUSIONS: Urogenital involvement in patients with KTWS is not rare and must be suspected in the presence of hematuria or significant cutaneous deformity of the external genitalia. Surgical treatment may be warranted in selected cases.

  13. Oncology Section EDGE Task Force on Urogenital Cancer: A Systematic Review of Clinical Measures for Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Alicia; Harrington, Shana E; Hill, Alexandra; Roscow, Amanda; Alappattu, Meryl

    2017-07-01

    Compared to the general population, women and men with urogenital and colorectal cancer experience higher rates of urinary and fecal incontinence. Although a variety of measures exist to assess these areas, currently, there are no guidelines recommending which outcomes rehabilitation professionals should administer to examine these impairments in those with cancer. To identify outcome measures for assessing urinary and fecal incontinence and evaluate their psychometric data and applicability to the cancer population. Multiple electronic databases (CINAHL, Medline, PsycInfo) were reviewed using specific search terms to locate articles that identify outcome measures assessing urinary and fecal incontinence. As part of a larger effort to identify outcome measures for both incontinence and sexual dysfunction, 1118 articles were initially identified, 228 articles were reviewed, and 37 outcome measures were selected for analysis, 13 of which were related to urinary and fecal incontinence. Each incontinence outcome measure was independently reviewed and rated by two reviewers using the Cancer EDGE Task Force Outcome Measure Rating Form. Any discrepancies between reviewers were discussed and an overall recommendation for each outcome measure was made using the 4-point Cancer EDGE Task Force Rating Scale. The Task Force was able to highly recommend 1 measure addressing urinary incontinence (American Urological Association Symptom Index) and 2 measures assessing both urinary and fecal incontinence (Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory - Short Form, Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire - Short Form). The Task Force also recommended two measures of urinary incontinence that demonstrated strong psychometric properties, but had not yet been evaluated in the cancer population (Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form). The Task Force was unable to recommend any measures that solely addressed fecal incontinence. Five

  14. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-09-17

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.

  15. Thyroid Dysfunction Associated With Follicular Cell Steatosis in Obese Male Mice and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Jung Uee; Joung, Kyong Hye; Kim, Yong Kyung; Ryu, Min Jeong; Lee, Seong Eun; Kim, Soung Jung; Chung, Hyo Kyun; Choi, Min Jeong; Chang, Joon Young; Lee, Sang-Hee; Kweon, Gi Ryang; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Koon Soon; Kim, Seong-Min; Jo, Young Suk; Park, Jeongwon; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2015-01-01

    Adult thyroid dysfunction is a common endocrine disorder associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. A recent epidemiologic study revealed a link between obesity and increased prevalence of hypothyroidism. It is conceivable that excessive adiposity in obesity might lead to expansion of the interfollicular adipose (IFA) depot or steatosis in thyroid follicular cells (thyroid steatosis, TS). In this study, we investigated the morphological and functional changes in thyroid glands of obese humans and animal models, diet-induced obese (DIO), ob/ob, and db/db mice. Expanded IFA depot and TS were observed in obese patients. Furthermore, DIO mice showed increased expression of lipogenesis-regulation genes, such as sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), and fatty acid synthetase (FASN) in the thyroid gland. Steatosis and ultrastructural changes, including distension of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial distortion in thyroid follicular cells, were uniformly observed in DIO mice and genetically obese mouse models, ob/ob and db/db mice. Obese mice displayed a variable degree of primary thyroid hypofunction, which was not corrected by PPARγ agonist administration. We propose that systemically increased adiposity is associated with characteristic IFA depots and TS and may cause or influence the development of primary thyroid failure. PMID:25555091

  16. In vitro assessment of the adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on the human male gamete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, G; Moinard, N; Jouanolou, V; Daudin, M; Gandia, P; Bujan, L

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the in vitro effects of didanosine, zidovudine, saquinavir and indinavir, commonly used in highly active antiretroviral therapy, on human sperm fertility parameters. Thirty semen samples from healthy men were collected and prepared by gradient density method. Aliquots of 90% fractions with >80% motile spermatozoa were incubated for 1, 3, and 6h with different concentrations of the antiretroviral drugs (20, 40, and 80 μg/ml). Sperm motility was evaluated by computer assisted sperm analysis system. Sperm mitochondrial potential was evaluated using 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DIOC(6)) and the acrosome reaction was examined using pisum sativum agglutinin method. A dose-dependent decrease in sperm motility was observed with saquinavir. Saquinavir also induced a significant time and dose-dependent decrease in mitochondrial potential and an increase in spontaneous acrosome reaction. These findings indicate that, in vitro, higher doses of saquinavir have adverse effects on sperm motility, mitochondrial potential and acrosome reaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genomic Instability in Human Lymphocytes from Male Users of Crack Cocaine

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    Thiago Aley Brites de Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that crack cocaine use alters systemic biochemical markers, like oxidative damage and inflammation markers, but very few studies have assessed the potential effects of crack cocaine at the cellular level. We assessed genome instability by means of the comet assay and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus technique in crack cocaine users at the time of admission to a rehabilitation clinic and at two times after the beginning of withdrawal. Thirty one active users of crack cocaine and forty control subjects were evaluated. Comparison between controls and crack cocaine users at the first analysis showed significant differences in the rates of DNA damage (p = 0.037. The frequency of micronuclei (MN (p < 0.001 and nuclear buds (NBUDs (p < 0.001 was increased, but not the frequency of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs (p = 0.089. DNA damage decreased only after the end of treatment (p < 0.001. Micronuclei frequency did not decrease after treatment, and nuclear buds increased substantially. The results of this study reveal the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of crack cocaine use in human lymphocytes and pave the way for further research on cellular responses and the possible consequences of DNA damage, such as induction of irreversible neurological disease and cancer.

  18. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Elena Álvarez-Argüelles

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Human Papillomavirus (HPV infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87 were collected for HPV-DNA testing. METHODS: A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. RESULTS: The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318 balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405 urethral (p35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104 of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy, and in 22.8% (61/267 without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56 men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109 of men with positive peniscopy. CONCLUSIONS: HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  19. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions.

  20. Human papillomavirus infection in a male population attending a sexually transmitted infection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Argüelles, Marta Elena; Melón, Santiago; Junquera, Maria Luisa; Boga, Jose Antonio; Villa, Laura; Pérez-Castro, Sonia; de Oña, María

    2013-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in men may produce cancer and other major disorders. Men play an important role in the transmission of the virus and act as a reservoir. The aim of this study was to determine the HPV-genotypes and their prevalence in a group of men attending a Sexually Transmitted Infection service. PATIENTS AND SAMPLES: Between July 2002 and June 2011, 1392 balanopreputial, 435 urethral, 123 anal, and 67 condyloma lesions from 1551 men with a mean age of 35.8±11.3 years old (range: 17-87) were collected for HPV-DNA testing. A fragment of the L1-gene and a fragment of the E6/E7-genes were amplified by PCR. Positive samples were typed by hybridization. The HPV genome was detected in 36.9% (486/1318) balanopreputial and in 24.9% (101/405) urethral (pmen. Co-infections were present in 5.4% (80/1469) of cases. HPV was found in 43.9% (373/850) of men younger than 35 vs. 31.7% (187/589) of men aged >35. HPV was found in 59.4% (104) of 165 men with lesions (macroscopic or positive peniscopy), and in 22.8% (61/267) without clinical alterations. HPV was also detected in 71.4% (40/56) men with condylomata and in 58.7% (64/109) of men with positive peniscopy. HPV prevalence in men was high and decreased with age. HPV was found more frequently in balanopreputial than in urethral swabs. There was a low rate of co-infections. Low-risk HPV vaccine genotypes were the most recurrent especially in younger. Although HPV has been associated with clinical alterations, it was also found in men without any clinical presentation. Inclusion of men in the national HPV vaccination program may reduce their burden of HPV-related disease and reduce transmission of the virus to non-vaccinated women.

  1. Gonorrhea in Indonesia: High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Urogenital Gonorrhea but No Circulating Extended Spectrum Cephalosporins-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Strains in Jakarta, Yogyakarta, and Denpasar, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hananta, I. Putu Yuda; van Dam, Alje P.; Bruisten, Sylvia Maria; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; Soebono, Hardyanto; de Vries, Henry John Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the epidemiology of asymptomatic urogenital gonorrhea and antimicrobial susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) strains circulating in Indonesia. We studied these issues in 3 large Indonesian cities. In 2014, participants were recruited from sexually transmitted infection

  2. Human-relevant Levels of Added Sugar Consumption Increase Female Mortality and Lower Male Fitness in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S.; Suchy, Amanda K.; Hugentobler, Sara A.; Sosa, Mirtha M.; Schwartz, Bradley L.; Morrison, Linda C.; Gieng, Sin H.; Shigenaga, Mark K.; Potts, Wayne K.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of added sugar has increased over recent decades and is correlated with numerous diseases. Rodent models have elucidated mechanisms of toxicity, but only at concentrations beyond typical human exposure. Here we show that comparatively low levels of added sugar consumption have substantial negative effects on mouse survival, competitive ability, and reproduction. Using Organismal Performance Assays (OPAs) – in which mice fed human-relevant concentrations of added sugar (25% Kcal from a mixture of fructose and glucose [F/G]) and control mice compete in seminatural enclosures for territories, resources and mates – we demonstrate that F/G-fed females experience a two-fold increase in mortality while F/G-fed males control 26% fewer territories and produce 25% less offspring. These findings represent the lowest level of sugar consumption shown to adversely affect mammalian health. Clinical defects of F/G-fed mice were decreased glucose clearance and increased fasting cholesterol. Our data highlight that physiological adversity can exist when clinical disruptions are minor, and suggest that OPAs represent a promising technique for unmasking negative effects of toxicants. PMID:23941916

  3. A Foxp2 mutation implicated in human speech deficits alters sequencing of ultrasonic vocalizations in adult male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Chabout

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development of proficient spoken language skills is disrupted by mutations of the FOXP2 transcription factor. A heterozygous missense mutation in the KE family causes speech apraxia, involving difficulty producing words with complex learned sequences of syllables. Manipulations in songbirds have helped to elucidate the role of this gene in vocal learning, but findings in non-human mammals have been limited or inconclusive. Here we performed a systematic study of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs of adult male mice carrying the KE family mutation. Using novel statistical tools, we found that Foxp2 heterozygous mice did not have detectable changes in USV syllable acoustic structure, but produced shorter sequences and did not shift to more complex syntax in social contexts where wildtype animals did. Heterozygous mice also displayed a shift in the position of their rudimentary laryngeal motor cortex layer-5 neurons. Our findings indicate that although mouse USVs are mostly innate, the underlying contributions of FoxP2 to sequencing of vocalizations are conserved with humans.

  4. Gross pathological findings in sows of different parity, culled due to recurring swine urogenital disease (SUGD in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Boma

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In a large Kenyan production unit the urogenital organs and mammary glands of 771 sows, culled due to recurring swine urogenital disease (SUGD were subjected to necropsy Necropsy findings were analysed separately according to parity group of the sows [parities 2 (n = 252; 3-5 (n = 250; and > 5 (n = 269]. Sows of higher parities had more pathological changes in their ovaries, uteri, vaginas, cervices, urinary bladders, kidneys and mammary glands compared to parity 2 sows (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively. Parity 2 sows had more ovarian degeneration, mucosal hyperaemia, congestion in the bladder, and acute purulent exudative mastitis than parity > 5 sows (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively.

  5. Are adolescents more vulnerable to the harmful effects of cannabis than adults? A placebo-controlled study in human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokrysz, C; Freeman, T P; Korkki, S; Griffiths, K; Curran, H V

    2016-11-29

    Preclinical research demonstrates that cannabinoids have differing effects in adolescent and adult animals. Whether these findings translate to humans has not yet been investigated. Here we believe we conducted the first study to compare the acute effects of cannabis in human adolescent (n=20; 16-17 years old) and adult (n=20; 24-28 years old) male cannabis users, in a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over design. After inhaling vaporized active or placebo cannabis, participants completed tasks assessing spatial working memory, episodic memory and response inhibition, alongside measures of blood pressure and heart rate, psychotomimetic symptoms and subjective drug effects (for example, 'stoned', 'want to have cannabis'). Results showed that on active cannabis, adolescents felt less stoned and reported fewer psychotomimetic symptoms than adults. Further, adults but not adolescents were more anxious and less alert during the active cannabis session (both pre- and post-drug administration). Following cannabis, cognitive impairment (reaction time on spatial working memory and prose recall following a delay) was greater in adults than adolescents. By contrast, cannabis impaired response inhibition accuracy in adolescents but not in adults. Moreover, following drug administration, the adolescents did not show satiety; instead they wanted more cannabis regardless of whether they had taken active or placebo cannabis, while the opposite was seen for adults. These contrasting profiles of adolescent resilience (blunted subjective, memory, physiological and psychotomimetic effects) and vulnerability (lack of satiety, impaired inhibitory processes) show some degree of translation from preclinical findings, and may contribute to escalated cannabis use by human adolescents.

  6. Experiences and expectations of women with urogenital prolapse: a quantitative and qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikrishna, S; Robinson, D; Cardozo, L; Cartwright, R

    2008-10-01

    To explore the expectations and goals of women undergoing surgery for urogenital prolapse using both a quantitative quality of life approach exploring symptom bother and a qualitative interview-based approach exploring patient goals and expectations. Prospective observational study. Tertiary referral centre for urogynaecology. Forty-three women with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse were recruited from the waiting list for pelvic floor reconstructive surgery. All women were assessed with a structured clinical interview on an individual basis. The data obtained were transcribed verbatim and then analysed thematically based on the grounded theory. Individual codes and subcodes were identified to develop a coding framework. The prolapse quality-of-life (pQoL) questionnaire was used to determine the impact of pelvic organ prolapse on the woman's daily life. We arbitrarily classified 'bother' as minimal, mild, moderate and marked if scores ranged from 0 to 25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100, respectively. The degree of prolapse was objectively quantified using the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) system. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS. Ethical approval was obtained from the Kings College Hospital Ethics Committee. Quantitative data from POP-Q, subjective data from pQoL, qualitative data based on the structured clinical interview. Forty-three women were recruited over the first 1 year of the study. Their mean age was 56 years (range 36-78) and mean parity was 2 (range 0-6). The mean ordinal stage of the prolapse was 2 (range stages 1-4). Quantitative analysis of the pQoL data suggested that the main domains affected were prolapse impact on life (mean score 74.71) and personal relationships (mean score 46.66). Qualitative analysis based on the clinical interview suggested that these women were most affected by the actual physical symptoms of prolapse (bulge, pain and bowel problems) as well by the impact prolapse has on their sexual function. While

  7. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome: Sonographic and Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging Findings of This Rare Urogenital Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Sukriye; Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Fitoz, Suat

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome is a rare congenital urogenital anomaly characterised by uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Children usually have progressive pelvic pain after menarche, palpable mass due to hemihaemato(metro)colpos or pelvic inflammatory disease. The diagnosis usually requires a suspicion of this rare genitourinary syndrome. Case Reports We present ultrasonography and MR imaging findings of this rare anomaly in two case...

  8. Decreased prevalence of left-handedness among females with male co-twins: evidence suggesting prenatal testosterone transfer in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Eriksson, C J Peter; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-11-01

    Studies of singletons suggest that right-handed individuals may have higher levels of testosterone than do left-handed individuals. Prenatal testosterone levels are hypothesised to be especially related to handedness formation. In humans, female members from opposite-sex twin pairs may experience elevated level of prenatal exposure to testosterone in their intrauterine environment shared with a male. We tested for differences in rates of left-handedness/right-handedness in female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs. Our sample consisted of 4736 subjects, about 70% of all Finnish twins born in 1983-1987, with information on measured pregnancy and birth related factors. Circulating testosterone and estradiol levels at age 14 were available on 771 and 744 of these twins, respectively. We found significantly (p=.006) lower prevalence of left-handedness in females from opposite-sex pairs (5.3%) compared to females from same-sex pairs (8.6%). The circulating levels of neither testosterone nor estradiol related to handedness in either females or males. Nor were there differences in circulating testosterone or estradiol levels between females from opposite-sex and same-sex twin pairs. Birth and pregnancy related factors for which we had information were unrelated to handedness. Our results are difficult to fully explain by postnatal factors, but they offer support to theory that relates testosterone to formation of handedness, and in a population-based sample, are suggestive of effects of prenatal testosterone transfer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Male circumcision wound healing in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and HIV-positive men in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigozi, Godfrey; Musoke, Richard; Kighoma, Nehemiah; Watya, Stephen; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kiwanuka, Noah; Nkale, James; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Makumbi, Frederick; Sewankambo, Nelson K; Gray, Ronald H; Wawer, Maria J

    2014-01-01

    To assess completed wound healing after medical male circumcision (MMC) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative and HIV-positive men with cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) counts of HIV-positive men with low CD4 counts. In all, 262 HIV-negative and 177 HIV-positive consenting males aged ≥12 years accepted MMC using the dorsal slit procedure and were enrolled in the study. Socio-demographic and behavioural data and blood for HIV testing and CD4 counts were collected at baseline. Participants were followed weekly to collect information on resumption of sex, condom use and both self-reported and clinically assessed wound healing. The proportions healed among HIV-positive men were compared with HIV-negative men. Time to complete wound healing was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. There were no statistically significant differences in the proportion of men healed by HIV status. At 4 weeks, the proportions healed were 85.9% in HIV-negative men, 77.4% in HIV-positive men with a CD4 count of ≥350 cells/mm(3) and 87.1% in HIV-positive men with a CD4 count of healing was 4 weeks and did not vary by HIV or CD4 status. All men had certified complete wound healing at 6 weeks after MMC. In all, 1.4% of HIV-positive men with a CD4 count of healing, compared with 8.5% among HIV-positive men with a CD4 count of ≥350 cells/mm(3) (P = 0.052) and 7.8% (P = 0.081) among HIV-negative men. Inclusion of HIV-positive men with low CD4 counts in MMC services is not deleterious to postoperative wound healing. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  10. Bidet toilet use and incidence of hemorrhoids or urogenital infections: A one-year follow-up web survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Teppei; Asakura, Keiko; Nakano, Makiko; Omae, Kazuyuki

    2017-06-01

    Although bidet toilets are widely used in Japan, the relationship between habitual bidet toilet use and the incidence of hemorrhoids or urogenital infections has not been prospectively studied. We performed a web survey and followed bidet toilets users and non-users to assess the incidence of hemorrhoids or urogenital infections from 2013 to 2014. Study subjects were randomly selected from a research company's (Macromill, Inc.) web panel. The baseline survey inquired about toilet use and confounding parameters, and the follow-up survey examined outcome parameters. A total of 7637 subjects were analyzed using single or multiple logistic regression models. The prevalence odds ratios (ORs) between bidet toilet users and non-users for hemorrhoids, urological infections, and vulval pruritus were significantly > 1.0 but their incidence ORs were not significant. The adjusted incidence OR for bacterial vaginitis symptoms was significant (2.662, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.315-5.520]). These findings suggest that positive relations between habitual bidet toilet use and hemorrhoids and urogenital symptoms, except bacterial vaginitis, were due to reverse causation. The incidence of bacterial vaginitis might be caused by bidet toilet use, but the incidence rates were too small to make a definite conclusion, and further studies are needed.

  11. Unilateral Complete Agenesis of Mesonephric Duct Derivatives in an 82-year-Old Male Cadaver: Embryology, Anatomy and Clinical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Darcy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Development of urogenital anatomy in the human fetus is the result of a complex interplay between multiple different tissues. The time course of development is well documented and the morphologic outcomes of insults at various time points during development are predictable. We present a cadaveric case of unilateral agenesis of the left kidney, ureter, bladder hemitrigone, ureteric opening, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, and epididymis. Failure of development of the mesonephric duct early during embryogenesis, likely between the third and fifth week, caused ipsilateral urogenital organ agenesis.

  12. TvMP50 is an immunogenic metalloproteinase during male trichomoniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Villalpando, José Luis; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Arroyo, Rossana; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Alvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2013-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a human urogenital tract parasite, is capable of surviving in the male microenvironment, despite of the presence of Zn(2+). Concentrations > 1.6 mM of Zn(2+) have a trichomonacidal effect; however, in the presence of ≤1.6 mM Zn(2+), several trichomonad proteins are up- or down-regulated. Herein, we analyzed the proteome of a T. vaginalis male isolate (HGMN01) grown in the presence of Zn(2+) and found 32 protein spots that were immunorecognized by male trichomoniasis patient serum. Using mass spectrometry (MS), the proteins were identified and compared with 23 spots that were immunorecognized in the proteome of a female isolate using the same serum. Interestingly, we found a 50-kDa metallopeptidase (TvMP50). Unexpectedly, this proteinase was immunodetected by the serum of male trichomoniasis patients but not by the female patient serum or sera from healthy men and women. We analyzed the T. vaginalis genome and localized the mp50 gene in locus TVAG_403460. Using an RT-PCR assay, we amplified a 1320-bp mp50 mRNA transcript that was expressed in the presence of Zn(2+) in the HGMN01 and CNCD147 T. vaginalis isolates. According to a Western blot assay, native TvMP50 was differentially expressed in the presence of Zn(2+). The TvMP50 proteolytic activity increased in the presence of Zn(2+) in both isolates and was inhibited by EDTA but not by ptosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), E64, leupeptin, or phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride. Furthermore, the recombinant TvMP50 had proteolytic activity that was inhibited by EDTA. These data suggested that TvMP50 is immunogenic during male trichomoniasis, and Zn(2+) induces its expression.

  13. TvMP50 is an Immunogenic Metalloproteinase during Male Trichomoniasis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas-Granados, Laura Itzel; Villalpando, José Luis; Vázquez-Carrillo, Laura Isabel; Arroyo, Rossana; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; Álvarez-Sánchez, María Elizbeth

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a human urogenital tract parasite, is capable of surviving in the male microenvironment, despite of the presence of Zn2+. Concentrations > 1.6 mm of Zn2+ have a trichomonacidal effect; however, in the presence of ≤1.6 mm Zn2+, several trichomonad proteins are up- or down-regulated. Herein, we analyzed the proteome of a T. vaginalis male isolate (HGMN01) grown in the presence of Zn2+ and found 32 protein spots that were immunorecognized by male trichomoniasis patient serum. Using mass spectrometry (MS), the proteins were identified and compared with 23 spots that were immunorecognized in the proteome of a female isolate using the same serum. Interestingly, we found a 50-kDa metallopeptidase (TvMP50). Unexpectedly, this proteinase was immunodetected by the serum of male trichomoniasis patients but not by the female patient serum or sera from healthy men and women. We analyzed the T. vaginalis genome and localized the mp50 gene in locus TVAG_403460. Using an RT-PCR assay, we amplified a 1320-bp mp50 mRNA transcript that was expressed in the presence of Zn2+ in the HGMN01 and CNCD147 T. vaginalis isolates. According to a Western blot assay, native TvMP50 was differentially expressed in the presence of Zn2+. The TvMP50 proteolytic activity increased in the presence of Zn2+ in both isolates and was inhibited by EDTA but not by ptosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone (TLCK), E64, leupeptin, or phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride. Furthermore, the recombinant TvMP50 had proteolytic activity that was inhibited by EDTA. These data suggested that TvMP50 is immunogenic during male trichomoniasis, and Zn2+ induces its expression. PMID:23579185

  14. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R.; Cassola, V. F.; Khoury, H. J.; Vieira, J. W.; de Melo Lima, V. J.; Robson Brown, K.

    2010-01-01

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  15. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife (Brazil); Vieira, J W [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); De Melo Lima, V J [Department of Anatomy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil); Robson Brown, K [Imaging Laboratory, Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  16. FASH and MASH: female and male adult human phantoms based on polygon mesh surfaces: II. Dosimetric calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R; Cassola, V F; Khoury, H J; Vieira, J W; Lima, V J de Melo; Brown, K Robson

    2010-01-07

    Female and male adult human phantoms, called FASH (Female Adult meSH) and MASH (Male Adult meSH), have been developed in the first part of this study using 3D animation software and anatomical atlases to replace the image-based FAX06 and the MAX06 voxel phantoms. 3D modelling methods allow for phantom development independent from medical images of patients, volunteers or cadavers. The second part of this study investigates the dosimetric implications for organ and tissue equivalent doses due to the anatomical differences between the new and the old phantoms. These differences are mainly caused by the supine position of human bodies during scanning in order to acquire digital images for voxel phantom development. Compared to an upright standing person, in image-based voxel phantoms organs are often coronally shifted towards the head and sometimes the sagittal diameter of the trunk is reduced by a gravitational change of the fat distribution. In addition, volumes of adipose and muscle tissue shielding internal organs are sometimes too small, because adaptation of organ volumes to ICRP-based organ masses often occurs at the expense of general soft tissues, such as adipose, muscle or unspecified soft tissue. These effects have dosimetric consequences, especially for partial body exposure, such as in x-ray diagnosis, but also for whole body external exposure and for internal exposure. Using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code, internal and external exposure to photons and electrons has been simulated with both pairs of phantoms. The results show differences between organ and tissue equivalent doses for the upright standing FASH/MASH and the image-based supine FAX06/MAX06 phantoms of up to 80% for external exposure and up to 100% for internal exposure. Similar differences were found for external exposure between FASH/MASH and REGINA/REX, the reference voxel phantoms of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Comparison of effective doses for external photon

  17. Early Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Urogenital Function in Morbidly Obese Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, Maha; Muneer, Asif; Renshaw, Sara; George, Jason; Jenkinson, Andrew D; Adamo, Marco; Elkalaawy, Mohamed; Batterham, Rachel L; Ralph, David J; Hashemi, Majid; Cellek, Selim

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is an independent risk factor for erectile dysfunction (ED) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve erectile function and urinary symptoms in medium- to long-term studies (3- to 12-month postoperative follow-up). To investigate the early effect (1 month postoperatively) of bariatric surgery on ED and LUTS, which has not previously been investigated. Morbidly obese men (body mass index > 35 kg/m2) undergoing bariatric surgery were asked to complete the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaires before surgery and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The influence of bariatric surgery on urogenital function, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric tests for paired samples. Of 30 patients who completed the study, 18 reported ED (IIEF score bariatric surgery starting at the 1-month postoperative time point and improvement continued throughout the study in all patients with ED or moderate to severe LUTS. This is the first study showing improvement in erectile and urinary function within 1 month after bariatric surgery, an effect that was parallel to glycemic improvement and weight loss. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. All rights reserved.

