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Sample records for human male infertility

  1. Genetics of human male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongothai, J; Gopenath, T S; Manonayaki, S

    2009-04-01

    Infertility is defined as a failure to conceive in a couple trying to reproduce for a period of two years without conception. Approximately 15 percent of couples are infertile, and among these couples, male factor infertility accounts for approximately 50 percent of causes. Male infertility is a multifactorial syndrome encompassing a wide variety of disorders. In more than half of infertile men, the cause of their infertility is unknown (idiopathic) and could be congenital or acquired. Infertility in men can be diagnosed initially by semen analysis. Seminograms of infertile men may reveal many abnormal conditions, which include azoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, necrospermia and pyospermia. The current estimate is that about 30 percent of men seeking help at the infertility clinic are found to have oligozoospermia or azoospermia of unknown aetiology. Therefore, there is a need to find the cause of infertility. The causes are known in less than half of these cases, out of which genetic or inherited disease and specific abnormalities in the Y chromosome are major factors. About 10-20 percent of males presenting without sperm in the ejaculate carry a deletion of the Y chromosome. This deleted region includes the Azoospermia Factor (AZF) locus, located in the Yq11, which is divided into four recurrently deleted non-overlapping subregions designated as AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd. Each of these regions may be associated with a particular testicular histology, and several candidate genes have been found within these regions. The Deleted in Azoospermia (DAZ) gene family is reported to be the most frequently deleted AZF candidate gene and is located in the AZFc region. Recently, a partial, novel Y chromosome 1.6-Mb deletion, designated "gr/gr" deletion, has been described specifically in infertile men with varying degrees of spermatogenic failure. The DAZ gene has an autosomal homologue, DAZL (DAZ-Like), on the short arm of the chromosome 3 (3

  2. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

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    Toshinobu Miyamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings.

  3. Genes Causing Male Infertility in Humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawrence C. Layman

    2002-01-01

    There are an accumulating number of identified gene mutations that cause infertility in humans. Most of the known gene mutations impair normal puberty and subsequently cause infertility by either hypothalamic /pituitary deficiency of important tropic factors to the gonad or by gonadal genes.

  4. Pituitary gonodal axis in fertile and infertile human males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafiez, A.A.; Mahmoud, K.Z.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1984-08-01

    Radioimmunoassays of serum PRL, LH, FSH, testosterone and estradiol were performed in normal fertile subjects and infertile patients. The findings in the fertile group suggest that prolactin in human males has a role in steroidogenesis. Oligospermic and azospermic patients revealed hormonal patterns which were significantly higher than in the fertile group. Hyperprolactinemia was found in most cases of both infertile groups indicating that PRL has a significant role.

  5. Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the urethra. Chromosome defects. Inherited disorders such as Klinefelter's syndrome — in which a male is born with ... or major abdominal or pelvic surgery Having a history of undescended testicles Being born with a fertility ...

  6. Association of polymorphism in cell death pathway gene FASLG with human male infertility

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    Deepika Jaiswal

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Human male infertility is a complex disorder and thus other genetic or environmental factors may be contributing to the complex etiology, and further study in other region of Indian populations will verify whether it is associated with male infertility risk.

  7. Lycopene and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam; Ashok Agarwal; Chloe Ong; Pallavi Prashast

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inlficted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneifcial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  8. Lycopene and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damayanthi Durairajanayagam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility-lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4-8 mg of lycopene daily for 3-12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility.

  9. Differential proteomics of human seminal plasma: A potential target for searching male infertility marker proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

    2012-04-01

    The clinical fertility tests, available in the market, fail to define the exact cause of male infertility in almost half of the cases and point toward a crucial need of developing better ways of infertility investigations. The protein biomarkers may help us toward better understanding of unknown cases of male infertility that, in turn, can guide us to find better therapeutic solutions. Many clinical attempts have been made to identify biomarkers of male infertility in sperm proteome but only few studies have targeted seminal plasma. Human seminal plasma is a rich source of proteins that are essentially required for development of sperm and successful fertilization. This viewpoint article highlights the importance of human seminal plasma proteome in reproductive physiology and suggests that differential proteomics integrated with functional analysis may help us in searching potential biomarkers of male infertility.

  10. Experiencing Male Infertility

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    Esmée Hanna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the qualitative research literature that exists in relation to men’s experiences of male infertility. Since men have often been marginalized in the realm of reproduction, including academic research on infertility, it is important to focus on any qualitative research that gives voices to male perspectives and concerns. Given the distress documented by studies of infertile women, we focus in particular on the emotive responses and lived experiences of men in relation to infertility. In this article then, we present an analysis of the core themes across 19 qualitative articles, which include “infertility as crisis”; “emoting infertility- men as “being strong”’ “infertility as a source of stigma”; and the “desire for fatherhood.” In light of these insights, we identify key areas for future research and development including men’s emotional responses to infertility, how men seek support for infertility, the intersection between masculinity and infertility, the relationship between the desire to father and infertility, and the outcomes of infertility for men in terms of other aspects of their lives. We suggest that such research would facilitate making the experiences of men more central within our understandings of infertility within a field that has primarily been female focused.

  11. Human male infertility, the Y chromosome, and dinosaur extinction

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    Sherman J. Silber

    2011-06-01

    Our studies of the Y chromosome and male infertility suggest that the default mechanism for determining the sex of offspring is the temperature of egg incubation, and that genetic sex determination (based on sex chromosomes like X and Y has evolved many times over and over again in different ways, in different genera, as a more foolproof method than temperature variation of assuring a balanced sex ratio in offspring. The absence of such a genetic sex determining mechanism in dinosaurs may have led to a skewed sex ratio when global temperature dramatically changed 65,000,000 years ago, resulting in a preponderance of males, and consequentially a rapid decline in population.

  12. Cytogenetic of Male Infertility

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    Lutfiye Ozpak

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Infertility by definition, is not to get pregnant within one year of regular sexual relationship without protection, affects 15-20% of reproductive age couples. Approximately 30% of infertility cases are male originated. Male infertility is caused by endocrine-related genetic defects affecting urogenital system function. These defects adversely affect subsequent spermatogenesis, sexual function, fertility, early embryonic stage of sexual maturation. Autosomal and gonosomal, numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities and related syndromes rank at the top causes of male infertility. Similar chromosome abnormalities are detected in male infertility and as the rate of these abnormalities increase, it was found to reduce sperm count especially in azospermic and oligozoospermic men. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(4.000: 230-245

  13. Genetic aspects of human male infertility: the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in severe male factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicdan, Arzu; Vicdan, Kubilay; Günalp, Serdar; Kence, Aykut; Akarsu, Cem; Işik, Ahmet Zeki; Sözen, Eran

    2004-11-10

    The main purpose of this study is to detect the frequency and type of both chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions in patients with severe male factor infertility and fertile control subjects. The association between the genetic abnormality and clinical parameters was also evaluated. This study was carried out in 208 infertile and 20 fertile men. Results of 208 patients, 119 had non-obstructive azoospermia and 89 had severe oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT). Seventeen out of 119 (14.3%) azoospermic patients and two out of 89 (2.2%) patients with OAT had Y chromosome microdeletions. In total, 19 cases with deletions were detected in 208 infertile men, with a frequency of 9.1%. The AZFc locus, mainly DAZ gene cluster was the most frequently deleted region. Five other cases with azoospermia (4.2%) and two cases with OAT (2.2%) had a chromosomal abnormality, with a total number of seven (3.4%). Including Y chromosome deletions and structural chromosome abnormalities, the rate of genetic abnormalities was 12.5% (26/208) in our patients. On the other hand, 20 men with proven fertility and fathers of five cases with microdeletions were genetically normal. Y chromosome deletions and chromosomal abnormalities were associated with various histological alterations in testis. Sertoli cell-only (SCO) syndrome and maturation arrest predominated in these cases, whereas hypospermatogenesis occurred more frequently in genetically normal patients. Various chromosomal abnormalities and deletions of Y chromosome can cause spermatogenic breakdown resulting in chromosomally derived infertility. All these findings strongly support the recommendation of genetic screening of infertile patients.

  14. Interventional study to find out effect of human chorionic gonadotropin and antioxidants on idiopathic male infertility

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    Namrata V. Padvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male contributes about 50% for cases with combined male and female infertility. When the cause is not known, it is term as idiopathic infertility. It affects 25% of men. Many advances have been made in reproductive medicine which provides great opportunities, couples which were considered untreatable now have got chance to have their own babies. Various ART procedures like ICSI have been proven as an efficient therapy in severe male factor infertility. However, the cost per cycle and complications such as multiple gestations cannot be ignored. Medical management of infertility can be specific or empirical depending on etiology. Specific medical management is use when certain etiology is identified. However, in absence of specific etiology use of empirical medical treatment can be attempted in order to improve treatment results. In this study our aim is to evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG and antioxidants on semen parameters in men with idiopathic male infertility. Methods: Thirty men with abnormal semen parameters were included in study. Patients were treated with injection hCG-2000 IU three times a week for three months along with the antioxidants. After 3 months of treatment repeat semen analysis were performed and results were compared with pre-treated seminal parameters. Results: Results showed significant increase in sperm count (p value ≤ 0.001, total motility (p value=<0.001, and progressive forward motility (p value = <0.001, while no significant difference is seen in rest of the parameters. Conclusions: Use of hCG and antioxidants in idiopathic male infertility can significantly improve seminal parameters in idiopathic male infertility.

  15. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  16. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary L Harton; Helen G Tempest

    2012-01-01

    infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family.Despite this,the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered.Nevertheless,more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified.This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically:chromosomal aneuploidy,structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions.Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans.Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin,but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts.Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm.Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed,as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases.Clinical recommendations where possible will be made,as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  17. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility.

  18. Male infertility microsurgical training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akanksha Mehta; Philip S Li

    2013-01-01

    Microsurgical training is imperative for urologists and clinical andrologists specializing in male infertility.Success in male infertility microsurgery is heavily dependent on the surgeon's microsurgical skills.Laboratory-based practice to enhance microsurgical skills improves the surgeon's confidence,and reduces stress and operating time,benefiting both the patient and the surgeon.This review provides guidelines for setting up a microsurgical laboratory to develop and enhance microsurgical skills using synthetic and animal models.The role of emerging techniques,such as robotic-assisted microsurgery,is also discussed.

  19. Identification of human candidate genes for male infertility by digital differential display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, C; Hansen, C; Bendsen, E; Byskov, A G; Schwinger, E; Lopez-Pajares, I; Jensen, P K; Kristoffersson, U; Schubert, R; Van Assche, E; Wahlstroem, J; Lespinasse, J; Tommerup, N

    2001-01-01

    Evidence for the importance of genetic factors in male fertility is accumulating. In the literature and the Mendelian Cytogenetics Network database, 265 cases of infertile males with balanced reciprocal translocations have been described. The candidacy for infertility of 14 testis-expressed transcripts (TETs) were examined by comparing their chromosomal mapping position to the position of balanced reciprocal translocation breakpoints found in the 265 infertile males. The 14 TETs were selected by using digital differential display (electronic subtraction) to search for apparently testis-specific transcripts in the TIGR database. The testis specificity of the 14 TETs was further examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on adult and fetal tissues showing that four TETs (TET1 to TET4) were testis-expressed only, six TETs (TET5 to TET10) appeared to be differentially expressed and the remaining four TETs (TET11 to TET14) were ubiquitously expressed. Interestingly, the two tesis expressed-only transcripts, TET1 and TET2, mapped to chromosomal regions where seven and six translocation breakpoints have been reported in infertile males respectively. Furthermore, one ubiquitously, but predominantly testis-expressed, transcript, TET11, mapped to 1p32-33, where 13 translocation breakpoints have been found in infertile males. Interestingly, the mouse mutation, skeletal fusions with sterility, sks, maps to the syntenic region in the mouse genome. Another transcript, TET7, was the human homologue of rat Tpx-1, which functions in the specific interaction of spermatogenic cells with Sertoli cells. TPX-1 maps to 6p21 where three cases of chromosomal breakpoints in infertile males have been reported. Finally, TET8 was a novel transcript which in the fetal stage is testis-specific, but in the adult is expressed in multiple tissues, including testis. We named this novel transcript fetal and adult testis-expressed transcript (FATE).

  20. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalam, Roopa L.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying proteins essential for this process, which in turn are candidate genes for causing human male infertility. Successful spermatogenesis depends on a delicate balance of local signaling factors, and this review focuses specifically on the genes that encode these factors. Normal functioning of all testicular cell types is not only essential for normal fertility but, as recently hypothesized, may also be crucial to prevent germ cell oncogenesis. Analysis of these processes using mouse models in vivo has provided investigators with an invaluable tool to effectively translate basic science research to the research of human disease and infertility. PMID:20456819

  1. Novel concepts in male infertility

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    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility in the last decades. There are new concepts in sperm physiology and several modern tools for the assessment of spermatogenesis kinetics in vivo. New tests using molecular biology and DNA damage assays allow the clinician to correctly diagnose men so far classified as having idiopathic male infertility. In the field of treatment, microsurgery has increased success rates either for reconstruction of the reproductive tract or the retrieval of spermatozoa for assisted conception. Emerging evidence suggests that life-style and environmental conditions are of utmost importance in male fertility and subfertility. This review discusses several concepts that have changed over the last years, such as the duration of the spermatogenic cycle in humans, Y-chromosome infertility, the reproductive potential of non-mosaic Klinefelter syndrome men, the impact of paternal age and sperm DNA in male infertility, the role of antioxidants in the treatment of infertile men, the predictive factors and techniques for sperm retrieval in non-obstructive azoospermia, and the microsurgical treatment of clinical varicoceles. Whenever possible, levels of evidence are provided as suggested by the Oxford Center of Evidence-based Medicine.

  2. Genetic aspects of male infertility

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    Bartosz Witczak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, infertility affects up to 140 million people worldwide. It is considered that the male factor is responsible for nearly a half of problems in obtaining pregnancy. Increasingly, infertility treatment clinics, as well as standard examinations, also offer genetic tests in the diagnostics of the male infertility factor, such as: karyotype analysis, detection of Y chromosome microdeletions, and examination of the chromosome composition of sperm by the fluorescent in situ hybridisation method (FISH. Genetic factors, defined to date, which cover both chromosomal aberrations and monogenic disorders, are responsible for approximately 10–15% of cases of male infertility. Usually, their phenotypic manifestations are disorders in spermatogenesis, structural changes in the genital organs (e.g. reduced size of the testicles, or sperm dysfunction. Molecular studies intensively carried out in the area of diagnostics and treatment of infertility indicate an increasingly large number of relationships between genetic factors and fertility; however, many genes related with human fertility still remain unidentified.

  3. Structural variation of the human genome: mechanisms, assays, and role in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Claudia M B; Zhang, Feng; Lupski, James R

    2011-02-01

    Genomic disorders are defined as diseases caused by rearrangements of the genome incited by a genomic architecture that conveys instability. Y-chromosome related dysfunctions such as male infertility are frequently associated with gross DNA rearrangements resulting from its peculiar genomic architecture. The Y-chromosome has evolved into a highly specialized chromosome to perform male functions, mainly spermatogenesis. Direct and inverted repeats, some of them palindromes with highly identical nucleotide sequences that can form DNA cruciform structures, characterize the genomic structure of the Y-chromosome long arm. Some particular Y chromosome genomic deletions can cause spermatogenic failure likely because of removal of one or more transcriptional units with a potential role in spermatogenesis. We describe mechanisms underlying the formation of human genomic rearrangements on autosomes and review Y-chromosome deletions associated with male infertility.

  4. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

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    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  5. Abnormal expression of centrosome protein (centrin) in spermatozoa of male human infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    To study the relations between male infertility and centrosome protein (centrin) and the functions of centrin in spermatogenesis, the matured spermatozoa of 10 normal male people and 18 male infertility patients were stained by immunofluorescence labeling antibody against centrin. The results showed that two fluorescence signal dots appeared in the normal male spermatozoa and were located at the base of flagellum. They are proximal centriole and distal centriole. However, in some spermatozoa of the male infertility, centrin protein was located abnormally at the base of flagellum and its staining signals were spread, the normal proximal and distal centrioles were confused and could not be recognized separately. These results suggest that abnormality of centrosome protein may be related to male infertility. This discovery may be used as a marker of abnormal sperm and male infertility.

  6. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  7. Local Signaling Environments and Human Male Infertility: What Can Be Learned from Mouse Models

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most prevalent public health problems facing young adult males in today’s society. A clear, treatable cause of infertility cannot be determined in a large number of these patients, and a growing body of evidence suggests that infertility in many of these men may be due to genetic causes. Studies utilizing animal models, and most importantly, mouse knockout technology, have been integral not only for the study of normal spermatogenesis but also for identifying protein...

  8. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Chang Lee, Hoi; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    .... Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ...

  9. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  10. A maternally inherited autosomal point mutation in human phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) leads to male infertility.

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    Kashir, Junaid; Konstantinidis, Michalis; Jones, Celine; Lemmon, Bernadette; Lee, Hoi Chang; Hamer, Rebecca; Heindryckx, Bjorn; Deane, Charlotte M; De Sutter, Petra; Fissore, Rafael A; Parrington, John; Wells, Dagan; Coward, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Male factor and idiopathic infertility contribute significantly to global infertility, with abnormal testicular gene expression considered to be a major cause. Certain types of male infertility are caused by failure of the sperm to activate the oocyte, a process normally regulated by calcium oscillations, thought to be induced by a sperm-specific phospholipase C, PLCzeta (PLCζ). Previously, we identified a point mutation in an infertile male resulting in the substitution of histidine for proline at position 398 of the protein sequence (PLCζ(H398P)), leading to abnormal PLCζ function and infertility. Here, using a combination of direct-sequencing and mini-sequencing of the PLCζ gene from the patient and his family, we report the identification of a second PLCζ mutation in the same patient resulting in a histidine to leucine substitution at position 233 (PLCζ(H233L)), which is predicted to disrupt local protein interactions in a manner similar to PLCζ(H398P) and was shown to exhibit abnormal calcium oscillatory ability following predictive 3D modelling and cRNA injection in mouse oocytes respectively. We show that PLCζ(H233L) and PLCζ(H398P) exist on distinct parental chromosomes, the former inherited from the patient's mother and the latter from his father. Neither mutation was detected utilizing custom-made single-nucleotide polymorphism assays in 100 fertile males and females, or 8 infertile males with characterized oocyte activation deficiency. Collectively, our findings provide further evidence regarding the importance of PLCζ at oocyte activation and forms of male infertility where this is deficient. Additionally, we show that the inheritance patterns underlying male infertility are more complex than previously thought and may involve maternal mechanisms.

  11. Genetic factors contributing to human primary ciliary dyskinesia and male infertility.

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    Ji, Zhi-Yong; Sha, Yan-Wei; Ding, Lu; Li, Ping

    2016-06-07

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is an autosomal-recessive disorder resulting from the loss of normal ciliary function. Symptoms include neonatal respiratory distress, chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, situs inversus, and infertility. However, only 15 PCD-associated genes have been identified to cause male infertility to date. Owing to the genetic heterogeneity of PCD, comprehensive molecular genetic testing is not considered the standard of care. Here, we provide an update of the progress on the identification of genetic factors related to PCD associated with male infertility, summarizing the underlying molecular mechanisms, and discuss the clinical implications of these findings. Further research in this field will impact the diagnostic strategy for male infertility, enabling clinicians to provide patients with informed genetic counseling, and help to adopt the best course of treatment for developing directly targeted personalized medicine.