  18. Staging of endometrial cancer with MRI: Guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinkel, K. [Geneva University Hospital and Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Chene-Bougeries/Geneva (Switzerland); Clinique des Grangettes, Institut de radiologie, Chene-Bougerie/Geneva (Switzerland); Forstner, R. [LandesklinikenSalzburg, Zentralroentgeninstitut, Salzburg (Austria); Danza, F.M. [Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Dipartimento di Bioimmagini e scienze radiologiche, Rome (Italy); Oleaga, L. [Hospital Clinic, Radiology Department, Barcelona (Spain); Cunha, T.M. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Department of Radiology, Lisboa Codex (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden); Barentsz, J.O. [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Balleyguier, C. [Institut de Cancerologie Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif Cedex (France); Brkljacic, B. [University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Zagreb, Medical School, Zagreb (Croatia); Spencer, J.A. [St James' s Institute of Oncology, Department of Clinical Radiology, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to define guidelines for endometrial cancer staging with MRI. The technique included critical review and expert consensus of MRI protocols by the female imaging subcommittee of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology, from ten European institutions, and published literature between 1999 and 2008. The results indicated that high field MRI should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine body) of the pelvic content. High-resolution post-contrast images acquired at 2 min {+-} 30 s after intravenous contrast injection are suggested to be optimal for the diagnosis of myometrial invasion. If cervical invasion is suspected, additional slice orientation perpendicular to the axis of the endocervical channel is recommended. Due to the limited sensitivity of MRI to detect lymph node metastasis without lymph node-specific contrast agents, retroperitoneal lymph node screening with pre-contrast sequences up to the level of the kidneys is optional. The likelihood of lymph node invasion and the need for staging lymphadenectomy are also indicated by high-grade histology at endometrial tissue sampling and by deep myometrial or cervical invasion detected by MRI. In conclusion, expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  19. Staging of uterine cervical cancer with MRI: guidelines of the European Society of Urogenital Radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balleyguier, Corinne [Radiology Department, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Sala, E. [Radiology Department, Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cunha, T. da [Radiology Department, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Lisboa Francisco Gentil, Lisbon (Portugal); Bergman, A. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital (Sweden); Brkljacic, B. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital ' ' Dubrava' ' , Zagreb (Croatia); Danza, F. [Dipartimento di Bioimmaginie Scienze Radiologiche, Universita Cattolica del S. Cuore, Rome (Italy); Forstner, R. [Zentralroentgeninstitut, Landeskliniken Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); Hamm, B. [Department of Radiology, Charite Humboldt Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Kubik-Huch, R. [Institut Radiologie, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden (Switzerland); Lopez, C.; Manfredi, R. [Department of Radiology, ' ' A. Gemelli' ' University Hospital, Rome (Italy); McHugo, J. [Department of Radiology, Birmingham Women' s Hospital, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Oleaga, L. [Radiology Department, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Togashi, K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Kinkel, K. [Institut de Radiologie, Clinique des Grangettes, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2011-05-15

    To design clear guidelines for the staging and follow-up of patients with uterine cervical cancer, and to provide the radiologist with a framework for use in multidisciplinary conferences. Methods: Guidelines for uterine cervical cancer staging and follow-up were defined by the female imaging subcommittee of the ESUR (European Society of Urogenital Radiology) based on the expert consensus of imaging protocols of 11 leading institutions and a critical review of the literature. The results indicated that high field Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) should include at least two T2-weighted sequences in sagittal, axial oblique or coronal oblique orientation (short and long axis of the uterine cervix) of the pelvic content. Axial T1-weighted sequence is useful to detect suspicious pelvic and abdominal lymph nodes, and images from symphysis to the left renal vein are required. The intravenous administration of Gadolinium-chelates is optional but is often required for small lesions (<2 cm) and for follow-up after treatment. Diffusion-weighted sequences are optional but are recommended to help evaluate lymph nodes and to detect a residual lesion after chemoradiotherapy. Expert consensus and literature review lead to an optimized MRI protocol to stage uterine cervical cancer. MRI is the imaging modality of choice for preoperative staging and follow-up in patients with uterine cervical cancer. (orig.)

  20. Immunological Consequences of Antihelminthic Treatment in Preschool Children Exposed to Urogenital Schistosome Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Rujeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urogenital schistosomiasis, due to Schistosoma haematobium, is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Control is by targeted treatment with praziquantel but preschool age children are excluded from control programs. Immunological studies on the effect of treatment at this young age are scarce. In light of studies in older individuals showing that praziquantel alters antischistosome immune responses and responses to bystander antigens, this study aims to investigate how these responses would be affected by treatment at this young age. Antibody responses directed against schistosome antigens, Plasmodium falciparum crude and recombinant antigens, and the allergen house dust mite were measured in children aged 3 to 5 years before and 6 weeks after treatment. The change in serological recognition of schistosome proteins was also investigated. Treatment augmented antischistosome IgM and IgE responses. The increase in IgE responses directed against adult worm antigens was accompanied by enhanced antigen recognition by sera from the children. Antibody responses directed against Plasmodium antigens were not significantly affected by praziquantel treatment nor were levels of allergen specific responses. Overall, praziquantel treatment enhanced, quantitatively and qualitatively, the antiworm responses associated with protective immunity but did not alter Plasmodium-specific responses or allergen-specific responses which mediate pathology in allergic disease.

  1. Persistent Urogenital Sinus: Diagnostic Imaging for Clinical Management. What Does the Radiologist Need to Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Anna Lia; Giuliani, Michela; Gui, Benedetta; Laino, Maria Elena; Zecchi, Viola; Rodolfino, Elena; Ninivaggi, Valeria; Manzoni, Carlo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-04-01

    Persistent urogenital sinus (PUGS) is a congenital pathological condition characterized by an abnormal communication between the urethra and vagina. It may be a part of a complex syndrome and can be more often associated with congenital malformations affecting the genitourinary tract system (33%) such as intersex, rectovaginal communication, bladder agenesis, absence of vagina, and hydrocolpos. The correct radiological assessment of PUGS is especially useful for clinicians since the exact anatomical evaluation of this abnormality is a crucial factor for surgical planning. The imaging study modalities, which are essentially based on ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrography, and magnetic resonance imaging, could be misinterpreted if not correctly performed. The aim of this article is to highlight this rare pathological condition and to help general radiologists in achieving the correct technical approach for the diagnosis. Special attention will be paid in discussing the role of different imaging modalities and their contribution to the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Decreased expression of elastin and lysyl oxidase family genes in urogenital tissues of aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Zong, Wen; Luan, Hong; Liu, Jian-hua; Zhang, Ai-zhen; Li, Xiao-lin; Liu, Shuo-yang; Zhang, Shi-qian; Gao, Jian-gang

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the expression levels of elastin and lysyl oxidase (LOX) family members in the urogenital tissues of natural aging mice and accelerated ovarian aging mice. Uteri, vaginas and bladders were harvested from 18-month-old female mice and accelerated ovarian aging mice developed by chemotherapeutic agents. Untreated 3-month-old female mice were used as controls. The expression levels of elastin and LOX family members were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot. Compared with untreated young female mice, the expression of elastin and LOX family members significantly decreased both in natural aging mice and accelerated ovarian aging mice. Aging is a high-risk factor for pelvic floor disorders. The failure of elastic fiber synthesis and assembly due to the decline in expression levels of elastin and LOX family members during aging may explain the molecular mechanism causing pelvic floor disorders. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2014 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  3. [THE STATE OF FALLOPIAN TUBES IN WOMEN WITH UROGENITAL CHLAMYDIA AND INFERTILITY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arustamyan, K; Totoyan, E; Karapetyan, A; Gasparyan, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess the state of the fallopian tubes in women with urogenital chlamydia (UC) and infertility. 344 women 18-49 y.o with infertility have been investigated. UC was detected in 133 of them -38.7%, (main group), UC was absent in 211 (61.3%) patients (comparision group). In the main group prevailed the tubal or tubal peritoneal factor of infertility (51.9% versus 19.4% in the comparison group, pwomen in the main (62.4%) was in the form of mixed infection. Obstruction of the fallopian tubes and adhesions in the pelvic region were more often detected in patients of the main group (pwomen with chlamydial mixed infection. Adhesive process in the small pelvis was established by laparascopy in 72.2% of women in the main group and in 27.8% in the comparison group (pwomen diagnosed with an ectopic pregnancy, 5 of whom had UC. Women with UC have alternating areas with signs of acute inflammation and various stages of the reparative processand in 4 women with UC the above mentioned signs and sclerosis were detected also in the the submucosa, which can cause destruction of the functional activities of the fallopian tubes and obstruction as well. All this causes a violation of the transport of spermatozoa, the embryo and leads to a ectopic pregnancy and infertility. Obtained results explain the inefficiency of restoring reproductive function in women after elimination of UC with preserved patency of the fallopian tubes.

  4. Resilient protein co-expression network in male orbitofrontal cortex layer 2/3 during human aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabba, Mohan; Scifo, Enzo; Kapadia, Fenika; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ma, Tianzhou; Mechawar, Naguib; Tseng, George C; Sibille, Etienne

    2017-10-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is vulnerable to normal and pathologic aging. Currently, layer resolution large-scale proteomic studies describing "normal" age-related alterations at OFC are not available. Here, we performed a large-scale exploratory high-throughput mass spectrometry-based protein analysis on OFC layer 2/3 from 15 "young" (15-43 years) and 18 "old" (62-88 years) human male subjects. We detected 4193 proteins and identified 127 differentially expressed (DE) proteins (p-value ≤0.05; effect size >20%), including 65 up- and 62 downregulated proteins (e.g., GFAP, CALB1). Using a previously described categorization of biological aging based on somatic tissues, that is, peripheral "hallmarks of aging," and considering overlap in protein function, we show the highest representation of altered cell-cell communication (54%), deregulated nutrient sensing (39%), and loss of proteostasis (35%) in the set of OFC layer 2/3 DE proteins. DE proteins also showed a significant association with several neurologic disorders; for example, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Notably, despite age-related changes in individual protein levels, protein co-expression modules were remarkably conserved across age groups, suggesting robust functional homeostasis. Collectively, these results provide biological insight into aging and associated homeostatic mechanisms that maintain normal brain function with advancing age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining maternal beliefs and human papillomavirus vaccine uptake among male and female children in low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika L. Fuchs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines within-family differences in the uptake of the HPV vaccine and HPV-related beliefs by children׳s sex. Methods: From a 2011–2013 survey of mothers of children aged 9–17 years in Texas, mothers with both male and female children (n=350 were selected. Results: Mothers were more likely to report having initiated and completed HPV vaccination for their daughters than sons. Mothers did not express differences by children׳s sex in HPV-related beliefs. Among those who had not completely vaccinated either child, mothers were more likely to report they wanted their daughters compared to sons vaccinated and were more likely to report feeling confident they could get their daughters vaccinated than their sons. Conclusion: In this population, mothers were more likely to report HPV vaccination of and motivation to vaccinate daughters compared to sons, although maternal beliefs about HPV did not differ by children׳s sex. Keywords: HPV vaccine, Vaccine series completion, Human papillomavirus, Vaccination, Mothers, Belief

  6. Morphometric analysis of osteonal architecture in bones from healthy young human male subjects using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Congiu, Terenzio; Pienazza, Alberto; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gnecchi, Michele; Dell'orbo, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    The shape and structure of bones is a topic that has been studied for a long time by morphologists and biologists with the goal of explaining the laws governing their development, aging and pathology. The osteonal architecture of tibial and femoral mid-diaphyses was examined morphometrically with scanning electron microscopy in four healthy young male subjects. In transverse sections of the mid-diaphysis, the total area of the anterior, posterior, lateral and medial cortex sectors was measured and analysed for osteonal parameters including osteon number and density, osteon total and bone area and vascular space area. Osteons were grouped into four classes including cutting heads (A), transversely cut osteons (B), longitudinally cut osteons (C) and sealed osteons (D). The morphometric parameters were compared between the inner (endosteal) and outer (periosteal) half of the cortex. Of 5927 examined osteons, 24.4% cutting heads, 71.1% transversely cut osteons, 2.3% longitudinally cut osteons and 2.2% sealed osteons were found. The interosteonic bone (measured as the area in a lamellar system that has lost contact with its own central canal) corresponded to 51.2% of the endosteal and 52.4% of the periosteal half-cortex. The mean number of class A cutting heads and class B osteons was significantly higher in the periosteal than in the endosteal half-cortex (P healthy human bone for studies on bone aging and metabolic bone diseases. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  7. Dose-dependent effects of caffeine in human Sertoli cells metabolism and oxidative profile: relevance for male fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Bernardino, Raquel L; Martins, Ana D; Moreira, Ana C; Silva, Joaquina; Barros, Alberto; Sousa, Mário; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2015-02-03

    Caffeine is a widely consumed substance present in several beverages. There is an increasing consumption of energetic drinks, rich in caffeine, among young individuals in reproductive age. Caffeine has been described as a modulator of cellular metabolism. Hence, we hypothesized that it alters human Sertoli cells (hSCs) metabolism and oxidative profile, which are essential for spermatogenesis. For that purpose, hSCs were cultured with increasing doses of caffeine (5, 50, 500 μM). Caffeine at the lowest concentrations (5 and 50 μM) stimulated lactate production, but only hSCs exposed to 50 μM showed increased expression of glucose transporters (GLUTs). At the highest concentration (500 μM), caffeine stimulated LDH activity to sustain lactate production. Notably, the antioxidant capacity of hSCs decreased in a dose-dependent manner and SCs exposed to 500 μM caffeine presented a pro-oxidant potential, with a concurrent increase of protein oxidative damage. Hence, moderate consumption of caffeine appears to be safe to male reproductive health since it stimulates lactate production by SCs, which can promote germ cells survival. Nevertheless, caution should be taken by heavy consumers of energetic beverages and food supplemented with caffeine to avoid deleterious effects in hSCs functioning and thus, abnormal spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for radiation molecular cytogenetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Repin Mikhail V

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this work is to obtain the correct relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes for the use at FISH analysis of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Results The relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the male and female human diploid genomes have been calculated from the publicly available international Human Genome Project data. New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of human chromosomes were compared with the data recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 2001. The differences in the values of the relative DNA contents of chromosomes obtained by using different approaches for 15 human chromosomes, mainly for large chromosomes, were below 2%. For the chromosomes 13, 17, 20 and 22 the differences were above 5%. Conclusion New sequence-based data on the relative DNA contents of chromosomes in the normal male and female human diploid genomes were obtained. This approach, based on the genome sequence, can be recommended for the use in radiation molecular cytogenetics.

  9. Chemicals agents and human male fertility: Review of the past thirty years literature; Sostanze chimiche e infertilita` maschile: Rassegna degli studi condotti negli ultimi trenta anni

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traina, Maria Elsa; Urbani, Elisabetta [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Igiene Ambientale; Petrelli, Grazia; Pasquali, Massimo; Pace, Francesca [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Epidemiologia e Biostatistica

    1997-03-01

    The effects of several industrial and environmental pollutants on the male reproductive system are known from animal studies, but to date the impact on human fertility is still scarcely documented by epidemiological studies. The literature of the past thirty years on the adverse effects of occupational chemical factors on human male fertility is reviewed. Eighty-nine studies have been analysed with the purpose to identify the substances and/or the working categories investigated and to evaluate the methods used. Since 1977 the interest has been focused on the human exposures to 1,2-dibromochloropropane, a powerful spermatotoxic agent, but a consistent number of studies was also related to other active ingredients of pesticides (lindane, carbaryl, 2,4-dichlorofenoxiacetic acid), solvents (glycol ethers, carbon disulfide) and heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Among the indicators used in these studies to evaluate the effects on male fertility, the seminal parameters are analysed in 67 % of the reports; blood hormonal tests are done in 54 % of the cases. The literature suggests that further epidemiological studies need to be conducted in other working categories; more attention should be paid to the sensitivity and biological significance of the male reproductive parameters used in human studies.

  10. Development of a quantitation approach for total human and male DNA based on real time PCR followed by high resolution melting analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginart, Santiago; Caputo, Mariela; Alechine, Evguenia; Corach, Daniel; Sala, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    We developed and validated a total human DNA quantitation technique that simultaneously allows male DNA detection. This assay, called Amel-Y, is a duplex Real Time PCR followed by HRM (high resolution melting) analysis using the intercalating dye SYTO9. Amel-Y duplex produces two amplicons, one for the amelogenin gene (106/112 bp, female/male) and another (84 bp) corresponding to human Y chromosome-specific fragment to detect male DNA. After HRM analysis, two melting peaks differing in 5.3°C-5.5°C are detected if both male and female DNA are present and only one if only female DNA is present. For specificity assessment, the inclusion of high concentrations of bacterial and fungal DNA in the quantitation reactions allowed discarding species cross-reactivity. A set of crime scene evidence from forensic casework has been quantified with commercial kits and compared with Amel-Y duplex. Our method detected male DNA from a concentration of 18 pg/μL and supports autosomal/Y DNA detection ratio up to 200:1. A limitation of the technique is its inability to quantify male and female donnors in a mixed sample. The Amel-Y duplex demonstrated to be an efficient system for quantifying total human DNA being a specific, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective method suitable for mixed DNA samples and applicable to any field where human DNA quantification is required, such as molecular diagnosis, population genetics, and forensic identification. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Uptake and dosimetry of Auger emitting diagnostic radionuclides (in particular indium-111) in human male germ cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nettleton, J.S. [Health and Safety Executive, Quay House, Manchester (United Kingdom); Lawson, R.S.; Prescott, M.C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Manchester Royal Infirmary, Manchester (United Kingdom); Hoyes, K.P.; Morris, I.D. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2000-05-01

    This paper concerns the uptake and dosimetry of Auger electron emitting radionuclides which are used during routine diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, in human testes and spermatozoa (sperm). A computer model was developed to calculate the doses to sperm heads from cellular localisation of the Auger electron emitting radionuclides {sup 99m}Tc, {sup 111}In, {sup 123}I and {sup 201}Tl. An assumption of ellipsoidal geometry was made to approximate the sperm head. S Factors were determined for differing sub-cellular localisations of radionuclide. The S-Factors determined were then combined with in-vitro data for quantification of radionuclide uptake for {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, {sup 111}In chloride and {sup 201}Tl chloride, to estimate in-vivo doses to sperm heads following intravenous administration of radionuclide in typical diagnostic quantities. The uptake and resulting cellular radiation dose of {sup 111}In (from the chloride) was significantly larger than the other radionuclides in the chemical forms investigated. Further investigations were carried out to determine localisation of {sup 111}In on sperm. The results of these experiments indicate that the radiation dose to mature sperm following administration of {sup 111}In pharmaceuticals for diagnostic purposes might be large enough to result in DNA damage which is not expressed until after fertilisation of an oocyte. Consideration should therefore be given to providing some contraceptive advice following diagnostic administrations of this radionuclide. In order to consider the possible effects of these radionuclides on other spermatogenic cells, further studies were undertaken to obtain in-vivo data for quantification of {sup 111}In chloride and {sup 201}Tl chloride uptake into the human testis following intravenous administration. Conventional dosimetry was then used to estimate testicular radiation dose using our values of percentage uptake. The results obtained indicate that the values of testicular

  12. Kinetics of radiation-induced apoptosis in neonatal urogenital tissues with and without protein synthesis inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gobe, G.C.; Harmon, B.; Schoch, E.; Allan, D.J. [Queensland Univ., St. Lucia, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-12-31

    The difference in incidence of radiation-induced apoptosis between two neonatal urogenital tissues, kidney and testis, was analysed over a 24h period. Concurrent administration of cycloheximide (10mg/kg body weight), a protein synthesis inhibitor, with radiation treatment was used to determine whether new protein synthesis had a role in induction of apoptosis in this in vivo model. Many chemotherapeutic drugs act via protein synthesis inhibition, and we believe that the results of this latter analysis may provide information for the planning of concurrent radio and chemotherapy. Apoptosis was quantified using morphological parameters, and verified by DNA gel electrophoresis for the typical banding pattern, and by electron microscopy. The proliferative index in tissues was studied, using [6-{sup 3}H]-thymidine uptake ( 1h prior to euthanasia and collection of tissues) and autoradiography as indicators of cell proliferation (S-phase). Tissue was collected 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24h after radiation treatment. Expression of one of the apoptosis-associated genes, Bcl-2 (an apoptosis inhibitor/cell survival gene), was studied using immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis peaked at 4h in the testis and 6h in the kidney, emphasising the necessity of knowing tissue differences in radiation response if comparing changes at a particular time. A higher proportion (almost five fold) of the apoptotic cells died in S-phase in the kidney than the testis, over the 24h. Protein synthesis inhibition completely negated induction of apoptosis in both tissues. Necrosis was not identified at any time. Cycloheximide treatment greatly diminished Bcl-2 expression. The differences in response of the two tissues to irradiation relates to their innate cell (genetic) controls, which may be determined by their state of differentiation at time of treatment, or the tissue type. This in vivo study also suggests the model may be useful for analysis of other cancer therapies for example polychemotherapies or chemo

  13. Reduced costs of reproduction in females mediate a shift from a male-biased to a female-biased lifespan in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Lummaa, Virpi; Smith, Ken R; Hanson, Heidi A; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-04-18

    The causes underlying sex differences in lifespan are strongly debated. While females commonly outlive males in humans, this is generally less pronounced in societies before the demographic transition to low mortality and fertility rates. Life-history theory suggests that reduced reproduction should benefit female lifespan when females pay higher costs of reproduction than males. Using unique longitudinal demographic records on 140,600 reproducing individuals from the Utah Population Database, we demonstrate a shift from male-biased to female-biased adult lifespans in individuals born before versus during the demographic transition. Only women paid a cost of reproduction in terms of shortened post-reproductive lifespan at high parities. Therefore, as fertility decreased over time, female lifespan increased, while male lifespan remained largely stable, supporting the theory that differential costs of reproduction in the two sexes result in the shifting patterns of sex differences in lifespan across human populations. Further, our results have important implications for demographic forecasts in human populations and advance our understanding of lifespan evolution.

  14. Sexually transmitted diseases in homosexual and bisexual males from a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus negative volunteers (Project Horizonte, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lignani Jr L

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are very frequent in the whole world. Males who do not use a condom during their sexual relations are at great risk. We report cases of STD during six months of observation, among homosexual/bisexual males who participate in the Project Horizonte. There were 16 cases of genital warts, 6 cases of human immunodeficiency virus infection, 24 cases of unspecific urethritis, 28 cases of herpes simplex virus infection, 30 cases of syphilis, 58 cases of gonorrhea and 84 cases of pediculosis. We concluded that a condom must be used in all sexual relations and new counseling techniques are needed, to avoid this situation.

  15. What Is the Optimal Time to Retest Patients With a Urogenital Chlamydia Infection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Helm, Jannie J; Koekenbier, Rik H; van Rooijen, Martijn S; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F; de Vries, Henry J C

    2018-02-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is a common, often recurring sexually transmitted infection, with serious adverse outcomes in women. Current guidelines recommend retesting after a chlamydia infection, but the optimum timing is unknown. We assessed the optimal retest interval after urogenital chlamydia treatment. A randomized controlled trial among urogenital chlamydia nucleic acid amplification test positive heterosexual clients of the Amsterdam sexually transmitted infection clinic. After treatment, patients were randomly assigned for retesting 8, 16, or 26 weeks later. Patients could choose to do this at home (and send a self-collected sample by mail) or at the clinic. Retest uptake and chlamydia positivity at follow-up were calculated. Between May 2012 and March 2013, 2253 patients were included (45% men; median age, 23 years; interquartile range, 21-26). The overall uptake proportion within 35 weeks after the initial visit was significantly higher in the 8-week group (77%) compared with the 16- and 26-week groups (67% and 64%, respectively, P < 0.001), and the positivity proportions among those retested were comparable (P = 0.169). The proportion of people with a diagnosed recurrent chlamydia infection among all randomized was similar between the groups (n = 69 [8.6%], n = 52 [7.4%], and n = 69 [9.3%]; P = 0.4). Patients with a recent urogenital chlamydia are at high risk of recurrence of chlamydia and retesting them is an effective way of detecting chlamydia cases. We recommend inviting patients for a re-test 8 weeks after the initial diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Association of urogenital symptoms with history of water contact in young women in areas endemic for S. haematobium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galappaththi-Arachchige, Hashini Nilushika; Hegertun, Ingrid Elise Amlie; Holmen, Sigve

    2016-01-01

    Female genital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Schistosoma haematobium. Infected females may suffer from symptoms mimicking sexually transmitted infections. We explored if self-reported history of unsafe water contact could be used as a simple predictor of genital...... schistosomiasis. In a cross-sectional study in rural South Africa, 883 sexually active women aged 16–22 years were included. Questions were asked about urogenital symptoms and water contact history. Urine samples were tested for S. haematobium ova. A score based on self-reported water contact was calculated...

  17. Multi-organ involvement of an immunoglobulin G4-related inflammatory pseudotumor of the urogenital tract: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Ka Young; Jung, Yoon Young; Kim, Yun Jung; Joo, Jong Eun; Yoo, Tag Keun; You, Myung Won; Choi, Yun Sun [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is a rare solid tumor of unknown etiology that can arise in most organs. IPT usually presents as a single, benign lesion. In the urogenital tract, IPT frequently occurs in the bladder, but in rare instances, IPT may originate in the kidney, prostate, or ureter. We describe a highly unusual case of multi-organ IPT that included the periureteral area, paravesical space, and prostate. The diagnosis was confirmed by computed tomography imaging, and by pathology testing that detected prominent immunoglobulin G4-positive plasma cells.

  18. Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich Syndrome: Sonographic and Magnetic Resonance (MR) Imaging Findings of This Rare Urogenital Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Sukriye; Yildiz, Adalet Elcin; Fitoz, Suat

    2017-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome is a rare congenital urogenital anomaly characterised by uterus didelphys with blind hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Children usually have progressive pelvic pain after menarche, palpable mass due to hemihaemato(metro)colpos or pelvic inflammatory disease. The diagnosis usually requires a suspicion of this rare genitourinary syndrome. We present ultrasonography and MR imaging findings of this rare anomaly in two cases. Early recognition of this rare syndrome can lead to an immediate, proper surgical intervention and is necessary to prevent complications and preserve future fertility. Ultrasound and MR imaging findings can collectively delineate uterine morphology, indicate the absence of ipsilateral kidney and show obstructed hemivagina.

  19. Development and validation of InnoQuant® HY, a system for quantitation and quality assessment of total human and male DNA using high copy targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Andrew; Murphy, Gina; Brown, Hiromi; Montgomery, Anne; Tabak, Jonathan; Baus, James; Carroll, Marion; Green, André; Sikka, Suresh; Sinha, Sudhir

    2017-07-01

    The development and validation of InnoQuant® HY, a real-time PCR system containing four DNA targets-two RE autosomal targets of different sizes, male specific targets, and an internal positive control target-are described herein. The ratio of the two autosomal targets provides a Degradation Index, or a quantitative value of a sample's degradation state. The male specific targets are multi-copy targets located on the Y chromosome, which provides information about a sample's male DNA composition. The experimental results demonstrate InnoQuant HY as a robust qPCR method producing accurate DNA quantitation results even at low dynamic ranges, with reproducibility among population groups. The system is human specific with low level higher primate cross reactivity and is able to consistently and reproducibly detect sub-picogram concentrations of human and human male DNA. The use of high copy number Alu and SVA (>1000 copies per genome) retrotransposable elements as the two autosomal targets significantly enhances both sensitivity and reproducibility of determination of DNA quantitation as well as DNA degradation in forensic samples. The inclusion of a sensitive multi-copy Y-chromosome specific target provides accurate quantitation of DNA from a male in challenging male-female mixtures (i.e. sexual assault samples). Even in the presence of a large excess of DNA from a female, accurate quantitation was achieved with a male to female ratio of 1:128,000. Population database studies reveal an average Short/Y target ratio of the quantification values across all four populations tested was 1.124±0.282, exhibiting the system's reproducibility across multiple populations. The results from InnoQuant HY provide a tool equipping a forensic analyst with crucial data about a sample's DNA quantitation, male:female ratio, degradation state, and the presence or absence of PCR inhibitors. With the information gained from the InnoQuant HY kit, a more streamlined and efficient workflow can

  20. Kelly procedure for male primary epispadias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pankaj; Rajendran, Simon; Asimakidou, Maria; Mushtaq, Imran

    2016-08-01

    Primary epispadias is a rare congenital malformation involving the urogenital system. In patients with epispadias, bladder closure enhances bladder growth and continence. Several steps were carried out to bring the bladder neck to the midline and allow tension-free bladder neck reconstruction and recreation of the natural angulation of urethra. The urethral plate and penile shaft were dissected and the corpora cavernosa separated, and then the bladder neck repair was performed. The urethral plate was tubularised and brought ventrally. The separated corpora were reapposed, avoiding torsion. The skin was reoriented to provide cover to the penis. The Kelly procedure improves cosmesis and continence by reconstructing a tension-free bladder neck repair and lengthening the penis. The video demonstrates the Kelly procedure for primary epispadias in a male child. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Anatomy of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beveridge, Tyler S; Johnson, Marjorie; Power, Adam; Power, Nicholas E; Allman, Brian L

    2015-01-01

    It is well accepted that the aortic plexus is a network of pre- and post-ganglionic nerves overlying the abdominal aorta, which is primarily involved with the sympathetic innervation to the mesenteric, pelvic and urogenital organs. Because a comprehensive anatomical description of the aortic plexus and its connections with adjacent plexuses are lacking, these delicate structures are prone to unintended damage during abdominal surgeries. Through dissection of fresh, frozen human cadavers (n = 7), the present study aimed to provide the first complete mapping of the nerves and ganglia of the aortic plexus in males. Using standard histochemical procedures, ganglia of the aortic plexus were verified through microscopic analysis using haematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and anti-tyrosine hydroxylase stains. All specimens exhibited four distinct sympathetic ganglia within the aortic plexus: the right and left spermatic ganglia, the inferior mesenteric ganglion and one previously unidentified ganglion, which has been named the prehypogastric ganglion by the authors. The spermatic ganglia were consistently supplied by the L1 lumbar splanchnic nerves and the inferior mesenteric ganglion and the newly characterized prehypogastric ganglion were supplied by the left and right L2 lumbar splanchnic nerves, respectively. Additionally, our examination revealed the aortic plexus does have potential for variation, primarily in the possibility of exhibiting accessory splanchnic nerves. Clinically, our results could have significant implications for preserving fertility in men as well as sympathetic function to the hindgut and pelvis during retroperitoneal surgeries. PMID:25382240

  2. Molecular detection and confirmation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in urogenital and extragenital specimens using the Abbott CT/NG RealTime assay and an in-house assay targeting the porA pseudogene.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, A

    2011-04-01

    Culture for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) is being replaced by molecular assays, but difficulties are observed with false positive and negatives results, especially for extragenital samples. This study evaluates the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time assay and a real-time porA pseudogene assay. Samples (n = 600) from a mixed prevalence Irish population include 164 male urines with corresponding urethral swabs, 58 endocervical swabs, 173 male pharyngeal swabs, 205 male rectal swabs, 36 NG clinical isolates and 26 commensal Neisseria species isolates. There was a 100% concordance between the Abbott CT\\/NG Real-Time and the porA assay. The positivity rate was 1.2%, 1.7%, 8.1% and 5.8% for FVU\\/urethral swabs, endocervical, pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. These results were compared to culture and discrepancies were found with nine pharyngeal and three rectal swabs. Seven of the 12 discrepant positive samples were sequenced and were confirmed "true positives". The sensitivity and specificity of the molecular assays was 100%. The sensitivity of the culture-based testing was 100% for urogenital samples but 36% and 75% for pharyngeal and rectal swabs, respectively. The combined Abbott CT\\/NG and porA assays provide a valuable alternative to culture and also generate a significant increase in the diagnosis of pharyngeal and rectal NG infection.

  3. Expression of the Wilms' tumor gene WT1 in the murine urogenital system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, J; Schalling, M; Buckler, A J; Rogers, A; Haber, D A; Housman, D

    1991-08-01

    The Wilms' tumor gene WT1 is a recessive oncogene that encodes a putative transcription factor implicated in nephrogenesis during kidney development. In this report we analyze expression of WT1 in the murine urogenital system. WT1 is expressed in non-germ-cell components of the testis and ovaries in both young and adult mice. In situ mRNA hybridization studies demonstrate that WT1 is expressed in the granulosa and epithelial cells of ovaries, the Sertoli cells of the testis, and in the uterine wall. In addition to the 3.1-kb WT1 transcript detected by Northern blotting of RNA from kidney, uterus, and gonads, there is an approximately 2.5-kb WT1-related mRNA species in testis. The levels of WT1 mRNA in the gonads are among the highest observed, surpassing amounts detected in the embryonic kidney. During development, these levels are differentially regulated, depending on the sexual differentiation of the gonad. Expression of WT1 mRNA in the female reproductive system does not fluctuate significantly from days 4 to 40 postpartum. In contrast, WT1 mRNA levels in the tesis increase steadily after birth, reaching their highest expression levels at day 8 postpartum and decreasing slightly as the animal matures. Expression of WT1 in the gonads is detectable as early as 12.5 days postcoitum (p.c.). As an initial step toward exploring the tissue-specific expression of WT1, DNA elements upstream of WT1 were cloned and sequenced. Three putative transcription initiation sites, utilized in testis, ovaries, and uterus, were mapped by S1 nuclease protection assays. The sequences surrounding these sites have a high G + C content, and typical upstream CCAAT and TATAA boxes are not present. These studies allowed us to identify the translation initiation site for WT1 protein synthesis. We have also used an epitope-tagging protocol to demonstrate that WT1 is a nuclear protein, consistent with its role as a transcription factor. Our results demonstrate regulation of WT1 expression

  4. The influence of social environment in early life on the behavior, stress response, and reproductive system of adult male Norway rats selected for different attitudes to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulevich, R G; Shikhevich, S G; Konoshenko, M Yu; Kozhemyakina, R V; Herbeck, Yu E; Prasolova, L A; Oskina, I N; Plyusnina, I Z

    2015-05-15

    The influence of social disturbance in early life on behavior, response of blood corticosterone level to restraint stress, and endocrine and morphometric indices of the testes was studied in 2-month Norway rat males from three populations: not selected for behavior (unselected), selected for against aggression to humans (tame), and selected for increased aggression to humans (aggressive). The experimental social disturbance included early weaning, daily replacement of cagemates from days 19 to 25, and subsequent housing in twos till the age of 2months. The social disturbance increased the latent period of aggressive behavior in the social interaction test in unselected males and reduced relative testis weights in comparison to the corresponding control groups. In addition, experimental unselected rats had smaller diameters of seminiferous tubules and lower blood testosterone levels. In the experimental group, tame rats had lower basal corticosterone levels, and aggressive animals had lower hormone levels after restraint stress in comparison to the control. The results suggest that the selection in two directions for attitude to humans modifies the response of male rats to social disturbance in early life. In this regard, the selected rat populations may be viewed as a model for investigation of (1) neuroendocrinal mechanisms responsible for the manifestation of aggression and (2) interaction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal systems in stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of novel urogenital pharmabiotic formulations containing lactobacilli, salivaricin CRL 1328 and non-microbial compounds with different functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera Pingitore, Esteban; Juárez Tomás, María Silvina; Wiese, Birgitt; Nader-Macías, María Elena Fátima

    2015-06-01

    The administration of pharmabiotics is a promising alternative to antimicrobial drugs for the treatment and/or prevention of female urogenital infections. To design pharmabiotic formulations including bioactive ingredients of microbial origin combined with non-microbial substances and then to evaluate the stability of the combinations during freeze-drying and storage. Different formulations including Lactobacillus gasseri CRL 1263, Lactobacillus salivarius CRL 1328, salivaricin CRL 1328 (a bacteriocin) and non-microbial compounds (lactose, inulin and ascorbic acid) were assayed, and the ingredients were freeze-dried together or separately. The formulations were stored in gelatin capsules at 4 °C for 360 d. The viability of lactobacilli was affected to different extents depending on the strains and on the formulations assayed. L. salivarius and ascorbic acid were successfully combined only after the freeze-drying process. Salivaricin activity was not detected in formulations containing L. gasseri. However, when combined with ascorbic acid, lactose, inulin or L. salivarius, the bacteriocin maintained its activity for 360 d. The selected microorganisms proved to be compatible for their inclusion in multi-strain formulations together with lactose, inulin and ascorbic acid. Salivaricin could be included only in a L. salivarius CRL 1328 single-strain formulation together with non-microbial substances. This study provides new insights into the design of urogenital pharmabiotics combining beneficial lactobacilli, salivaricin CRL 1328 and compounds with different functionalities.

  6. Obesity or Overweight, a Chronic Inflammatory Status in Male Reproductive System, Leads to Mice and Human Subfertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is frequently accompanied with chronic inflammation over the whole body and is always associated with symptoms that include those arising from metabolic and vascular alterations. On the other hand, the chronic inflammatory status in the male genital tract may directly impair spermatogenesis and is even associated with male subfertility. However, it is still unclear if the chronic inflammation induced by obesity damages spermatogenesis in the male genital tract. To address this question, we used a high fat diet (HFD induced obese mouse model and recruited obese patients from the clinic. We detected increased levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing-3 (NLRP3 in genital tract tissues including testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, prostate, and serum from obese mice. Meanwhile, the levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG and corticosterone were significantly higher than those in the control group in serum. Moreover, signal factors regulated by TNF-α, i.e., p38, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB, Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, and their phosphorylated status, and inflammasome protein NLRP3 were expressed at higher levels in the testis. For overweight and obese male patients, the increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were also observed in their seminal plasma. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the TNF-α and IL-6 levels and BMI whereas they were inversely correlated with the sperm concentration and motility. In conclusion, impairment of male fertility may stem from a chronic inflammatory status in the male genital tract of obese individuals.

  7. The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skaletsky, Helen; Kuroda-Kawaguchi, Tomoko; Minx, Patrick J.; Cordum, Holland S.; Hillier, LaDeana; Brown, Laura G.; Repping, Sjoerd; Pyntikova, Tatyana; Ali, Johar; Bieri, Tamberlyn; Chinwalla, Asif; Delehaunty, Andrew; Delehaunty, Kim; Du, Hui; Fewell, Ginger; Fulton, Lucinda; Fulton, Robert; Graves, Tina; Hou, Shun-Fang; Latrielle, Philip; Leonard, Shawn; Mardis, Elaine; Maupin, Rachel; McPherson, John; Miner, Tracie; Nash, William; Nguyen, Christine; Ozersky, Philip; Pepin, Kymberlie; Rock, Susan; Rohlfing, Tracy; Scott, Kelsi; Schultz, Brian; Strong, Cindy; Tin-Wollam, Aye; Yang, Shiaw-Pyng; Waterston, Robert H.; Wilson, Richard K.; Rozen, Steve; Page, David C.

    2003-01-01

    The male-specific region of the Y chromosome, the MSY, differentiates the sexes and comprises 95% of the chromosome's length. Here, we report that the MSY is a mosaic of heterochromatic sequences and three classes of euchromatic sequences: X-transposed, X-degenerate and ampliconic. These classes

  8. Condoms - male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... The male condom is a thin cover that fits over a man's erect penis . Condoms are made of: Animal ...

  9. Male Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male hypogonadism Overview Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body doesn't produce enough testosterone — the hormone that plays a key ... sperm or both. You may be born with male hypogonadism, or it can develop later in life, ...

  10. Prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in relation to virulence genes and phylogenetic origins among urogenital Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Niina, Ayaka; Nakai, Yuka; Kataoka, Yasushi; Takahashi, Toshio

    2012-03-01

    To assess the status of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), identify extraintestinal virulence factors (VFs) and phylogenetic origins, and analyze relationships among these traits in extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) isolates from companion animals. 104 E coli isolates obtained from urine or genital swab samples collected between 2003 and 2010 from 85 dogs and 19 cats with urogenital infections in Japan. Antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates was determined by use of the agar dilution method; a multiplex PCR assay was used for VF gene detection and phylogenetic group assessment. Genetic diversity was evaluated via randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Of the 104 isolates, 45 (43.3%) were resistant to > 2 antimicrobials. Phylogenetically, 64 (61.5%), 22 (21.2%), 13 (12.5%), and 5 (4.8%) isolates belonged to groups B2, D, B1, and A, respectively. Compared with other groups, group B2 isolates were less resistant to all tested antimicrobials and carried the pap, hly, and cnf genes with higher frequency and the aer gene with lower frequency. The aer gene was directly associated and the pap, sfa, hly, and cnf genes were inversely associated with AMR. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis revealed 3 major clusters, comprised mainly of group B1, B2, and D isolates; 2 subclusters of group B2 isolates had different VF and AMR status. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE; Prevalences of multidrug resistance and human-like phylogenetic origins among ExPEC isolates from companion animals in Japan were high. It is suggested that VFs, phylogenetic origins, and genetic diversity are significantly associated with AMR in ExPEC.

  11. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the Thorax Dynamic Responses of Small Female and Midsize Male Post Mortem Human Subjects in Side and Forward Oblique Impact Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudrit, Pascal; Petitjean, Audrey; Potier, Pascal; Trosseille, Xavier; Vallencien, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Despite the increasing knowledge of the thorax mechanics in impact loadings, the effects of inter-individual differences on the mechanical response are difficult to take into account. For example, the biofidelity corridors for the small female or large male are extrapolated from the midsize male corridors. The present study reports on the results of new tests performed on small female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS), and compares them with test results on midsize male PMHS. Three tests in pure side impact and three tests in forward oblique impact were performed on the thorax of small female specimens. The average weight and stature were 43 kg and 1.58 m for the small female specimens. The initial speed of the impactor was 4.3 m/s. The mass and the diameter of the impactor face were respectively 23.4 kg and 130 mm. The instrumentation and methodology was the same as for the tests published in 2008 by Trosseille et al. on midsize male specimens. The rib cages were instrumented with accelerometers on the T1, T4 and T12 vertebrae, upper and lower sternum, and the ribs were instrumented with up to 110 strain gauges. A force transducer and an accelerometer were mounted on the impactor in order to record the force applied onto the thorax. Targets fixed on vertebrae were tracked using high speed cameras in order to estimate the thoracic deflection. For the six midsize males, the test conditions were exactly the same as for the small female specimens, except for the diameter of the impactor face which was 152 mm. The average weight and stature were 70.3 kg and 1.70 m for the midsize male specimens. The force and thoracic deflection time-histories and the injury assessments are given for each specimen. The thorax force magnitude varied from 1.05 to 1.45 kN and from 1.63 to 2.34 kN, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The maximum deflection varied from 51 to 117 mm and from 59 to 81 mm, respectively for the small female and midsize male groups. The

  13. Transdifferentiation of human male germline stem cells to hepatocytes in vivo via the transplantation under renal capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zheng; Niu, Minghui; Sun, Min; Yuan, Qingqing; Yao, Chencheng; Hou, Jingmei; Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Fu, Hongyong; Zhou, Fan; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2017-02-28

    Here we proposed a new concept that human spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) can transdifferentiate into hepatocytes in vivo. We first established liver injury model of mice by carbon tetrachloride to provide proper environment for human SSC transplantation. Liver mesenchymal cells were isolated from mice and identified phenotypically. Human SSC line was recombined with liver mesenchymal cells, and they were transplanted under renal capsules of nude mice with liver injury. The grafts expressed hepatocyte hallmarks, including ALB, AAT, CK18, and CYP1A2, whereas germ cell and SSC markers VASA and GPR125 were undetected in these cells, implicating that human SSCs were converted to hepatocytes. Furthermore, Western blots revealed high levels of PCNA, AFP, and ALB, indicating that human SSCs-derived hepatocytes had strong proliferation potential and features of hepatocytes. In addition, ALB-, CK8-, and CYP1A2- positive cells were detected in liver tissues of recipient mice. Significantly, no obvious lesion or teratomas was observed in several important organs and tissues of recipient mice, reflecting that transplantation of human SSCs was safe and feasible. Collectively, we have for the first time demonstrated that human SSCs can be transdifferentiated to hepatocyte in vivo. This study provides a novel approach for curing liver diseases using human SSC transplantation.

  14. INDUCTION OF A SECRETORY IGA RESPONSE IN THE MURINE FEMALE UROGENITAL TRACT BY IMMUNIZATION OF THE LUNGS WITH LIPOSOME-SUPPLEMENTED VIRAL SUBUNIT ANTIGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEHAAN, A; RENEGAR, KB; SMALL, PA; WILSCHUT, J

    This study demonstrates that liposomes administered to the lower respiratory tract of mice have the capacity to stimulate secretory IgA (s-IgA) antibody production in the female urogenital system. Total respiratory tract immunization of mice with influenza virus subunit antigen simply mixed with

  15. Establishment of human sperm-specific voltage-dependent anion channel 3 recombinant vector for the production of a male contraceptive vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant vector of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene for production of VDAC3 antibody, which is potential as male contraception vaccine.Methods: Target fragment sequence of VDAC3 gene was obtained through amplification of human sperm VDAC3 cDNA with primers covering exon 5 to exon 8. Its PCR product in size of 435 bp was cloned to the pET101/D-TOPO expression vector (5753 bp. E. coli bacteria were transformed with this vector. Cloning of VDAC3 fragment gene to the vector was confirmed by the using of XbaI restriction enzyme and PCR colony method with primers covering exons 5-8 of the human VDAC3 gene.Results: Alignment analysis of amplified fragment covering exon 5 to exon 8 of VDAC3 gene showed 94% homology to human VDAC3 gene from databank. After cloning to the expression vector and transformation to E. coli competent cells, twelve colonies could grow in culture media. Gel electrophoresis of sliced VDAC3 recombinant vector showed a single band in the size of 6181 bp in 8 colonies. After application of PCR colony and amplicon sequencing, the result showed a single band in the size of 435 bp and fragment sequence with 94% identity to human VDAC3 gene.Conclusion: The construction of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene recombinant vector was established in this study. In the future, this recombinant vector will be used to produce VDAC3 antibody for the development of a male contraception vaccine. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:61-5Keywords: Contraception, recombinant vector, sperm, VDAC3

  16. The natural history of insulin content in the pancreas of female and male non-obese diabetic mouse: implications for trials of diabetes prevention in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valorani, M G; Hawa, M I; Buckley, L R; Afeltra, A; Cacciapaglia, F; Pozzilli, P

    2004-01-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse is a well-established animal model used to study the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. The NOD mouse spontaneously develops an autoimmune form of the disease between 12 and 18 weeks of age, characterized by an infiltration of the endocrine pancreas by autoreactive mononuclear cells. In our colony, all animals showed signs of insulitis, but only approximately 60% of females and 15% of males developed diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the natural history of insulin content in the pancreas of female and male NOD/Ba mice during their life span. Pancreata were collected at two-week intervals, from 4 weeks of age to 30 weeks of age. Four animals at each age as well as 18 diabetic female NOD mice were studied. Pancreata were homogenized, supernatants collected and insulin measured by radioimmunoassay. Female and male non-diabetic NOD mice showed significantly higher levels of insulin in the pancreata in comparison to the diabetic female animals. Pancreata from female (n = 56) animals showed more insulin content than male pancreata (n = 56), suggesting beta-cell hyperactivity as a result of the ongoing beta-cell destruction. However this difference was only significant at an early age (4-12 weeks of age) (p natural history of the disease and that such reduction only becomes apparent after diagnosis of hyperglycaemia. Occurrence of extensive lymphocytic infiltration in non-diabetic male mice is not accompanied by a reduction of insulin content in the pancreas. These findings have implications for designing studies in humans which aims to protect residual beta-cell function. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The urogenital-hypogastric sheath: an anatomical observation on the relationship between the inferomedial extension of renal fascia and the hypogastric nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X F; Luo, G H; Ding, Z H; Li, G X; Chen, X W; Zhong, S Z

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed to perform an anatomical observation on the inferomedial extension of the renal fascia (RF) to the pelvis and explore its relationship with the hypogastric nerves (HGNs). Gross anatomy was performed on 12 formalin-fixed and 12 fresh cadavers. Sectional anatomy was performed on four formalin-fixed cadavers. Different from the traditional concept, both the anterior and posterior RF included the outer and inner layer with different inferomedial extensions. The multiple layers of RF extended downward to form a sandwich-like and compound fascia sheath with potential and expandable spaces which was named as "the urogenital-hypogastric sheath." Below the level of the origin of the inferior mesenteric artery, the bilateral urogenital-hypogastric sheath communicated with the counterpart in front of the great vessels in the midline and the superior hypogastric plexus ran into the urogenital-hypogastric sheath which carried the HGNs, ureters, and genital vessels downward to their terminations in the pelvis. In the retrorectal space, the urogenital-hypogastric sheath surrounded the fascia propria of the rectum posterolaterally as a layer of coat containing HGNs. The multiple layers of RF with different extensions are the anatomical basis of the formation of the urogenital-hypogastric sheath. As a special fascial structure in the retroperitoneal space and the pelvis, emphasis on its formation and morphology may be helpful for not only unifying the controversies about the relationship between the pelvic fascia and HGNs but also improving the intraoperative preservation of the HGNs by dissecting in the correct surgical plane.

  18. A worldwide survey of human male demographic history based on Y-SNP and Y-STR data from the HGDP-CEPH populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wentao; Ayub, Qasim; Vermeulen, Mark; Shao, Rong-guang; Zuniga, Sofia; van der Gaag, Kristiaan; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2010-02-01

    We have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project - Centre d'Etude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and analyzed with the program Bayesian Analysis of Trees With Internal Node Generation. The general patterns we observe show a gradient from the oldest population time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) and expansion times together with the largest effective population sizes in Africa, to the youngest times and smallest effective population sizes in the Americas. These parameters are significantly negatively correlated with distance from East Africa, and the patterns are consistent with most other studies of human variation and history. In contrast, growth rate showed a weaker correlation in the opposite direction. Y-lineage diversity and TMRCA also decrease with distance from East Africa, supporting a model of expansion with serial founder events starting from this source. A number of individual populations diverge from these general patterns, including previously documented examples such as recent expansions of the Yoruba in Africa, Basques in Europe, and Yakut in Northern Asia. However, some unexpected demographic histories were also found, including low growth rates in the Hazara and Kalash from Pakistan and recent expansion of the Mozabites in North Africa.

  19. A Worldwide Survey of Human Male Demographic History Based on Y-SNP and Y-STR Data from the HGDP–CEPH Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wentao; Ayub, Qasim; Vermeulen, Mark; Shao, Rong-guang; Zuniga, Sofia; van der Gaag, Kristiaan; de Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Xue, Yali; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated human male demographic history using 590 males from 51 populations in the Human Genome Diversity Project - Centre d’Étude du Polymorphisme Humain worldwide panel, typed with 37 Y-chromosomal Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms and 65 Y-chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats and analyzed with the program Bayesian Analysis of Trees With Internal Node Generation. The general patterns we observe show a gradient from the oldest population time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) and expansion times together with the largest effective population sizes in Africa, to the youngest times and smallest effective population sizes in the Americas. These parameters are significantly negatively correlated with distance from East Africa, and the patterns are consistent with most other studies of human variation and history. In contrast, growth rate showed a weaker correlation in the opposite direction. Y-lineage diversity and TMRCA also decrease with distance from East Africa, supporting a model of expansion with serial founder events starting from this source. A number of individual populations diverge from these general patterns, including previously documented examples such as recent expansions of the Yoruba in Africa, Basques in Europe, and Yakut in Northern Asia. However, some unexpected demographic histories were also found, including low growth rates in the Hazara and Kalash from Pakistan and recent expansion of the Mozabites in North Africa. PMID:19822636

  20. Females follow a more "compact" early human brain development model than males. A case-control study of preterm neonates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vasileiadis, George T; Thompson, R Terry; Han, Victor K M; Gelman, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The pattern of sexual differentiation of the human brain is not well understood, particularly at the early stages of development when intense growth and multiple maturational phenomena overlap and interrelate...

  1. Microflora composition of urogenital tracts of women with nonspecific vulvo-vaginitis and vaginosis in Dnipropetrovsk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Ponedilok

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of causative agents of nonspecific infections of the women urogenital tracts is studied. It is established that the typical etiological agents of the vaginosis are yeast-like fungi Candida albicans (35.7 % and Escherichia coli (30.2 %, and the clinical isolates of E. coli (47.3 % and Proteus mirabilis (15.8 % are usual for vulvovaginitis. The frequency of detection of the causative agents of inflammatory genito-urinary diseases in women of different age groups varies: strains of E. coli are often found in patients of 1–12 years (47.3 % and in women of 43–66 years old (36.0 %, but C. albicans – in patients of 18–42 years (39.0 %. High levels of the resistance to penicilline, tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in selected clinical isolates of opportunistic microorganisms are determined.

  2. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in blood samples as a diagnostic method for complicated and persistent forms of urogenital chlamydia infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanakhmedov E.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goal: the study of the effectiveness of the method for laboratory diagnostics of urogenital chlamydial infection in patients with chronic form of the disease. Material and methods. The presence of DNAof C. trachomatis was detected by PCR in either genital or extragenital (blood sites in eighth patients (four men and four women. Results. It is established that in biological material taken from extragenital (blood sites, C. trachomatis was detected in all patients examined (in 100% of cases, while in clinical samples obtained from genital sites, in seven patients only (87.5%. Conclusion. We found that specific chlamydial DNAcan be detected in extragenital (blood site, despite the negative reaction in the clinical material from the genital tract of patients with genital chlamydial infection.

  3. Negligible colon cancer risk from food-borne acrylamide exposure in male F344 rats and nude (nu/nu mice-bearing human colon tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayadev Raju

    Full Text Available Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a "complete carcinogen", but acts as a "co-carcinogen" by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters.

  4. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  5. Male contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Mathew

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the current available options for male contraception.