  12. "Micro-deletions" of the human Y chromosome and their relationship with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng; Haines, Christopher J; Han, Yibing

    2008-04-01

    The Y chromosome evolves from an autochromosome and accumulates male-related genes including sex-determining region of Y-chromosome (SRY) and several spermatogenesis-related genes. The human Y chromosome (60 Mb long) is largely composed of repetitive sequences that give it a heterochromatic appearance, and it consists of pseudoautosomal, euchromatic, and heterochromatic regions. Located on the two extremities of the Y chromosome, pseudoautosomal regions 1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2, 2.6 Mb and 320 bp long, respectively) are homologs with the termini of the X chromosome. The euchromatic region and some of the repeat-rich heterochromatic parts of the Y chromosome are called "male-specific Y" (MSY), which occupy more than 95% of the whole Y chromosome. After evolution, the Y chromosome becomes the smallest in size with the least number of genes but with the most number of copies of genes that are mostly spermatogenesis-related. The Y chromosome is characterized by highly repetitive sequences (including direct repeats, inverted repeats, and palindromes) and high polymorphism. Several gene rearrangements on the Y chromosome occur during evolution owing to its specific gene structure. The consequences of such rearrangements are not only loss but also gain of specific genes. One hundred and fifty three haplotypes have been discovered in the human Y chromosome. The structure of the Y chromosome in the GenBank belongs to haplotype R1. There are 220 genes (104 coding genes, 111 pseudogenes, and 5 other uncategorized genes) according to the most recent count. The 104 coding genes encode a total of about 48 proteins/protein families (including putative proteins/protein families). Among them, 16 gene products have been discovered in the azoospermia factor region (AZF) and are related to spermatogenesis. It has been discovered that one subset of gene rearrangements on the Y chromosome, "micro-deletions", is a major cause of male infertility in some populations. However, controversies

  13. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S; Waghmare, Jwalant E; Chaudhari, Ajay R; Wankhede, Vandana R; Tarnekar, Aaditya M; Shende, Moreshwar R; Pal, Asoke K

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal sperm motility. The 7436-bp deletions of mtDNA in spermatozoa

  14. Large Scale 7436-bp Deletions in Human Sperm Mitochondrial DNA with Spermatozoa Dysfunction and Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambulkar, Prafulla S.; Waghmare, Jwalant E.; Chaudhari, Ajay R.; Wankhede, Vandana R.; Tarnekar, Aaditya M.; Shende, Moreshwar R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA are essential to sperm motility and fertility. It controls growth, development and differentiation through oxidation energy supply. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) deletions or mutation are frequently attributed to defects of sperm motility and finally these deletions lead to sperm dysfunction and causes infertility in male. Aim To investigate the correlation between large scale 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and non-motility of sperm in asthenozoospermia and Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT) infertile men. Materials and Methods The present prospective study was carried out in Human Genetic Division, Department of Anatomy, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram from June 2014 to July 2016. We have studied 110 asthenozoospermia and OAT infertile men whose semen profile indicated abnormal motility and 50 normal fertile controls. Of 110 infertile men, 70 had asthenozoospermia and 40 had OAT. Fractionations of spermatozoa were done in each semen sample on the basis of their motility by percoll gradients discontinuous technique. Long-range PCR was used for detection of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA and was confirmed by primer shift technique. Results Overall eight subjects (8/110; 7.2%) of which six (6/70; 8.57%) asthenozoospermia and two (2/40; 5%) OAT had shown deletions of 7436-bp. In 40% percoll fraction had more non-motile spermatozoa than 80% percoll fraction. The non-motile spermatozoa in 40% percoll fractions showed more mtDNA deletions (7.2%) than the motile spermatozoa in 80% percoll fraction (2.7%). The sequencing of flanking regions of deleted mtDNA confirmed 7436-bp deletions. Interestingly, no deletions were found in control subjects. Conclusion Though, the frequency of 7436-bp deletions in sperm mtDNA was low in infertile cases but meaningful indications were there when results were compared with controls. It is indicated that large scale deletions 7436-bp of mtDNA is associated with abnormal

  15. "Micro-deletions" of the human Y chromosome and their relationship with male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Christopher J Haines; Yibing Han

    2008-01-01

    The Y chromosome evolves from an autochromosome and accumulates male-related genes including sex-determining region of Y-chromosome (SRY) and several spermatogenesis-related genes.The human Y chromosome (60 Mb long) is largely composed of repeti-tive sequences that give it a heterochromatic appearance,and it consists of pseudoautosomal,euchromatic,and heterochromatic regions.Located on the two extremities of the Y chromosome,pseudoautosomal regions 1 and 2 (PAR1 and PAR2,2.6 Mb and 320 bp long,re-spectively) are homologs with the termini of the X chromosome.The euchromatic region and some of the repeat-rich heterochromatic parts of the Y chromosome are called "male-specific Y" (MSY),which occupy more than 95% of the whole Y chromosome.After evolu-tion,the Y chromosome becomes the smallest in size with the least number of genes but with the most number of copies of genes that are mostly spermatogenesis-related.The Y chromosome is characterized by highly repetitive sequences (including direct repeats,inverted repeats,and palindromes) and high polymorphism.Several gene rearrangements on the Y chromosome occur during evolution owing to its specific gene structure.The consequences of such rearrangements are not only loss but also gain of specific genes.One hundred and fifty three haplotypes have been discovered in the human Y chromosome.The structure of the Y chromosome in the GenBank belongs to haplotype R1.There are 220 genes (104 coding genes,111 pseudogenes,and 5 other uncategorized genes) according to the most recent count.The 104 coding genes encode a total of about 48 proteins/protein families (including putative proteins/protein families).Among them,16 gene products have been discovered in the azoospermia factor region (AZF) and are related to spermatogenesis.It has been dis-covered that one subset of gene rearrangements on the Y chromosome,"micro-deletions",is a major cause of male infertility in some populations.However,controversies exist about different Y

  16. Focus Issue on Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Kobayashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Male infertility problems can occur when sperms are limited in number or function. In this paper, we describe the clinical evaluation of male infertility. A detailed history, physical examination, and basic semen analysis are required. In addition, ultrasound, karyotyping, and hormonal studies are needed to determine specific causes of infertility. In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO, 2009 has developed a manual to provide guidance in performing a comprehensive semen analysis. Among the possible reasons for male infertility, nonobstructive azoospermia is the least treatable, because few or no mature sperm may be produced. In many cases, men with nonobstructive azoospermia typically have small-volume testes and elevated FSH. Although treatment may not completely restore the quality of semen from men with subnormal fertility, in some cases a successful pregnancy can still be achieved through assisted reproductive technology.

  17. Varicocele and male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglesang Jensen, Christian S.; Østergren, Peter; Dupree, James M

    2017-01-01

    to explain the differential effect of varicoceles on infertility. As a consequence, careful patient selection for treatment based on couple fertility status, varicocele grade, and semen quality is critical for achieving a chance of a subsequent pregnancy. A substantial amount of data on the effects...

  18. QUANTIFICATION AND LOCALIZATION OF WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININ RECEPTOR ON HUMAN SPERMME MBRANE IN FERTILE AND INFERTILE MALES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANZhi-Xing; WANGYi-Fei

    1989-01-01

    It has been proved/n our prcvious study that wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) receptor on human sperm membrane is closely related to male fertility and there exists a significant difference in WGA receptors betweea fertile and infertile mcn. In this report, enzyme linked

  19. Human catalase gene polymorphism (CAT C-262T) and risk of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabouhi, S; Salehi, Z; Bahadori, M H; Mahdavi, M

    2015-02-01

    Infertility is the failure of a couple to engender after endeavouring at least one full year of unprotected intercourse. It has been reported that reactive oxygen species contributed to pathogenesis of various disease. To inactivate ROS cells biosynthesise several antioxidant enzymes, one of them is catalase which contributes H2 O2 to H2 O and O2 . This study set out to delineate the association of catalase C-262T polymorphism with idiopathic male infertility. The study included 195 men with idiopathic infertility and 190 healthy volunteers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leucocytes. Genotype and allele frequencies were determined in patients and controls using allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR). The prevalence of genotype frequencies of the CAT CC/CT/TT was 31.79%, 65.12% and 3.07%, respectively, in infertile subjects, as against 24.73%, 55.26% and 20%, respectively, in healthy volunteers. Statistical analysis has emerged significant difference from the comparison of either genotype (P catalase C-262T polymorphism indicates that CAT-262T/T genotype confers less susceptibility to male infertility. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are required for further evaluation and confirmation of our finding.

  20. Immunology and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, D M

    1978-10-01

    This article has attempted to review evidence that suggests that immune factors may be operative in a small but significant number of infertile men. Although our current understanding of the possible processes by which autosensitization to previously sequestered reproductive antigens occurs is incomplete, there are laboratory assays presently available that give an indication, but do not prove, that immune factors may be contributing to the infertile state. Continued research is needed to develop new assays and more purified sperm antigens, which might enhance our knowledge of the underlying immunoreproductive changes. Until these are available, the following procedures should be considered when investigating a patient with infertility of suspected immune origin. The patient's history should be taken, and a physical examination should be performed. A complete blood count, urinalysis, and complete semen analysis and culture should be taken. Next, in vivo cervical tests (Sims-Huhner) are performed, followed by sperm antibody assessment (serum, semen) and perhaps in vitro cervical mucus sperm assays (especially the crossed hostility test). After the tests have been completed, the following possibe treatments exist: 1. Treatment of underlying infections 2. Correction of obstructions 3. Corticosteroid (or testosterone?) therapy 4. Washed sperm insemination 5. First portion of fresh ejaculate insemination 6. Artificial insemination with homologous donor 7. Adoption.

  1. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  2. Toxic metals signature in the human seminal plasma of Pakistani population and their potential role in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Ambreen; Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah; Bostan, Nazish; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Tahir, Faheem; Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas; Hussain, Alamdar; Alamdar, Ambreen; Huang, Qingyu; Peng, Siyuan; Shen, Heqing

    2015-06-01

    Aims of this study were to provide firsthand data on the incidence of trace metals in human seminal plasma and find possible correlations between levels of toxic metals and semen quality of Pakistani population. Human semen samples were collected from male partners of couples undergoing infertility assessment at the National Institute of Health Islamabad (Pakistan). We investigated seventy-five seminal plasma samples, which were further categorized into three groups (normozoospermia, oligozoospermia and azoospermia) according to WHO guidelines. The concentration of 17 different toxic metals in human seminal plasma was determined simultaneously by using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Out of 17 trace metals, Cd and Ni showed significant difference (p metals were lower and/or comparable to that found in populations of other countries. The results show the first evidence of the effect of toxic metals on semen quality and male infertility in Pakistan.

  3. Sexually Transmitted Disease and Male Infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Fusco, Ferdinando; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Theoretically, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have the potential to disrupt male fertility; however, the topic remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: To describe the possible association between STDs and male infertility and to explore possible pathophysiologic mechanisms. EVIDENCE...... ACQUISITION: We performed a systematic literature review in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched for articles published before January 1, 2016, using the MeSH terms for a variety of STDs and infertility. The search was restricted to human studies...... performed in men and published in English. Studies were included if they contained original data on a possible association or a cause-and-effect relationship between STD and male infertility. Studies were considered only if they included an appropriate control group and/or comprehensive laboratory data. Due...

  4. Genetic causes of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stouffs, Katrien; Seneca, Sara; Lissens, Willy

    2014-05-01

    Male infertility, affecting around half of the couples with a problem to get pregnant, is a very heterogeneous condition. Part of patients are having a defect in spermatogenesis of which the underlying causes (including genetic ones) remain largely unknown. The only genetic tests routinely used in the diagnosis of male infertility are the analyses for the presence of Yq microdeletions and/or chromosomal abnormalities. Various other single gene or polygenic defects have been proposed to be involved in male fertility. Yet, their causative effect often remains to be proven. The recent evolution in the development of whole genome-based techniques may help in clarifying the role of genes and other genetic factors involved in spermatogenesis and spermatogenesis defects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring male infertility: epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasqualotto Fábio Firmbach

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that human semen quality may have been deteriorating in recent years. Most of the evidence is retrospective, based on analysis of data sets collected for other purposes. Measures of male infertility are needed if we want to monitor the biological capacity for males to reproduce over time or between different populations. We also need these measures in analytical epidemiology if we want to identify risk indicators, risk factors, or even causes of an impaired male fecundity-that is, the male component in the biological ability to reproduce. The most direct evaluation of fecundity is to measure the time it takes to conceive. Since the time of conception may be missed in the case of an early abortion, time to get pregnant is often measured as the time it takes to obtain a conception that survives until a clinically recognized pregnancy or even a pregnancy that ends with a live born child occurs. A prolonged time required to produce pregnancy may therefore be due to a failure to conceive or a failure to maintain a pregnancy until clinical recognition. Studies that focus on quantitative changes in fecundity (that does not cause sterility should in principle be possible in a pregnancy sample. The most important limitation in fertility studies is that the design requires equal persistency in trying to become pregnant and rather similar fertility desires and family planning methods in the groups to be compared. This design is probably achievable in exposure studies that make comparisons with reasonable comparable groups concerning social conditions and use of contraceptive methods.

  6. Male factor infertility and ART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Herman Tournaye

    2012-01-01

    For years,the management and treatment of male factor infertility has been ‘experience’ and not ‘evidence’ based.Although not evidence-based,current clinical practice involves extensive use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART).Where specific treatments are not indicated or have failed,ART have become popular adjunctive treatments for alleviating male factor infertility.According to the limited evidence available,intrauterine insemination (IUI) may be considered as a first-line treatment in a couple in which the female partner has a normal fertility status and at least 1x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation.If no pregnancy is achieved after 3-6 cycles of IUI,optimized in vitro fertilization (IVF) can be proposed.When less than 0.5x 106 progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after seminal fluid processing or sperm are recovered surgically from the testis or epididymis,intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) should be performed.Although the outcome of no other ART has ever been scrutinized as much before,no large-scale ‘macroproblems’ have as yet been observed after ICSI.Yet,ICSI candidates should be rigorously screened before embarking on IVF or ICSI,and thoroughly informed of the limitations of our knowledge on the hereditary aspects of male infertility and the safety aspects of ART.

  7. Molecular insights into the causes of male infertility

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polani B Seshagiri

    2001-11-01

    Infertility is a reproductive health problem that affects many couples in the human population. About 13–18% of couple suffers from it and approximately one-half of all cases can be traced to either partner. Regardless of whether it is primary or secondary infertility, affected couples suffer from enormous emotional and psychological trauma and it can constitute a major life crisis in the social context. Many cases of idiopathic infertility have a genetic or molecular basis. The knowledge of the molecular genetics of male infertility is developing rapidly, new ``spermatogenic genes” are being discovered and molecular diagnostic approaches (DNA chips) established. This will immensely help diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to alleviate human infertility. The present review provides an overview of the causes of human infertility, particularly the molecular basis of male infertility and its implications for clinical practice.

  8. Epigenetics, spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajender, Singh; Avery, Kelsey; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications characterized by DNA methylation, histone modifications, and chromatin remodeling are important regulators in a number of biological processes, including spermatogenesis. Several genes in the testes are regulated through epigenetic mechanisms, indicating a direct influence of epigenetic mechanisms on the process of spermatogenesis. In the present article, we have provided a comprehensive review of the epigenetic processes in the testes, correlation of epigenetic aberrations with male infertility, impact of environmental factors on the epigenome and male fertility, and significance of epigenetic changes/aberrations in assisted reproduction. The literature review suggested a significant impact of epigenetic aberrations (epimutations) on spermatogenesis, and this could lead to male infertility. Epimutations (often hypermethylation) in several genes, namely MTHFR, PAX8, NTF3, SFN, HRAS, JHM2DA, IGF2, H19, RASGRF1, GTL2, PLAG1, D1RAS3, MEST, KCNQ1, LIT1, and SNRPN, have been reported in association with poor semen parameters or male infertility. Environmental toxins/drugs may affect fertility via epigenetic modifications. For example, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, an anticancer agent, causes a decrease in global DNA methylation that leads to altered sperm morphology, decreased sperm motility, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased embryo survival. Similarly, Endocrine disruptors, such as methoxychlor (an estrogenic pesticide) and vinclozolin (an anti-androgenic fungicide) have been found by experiments on animals to affect epigenetic modifications that may cause spermatogenic defects in subsequent generations. Assisted reproduction procedures that have been considered rather safe, are now being implicated in inducing epigenetic changes that could affect fertility in subsequent generations. Techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and round spermatid injection (ROSI) may increase the incidence of imprinting disorders and

  9. Searching for candidate genes for male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.N.Truong; E.K.Moses; J.E.Armes; D.J.Venter; H.W.G.Baker

    2003-01-01

    Aim: We describe an approach to search for candidate genes for male infertility using the two human genome databases: the public University of California at Santa Cruz (UCSC) and private Celera databases which list known and predicted gene sequences and provide related information such as gene function, tissue expression,known mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Methods and Results: To demonstrate this in silico research, the following male infertility candidate genes were selected: (1) human BOULE, mutations of which may lead to germ cell arrest at the primary spermatocyte stage, (2) mutations of casein kinase 2 alpha genes which may cause globozoospermia, (3) DMR-N9 which is possibly involved in the spermatogenic defect of myotonic dystrophy and (4) several testes expressed genes at or near the breakpoints of a balanced translocation associated with hypospermatogenesis. We indicate how information derived from the human genome databases can be used to confirm these candidate genes may be pathogenic by studying RNA expression in tissue arrays using in situ hybridization and gene sequencing. Conclusion: The paper explains the new approach to discovering genetic causes of male infertility using information about the human genome. ( Asian J Andro1 2003 Jun; 5:137-147 )

  10. Causes and Risk Factors for Male-Factor Infertility in Nigeria: A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Keywords: Semen quality, Nigeria, Male infertility, etiology, men. Résumé ... review article on male factor infertility among. Nigeria males, the ...... Furthermore, global warming and increased ..... impact of air pollution in human health. Environ.

  11. [Genetic aspects of male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    We examined 118 men with infertility. Among them we identified phenotypic syndromes associated with infertility in 4 and chromosomal abnormalities in 16. Further molecular genetic study of 98 infertile men found that microdeletions in AZFc-locus had 3, pathological AR allele had 2, CFTR gene mutation had 4 of them. In 37 infertile men an increased DNA fragmentation index (>20%) was found.

  12. Relevance of genetic investigation in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asero, P; Calogero, A E; Condorelli, R A; Mongioi', L; Vicari, E; Lanzafame, F; Crisci, R; La Vignera, S

    2014-05-01

    Genetic causes can be directly responsible for various clinical conditions of male infertility and spermatogenic impairment. With the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies our understanding of genetic basis of male infertility has large implications not only for understanding the causes of infertility but also in determining the prognosis and management of such couples. For these reasons, the genetic investigations represent today an essential and useful tool in the treatment of male infertility. Several evidences are available for the clinical practice regarding the diagnosis; however, there are less information relative to the treatment of the genetic causes of male infertility. Focus of this review is to discuss the main and more common genetic causes of male infertility to better direct the genetics investigation in the treatment of spermatogenic impairment.

  13. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  14. Genomics: Tool to predict and prevent male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Ashutosh; Kumar, Prashant; Jain, Manish; Kalsi, Amanpreet Kaur

    2017-06-01

    A large number of human diseases arise as a result of genetic abnormalities. With the advent of improved molecular biology techniques, the genetic etiology of male infertility is increasing. The common genetic factors responsible for male infertility are chromosomal abnormalities, Yq microdeletion and cystic fibrosis. These are responsible for approximately 30 percent cases of male infertility. About 40 percent cases of male infertility are categorized as idiopathic. These cases may be associated with genetic and genomic abnormalities. During last few years more and more genes are implicated in male infertility leading to decline in prevalence of idiopathic etiology. In this review we will summarize up to date published works on genetic etiologies of male infertility including our own works. We also briefly describe reproductive technologies used to overcome male infertility, dangers of transmitting genetic disorders to offspring and ways to prevent transmission of genetic disorders during assisted reproduction. At the end we will provide our points on how genomic information can be utilized for prediction and prevention of male infertility in coming years.

  15. Serum and seminal plasma hormonal profiles of infertile Nigerian male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, O; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Abbiyesuku, F M; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, B

    2006-12-01

    Male infertility constitutes a worldwide problem, especially in Nigeria where most men do not readily accept that they may contribute to the couple's infertility. In order to assess hormonal disturbances in the male infertility we compared male reproductive hormonal levels in human serum and seminal plasma and evaluated the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular-axis in infertile Nigerian males. The biophysical semen parameters were assessed by W.H.O. standard manual method. Serum and seminal plasma male reproductive hormones (Leutinizing hormones, Follicular stimulating hormone, Prolactin and Testosterone) were measured by Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) technique of W.H.O. in sixty (60) infertile adult male Nigerians (Oligospermic; n = 40 and azoopermic; n = 20) and forty controls of proven fertility (Normospermic subjects; n = 40). The results show that the serum concentrations of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) were significantly higher (Pinfertile subjects than controls. Patterns of serum prolactin levels were similar. The values of gonadotropins in serum were significantly higher (Pseminal plasma. Seminal plasma testosterone in infertile subjects was significantly higher (Phormonal level and seminal plasma hormonal level in all the groups (Pinfertility in Nigerians is characterized by hyperprolactinaemia, raised serum gonadotropins (LH, FSH), and raised seminal plasma testosterone. Hormonal profiles in serum and seminal plasma were not significantly correlated, and hence cannot be used as exclusive alternative in male infertility investigations. The observed spermogram in spite of significant elevation of seminal plasma testosterone in infertile males investigated suggests Sertoli cells malfunction.