  6. The importance of the one carbon cycle nutritional support in human male fertility: a preliminary clinical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sperm chromatin structure is often impaired; mainly due to oxidative damage. Antioxidant treatments do not consistently produce fertility improvements and, when given at high doses, they might block essential oxidative processes such as chromatin compaction. This study was intended to assess the effect on male sub-fertility of a pure one carbon cycle nutritional support without strong antioxidants. Methods Male partners of couples resistant to at least 2 assisted reproductive technology (ART) attempts, with no evidence of organic causes of infertility and with either DNA fragmentation index (DFI) measured by Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) or nuclear decondensation index (SDI) measured by aniline blue staining exceeding 20%, were invited to take part in a trial of a nutritional support in preparation for a further ART attempt. The treatment consisted of a combination of B vitamins, zinc, a proprietary opuntia fig extract and small amounts of N-acetyl-cysteine and Vitamin E (Condensyl™), all effectors of the one carbon cycle. Results 84 patients were enrolled, they took 1 or 2 Condensyl™ tablets per day for 2 to 12 months. Positive response rates were 64.3% for SDI, 71.4% for DFI and 47.6% for both SDI and DFI. Eighteen couples (21%) experienced a spontaneous pregnancy before the planned ART cycle, all ended with a live birth. The remaining 66 couples underwent a new ART attempt (4 IUI; 18 IVF; 44 ICSI) resulting in 22 further clinical pregnancies and 15 live births. The clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) and the live birth rate (LBR) were 47.6% and 39.3% respectively. The full responders, i.e. the 40 patients achieving an improvement of both SDI and DFI, reported a CPR of 70% and a LBR of 57.5% (p carbon cycle without strong antioxidants improves both the SDI and the DFI in ART resistant male partners and results in high pregnancy rates suggesting a positive effect on their fertility potential. PMID:25073983

  7. The role of leptin in human lipid and glucose metabolism: the effects of acute recombinant human leptin infusion in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Mygind, Helene; Grøndahl, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Obese and lean humans treated with leptin have not experienced convincing weight-loss results compared with the dramatic weight losses observed in obese rodents.......Obese and lean humans treated with leptin have not experienced convincing weight-loss results compared with the dramatic weight losses observed in obese rodents....

  8. High genital prevalence of cutaneous human papillomavirus DNA on male genital skin: the HPV Infection in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichero, Laura; Pierce Campbell, Christine M; Fulp, William; Ferreira, Silvaneide; Sobrinho, João S; Baggio, Maria; Galan, Lenice; Silva, Roberto C; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R; Villa, Luisa L

    2014-12-09

    The genital skin of males hosts a diversity of HPV genotypes and uncharacterized HPV genotypes. Previously we demonstrated that a specific viral genotype was not identified in 14% of all genital specimens (i.e., HPV unclassified specimens) using the Roche Linear Array method. Our goal was to identify and assess the prevalence of individual HPV types among genital HPV unclassified specimens collected in the HIM Study population, at enrollment, and examine associations with socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. Genital skin specimens of men that were considered unclassified (HPV PCR positive, no genotype specified) at enrollment were typed by sequencing amplified PGMY09/11 products or cloning of PGMY/GP+ nested amplicons followed by sequencing. PGMY/GP+ negative specimens were further analyzed using FAP primers. HPV type classification was conducted through comparisons with sequences in the GenBank database. Readable nucleotide sequences were generated for the majority of previously unclassified specimens (66%), including both characterized (77%) and yet uncharacterized (23%) HPV types. Of the characterized HPV types, most (73%) were Beta [β]-HPVs, primarily from β-1 and β-2 species, followed by Alpha [α]-HPVs (20%). Smokers (current and former) were significantly more likely to have an α-HPV infection, compared with any other genus; no other factors were associated with specific HPV genera or specific β-HPV species. Male genital skin harbor a large number of β-HPV types. Knowledge concerning the prevalence of the diverse HPV types in the men genital is important to better understand the transmission of these viruses.

  9. Deconstructing Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Knowledge: Objective and Perceived Knowledge in Males' Intentions to Receive the HPV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Stephenson, Ellen; Perez, Samara; Lau, Elsa; Rosberger, Zeev

    2013-01-01

    Background: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine was recently approved for men. To effectively tailor HPV education efforts toward men, it is important to understand what men know about HPV and how this knowledge relates to their decision to receive the vaccine. This study examines how objective HPV knowledge, objective HPV vaccine knowledge,…

  10. Dihydrodaidzein-producing Clostridium-like intestinal bacterium, strain TM-40, affects in vitro metabolism of daidzein by fecal microbiota of human male equol producer and non-producers

    OpenAIRE

    TAMURA, Motoi; HORI, Sachiko; NAKAGAWA, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been focused on the biological effects of equol, a metabolite of daidzein produced by intestinal microbiota. However, little is known about the role of isoflavone metabolizing bacteria in the intestinal microbiota. Recently, we isolated a dihydrodaidzein (DHD)-producing Clostridium-like bacterium, strain TM-40, from human feces. We investigated the effects of strain TM-40 on in vitro daidzein metabolism by human fecal microbiota from a male equol producer and two male equol...

  11. A Preliminary Study about the Potential Effects of Heavy Metals on the Human Male Reproductive Parameters in HIV-Infected Population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renyan; Zhao, Letian; Li, Lianbing; Hou, Zhiwei; Zhang, Danyan; Wan, Ling; Wei, Li; Yang, Yuyou; Lv, Jing; Ma, Mingfu; Zhu, Yijian

    2017-03-20

    Due to the inconsistent effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on the human male reproduction in previous studies and the impacts of environmental exposures, such as heavy metals, on male reproduction receiving little attention in HIV-infected population, the aim of present study was to investigate whether heavy metals have potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men. The current study assessed the associations between semen quality or serum hormone and concentration of the three heavy metal toxicants (lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn)) in seminal, urine, and serum, and 50 HIV-infected men were recruited in the present study. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were measured in three fluids by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Semen analyses were performed according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone. HIV RNA viral load was determined by HIV virus loads kit. Spearman's rank correlations were used for correlation analyses. The results showed that the concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly correlated with semen quality and serum hormone. HIV-1 virus loads were significantly associated with increased seminal Pb. However, HIV-1 virus loads were not statistically associated with semen quality and serum hormone. Our findings suggested that environmental heavy metals had potential effects on reproductive parameters in HIV-infected men in China.

  12. Environmental pollutants and diseases of sexual development in humans and wildlife in South Africa: harbingers of impact on overall health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riana Bornman, M S; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2012-08-01

    This study deals with disorders of sexual development in humans, wildlife and animals in an urban nature reserve (RNR) and a currently DDT-sprayed malarial area. High levels of oestrogenic chemical residues in water, sediment and tissue; skewed sex ratios; reduced biodiversity; gonadal malformations in sharptooth catfish and freshwater snails; intersex in catfish; and impaired spermatogenesis in catfish and striped mouse are of serious concern in the RNR. Persistent eggshell thinning in African darter eggs, intersex in male Mozambican tilapia, follicular atresia in females and impaired spermatogenesis in males following laboratory exposure of parent fish to environmentally relevant DDT and DDE concentrations, and abnormalities in freshwater snails were found in the DDT-sprayed area. Human studies related to DDT exposure indicated impaired semen quality, a weak association with sperm chromatin defects and higher risks for external urogenital birth defects in those who were born to mothers whose houses were sprayed and those who were homemakers (stay at home mother) instead of being employed. These findings indicate that diseases of sexual development occurred in both human and wildlife populations exposed to environmental endocrine disruptor chemicals in South Africa. The chemical mixtures, possibly related to disorders of sexual differentiation (DSD), were very different between the two. However, DSD occurred concurrently in the malarial area, possibly indicating that humans and wildlife shared exposures. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of suspecting disease in the other when disease is found in either human or wildlife populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. AZFa protein DDX3Y is differentially expressed in human male germ cells during development and in testicular tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gueler, B; Sonne, S B; Zimmer, J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUNDDDX3Y (DBY), located within AZoospermia Factor a (AZFa) region of the human Y chromosome (Yq11), encodes a conserved DEAD-box RNA helicase expressed only in germ cells and with a putative function at G1-S phase of the cell cycle. Deletion of AZFa results most often in germ cell aplasia, i.......e. Sertoli-cell-only syndrome. To investigate the function of DDX3Y during human spermatogenesis, we examined its expression during development and maturation of the testis and in several types of testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), including the pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS) precursor cells which......, but not in somatically differentiated non-seminomas, consistent with its germ-cell specific function.CONCLUSIONSThe fetal germ cell DDX3Y expression suggests a role in early spermatogonial proliferation and implies that, in men with AZFa deletion, germ cell depletion may begin prenatally. The strong expression of DDX3Y...

  14. Cadmium, lead, and other metals in relation to semen quality: human evidence for molybdenum as a male reproductive toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeker, John D; Rossano, Mary G; Protas, Bridget; Diamond, Michael P; Puscheck, Elizabeth; Daly, Douglas; Paneth, Nigel; Wirth, Julia J

    2008-11-01

    Evidence on human semen quality as it relates to exposure to various metals, both essential (e.g., zinc, copper) and nonessential (e.g., cadmium, lead), is inconsistent. Most studies to date used small sample sizes and were unable to account for important covariates. Our goal in this study was to assess relationships between exposure to multiple metals at environmental levels and human semen-quality parameters. We measured semen quality and metals in blood (arsenic, Cd, chromium, Cu, Pb, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, and Zn) among 219 men recruited through two infertility clinics. We used multiple statistical approaches to assess relationships between metals and semen quality while accounting for important covariates and various metals. Among a number of notable findings, the associations involving Mo were the most consistent over the various statistical approaches. We found dose-dependent trends between Mo and declined sperm concentration and normal morphology, even when considering potential confounders and other metals. For example, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for below-reference semen-quality parameters in the low, medium, and high Mo groups were 1.0 (reference), 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-3.7], and 3.5 (95% CI, 1.1-11) for sperm concentration and 1.0 (reference), 0.8 (95% CI, 0.3-1.9), and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.0-7.0) for morphology. We also found preliminary evidence for interactions between Mo and low Cu or Zn. In stratified analyses, the adjusted ORs in the high Mo/low Cu group were 14.4 (1.6, 132) and 13.7 (1.6, 114) for below-reference sperm concentration and morphology, respectively. Our findings represent the first human evidence for an inverse association between Mo and semen quality. These relationships are consistent with animal data, but additional human and mechanistic studies are needed.

  15. Divergent selection on, but no genetic conflict over, female and male timing and rate of reproduction in a human population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolund, Elisabeth; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Pettay, Jenni E; Lummaa, Virpi

    2013-12-07

    The sexes often have different phenotypic optima for important life-history traits, and because of a largely shared genome this can lead to a conflict over trait expression. In mammals, the obligate costs of reproduction are higher for females, making reproductive timing and rate especially liable to conflict between the sexes. While studies from wild vertebrates support such sexual conflict, it remains unexplored in humans. We used a pedigreed human population from preindustrial Finland to estimate sexual conflict over age at first and last reproduction, reproductive lifespan and reproductive rate. We found that the phenotypic selection gradients differed between the sexes. We next established significant heritabilities in both sexes for all traits. All traits, except reproductive rate, showed strongly positive intersexual genetic correlations and were strongly genetically correlated with fitness in both sexes. Moreover, the genetic correlations with fitness were almost identical in men and women. For reproductive rate, the intersexual correlation and the correlation with fitness were weaker but again similar between the sexes. Thus, in this population, an apparent sexual conflict at the phenotypic level did not reflect an underlying genetic conflict over the studied reproductive traits. These findings emphasize the need for incorporating genetic perspectives into studies of human life-history evolution.

  16. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: Preliminary results from study of five male volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rääf, C.L.; Holstein, H.; Holm, E.

    2015-01-01

    The radionuclide 210Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemi......The radionuclide 210Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time......-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested...... radioactive polonium (209Po as a bio-tracer for 210Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10Bq 209Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7mBq 209Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance...

  17. Expression and distribution of the transient receptor potential cationic channel A1 (TRPA1) in the human clitoris-comparison to male penile erectile tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ückert, S; Albrecht, K; Bannowsky, A; Sohn, M; Kuczyk, M A; Hedlund, P

    2017-09-01

    The transient receptor potential cationic channel ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is a channel protein assumed to act in various human tissues as mechano- and pain sensor and play a role in neurotransmission. The expression of TRPA has already been investigated in the human prostate and urethra, however, only very few studies have addressed the expression and distribution in the male and female genital tract. The present study aimed to investigate by means of immunohistochemistry (double-labeling technique, laser fluorescence microscopy) in the human clitoris and penile erectile tissue the localization of TRPA1 in relation to nNOS, the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT). In the clitoral tissue, TRPA1 was observed in basal epithelial cells and slender nNOS-positive nerve fibers transversing the subepithelial space. To a certain degree, in the clitoral epithelial cells, TRPA1 was found co-localized with vimentin. In human corpus cavernosum, immunoreactivity for TRPA1 was seen in nerves transversing the cavernous sinusoidal space and running alongside small arteries, these nerves also displayed expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter protein (VAChT). Varicose nerves containing nNOS or VIP were not immunoreactive for TRPA1. It seems likely that TRPA1 is involved in nitric oxide-mediated afferent sensory transmission in the clitoris while, in penile erectile tissue, a role for TRPA1 in cholinergic signaling might be assumed.

  18. Assessment of Chromatin Maturity in Human Spermatozoa: Useful Aniline Blue Assay for Routine Diagnosis of Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifa Sellami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During spermatogenesis, sperm chromatin undergoes structural changes and results in a high condensation. This nuclear compaction would be useful as a predictor of sperm fertilization capacity and pregnancy outcome. We purpose to evaluate firstly the relationship among chromatin maturity assessed by aniline blue staining (AB and the semen parameters in infertile men. Secondly, we analyzed whether the sperm gradient density centrifugation is effective to select mature spermatozoa. Fifty-one ejaculates were investigated by semen analysis and stained for chromatin condensation with AB to distinguish between unstained mature sperm and stained immature sperm. AB was applied also on 12 ejaculates which proceeded by density gradient centrifugation to compare the rates of immature sperm before and after selection. Neat semen were divided into two groups: G1 (: immature sperm <20% and G2 (: immature sperm ≥20%. No significant differences were detected in sperm concentration, motility, and normal morphology between G1 and G2. However, the rates of some morphology abnormalities were higher in G2: head abnormalities ( and microcephalic sperm (. We founded significant correlation between sperm immaturity and acrosome abnormalities (; . Sperm selection has significantly reduced the rates of immature sperm. A better understanding of chromatin structure and its impact on the sperm potential is needed to explore male infertility.

  19. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Zahid Sadek; Morshed, Mohammed Monzur; Shahriar, Mohammad; Bhuiyan, Mohiuddin Ahmed; Islam, Sardar Mohd Ashraful; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat

    2016-01-01

    Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL) and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS) tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP) for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT) for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  20. The Effect of Chronic Alprazolam Intake on Memory, Attention, and Psychomotor Performance in Healthy Human Male Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Sadek Chowdhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Alprazolam is used as an anxiolytic drug for generalized anxiety disorder and it has been reported to produce sedation and anterograde amnesia. In the current study, we randomly divided 26 healthy male volunteers into two groups: one group taking alprazolam 0.5 mg and the other taking placebo daily for two weeks. We utilized the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB software to assess the chronic effect of alprazolam. We selected Paired Associates Learning (PAL and Delayed Matching to Sample (DMS tests for memory, Rapid Visual Information Processing (RVP for attention, and Choice Reaction Time (CRT for psychomotor performance twice: before starting the treatment and after the completion of the treatment. We found statistically significant impairment of visual memory in one parameter of PAL and three parameters of DMS in alprazolam group. The PAL mean trial to success and total correct matching in 0-second delay, 4-second delay, and all delay situation of DMS were impaired in alprazolam group. RVP total hits after two weeks of alprazolam treatment were improved in alprazolam group. But such differences were not observed in placebo group. In our study, we found that chronic administration of alprazolam affects memory but attentive and psychomotor performance remained unaffected.

  1. Parents' knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow young males to receive human papillomavirus (HPV vaccines in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Winstons Muhwezi

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003, believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006, thought their son(s couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010, didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002, knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000 and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000. Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.

  2. Parents' Knowledge, Risk Perception and Willingness to Allow Young Males to Receive Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccines in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008–2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10–23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital. PMID:25203053

  3. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or swelling in the testicle area Have a history of testicle, prostate or sexual problems Have had groin, testicle, penis or scrotum surgery Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes Male fertility is a complex process. To ...

  4. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Vivek Mathew; Ganapathi Bantwal

    2012-01-01

    Contraception is an accepted route for the control of population explosion in the world. Traditionally hormonal contraceptive methods have focused on women. Male contraception by means of hormonal and non hormonal methods is an attractive alternative. Hormonal methods of contraception using testosterone have shown good results. Non hormonal reversible methods of male contraception like reversible inhibition of sperm under guidanceare very promising. In this article we have reviewed the curren...

  5. Male Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Amory, John K.

    2016-01-01

    Although female contraceptives are very effective at preventing unintended pregnancy, some women cannot use them due to health conditions or side effects, leaving some couples without effective contraceptive options. In addition, many men wish to take active responsibility for family planning. Thus, there is a great need for male contraceptives to prevent unintended pregnancy, of which 80–90 million occur annually. At present, effective male contraceptive options are condoms and vasectomy, wh...

  6. Hair as an indicator of the body content of polonium in humans: preliminary results from study of five male volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Holstein, H; Holm, E; Roos, P

    2015-03-01

    The radionuclide (210)Po is of importance from a radiation protection view and has properties that cause special problems when attempting to determine the body content in humans. Estimates have traditionally been made from either urine and/or fecal samples, which require a time-consuming radiochemical preparation before alpha spectrometric determination. In order to find a more simple and less labor intensive method hair has been used as a bioindicator and investigated in this study. The relationship between intake and excretion in hair has been estimated in five volunteers who ingested radioactive polonium ((209)Po as a bio-tracer for (210)Po) in well determined quantities. Four of the volunteers were given 5-10 Bq (209)Po in a single intake (acute intake) and one volunteer has ingested a daily intake of 58.7 mBq (209)Po for a period of 180 d. Human hair was found to reflect the daily clearance of ingested polonium peaking at 0.001-0.01% d(-1) of the ingested amount, thereafter decreasing mono-exponentially, corresponding to a biological half-time of 10-20 days. For the case of protracted intake a mono-exponential build-up was observed with a half-time of 40 ± 5 d. In addition, after cessation of intake, a short-term component (74%) with a biological half-time of 16 ± 4 d, and a long-term component (26%) with a half-time of 93 ± 53 d were observed. It is concluded that hair can be used to detect not only the amount of ingested polonium but also whether the intake was protracted or acute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Recurrence of split hand/foot malformation, cleft lip/palate, and severe urogenital abnormalities due to germline mosaicism for TP63 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Annabelle; Krivanek, Michael; Flöttmann, Ricarda; Peters, Hartmut; Wilson, Meredith

    2016-09-01

    We describe two sibling fetuses with urogenital abnormalities detected by prenatal ultrasound, in which post-delivery examination showed split hand and foot malformation, and bilateral cleft lip and palate. These findings are consistent with ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft lip with or without cleft palate syndrome (EEC). Both fetuses were found to have the same missense mutation in TP63 (c.1051G > A; p.D351N). Parental clinical examinations and lymphocyte DNA analyses were normal. This report illustrates the potential severity of urogenital defects in TP63-related disorders, which may be detectable with fetal ultrasonography. It highlights the need to counsel for the possibility of germline mosaicism in TP63-associated disorders. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction of High-Risk Human Papilloma Virus in the Screening of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in the Anal Mucosa of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive Males Having Sex with Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Rivero-Rodriguez, Mar; Gil-Anguita, Concepción; Esquivias, Javier; López-Castro, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Taboada, Jessica; de Hierro, Mercedes López; López-Ruiz, Miguel A.; Martínez, R. Javier; Llaño, Juan P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the advantages of cytology and PCR of high-risk human papilloma virus (PCR HR-HPV) infection in biopsy-derived diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL = AIN2/AIN3) in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Methods This is a single-centered study conducted between May 2010 and May 2014 in patients (n = 201, mean age 37 years) recruited from our outpatient clinic. Samples of anal canal mucosa were taken into liquid medium for PCR HPV analysis and for cytology. Anoscopy was performed for histology evaluation. Results Anoscopy showed 33.8% were normal, 47.8% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), and 18.4% HSIL; 80.2% had HR-HPV. PCR of HR-HPV had greater sensitivity than did cytology (88.8% vs. 75.7%) in HSIL screening, with similar positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 20.3 vs. 22.9 and 89.7 vs. 88.1, respectively. Combining both tests increased the sensitivity and NPV of HSIL diagnosis to 100%. Correlation of cytology vs. histology was, generally, very low and PCR of HR-HPV vs. histology was non-existent (<0.2) or low (<0.4). Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) curve analysis of cytology and PCR HR-HPV for the diagnosis of HSIL was poor (<0.6). Multivariate regression analysis showed protective factors against HSIL were: viral suppression (OR: 0.312; 95%CI: 0.099-0.984), and/or syphilis infection (OR: 0.193; 95%CI: 0.045-0.827). HSIL risk was associated with HPV-68 genotype (OR: 20.1; 95%CI: 2.04-197.82). Conclusions When cytology and PCR HR-HPV findings are normal, the diagnosis of pre-malignant HSIL can be reliably ruled-out in HIV-positive patients. HPV suppression with treatment protects against the appearance of HSIL. PMID:25849412

  9. The role of polymerase chain reaction of high-risk human papilloma virus in the screening of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in the anal mucosa of human immunodeficiency virus-positive males having sex with males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hidalgo-Tenorio

    Full Text Available To evaluate the advantages of cytology and PCR of high-risk human papilloma virus (PCR HR-HPV infection in biopsy-derived diagnosis of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL = AIN2/AIN3 in HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM.This is a single-centered study conducted between May 2010 and May 2014 in patients (n = 201, mean age 37 years recruited from our outpatient clinic. Samples of anal canal mucosa were taken into liquid medium for PCR HPV analysis and for cytology. Anoscopy was performed for histology evaluation.Anoscopy showed 33.8% were normal, 47.8% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, and 18.4% HSIL; 80.2% had HR-HPV. PCR of HR-HPV had greater sensitivity than did cytology (88.8% vs. 75.7% in HSIL screening, with similar positive (PPV and negative predictive value (NPV of 20.3 vs. 22.9 and 89.7 vs. 88.1, respectively. Combining both tests increased the sensitivity and NPV of HSIL diagnosis to 100%. Correlation of cytology vs. histology was, generally, very low and PCR of HR-HPV vs. histology was non-existent (<0.2 or low (<0.4. Area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC curve analysis of cytology and PCR HR-HPV for the diagnosis of HSIL was poor (<0.6. Multivariate regression analysis showed protective factors against HSIL were: viral suppression (OR: 0.312; 95%CI: 0.099-0.984, and/or syphilis infection (OR: 0.193; 95%CI: 0.045-0.827. HSIL risk was associated with HPV-68 genotype (OR: 20.1; 95%CI: 2.04-197.82.When cytology and PCR HR-HPV findings are normal, the diagnosis of pre-malignant HSIL can be reliably ruled-out in HIV suppression with treatment protects against the appearance of HSIL [corrected].

  10. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands using an integrated multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knopp Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3–5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. Methods/Design In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9–12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will

  11. Study and implementation of urogenital schistosomiasis elimination in Zanzibar (Unguja and Pemba islands) using an integrated multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Ali, Said M; Khamis, I Simba; Ame, Shaali M; Albonico, Marco; Gouvras, Anouk; Fenwick, Alan; Savioli, Lorenzo; Colley, Daniel G; Utzinger, Jürg; Person, Bobbie; Rollinson, David

    2012-10-30

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection that continues to be a major public health problem in many developing countries being responsible for an estimated burden of at least 1.4 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in Africa alone. Importantly, morbidity due to schistosomiasis has been greatly reduced in some parts of the world, including Zanzibar. The Zanzibar government is now committed to eliminate urogenital schistosomiasis. Over the next 3-5 years, the whole at-risk population will be administered praziquantel (40 mg/kg) biannually. Additionally, snail control and behaviour change interventions will be implemented in selected communities and the outcomes and impact measured in a randomized intervention trial. In this 5-year research study, on both Unguja and Pemba islands, urogenital schistosomiasis will be assessed in 45 communities with urine filtration and reagent strips in 4,500 schoolchildren aged 9-12 years annually, and in 4,500 first-year schoolchildren and 2,250 adults in years 1 and 5. Additionally, from first-year schoolchildren, a finger-prick blood sample will be collected and examined for Schistosoma haematobium infection biomarkers. Changes in prevalence and infection intensity will be assessed annually. Among the 45 communities, 15 were randomized for biannual snail control with niclosamide, in concordance with preventive chemotherapy campaigns. The reduction of Bulinus globosus snail populations and S. haematobium-infected snails will be investigated. In 15 other communities, interventions triggering behaviour change have been designed and will be implemented in collaboration with the community. A change in knowledge, attitudes and practices will be assessed annually through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with schoolchildren, teachers, parents and community leaders. In all 45 communities, changes in the health system, water and sanitation infrastructure will be annually tracked by standardized questionnaire

  12. Validation survey of the impact of urinary incontinence (IIQ-7) and inventory of distress urogenital (UDI-6) – the short scales – in patients with multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia Palma Stievano; Guilherme Sciascia do Olival; Raquel Ataíde Peres da Silva; Vania Balardin Toller; Eduardo Gregorin Carabetta; Eliana Tomomi Shimabukuro da Cunha; Raphael de Jesus Moreira; Marina Eloi; Charles Peter Tilbery

    2015-01-01

    Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Impact Questionnaire of Urinary Incontinence(IIQ-7) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) - short scale - in the Brazilianpopulation with multiple sclerosis. The IIQ-7 and UDI-6 were translated intoPortuguese, called IIQ-7-BR and UDI-6-BR. The questionnaires were administered in 211individuals selected randomly. Of these, 140 had MS according to McDonald criteria and 71 wereincluded in the control group. In both questionnaires, the Cronbach’...

  13. Decrease in Seminal HIV-1 RNA Load After Praziquantel Treatment of Urogenital Schistosomiasis Coinfection in HIV-Positive Men-An Observational Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midzi, Nicholas; Mduluza, Takafira; Mudenge, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Background: Urogenital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma hematobium infection is hypothesized to cause increased HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen in HIV co-infected men as result of chronic egg-induced inflammation in the prostate and the seminal vesicles. The effect of treatment with the antihelmint...... targeting praziquantel as a supplementary preventive measure of sexual transmission of HIV-1 in S. haematobium endemic areas in sub-Saharan Africa....

  14. Digit ratio (2D:4D) as an indicator of body size, testosterone concentration and number of children in human males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Magdalena; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Nenko, Ilona; Alvarado, Louis Calistro; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2014-01-01

    The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) is thought to reflect exposure to androgens during foetal development. This study examined the relationship between low (more masculine) and high (more feminine) 2D:4D and body size at different stages of the life course, adult testosterone levels and number of children among males. Five hundred and fifty-eight men from rural Poland at the Mogielica Human Ecology Study Site participated in this study. Life history data and anthropometric measurements were collected. Salivary morning and evening testosterone levels among 110 men from the same population were measured. Low 2D:4D was related to higher birth weight (p = 0.04), higher birth length (p = 0.01), higher body mass during childhood and adolescence (p = 0.01), higher BMI (borderline significance, p = 0.06), higher number of children among fathers (p = 0.04) and higher testosterone levels during adulthood (p = 0.04). This study shows, for the first time in a single population, that digit ratio is related to sub-adult body size at different stages of the life course, adult testosterone levels and number of children. The observed results suggest that digit ratio might be a valuable predictor of male body size and reproductive characteristics.

  15. Lower Leg Injury Reference Values and Risk Curves from Survival Analysis for Male and Female Dummies: Meta-analysis of Postmortem Human Subject Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Arun, Mike W J; Pintar, Frank A; Banerjee, Anjishnu

    2015-01-01

    Derive lower leg injury risk functions using survival analysis and determine injury reference values (IRV) applicable to human mid-size male and small-size female anthropometries by conducting a meta-analysis of experimental data from different studies under axial impact loading to the foot-ankle-leg complex. Specimen-specific dynamic peak force, age, total body mass, and injury data were obtained from tests conducted by applying the external load to the dorsal surface of the foot of postmortem human subject (PMHS) foot-ankle-leg preparations. Calcaneus and/or tibia injuries, alone or in combination and with/without involvement of adjacent articular complexes, were included in the injury group. Injury and noninjury tests were included. Maximum axial loads recorded by a load cell attached to the proximal end of the preparation were used. Data were analyzed by treating force as the primary variable. Age was considered as the covariate. Data were censored based on the number of tests conducted on each specimen and whether it remained intact or sustained injury; that is, right, left, and interval censoring. The best fits from different distributions were based on the Akaike information criterion; mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals were obtained; and normalized confidence interval sizes (quality indices) were determined at 5, 10, 25, and 50% risk levels. The normalization was based on the mean curve. Using human-equivalent age as 45 years, data were normalized and risk curves were developed for the 50th and 5th percentile human size of the dummies. Out of the available 114 tests (76 fracture and 38 no injury) from 5 groups of experiments, survival analysis was carried out using 3 groups consisting of 62 tests (35 fracture and 27 no injury). Peak forces associated with 4 specific risk levels at 25, 45, and 65 years of age are given along with probability curves (mean and plus and minus 95% confidence intervals) for PMHS and normalized data applicable to

  16. Risk Factor Analysis for Newly Developed Urogenital Dysfunction after Total Mesorectal Excision and Impact of Pelvic Intraoperative Neuromonitoring-a Prospective 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauff, Daniel W; Lang, Hauke; Kneist, Werner

    2017-06-01

    Urogenital dysfunction is a common sequela following total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. This prospective study analyzed potential risk factors and investigated the impact of pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring. Included were 85 patients undergoing total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer, 43 under the control of pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring. Urogenital function was assessed with validated questionnaires within a 2-year follow-up period. Potential risk factors were identified by multivariate analysis. Overall, approximately one-third of treated patients suffered from new onset of urinary dysfunction. Initially, half of the sexually active patients were affected by sexual dysfunction; after 2 years, almost three quarters were affected. In the pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring group, urinary and sexual dysfunction rates including minor and major disturbances were significantly lower (2-year follow-up 20% vs. 51% (p = 0.004) and 56% vs. 90% (p = 0.010)). Throughout the survey, non-performance of pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring was found to be an independent risk factor. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy was identified as an independent predictor for urogenital dysfunction in the further course one and 2 years after surgery. Pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring is associated with significantly lower rates of urinary and sexual dysfunction in the short and long run, whereas neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy has a negative impact only in the long run.

  17. [Combined treatment of complicated chlamydial infection in males with ozone therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neĭmark, A I; Kondrat'eva, Iu S

    2008-01-01

    Urogenital chlamydial monoinfection was diagnosed in 127 males using enzyme immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction, transrectal ultrasound examination of the prostatic gland. Of them, 72 patients had chronic urethroprostatitis. Microhemodynamics of these patients was studied with laser doppler flowmetry of the prostate and urethra. The patients received etiotropic therapy with fromilide, regional transurethral and transrectal ozone therapy. The symptoms relieved in 4-6 weeks. Repeated enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction stated elimination of the infective agent. Improvement of hemodynamics and urethral, prostatic microcirculation was stated after administration of regional ozone therapy.

  18. Male baldness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Male baldness is very common. Its effect on individuals is extremely variable, and in some people it will have a significant adverse effect on their quality of life. The objectives of this article are to help general practitioners (GPs) be aware of potential health problems related to male baldness, to have an approach to assessing hair loss and to be aware of treatment options. Male baldness is, most often, a normal occurrence, but it may have significant effects on a man's health. It may also be a pointer to other potential health issues. The GP is in the ideal position to conduct an initial evaluation, consider other health issues and advise on treatment options.

  19. Lack of replication of four candidate SNPs implicated in human male fertility traits: a large-scale population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Youichi; Tajima, Atsushi; Tsunematsu, Kouki; Nozawa, Shiari; Yoshiike, Miki; Koh, Eitetsue; Kanaya, Jiro; Namiki, Mikio; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Tsujimura, Akira; Komatsu, Kiyoshi; Itoh, Naoki; Eguchi, Jiro; Imoto, Issei; Yamauchi, Aiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2015-06-01

    Are the four candidate loci (rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078) for human male fertility traits, identified in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a Hutterite population in the USA, associated with semen quality traits in a Japanese population? The four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 have no association with semen parameters in a meta-analysis of two Japanese male cohorts. Four (rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078) of the SNPs associated with family size or birth rate in the GWAS of a Hutterite population in the USA were associated with semen parameters in ethnically diverse men from Chicago, USA. This is a replication study in a total of 2015 Japanese subjects, including 791 fertile men and 1224 young men from the general population. We performed a replication study in two cohorts to assess whether the SNPs rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 are associated with sperm concentration, semen volume, total sperm numbers, total motile sperm numbers or sperm motility. The rs12870438 SNP was detected by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR while rs7174015, rs724078 and rs7867029 SNPs were genotyped using TaqMan probes. This study indicated that none of the four SNPs rs7867029, rs12870438, rs7174015 and rs724078 displayed a significant association with semen parameters in the meta-analysis of two Japanese male cohorts. Only four SNPs identified in the Hutterite GWAS were examined for associations with semen quality traits in a Japanese population. In addition, the linkage disequilibrium structures around the testing markers were different between ethnic groups. Locus mapping studies using a set of tagging SNPs across the loci will be necessary in populations with larger sample sizes in order to understand the contribution of specific genes to semen quality. This study was supported in part by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan (1013201) (to T.I.), Grant-in-Aids for

  20. Monitoring human papillomavirus prevalence in urine samples: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enerly E

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espen Enerly, Cecilia Olofsson, Mari NygårdDepartment of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, NorwayAbstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV is the main cause of cervical cancer, and many countries now offer vaccination against HPV to girls by way of government-funded national immunization programs. Monitoring HPV prevalence in adolescents could offer a near-term biological measure of vaccine impact, and urine sampling may be an attractive large-scale method that could be used for this purpose. Our objective was to provide an overview of the literature on HPV DNA detection in urine samples, with an emphasis on adolescents. We searched the PubMed database using the terms “HPV” and “urine” and identified 21 female and 14 male study populations in which HPV prevalence in urine samples was reported, four of which included only asymptomatic female adolescents. We provide herein an overview of the recruitment setting, age, urine sampling procedure, lesion type, HPV assay, and HPV prevalence in urine samples and other urogenital samples for the studies included in this review. In female study populations, concordance for any HPV type and type-specific concordance in paired urine and cervical samples are provided in addition to sensitivity and specificity. We concluded that few studies on HPV prevalence in urine samples have been performed in asymptomatic female adolescent populations but that urine samples may be a useful alternative to cervical samples to monitor changes in HPV prevalence in females in the post-HPV vaccination era. However, care should be taken when extrapolating HPV findings from urine samples to the cervix. In males, urine samples do not seem to be optimal for monitoring HPV prevalence due to a low human genomic DNA content and HPV DNA detection rate compared to other urogenital sites. In each situation the costs and benefits of HPV DNA detection in urine compared to alternative monitoring options should be carefully

  1. Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through: A new approach for congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients with high urogenital sinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Birraux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To open vaginal cavity to the pelvic floor is part of surgical treatment for urogenital sinus (UGS in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. For high UGS, this operative procedure can be challenging and may jeopardise urinary continence. Combined perineal and laparoscopic approaches could be useful to minimise perineal dissection and to facilitate the vaginal lowering. Patients and Methods: We report the procedure of a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through for supra-sphincteric UGS in a 5-year-old girl with CAH. Laparoscopic dissection of the vagina from the posterior wall of the bladder and urethra, division of the confluence and vaginal pull-through to the perineum are described. Discussion: The technique is derived from laparoscopic-assisted treatment for high ano-rectal malformations. Compared with current procedures for treatment for high UGS, laparoscopic-assisted approach allows mobilising vagina with minimal dissection of perineum and complete preservation of urethra. Another major advantage is to provide a direct vision for dissection of the space between rectum and urethra prior to vaginal pull-through. Conclusion: Laparoscopic-assisted vaginal pull-through appears to be an interesting approach for high UGS in CAH patients, reducing dissection and risk of urinary incontinence. This new approach needs to be strengthened by other cases.

  2. Multidetector CT urography in urogenital tuberculosis: use of reformatted images for the assessment of the radiological findings. A pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudiano, Caterina; Tadolini, Marina; Busato, Fiorenza; Vanino, Elisa; Pucci, Simone; Corcioni, Beniamino; Golfieri, Rita

    2017-04-08

    Urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) is the most common form of extrapulmonary TB and is responsible for a destructive inflammation of the renal parenchyma and urinary tract often leading to the loss of kidney function. For these reasons, the early diagnosis of this disease, once considered disappeared in developed countries, is very important to establish a prompt and efficient treatment. However, the subtle and non-specific symptoms, often represented by recurrent and persistent lower urinary tract symptoms, can confound and delay the diagnosis. Therefore, an adequate and comprehensive imaging study is necessary in patients with persistent urinary tract infections not responding to the antibiotics and can suggest the hypothesis although bacteriological and/or histologic analysis is required for a definitive diagnosis. In the past years, intravenous urography (IVU) has allowed a comprehensive study of the urinary excretory tract, promoting the knowledge of the radiological findings of this disease. Nowadays, computed tomography urography (CTU), with the implementation of multidetector (MD) technology, has replaced IVU in all its indications; the MDCTU improves the assessment of renal and urinary tract lesions using reformatted images [such as multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP)]. Therefore, our paper aims to provide a guide for radiologist for searching the classic signs of UGTB on MDCTU, encouraging the use of the MPR and MIP reformatted images.

  3. Female striated urogenital sphincter contraction measured by shear wave elastography during pelvic floor muscle activation: Proof of concept and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljuraifani, Rafeef; Stafford, Ryan E; Hug, François; Hodges, Paul W

    2017-04-13

    Investigation of the function of the striated urogenital sphincter (SUS) is challenging because it is difficult to access and requires invasive measures. Ultrasound shear wave elastography (SWE) is a non-invasive real-time technique used to estimate tissue stiffness. As muscle stiffness can be used as an estimate of muscle force, SWE provides an opportunity to study contraction of the peri-urethral musculature. Validation of SWE to study SUS during functional tasks, such as pelvic floor muscle contractions, is required prior to application in clinical populations. Ten healthy females (34[5] years) participated. Stiffness in a region expected to contain the SUS was quantified using SWE at rest and during a pelvic floor muscle contractions performed at 10%, 25%, and 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Two repetitions were performed for 10 s. During contraction, stiffness increased in the region of the SUS in all participants and at all contraction intensities. Multiple regions of increased stiffness were detected, with 95.8% of regions situated ventral to the mid-urethra within the anatomical area of the SUS. The increase in stiffness was greater for 50% MVC than both 10% and 25% MVC contraction intensities (P < 0.01). Stiffness increased within the anatomical region of the SUS during voluntary pelvic floor muscle contractions with predictable response to changes in contraction intensity. These observations support the potential for ultrasound SWE to study SUS function non-invasively. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Cosmetic perfumes vs. human pheromones (natural chemical scents) of the human female and male in signalling and performing context of their sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaviacic, M; Sisovsky, V; Zaviacic, T

    2009-01-01

    Scent communication in man is undoubtedly of importance, although it is unconscious, rather than active, as compared to subhuman primates. Besides human sexual life it also affects a number of further characteristics of human life and its infrastructure including the mother-child relationship, creation of the odour basis of the family with the possibility to identify the family members solely by their odour as well as other parameters investigated thus far. Pheromones have effect upon the selection of a suitable partner of the opposite sex (or of the same sex in homosexual partners). The formation of specifically significant responses during communication between the two sexes, first of all in sexual life and its manifestations, may also be influenced by pheromone-based perfumes or classical cosmetic perfumes, as far as they are selected and used appropriately. The situation is much easier if the partners are of the olfactory type where for both partners the mutual olfactory parameters are the most attractive for their sexual life and its parameters, which significantly contributes to the quality of their overall coexistence (Ref. 29).

  5. Self-Test Kit: Rapid Diagnosis of Urogenital Infections in Military Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Stillbirth [>= 20 weeks gestational age] 3[] W E D 5. Neonatal Death [live birth, death < 28 days] 6. Ectopic 4 LEDD 7. N/A 4. Have you ever used any...12) 00. Yes 01. No 02. N/A Chlamydia (8)E E Gonorrhea (9) E Syphilis (10) E ] E Human Papilloma ED ED Virus (11) Oral Herpes (12) WE Genital Herpes

  6. Circumcision (Male)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pediatrics; 2009:828. Provencio-Vasquez E. Circumcision revisited. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing. 2009;14:295. Brown-Trask B, et al. Circumcision care. RN. 2009;72:22. Circumcision policy statement. American ... BJU International. 2008;101:65. Task Force on Circumcision. Male ...

  7. Isolation and Identification of Concanavalin A Binding Glycoproteins from Human Seminal Plasma: A Step Towards Identification of Male Infertility Marker Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Tomar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human seminal plasma contains a large array of proteins of clinical importance which are essentially needed to maintain the reproductive physiology of spermatozoa and for successful fertilization. Thus, isolation and identification of seminal plasma proteins is of paramount significance for their biophysical characterization and functional analysis in reproductive physiological processes. In this study, we have isolated Concanavalin-A binding glycoproteins from human seminal plasma and subsequently identified them by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. The major proteins, as identified in this study, are Aminopeptidase N, lactoferrin, prostatic acid phosphatase, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, prostate specific antigen, progestagen-associated endometrial protein, Izumo sperm-egg fusion protein and prolactin inducible protein. This paper also reports preliminary studies to identify altered expression of these proteins in oligospermia and azoospermia in comparison to normospermia. In oligospermia, five proteins were found to be downregulated while in azoospermia, four proteins were downregulated and two proteins were upregulated. Thus, this study is of immense biomedical interest towards identification of potential male infertility marker proteins in seminal plasma.

  8. Detection of adeno-associated virus in human semen: does viral infection play a role in the pathogenesis of male infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, V; Erles, K; Sattler, H P; Derouet, H; Wullich, B; Schlehofer, J R

    1999-11-01

    To evaluate the occurrence of adeno-associated virus (AAV) DNA and/or human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in the semen of infertile men as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of male infertility. Descriptive pilot study. University-based diagnostic and research laboratory. Semen specimens were collected from 30 men with diagnosed infertility and from 8 control subjects. Diagnostic spermiograms were made and the semen specimens were separated into seminal fluid, nonspermatozoal cells, and spermatozoa using a Ficoll gradient technique. The presence of AAV and HPV DNA in the different fractions of the ejaculates from the infertile men and the control subjects was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Semen quality was analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Adeno-associated virus DNA was detected in 30% (9/30) of the ejaculates from the infertile men. No AAV DNA was found in the ejaculates from the 8 control subjects. In 8 of 9 samples, AAV DNA could be found only in the spermatozoal fraction of the specimen. Seven of 9 semen specimens that contained viral DNA also demonstrated oligoasthenozoospermia. Both AAV and HPV DNA was found in the spermatozoal fraction of 3 of 30 specimens. The data demonstrate for the first time the occurrence of AAV infection in human semen. Sperm motility seems to be affected by the presence of AAV.

  9. A study on the physical fitness index, heart rate and blood pressure in different phases of lunar month on male human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Ujjwal; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-09-01

    The gravitational pull of the moon on the earth is not the same in all phases of the lunar month, i.e. new moon (NM), first quarter (FQ), full moon (FM) and third quarter (TQ), and as a result the amplitude of tide differs in different phases. The gravitational pull of the moon may have effects on the fluid compartments of the human body and hence the cardiovascular system may be affected differentially in the different phases of the lunar month. In the present study resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), physical fitness index (PFI), peak HR and BP immediately after step test, and recovery HR and BP after step test were measured during different phases of the lunar month in 76 male university students (age 23.7 ± 1.7 years). At rest, both systolic and mean arterial BP were ˜5 mmHg lower in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ, but resting HR was not significantly different between phases. Further, peak HR and peak systolic BP after step test were lower (˜4 beat/min and ˜5 mmHg, respectively) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. PFI was also higher (˜5) in NM and FM compared to FQ and TQ. Recovery of HR after step test was quicker in NM and FM compared to that of FQ and TQ. It appears from this study that gravitational pull of the moon may affect the cardiovascular functions of the human body. Moreover, the physical efficiency of humans is increased in NM and FM due to these altered cardiovascular regulations.

  10. Sequence family variant loss from the AZFc interval of the human Y chromosome, but not gene copy loss, is strongly associated with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machev, N; Saut, N; Longepied, G; Terriou, P; Navarro, A; Levy, N; Guichaoua, M; Metzler-Guillemain, C; Collignon, P; Frances, A-M; Belougne, J; Clemente, E; Chiaroni, J; Chevillard, C; Durand, C; Ducourneau, A; Pech, N; McElreavey, K; Mattei, M-G; Mitchell, M J

    2004-11-01

    Complete deletion of the complete AZFc interval of the Y chromosome is the most common known genetic cause of human male infertility. Two partial AZFc deletions (gr/gr and b1/b3) that remove some copies of all AZFc genes have recently been identified in infertile and fertile populations, and an association study indicates that the resulting gene dose reduction represents a risk factor for spermatogenic failure. To determine the incidence of various partial AZFc deletions and their effect on fertility, we combined quantitative and qualitative analyses of the AZFc interval at the DAZ and CDY1 loci in 300 infertile men and 399 control men. We detected 34 partial AZFc deletions (32 gr/gr deletions), arising from at least 19 independent deletion events, and found gr/gr deletion in 6% of infertile and 3.5% of control men (p>0.05). Our data provide evidence for two large AZFc inversion polymorphisms, and for relative hot and cold spots of unequal crossing over within the blocks of homology that mediate gr/gr deletion. Using SFVs (sequence family variants), we discriminate DAZ1/2, DAZ3/4, CDY1a (proximal), and CDY1b (distal) and define four types of DAZ-CDY1 gr/gr deletion. The only deletion type to show an association with infertility was DAZ3/4-CDY1a (p = 0.042), suggesting that most gr/gr deletions are neutral variants. We see a stronger association, however, between loss of the CDY1a SFV and infertility (p = 0.002). Thus, loss of this SFV through deletion or gene conversion could be a major risk factor for male infertility.

  11. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A.; Kemp, Troy J.; Torres, B. Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Methods. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27–45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle–based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. All participants developed detectable serum anti–HPV-16 and anti–HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16– and HPV-18–specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). Conclusions. This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. PMID:27511896

  12. Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccine Induces HPV-Specific Antibodies in the Oral Cavity: Results From the Mid-Adult Male Vaccine Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ligia A; Kemp, Troy J; Torres, B Nelson; Isaacs-Soriano, Kimberly; Ingles, Donna; Abrahamsen, Martha; Pan, Yuanji; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Salmeron, Jorge; Giuliano, Anna R

    2016-10-15

    Human papillomavirus virus type 16 (HPV-16) and HPV-18 cause a large proportion of oropharyngeal cancers, which are increasing in incidence among males, and vaccine efficacy against oral HPV infections in men has not been previously evaluated. Sera and saliva collected in mouthwash and Merocel sponges at day 1 and month 7 were obtained from 150 men aged 27-45 years from Tampa, Florida, and Cuernavaca, Mexico, who received Gardasil at day 1 and months 2 and 6. Specimens were tested for anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels by an L1 virus-like particle-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All participants developed detectable serum anti-HPV-16 and anti-HPV-18 antibodies, and most had detectable antibodies in both oral specimen types at month 7 (HPV-16 was detected in 93.2% of mouthwash specimens and 95.7% of sponge specimens; HPV-18 was detected in 72.1% and 65.5%, respectively). Antibody concentrations in saliva were approximately 3 logs lower than in serum. HPV-16- and HPV-18-specific antibody levels, normalized to total IgG levels, in both oral specimen types at month 7 were significantly correlated with serum levels (for HPV-16, ρ was 0.90 for mouthwash specimens and 0.92 for sponge specimens; for HPV-18, ρ was 0.89 and 0.86, respectively). This is the first study demonstrating that vaccination of males with Gardasil induces HPV antibody levels at the oral cavity that correlate with circulating levels. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  13. Male contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonho...

  14. MALE OSTEOPOROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Lindomar Guimarães; Guimarães, Mara Lucia Rassi

    2010-01-01

    As a result of population ageing worldwide, osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious problem in the western world. Osteoporotic fractures are associated with a significant burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. Although less frequent than in women, male osteoporosis is also a relatively common problem. Since bone loss and fragility fractures in men have been recognized as a serious medical condition, over the last two decades several studies have investigated a numb...

  15. CO(2) laser vaporization as primary therapy for human papillomavirus lesions. A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoca, S; Nardo, L G; Rosano, T F; D'Agosta, S; Nardo, F

    2001-12-01

    Human papillomavirus manifestations occur with increased frequency and severity amongst sexually active people. Several therapeutic approaches have been suggested to treat this viral disease. The aim of this prospective observational study was to assess the effectiveness of CO(2) laser vaporization for human papillomavirus warts. Eighty healthy sexually active women with cytologically, colposcopically and histologically diagnosed human papillomavirus urogenital and perianal warts were enrolled and then treated by CO(2) laser (16-18 W). Male partners were also investigated, and interferon-beta was eventually administered. All patients were then followed up for twelve months consecutively. At twelve-month follow-up, warts clearance was observed in 70 (87.5%) women. Recurrence was reported in ten (12.5%) women with multiple partners and affected by flat or endophytic condiloma of the cervix. Moreover, there were no complaints of pain, scar tissue deformity or other side effects. CO(2) laser vaporization is an effective, as well as safe and simple therapeutic approach for treatment of human papillomavirus warts. Its use should be encouraged for condyloma acuminata not associated with malignancy, as well as during pregnancy.

  16. Identification of human T cell targets recognized during Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anja Weinreich; Follmann, Frank; Højrup, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The specificity of the human T cell response to Chlamydia trachomatis was investigated by stimulating lymphocytes from 16 case patients with urogenital infection by use of a size-fractionated serovar D lysate. Considerable heterogeneity was found among case patients, and multiple protein fraction...

  17. ADHESION OF 3 LACTOBACILLUS STRAINS TO HUMAN URINARY AND INTESTINAL EPITHELIAL-CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REID, G; SERVIN, AL; BRUCE, AW; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1993-01-01

    Three strains of urogenital lactobacilli were found to adhere in phosphate buffered saline to human uroepithelial cells in vitro according to thermodynamic principles, and to adhere in culture medium to intestinal cells with no such correlation. The most hydrophilic strain (water contact angle

  18. Efficacy of praziquantel and reinfection patterns in single and mixed infection foci for intestinal and urogenital schistosomiasis in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Momo, Sabine C; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2013-11-01

    The regular administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to school-aged children (and other high-risk groups) is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control. Whilst the performance of PZQ against single schistosome species infections is well-known, performance against mixed species infections is less so, as are patterns of re-infection following treatment. To address this, a study using a double treatment with PZQ, administered at 40 mg/kg spaced by 3 weeks, took place in two mixed intestinal-urogenital schistosomiasis foci in northern Cameroon (Bessoum and Ouro-Doukoudje) and in one single intestinal schistosomiasis infection focus (Makenene). A total of just under 1000 children were examined and the Schistosoma-infected children were re-examined at several parasitological follow-ups over a 1-year period posttreatment. Overall cure rates against Schistosoma spp. in the three settings were good, 83.3% (95% confidence interval (CI)=77.9-87.7%) in Bessoum, 89.0% (95% CI=79.1-94.6%) in Ouro Doukoudje, and 95.3% (95% CI=89.5-98.0%) in Makenene. Interestingly, no case of mixed schistosome infection was found after treatment. Cure rates for S. mansoni varied from 99.5% to 100%, while that for S. haematobium were considerably lower, varying from 82.7% to 88.0%. Across transmission settings, patterns of re-infection for each schistosome species were different such that generalizations across foci were difficult. For example, at the 6-month follow-up, re-infection rates were higher for S. haematobium than for S. mansoni with re-infection rates for S. haematobium varying from 9.5% to 66.7%, while for S. mansoni, lower rates were observed, ranging between nil and 24.5%. At the 12-month follow-up, re-infection rates varied from 9.1% to 66.7% for S. haematobium and from nil to 27.6% for S. mansoni. Alongside these parasitological studies, concurrent malacological surveys took place to monitor the presence of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis. In the two

  19. Knowledge and critical thinking skills increase clinical reasoning ability in urogenital disorders: a Universitas Sriwijaya Medical Faculty experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfannuddin Irfannuddin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Clinical reasoning is one of the essential competencies for medical practitioners, so that it must be exercised by medical students. Studies on quantitative evidence of factors influencing clinical reasoning abilicy of students are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of knowledge and other factors on the clinical reasoning abiliry ofthe students, which can serve as reference to establish methods for learning ctinical reasoning.Methods This is a cross-sectional study on fourth semester students enrolled in the Competency-based Curriculum of the Medical Faculty, University of Sriwijaya. Data on clinical reasoning abilily and risk factors during urogenital blockwere collected inApril 2008, when the students have just completed the btock. Clinical reasoning abiliry was tested using the Script Concordance test and the risk factors were evaluated based on formative tests, block summative assessments, and student characteristics. Data were analyzed by Cox regression.Results The prevalence of low clinical reasoning ability of the 132 students was 38.6%. The group with low basic knowledge was found to have 63% risk ol low clinical reasoning abiliry when compared to those with high basic knowledge (adjusted RR = 1.63; 95% conidence intewal (Ct: 1.10 -2.42. When compared to students with high critical thinking skitls, those with lory critical thinking skills had 2.3 time to be low clinical reasoning abitity (adjusted RR : 2.30; 95% CI: 1.55 - 3.41.Conclusion Students with low critical thinking skills or with inadequate knowledge had a higher risk of low clinical reasoning ability. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 53-9Keywords: clinical reasoning, basic knowledge, critical thinking, competency-based curriculum

  20. Concordance of HPV-DNA in cervical dysplasia or genital warts in women and their monogamous long-term male partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Filip; Tachezy, Ruth; Pichlík, Tomáš; Škapa, Petr; Rob, Lukáš; Hamšíková, Eva; Šmahelová, Jana; Hercogová, Jana

    2017-09-01

    Transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) is a premise for development of cervical dysplasia and genital warts (GWs). This cross-sectional study assesses concordance of HPV types present in GWs or cervical dysplasia in women and genital infection of their monogamous male partners in conjunction with seroprevalence of HPV-6, -11, -16, and -18 antibodies. Blood was taken from both women and men, as well a smear of the urogenital area of men. HPV DNA detection in women was done in fixed paraffin embedded tissues under histological control. Of 143 couples who agreed to participate in the study, 68 met inclusion criteria. Type-specific concordance was observed in 32.5% (13/40) of couples in which women had genital warts and in 32.1% (9/28) of couples in which women had cervical dysplasia. In multivariate analysis only smoking in women was associated with concordance (P HPV-specific antibodies was high in male partners, but was not associated with presence of the same HPV type on their genitals. The same type-specific HPV antibodies were detected in 81.8% of men in couples with HPV-6 concordant genital warts, but only in 14.3% of men in couples with HPV-16 concordant cervical dysplasia (P HPV concordance in genital warts and cervical dysplasia lesions of women and genital infection of their male partners is common and similar. Higher seroconversion in couples with HPV-6 concordant genital warts compared with couples with HPV-16 concordant cervical dysplasia may be explained by viral load exposure. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Spectrum of short- and long-term brain pathology and long-term behavioral deficits in male repeated hypoxic rats closely resembling human extreme prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oorschot, Dorothy E; Voss, Logan; Covey, Matthew V; Goddard, Liping; Huang, William; Birchall, Penny; Bilkey, David K; Kohe, Sarah E

    2013-07-17

    Brain injury in the premature infant is associated with a high risk of neurodevelopmental disability. Previous small-animal models of brain injury attributable to extreme prematurity typically fail to generate a spectrum of pathology and behavior that closely resembles that observed in humans, although they provide initial answers to numerous cellular, molecular, and therapeutic questions. We tested the hypothesis that exposure of rats to repeated hypoxia from postnatal day 1 (P1) to P3 models the characteristic white matter neuropathological injury, gray matter volume loss, and memory deficits seen in children born extremely prematurely. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to repeated hypoxia or repeated normoxia from P1 to P3. The absolute number of pre-oligodendrocytes and mature oligodendrocytes, the surface area and g-ratio of myelin, the absolute volume of cerebral white and gray matter, and the absolute number of cerebral neurons were quantified stereologically. Spatial memory was investigated on a radial arm maze. Rats exposed to repeated hypoxia had a significant loss of (1) pre-oligodendrocytes at P4, (2) cerebral white matter volume and myelin at P14, (3) cerebral cortical and striatal gray matter volume without neuronal loss at P14, and (4) cerebral myelin and memory deficits in adulthood. Decreased myelin was correlated with increased attention deficit hyperactivity disorder-like hyperactivity. This new small-animal model of extreme prematurity generates a spectrum of short- and long-term pathology and behavior that closely resembles that observed in humans. This new rat model provides a clinically relevant tool to investigate numerous cellular, molecular, and therapeutic questions on brain injury attributable to extreme prematurity.