  16. Role of Ultrasound in Male Infertility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Min Hoan; Sung, Chang Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    US evaluation is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging of infertile men. In this editorial, we review the spectrum of diseases responsible for male infertility, discuss the way in which US imaging studies can be used for evaluation of male infertility, and illustrate characteristic US imaging features that allow for specific diagnosis. The discussion will be divided into three main categories: obstruction in sperm passage, impairment of sperm function, and defect in sperm genesis.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  18. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MALE INFERTILITY Male infertility may be due to: Decreased number of sperm Blockage that prevents the sperm ... from woman to woman. Infertility problems and miscarriage rates increase ... a successful pregnancy if childbearing is delayed until after age 35. ...

  19. Mitochondrial DNA mutations and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as difficulty in conceiving a child after 1 year of unprotected intercourse. Infertility can arise either because of the male factor or female factor or both. According to the current estimates, 15% of couples attempting their first pregnancy could not succeed. Infertility is either primary or secondary. Mitochondria have profound effect on all biochemical pathways, including the one that drivessperm motility. Sperm motility is heavily dependent on the ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondrial sheath. In this review, the very positive role of mitochondrial genome′s association with infertility is discussed

  20. Maldi-tof fingerprinting of seminal plasma lipids in the study of human male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Mariana; Intasqui, Paula; de Lima, Camila Bruna; Montani, Daniela Antunes; Nichi, Marcílio; Pilau, Eduardo Jorge; Gozzo, Fabio Cesar; Lo Turco, Edson Guimarães; Bertolla, Ricardo Pimenta

    2014-09-01

    This study proposed lipid fingerprinting of human seminal plasma by mass spectrometry as an analytical method to differentiate biological conditions. For this purpose, we chose infertile men as a model to study specific conditions, namely: high and low seminal plasma lipid peroxidation levels (sub-study 1.1), high and low sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation (sub-study 1.2), and intervention status: before and after subinguinal microsurgical varicocelectomy (study 2). Study 1 included 133 patients, of which 113 were utilized for sub-study 1.1 and 89 for sub-study 1.2. Study 2 included 17 adult men submitted to subinguinal varicocelectomy, before and 90 days after varicocelectomy. Lipids were extracted from seminal plasma and submitted to Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry in the positive ionization mode. Spectra were processed using Waters(®) MassLynx, and MetaboAnalyst online software was used for statistical analyses. For sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, univariate analysis revealed 8, 87 and 34 significant ions, respectively. Multivariate analysis was performed through PCA and PLS-DA. PCA generated 56, 32 and 34 components respectively for each study and these were submitted to logistic regression. A ROC curve was plotted and the area under the curve was equal to 97.4, 92.5 and 96.5%. PLS-DA generated a list of 19, 24 and 23 VIP ions for sub-studies 1.1 and 1.2, and study 2, respectively. Therefore, this study established the lipid profile and comparison of patterns altered in response to specific biological conditions.

  1. Unexplained male infertility: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Alaa; Esteves, Sandro C; Nizza, Mark; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  2. Unexplained Male infertility: diagnosis and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Hamada

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Unexplained male infertility is a diagnosis reserved for men in whom routine semen analyses results are within normal values and physical as well as endocrine abnormalities were ruled out. In addition to erectile problems and coital factors, immunologic causes and sperm dysfunction may contribute to such condition. New etiologies of unexplained male infertility include low level leukocytospermia and mitochondrial DNA polymerase gene polymorphism. Contemporary andrology may reveal cellular and sub-cellular sperm dysfunctions which may explain subfertility in such cases, thus aiding the clinician to direct the further work-up, diagnosis and counseling of the infertile male. The objective of this article is to highlight the concept of unexplained male infertility and focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in the era of modern andrology and assisted reproductive techniques. Extensive literature review was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus.

  3. How does lead induce male infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chi Hsu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects.

  4. Correlation between HPV sperm infection and male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yang; Chan-Wei Jia; Yan-Min Ma; Li-Ying Zhou; Shu-Yu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases which comprises a group of small DNA viruses that intect both cutaneous and mucous squamous epithelia.Liquid bead microarray technology (LBMA) were used to evaluate 24 HPV genotypes in confirmed fertile and infertile males of North China so that the effects of HPV infection on semen parameters and relationship with male infertility could be discussed.A total of 1138 subjects were recruited in this study; 142 were HPV-pesitive (12.48%).Among 523 confirmed fertile males,only 35 were HPV-positive (6.70%),and two of them had multiple infections.Among 615 infertile males,107 were HPV-positive (17.4%),and 29 of them had multiple infections.Infertile males had a relatively high HPV infection rate compared with confirmed fertile males.Sperm progpessive motility (PR) and the normal morphology rate were significantly decreased in HPV-positive subjects.HPV-45,HPV-52,HPV-18,HPV-59 and HPV-16 infections were more frequently in infertile males.Hence,HPV infection is closely related to male infertility which will decrease sperm PR and rnorphology.HPV-45,HPV-52,HPV-18,HPV-59 and HPV-16 infection seems to be major risk factors.

  5. Coenzyme Q10 and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balercia, G; Mancini, A; Paggi, F; Tiano, L; Pontecorvi, A; Boscaro, M; Lenzi, A; Littarru, G P

    2009-07-01

    We had previously demonstrated that Coenzyme Q10 [(CoQ10) also commonly called ubiquinone] is present in well-measurable levels in human seminal fluid, where it probably exerts important metabolic and antioxidant functions; seminal CoQ10 concentrations show a direct correlation with seminal parameters (count and motility). Alterations of CoQ10 content were also shown in conditions associated with male infertility, such as asthenozoospermia and varicocele (VAR). The physiological role of this molecule was further clarified by inquiring into its variations in concentrations induced by different medical or surgical procedures used in male infertility treatment. We therefore evaluated CoQ10 concentration and distribution between seminal plasma and spermatozoa in VAR, before and after surgical treatment, and in infertile patients after recombinant human FSH therapy. The effect of CoQ10 on sperm motility and function had been addressed only through some in vitro experiments. In two distinct studies conducted by our group, 22 and 60 patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia were enrolled, respectively. CoQ10 and its reduced form, ubiquinol, increased significantly both in seminal plasma and sperm cells after treatment, as well as spermatozoa motility. A weak linear dependence among the relative variations, at baseline and after treatment, of seminal plasma or intracellular CoQ10, ubiquinol levels and kinetic parameters was found in the treated group. Patients with lower baseline value of motility and CoQ10 levels had a statistically significant higher probability to be responders to the treatment. In conclusion, the exogenous administration of CoQ10 increases both ubiquinone and ubiquinol levels in semen and can be effective in improving sperm kinetic features in patients affected by idiopathic asthenozoospermia.

  6. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FAS-670A/G andFAS-1377G/A polymorphism in cell death pathway geneFAS and human male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepika Jaiswal; Udai Shankar Dwivedi; Neeraj Kumar Agrawal; Sameer Trivedi; Kiran Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To study the role and association of functional variations present inFAS gene with idiopathic male infertility.Methods:The case-control study comprised of two groups:160 idiopathic infertile nonobstructive azoospermia patients and200 fertile healthy control men. Genotyping for single-nucleotide polymorphism ofFAS-670A/G(rs1800682) andFAS-1377G/A (rs2234767) was done byPCR-RFLP method.DNA sequencing was used to ascertainPCR-RFLP results.ForFAS-670A/G andFAS-1377G/A functional polymorphism, allele and genotype distribution were evaluated usingChi-square test.Results:Allele and genotype distribution did not differ significantly between patients and controls forFAS-670A/G andFAS-1377 G/A.Conclusions:Human male infertility is a complex disorder and thus other genetic or environmental factors may be contributing to the complex etiology.

  8. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    ... for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases...

  9. Mendelian genetics of male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kathleen; Yatsenko, Alexander N.; Jorgez, Carolina J.; Mukherjee, Sarmistha; Nalam, Roopa Lata; Matzuk, Martin M.; Lamb, Dolores J.

    2013-01-01

    Infertility is defined as the inability of a couple to conceive despite trying for a year, and it affects approximately 15% of the reproductive-age population. It is considered a genetically lethal factor, as the family lineage stops at that individual with no progeny produced. A genetic defect associated with an infertile individual cannot be transmitted to the offspring, ensuring the maintenance of reproductive fitness of the species. However, with the advent of assisted reproductive techniques (ART), we are now able to overcome sterility and bypass nature’s protective mechanisms that developed through evolution to prevent fertilization by defective or deficient sperm. PMID:21382200

  10. The "omics" of human male infertility: integrating big data in a systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, D T; Aston, K I; Oliva, R; Emery, B R; De Jonge, C J

    2016-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex process in which >2300 genes are temporally and spatially regulated to form a terminally differentiated sperm cell that must maintain the ability to contribute to a totipotent embryo which can successfully differentiate into a healthy individual. This process is dependent on fidelity of the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, and proteome of the spermatogonia, supporting cells, and the resulting sperm cell. Infertility and/or disease risk may increase in the offspring if abnormalities are present. This review highlights the recent advances in our understanding of these processes in light of the "omics revolution". We briefly review each of these areas, as well as highlight areas of future study and needs to advance further.

  11. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  12. Metabolic syndrome and male infertility (review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The literary review is devoted to one of the most actual problems of modern andrology – pathogenetic communication of metabolic syndrome components and male infertility. Now a steady growth of metabolic syndrome frequency in world men population is observed, and that is accompanied by progressing deterioration of fertility parameters at them. Negative influence of key metabolic syndrome components – obesity and insulin resistance – at male reproductive function is shown on the basis of modern clinical, epidemiological and experimental data, and known pathophysiological mechanisms of this influence are described also. Induced by a metabolic syndrome oxidative stress of spermatozoas, neuropathy and androgen deficiency are the most significant mechanisms of neuro-endocrinological and reproductive consequences realization. The imperative necessity of early revealing and pharmacological correction of obesity and insulin resistance in all infertility men is shown, as well as they are curable reasons of male infertility . However, they seldom come to light and even less often corrected in routine clinical practice owing to insufficient knowledge of urologists and andrologists about these system hormonal-metabolic factors of male infertility, which role in male infertility pathogenesis will increase only in the conditions of world epidemic of a metabolic syndrome.

  13. Human protamines and the developing spermatid:their structure, function, expression and relationship with male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VincentW.Aoki; DouglasT.Carrell

    2003-01-01

    During spermiogenesis, the protamine proteins play an integral role in spennatid chromatin compaction.Recent research has focused on many facets of protamine biology, including protamine gene and protein structure/function relationships, mechanisms of protamine expression regulation and involvement of the protamines in male fertility. In this paper, we review our current understanding of the structure and function of the protamine-1 (P1) and protamine-2 (P2) proteins and genes, the expression and regulation of these genes and the relationship between the protamines and male fertility. In addition, we offer a brief outlook on future investigation into protamine proteins.

  14. [Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuyuan, Liu; Changjun, Zhang; Haiying, Peng; Xiaoqin, Huang; Hao, Sun; Keqin, Lin; Kai, Huang; Jiayou, Chu; Zhaoqing, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are evolutionary conserved, multifunctional DNA-protein complexes located at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Telomeres maintain chromosome stability and genome integrity and also play an important role in meiosis which aid in synapsis, homologous recombination, and segregation. Sperm telomere has been reported to play an important role in fertilization and embryo development. Nowadays, the association between telomere and reproduction is one of the major areas of interest, however whether sperm telomere associated with male infertility is not clear. In this study, in order to find out the association between Chinese idiopathic infertility and sperm telomere length, we analyzed the difference of sperm telomere length between idiopathic infertile men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894 ± 0.115 vs. 4.016 ± 0.603, P=5.097 x 10⁻⁵). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  15. Occupational causes of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens P E

    2013-01-01

    To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function.......To highlight and discuss the new evidence on occupational and environmental risk to male reproductive function....

  16. Management of male neurologic patients with infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Sønksen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Many aspects of fertility rely on intact neurologic function and thus neurologic diseases can result in infertility. While research into general female fertility and alterations in male semen quality is limited, we have an abundance of knowledge regarding ejaculatory dysfunction following nerve...

  17. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  18. Possible fetal determinants of male infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Almstrup, Kristian; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although common reproductive problems, such as male infertility and testicular cancer, present in adult life, strong evidence exists that these reproductive disorders might have a fetal origin. The evidence is derived not only from large epidemiological studies that show birth-cohort effects...

  19. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  20. Small Supernumerary Marker Chromosomes in Human Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanet, Narjes; Tosca, Lucie; Brisset, Sophie; Liehr, Thomas; Tachdjian, Gérard

    2015-01-01

    Small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC) are structurally abnormal chromosomes that cannot be unambiguously identified by banding cytogenetics. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of sSMC frequency and characterization in a context of infertility and to review the literature describing sSMC in relation with male and female infertility. Therefore, a systematic literature review on sSMC associated with infertility was conducted by means of a PubMed literature and a sSMC database (http://ssmc-tl.com/sSMC.html) search. A total of 234 patients with infertility were identified as carriers of sSMC. All chromosomes, except chromosomes 10, 19 and the X, were involved in sSMC, and in 72% the sSMC originated from acrocentric chromosomes. Euchromatic imbalances were caused by the presence of sSMC in 30% of the cases. Putative genes have been identified in only 1.2% of sSMC associated with infertility. The implication of sSMC in infertility could be due to a partial trisomy of some genes but also to mechanical effects perturbing meiosis. Further precise molecular and interphase-architecture studies on sSMC are needed in the future to characterize the relationship between this chromosomal anomaly and human infertility.

  1. IBA and ICP-OES determination of trace elements in indigenous medicinal herbs and their extracts on the infertility in the human male reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Fisher, D.; Henkel, R. [Department of Medical Bioscience, Universily of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Weilz, F. [Department of Biodiversily and Conservation Biology, University of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The abnormality of infertility in humans is biologically defined (Mader, 2004; Wood, 1994; Ellison, 2001) as the inability of a species to reproduce its own kind after period of 12 month of unprotected sexual intercourse/copulation. It is however difficult when one wishes to quantify the occurrence of infertility, since it is seldom expressed explicitly, but mostly in conjunction with population growth dynamics which include socio-economic factors. Various plants (herbs) have been used as treatment for infertility. These plants however have not yet been scientifically analysed. In this paper we determined the major and trace element composition of Typha capensis (rhizome and leaves) Cissampe/os capensis (Ieaves) and Hermannia cilliata, which were sourced from the Cape Flats Nature Reserve, Bellville, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The trace element concentration determination are at time cumbersome, especially when destructive analytical methods such as ICP-OES are used. For our determination, the various samples were freeze-dried. Part of the freeze-dried sample was used for ICP-OES and the other for PIXE analysis. For PIXE the dried sample was pressed into a pellet, then coated with a layer of carbon and irradiated with a 3 MeV proton beam. We report on the trace element content of the various parts of the plant and comment on the applicability of the part in male infertility. (author)

  2. Finasteride-associated male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Glina; Paulo Augusto Neves; Ricardo Saade; Nelson Rodrigues Netto Jr; Jonathas Borges Soares; Andrea Giannotti Galuppo

    2004-01-01

    Finasteride is a potent and specific inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase enzyme in men. Clinical studies have shown that finasteride 1mg/day is effective for promoting hair growth in men with male pattern hair loss. However, there is a concern about the use of finasteride, especially in young fertile patients, because of its action on testosterone metabolism. This paper describes 3 cases of young patients who had very poor seminal quality during finasteride treatment (1 mg/day), and their semin...

  3. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    .... The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value...

  4. Gene Linked to Excess Male Hormones in Female Infertility Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene linked to excess male hormones in female infertility disorder Discovery by NIH-supported researchers may lead ... androgens, symptoms of PCOS include irregular menstrual cycles, infertility, and insulin resistance (difficulty using insulin.) The condition ...

  5. What Treatment Options Are Available for Male Infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications What treatment options are available for male infertility? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... deliver a live-born infant, in most cases, infertility has no other outward symptoms. The evaluation of ...

  6. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone.

  7. Male Infertility: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Retrograde ejaculation Semen analysis Sperm release pathway Testicular biopsy Related Health Topics Assisted Reproductive Technology Female Infertility Infertility National Institutes of Health The ...

  8. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility

    OpenAIRE

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infe...

  9. Current medical management of endocrine-related male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D Ring

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Male factor contributes to 50%-60% of overall infertility but is solely responsible in only 20% of couples. Although most male factor infertility is ascertained from an abnormal semen analysis, other male factors can be contributory especially if the sample returns normal. Male infertility can be due to identifiable hormonal or anatomical etiologies that may be reversible or irreversible. This manuscript will highlight existing guidelines and our recommendations for hormone evaluation for male infertility and empiric therapies including multivitamins, estrogen receptor modulators (clomiphene, estrogen conversion blockers (anastrozole, and hormone replacement.

  10. Genetic dosage and position effect of small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) in human sperm nuclei in infertile male patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Marta; Wanowska, Elzbieta; Kishore, Archana; Huleyuk, Nataliya; Georgiadis, Andrew P; Yatsenko, Alexander N; Mikula, Mariya; Zastavna, Danuta; Wiland, Ewa; Kurpisz, Maciej

    2015-11-30

    Chromosomes occupy specific distinct areas in the nucleus of the sperm cell that may be altered in males with disrupted spermatogenesis. Here, we present alterations in the positioning of the human chromosomes 15, 18, X and Y between spermatozoa with the small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC; sSMC(+)) and spermatozoa with normal chromosome complement (sSMC(-)), for the first time described in the same ejaculate of an infertile, phenotypically normal male patient. Using classical and confocal fluorescent microscopy, the nuclear colocalization of chromosomes 15 and sSMC was analyzed. The molecular cytogenetic characteristics of sSMC delineated the karyotype as 47,XY,+der(15)(pter->p11.2::q11.1->q11.2::p11.2->pter)mat. Analysis of meiotic segregation showed a 1:1 ratio of sSMC(+) to sSMC(-) spermatozoa, while evaluation of sperm aneuploidy status indicated an increased level of chromosome 13, 18, 21 and 22 disomy, up to 7 × (2.7 - 15.1). Sperm chromatin integrity assessment did not reveal any increase in deprotamination in the patient's sperm chromatin. Importantly, we found significant repositioning of chromosomes X and Y towards the nuclear periphery, where both chromosomes were localized in close proximity to the sSMC. This suggests the possible influence of sSMC/XY colocalization on meiotic chromosome division, resulting in abnormal chromosome segregation, and leading to male infertility in the patient.

  11. The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Obesity and Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikret Erdemir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   Infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse, affects approximately 15% of couples. Male factor infertility is the sole cause of infertility in approximately 20% of infertile couples, with an additional 30% to 40% secondary to both male and female factors. Thus, male factor infertility is present in approximately half of all infertile couples. Known etiologies of male infertility include cryptorchidism, testicular torsion or trauma, varicocele, seminal tract infections, anti-sperm antibodies, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, gonadal dysgenesis, and obstruction of the reproductive channels. Recently in some studies, it has been reported that increased body mass index negatively affect on male fertility or semen parameters.Overweight and obesity have become a major public health concern worldwide. The prevalence of male obesity or overweight in the united states was reported to be 71%. This ratio changes between 10% and 60% in the world. Negative effects of obesity on male fertility are postulated to occur through several mechanisms. Obese men have been shown to exhibit higher levels of circulating estradiol. Several studies reveal a direct correlation between a rise in BMI and a decline in both free and total blood testosterone levels. In addition, obesity may cause to oxidative stress. All these changes may affect to semen parameters in obese cases. However, the relationship between male obesity and fertility parameters has not been well established. The aim of this review is to evaluate the relationship between the obesity and male infertility.

  12. What every gynecologist should know about male infertility: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Hamada, Alaa; Kondray, Victor; Pitchika, Aruna; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-07-01

    Our article reviews the evolving concepts in the field of male infertility for gynecologists and other health professionals involved in the care of men and women experiencing difficulty in having a child. The increased knowledge will help in the better management and treatment of infertile couples. Review of literature through Pubmed, Science Direct, Online Library. Gynecologists are often the first healthcare providers to assess an infertile couple. Because half of all infertility problems stem from male factors, it is crucial for the gynecologist to remain updated on the main conditions that cause male infertility as well as current diagnostic tools and treatment options, including conventional strategies and assisted reproductive techniques. Extraordinary advances have been achieved in the field of male infertility over the past several years and many old concepts are now challenged. Therefore, it is imperative that male infertility physicians should update the gynecologists about the recent advances in the work-up of infertile men in terms of diagnosis and management. Such convention will help improve the standards of care for the infertile couple and enhance the cooperation between male and female reproductive endocrinologists.