  2. NOAEL-dose of a neonicotinoid pesticide, clothianidin, acutely induce anxiety-related behavior with human-audible vocalizations in male mice in a novel environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tetsushi; Yanai, Shogo; Takada, Tadashi; Yoneda, Naoki; Omotehara, Takuya; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yamamoto, Anzu; Mantani, Youhei; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2018-01-05

    Neonicotinoids are novel systemic pesticides acting as agonists on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) of insects. Experimental studies have revealed that neonicotinoids pose potential risks for the nervous systems of non-target species, but the brain regions responsible for their behavioral effects remain incompletely understood. This study aimed to assess the neurobehavioral effects of clothianidin (CTD), a later neonicotinoid developed in 2001 and widely used worldwide, and to explore the target regions of neonicotinoids in the mammalian brain. A single-administration of 5 or 50mg/kg CTD to male C57BL/6N mice at or below the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) induced an acute increase in anxiety during the elevated plus-maze test. In addition, mice in the CTD-administered group spontaneously emitted human-audible vocalizations (4-16kHz), which are behavioral signs of aversive emotions, and showed increased numbers of c-fos immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus and dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. In conclusion, mice exposed to NOAEL-dose CTD would be rendered vulnerable to a novel environment via the activation of thalamic and hippocampal regions related to stress responses. These findings should provide critical insight into the neurobehavioral effects of neonicotinoids on mammals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. IBA and ICP-OES determination of trace elements in indigenous medicinal herbs and their extracts on the infertility in the human male reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Fisher, D.; Henkel, R. [Department of Medical Bioscience, Universily of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Weilz, F. [Department of Biodiversily and Conservation Biology, University of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The abnormality of infertility in humans is biologically defined (Mader, 2004; Wood, 1994; Ellison, 2001) as the inability of a species to reproduce its own kind after period of 12 month of unprotected sexual intercourse/copulation. It is however difficult when one wishes to quantify the occurrence of infertility, since it is seldom expressed explicitly, but mostly in conjunction with population growth dynamics which include socio-economic factors. Various plants (herbs) have been used as treatment for infertility. These plants however have not yet been scientifically analysed. In this paper we determined the major and trace element composition of Typha capensis (rhizome and leaves) Cissampe/os capensis (Ieaves) and Hermannia cilliata, which were sourced from the Cape Flats Nature Reserve, Bellville, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The trace element concentration determination are at time cumbersome, especially when destructive analytical methods such as ICP-OES are used. For our determination, the various samples were freeze-dried. Part of the freeze-dried sample was used for ICP-OES and the other for PIXE analysis. For PIXE the dried sample was pressed into a pellet, then coated with a layer of carbon and irradiated with a 3 MeV proton beam. We report on the trace element content of the various parts of the plant and comment on the applicability of the part in male infertility. (author)

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative, API2-MALT1 fusion-negative bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma in a young male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Masashi; Inaba, Tohru; Uchida, Ryo; Fuchida, Shinichi; Ochiai, Naoya; Okano, Akira; Ashihara, Eishi; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Shigeo; Shimazaki, Chihiro

    2004-10-01

    A 22-year-old male presented with multiple bilateral nodular shadows in the lungs by chest radiograph. He had been asymptomatic and showed no significant abnormal findings in laboratory examinations. He underwent a diagnostic partial lobectomy, and was diagnosed as having primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma; i.e. bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma/BALToma. Neither t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation nor API2-MALT1 chimeric transcript was found at diagnosis. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was also not detected in lymphoma cells. He had been a nonsmoker, and had also never shown any associated autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammatory lung diseases or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, he had suffered from moderate atopic dermatitis on his arms from childhood. It appears necessary to clarify whether atopy might play a role in the pathogenesis of API2-MALT1(-) BALT lymphoma for HIV(-) young patients who do not exhibit any other antecedent chronic antigenic stimulations.

  5. The biology of Trichomonas vaginalis in the light of urogenital tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusdian, Gary; Gould, Sven B

    2014-12-01

    The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis is a parasitic protist. It is a representative of the eukaryotic supergroup Excavata that includes a few other protist parasites such as Leishmania, Trypanosoma and Giardia. T. vaginalis is the agent of trichomoniasis and in the US alone, one in 30 women tests positive for this parasite. The disease is easily treated with metronidazole in most cases, but resistant strains are on the rise. The biology of Trichomonas is remarkable: it includes for example the biggest protist genome currently sequenced, the expression of about 30,000 protein-encoding genes (and thousands of lncRNAs and pseudogenes), anaerobic hydrogenosomes, rapid morphogenesis during infection, the secretion of exosomes, the manipulation of the vaginal microbiota through phagocytosis and a rich strain-dependent diversity. Here we provide an overview of Trichomonas biology with a focus on its relevance for pathogenicity and summarise the most recent advances. With some respect this parasite offers the opportunity to serve as a model system to study certain aspects of cell and genome biology, but tackling the complex biology of T. vaginalis is also important to better understand the effects that accompany infection and direct symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-sectional interview study of fertility, pregnancy, and urogenital schistosomiasis in coastal Kenya: Documented treatment in childhood is associated with reduced odds of subfertility among adult women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Miller-Fellows

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has documented an increased risk of subfertility in areas of sub-Saharan Africa, as well as an ecological association between urogenital schistosomiasis prevalence and decreased fertility. This pilot project examined reproductive patterns and the potential effects of childhood urogenital Schistosoma haematobium infection and individual treatment experience on adult subfertility among women who were long-term residents in an S. haematobium-endemic region of coastal Kenya.We analyzed findings from 162 in-depth interviews with women of childbearing age in a rural, coastal community, linking them, if possible, to their individual treatment records from previous multi-year longitudinal studies of parasitic infections. Reproductive histories indicated a much local higher local rate of subfertility (44% than worldwide averages (8-12%. Although, due to the very high regional prevalence of schistosomiasis, a clear relationship could not be demonstrated between a history of S. haematobium infection and adult subfertility, among a convenience sub-sample of 61 women who had received documented treatment during previous interventional trials, a significant association was found between age at first anti-schistosomal treatment and later fertility in adulthood, with those women treated before age 21 significantly less likely to have subfertility (P = 0.001.The high subfertility rate documented in this pilot study suggests the importance of programs to prevent and treat pelvic infections in their early stages to preclude reproductive tract damage. The available documented treatment data also suggest that early anti-schistosomal treatment may prevent the fertility-damaging effects of urogenital schistosomiasis, and lend support for programs that provide universal treatment of children in S. haematobium-endemic regions.

  7. USE OF TWO STEP FOOT - REST UTILIZED FOR MAKING LITHOTOMY POSITION FOR ANORECTO - UROGENITAL SURGERIES IN INFANT PATIENTS WITH EASY APPROACH FOR ANAESTHESIOLOGIST AS WELL AS FOR SURGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 40 infant patients with the aim is to provide optimal position for better surgical access and better access for anaesthesiologist regarding patient’s monitoring while minimizing manpower with easily available resourc es i.e. two step foot - rest for positioning of infant patient undergoing anorecto - urogenital operating procedures in operation theatre with less potential risk to the patient including peripheral neuropathies. This article addresses towards use of two step foot - rest, which is comfortable for the patient as well as for the anaesthesia team. The single surgeon may carry out perineal surgeries without much assistance.

  8. Lycopene and male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  9. Male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic performance of the urinary canine calgranulins in dogs with lower urinary or urogenital tract carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Romy M; McNiel, Elizabeth A; Grützner, Niels; Lanerie, David J; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2017-04-21

    Onset of canine transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostatic carcinoma (PCA) is usually insidious with dogs presenting at an advanced stage of the disease. A biomarker that can facilitate early detection of TCC/PCA and improve patient survival would be useful. S100A8/A9 (calgranulin A/B or calprotectin) and S100A12 (calgranulin C) are expressed by cells of the innate immune system and are associated with several inflammatory disorders. S100A8/A9 is also expressed by epithelial cells after malignant transformation and is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and metastasis. S100A8/A9 is up-regulated in human PCA and TCC, whereas the results for S100A12 have been ambiguous. Also, the urine S100A8/A9-to-S100A12 ratio (uCalR) may have potential as a marker for canine TCC/PCA. Aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the urinary S100/calgranulins to detect TCC/PCA in dogs by using data and urine samples from 164 dogs with TCC/PCA, non-neoplastic urinary tract disease, other neoplasms, or urinary tract infections, and 75 healthy controls (nested case-control study). Urine S100A8/A9 and S100A12 (measured by species-specific radioimmunoassays and normalized against urine specific gravity [S100A8/A9 USG ; S100A12 USG ], urine creatinine concentration, and urine protein concentration and the uCalR were compared among the groups of dogs. S100A8/A9 USG had the highest sensitivity (96%) and specificity (66%) to detect TCC/PCA, with specificity reaching 75% after excluding dogs with a urinary tract infection. The uCalR best distinguished dogs with TCC/PCA from dogs with a urinary tract infection (sensitivity: 91%, specificity: 60%). Using a S100A8/A9 USG  ≥ 109.9 to screen dogs ≥6 years of age for TCC/PCA yielded a negative predictive value of 100%. S100A8/A9 USG and uCalR may have utility for diagnosing TCC/PCA in dogs, and S100A8/A9 USG may be a good screening test for canine TCC/PCA.

  11. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior.

  12. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  13. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  14. Validation of the Spanish version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory short form and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire short form for women between the ages of 18 and 65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouallalene-Jaramillo, K; Bagur-Calafat, M C; Girabent-Farrés, M

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the reliability of the Spanish version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory short form (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire short form (IIQ-7) questionnaires for assessing the presence of urinary incontinence, the degree of impairment and the impact on quality of life for Spanish women between the ages of 18 and 65. A total of 150 women were enrolled throughout Spain and were administered the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 questionnaires in 2 registries performed with a 15-day interval. The ICIQ-short form, in its Spanish version, was used as the gold standard. In the reliability analysis of the UDI-6, an internal consistency of 0.973 and an intraclass correlation of 0.974 were achieved, with a 95% CI between 0.964 and 0.981. For the IIQ-7, the internal consistency was 0.984 and the intraclass correlation was 0.985, with a 95% CI between 0.985 and 0.977. For both questionnaires, the kappa values for each item ranged from 0.717 to 0.876. The Spanish version of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 questionnaires reliably and consistently assess the urogenital symptoms and their impact on the quality of life of Spanish women between 18 and 65 years of age. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Male genital lichen sclerosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barry Bunker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV hepatitis C (HCV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and Borrelia factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS and squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Discovery of human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) immunocontraceptive epitopes and their effects on fertility in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Xiaodong; Ren, Xiuhua; Li, Xuewu; Wang, Li; Zang, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    The key goals of immunocontraception research are to obtain full contraceptive effects using vaccines administered to both males and females. Current research concerning human anti-sperm contraceptive vaccines is focused on delineating infertility-related epitopes to avoid autoimmune disease. We constructed phage-display peptide libraries to select epitope peptides derived from human posterior head 20 (hPH20) and homo sapiens sperm acrosome associated 1 (hSPACA1) using sera collected from infertile women harbouring anti-sperm antibodies. Following five rounds of selection, positive colonies were reconfirmed for reactivity with the immunoinfertile sera. We biopanned and analysed the chemical properties of four epitope peptides, named P82, Sa6, Sa37 and Sa76. Synthetic peptides were made and coupled to either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or ovalbumin. We used the BSA-conjugated peptides to immunise BALB/c mice and examined the effects on fertility in female and male mice. The synthetic peptides generated a sperm-specific antibody response in female and male mice that caused a contraceptive state. The immunocontraceptive effect was reversible and, with the disappearance of peptide-specific antibodies, there was complete restoration of fertility. Vaccinations using P82, Sa6 and Sa76 peptides resulted in no apparent side effects. Thus, it is efficient and practical to identify epitope peptide candidates by phage display. These peptides may find clinical application in the specific diagnosis and treatment of male and female infertility and contraceptive vaccine development.

  17. Molecular analysis of guanidinoacetate-n-methyltransferase (GAMT) and creatine transporter (SLC6A8) gene by using denaturing high pressure liquid chromatography (DHPLC) as a possible source of human male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Furhan; Item, Chike Bellarmine; Ratschmann, Rene; Ali, Muhammad; Plas, Eugen; Bodamer, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    The creatine/phosphocreatine system is essential for cellular phosphate coupled energy storage and production, particularly in tissues subject to high metabolic demands. Male factor infertility is a common condition with unknown etiology in most of the cases. Sperm abnormalities could possibly lead to infertility. As sperm motility depends on intact mitochondrial function and energy levels. Thus reduced intracellular creatine stores may contribute to decreased sperm motility leading to male infertility as creatine /phosphocreatine system plays major role in making and breaking of ATP, thus in energy kinetics. We developed and validated a denaturing high performance liquid chromatograph (DHPLC) method for the molecular analysis of SLC6A8 and GAMT genes involve in creatine biosynthesis and transport as a possible source of human male infertility by analyzing DNA from 64, clinically confirmed, infertile men. No mutation/polymorphism was detected in the exonic regions of both genes in all the patients and in fertile healthy controls indicating that SLC6A8 and GAMT genes may not be directly involved in human male infertility.

  18. Male Reproductive System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Transplant Vision Facts and Myths Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  19. Nectar-related vs human-related volatiles: behavioural response and choice by female and male Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) between emergence and first feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, W.A.; Takken, W.

    2004-01-01

    The close association of Anopheles gambiae Giles with humans and its females’ ability to live on human blood alone suggest that females may ignore sources of sugar in favour of human blood as a source of energy. They have limited energy reserves at emergence, and at 27°C both sexes generally die if

  20. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, G.E. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, Canada); Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  1. Diagnóstico da infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis = Diagnosis methods’ for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelon, João da Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Revisar os diferentes métodos para o diagnóstico de infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis. Material e métodos: Revisão de literatura médica especializada. Conclusões: Na escolha do método diagnóstico deve-se considerar a sensibilidade e especificidade da técnica pretendida, a individualidade do caso e a adequação aos recursos disponíveis. O exame cultural para Chlamydia trachomatis constitui-se no teste padrão, por apresentar a melhor especificidade na detecção da infecção. Entretanto, estudos recentes sugerem que as técnicas de amplificação de ácido nucléico têm demonstrado maior sensibilidade e especificidade semelhante ao teste cultural

  2. A Schistosoma haematobium-specific real-time PCR for diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis in serum samples of international travelers and migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieselotte Cnops

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of urogenital schistosomiasis by microscopy and serological tests may be elusive in travelers due to low egg load and the absence of seroconversion upon arrival. There is need for a more sensitive diagnostic test. Therefore, we developed a real-time PCR targeting the Schistosoma haematobium-specific Dra1 sequence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PCR was evaluated on urine (n = 111, stool (n = 84 and serum samples (n = 135, and one biopsy from travelers and migrants with confirmed or suspected schistosomiasis. PCR revealed a positive result in 7/7 urine samples, 11/11 stool samples and 1/1 biopsy containing S. haematobium eggs as demonstrated by microscopy and in 22/23 serum samples from patients with a parasitological confirmed S. haematobium infection. S. haematobium DNA was additionally detected by PCR in 7 urine, 3 stool and 5 serum samples of patients suspected of having schistosomiasis without egg excretion in urine and feces. None of these suspected patients demonstrated other parasitic infections except one with Blastocystis hominis and Entamoeba cyst in a fecal sample. The PCR was negative in all stool samples containing S. mansoni eggs (n = 21 and in all serum samples of patients with a microscopically confirmed S. mansoni (n = 22, Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 1, Ancylostomidae (n = 1, Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1 or Trichuris trichuria infection (n = 1. The PCR demonstrated a high specificity, reproducibility and analytical sensitivity (0.5 eggs per gram of feces. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The real-time PCR targeting the Dra1 sequence for S. haematobium-specific detection in urine, feces, and particularly serum, is a promising tool to confirm the diagnosis, also during the acute phase of urogenital schistosomiasis.

  3. Divergence of sperm and leukocyte age-dependent telomere dynamics: implications for male-driven evolution of telomere length in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Aston, Kenneth I; Hunt, Steven C.; Susser, Ezra; Kimura, Masayuki; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Carrell, Douglas; Aviv, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    Telomere length (TL) dynamics in vivo are defined by TL and its age-dependent change, brought about by cell replication. Leukocyte TL (LTL), which reflects TL in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), becomes shorter with age. In contrast, sperm TL, which reflects TL in the male germ cells, becomes longer with age. Moreover, offspring of older fathers display longer LTL. Thus far, no study has examined LTL and sperm TL relations with age in the same individuals, nor considered their implications fo...

  4. A gene catalogue of the euchromatic male-specific region of the horse Y chromosome: comparison with human and other mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandina Paria

    Full Text Available Studies of the Y chromosome in primates, rodents and carnivores provide compelling evidence that the male specific region of Y (MSY contains functional genes, many of which have specialized roles in spermatogenesis and male-fertility. Little similarity, however, has been found between the gene content and sequence of MSY in different species. This hinders the discovery of species-specific male fertility genes and limits our understanding about MSY evolution in mammals. Here, a detailed MSY gene catalogue was developed for the horse--an odd-toed ungulate. Using direct cDNA selection from horse testis, and sequence analysis of Y-specific BAC clones, 37 horse MSY genes/transcripts were identified. The genes were mapped to the MSY BAC contig map, characterized for copy number, analyzed for transcriptional profiles by RT-PCR, examined for the presence of ORFs, and compared to other mammalian orthologs. We demonstrate that the horse MSY harbors 20 X-degenerate genes with known orthologs in other eutherian species. The remaining 17 genes are acquired or novel and have so far been identified only in the horse or donkey Y chromosomes. Notably, 3 transcripts were found in the heterochromatic part of the Y. We show that despite substantial differences between the sequence, gene content and organization of horse and other mammalian Y chromosomes, the functions of MSY genes are predominantly related to testis and spermatogenesis. Altogether, 10 multicopy genes with testis-specific expression were identified in the horse MSY, and considered likely candidate genes for stallion fertility. The findings establish an important foundation for the study of Y-linked genetic factors governing fertility in stallions, and improve our knowledge about the evolutionary processes that have shaped Y chromosomes in different mammalian lineages.

  5. Condom use promotes regression of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions in male sexual partners of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleeker, Maaike C G; Hogewoning, Cornelis J A; Voorhorst, Feja J; van den Brule, Adriaan J C; Snijders, Peter J F; Starink, Theo M; Berkhof, Johannes; Meijer, Chris J L M

    2003-12-10

    Penile HPV-associated lesions are frequently seen in male sexual partners of women with CIN. The natural course and clinical significance of these lesions are unclear. Women with CIN and their male sexual partners were randomized for condom use (condom group n = 68, noncondom group n = 68). Males were screened for the presence of penile lesions, i.e., flat lesions, papular lesions and condylomata acuminata, and of HPV in their penile swabs by PCR testing. Median follow-up time was 13.1 months (range 2.9-57.4). The outcome of our study was clinical regression of penile lesions defined as disappearance of lesions at penoscopy. Potentially prognostic factors, i.e., HPV status, lesion type and age, were studied as well. Outcomes were assessed in 57 men of the condom group and in 43 men of the noncondom group. Condom use shortened the median time to regression of flat penile lesions (7.4 months condom group vs. 13.9 months noncondom group; HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.7). This effect was not found for papular lesions (HR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.1-2.8). HPV-negative men showed a significantly shorter median time to regression of flat lesions (3.8 months) compared to men with either HPV-positive status (8.5 months; HR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) or inconsistent HPV status (13.1 months; HR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.6). Regression of flat penile lesions is HPV-dependent and accelerated by condom use. This effect is probably the result of blocking viral transmission between sexual partners. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Derivation of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 79 year old sporadic male Parkinson's disease patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokun Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 79-year old male sporadic Parkinson's disease patient. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model can be used to study the mechanism of sporadic Parkinson's disease and to test new drugs.

  7. Characterization of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC line from a 72 year old male patient with later onset Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaokun Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood was collected from a clinically diagnosed 72-year old male patient with later onset Alzheimer's disease. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were reprogrammed with the Yamanaka KMOS reprogramming factors using the Sendai-virus reprogramming system. The transgene-free iPSC line showed pluripotency verified by immunofluorescent staining for pluripotency markers, and the iPSC line was able to differentiate into the 3 germ layers in vivo. The iPSC line also showed normal karyotype. This in vitro cellular model will be useful for studying the pathological mechanism of Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1993-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  9. Evaluation of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections by cell culture and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars; Traulsen, J; Birkelund, Svend

    1991-01-01

    the two test systems were compared, the overall sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction was 96% and the specificity 94% when compared to the cell culture technique. By use of a closed system for DNA extraction and sample transfer for the polymerase chain reaction, contamination of the samples......Two hundred and fifty-four specimens from males and females consulting a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases were analyzed for genital Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Each clinical sample was tested by the cell culture technique and the polymerase chain reaction using a closed system. When...... was minimized. The polymerase chain reaction detected a higher number of Chlamydia trachomatis infections among both symptomatic and asymptomatic females and males, and it also detected Chlamydia trachomatis at an earlier stage of infection when compared to cell culture. The polymerase chain reaction did...

  10. Aging Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat as an Animal Model for the Evaluation of the Interplay between Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury and Cardiorenal Syndrome in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Kazem; McCullough, Peter A

    2016-11-01

    Although there are some animal models for biomarkers of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI), for cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) and for acute renal failure, the interplay between CI-AKI and CRS has yet to be evaluated. Insight into the pathogenesis of CRS is urgently needed from animal models in order to foster the discovery and implementation of novel biomarkers for this disease. Specially designed animal models for type 1 and 3 CRS, particularly CI-AKI, have not yet emerged. We hypothesize that the aging male spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is likely to be a suitable model. The SHR model is able to mimic risk factors for preclinical CRS that appears in the clinical setting, specifically hypertension, age, preexisting damage and dysfunction of the heart and kidney, endothelial dysfunction, increased level of reactive oxygen species, decreased level and bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO), impairment of the L-arginine-NO pathway, and insulin resistance. In the SHR, CI-AKI results in a different profile of AKI biomarkers than is seen with preexisting chronic kidney injury. The SHR model can be used to evaluate the interaction between CI-AKI and CRS type 1 and 3 and to verify neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) as a reliable CI-AKI biomarker for clinical application. Further research is warranted with a large number of aging male SHRs to prove NGAL as a sensitive, specific, highly predictive, early biomarker for CI-AKI.

  11. Localization patterns of the ganglioside GM1 in human sperm are indicative of male fertility and independent of traditional semen measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Cristina; Neri, Queenie V.; Simpson, Alana J.; Moody, Melissa A.; Ostermeier, G. Charles; Seaman, Eric K.; Paniza, Theodore; Rosenwaks, Zev; Palermo, Gianpiero D.

    2017-01-01

    Semen analysis lacks a functional component and best identifies extreme cases of infertility. The ganglioside GM1 is known to have functional roles during capacitation and acrosome exocytosis. Here, we assessed whether GM1 localization patterns (Cap‐Score™) correspond with male fertility in different settings: Study 1 involved couples pursuing assisted reproduction in a tertiary care fertility clinic, while Study 2 involved men with known fertility versus those questioning their fertility at a local urology center. In Study 1, we examined various thresholds versus clinical history for 42 patients; 13 had Cap‐Scores ≥39.5%, with 12 of these (92.3%) achieving clinical pregnancy by natural conception or ≤3 intrauterine insemination cycles. Of the 29 patients scoring semen analysis. Furthermore, the data provide normal reference ranges for fertile men that can help clinicians counsel couples toward the most appropriate fertility treatment. PMID:28418610

  12. Patterns of Human Papillomavirus DNA and Antibody Positivity in Young Males and Females, Suggesting a Site-Specific Natural Course of Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J.; Bogaards, Johannes A.; van der Klis, Fiona R. M.; Scherpenisse, Mirte; Boot, Hein J.; King, Audrey J.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity

  13. Introduction of lymphadenopathy associated virus or human T lymphotropic virus (LAV/HTLV-III) into the male homosexual community in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coutinho, R. A.; Krone, W. J.; Smit, L.; Albrecht-van Lent, P.; van der Noordaa, J.; Schaesberg, W.; Goudsmit, J.

    1986-01-01

    To establish when lymphadenopathy associated virus or human T lymphotropic virus (LAV/HTLV-III) was introduced into the Netherlands, we studied a cohort of homosexual men who participated in a hepatitis B vaccine efficacy study between 1980 and 1982. On entry into the study (November 1980 to

  14. Patterns of human papillomavirus DNA and antibody positivity in young males and females, suggesting a site-specific natural course of infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Henrike J; Bogaards, Johannes A; van der Klis, Fiona R M; Scherpenisse, Mirte; Boot, Hein J; King, Audrey J; van der Sande, Marianne A B; Rossen, John

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity

  15. Fertility regulation in the male

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kretser, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of research into new methods of male contraception is reviewed, with special emphasis on the efforts of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. The article concentrates mainly on the development of orally administered or injectable substances capable of either (a) interfering with the hormonal control of testicular function, (b) disrupting spermatogenesis by direct influence on testis function, or (c) interfering with the fertilizing ability of the sperm and their transport. It is concluded that, despite the numerous areas of research currently being pursued, the availability of a new male contraceptive remains several years away. PMID:308403

  16. Male chimpanzees prefer mating with old females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N; Thompson, Melissa Emery; Wrangham, Richard W

    2006-11-21

    Cross-cultural studies indicate that women's sexual attractiveness generally peaks before motherhood and declines with age. Cues of female youth are thought to be attractive because humans maintain long-term pair bonds, making reproductive value (i.e. future reproductive potential) particularly important to males. Menopause is believed to exaggerate this preference for youth by limiting women's future fertility. This theory predicts that in species lacking long-term pair bonds and menopause, males should not exhibit a preference for young mates. We tested this prediction by studying male preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). We show that despite their promiscuous mating system, chimpanzee males, like humans, prefer some females over others. However, in contrast to humans, chimpanzee males prefer older, not younger, females. These data robustly discriminate patterns of male mate choice between humans and chimpanzees. Given that the human lineage evolved from a chimpanzee-like ancestor, they indicate that male preference for youth is a derived human feature, likely adapted from a tendency to form unusually long term mating bonds.

  17. Endogenous retrovirus sequences expressed in male mammalian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In humans, one ERV family, human endogenous retrovirus- K (HERV-K) is abundantly expressed, and is associated with germ cell tumours, while ERV3 env is expressed in normal human testis. Conclusion: The expression of ERVs in male reproductive tissues suggests a possible role in normal and disease conditions ...

  18. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, M; Poolamets, O; Paju, P; Vihljajev, V; Pomm, K; Ladva, R; Korrovits, P; Laan, M

    2017-01-01

    What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months. Among 8518 patients, 1737 (20.4%) were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. A reference group of fertile controls was comprised of 325 partners of pregnant women. The mean age of infertility patients and fertile controls was 33.2 ± 7.3 and 31.7 ± 6.3 years, respectively. All participants were examined using a standardized andrology workup, accompanied by a structured medical interview. Hormonal analysis included serum FSH, LH and testosterone. Semen quality was determined in accordance to the World Health Organization recommendations. Cases with spermatozoa concentrations of ≤5 million/ml were screened for chromosomal aberrations and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. The primary cause of infertility was defined for 695 of 1737 patients (~40%). The analyzed causal factors could be divided into absolute (secondary hypogonadism, genetic causes, seminal tract obstruction), severe (oncological diseases, severe sexual dysfunction) and plausible causal factors (congenital anomalies in uro-genital tract, acquired or secondary testicular damage). The latter were also detected for 11 (3.4%) men with proven fertility (diagnoses: unilateral cryptorchidism, testis cancer, orchitis, mumps orchitis). The causal factors behind the most severe forms of impaired spermatogenesis were relatively well understood; causes were assigned: for aspermia in 46/46 cases (100%), for azoospermia in 321

  19. Geography, Ethnicity or Subsistence-Specific Variations in Human Microbiome Composition and Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Vinod K.; Paul, Sandip; Dutta, Chitra

    2017-01-01

    One of the fundamental issues in the microbiome research is characterization of the healthy human microbiota. Recent studies have elucidated substantial divergences in the microbiome structure between healthy individuals from different race and ethnicity. This review provides a comprehensive account of such geography, ethnicity or life-style-specific variations in healthy microbiome at five major body habitats—Gut, Oral-cavity, Respiratory Tract, Skin, and Urogenital Tract (UGT). The review f...

  20. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of genital Mycoplasmas detected by Mycoplasma IST 2 from urogenital samples in Padua, Italy, between January 2014 and December 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiology and the antimicrobial resistance profile of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis isolated from urogenital specimens of patients attending the Microbiology and Virology Unit of Padua between January 2014 and December 2015. Materials and methods. The analysis was carried out on a total of 10861 samples. Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed using bioMérieux Mycoplasma IST 2. Results. 2668 samples (24.6% from 2043 patients were positive: 2466 samples positive for Ureaplasma spp. (1897 patients and 8 samples positive for M. hominis (8 patients, while in 194 samples (138 patients was detected a coinfection. As for antimicrobial susceptibility of Ureaplasma spp. we found a resistance (R+I rate of 90.6% for ciprofloxacin, of 74,1% for ofloxacin, of 52.8% for azithromycin and of 47.0% for erythromycin.Conclusions. Our report shows a high prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. in the study population. Surveillance of antibiotic resistance is critical for an appropriate therapeutic approach, which must always be contextualized with patient’s symptomatology.

  1. Diagnóstico da infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis =Diagnosis methods’ for Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelon, João da Rosa et al.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Revisar os diferentes métodos para o diagnóstico de infecção urogenital por Chlamydia trachomatis. Material e métodos: Revisão de literatura médica especializada. Conclusões: Na escolha do método diagnóstico deve-se considerar a sensibilidade e especificidade da técnica pretendida, a individualidade do caso e a adequação aos recursos disponíveis. O exame cultural para Chlamydia trachomatis constitui-se no teste padrão, por apresentar a melhor especificidade na detecção da infecção. Entretanto, estudos recentes sugerem que as técnicas de amplificação de ácido nucléico têm demonstrado maior sensibilidade e especificidade semelhante ao teste cultural. Objective: To review the different methods for the diagnosis of genital infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis. Material and methods: Review of medical literature. Conclusions: By choosing the method, it must be consider the sensitivity and specificity of the technique, the individuality of the case and the available possibilities. The culture exam for Chlamydia trachomatis is the gold-standard test, due to its’ best specificity in the detection of this disease. Nevertheless, recent trails suggests that the nucleic acid amplified tests have shown better sensibility and equal specificity when compared to the cultural test.

  2. IN0523 (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol) a plant based derivative of boswellic acid protect Cisplatin induced urogenital toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amarinder; Arvinda, S; Singh, Surjeet; Suri, Jyotsna; Koul, Surinder; Mondhe, Dilip M; Singh, Gurdarshan; Vishwakarma, Ram

    2017-03-01

    The limiting factor for the use of Cisplatin in the treatment of different type of cancers is its toxicity and more specifically urogenital toxicity. Oxidative stress is a well-known phenomenon associated with Cisplatin toxicity. However, in Cisplatin treated group, abnormal animal behavior, decreased body weight, cellular and sub-cellular changes in the kidney and sperm abnormality were observed. Our investigation revealed that Cisplatin when administered in combination with a natural product derivative (Urs-12-ene-3α,24β-diol, labeled as IN0523) resulted in significant restoration of body weight and protection against the pathological alteration caused by Cisplatin to kidney and testis. Sperm count and motility were significantly restored near to normal. Cisplatin caused depletion of defense system i.e. glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase, which were restored close to normal by treatment of IN0523. Reduction in excessive lipid peroxidation induced by Cisplatin was also found by treatment with IN0523. The result suggests that IN0523 is a potential candidate for ameliorating Cisplatin induced toxicity in the kidney and testes at a dose of 100mg/kg p.o. via inhibiting the oxidative stress/redox status imbalance and may be improving the efflux mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Male anorgasmia treated with oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Waguih William; Berman, Daniel S; Peters, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Introduction. This is a case report on male anorgasmia that was successfully treated with oxytocin. Oxytocin is increased during arousal and peaks during orgasm. More recently, a study on humans published in Nature has shown its value in social bonding, increasing trust, and enhancing the sense of well-being. Aim. To test the effectiveness of administering oxytocin in a case of treatment-resistant anorgasmia. Methods. The patient underwent a biopsychosocial evaluation by a psychiatrist trained in sexual medicine and sex therapy for male orgasmic disorder, acquired type. Medical conditions, effect of substances, and psychological issues were ruled out. The patient was properly consented to using oxytocin as an off-label trial. Oxytocin was administered using a nasal spray intracoitally because of its ultra-short half-life. Results. Oxytocin was effective in restoring ejaculation. Conclusions. A case of treatment-resistant male anorgasmia was successfully treated with intracoital administration of intranasal oxytocin.

  4. Generation of a human control PBMC derived iPS cell line TUSMi001-A from a healthy male donor of Han Chinese genetic background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year old healthy man of Han Chinese genetic background donated his peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. The non-integrating episomal vector system was used to reprogram his PBMCs with the human OSKM (Oct4, Sox2, Kl4 and c-Myc transcription factors. The pluripotency of transgene-free iPSCs was confirmed by immunocytochemistry for pluripotency markers and by the ability of the iPSCs to differentiate spontaneously into 3 germ layers in vitro. In addition, the iPSC line displayed a normal karyotype. In the studies of disease mechanism, the iPSC line can be used as a control.

  5. Age and haplotype variations within FADS1 interact and associate with alterations in fatty acid composition in human male cortical brain tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Freemantle

    Full Text Available Fatty acids (FA play an integral role in brain function and alterations have been implicated in a variety of complex neurological disorders. Several recent genomic studies have highlighted genetic variability in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS1/2/3 gene cluster as an important contributor to FA alterations in serum lipids as well as measures of FA desaturase index estimated by ratios of relevant FAs. The contribution to alterations of FAs within the brain by local synthesis is still a matter of debate. Thus, the impact of genetic variants in FADS genes on gene expression and brain FA levels is an important avenue to investigate.Analyses were performed on brain tissue from prefrontal cortex Brodmann area 47 (BA47 of 61 male subjects of French Canadian ancestry ranging in age from young adulthood to middle age (18-58 years old, with the exception of one teenager (15 years old. Haplotype tagging SNPs were selected using the publicly available HapMap genotyping dataset in conjunction with Haploview. DNA sequencing was performed by the Sanger method and gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. FAs in brain tissue were analysed by gas chromatography. Variants in the FADS1 gene region were sequenced and analyzed for their influence on both FADS gene expression and FAs in brain tissue.Our results suggest an association of the minor haplotype with alteration in estimated fatty acid desaturase activity. Analysis of the impact of DNA variants on expression and alternative transcripts of FADS1 and FADS2, however, showed no differences. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between haplotype and age on certain brain FA levels.This study suggests that genetic variability in the FADS genes cluster, previously shown to be implicated in alterations in peripheral FA levels, may also affect FA composition in brain tissue, but not likely by local synthesis.

  6. Pilot study to establish a nasal tip prediction method from unknown human skeletal remains for facial reconstruction and skull photo superimposition as applied to a Japanese male populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsuno, Hajime; Kageyama, Toru; Uchida, Keiichi; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko; Sakurada, Koichi; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-02-01

    Skull-photo superimposition is a technique used to identify the relationship between the skull and a photograph of a target person: and facial reconstruction reproduces antemortem facial features from an unknown human skull, or identifies the facial features of unknown human skeletal remains. These techniques are based on soft tissue thickness and the relationships between soft tissue and the skull, i.e., the position of the ear and external acoustic meatus, pupil and orbit, nose and nasal aperture, and lips and teeth. However, the ear and nose region are relatively difficult to identify because of their structure, as the soft tissues of these regions are lined with cartilage. We attempted to establish a more accurate method to determine the position of the nasal tip from the skull. We measured the height of the maxilla and mid-lower facial region in 55 Japanese men and generated a regression equation from the collected data. We obtained a result that was 2.0±0.99mm (mean±SD) distant from the true nasal tip, when applied to a validation set consisting of another 12 Japanese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  7. Male pattern baldness (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  8. [Male urinary incontinence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, TA de; Heesakkers, J.P.F.A.

    2008-01-01

    *Urinary incontinence in males is gaining increasingly more attention. *Male urinary incontinence can be classified as storage incontinence due to overactive bladder syndrome or stress incontinence due to urethral sphincter dysfunction. *Most patients benefit from the currently available treatment

  9. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  10. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassola, V F; Kramer, R; De Oliveira Lira, C A B; Khoury, H J [Department of Nuclear Energy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Avenida Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, CEP 50740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil); Milian, F M, E-mail: rkramer@uol.com.br [Department of Exact Science and Technology, State University of Santa Cruz, Campus Soane Nazare de Andrade, Km 16 Rodovia Ilheus-Itabuna, CEP 45662-000, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-07

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  11. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglesang Jensen, Christian S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M

    2017-01-01

    The link between varicoceles and male infertility has been a matter of debate for more than half a century. Varicocele is considered the most common correctable cause of male infertility, but some men with varicoceles are able to father children, even without intervention. In addition, improvements...... if the male partner has a clinically palpable varicocele and affected semen parameters....

  12. Patterns of human papillomavirus DNA and antibody positivity in young males and females, suggesting a site-specific natural course of infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrike J Vriend

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To monitor the impact of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 vaccine on HPV infection dynamics in the Netherlands, we started an ongoing study in sexually transmitted infection (STI clinics in 2009. Here, we analyze baseline type-specific HPV DNA and HPV-specific antibody positivity rates. METHODS: We enrolled 3569 men and women, 16-24 years of age, from 14 STI clinics, and estimated genital and anal HPV DNA and antibody positivity rates of 7 main carcinogenic HPV types. Generalized estimating equations regression analyses were applied to determine risk factors for, and associations between, type-specific HPV DNA and antibody positivity. RESULTS: Genital HPV DNA positivity rates were higher in women than in men; anal HPV DNA was especially high in men who have sex with men (MSM. HPV antibody seropositivity rates were also highest in women and MSM. High-risk sexual behavior was predictive of both HPV DNA and antibody positivity. Despite a strong correlation in serological profiles for multiple HPV types, seropositivity was independently associated with homologous HPV DNA detection. CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA and antibody positivity rates are higher in women and MSM than in heterosexual men, but their association is similar across gender. This suggests a site-specific natural course of infection.

  13. Discovery of molecular pathways mediating 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 protection against cytokine-induced inflammation and damage of human and male mouse islets of Langerhans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolden-Kirk, Heidi; Rondas, D; Bugliani, M

    2014-01-01

    . The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D3 contributes to β-cell protection against cytokine-induced β-cell dysfunction and death. Human and mouse islets were exposed to IL-1β and interferon-γ in the presence or absence of 1,25(OH)2D3. Effects on insulin secretion...... and β-cell survival were analyzed by glucose-stimulated insulin release and electron microscopy or Hoechst/propidium iodide staining, respectively. Gene expression profiles were assessed by Affymetrix microarrays. Nuclear factor-κB activity was tested, whereas effects on secreted chemokines....../cytokines were confirmed by ELISA and migration studies. Cytokine exposure caused a significant increase in β-cell apoptosis, which was almost completely prevented by 1,25(OH)2D3. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 restored insulin secretion from cytokine-exposed islets. Microarray analysis of murine islets revealed...

  14. Study of specific pharmacological activity of standardized composition of bee product substances for treatment of urogenital system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Koval

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The work presents review of the data literature, which indicate the prospects of creation new highly efficient drugs for the treatment of chronic prostatitis and prostate gland adenoma based bioactive standardized substances of bee products, including powdered honey (PH, propolis phenolic hydrophobic drug (PPHD and bee pollen (BP. Materials and methods. Results of discussion of preclinical pharmacological studies of standardized substances of bee products composition – PH, PPHD and BP for the treatment of specified pathology is given in the experimental part. Results. It was found that the most pronounced anti-inflammatory effect on the level 40 % the mixture of APIs (PH, PPHD and BP detects at a dose of 100 mg/kg in relation to the reference drug – trianom capsules in doses of 100 and 130 mg/kg. Conclusions. Usage of bee products is grounded in creation of the new drug on their basis in the form of standardized substances of bee products composition –PH, PPHD and BP for chronic prostatitis and prostate gland adenoma. It was found that the most pronounced anti-inflammatory effect on 40 % the mixture of APIs (PH, PPHD and BP detects at a dose of 100 mg/kg. It was established that the composition of standard substances of bee products – PH, PPHD and BP at a dose of 100 mg/kg shows a more pronounced specific pharmacological effect in comparison to the reference product – trianom capsules at doses of 100 and 130 mg/kg, which positively affect the course of the pilot prostatitis in male rats caused by dichloroethyl.

  15. Awareness and acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among males attending a major sexual health clinic in Wuxi, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Huachun; Meng, Xiaojun; Jia, Tianjian; Zhu, Chen; Chen, Xin; Li, Xiaolin; Xu, Junjie; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-06-02

    To study the awareness and acceptance of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among sexually active men having sex with men (MSM) and men not having sex with men (MNSM) attending the largest sexual health clinic in Wuxi, China. A questionnaire about participants' socio-demographic characteristics and view on HPV vaccination was collected. A total of 186 MSM and 182 MNSM were recruited. Among MSM, 12.4% were under 20 years old, 64.5% never married and 56.5% from Jiangsu Province (where Wuxi City is located); 64.0% had resided in Wuxi for over 2 years, 64.5% had high school education or more, and 83.9% had an income of 5000 RMB or less per month compared to figures of 5.5%, 50.6%, 73.6%, 54.9%, 86.8% and 64.8% among MNSM, respectively (All P values men, 18.4% and 23.1% had heard of HPV; 10.2% and 15.4% had heard of HPV vaccine; and 26.2% and 20.2% would take HPV vaccine before sexual debut, respectively. MNSM were significantly more willing to take HPV vaccine than MSM (70.9 vs 34.9%, p HPV vaccine acceptance among MSM included engaging mostly in receptive anal sex (Odds ratio (OR)=3.9, 95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.8-13.5), never using a condom in anal sex in the past 6 months (3.5, 1.5-20.2), ever diagnosed with a sexually transmitted infection (STI) (3.4, 1.3-8.4) and ever receiving HIV related services (1.6, 1.1-4.4). Among MNSM these Factors included commercial sex with women (1.7, 1.2-8.6), never using a condom in commercial sex (1.6, 1.4-7.6) and STI diagnosis (2.0, 1.6-7.3). Sexually active MSM and MNSM in Wuxi lacked knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination. The majority of these at-risk men would not benefit from HPV vaccination as their age at first sex proceeded perceived age of vaccine uptake. Aggressive education aimed at increasing knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccination among these men is warranted.

  16. Is the eGFR formula adequate for evaluating renal function before chemotherapy in patients with urogenital cancer? A suggestion for clinical application of eGFR formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uozumi, Jiro; Noguchi, Mitsuru; Tokuda, Yuji; Tobu, Shohei; Udo, Kazuma; Kakinoki, Hiroaki; Kurata, Saya; Nanri, Maki; Ichibagase, Yuka; Takahara, Kohei

    2015-08-01

    Accurate evaluation of renal function is required before cancer chemotherapy. Various kinds of formula have been developed for estimating creatinine clearance (Ccr) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR) conveniently. We retrospectively examined the reliability of the GFR estimating formula using the renal function data in cancer chemotherapy. Clinical data of 12 patients with urogenital cancer from 1998 to 2013 in Saga University Hospital were reviewed. Patients were treated with 6-21 (median 10.5) courses of chemotherapy and those patients underwent 9-29 (median 14.5) times of 24hrCcr tests before and during chemotherapy. We compared estimated GFR (eGFR) with 24hrCcr. In addition, we developed a novel method to estimate the Ccr using the patient-inherent 24hrCcr/eGFR ratio, which is calculated from initial 3 or 4 determinations of 24hrCcr and the corresponding eGFR. Those estimated Ccrs were also compared with 24hrCcr. The dissociation between 24hrCcr and eGFR was not constant, and a large dissociation was observed in some cases. The newly devised estimated Ccr demonstrated less dissociation from 24hrCcr compared with eGFR. The eGFR formula is not adequate for the clinical use in cancer chemotherapy. The absolute value of eGFR is not reliable, but clinical use of eGFR as relative value seems to be acceptable. To avoid troublesome 24hrCcr measurement in long-term cancer chemotherapy, eGFR formula can be used for estimating Ccr in combination with the specific inherent 24hrCcr/eGFR ratio, which is obtained from 3 or 4 times of actual 24hrCcr measurements.

  17. Translation and Validation of Bahasa Malaysia Version of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life Questionnaires (IIQ-7), a Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusee, Zalina; Rusly, Azizah; Jamalludin, A R; Abdulwahab, Dalia F; Ismail, Rozihan

    2016-05-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) demonstrates major prevalence in women of different population groups. Reduced quality of life (QOL) is observed due to incontinence problems. Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life (IIQ-7) are useful disease-specific questionnaires evaluating the impact of urinary incontinence on the QOL of women which is accepted internationally. This study aims to translate and validate UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in Malay language. A cross sectional study, which recruited 100 participants from two urogynecology clinics. Both questionnaires were initially translated from English to Bahasa Malaysia followed by back translation and final correction done by the professional translators. The participants were requested to maintain a urinary record of the upcoming week for three days that assisted in quantifying the severity of symptoms. None of the subjects were assigned any treatment during the study period. Validity and reliability of the translated questionnaires were determined by checking the internal consistency and also by doing test-retest. The internal consistency levels of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires were 0.73 and 0.90 respectively with good test-retest (0.86 and 0.95). Incontinence episodes were strongly associated with obstructive, irritative, and stress symptoms. The factor of day time voiding had strong correlation with obstructive and irritative symptoms. UDI-6 and IIQ-7 did not measure similar outcomes; however, both questionnaires have their strengths in clinical settings. Analysis has also revealed that the Malaysian versions of both questionnaires had appropriate test-retest validity and reliability. Thus, it can be said that both of the questionnaires had great importance for screening patients with urinary incontinence in Malaysia.

  18. Community-based sexually transmitted infection screening and increased detection of pharyngeal and urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in female sex workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Horas T H; Lee, Krystal C K; Chan, Denise P C

    2015-04-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are one of the key populations being infected most by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. In Hong Kong, limited data on the burden of chlamydial and gonococcal infections exist because regular screenings are not offered. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in FSWs and to assess predictors associated with unprotected fellatio. A cross-sectional study was conduct on 340 FSWs attending a community organization for HIV/STI screening, and a questionnaire addressing sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics was administered to all FSWs. The prevalence of syphilis infection was 2.1%, and none was tested positive for HIV. The positivity for pharyngeal C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 3.2% and 4.4%, respectively, whereas that for urogenital chlamydial and gonococcal infection was 10.6% and 0.9%, respectively. Of 313 FSWs offering fellatio, having unprotected fellatio with clients was significantly associated with the perceived low risk of contracting STI via fellatio (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.88), working in clubs (adjusted OR, 11.14), working on streets (adjusted OR, 3.28), recently started working in the sex industry for 1 year or less (adjusted OR, 3.05), and reporting group sex in the previous year (adjusted OR, 11.03). The prevalence of HIV and syphilis infection remains low. This study reveals a relatively high prevalence of N. gonorrhoeae detected mostly in the pharynx. Offering pharyngeal screening for STI would facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of gonococcal infection in FSWs in Hong Kong.

  19. Establishment of assisted reproduction technologies in female and male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, R; Göritz, F; Maltzan, J; Blottner, S; Proudfoot, J; Fritsch, G; Fassbender, M; Quest, M; Hildebrandt, T B

    2001-01-01

    Transrectal ultrasonography, electroejaculation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa were applied to the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) to establish non-invasive protocols for assessing the reproductive health of one of the most endangered African canids. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed on immobilized male (n = 2) and female (n = 5) captive wild dogs. The testes and epididymides of the male dogs were imaged transcutaneously, followed by electrostimulation and cryopreservation of spermatozoa. The sonomorphology of the female and male urogenital tracts was characterized. In females, the vagina, cervix, non-pregnant uterus and ovary were imaged and the reproductive health of each female was evaluated. The sonographic assessment helped to identify one pyometra and extensive abdominal fat deposits in two other individuals in which pyometra had been suspected. Images of the adrenal glands showed differences in size among individuals of the same breeding group. Whether these differences were related to the dominance hierarchy remains to be determined. In males, visualization of the prostate gland, testis and epididymis indicated sexual maturity. Three ejaculatory fractions (1.0, 1.5 and 0.5 ml, with 50, 95 and 95% motility, respectively; 1.125 x 10(8) spermatozoa per ejaculate) were collected from one male. The motility of each of these fractions after thawing was 0, 30 and 40%, respectively. Electrostimulation of the second male, in which a cystic structure in a testis had been identified by sonography, resulted in an aspermic ejaculate (0.5 and 1.0 ml). These technologies provided basic data on reproduction in female and male African wild dogs and were an efficient way to evaluate reproductive health.

  20. Drosophila Male Meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, Silvia; Gatti, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    In Drosophila males, there is no synaptonemal complex and recombination does not occur. Thus, Drosophila male meiosis is a good model system for the analysis of achiasmate chromosome segregation. In addition, due to their large size, the meiotic spindles of Drosophila males are an excellent system for mutational dissection of the mechanisms of spindle assembly. Here, we describe the main techniques for visualization of live Drosophila testes and for preparation of fixed meiotic chromosomes and spindles.

  1. Imaging male breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, S., E-mail: sdoyle2@nhs.net [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom); Steel, J.; Porter, G. [Primrose Breast Care Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Male breast cancer is rare, with some pathological and radiological differences from female breast cancer. There is less familiarity with the imaging appearances of male breast cancer, due to its rarity and the more variable use of preoperative imaging. This review will illustrate the commonest imaging appearances of male breast cancer, with emphasis on differences from female breast cancer and potential pitfalls in diagnosis, based on a 10 year experience in our institution.

  2. Reproductive system: part one--male anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Brendan

    This article, the first in a four-part series, explores the core anatomy of the male human reproductive system. Part two will focus on its physiology and function. Part three and four will explore the female human reproductive anatomy and its reproductive physiology. The series should enhance the reader's theory and practice when caring for patients with reproductive or sexual health needs.