  13. Experimental autoimmune orchitis as a model of immunological male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Munekazu; Terayama, Hayato; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Lustig, Livia; Itoh, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Clinically, 60-75% of male infertility cases are categorized as idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In previous studies of this condition, lymphocytic infiltration and immune deposits were present in several testis biopsy specimens, indicating that inflammatory or immunological factors contribute to the occurrence of the lesions. However, there is currently little evidence regarding immunological infertility in men. Previously, we established an immunological infertility model, experimental autoimmune orchitis (EAO), that can be induced in mice by two subcutaneous injections of viable syngeneic testicular germ cells without the use of any adjuvant. In this EAO model, lymphocytes surround the tubuli recti and then induce spermatogenic disturbance. In addition, after the active inflammation stage of this model, the seminiferous epithelium is damaged irreversibly, resembling the histopathology of human male idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance. In the majority of patients with testicular autoimmunity, there is a chronic and asymptomatic development of the inflammatory reaction. Therefore, this disease is very difficult to diagnose at the ongoing stage, and it is possible that the histopathology of idiopathic spermatogenic disturbance in the clinic is reported at the post-active inflammation stage of autoimmune orchitis. In this review, the histopathology of EAO before and after inflammation is discussed, comparing it with human orchitis.

  14. Serum copper, follicular stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, spermatic count, viability, progression and seminal zinc correlations in a human (male) infertility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sella, G.E. (Laval Univ., Quebec City, Canada); Cunnane, S.C.; McInnes, R.A.

    1981-06-01

    The role of copper and its correlations to other parameters has been investigated in a male-fertility pilot study at a University infertility clinic in Montreal. Serum and semen Cu concentrations were determined in 100 men (age 25 to 54 years) referred to the clinic for infertility evaluation. The results of the significant correlations between serum Cu concentrations and male fertility parameters such as (1) the serum concentrations of the hormones FSH, LH and prolactin; (2) spermatozoal count, viability and progression and (3) seminal zinc concentrations are reported.

  15. [Genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Aguilar, Raúl Eduardo; Chima-Galán, María del Carmen; Yerena-de-vega, María de la Concepción A; Regalado-Hernández, Miguel Angel; Sánchez-Guerrero, Cecilia; García-Ortiz, Liliana; Santillán-Hernández, Yuritzi; Moreno-García, Jesús Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Recently Mexican Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology Colleges (Federación Mexicana de Colegios de Obstetricia y Ginecologia, FEMECOG) published the Mexican guideline forthe management of male infertility, which suggests performing genetic laboratory tests as part of diagnosis and management of infertile patients and states that these should receive genetic counseling. This paper reviews the genetic approach proposed by Mexican guideline. A systematic review of medical literature was performed in Pubmed and Web of Knowledge from 1980 to 2012 in order to find reports of genetic variants associated to male infertility in Mexican patients. Also it is discussed the current knowledge of these variants, their clinical implications and finally the guidelines and recommendations for their molecular diagnosis. Most genetic variants in Mexican infertile patients are chromosome abnormalities. In relation to other variants there is only a report of Y chromosome microdeletions, repeated CAG in androgen receptor and more common mutations in CFTR, and other article reporting mutations in CFTR in patients with congenital absence of vas deferens. Little is known about the genetics of Mexican infertile patients apart from chromosome abnormalities. However, the contribution of genetics as etiology of male infertility is taking more relevance and currently the consensual management of infertile male should include the screening of genetic background. This review pretends to be a quick guide for clinicians who want to know about reports of genetic variants related to male infertility in Mexican population and how to approach their diagnosis.

  16. Risk of diabetes according to male factor infertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is male factor infertility associated with an increased risk of developing diabetes? SUMMARY ANSWER: The study provides evidence that male factor infertility may predict later occurrence of diabetes mellitus with the risk being related to the severity of the underlying fertility...... problem. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous cross-sectional studies have shown an increased prevalence of comorbidities among infertile men when compared to controls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: In this prospective cohort study, 39 516 men who had since 1994 undergone fertility treatment with their female...... partner were identified from the Danish national IVF register, which includes data on assumed cause of couple infertility (male/female factor, mixed and unexplained infertility) and type of fertility treatment. With a median follow-up time of 5.6 years, each man was followed for diabetes occurrence from...

  17. Male infertility in spinal cord trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Utida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Every year there are 10 thousand new cases of patients victimized by spinal cord trauma (SCT in the United States and it is estimated that there are 7 thousand new cases in Brazil. Eighty percent of patients are fertile males. Infertility in this patient group is due to 3 main factors resulting from spinal cord lesions: erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory disorder and low sperm counts. Erectile dysfunction has been successfully treated with oral and injectable medications, use of vacuum devices and penile prosthesis implants. The technological improvement in penile vibratory stimulation devices (PVS and rectal probe electro-ejaculation (RPE has made such procedures safer and accessible to patients with ejaculatory dysfunction. Despite the normal number of spermatozoa found in semen of spinal cord-injured patients, their motility is abnormal. This change does not seem to be related to changes in scrotal thermal regulation, frequency of ejaculation or duration of spinal cord damage but to factors related to the seminal plasma. Despite the poor seminal quality, increasingly more men with SCT have become fathers through techniques ranging from simple homologous insemination to sophisticated assisted reproduction techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI.

  18. Obesity, male infertility, and the sperm epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, James R; Jenkins, Timothy G; Carrell, Douglas T; Hotaling, James M

    2017-04-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic and a common problem among reproductive-age men that can both cause and exacerbate male-factor infertility by means of endocrine abnormalities, associated comorbidities, and direct effects on the fidelity and throughput of spermatogenesis. Robust epidemiologic, clinical, genetic, epigenetic, and nonhuman animal data support these findings. Recent works in the burgeoning field of epigenetics has demonstrated that paternal obesity can affect offspring metabolic and reproductive phenotypes by means of epigenetic reprogramming of spermatogonial stem cells. Understanding the impact of this reprogramming is critical to a comprehensive view of the impact of obesity on subsequent generations. Furthermore, and perhaps more importantly, conveying the impact of these lifestyle changes on future progeny can serve as a powerful tool for obese men to modify their behavior. Reproductive urologists and endocrinologists must learn to assimilate these new findings to better counsel men about the importance of paternal preconception health, a topic recently being championed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Do alterations in follicular fluid proteases contribute to human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookingham, Lisa Marii; Van Voorhis, Bradley J; Ascoli, Mario

    2015-05-01

    Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are known to play critical roles in follicular rupture, ovulation, and fertility in mice. Similar studies in humans are limited; however, both are known to increase during the periovulatory period. No studies have examined either protease in the follicular fluid of women with unexplained infertility or infertility related to advanced maternal age (AMA). We sought to determine if alterations in cathepsin L and/or ADAMTS-1 existed in these infertile populations. Patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) for unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility were prospectively recruited for the study; patients with tubal or male factor infertility were recruited as controls. Follicular fluid was collected to determine gene expression (via quantitative polymerase chain reaction), enzyme concentrations (via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays), and enzymatic activities (via fluorogenic enzyme cleavage assay or Western blot analysis) of cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1. The analysis included a total of 42 patients (14 per group). We found no statistically significant difference in gene expression, enzyme concentration, or enzymatic activity of cathepsin L or ADAMTS-1 in unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility as compared to controls. We also found no statistically significant difference in expression or concentration with advancing age. Cathepsin L and ADAMTS-1 are not altered in women with unexplained infertility or AMA-related infertility undergoing IVF, and they do not decline with advancing age. It is possible that differences exist in natural cycles, contributing to infertility; however, our findings do not support a role for protease alterations as a common cause of infertility.

  20. Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male infertility in Nigeria: A neglected reproductive health issue requiring attention. ... in Nigeria are sexually transmitted infections and hormonal abnormalities. ... a proper diagnosis, and adequate treatment given where causes are treatable.

  1. Genetic Dissection of the AZF Regions of the Human Y Chromosome: Thriller or Filler for Male (Infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Navarro-Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The azoospermia factor (AZF regions consist of three genetic domains in the long arm of the human Y chromosome referred to as AZFa, AZFb and AZFc. These are of importance for male fertility since they are home to genes required for spermatogenesis. In this paper a comprehensive analysis of AZF structure and gene content will be undertaken. Particular care will be given to the molecular mechanisms underlying the spermatogenic impairment phenotypes associated to AZF deletions. Analysis of the 14 different AZF genes or gene families argues for the existence of functional asymmetries between the determinants; while some are prominent players in spermatogenesis, others seem to modulate more subtly the program. In this regard, evidence supporting the notion that DDX3Y, KDM5D, RBMY1A1, DAZ, and CDY represent key AZF spermatogenic determinants will be discussed.

  2. Association of polymorphism in cell death pathway gene FASLG withhuman male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deepika Jaiswal; Sameer Trivedi; Neeraj K Agrawal; Kiran Singh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate –844C>T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) present in the promoter of cell death pathway gene FASLG with male infertile phenotype. Methods:Genotyping for SNP FASLG (rs763110) was done by polymerase chain reaction followed by analysis with specific endonuclease (PCR-RFLP). DNA sequencing was used to ascertain PCR-RFLP results. Results: FASLG –844C>T polymorphism, allele and genotype distribution did not differ significantly between patients and controls (OR: 1.03, 95% CI= 0.7638 to 1.3952, P=0.83). Thus SNP-844C>T of the FASLG gene is not associated with male infertility risk in the analyzed patients. Conclusion: Human male infertility is a complex disorder and thus other genetic or environmental factors may be contributing to the complex etiology, and further study in other region of Indian populations will verify whether it is associated with male infertility risk.

  3. The role of intrauterine insemination in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanji Tijani, Hammed; Bhattacharya, Siladitya

    2010-12-01

    Male infertility is a common condition and intrauterine insemination (IUI) is used to treat the mild to moderate forms. Male subfertility determination is usually based on routine semen analysis but recent publications have questioned its diagnostic and prognostic accuracy as well as the effectiveness of IUI itself, as a treatment modality. We carried out a structured review of the literature to assess the current evidence regarding the diagnosis of male infertility, the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of IUI in male infertility and factors that affect the outcome of IUI. There is still uncertainty regarding the criteria for diagnosing male infertility and predicting treatment outcome based on standard semen parameters. The presence of seminal defects compromises the outcome of IUI in comparison with unexplained infertility. The total motile sperm count (TMSC) appears to have a consistent, direct relationship with treatment outcome, but there is no definite predictive threshold for success. However, it is reasonable to offer IUI as first-line treatment if TMSC is greater than 10 million when balancing the risk and cost of alternate treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF). Sperm DNA studies and sperm preparation techniques warrant further studies in order to establish their clinical relevance. There are limited data on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of IUI in male infertility and large high-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted. However the difficulties in organizing such a study, at the present time, are a matter for discussion.

  4. Male infertility: a critical review of pharmacologic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Alaa J; Montgomery, Brian; Agarwal, Ashok

    2012-12-01

    Male factor infertility contributes partially and solely to the problem of childlessness in around 50% of the cases. Unfortunately, 30 - 50% of the etiologies of male infertility are unknown and therefore, no specific therapy can be instituted. Evidence-based medical therapy for male infertility is an attractive research area where a large number of clinical trials, controlled and uncontrolled, using different types of medications have been conducted yielding variable results and outcomes. In this review, we summarize and evaluate the most important and most recent information pertaining to the use of different medications in male infertility and assign level of evidence to these medications. An extensive literature search was performed using the search engines: Pubmed, Science-direct, Ovid and Scopus. Male infertility represents a very challenging area of clinical medicine. Many different types of medications have been tried and very few have had satisfactory results. There is a huge need to advance and develop andrologic diagnostic techniques, focusing on the metabolomics and proteomics of the sperm, seminal plasma, and testicular tissue. Clarification of the causes of idiopathic male infertility and the discovery of novel molecular targets will help guide future innovative development of new pharmacologic agents.

  5. Surgical techniques for the management of male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Natalya A Lopushnyan; Thomas J Walsh

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation and surgical treatment of male infertility has evolved and expanded,now leading to more precise diagnoses and tailored treatments with diminished morbidity and greater success.Surgeries for male infertility are divided into four major categories:(i)diagnostic surgery; (ii) surgery to improve sperm production; (iii) surgery to improve sperm delivery; and (iv) surgery to retrieve sperm for use with in vitrofertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI).While today we are more successful than ever in treating male infertility,pregnancy is still not always achieved likely due to factors that remain poorly understood.Clinicians treating infertility should advocate for couple-based therapy,and require that both partners have a thorough evaluation and an informed discussion before undergoing specific surgical therapies.

  6. Male Infertility and Risk of Nonmalignant Chronic Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glazer, Clara Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    The association between male infertility and increased risk of certain cancers is well studied. Less is known about the long-term risk of nonmalignant diseases in men with decreased fertility. A systemic literature review was performed on the epidemiologic evidence of male infertility...... as a precursor for increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and all-cause mortality. PubMed and Embase were searched from January 1, 1980, to September 1, 2016, to identify epidemiological studies reporting associations between male infertility and the outcomes of interest. Animal studies, case...... reports, reviews, studies not providing an accurate reference group, and studies including infertility due to vasectomy or malignancy were excluded. The literature search resulted in 2,485 references among which we identified seven articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria. Of these, four articles were...

  7. Predictive value of hormonal parameters for live birth in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Tiina; Bjuresten, Kerstin; Landgren, Britt-Marie; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2013-07-11

    Infertile women might get pregnant sometime after fertility treatment, but today, there is no prediction model on who will eventually have children. The objective of the present study was to characterize hormone levels in an arbitrary menstrual cycle in women with unexplained infertility and male infertility, and to determine the predictive value for long-term possibility of live birth. In this cross-sectional study, with 71 infertile women with diagnosis unexplained infertility and male infertility, blood samples were obtained during the proliferative and secretory phases of an arbitrary menstrual cycle. Serum concentrations of FSH, LH, AMH, inhibin B, estradiol, progesterone, PRL and TSH were determined. The predictive value of ovulation and hormonal analysis was determined by identifying the proportion of women with at least one live birth. Mann Whitney U test, chi2 test and Spearman's correlation were used for statistical analysis. A value of p hormone values and live birth rates between women with unexplained infertility and male infertility. The best sole predictors of live birth were age of the women, followed by ovulatory cycle, defined as serum progesterone concentration of greater than or equal to 32 nmol/L, and a serum TSH concentration of less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L. Combining the age with the ovulatory cycle and serum TSH less than or equal to 2.5 mIU/L or serum AMH greater than or equal to 10 pmol/L the predictive value was close to 90%. Age in combination with the presence of an ovulatory cycle and serum TSH or serum AMH is predictive for long-term live birth. The advantage of serum AMH compared with serum TSH is the very little variation throughout the menstrual cycle, which makes it a useful tool in infertility diagnosis.

  8. Isolation and Identification of Concanavalin A Binding Glycoproteins from Human Seminal Plasma: A Step Towards Identification of Male Infertility Marker Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Tomar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human seminal plasma contains a large array of proteins of clinical importance which are essentially needed to maintain the reproductive physiology of spermatozoa and for successful fertilization. Thus, isolation and identification of seminal plasma proteins is of paramount significance for their biophysical characterization and functional analysis in reproductive physiological processes. In this study, we have isolated Concanavalin-A binding glycoproteins from human seminal plasma and subsequently identified them by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. The major proteins, as identified in this study, are Aminopeptidase N, lactoferrin, prostatic acid phosphatase, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, prostate specific antigen, progestagen-associated endometrial protein, Izumo sperm-egg fusion protein and prolactin inducible protein. This paper also reports preliminary studies to identify altered expression of these proteins in oligospermia and azoospermia in comparison to normospermia. In oligospermia, five proteins were found to be downregulated while in azoospermia, four proteins were downregulated and two proteins were upregulated. Thus, this study is of immense biomedical interest towards identification of potential male infertility marker proteins in seminal plasma.

  9. Isolation and Identification of Concanavalin A Binding Glycoproteins from Human Seminal Plasma: A Step Towards Identification of Male Infertility Marker Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Anil Kumar; Sooch, Balwinder Singh; Raj, Isha; Singh, Sarman; Singh, Tej P.; Yadav, Savita

    2011-01-01

    Human seminal plasma contains a large array of proteins of clinical importance which are essentially needed to maintain the reproductive physiology of spermatozoa and for successful fertilization. Thus, isolation and identification of seminal plasma proteins is of paramount significance for their biophysical characterization and functional analysis in reproductive physiological processes. In this study, we have isolated Concanavalin-A binding glycoproteins from human seminal plasma and subsequently identified them by MALDI-TOF/MS analysis. The major proteins, as identified in this study, are Aminopeptidase N, lactoferrin, prostatic acid phosphatase, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, prostate specific antigen, progestagen-associated endometrial protein, Izumo sperm-egg fusion protein and prolactin inducible protein. This paper also reports preliminary studies to identify altered expression of these proteins in oligospermia and azoospermia in comparison to normospermia. In oligospermia, five proteins were found to be downregulated while in azoospermia, four proteins were downregulated and two proteins were upregulated. Thus, this study is of immense biomedical interest towards identification of potential male infertility marker proteins in seminal plasma. PMID:22182811

  10. Genetic variants in TP53 and MDM2 associated with male infertility in Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong Huang; Wei Liu; Gui-Xiang Ji; Ai-Hua Gu; Jian-Hua Qu; Ling Song; Xin-Ru Wang

    2012-01-01

    The TP53,a transcriptional regulator and tumor suppressor,is functionally important in spermatogenesis.MDM2 is a key regulator of the p53 pathway and modulates p53 activity.Both proteins have been functionally linked to germ cell apoptosis,which may affect human infertility,but very little is known on how common polymorphisms in these genes may influence germ cell apoptosis and the risk of male infertility.Thus,this study was designed to test whether three previously described polymorphisms 72Arg>Pro (rs1042522) and the Ex2+ 19C>T (rs2287498) in TP53,and the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) 309T>G (rs937283) in MDM2,are associated with idiopathic male infertility in a Chinese population.The three polymorphisms were genotyped using OpenArray assay in a hospital-based case-control study,including 580 infertile patients and 580 fertile controls.Our analyses revealed that TP53 Ex2+ 19C>T and MDM2309T>G polymorphisms are associated with mate infertility.Furthermore,we detected a nearly statistically significant additive interaction between TP53 rs2287498 and MDM2 rs937283 for the development of male.infertility (Pinteraction=0.055).In summary,this study found preliminary evidence,demonstrating that genetic variants in genes of the TP53 pathway are risk factors for male infertility.

  11. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  12. Investigation of male infertility using quantitative comparative proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Légaré, Christine; Droit, Arnaud; Fournier, Frédéric; Bourassa, Sylvie; Force, André; Cloutier, Francine; Tremblay, Roland; Sullivan, Robert

    2014-12-05

    Male factors account for 40% of infertility cases. The identification of differentially expressed proteins on spermatozoa from fertile and infertile men can help in the elucidation of the molecular basis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to compare sperm proteomes from 3 different groups: fertile men, normozoospermic men consulting for infertility, and normozoospermic men with an impaired capacity for fertilization (IVF-failure). We used differential proteomics with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, and LC-MS analysis to identify proteins that are differentially expressed. A total of 348 unique proteins were identified and quantified. The analysis identified 33 proteins that were differentially expressed in the IVF-failure group vs the fertile group. Comparison of the infertile and fertile groups revealed that 18 proteins appeared to be differentially expressed. Four proteins were similarly altered in the IVF-failure and infertile groups: semenogelin 1 (SEMG1), prolactin-induced protein (PIP), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDHS), and phosphoglycerate kinase 2 (PGK2). These protein markers were selected for validation using multiple reactions monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) and further confirmed by Western blot analysis. Overall, these results suggest that a panel of proteins may be used as biomarkers for future studies of infertility.

  13. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and the relationships with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Zaida Sarrate; Francesca Vidal; Joan Blanco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The ...

  14. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Seminal biomarkers for the evaluation of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Bieniek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For men struggling to conceive with their partners, diagnostic tools are limited and often consist of only a standard semen analysis. This baseline test serves as a crude estimation of male fertility, leaving patients and clinicians in need of additional diagnostic biomarkers. Seminal fluid contains the highest concentration of molecules from the male reproductive glands, therefore, this review focuses on current and novel seminal biomarkers in certain male infertility scenarios, including natural fertility, differentiating azoospermia etiologies, and predicting assisted reproductive technique success. Currently available tests include antisperm antibody assays, DNA fragmentation index, sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization, and other historical sperm functional tests. The poor diagnostic ability of current assays has led to continued efforts to find more predictive biomarkers. Emerging research in the fields of genomics, epigenetics, proteomics, transcriptomics, and metabolomics holds promise for the development of novel male infertility biomarkers. Seminal protein-based assays of TEX101, ECM1, and ACRV1 are already available or under final development for clinical use. Additional panels of DNA, RNA, proteins, or metabolites are being explored as we attempt to understand the pathophysiologic processes of male infertility. Future ventures will need to continue data integration and validation for the development of clinically useful infertility biomarkers to aid in male infertility diagnosis, treatment, and counseling.