  3. Selecting accurate post-elimination monitoring tools to prevent reemergence of urogenital schistosomiasis in Morocco: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balahbib, Abdelaali; Amarir, Fatima; Corstjens, Paul L A M; de Dood, Claudia J; van Dam, Govert J; Hajli, Amina; Belhaddad, Meryem; El Mansouri, Bouchra; Sadak, Abderrahim; Rhajaoui, Mohamed; Adlaoui, El Bachir

    2017-04-06

    After alleged stop of transmission of schistosomiasis and further down the line in post elimination settings, sensitive tools are required to monitor infection status to prevent potential re-emergence. In Rahala, where transmission cycle of Schistosoma haematobium is interrupted since 2004 but where 30% of snails are still infected by S. bovis, potential human S. bovis infection can't be excluded. As methods based on egg-counts do not provide the required sensitivity, antibody or antigen assays are envisaged as the most appropriate tools for this type of monitoring. In this pilot study, the performances of three assays were compared: two commercially available antibody tests (ELISA and haemagglutination format) indicating exposure, and an antigen test (lateral flow strip format) demonstrating active infection. All 37 recruited study participants resided in Rahala (Akka, province Tata, Morocco). Participants had been diagnosed and cured from schistosomiasis in the period between 1983 and 2003. In 2015 these asymptomatic participants provided fresh clinical samples (blood and urine) for analysis with the aforementioned diagnostics tests. No eggs were identified in the urine of the 37 participants. The haemagglutination test indicated 6 antibody positives whereas the ELISA indicated 28 antibody positives, one indecisive and one false positive. ELISA and haemagglutination results matched for 18 individuals, amongst which 5 out of 6 haemagglutination positives. With the antigen test (performed on paired serum and urine samples), serum from two participants (cured 21 and 32 years ago) indicated the presence of low levels of the highly specific Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen (CAA), demonstrating low worm level infections (less than 5 pg/ml corresponding to probably single worm pair). One tested also CAA positive with urine. ELISA indicated the presence of human anti-Schistosoma antibodies in these two CAA positive cases, haemagglutination results were negative

  4. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  5. Assessing the benefits of five years of different approaches to treatment of urogenital schistosomiasis: A SCORE project in Northern Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E Phillips

    2017-12-01

    .8%, across all age groups and treatment arms. The proportion of those heavily infected also reduced from 17.6% to 11.9% over five years. There was a significantly higher likelihood of males being infected than females at baseline, but no significant difference between the sexes in their response to treatment. The only significant response based on a study arm was seen in both the 9-to-12-year-old and first-year cross sections, where two consecutive treatment holidays resulted in a significantly higher final prevalence of S. haematobium than no treatment holidays. When the arms were grouped together, four rounds of treatment (regardless of whether it was CWT or SBT, however, did result in a significantly greater reduction in S. haematobium prevalence than two rounds of treatment (i.e. with two intermittent or consecutive holiday years over a five-year period.Although PC was successful in reducing the burden of active infection, even among those heavily infected, annual CWT did not have a significantly greater impact on disease prevalence or intensity than less intense treatment arms. This may be due to extremely high starting prevalence and intensity in the study area, with frequent exposure to reinfection, or related to challenges in achieving high treatment coverage More frequent treatment had a greater impact on prevalence and intensity of infection when arms were grouped by number of treatments, however, cost efficiency was greater in arms only receiving two treatments. Finally, a significant reduction in prevalence of S. haematobium was seen in adults even in the SBT arms implying the rate of transmission in the community had been decreased, even where only school children have been treated, which has significant logistical and cost-saving implications for a national control programme in justifying CWT.

  6. Occupational causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-06-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function. Semen quality following occupational exposure to boron (an acknowledged experimental reproductive toxicant) and benzene, and new evidence on low-level environmental exposure to widespread xenobiotics with endocrine actions. The naturally occurring semimetal boron is an experimental reproductive toxicant, but now a Turkish semen study corroborates earlier evidence that high-level occupational exposure is not toxic to human spermatogenesis. It seems that human exposure levels are below the levels that cause reproductive toxicity in rodents. On the contrary, there is now ample evidence that the carcinogenic substance benzene may cause chromosomal aberrations in sperm at very low exposure levels. This includes chromosomal deletions that are known to cause infertility, mental retardation and congenital malformations. This research highlights the need to scrutinize the chemicals for possible male-mediated developmental toxicity. Several occupational studies are addressing adult testicular function in men exposed to chemicals that may interfere with endocrine signalling such as bisphenol A and phthalates, but findings are rather inconsistent and it remains to be established whether these widespread chemicals have any impact on male fertility.

  7. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  8. Male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lautrup, Marianne D; Thorup, Signe S; Jensen, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Describe prognostic parameters of Danish male breast cancer patients (MBCP) diagnosed from 1980–2009. Determine all-cause mortality compared to the general male population and analyze survival/mortality compared with Danish female breast cancer patients (FBCP) in the same period...

  9. The aging male project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saad

    2001-06-01

    alpha estradiol have been synthesized some of which show selectivity for the central nervous system. CNS effects have been demonstrated in female and male animals. Cardiovascular protection by estrogens has been shown in animal and human studies. Atherosclerotic plaque size was reduced after estrogen injections in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Phytoestrogen-fed monkeys had lower total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol and higher HDL cholesterol. Apart from atherosclerotic lesions, coronary artery vascular reactivity was improved. Some of these experimental findings were confirmed in human studies in postmenopausal women with and without estrogen treatment. Whether all of the described estrogenic effects can be seen in men remains to be investigated. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 127-33Keywords : aging, andropause, testosterone, estrogens

  10. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  11. Relation between the changes of oncogene versus tumor suppressor gene interaction and the transition of cancer risk from female dominance through no sex discrimination to male dominance, as investigated by the reciprocal regression analysis of 5 human neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, M; Murakami, M; Kodama, T

    1998-01-01

    We have been investigating the mathematical nature of intercancer linkage that underlies the mutual regulation of cancer risks between any 2 tumors in their variations in time and space. Applications of both sequential regression test and topological manipulation of age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) data set enabled us to prepare the oncogene (Onc) activation profile and the tumor suppressor gene (TSG) inactivation profile for each tumor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between the changes of 2 cancer gene profiles and the sex discrimination of cancer risk in 7 human neoplasias. Results obtained are as follows: i) The sex discrimination of cancer risk could better be defined by the use of log-transformed AAIR data rather than of untransformed AAIR data. ii) The sex discrimination of cancer risk, as calculated with the AAIR data of 47 population units of the world, is as follows: a) breast cancer (Br), M:F=1:120.2; b) thyroid cancer (Thy), M:F=1:2. 64; c) colon cancer (Co), M:F=1.18:1; d) liver cancer (Li), M:F=2. 63:1; e) lung cancer (Lu), M:F=3.66:1; f) esophageal cancer (Eso), M:F=3.68:1; g) laryngeal cancer (Lar), M:F=7.26:1. iii) Female-dominant cancers were associated with inversion (Br) or defectiveness (Thy) of male oncogene profile, whereas male-dominant cancers were associated with inversion (Lar) or defectiveness (Li, Lu and Eso) of female Onc profiles. Sex-indifferent cancer, Co, was distinguished from other tumors by the emergence of defectiveness in the TSG profiles of both sexes. TSG defectiveness was also detectable in female (Br, Thy) and bisexual (Lu) tumors. iv) The Onc vs TSG interaction, as assessed in terms of r value of the reciprocal regression analysis, was increasing in its positivity rate from the top of the female-dominant family (Br) through the sex-indifferent tumor (Co) to the bottom of the male-dominant family (Lar). In conclusion, the emergence of sex discrimination of cancer risk was positively correlated

  12. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Exercise Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Teens > Male Reproductive System ... and female reproductive systems. continue What Is the Male Reproductive System? Most species have two sexes: male ...

  13. Seroevidence Of Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection In Infertile Male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the lack of information concerning the role of Chlamydia trachomatis in male infertility, it has become imperative to analyse the quality of semen of male with seroevidence of antibody to Chlamydia trachomatis infection. A total of 156 male patients attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme/Invitro ...

  14. Puzzles in modern biology. I. Male sterility, failure reveals design

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.

  15. 22q11 deletion syndrome and urogenital manifestationsA clinicopathological case report and review of the literatureM.Vachette MD*, GE.Grant MD*, J.Bouquet de Joliniere MD.PhD*, M. Jotterand MD** N.Ben Ali MD*, A.Feki MD.PhD * and R.Brugger MD.*Department of gynecology and obstetrics, HFR, Fribourg, Switzerland.** Institute of pathology, CHUV, Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Bouquet De Jolinière

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deletion in the chromosomal region 22q11 results from the abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal pouches during embryonic life and presents an expansive phenotype with more than 180 clinical features described that involve every organ and system. History and Signs: A 23-year-old African woman presented for the first trimester echography, which revealed an isolated anechoic structure suggesting a ureteral dilatation. The suspicion of a malposition of great arteries in the second trimester indicated an amniocentesis leading to a diagnosis of 22q11 deletion. Outcome: At 32 weeks, the patient was admitted for premature rupture of membranes and gave birth 2 weeks later to a male newborn that presented a respiratory distress syndrome and probably died secondary to a tracheal stenosis. Necropsy revealed typical clinical features of 22q11 deletion associated with left renal agenesis, hypospadias and penile hypoplasia. Conclusions: We report a case of 22q11 deletion syndrome with typical clinical features associated with urogenital manifestations suspected at the first trimester ultrasound.

  16. Integrated monitoring and evaluation and environmental risk factors for urogenital schistosomiasis and active trachoma in Burkina Faso before preventative chemotherapy using sentinel sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosqué-Oliva Elisa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 1 billion of the world's poorest inhabitants are afflicted by neglected tropical diseases (NTDs. Integrated control programmes aimed at tackling these debilitating NTDs have been recently initiated, mainly using preventative chemotherapy. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E of these integrated programs presents particular challenges over and above those required for single disease vertical programmes. We used baseline data from the National NTD Control Programme in Burkina Faso in order to assess the feasibility of an integrated survey design, as well as to elucidate the contribution of environmental variables to the risk of either Schistosoma haematobium, trachoma, or both among school-aged children. Methods S. haematobium infection was diagnosed by detecting eggs in urine. A trachoma case was defined by the presence of Trachomatous inflammation-Follicular (TF and/or Trachomatous inflammation-Intense (TI in either eye. Baseline data collected from 3,324 children aged 7-11 years in 21 sentinel sites across 11 regions of Burkina Faso were analyzed using simple and multivariable hierarchical binomial logistic regression models fitted by Markov Chain Monte Carlo estimation methods. Probabilities of the risk of belonging to each infection/disease category were estimated as a function of age, gender (individual level, and environmental variables (at sentinel site level, interpolated from national meteorological stations. Results Overall prevalence at the sentinel sites was 11.79% (95% CI: 10.70-12.89 for S. haematobium; 13.30% (12.14-14.45 for trachoma and 0.84% (0.53-1.15 for co-infections. The only significant predictor of S. haematobium infection was altitude. There were significant negative associations between the prevalence of active trachoma signs and minimum temperature, and air pressure. Conditional upon these predictors, these data are consistent with the two pathogens being independent. Conclusions Urogenital

  17. Development and validation of the Polish version of the Urogenital Distress Inventory short form and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Katarzyna A; Miotla, Pawel; Kubik-Komar, Agnieszka; Skorupski, Pawel; Rechberger, Tomasz

    2017-08-01

    The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) measures the impact of urinary incontinence on activities, roles, and emotional states of women, whereas the Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI) measures how troubling the symptoms are. The aim of this study was to develop and assess the effectiveness of a Polish version of the IIQ and UDI. The translation into Polish followed standardized procedures. 206 women aged between 31 and 83 years were included into the study. All patients were recruited from women attending the Outpatient Clinic of the 2nd Gynecology Department of the Medical University in Lublin. SUI was observed in 116 cases; OAB in 16 patients and 24 had MUI (confirmed by medical history, bladder diary and urodynamic investigation). 50 healthy women served as control. All patients completed the Polish version of the ICIQ - 'the gold standard' in UI diagnosis - as well as the newly translated Polish versions of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 questionnaires at baseline. Moreover, 116 women repeated the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 self-assessment again 7days later. The internal consistency was tested by calculating Cronbach's alpha, using baseline scores. The high reliability of the scale indicates a value greater than 0.7. The reliability was calculated by way of the Intraclass Correlation (ICC) and was considered acceptable when ICC was≥0.7. In fact, ICC in all investigated groups was >0.95. The Cronbach's alpha values were as follows: for SUI patients - 0.74; for OAB - 0.78; and for MUI - 0.28 (the UDI-6 total score for the whole study group was 0.72). Cronbach's alpha total score for IIQ-7-0.89 (SUI group - 0.89; OAB group - 0.93; and MUI group - 0.77). Finally, the Cronbach's alpha total score for the ICIQ Questionnaire was 0.73 (SUI group - 0.71; OAB group - 0.65 and MUI group - 0.81). The Polish versions of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 Questionnaires are reliable, valid, and responsive instruments for assessing the severity of symptoms and quality of life in females suffering from

  18. Vaginal estrogen use and effects on quality of life and urogenital morbidity in postmenopausal women after publication of the Women's Health Initiative in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setty, Prathima; Rekedal, Laura; Redekal, Laura; Warren, Michelle P

    2016-01-01

    In the years after the 2002 publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study, there has been a reluctance to prescribe hormone therapy to symptomatic postmenopausal women and confusion over its duration and method of prescription. The main concerns are the risks of cardiovascular events and breast cancer. However, local vaginal estrogen (VE) may provide benefits without systemic effects. This study investigates the use and effects of VE on quality of life and urogenital morbidity among women who stopped hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative and compares them with women who continued hormone therapy. Three groups were compared: group 1, women who have remained on HT/ET; group 2, women who have resumed HT/ET after stopping for at least 6 months, and group 3, women who have stopped HT/ET and have not resumed. Overall, ever use and present use of VE were most prevalent in women who reported dyspareunia (ever, P = 0.003; present, P = 0.005) and vaginal dryness (ever, P = 0.001; present, P = 0.004). VE use was significantly more probable for women in group 3 than for women in the other groups (group 3 [3.5%] vs. group 1 [17.7%] and group 2 [16.7%]; P = 0.002). Women in group 3 who used VE reported significantly higher sexual quality of life (using the sexual domain of the Utian Quality of Life Scale) compared with women in group 3 who did not use VE (P = 0.007). There was no difference in the incidence of urinary tract infections between the three groups (group 1, 22.9%; group 2, 26.3%; group 3, 25.5%). The percentage of women who were either married or living in a marriage-like relationship did not differ between the three groups (group 1, 68.4%; group 2, 78.6%; group 3, 78.8%). Women who report dyspareunia and vaginal dryness are more likely to use VE. Women who do not use systemic therapy but use VE score significantly higher on the sexual quality-of-life scale than women not using VE.

  19. Male depression in females?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Yücel, Mete

    2010-02-01

    Scientific evidence for a male-typed depression ("male depression") is still limited, but mainly supports this concept with respect to single externalizing symptoms or symptom clusters. In particular, studies on non-clinical populations including males and females are lacking. The present study aims at assessing general well-being, the risk and the symptoms of male depression dependent on biological sex and gender-role orientation on instrumental (masculine) and expressive (feminine) personality traits in an unselected community sample of males and females. Students (518 males, 500 females) of the Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Germany, were asked to participate in a "stress study" and complete the following self-report questionnaires: the WHO-5 Well-being Index [Bech, P., 1998. Quality of Life in the Psychiatric Patient. Mosby-Wolfe, London], the Gotland Scale for Male Depression [Walinder, J., Rutz, W., 2001. Male depression and suicide. International Clinical Psychopharmacology 16 (suppl 2), 21-24] and the German Extended Personal Attribute Questionnaire [Runge, T.E., Frey, D., Gollwitzer, P.M., et al., 1981. Masculine (instrumental) and feminine (expressive) traits. A comparison between students in the United States and West Germany. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 12, 142-162]. General well-being of the students was significantly lower compared to population norms. Contrary to expectations, female students had a greater risk of male depression than male students (28.9% vs. 22.4%; pmasculinity/instrumentality significantly predicted higher risk of male depression, independent of biological sex. The study sample is not representative to the general population. Self-reports of the participants were not validated by a clinical evaluation. The results suggest that male depression might also be highly prevalent in females, at least in university students. This can be explained by a growing social acceptance of aggression in women, by a greater

  20. Pseudocyesis in the male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D L; Seely, T J

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a case of pseudocyesis in a male patient and reviews the literature in pseudocyesis in the male and female. Pseudocyesis is a rare psychiatric syndrome with only about 100 cases reported in females and three in males in the past 45 years. The authors suggest that somatic factors may play a role in the genesis of some cases of pseudocyesis by stimulating pregnancy wishes and interacting with these wishes to set up a psychophysiological interaction leading to the clinical syndrome of pseudocyesis.

  1. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  2. Males and Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys ...

  3. The tuberous male breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S; Gault, D

    2003-04-01

    Whilst tuberous female breasts are well described, the tuberous male breast is a very unusual variant of gynaecomastia. Two cases are presented, the development of the condition is considered and the surgical management is discussed.

  4. Male hypogonadism (Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye.V. Luchytskyy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the review presents the current data on the prevalence of male hypogonadism, methods of diagnosing different forms of hypogonadism, describes the clinical manifestations of the most common forms of this disease.

  5. Thyroid and male reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH, pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  6. Thyroid and male reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anand; Shekhar, Skand; Dhole, Bodhana

    2014-01-01

    Male reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal testicular axis: Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and the gonadal steroid, principally, testosterone. Thyroid hormones have been shown to exert a modulatory influence on this axis and consequently the sexual and spermatogenic function of man. This review will examine the modulatory influence of thyroid hormones on male reproduction.

  7. Genetic aspects of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Witczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, infertility affects up to 140 million people worldwide. It is considered that the male factor is responsible for nearly a half of problems in obtaining pregnancy. Increasingly, infertility treatment clinics, as well as standard examinations, also offer genetic tests in the diagnostics of the male infertility factor, such as: karyotype analysis, detection of Y chromosome microdeletions, and examination of the chromosome composition of sperm by the fluorescent in situ hybridisation method (FISH. Genetic factors, defined to date, which cover both chromosomal aberrations and monogenic disorders, are responsible for approximately 10–15% of cases of male infertility. Usually, their phenotypic manifestations are disorders in spermatogenesis, structural changes in the genital organs (e.g. reduced size of the testicles, or sperm dysfunction. Molecular studies intensively carried out in the area of diagnostics and treatment of infertility indicate an increasingly large number of relationships between genetic factors and fertility; however, many genes related with human fertility still remain unidentified.

  8. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Anderson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components.

  9. Update on male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Rajesh K; Rowan, Shon

    2009-06-01

    To review current options of contraception available for men and the recent developments in the field of male contraception. Current options for male contraception are the barrier methods such as condoms and the surgical methods such as vasectomy. Condoms are coital-dependent and not always reliable as they are prone to slippage and breakage. Vasectomy has the advantage of being coital-independent but is permanent. Recent surveys have shown that men want to be more involved in contraception decisions, and women trust their male partners to take an active role in this area. Nonsurgical steroidal methods comprising various derivatives of the androgens and their receptors are in various phases of clinical trials in men. The ideal male contraceptive should be coitalin-dependent, nonsurgical, reversible, effective, and should not alter androgen levels or libido. Several nonsteroidal molecules and vaccines are being investigated in animal models for male contraception. Male hormonal contraception may become a reality in the near future. Nonsteroidal methods including contraceptive vaccines targeting various molecules are an exciting proposition and are under investigation.

  10. Acute appearance of fatty acids in human plasma – a comparative study between polar-lipid rich oil from the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and krill oil in healthy young males

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have human health benefits. Alternatives to fish as sources of EPA and DHA are needed. Oil from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata contains a significant amount of EPA conjugated to phospholipids and glycolipids and no DHA. Krill oil contains EPA and DHA conjugated to phospholipids. We compare the appearance of fatty acids in blood plasma of healthy humans after consuming a high fat meal followed by either algal oil or krill oil. Methods Ten healthy males aged 18-45 years consumed a standard high fat (55 g) breakfast followed by either algal oil (providing 1.5 g EPA and no DHA) or krill oil (providing 1.02 g EPA and 0.54 g DHA). All participants consumed both oils in random order and separated by 7 days. Blood samples were collected before the breakfast and at several time points up to 10 hours after taking the oils. Fatty acid concentrations (μg/ml) in plasma were determined by gas chromatography. Results Fatty acids derived mainly from the breakfast appeared rapidly in plasma, peaking about 3 hours after consuming the breakfast, and in a pattern that reflected their content in the breakfast. There were time-dependent increases in the concentrations of both EPA and DHA with both algal oil (P krill oil (P oil than with krill oil at several time points. DHA concentration did not differ between oils at any time point. The maximum concentration of EPA was higher with algal oil (P = 0.010) and both the area under the concentration curve (AUC) and the incremental AUC for EPA were greater with algal oil (P = 0.020 and 0.006). There was no difference between oils in the AUC or the incremental AUC for DHA. Conclusion This study in healthy young men given a single dose of oil indicates that the polar-lipid rich oil from the algae Nannochloropis oculata is a good source of EPA in humans. PMID:23855409

  11. Acute appearance of fatty acids in human plasma--a comparative study between polar-lipid rich oil from the microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata and krill oil in healthy young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Michael L; West, Annette L; Zante, Christa; Calder, Philip C

    2013-07-15

    The long-chain n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) have human health benefits. Alternatives to fish as sources of EPA and DHA are needed. Oil from the micro-algae Nannochloropsis oculata contains a significant amount of EPA conjugated to phospholipids and glycolipids and no DHA. Krill oil contains EPA and DHA conjugated to phospholipids. We compare the appearance of fatty acids in blood plasma of healthy humans after consuming a high fat meal followed by either algal oil or krill oil. Ten healthy males aged 18-45 years consumed a standard high fat (55 g) breakfast followed by either algal oil (providing 1.5 g EPA and no DHA) or krill oil (providing 1.02 g EPA and 0.54 g DHA). All participants consumed both oils in random order and separated by 7 days. Blood samples were collected before the breakfast and at several time points up to 10 hours after taking the oils. Fatty acid concentrations (μg/ml) in plasma were determined by gas chromatography. Fatty acids derived mainly from the breakfast appeared rapidly in plasma, peaking about 3 hours after consuming the breakfast, and in a pattern that reflected their content in the breakfast. There were time-dependent increases in the concentrations of both EPA and DHA with both algal oil (P krill oil (P oil than with krill oil at several time points. DHA concentration did not differ between oils at any time point. The maximum concentration of EPA was higher with algal oil (P = 0.010) and both the area under the concentration curve (AUC) and the incremental AUC for EPA were greater with algal oil (P = 0.020 and 0.006). There was no difference between oils in the AUC or the incremental AUC for DHA. This study in healthy young men given a single dose of oil indicates that the polar-lipid rich oil from the algae Nannochloropis oculata is a good source of EPA in humans.

  12. Targeting the adolescent male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of mating activity and dominance rank on male masturbation among free-ranging male rhesus macaques

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuc, Constance; Coyne, Sean P.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2013-01-01

    The adaptive function of male masturbation is still poorly understood, despite its high prevalence in humans and other animals. In non-human primates, male masturbation is most frequent among anthropoid monkeys and apes living in multimale-multifemale groups with a promiscuous mating system. In these species, male masturbation may be a non-functional by-product of high sexual arousal or be adaptive by providing advantages in terms of sperm competition or by decreasing the risk of sexually tra...

  14. Differential effects of caffeine on hair shaft elongation, matrix and outer root sheath keratinocyte proliferation, and transforming growth factor-β2/insulin-like growth factor-1-mediated regulation of the hair cycle in male and female human hair follicles in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, T W; Herczeg-Lisztes, E; Funk, W; Zillikens, D; Bíró, T; Paus, R

    2014-11-01

    Caffeine reportedly counteracts the suppression of hair shaft production by testosterone in organ-cultured male human hair follicles (HFs). We aimed to investigate the impact of caffeine (i) on additional key hair growth parameters, (ii) on major hair growth regulatory factors and (iii) on male vs. female HFs in the presence of testosterone. Microdissected male and female human scalp HFs were treated in serum-free organ culture for 120 h with testosterone alone (0·5 μg mL(-1)) or in combination with caffeine (0·005-0·0005%). The following effects on hair shaft elongation were evaluated by quantitative (immuno)histomorphometry: HF cycling (anagen-catagen transition); hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation; expression of a key catagen inducer, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2; and expression of the anagen-prolonging insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1. Caffeine effects were further investigated in human outer root sheath keratinocytes (ORSKs). Caffeine enhanced hair shaft elongation, prolonged anagen duration and stimulated hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation. Female HFs showed higher sensitivity to caffeine than male HFs. Caffeine counteracted testosterone-enhanced TGF-β2 protein expression in male HFs. In female HFs, testosterone failed to induce TGF-β2 expression, while caffeine reduced it. In male and female HFs, caffeine enhanced IGF-1 protein expression. In ORSKs, caffeine stimulated cell proliferation, inhibited apoptosis/necrosis, and upregulated IGF-1 gene expression and protein secretion, while TGF-β2 protein secretion was downregulated. This study reveals new growth-promoting effects of caffeine on human hair follicles in subjects of both sexes at different levels (molecular, cellular and organ). © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  15. Male reproduction and environmental and occupational exposures: a review of epidemiologic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns that chemical exposures in the environment have been detrimental to male sexual development and fertility have been heightened by reports of declining sperm counts over the past 50 years. Marked geographic variation has been found in semen quality and in the incidence of testicular cancer and certain urogenital defects. Debate continues over the existence, magnitude and significance of these trends, and how best to evaluate the hypothesis that in utero and childhood exposures to estrogenic compounds may be to blame. Epidemiologic methods for assessing the impact of hazardous substances on male reproductive health have been developed mainly in the area of occupational medicine, and this paper will review the currently recommended methods. These include questionnaires to determine reproductive history and sexual function; reproductive hormone profiles; and semen analyses such as sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. New research tools that show significant promise from the fields of clinical reproductive medicine and reproductive toxicology are discussed as possible additions to epidemiologic studies, including assays of sperm function and genetic integrity, and biomarkers of DNA damage. For population-based studies involving occupational groups or communities with environmental exposures, issues related to the cost, validity, precision and utility of these methods must be carefully considered.

  16. The dynamics of male male competition in Cardiocondyla obscurior ants

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer Sylvia; Suefuji Masaki; Schrempf Alexandra; Heinze Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The outcome of male-male competition can be predicted from the relative fighting qualities of the opponents, which often depend on their age. In insects, freshly emerged and still sexually inactive males are morphologically indistinct from older, sexually active males. These young inactive males may thus be easy targets for older males if they cannot conceal themselves from their attacks. The ant Cardiocondyla obscurior is characterised by lethal fighting between wingless ...

  17. Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Elabd, Kossay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of the benefits and harms of infant male circumcision, and the legal and ethical perspectives of infant male circumcision. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library up to June 2015. We searched the medical law literature using the Westlaw and Lexis Library law literature resources up to June 2015. Results: Male circumcision significantly reduced the risk of urinary tract infections by 87%. It also significantly reduced transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among circumcised men by 70%. Childhood and adolescent circumcision is associated with a 66% reduction in the risk of penile cancer. Circumcision was associated with 43% reduction of human papilloma virus infection, and 58% reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women with circumcised partners compared with women with uncircumcised partners. Male infant circumcision reduced the risk of foreskin inflammation