  16. Prof. Li Yueqing's Experience in Treating Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haisong

    2005-01-01

    @@ Prof. Li Yueqing (李曰庆), an expert in the Andriatry Department of Dongzhimen Hospital Affiliated to Beijing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine,has been engaged in medicine for 30 years, who has aprofound knowledge in TCM surgery, especially in treating andriatric diseases such as impotence,infertility, and prostatitis. The following is an introduction to Prof. Li's experience in treating male infertility.

  17. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in etiopathogenesis of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monis Bilal Shamsi

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: In the context of male infertility, mt mutations, generation of reactive oxygen species and lowered antioxidant capacity are interlinked and constitute a unified pathogenic molecular mechanism. In the era of assisted reproduction technique (ART, it is very important to distinguish between mutations in nuclear and mitochondrial genomes in sperm, as mtDNA mutations are better diagnostic and prognostic markers in infertile men opting for ART.

  18. MicroRNA and Male Infertility: A Potential for Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Khazaie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding single stranded RNA molecules that are physiologically produced in eukaryotic cells to regulate or mostly down-regulate genes by pairing with their complementary base-sequence in related mRNA molecules in the cytoplasm. It has been reported that other than its function in many physiological cell processes, dysregulation of miRNAs plays a role in the development of many diseases. In this short review, the association between miRNAs and some male reproductive disorders is surveyed. Male factor Infertility is a devastating problem from which a notable percentage of couples suffer. However, the molecular mechanism of many infertility disorders has not been clearly elucidated. Since miRNAs have an important role in numerous biological cell processes and cellular dysfunctions, it is of interest to review the related literature on the role of miRNAs in the male reproductive organs. Aberrant expression of specific miRNAs is associated with certain male reproductive dysfunctions. For this reason, assessment of expression of such miRNAs may serve as a suitable molecular biomarker for diagnosis of those male infertility disorders. The presence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at the miRNAs’ binding site in its targeted mRNA has been reported to have an association with idiopathic male infertility. Also, a relation with male infertility has been shown with SNP in the genes of the factors necessary for miRNA biogenesis. Therefore, focusing on the role of miRNAs in male reproductive disorders can further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of male infertility and generate the potential for locating efficient biomarkers and therapeutic agents for these disorders.

  19. Exposure to environmental noise and risk for male infertility: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung-Bok; Min, Jin-Young

    2017-07-01

    Noise is associated with poor reproductive health. A number of animal studies have suggested the possible effects of exposure to high noise levels on fertility; to date, a little such research has been performed on humans. We examined an association between daytime and nocturnal noise exposures over four years (2002-2005) and subsequent male infertility. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort (2002-2013), a population-wide health insurance claims dataset. A total of 206,492 males of reproductive age (20-59 years) with no history of congenital malformations were followed up for an 8-year period (2006-2013). Male infertility was defined as per ICD-10 code N46. Data on noise exposure was obtained from the National Noise Information System. Exposure levels of daytime and night time noise were extrapolated using geographic information systems and collated with the subjects' administrative district code, and individual exposure levels assigned. During the study period, 3293 (1.6%) had a diagnosis of infertility. Although there was no association of infertility with 1-dB increments in noise exposure, a non-linear dose-response relationship was observed between infertility and quartiles of daytime and night time noise after adjustment for confounding variables (i.e., age, income, residential area, exercise, smoking, alcohol drinking, blood sugar, body mass index, medical histories, and particulate pollution). Based on WHO criteria, adjusted odds for infertility were significantly increased (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.23) in males exposed to night time noise ≥ 55 dB. We found a significant association between exposure to environmental noise for four years and the subsequent incidence of male infertility, suggesting long-term exposure to noise has a role in pathogenesis of male infertility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Empirical medical therapy in idiopathic male infertility: Promise or panacea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hung; Seo, Ju Tae

    2014-09-01

    Male factors account for 20%-50% of cases of infertility and in 25% of cases, the etiology of male infertility is unknown. Effective treatments are well-established for hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, male accessory gland infection, retrograde ejaculation, and positive antisperm antibody. However, the appropriate treatment for idiopathic male infertility is unclear. Empirical medical treatment (EMT) has been used in men with idiopathic infertility and can be divided into two categories based on the mode of action: hormonal treatment and antioxidant supplementation. Hormonal medications consist of gonadotropins, androgens, estrogen receptor blockers, and aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants such as vitamins, zinc, and carnitines have also been widely used to reduce oxidative stress-induced spermatozoa damage. Although scientifically acceptable evidence of EMT is limited because of the lack of large, randomized, controlled studies, recent systematic reviews with meta-analyses have shown that the administration of gonadotropins, anti-estrogens, and oral antioxidants results in a significant increase in the live birth rate compared with control treatments. Therefore, all physicians who treat infertility should bear in mind that EMT can improve semen parameters and subsequent fertility potential through natural intercourse.

  1. Fertility defects in mice expressing the L68Q variant of human cystatin C: a role for amyloid in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelly, Sandra; Serobian, Gaiane; Borchardt, Clinton; Powell, Jonathan; Johnson, Seethal; Hakansson, Katarina; Lindstrom, Veronica; Abrahamson, Magnus; Grubb, Anders; Cornwall, Gail A

    2014-03-14

    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy is an autosomal dominant disorder in which a variant form of cystatin C (L68Q) readily forms amyloid deposits in cerebral arteries in affected individuals resulting in early death. L68Q protein deposits in human cystatin C amyloid angiopathy patients have also been found in tissues outside of the brain including the testis, suggesting possible effects on fertility. Heterozygous transgenic mice (L68Q) that express the human L68Q variant of cystatin C under the control of the mouse cystatin C promoter were unable to generate offspring, suggesting the presence of L68Q cystatin C amyloid affected sperm function. In vitro studies showed that epididymal spermatozoa from L68Q mice were unable to fertilize oocytes and exhibited poor sperm motility. Furthermore, spermatozoa from L68Q mice exhibited reduced cell viability compared with wild type (WT) spermatozoa and often were detected in large agglutinated clumps. Examination of the epididymal fluid and spermatozoa from L68Q mice showed increased levels and distinct forms of cystatin C amyloid that were not present in WT mice. The addition of epididymal fluid from L68Q mice to WT spermatozoa resulted in a recapitulation of the L68Q phenotype in that WT spermatozoa showed reduced cell viability and motility compared with WT spermatozoa incubated in epididymal fluid from WT mice. L68Q epididymal fluid that was depleted of cystatin C amyloids, however, did not impair the motility of WT spermatozoa. Taken together these studies suggest that amyloids in the epididymal fluid can be cytotoxic to the maturing spermatozoa resulting in male infertility.

  2. Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose-Miller, Alaina B; Boyden, Jennifer W; Frey, Keith A

    2007-03-15

    Infertility is defined as failure to achieve pregnancy during one year of frequent, unprotected intercourse. Evaluation generally begins after 12 months, but it can be initiated earlier if infertility is suspected based on history or if the female partner is older than 35 years. Major causes of infertility include male factors, ovarian dysfunction, tubal disease, endometriosis, and uterine or cervical factors. A careful history and physical examination of each partner can suggest a single or multifactorial etiology and can direct further investigation. Ovulation can be documented with a home urinary luteinizing hormone kit. Hysterosalpingography and pelvic ultrasonography can be used to screen for uterine and fallopian tube disease. Hysteroscopy and/or laparoscopy can be used if no abnormalities are found on initial screening. Women older than 35 years also may benefit from ovarian reserve testing of follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels on day 3 of the menstrual cycle, the clomiphene citrate challenge test, or pelvic ultrasonography for antral follicle count to determine treatment options and the likelihood of success. Options for the treatment of male factor infertility include gonadotropin therapy, intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Infertility attributed to ovulatory dysfunction often can be treated with oral ovulation-inducing agents in a primary care setting. Women with poor ovarian reserve have more success with oocyte donation. In certain cases, tubal disease may be treatable by surgical repair or by in vitro fertilization. Infertility attributed to endometriosis may be amenable to surgery, induction of ovulation with intrauterine insemination, or in vitro fertilization. Unexplained infertility may be managed with ovulation induction, intrauterine insemination, or both. The overall likelihood of successful pregnancy with treatment is nearly 50 percent.

  3. [L-arginine and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibona, M; Meschini, P; Capparelli, S; Pecori, C; Rossi, P; Menchini Fabris, G F

    1994-12-01

    The clinical efficacy and acceptance of L-arginina HCL was tested in 40 infertile men. All of these men had a normal number of spermatozoa (> 20 million/ml), but a decreased motility; this decreased motility was not due to infection or to immunological disorders. The treatment consisted of 80 ml of 10% L-arginine HCL administered daily per os for 6 months. L-arginine HCL showed to be able to improve the motility of spermatozoa without any side-effects.

  4. [Evaluation of the male of the infertile couple].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freour, T; Delvigne, A; Barrière, P

    2010-12-01

    The exploration of male infertility combines clinical examination and complementary analysis, including biology and ultrasonography. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data available on the accuracy of interview, testicular ultrasonography, sperm analysis and post-coital test. Medical history and patient's interview remain central in the exploration of the infertile man. Despite some limitations, studies on testicular sonography confirm the high prevalence of testicular lesions in infertile men. Up to now, sperm analysis remains the pivotal element of the exploration of male fertility. The new WHO manual for semen analysis published in 2010 should help in redefining its place in the global exploration of male infertility. Despite its statutory character in France, the interest of systematic sperm bacterial examination remains to be demonstrated. Concerning sperm DNA fragmentation, its use as a first-line test should not be recommended. Finally, high levels of evidence do not exist concerning the use of post-coital test as a predictor of pregnancy in infertile couples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of semen parameters in male partners among infertile couples

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    Sheela N. Kulkarni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Semen analysis provides valuable information about the etiology and fertility potential of an infertile male. The study was conducted to determine the abnormalities in semen parameters of male partners of infertile couples and to find out contribution of male factors. Methods: The descriptive study with cross sectional design was conducted in the department of Pathology at MIMSR medical college, Latur, Maharashtra, India, between January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 220 cases were analyzed during this period. Semen analysis was performed according to the methods and the standards defined by World Health Organisation (WHO 5th edition 2010. Results: Out of 220 male partners of infertile couples 96 (43.6% men had abnormal semen parameters. The male factor was responsible in 43.6% of cases. Asthenozoospermia constitutes maximum of 19.9%, followed by Oligozoospermia in 18.6%, Azoospermia in 10.9%, Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia in 7.3% and Oligoasthenozoospermia in 6.8% cases. Leucocytospermia was detected in 15.5% cases. Conclusions: Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to overall infertility. Asthenozoospermia is the most common semen abnormality seen. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1016-1019

  6. Treatment of Male Infertility: A Brief Overview

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    Slobodan Vlajković

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of germ cells is a process starting in fetus and completed only in puberty. Spermatogonial stem cells maintain spermatogenesis throughout the reproductive life of mammals. They are undifferentiated cells defined by their ability to both self-renew and differentiate into mature spermatozoa. This self-renewal and differentiation in turn is tightly regulated by a combination of intrinsic gene expression as well as the extrinsic gene signals from the local tissue microenvironment. The human testis is prone to damage, either for therapeutic reasons or because of toxic agents from the environment. For preservation of fertility, patients who will undergo radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy have an attractive possibility to keep in store and afterwards make a transfer of spermatogonial stem cells. Germ cell transplantation is not yet ready for the human fertility clinic, but it may be reasonable for young cancer patients, with no other options to preserve their fertility. Whereas this technique has become an important research tool in rodents, a clinical application must still be regarded as experimental, and many aspects of the procedure need to be optimized prior to a clinical application in men. In future, a range of options for the preservation of male fertility will get a new significance.

  7. A Review: Role of oxidative stress in male infertility

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    Hamed Fanaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that reactive oxygen species (ROS have a very important role in the intracellular signaling process in physiological conditions. On the other hand, during the recent decade it has been indicated that ROS play a role in various types of male infertility and it is due to the overproduction of ROS or decrease in the antioxidant defense system in the reproductive system and sperm. In pathological conditions, ROS via interferences in the spermatogenesis process, sperm function, and sperm structure (motility, viability, acrosome reaction, sperm-oocyte fusion, and damage to DNA and cell membrane as well as reduction in fertilization and implantation can lead to infertility. Knowledge of how ROS affect the physiological process of the reproductive system is crucial in the treatment of infertility. Thus, in this review article we will discuss experimental and clinical findings related to the effects of ROS on male fertility.

  8. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Merchant

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET, subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia. ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART, the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications

  9. In vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection for male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Rubina; Gandhi, Goral; Allahbadia, Gautam N

    2011-01-01

    Progress in the field of assisted reproduction, and particularly micromanipulation, now heralds a new era in the management of severe male factor infertility, not amenable to medical or surgical correction. By overcoming natural barriers to conception, in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET), subzonal sperm insemination, partial zona dissection, and intracytoplasmatic injection of sperm (ICSI) now offer couples considered irreversibly infertile, the option of parenting a genetically related child. However, unlike IVF, which necessitates an optimal sperm number and function to successfully complete the sequence of events leading to fertilization, micromanipulation techniques, such as ICSI, involving the direct injection of a spermatozoon into the oocyte, obviate all these requirements and may be used to alleviate severe male factor infertility due to the lack of sperm in the ejaculate due to severely impaired spermatogenesis (non-obstructive azoospermia) or non-reconstructable reproductive tract obstruction (obstructive azoospermia). ICSI may be performed with fresh or cryopreserved ejaculate sperm where available, microsurgically extracted epididymal or testicular sperm with satisfactory fertilization, clinical pregnancy, and ongoing pregnancy rates. However, despite a lack of consensus regarding the genetic implications of ICSI or the application and efficacy of preimplantation genetic diagnosis prior to assisted reproductive technology (ART), the widespread use of ICSI, increasing evidence of the involvement of genetic factors in male infertility and the potential risk of transmission of genetic disorders to the offspring, generate major concerns with regard to the safety of the technique, necessitating a thorough genetic evaluation of the couple, classification of infertility and adequate counseling of the implications and associated risks prior to embarking on the procedure. The objective of this review is to highlight the indications, advantages

  10. Environmental PAH exposure and male idiopathic infertility: a review on early life exposures and adult diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeen, Erin P; Williams, David E

    2017-03-01

    The male reproductive system is acutely and uniquely sensitive to a variety of toxicities, including those induced by environmental pollutants throughout the lifespan. Early life hormonal and morphological development results in several especially sensitive critical windows of toxicity risk associated with lifelong decreased reproductive health and fitness. Male factor infertility can account for over 40% of infertility in couples seeking treatment, and 44% of infertile men are diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility. Human environmental exposures are poorly understood due to limited available data. The latency between maternal and in utero exposure and a diagnosis in adulthood complicates the correlation between environmental exposures and infertility. The results from this review include recommendations for more and region specific monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure, longitudinal and clinical cohort considerations of exposure normalization, gene-environment interactions, in utero exposure studies, and controlled mechanistic animal experiments. Additionally, it is recommended that detailed semen analysis and male fertility data be included as endpoints in environmental exposure cohort studies due to the sensitivity of the male reproductive system to environmental pollutants, including PAHs.

  11. Male factor in infertility: study from a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalavathi D. Biradar

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: High prevalence of male factor in infertility was noted in the present study. Refraining from addictions, certain life style changes including exercise and timely medical attention can address the issue. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2022-2025

  12. Genetic and epigenetic factors: Role in male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M B Shamsi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic factors contribute upto 15%-30% cases of male infertility. Formation of spermatozoa occurs in a sequential manner with mitotic, meiotic, and postmeiotic differentiation phases each of which is controlled by an intricate genetic program. Genes control a variety of physiologic processes, such as hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis, germ cell development, and differentiation. In the era of assisted reproduction technology, it is important to understand the genetic basis of infertility to provide maximum adapted therapeutics and counseling to the couple.

  13. Quantitative electron microscopic examination of sperm for male infertility diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Ye. Bragina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional study of spermogram readings is a main method for examination of male infertility. However, the spermogram readings may be considerably covered in the group of fertile and infertile men and fail to give a full insight into sperm fertilizing ability. In recent years, tests determining the functional properties of sperm have been intensively developed. This review considers a quantitative electron microscopic technique of sperm (EMTS, which assesses the structure and function of the sperm penetration and motor apparatus. The detection of sperm chromatin structural disorders can understand the causes of early embryonic malformation. Indications for EMTS and interpretation of its results are given.

  14. Quantitative electron microscopic examination of sperm for male infertility diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. Ye. Bragina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional study of spermogram readings is a main method for examination of male infertility. However, the spermogram readings may be considerably covered in the group of fertile and infertile men and fail to give a full insight into sperm fertilizing ability. In recent years, tests determining the functional properties of sperm have been intensively developed. This review considers a quantitative electron microscopic technique of sperm (EMTS, which assesses the structure and function of the sperm penetration and motor apparatus. The detection of sperm chromatin structural disorders can understand the causes of early embryonic malformation. Indications for EMTS and interpretation of its results are given.

  15. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  16. Male infertility: a public health issue caused by sexually transmitted pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenes, Fabrícia; Souza, Raquel P; Bento, Jaqueline C; Teixeira, Jorge J V; Maria-Engler, Silvya S; Bonini, Marcelo G; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2014-12-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are caused by several pathogens, including bacteria, viruses and protozoa, and can induce male infertility through multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, horizontal transmission of STD pathogens to sexual partners or vertical transmission to fetuses and neonates is possible. Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma spp., human papillomavirus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses, HIV-1 and human cytomegalovirus have all been detected in semen from symptomatic and asymptomatic men with testicular, accessory gland and urethral infections. These pathogens are associated with poor sperm quality and decreased sperm concentration and motility. However, the effects of these STD agents on semen quality are unclear, as are the effects of herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma spp., Treponema pallidum and Trichomonas vaginalis, because few studies have evaluated the influence of these pathogens on male infertility. Chronic or inadequately treated infections seem to be more relevant to infertility than acute infections are, although in many cases the exact aetiological agents remain unknown.

  17. Testicular touch preparation cytology in the evaluation of male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Z Yildiz-Aktas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Male infertility is traditionally evaluated by tissue core biopsies of the testes. Touch preparations (TP of these biopsies have been infrequently used. The aim of this study is to report our experience with using testicular biopsy TP for the evaluation of male infertility. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search was performed for cases of testes biopsies with concurrent TP. These cases were evaluated for clinical information, specimen adequacy, and cytological-histological correlation. Results: A total of 39 cases were identified from men with a mean age of 34 years (range 23 to 50 years. TP slides were satisfactory for evaluation in 31 (89% cases, and less than optimal in four due to low cellularity, obscuring blood or air drying artifact. Cytopathology showed concordance with the biopsy in almost all cases. In one discordant case where the biopsies showed no active spermatogenesis, a rare sperm were identified on the TP. Conclusions: TP of the testis is a helpful adjunct to biopsy because of its ability to clearly evaluate all stages of spermatogenesis. These data demonstrate that TP cytopathology of the testes in our experience has an excellent correlation with both normal testicular biopsies and those showing pathological spermatogenesis, and in rare cases may provide added benefit in evaluating the presence of spermatogenesis for male infertility. Albeit uncommon, cytopathologists may be required to identify and evaluate spermatogenic elements in cytology specimens being submitted from men with infertility.

  18. MECHANISMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY: Aberrations of the X chromosome as cause of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, Albrecht; Tüttelmann, Frank

    2017-06-13

    Male infertility is most commonly caused by spermatogenetic failure, clinically noted as oligo- or azoospermia. Today, in approximately 20% of azoospermic patients, a causal genetic defect can be identified. The most frequent genetic causes of azoospermia (or severe oligozoospermia) are Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY), structural chromosomal abnormalities and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. Consistently with Ohno's law, the human X chromosome is the most stable of all the chromosomes, but contrary to Ohno's law, the X chromosome is loaded with regions of acquired, rapidly evolving genes, which are of special interest because they are predominantly expressed in the testis. Therefore, it is not surprising that the X chromosome, considered as the female counterpart of the male associated Y chromosome, may actually play an essential role in male infertility and sperm production. This is supported by the recent description of a significantly increased CNV burden on both sex chromosomes in infertile men and point mutations in X-chromosomal genes responsible for male infertility. Thus, the X chromosome seems to be frequently affected in infertile male patients. Four principal X-chromosomal aberrations have been identified so far: 1) aneuploidy of the X chromosome as found in Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY or mosaicism for additional X chromosomes). 2) Translocations involving the X chromosome, e.g. nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders of sex development (XX-male syndrome) or X-autosome translocations. 3) Copy Number Variations (CNVs) affecting the X chromosome. 4) Point mutations disrupting X-chromosomal genes. All of these are reviewed herein and assessed concerning their importance for the clinical routine diagnostic workup of the infertile male as well as their potential to shape research on spermatogenic failure in the next years.

  19. Mitochondrial glutathione peroxidase 4 disruption causes male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Manuela; Förster, Heidi; Boersma, Auke; Seiler, Alexander; Wehnes, Helga; Sinowatz, Fred; Neumüller, Christine; Deutsch, Manuel J; Walch, Axel; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang; Ursini, Fulvio; Roveri, Antonella; Maleszewski, Marek; Maiorino, Matilde; Conrad, Marcus

    2009-09-01

    Selenium is linked to male fertility. Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4), first described as an antioxidant enzyme, is the predominant selenoenzyme in testis and has been suspected of being vital for spermatogenesis. Cytosolic, mitochondrial, and nuclear isoforms are all encoded by the same gene. While disruption of entire GPx4 causes early embryonic lethality in mice, inactivation of nuclear GPx4 does not impair embryonic development or fertility. Here, we show that deletion of mitochondrial GPx4 (mGPx4) allows both normal embryogenesis and postnatal development, but causes male infertility. Infertility was associated with impaired sperm quality and severe structural abnormalities in the midpiece of spermatozoa. Knockout sperm display higher protein thiol content and recapitulate features typical of severe selenodeficiency. Interestingly, male infertility induced by mGPx4 depletion could be bypassed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. We also show for the first time that mGPx4 is the prevailing GPx4 product in male germ cells and that mGPx4 disruption has no effect on proliferation or apoptosis of germinal or somatic tissue. Our study finally establishes that mitochondrial GPx4 confers the vital role of selenium in mammalian male fertility and identifies cytosolic GPx4 as the only GPx4 isoform being essential for embryonic development and apoptosis regulation.

  20. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and the relationships with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Sarrate

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants.

  1. Meiotic abnormalities in metaphase I human spermatocytes from infertile males: frequencies, chromosomes involved, and the relationships with polymorphic karyotype and seminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrate, Zaida; Vidal, Francesca; Blanco, Joan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look in depth at the relationship between meiotic anomalies and male infertility, such as the determination of the chromosomes involved or the correlation with patient features. For this purpose, a total of 31 testicular tissue samples from individuals consulting for fertility problems were analyzed. Metaphase I cells were evaluated using a sequential methodology combining Leishman stained procedures and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization protocols. The number of chromosomal units and chiasmata count per bivalent were established and a hierarchical cluster analysis of the individuals was performed. The relationship of the seminogram and the karyotype over recombination were evaluated using Poisson regression models. Results obtained in this study show a significant percentage of infertile individuals with altered meiotic behavior, mostly specified as a reduction in chiasmata count in medium and large chromosomes, the presence of univalents, and the observation of tetraploid metaphases. Moreover, the number and the type of anomalies were found to be different between cells of the same individual, suggesting the coexistence of cell lines with normal meiotic behavior and cell lines with abnormalities. In addition, chromosomal abnormalities in metaphase I are significantly associated with oligozoospermia and/or polymorphic karyotype variants.

  2. The effects of tomato juice on male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yu; Aizawa, Koichi; Mieno, Makiko; Karamatsu, Mika; Hirano, Yasuko; Furui, Kuniko; Miyashita, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Kazumitsu; Inakuma, Takahiro; Sato, Ikuo; Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Teruaki

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of tomato juice consumption on seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters in infertile men. Subjects were male infertility patients with poor sperm concentration (juice group, an antioxidant group, and a control group. The subjects in the tomato juice group and the antioxidant group daily consumed one can of tomato juice (containing 30 mg of lycopene) or one antioxidant capsule (containing vitamin C 600 mg, vitamin E 200 mg, and glutathione 300 mg), respectively, for 12 weeks (feeding period). Seminal plasma lycopene levels and sperm parameters were measured every 6 weeks during the feeding period. Forty-four patients completed the study (control group: 12, antioxidant group: 15, tomato juice group: 17). In the tomato juice group, plasma lycopene level was significantly increased at the 12th week of the feeding period. Moreover, a decrease in seminal plasma white blood cells and an increase in sperm motility in the tomato juice group were statistically significant at the 12th and 6th weeks, respectively, compared to the control group. In the antioxidant capsule group, no significant improvement was observed in semen parameters. In conclusion, regular consumption of tomato juice seems to improve sperm motility in infertile patients. This is the first report to show that commercially available food, such as tomato juice, might be beneficial for male infertility.

  3. Spermatozoal protein profiles in male infertility with asthenozoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong-jun; YU Ning; ZHANG Xin-yu; JIN Wei; LI Han-zhong

    2010-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major medical and social problem, and elementary research on the spermatozoal proteins and their functions are relatively scarce and there are very few confirmed and effective options for the treatment of male infertility. Thus, it is essential to find candidate proteins that affect male infertility. This study was designed to detect the proteins with differential expression in sperm from infertile patients and normal donors.Methods Semen samples from patients with idiopathic asthenozoospermia (n=114) and from fertile men with normal spermiograms (n=37) were collected. Semen sample analysis, sperm protein extraction, SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis were performed. Results were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 statistical software.Results Western blotting analysis of spermatic proteins displayed a major differentially expressed protein in spermatozoa from fertile and idiopathic asthenozoospermia patients. Densities and volumes of the identified protein in the patients were significantly decreased compared to normal donors (P=0.034 and P=0.036, respectively). The protein was identified as DEAD-box protein 4 (DDX4, VASA). The expression and correction value (CV) of DDX4/VASA in the patients was reduced significantly compared to normal donors (P=0.037 and P=0.031, respectively).Conclusions The expression of spermatic protein DDX4/VASA associates with spermatic motility, implying that DDX4NASA may be a candidate marker for evaluation of spermatic motility.

  4. Clinical evaluation of the infertile male: new options, new challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert I McLachlan; Csilla Krausz

    2012-01-01

    Male reproductive dysfunction is the sole or contributory cause of infertility in half of couples making the systematic clinical and laboratory evaluation of the male,and the application of costeffective management strategies tailored to the individual patient's need,vital parts of fertility practice.1,2 Male infertility has a wide range of etiologies and effective approaches to initiate,restore or preserve natural fertility are available in some settings.But the most striking development in the past 20 years has been in the area of assisted reproductive technologies (ART),especially intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI);the latter provides an extraordinarily effective bypass of the natural processes involved such that a single viable sperm,obtained from any part of the reproductive tract,will often successfully fertilize an oocyte and has allowed many previously sterile men to father healthy children.However,our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors causing male factor infertility has lagged behind these technological advances and still for a significant minority,no options exist other than adoption,donor sperm or abandonment of their aspirations for a family.

  5. A mechanistic overview on male infertility and germ cell cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crépieux, Pascale; Lécureuil, Charlotte; Marion, Sébastien; Kara, Elodie; Piketty, Vincent; Martinat, Nadine; Guillou, Florian; Royère, Dominique; Reiter, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The testis is devoted to two important tasks: haploid cell production and sexual steroid synthesis. A number of highly sophisticated and unique strategies operate during spermatogenesis, a process crucial for reproduction, heredity and evolution. It is particularly important to decipher the underlying molecular mechanisms whose function can be perverted in pathological situations, such as infertility and testicular cancers, which represent an increasing biomedical issue today. This review summarises the currently available data concerning some key molecular components that are altered or potentially involved in male infertility and testicular tumors, with the aim of defining some common "hot spots". We particularly focused on genetically engineered in vivo models in which testicular functions are altered and we pinpointed to the potential involvement of the targeted genes in testicular pathologies. Those molecular mechanisms peculiar to the male gonad can be envisioned as a basis for the design of novel drugs potentially dedicated to testicular dysfunction.

  6. Differential clustering of sperm subpopulations in infertile males with clinical varicocele and carriers of rearranged genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; López-Fernández, Carmen; Gosálvez, Jaime; Benet, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Some methods for determining sperm DNA fragmentation, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay (SCSA) and the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCD), provide additional information about particular subgroups of spermatozoa with specific irregularities. Thus, SCSA recognizes a specific sperm subpopulation, the high-DNA stainability sperm subpopulation (HDS), and SCD recognizes the so-called DNA-degraded sperm (DDS) subpopulation. Although some studies associate the presence of these subpopulations with specific aspects related to infertility, the relationship between both sperm subpopulations and their preponderance in specific clinical groups of infertile males has not been extensively investigated. In this study, HDS and DDS subpopulations were determined in a total of 37 human males: 8 males with proven fertility, 9 infertile males with asthenoteratozoospermia, 10 carriers of chromosomal reorganizations, and 10 infertile males with clinical varicocele. Results showed a significant increase of the DDS subpopulation (P HDS subpopulation (P = .542), but the highest values were found in the varicocele and rearranged-genome groups. However, no correlation between the HDS and DDS subpopulations were found (r = 0.196; P = .244), suggesting that both represent a different class of sperm subpopulation in the ejaculate. A significant increase in HDS, and especially DDS, can be associated with the presence of varicocele or the rearrangement of chromosomes. Specific diagnostic tests to confirm the diagnosis must be performed in patients with increased DDS and HDS values.

  7. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ANTISPERM ANTIBODIES IN MALE INFERTILITY PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伦新; 荣莉

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To explore the therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture (EA) for treatment of male immune-infertility patients and to observe the effect of EA on antisperm antibody (AsAb) positive reaction. Methods: A total of 100 male infertility AsAb-positive patients were randomized into EA group (n = 50, BL- 15, BL- 17, -18, -23, etc. ) and medication group (n=50, oral administration of prednisone, 5 mg/time, t. i. d. ). Serum and sperm AsAb were determined with enzyme immunoassay technique. Results: Following 4 months' treatment, the cure rates and the total effective rates of EA and medication groups were 40.4% (20 cases/50 cases) and 92.0% (45/50), 10.0% (5/50) and 64.0% (32/50) respectively. The cure rate of EA group was significantly superior to that of medication group (P<0.01). But, no significant difference was found between two groups in the total effective rate (P >0.05). After treatment, AsAb positive rates of both groups particularly that of EA group decreased significantly compared with pre-treatment of each group (P<0.05-0.01). Conclusion: EA treatment can work well in the treatment of some immune-mediated male infertility patients and possesses a favorable regulation action on AsAb reaction.

  8. Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to become pregnant after a year of trying. If a woman can ... keeps having miscarriages or stillbirths, that's also called infertility. Infertility is fairly common. After one year of ...

  9. Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Guilherme Leme; Hallak, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The negative impact of AAS abuse on male fertility is well known by urologists. The secondary hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is often highlighted when AAS and fertility are being discussed. On the other hand, the patterns of use, mechanisms of action and direct effects over the testicle are usually overseen. The present study reviews the vast formal and "underground" culture of AAS, as well as their overall implications. Specific considerations about their impact on the male reproductive system are made, with special attention to the recent data on direct damage to the testicle. To our knowledge this kind of overview is absolutely unique, offering a distinguished set of information to the day-by-day urologists. For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. Initially, these substances were restricted to professional bodybuilders, becoming gradually more popular among recreational power athletes. Currently, as many as 3 million anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States, and considering its increasing prevalence, it has become an issue of major concern. Infertility is defined as the failure to achieve a successful pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected intercourse, with male factor being present in up to 50% of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS, specially oriented to urologists, is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient axial inhibition, and the more recent experimental reports

  10. Is male factor infertility associated with midlife low-grade inflammation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Katia Keglberg; Kierkegaard, Lene; Lund, Rikke

    2017-01-01

    Male factor infertility is associated with an increased risk of disease and mortality, which has been related to markers of chronic systemic inflammation. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between male factor infertility and low-grade inflammation and furthermore...... to examine the lifetime prevalence of male factor infertility and overall infertility (also including female and couple infertility). The study population consisted of 2140 members of the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort who had participated in the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank data collection...... in 2009-2011. Information on male factor infertility and overall infertility was obtained from a questionnaire, and low-grade inflammation was evaluated as the highest plasma levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in the population. The level of interleukin-6...

  11. [Importance of Klinefelter syndrome in the pathogenesis of male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralea, Carmen-Elena; Mihalache, Gr

    2007-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome, the most knowning hipergonadotrophic hypogonadism, is associated typically with two X chromosomes and one Y chromosome (47,XXY. The signs and symptoms of these conditions typically become more severe as the number of X chromosomes increases. To preveal the role of Klinefelter syndrome in pathogenesis of male infertility. The study included 20 men hospitalized and treated in the Endocrinology Clinic, Iaşi. The age of patients was between 19 years and 44 years. They made next investigations: clinical, biological and semen examination, testis echography and biopsy, test Elisa, Barr's test, psychological evaluation and psycho-analysis. Diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome is made by examining chromosomes for evidence of more than one X chromosome present in a male. All patients are characterized by chromosomal abnormalities, small penis, small firm testicles with hyalinization and fibrosis of the seminiferous tubules, underdevelopment of secondary sexual characteristics, abnormal body proportions (long legs, short trunk), sexual problems, azoospermia, infertility and increased urinary excretion of gonadotropin. 14 cases had gynecomastia and 2 cases presented anti-sperm antibodies. The following test results may be found: karyotyping chromosome shows 47 XXY; positive test Barr; semen count-low; serum testosterone- low; serum luteinizing hormone (LH)--high; serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)--high; serum estradiol levels (a type of estrogen)-high, testicle size measurement < 10 cc. Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal condition that affects male sexual development, preventing the testicles from functioning normally and reducing the levels of testosterone. Low Testosterone can lead to breast development (gynecomastia), decreased libido, incomplete masculinization with female body hair distribution (sparse facial, armpit, and pubic hair) and an inability to father children (infertility). The decreased testosterone also causes an increase in two

  12. Klinefelter syndrome and its association with male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V Ramakrishnan; S GowthamKumar; RadhaPandiyan

    2014-01-01

    Klinefelter's syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in which there is at least one extraX chromosome.Males normally have anX chromosome and aY chromosome(XY).But males who haveKlinefelter syndrome have an extraX chromosome(XXY), giving them a total of47 instead of the normal46 chromosomes.Sex chromosome abnormalities are more frequently associated with male infertility.The prevalence ofXXYs has risen from1.09 to1.72 per1000 male births.A patient attended to fertility and genetic clinic, during the clinical diagnosis we found the following complaints of loss of secondary sexual characteristics and infertility.Physical examination revealed breast development, thin built, small size testes, and absence of beard and pubic hairs.Karyotype and biochemical analysis were performed to detect chromosomal abnormality as well as hormonal level to confirm the diagnosis ofKlinefelter's syndrome.Chromosomal analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated the constitutional karyotype of47,XXY.Using karyotype the presence of extraX chromosome was confirmed, supporting the cytogenetic finding.The47,XXY syndrome is relatively uncommon and can be missedclinically because of its variable clinical presentations. Accurate diagnosis of this constitutional karyotype provides a valuable aid in the counselling and early management of the patients who undertake fertility evaluation.

  13. Klinefelter syndrome and its association with male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Ramakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter's syndrome is the most common genetic disorder in which there is at least one extra X chromosome. Males normally have an X chromosome and a Y chromosome (XY. But males who have Klinefelter syndrome have an extra X chromosome (XXY, giving them a total of 47 instead of the normal 46 chromosomes. Sex chromosome abnormalities are more frequently associated with male infertility. The prevalence of XXYs has risen from 1.09 to 1.72 per 1 000 male births. A patient attended to fertility and genetic clinic, during the clinical diagnosis we found the following complaints of loss of secondary sexual characteristics and infertility. Physical examination revealed breast development, thin built, small size testes, and absence of beard and pubic hairs. Karyotype and biochemical analysis were performed to detect chromosomal abnormality as well as hormonal level to confirm the diagnosis of Klinefelter's syndrome. Chromosomal analysis of the peripheral blood lymphocytes demonstrated the constitutional karyotype of 47, XXY. Using karyotype the presence of extra X chromosome was confirmed, supporting the cytogenetic finding. The 47, XXY syndrome is relatively uncommon and can be missed clinically because of its variable clinical presentations. Accurate diagnosis of this constitutional karyotype provides a valuable aid in the counselling and early management of the patients who undertake fertility evaluation.

  14. Human infertility: are endocrine disruptors to blame?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Pinto, André; Carvalho, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Over recent decades, epidemiological studies have been reporting worrisome trends in the incidence of human infertility rates. Extensive detection of industrial chemicals in human serum, seminal plasma and follicular fluid has led the scientific community to hypothesise that these compounds may disrupt hormonal homoeostasis, leading to a vast array of physiological impairments. Numerous synthetic and natural substances have endocrine-disruptive effects, acting through several mechanisms. The main route of exposure to these chemicals is the ingestion of contaminated food and water. They may disturb intrauterine development, resulting in irreversible effects and may also induce transgenerational effects. This review aims to summarise the major scientific developments on the topic of human infertility associated with exposure to endocrine disruptors (EDs), integrating epidemiological and experimental evidence. Current data suggest that environmental levels of EDs may affect the development and functioning of the reproductive system in both sexes, particularly in foetuses, causing developmental and reproductive disorders, including infertility. EDs may be blamed for the rising incidence of human reproductive disorders. This constitutes a serious public health issue that should not be overlooked. The exposure of pregnant women and infants to EDs is of great concern. Therefore, precautionary avoidance of exposure to EDs is a prudent attitude in order to protect humans and wildlife from permanent harmful effects on fertility. PMID:23985363

  15. Association between periodontal status and idiopathic male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Norbert; Kárpáti, Krisztina; Szöllősi, János; Keresztúri, Márk; Kozinszky, Zoltan; Gorzó, István; Radnai, Márta

    2016-01-01

    About 30% of male infertility cases are idiopathic. Previous studies reported a positive correlation between deep periodontal pockets and sperm sub-motility, which suggests that periodontitis might have a role in idiopathic semen abnormality pathospermia. We evaluated correlations between periodontal infection parameters and the results of sperm analysis of men with idiopathic infertility. In this observational study, semen quality and periodontal status were analyzed for 95 otherwise healthy men attending an andrology unit for sperm analysis. Half the men in the sperm pathology and normozoospermia groups (50.8% and 50%, respectively) had poor periodontal status. Among the 95 participants, 38% had oligozoospermia, 28% had asthenozoospermia, 16% had cryptozoospermia, and 15% were classified as normozoospermic. Sperm pathology category was not associated with frequency of deep periodontal pockets or calculus. Bleeding on probing was significantly lower among men with asthenozoospermia than among those with normozoospermia. Poor periodontal status was not associated with any sperm pathology category or parameter. In contrast with previous findings, the present results indicate that pathospermia and poor semen quality are not associated with periodontal infection in men with idiopathic infertility. (J Oral Sci 58, 247-253, 2016).

  16. Antioxidant therapy in male infertility: fact or fiction?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armand Zini; Naif Al-Hathal

    2011-01-01

    Infertile men have higher levels of semen reactive oxygen species (ROS) than do fertile men. High levels of semen ROS can cause sperm dysfunction, sperm DNA damage and reduced male reproductive potential. This observation has led clinicians to treat infertile men with antioxidant supplements. The purpose of this article is to discuss the rationale for antioxidant therapy in infertile men and to evaluate the data on the efficacy of dietary and in vitro antioxidant preparations on sperm function and DNA damage. To date, most clinical studies suggest that dietary antioxidant supplements are beneficial in terms of improving sperm function and DNA integrity. However, the exact mechanism of action of dietary antioxidants and the optimal dietary supplement have not been established. Moreover, most of the clinical studies are small and few have evaluated pregnancy rates. A beneficial effect of in vitro antioxidant supplements in protecting spermatozoa from exogenous oxidants has been demonstrated in most studies; however, the effect of these antioxidants in protecting sperm from endogenous ROS, gentle sperm processing and cryopreservation has not been established conclusively.

  17. Ureaplasma spp. in male infertility and its relationship with semen quality and seminal plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun Heng; Ma, Hong Xia; Shi, Xiao Xing; Liu, Yang

    2017-06-22

    We investigated the prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. in semen samples of infertile men in Shanghai, China and evaluated the correlation between the sperm parameters (seminal volume, sperm concentration, progressive motility and non-progressive) and the secretary function in these infectious populations. Semens were collected from 540 infertile men and 260 fertile control group in shanghai, China and subjected to standard bacterial and Ureaplasma spp. culture. Positive Ureaplasma spp. isolates were further tested by PCR to detect the biovars and serotypes of Ureaplasma spp. Sperm seminological variabilities were analyzed by Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis according to the fifth edition of World Health Organization (WHO) laboratory manual for the examination and processing of human semen. Seminal markers were measured by the automatic analyzer. The prevalence of Ureaplasma spp. in semen specimens was 39.6% (214/540) and 19.2% (50/260) in infertile and control group, respectively. Significant difference was observed between the two groups (P  0.05). The progressive motility and the NAG activity of infertile men infected with UPA and mixed species were significantly lower than those of UUR infected subgroup (P role in male infertility. UPA has higher pathogenicity on the progressive motility and the secretary function of epididymis than UUR. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports – focus on male factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Szkodziak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60–80 mln. According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%, irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  19. Infertility in the light of new scientific reports - focus on male factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkodziak, Piotr; Wozniak, Slawomir; Czuczwar, Piotr; Wozniakowska, Ewa; Milart, Paweł; Mroczkowski, Artur; Paszkowski, Tomasz

    2016-06-02

    Epidemiological data indicate that infertility is a problem of global proportions, affecting one- fifth of couples trying to conceive worldwide (60-80 mln). According to the trends observed, the problem is predicted to increase by another two million cases annually. In Poland, infertility-related issues are found in about 19% of couples, including 4% with infertility and 15% with limited fertility. Inability to conceive occurs equally in men and women (50%), irrespective of the direct cause. Although it is generally thought that reproductive issues concern women, infertility affects men and women equally. This study is an attempted to systematize knowledge about the role of the male factor in infertility, particularly current knowledge concerning the environmental factors of infertility. For this purpose, the Medline and CINAHL databases and the Cochrane Library was searched for articles published in English during the last 10 years, using the following keywords: infertility, male factor, semen examination and environmental factor of infertility.

  20. Medical management of male infertility in the absence of a specific etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudeloglu, Ahmet; Brahmbhatt, Jamin V; Parekattil, Sijo J

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic male infertility can be diagnosis in approximately one-third of infertile males. The empirical medical treatment with or without assisted reproductive techniques appears common in male infertility practice. This type of management can be classified as hormonal treatment including gonadotropins, antiestrogens, and aromatase inhibitors and support with antioxidant supplements such as carnitine, lycopene, glutathione, and vitamin E. This review investigates the evidence of commonly used empirical medical management of male infertility when there is no demonstrable diagnosis. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Metabolomics: a state-of-the-art technology for better understanding of male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minai-Tehrani, A; Jafarzadeh, N; Gilany, K

    2016-08-01

    Male factor infertility affects approximately half of the infertile couples, in spite of many years of research on male infertility treatment and diagnosis; several outstanding questions remain to be addressed. In this regard, metabolomics as a novel field of omics has been suggested to be applied for male infertility problems. A variety of terms associated with metabolite quantity and quality have been established to demonstrate mixtures of metabolites. Despite metabolomics and metabolite analyses have been around more than decades, a limited number of studies concerning male infertility have been carried out. In this review, we summarised the latest finding in metabolomics techniques and metabolomics biomarkers correlated with male infertility. The rapid progress of a variety of metabolomics platforms, such as nonoptical and optical spectroscopy, could ease separation, recognition, classification and quantification of several metabolites and their metabolic pathways. Here, we recommend that the novel biomarkers determined in the course of metabolomics analysis may stand for potential application of treatment and future clinical practice.

  2. Male infertility: lifestyle factors and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While we may be comfortable with an allopathic approach to male infertility, we are also responsible for knowledge about lifestyle modifications and holistic, complementary, and alternative therapies that are used by many of our patients. This paper provides an evidence-based review separating fact from fiction for several of these therapies. There is sufficient literature to support weight reduction by diet and exercise, smoking cessation, and alcohol moderation. Supplements that have demonstrated positive effects on male fertility on small randomized controlled trial (RCT include aescin, coenzyme Q 10 , glutathione, Korean red ginseng, L-carnitine, nigella sativa, omega-3, selenium, a combination of zinc and folate, and the Menevit antioxidant. There is no support for the use of Vitamin C, Vitamin E, or saffron. The data for Chinese herbal medications, acupuncture, mind-body practice, scrotal cooling, and faith-based healing are sparse or inconclusive.

  3. Genetic susceptibility to male infertility: news from genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, K I

    2014-05-01

    A thorough understanding of the genetic basis of male infertility has eluded researchers in spite of significant efforts to identify novel genetic causes of the disease, particularly over the past decade. Approximately half of male factor infertility cases have no known cause; however, it is likely that the majority of idiopathic male factor infertility cases have some unidentified genetic basis. Well-established genetic causes of male infertility are limited to Y chromosome microdeletions and Klinefelter's syndrome, together accounting for 10-20% of cases of severe spermatogenic failure. In addition to these, several genetic polymorphisms have been demonstrated to be significantly associated with male infertility. The discovery of new genetic associations with male infertility has been hampered by two primary factors. First, most studies are underpowered because of insufficient sample size and ethnic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Second, most studies evaluate a single gene, an approach that is very inefficient in the context of male infertility, considering that many hundreds of genes are involved in the process of testicular development and spermatogenesis. Significant recent advances in microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies have enabled the application of whole-genome approaches to the study of male infertility. We recently performed a pilot genome-wide association study (GWAS) for severe spermatogenic failure, and several additional male infertility GWAS have since been published. More recently, genomic microarray tools have been applied to the association of copy number variants with male infertility. These studies are beginning to shed additional light on the genetic architecture of male infertility, and whole-genome studies have proven effective in identifying novel genetic causes of the disease. This review will discuss some of the recent findings of these whole-genome studies as well as future directions for this research that will likely

  4. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandekar S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Mammalian spermatozoa are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and are very susceptible to attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS and membrane lipid peroxide ion. Normally a balance is maintained between the amount of ROS produced and that scavenged. Cellular damage arises when this equilibrium is disturbed. A shift in the levels of ROS towards pro-oxidants in semen and vaginal secretions can induce an oxidative stress on spermatozoa. The aim was to study lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase (SOD and to correlate the same, with the ′water test′, in male infertility. SETTINGS: Experimental study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ejaculates from a total of 83 infertile and fertile healthy individuals were obtained. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels were studied and correlated with water test. RESULTS: The results indicate that (i the antioxidant enzyme catalase showed no significant changes in the various pathological samples, (ii antioxidant enzymes SOD and glutathione peroxidase correlate positively with asthenozoospermic samples and (iii the degree of lipid peroxidation also correlates positively with the poorly swollen sperm tails. The increase in SOD and glutathione peroxidase values, in the pathological cases represents an attempt made to overcome the reactive oxygen species. CONCLUSION: Water test could be used as a preliminary marker test for sperm tail damage by reactive oxygen species, since it correlates very well with lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations and polymorphic evaluation in males with primary infertility from Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kate, Ushang V; Pokale, Yamini S; Jadhav, Ajinkya M; Gangane, Suresh D

    2014-10-01

    The chromosomal abnormalities are one of the important causes of male infertility. In view of the genetic risks for the next generation, the importance of careful evaluation of karyotype is essential. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men with primary infertility from Indian population. The 78 infertile men with primary infertility, out of which 26 men were azoospermic, 19 men were oligospermic, 4 men were asthenospermic and 29 men were oligoasthenospermic were studied. Karyoptying was performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes by using the Giemsa trypsin banding (GTG) banding technique. Additional data was collected from published studies in Indian population leading to a total of 1814 cases. Chromosome analysis of 78 infertile males showed major chromosome abnormalities in 10.2%, with 6.4% in autosomal chromosome abnormalities and 3.8% in sex chromosome abnormalities. The incidence of major chromosome abnormalities in oligospermic males were 21% and azoospermic males were 15.4 %. Chromosomal polymorphic variants were identified to be 16.7%. Combining the data from other published studies identified 153/ 1814 (8.4%) infertile men of chromosomal abnormalities; with 10.8% in azoospermia, 7.3% in oligospermia and 7.3% in oligoasthenoteratospermic from India. The overall high prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in infertile males suggests that the conventional chromosomal analysis is an important investigative tool for male infertility, especially prior to use of any assisted reproductive techniques.

  6. Molecular analysis of the PArkin co-regulated gene and association with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gabrielle R; Sim, Marcus L-J; Brody, Kate M; Taylor, Juliet M; McLachlan, Robert I; O'Bryan, Moira K; Delatycki, Martin B; Lockhart, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the potential role of PArkin co-regulated gene (PACRG) in human male infertility. Case-control study. Academic reproductive biology department. Blood samples were obtained from 610 patients and 156 normal control subjects. Genomic DNA was used as template for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the PACRG promoter and coding exons. The amplified fragments were tested for DNA sequence variations by direct sequencing and restriction enzyme analysis. Gene structure and sequence alterations of PACRG in infertile male patients. The structure of PACRG was determined to comprise 5 coding exons, generating a single transcript in the testis which encoded a predicted protein of 257 amino acids. No pathogenic mutations were identified; however, a variant in the promoter of PACRG was shown to be significantly associated with azoospermia, but not oligospermia, in the case-control cohort. Mutation of PACRG was not identified as a cause of male infertility, but variation in the promoter was demonstrated to be a risk factor associated with azoospermia. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Y Choromosomal Microdeletion Screening in The Workup of Male Infertility and Its Current Status in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Suganthi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is an essential stage in human male gamete development, which is regulated by many Y chromosome specific genes. Most of these genes are centred in a specific region located on the long arm of the human Y chromosome known as the azoospermia factor region (AZF. Deletion events are common in Y chromosome because of its peculiar structural organization. Astonishingly, among the several known genetic causes of male infertility, Y chromosomal microdeletions emerged as the most frequent structural chromosome anomaly associated with the quantitative reduction of sperm. The development of assisted reproductive techniques (ART like intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI and testicular sperm extraction (TESE helps to bypass the natural barriers of fertilization, but it increases the concern about the transmission of genetic defects. Experimental evidence suggested that the men with Y chromosomal microdeletions vertically transmitted their deletion as well as related fertility disorders to their offspring via these ART techniques. In India, infertility is on alarming rise. ART centres have opened up in virtually every state but still most of the infertility centres in India do not choose to perform Y chromosomal microdeletion diagnosis because of some advanced theoretical reasons. Moreover, there is no consensus among the clinicians about the diagnosis and management of Y chromosomal microdeletion defects. The current review discusses thoroughly the role of Y chromosome microdeletion screening in the workup of male infertility, its significance as a diagnostic test, novel approaches for screening Y deletions and finally a systematic review on the current status of Y chromosome microdeletion deletion screening in India.

  8. Indigenous knowledge systems and attitudes towards male infertility in Mhondoro-Ngezi, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Stanzia

    2013-01-01

    Male impotence and infertility are health and social problems that have resulted in significant suffering to men the world over. From an African perspective, and in Zimbabwe in particular, the taboo nature of male impotence and infertility carries a lot of mystique. Based on evidence from focus-group discussions, in-depth and key-informant interviews, this study reveals rural Shona people to have indigenous knowledge systems that trigger the investigation of signs of impotence (perceived as associated with male infertility) at infancy, puberty and after marriage. Male infertility carries overtones of failure, frustration, pain, social ostracism, stigma, marital instability, discomfiture and suicide. Intervention strategies to remedy perceived problems were exclusively sociocultural, involving the administration of traditional herbs and traditional healers' divination. Given the existence of indigenous knowledge systems for the investigation and mediation of male impotence and infertility, it is worth incorporating traditional healers in future strategies targeting these emasculating conditions.

  9. Clinical diagnostic testing for the cytogenetic and molecular causes of male infertility: the Mayo Clinic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofherr, Sean E; Wiktor, Anne E; Kipp, Benjamin R; Dawson, D Brian; Van Dyke, Daniel L

    2011-11-01

    Approximately 8% of couples attempting to conceive are infertile and male infertility accounts for approximately 50% of infertility among couples. Up to 25% of males with non-obstructive infertility have chromosomal abnormalities and/or microdeletions of the long arm of the Y-chromosome. These are detected by conventional chromosome and Y-microdeletion analysis. In this study, we reviewed the results of testing performed in the Mayo Clinic Cytogenetics and Molecular Genetics Laboratories and compared our findings with previously published reports. This study includes 2,242 chromosome studies from males ≥18 years of age referred for infertility between 1989 and 2000 and 2,749 Y-deletion molecular studies performed between 2002 and 2009. 14.3% of infertile males tested by karyotyping had abnormalities identified. These include: (258) 47,XXY and variants consistent with Klinefelter syndrome, (3) combined 47,XXY and balanced autosomal rearrangements, (9) 47,XYY, (9) Y-deletions, (7) 46,XX males, (32) balanced rearrangements, and (1) unbalanced rearrangement. 3.6% of males tested for Y-microdeletion analysis had abnormalities identified, 90% of which included a deletion of the AZFc region. This study highlights the need of males suffering from non-obstructive infertility to have laboratory genetic testing performed. An abnormal finding can have significant consequences to assisted reproductive techniques and fertility treatment, and provide a firm diagnosis to couples with longstanding infertility.

  10. [The validation of the use of prostatilen and testilin for treating male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭko, M I

    1995-01-01

    The paper substantiates the use in clinical setting of medicinal preparations obtaining from prostate and tests, in male infertility. Using male rats for an experimental model of infertility it was shown that prostatilene and testilin exert a stimulating effect on spermatogenesis and androgenic functions of the testis. Those agents appear to correct androgenic-estrogenic balance in the animal organism as a model of infertility. The experiment permitted a conclusion to be drawn to the effect that prostatilene and testilin are liable to be of clinical benefit when used to stimulate spermatogenesis in infertility and hypoandrogenization; besides, the rise in androgens may stimulate copulative function in patients with sexual problems.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of infertility-related male hormonal dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrins, Martin; Niederberger, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of infertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men requires an understanding of the hormonal basis of spermatogenesis. The best method for accurately determining male androgenization status remains elusive. Treatment of hormonal dysfunction can fall into two categories - empirical and targeted. Empirical therapy refers to experience-based treatment approaches in the absence of an identifiable aetiology. Targeted therapy refers to the correction of a specific underlying hormonal abnormality. However, the tools available for inferring the intratesticular hormonal environment are unreliable. Thus, understanding the limitations of serum hormonal assays is very important for determining male androgen status. Furthermore, bulk seminal parameters are notoriously variable and consequently unreliable for measuring responses to hormonal therapy. In the setting of azoospermia owing to spermatogenic dysfunction, hormonal therapy - relying on truly objective parameters including the return of sperm to the ejaculate or successful surgical sperm retrieval - is a promising treatment. This approach to the treatment of fertility-related hormonal dysfunction in men contrasts with the current state of its counterpart in female reproductive endocrinology. Treatment of male hormonal dysfunction has long emphasized empirical therapy, whereas treatment of the corollary female dysfunction has been directed at specific deficits.

  12. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  13. Systematic characterization of seminal plasma piRNAs as molecular biomarkers for male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yeting; Wang, Cheng; Fu, Zheng; Liang, Hongwei; Zhang, Suyang; Lu, Meiling; Sun, Wu; Ye, Chao; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zen, Ke; Shi, Liang; Zhang, Chunni; Chen, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Although piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis, little is known about piRNAs in the seminal plasma of infertile males. In this study, we systematically investigated the profiles of seminal plasma piRNAs in infertile males to identify piRNAs that are altered during infertility and evaluate their diagnostic value. Seminal plasma samples were obtained from 211 infertile patients (asthenozoospermia and azoospermia) and 91 fertile controls. High-throughput sequencing technology was employed to screen piRNA profiles in seminal plasma samples pooled from healthy controls and infertile patients. The results identified 61 markedly altered piRNAs in infertile patient groups compared with control group. Next, a quantitative RT-PCR assay was conducted in the training and validation sets to measure and confirm the concentrations of altered piRNAs. The results identified a panel of 5 piRNAs that were significantly decreased in seminal plasma of infertile patients compared with healthy controls. ROC curve analysis and risk score analysis revealed that the diagnostic potential of these 5 piRNAs to distinguish asthenozoospermic and azoospermic individuals from healthy controls was high. In summary, this study identifies a panel of piRNAs that can accurately distinguish fertile from infertile males. This finding may provide pathophysiological clues about the development of infertility. PMID:27068805

  14. A potential tool for diagnosis of male infertility: Plasma metabolomics based on GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyi; Wang, Yang; Yun, Yonghuan; Xia, Zian; Lu, Hongmei; Luo, Jiekun; Liang, Yizeng

    2016-01-15

    Male infertility has become an important public health problem worldwide. Nowadays the diagnosis of male infertility frequently depends on the results of semen quality or requires more invasive surgical intervention. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a novel approach for early diagnosis of male infertility. According to the presence or absence of normal sexual function, the male infertility is classified into two phenotypes, erectile dysfunction (ED) and semen abnormalities (SA). The aim of this study was to investigate the GC-MS plasma profiles of infertile male having erectile dysfunction (ED) and having semen abnormalities (SA) and discover the potential biomarkers. The plasma samples from healthy controls (HC) (n=61) and infertility patients with ED (n=26) or with SA (n=44) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for discrimination and screening potential biomarkers. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed on GC-MS dataset. The results showed that HC could be discriminated from infertile cases having SA (AUC=86.96%, sensitivity=78.69%, specificity=84.09%, accuracy=80.95%) and infertile cases having ED (AUC=94.33%, sensitivity=80.33%, specificity=100%, accuracy=87.36%). Some potential biomarkers were successfully discovered by two commonly used variable selection methods, variable importance on projection (VIP) and original coefficients of PLS-DA (β). 1,5-Anhydro-sorbitol and α-hydroxyisovaleric acid were identified as the potential biomarkers for distinguishing HC from the male infertility patients. Meanwhile, lactate, glutamate and cholesterol were the found to be the important variables to distinguish between patients with erectile dysfunction from those with semen abnormalities. The plasma metabolomics may be developed as a novel approach for fast, noninvasive, and acceptable diagnosis and characterization of male infertility.

  15. Distribution of male infertility specialists in relation to the male population and assisted reproductive technology centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Ajay K; Likosky, Donald S; Wang, Dongmei

    2010-07-01

    To describe the spatial distribution of assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers and male infertility specialists by location, driving distance from ART center, and potential male population in need of these resources. Cross-sectional study. Male population in the reproductive years (20-49 years old) based on U.S. Census Bureau data in 2000. Urology male infertility specialists as defined by 2005 specialty society membership directories. ART centers registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in 2005. Male population and male infertility specialists within the service area served by in-state and neighboring-state ART centers, as defined by a 60-minute travel time. One hundred ninety-seven male infertility specialists and 390 ART centers were identified. On a state level, the highest male population in the reproductive years was seen in California, Texas, and Florida. The highest male populations per male specialist were found in Oregon, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. The highest number of ART centers per male specialist was found in Tennessee. The highest proximities of male specialists within the 60-minute driving service area of different ART centers were found in the North East and Southern California. The Midwest to Northwest had the least. A disparity of urology male infertility specialists exists in the United States, with large areas of the country being underserved and overserved based on the location of ART centers. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sperm counts and sperm sex ratio in male infertility patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael L Eisenberg; Lata Murthy; Kathleen Hwang; Dolores J Lamb; Larry I Lipshultz

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations.While men bear the sex-determining chromosome,the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio.We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm.We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded.Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Ychromosomes/total chromosomes).Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters.A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH.For the entire cohort,the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5%.Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8%) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6%; P=0.02).After multivariable adjustment,a higher sperm concentration,total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P<0.01).As a man's sperm production declines,so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm.Thus,a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring.

  17. Oxidative stress induces idiopathic infertility in Egyptian males

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-19

    Jan 19, 2012 ... Oxidative stress (OS) would play a vital role in etiology of ... To examine OS effect on Egyptian men fertility, sperm samples were obtained from infertile .... 1 ml semen. According to seminal quality profile, the infertile patients were .... donors and idiopathic men in terms of semen volume (ml) and leukocytes ...

  18. 'At the hospital I learnt the truth': diagnosing male infertility in rural Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parrott, F.R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how men's reproductive bodies are problematised in rural northern Malawi as access to biomedically defined diagnoses of the health of men's sperm contribute to the visibility of male infertility. Ethnographic research with infertile and fertile men explored pathways into the

  19. Bacteriospermia and Sperm Quality in Infertile Male Patient at University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, O. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Male Urogenital tract infection plays an important role in men infertility. Asymptomtic bacteriospermia has been regarded as of the contributing factor to male infertility. In this study, 87 semen samples of infertile men attending the Human Reproduction Research Programme and Invitrofertilization unit (HRRP/IVF of University Benin Teaching Hospital were evaluated Bacteriologically using standard Bacterial culture method. Standard semen analysis was performed according to WHO guidelines. Among the total cases, 36 (41.4% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (16.1%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (9.1%, Escherichia Coli (6.9% Proteus mirabilis (3.4% Klebsiella spp (2.3% Pseudomonas aerouginosa (1.1% and Proteus vulgaris (2.3%. There was a significant relation between bacteriospermia and the rate of number of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms (p 0.05. It seems that leukocytopermia is not a good maker to predict bacteriospermia.

  20. Role of genetic mutations in folate-related enzyme genes on Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kang; Zhao, Ruizhe; Shen, Min; Ye, Jiaxin; Li, Xiao; Huang, Yuan; Hua, Lixin; Wang, Zengjun; Li, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several studies showed that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes might be associated with male infertility; however, the results were still inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis to investigate the associations between the MTHFR C677T, MTHFR A1298C, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G mutations and the MTHFR haplotype with the risk of male infertility. Overall, a total of 37 studies were selected. Our meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T mutation was a risk factor for male infertility in both azoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia patients, especially in Asian population. Men carrying the MTHFR TC haplotype were most liable to suffer infertility while those with CC haplotype had lowest risk. On the other hand, the MTHFR A1298C mutation was not related to male infertility. MTR A2756G and MTRR A66G were potential candidates in the pathogenesis of male infertility, but more case-control studies were required to avoid false-positive outcomes. All of these results were confirmed by the trial sequential analysis. Finally, our meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis proved that the genetic mutations in the folate-related enzyme genes played a significant role in male infertility. PMID:26549413

  1. Expression profiles of NPHP1 in the germ cells in the semen of men with male factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, A N; Anil Kumar, T R; Pillai, S M; Jayakrishnan, K; Kumar, P G

    2015-07-01

    NPHP1, the gene that encodes the protein nephrocystin-1 has been identified to be mutated in Juvenile Nephronophthisis, an autosomal recessive cystic kidney disorder which is the most frequent genetic cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in children and young adults. Nphp1-targeted mutant mice studies have shown that it did not express renal manifestations of nephronophthisis; instead male mice were infertile with oligoteratozoospermia signifying the crucial role of Nphp1 in relation to murine spermatogenesis. Whether an aberrant expression of NPHP1 in testis might lead to spermatogenic defects in human and ultimately male factor infertility is a possibility that have not been investigated so far. In this regard, characterization of NPHP1 in spermatozoa from fertile and infertile males was carried out by employing RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunofluorescence analysis. In all the 23 normozoospermic samples we screened, NPHP1 was significantly expressed at the target message and protein level and also prominent localization pattern of NPHP1 was observed at the head, midpiece, and tail segments of spermatozoa. Conversely, in majority of the 103 infertile samples we screened, aberrant pattern of NPHP1 expression was detected at the transcript and protein level and abnormal localization pattern of expression was observed in spermatozoa. Anomalies detected in infertile cases when compared with the normozoospermic controls points to the indispensable role of NPHP1 in relation to spermatogenesis. Thus, besides the decisive association with juvenile nephronophthisis, our study provides the first direct evidence that NPHP1 is associated with male factor infertility and also could be a possible biomarker for the assessment of male fertility status. GENBANK NM_000272.3 © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  2. A review on some causes of male infertility

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-17

    May 17, 2010 ... oxygen species, FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone; LH, luteinizing ... the reproductive tract, as well as diminished sperm volume and sperm ... DDT on male rat sexual development found that low levels of .... both human and animal models. ..... ever, evidence of animal and human toxicity and high incidence ...

  3. Urogenital Tract Infection in Asymptomatic Male Patients with Infertility in University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Edo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibadin, K. O.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Urogenital tract infection (UTI contributes to the commonest single defined cause of infertility worldwide. To evaluate the role of urogenital tract infection in male with infertility and its association with sperm quality. Methodology and Results: Three hundred and twenty three (323 samples from infertile male subject were screened microbiologically for microorganisms associated with urogenital tract infection with seventy-two (72 age-matched male as controls using microbiological standard procedure. 164 (50.8% infection rate was recorded. The dorminant uropathogen detected or isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (14.0%, Chlamydia trachomatis (11.4%, Escherichia coli (4.3%, Micoplasma genitalium (4.0% Klebsielli aerogenes (4.0%. Others were Staphylococus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Protein mirabilis with 2.7% each respectively, Protein vulgaria treponema pallidum (2.1%, Schistosoma haematobium (0.9% Wulchereria Bancrofti (0.3%, Human immune virus (2.7%. Semen profile of the male patients with urogenital tract infection had abnormal semen quality in this study P<0.05. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Oligospermic infertile male subjects should be screened for urogenital tract infection to further enhance good quality sperms and functions.

  4. The role of clinical pathologists in the management of male infertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of clinical pathologists in the management of male infertility. ... selection of required tests so as to ensure optimum diagnosis and treatment efficiency. ... for further tests which include hormonal assays, tissue studies and karyotyping.

  5. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic...

  6. How Common is Male Infertility, and What Are Its Causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and what are its causes? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Infertility is defined clinically in women and men who cannot achieve pregnancy after 1 year of having intercourse without using ...

  7. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  8. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon Research Conference: Mammalian Gametogenesis and Embryogenesis New London, CT, July 1-6, 2000Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility ResearchDavid Miller 1, David Dix2, Robert Reid 3, Stephen A Krawetz 3 1Reproductive ...

  9. Effects of Carnitine on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Males with Idiopathic Asthenospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Studies confirm that a number of nutritional and environmental factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and cause male infertility. Carnitine is an important factor for sperm motility. Carnitine deficiency decreases sperm motility and may cause male infertility. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of carnitine on sperm parameters in infertile males with idiopathic asthenospermia. Materials & Methods: This study is a before and after clinical trial performed on 40 asthenospermia men who were treated with 750 mg per/day carnitine in Fatemieh infertility research center in years 2006-2007. Sperm parameters were assessed before and after treatment. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS10 and paired T-test Results: The results showed a significant increase in sperm concentration, morphology, sperm total motility and rapid progressive motility after treatment by carnitine (p<0.05. Conclusion: Carnitine supplementation has a significant effect on sperm parameters in men with idiopathic asthenospermia.

  10. 新疆地区男性不育患者人乳头瘤病毒感染和抗精子抗体的回顾性研究%Retrospective analysis of association between human papilloma virus infection and antisperm antibodies in male infertile patients in Xinjiang area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓芳; 张英; 王欣

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the association between human papilloma virus(HPV)infection and antisperm antibodies(As-Ab)in male infertile patients in Xinjiang area.Methods A total of 127 cases of infertile male patients were selected as experimental group,other 130 cases of normal male were enrolled in the control group.HPV sperm infection was detected by using reverse dot blot hybridization kit.The levels of AsAbs in semen specimen were measured by using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Results The infection rate of male infertile patients(67.7%)was higher than that of normal male(1 6.2%),with signifi-cant differences(P <0.05).The positive rate of AsAb of male infertile patients with HPV infection(38.4%)was higher than that of male infertile patients without HPV infection(1 7.1%),with significant differences(P <0.05).Compared with male infertile pa-tients without HPV infection,the percentages of sperm motility and grade (a+b)sperm motility were decreased in male infertile pa-tients with HPV infection,wihile the sperm malformation rate was increased in male infertile patients with HPV infection,with sig-nificant differences(P <0.05).Conclusion The HPV infection rate of male infertile patients is relatively high in this area.HPV sperm infection could be associated with AsAb that may further reduce male fertility.%目的:探讨新疆地区男性不育患者人乳头瘤病毒(HPV)感染与抗精子抗体(AsAb)的关系。方法选取127例男性不育患者作为试验组,130例正常生育男性作为对照组。采用反向斑点杂交方法检测 HPV 精液感染,采用酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测精液中 AsAb 水平。结果男性不育患者 HPV 感染率(67.7%)高于正常生育男性 HPV 感染率(16.2%),差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);HPV 精液感染的男性不育患者,AsAb 阳性率(38.4%)高于无 HPV 感染的不育男性(17.1%),差异具有统计学意义。与 HPV 感染阴性男性不育患者比较,HPV 感染男性不育患者

  11. The CAG repeat polymorphism of mitochondrial polymerase gamma (POLG) is associated with male infertility in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti-Gargouri, S; Ghorbel, M; Chakroun, N; Sellami, A; Fakhfakh, F; Ammar-Keskes, L

    2012-05-01

    Male fertility largely depends on sperm quality, which may be affected by environmental and genetic factors. Recent data emphasised the implication of the polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA polymerase gamma (POLG) CAG repeats in male infertility. In this report, we explored a possible role of the (POLG) gene polymorphism in male infertility in Tunisian men. The polymorphic CAG repeat in the nuclear POLG gene was studied in 339 male subjects (216 patients with infertility (69 azoospermic, 115 oligoasthenoteratospermic and 32 normospermic) and 123 fertile) after DNA amplification by PCR, followed by genotyping using an automatic sequencer. The heterozygous and the homozygous mutant genotypes (10/ ≠ 10 and ≠ 10/ ≠ 10) were significantly more frequent among infertile patients than among fertile controls (11.2% versus 1.6%, P = 1.3 × 10(-3) and 4.6% versus 0.8%, P = 4.2 × 10(-7) respectively). We also found a significant difference between the frequencies of 10/ ≠ 10 genotype in azoospermic (4.4%) and in oligoasthenoteratospermic (15.6%) infertile patients (P = 2.6 × 10(-2) ). However, the homozygous mutant genotype (≠ 10/ ≠ 10) was seen at similar frequencies in azoospermic, normospermic and oligoasthenospermic men (4.4%, 3.1% and 5.2% respectively). Under our conditions, the findings showed an association between POLG CAG repeat polymorphism and male infertility in Tunisian population.

  12. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  13. Validation of artificial neural network models for predicting biochemical markers associated with male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickram, A S; Kamini, A Rao; Das, Raja; Pathy, M Ramesh; Parameswari, R; Archana, K; Sridharan, T B

    2016-08-01

    Seminal fluid is the secretion from many glands comprised of several organic and inorganic compounds including free amino acids, proteins, fructose, glucosidase, zinc, and other scavenging elements like Mg(2+), Ca(2+), K(+), and Na(+). Therefore, in the view of development of novel approaches and proper diagnosis to male infertility, overall understanding of the biochemical and molecular composition and its role in regulation of sperm quality is highly desirable. Perhaps this can be achieved through artificial intelligence. This study was aimed to elucidate and predict various biochemical markers present in human seminal plasma with three different neural network models. A total of 177 semen samples were collected for this research (both fertile and infertile samples) and immediately processed to prepare a semen analysis report, based on the protocol of the World Health Organization (WHO [2010]). The semen samples were then categorized into oligoasthenospermia (n=35), asthenospermia (n=35), azoospermia (n=22), normospermia (n=34), oligospermia (n=34), and control (n=17). The major biochemical parameters like total protein content, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc content were elucidated by standard protocols. All the biochemical markers were predicted by using three different artificial neural network (ANN) models with semen parameters as inputs. Of the three models, the back propagation neural network model (BPNN) yielded the best results with mean absolute error 0.025, -0.080, 0.166, and -0.057 for protein, fructose, glucosidase, and zinc, respectively. This suggests that BPNN can be used to predict biochemical parameters for the proper diagnosis of male infertility in assisted reproductive technology (ART) centres. AAS: absorption spectroscopy; AI: artificial intelligence; ANN: artificial neural networks; ART: assisted reproductive technology; BPNN: back propagation neural network model; DT: decision tress; MLP: multilayer perceptron; PESA: percutaneous

  14. Knockout of BRD7 results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heran; Zhao, Ran; Guo, Chi; Jiang, Shihe; Yang, Jing; Xu, Yang; Liu, Yukun; Fan, Liqing; Xiong, Wei; Ma, Jian; Peng, Shuping; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Xiayu; Li, Zheng; Li, Xiaoling; Schmitt, David C; Tan, Ming; Li, Guiyuan; Zhou, Ming

    2016-02-16

    BRD7 was originally identified as a novel bromodomain gene and a potential transcriptional factor. BRD7 was found to be extensively expressed in multiple mouse tissues but was highly expressed in the testis. Furthermore, BRD7 was located in germ cells during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, ranging from the pachytene to the round spermatid stage. Homozygous knockout of BRD7 (BRD7(-/-)) resulted in complete male infertility and spermatogenesis defects, including deformed acrosomal formation, degenerative elongating spermatids and irregular head morphology in postmeiotic germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium, which led to the complete arrest of spermatogenesis at step 13. Moreover, a high ratio of apoptosis was determined by TUNEL analysis, which was supported by high levels of the apoptosis markers annexin V and p53 in knockout testes. Increased expression of the DNA damage maker λH2AX was also found in BRD7(-/-) mice, whereas DNA damage repair genes were down-regulated. Furthermore, no or lower expression of BRD7 was detected in the testes of azoospermia patients exhibiting spermatogenesis arrest than that in control group. These data demonstrate that BRD7 is involved in male infertility and spermatogenesis in mice, and BRD7 defect might be associated with the occurrence and development of human azoospermia.

  15. Correlation between SHBG gene polymorphism and male infertility in Han population of Henan province of China: A STROBE-compliant article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuan-Rong; Guo, Yi-Hong; Qiao, Su-Dong; Leng, Li-Fa; Xie, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xing-Ling

    2017-08-01

    Human sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) level alteration and SHBG gene mutations, especially in rs6259 and rs727428 loci, are associated with male infertility. In this study, the rs6259 and rs727428 loci in SHBG gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to explore the direct relation between these 2 loci and male infertility in Han population of Henan province and to provide information for the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of male infertility.A total of 366 male Han individuals in Henan province were enrolled in this study. Of the 366 male individuals, 183 infertility patients were served as infertility group and other 183 normal individuals as a control group. SHBG gene rs6259 and rs727428 locus polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP in all patients. Also, genotype frequencies, allele frequency, and haplotype were all analyzed in both groups.There were statistical differences in A allele frequency (P = .017) and GA genotype frequency (P = .016) of SHBG gene rs6259 locus and in CC genotype frequency of SHBG gene rs727428 locus (P = .034) between the 2 groups.Male infertility is associated with GA genotype and A allele of rs6259 locus, as well as CC genotype of rs727428 locus in SHBG gene.

  16. Detection of Y chromosome microdeletions and mitochondrial DNA mutations in male infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güney, A I; Javadova, D; Kırac, D; Ulucan, K; Koc, G; Ergec, D; Tavukcu, H; Tarcan, T

    2012-04-27

    Infertility affects about 10-15% of all couples attempting pregnancy with infertility attributed to the male partner in approximately half of the cases. Proposed causes of male infertility include sperm motility disturbances, Y chromosome microdeletions, chromosomal abnormalities, single gene mutations, and sperm mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) rearrangements. To investigate the etiology of decreased sperm fertility and motility of sperm and to develop an appropriate therapeutic strategy, the molecular basis of these defects must be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to reveal the relationships between the genetic factors including sperm mtDNA mutations, Y chromosome microdeletions, and sperm parameters that can be regarded as candidate factors for male infertility. Thirty men with a history of infertility and 30 fertile men were recruited to the study. Y chromosome microdeletions were analyzed by multiplex PCR. Mitochondrial genes ATPase6, Cytb, and ND1, were amplified by PCR and then analyzed by direct sequencing. No Y chromosome microdeletions were detected in either group. However, a total of 38 different nucleotide substitutions were identified in the examined mitochondrial genes in both groups, all of which are statistically non-significant. Fifteen substitutions caused an amino acid change and 12 were considered novel mutations. As a conclusion, mtDNA mutations and Y chromosome microdeletions in male infertility should be examined in larger numbers in order to clarify the effect of genetic factors.

  17. Is there a place for nutritional supplements in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility?

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    Davide Arcaniolo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Infertility affects 15% of couples in fertile age. Male factor is a cause of infertility in almost half of cases, mainly due to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT. The purpose of this study is to review the effects of nutritional supplements as medical treatment for idiopathic male infertility. Material and methods: A Pub Med and Medline review of the published studies utilizing nutritional supplements for the treatment of male infertility has been performed. Results: Clinical trials on Vitamin E, Vitamin A, Vitamin C. Arginine, Carnitine, N-Acetyl-Carnitine, Glutathione, Coenzyme Q10, Selenium and Zinc were reviewed. Although there is a wide variability in selected population, dose regimen and final outcomes, nutritional supplements both alone and in combination seems to be able to improve semen parameters (sperm count, sperm motility and morphology and pregnancy rate in infertile men. Conclusions: There are rising evidences from published randomized trials and systematic review suggesting that nutritional supplementation may improve semen parameters and the likelihood of pregnancy in men affected by OAT. This improvement, however, is not consistent and there is a wide variation in the treatment regimens used. Well designed and adequately powered RCTs are needed to better clarify the role of nutritional supplements as treatment for male infertility.

  18. N-nitrosamines induced infertility and hepatotoxicity in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, S A; El Banna, Y Y; Balbaa, M; Abdullah, I A; Hassan, H E

    2017-09-01

    fibrosis around portal areas were seen in hepatic tissues. In the testes, histopathological examination displayed disorganized seminiferous tubules with degeneration of germinal epithelium and Sertoli cells. Also, spermatogenic cells had pyknotic nuclei and others were detached from basement membranes of seminiferous tubules, edema was seen between seminiferous tubules. Moreover, the present data showed that MEN and DEN down-regulated the protein expression of both CYP19A1 and 21A2 in both livers and testes of male rabbits. In addition, both MEN and DEN decreased levels of testosterone and estradiol in plasma of treated rabbits. On the one hand, DMN and DPN markedly up-regulated the protein expression of CYP19A1 in both hepatic and testicular tissues of treated rabbits. These compounds potentially increased estradiol and decreased testosterone levels. On the other hand, no correlation was found between the expression of CYP11A1 and levels of both testosterone and estradiol. It is concluded that most of tested N-nitrosamines induce different changes, which could be a new mechanism of infertility due to exposure to N-nitrosamines from different environmental sources. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Meiotic recombination and male infertility:from basic science to clinical reality?%减数分裂重组和男性不育:从基础研究到临床实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael C Hann; Patricio E Lau; Helen G Tempest

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is a common problem that affects approximately 15% of the population. Although many advances have been made in the treatment of infertility, the molecular and genetic causes of male infertility remain largely elusive. This review will present a summary of our current knowledge on the genetic origin of male infertility and the key events of male meiosis. It focuses on chromosome synapsis and meiotic recombination and the problems that arise when errors in these processes occur, specifically meiotic arrest and chromosome aneuploidy, the leading cause of pregnancy loss in humans. In addition, meiosis-specific candidate genes will be discussed, including a discussion on why we have been largely unsuccessful at identifying disease-causing mutations in infertile men.Finally clinical applications of sperm aneuploidy screening will be touched upon along with future prospective clinical tests to better characterize male infertility in a move towards personalized medicine.

  20. An overview of the role of bacterial infection in male infertility

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    Hamed Fanaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An important cause of male infertility is the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract. These infections affect sperm cell function and whole spermatogenesis and also cause deterioration in spermatogenesis, obstruction of the seminal tract, and impairment of spermatozoa function. The most important bacteria associated with genitourinary tract infections include chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and genital mycoplasma species. Inappropriate or delayed therapy of the bacterial infections of the genitourinary tract will lead to reduced fertility and, subsequently in severe cases, infertility. In other words, a good understanding of the interaction between bacterial infections and the reproductive system plays an important role in the treatment of infertile men. In this review article, we will discuss clinical and laboratory findings related to the bacterial infection of the genitourinary tract and its effects on male infertility.

  1. Guideline-based management of male infertility: Why do we need it?

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    Landon W Trost

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current clinical guidelines for the management of infertility as presented by the American Urologic Association and European Association of Urology represent consensus opinions for the management of male-factor infertility. The goal of the present study is to define the currently available guidelines for male-factor infertility, provide a rationale for why guidelines should be implemented, and review concerns and shortcomings towards their incorporation into clinical practice. Successfully integrating guidelines into clinical practice offers the potential benefit of creating a standardized, efficient, and cost-effective algorithm for the evaluation of infertility and facilitates future research. Despite their availability and ease of use, many clinicians fail to adopt clinical guidelines for numerous reasons including decreased awareness of available guidelines, insufficient time, lack of interest, and personal financial considerations. The current guidelines are limited by the inability to generalize recommendations to a heterogeneous patient sample, the lack of interdisciplinary adoption of guidelines, and the need for additional emphasis on prevention and lifestyle modifications. Future direction for the current guidelines will likely incorporate a multidisciplinary approach with increasing utilization of genetic analysis and novel treatment strategies. As the field of infertility continues to expand, the utility of guidelines combined with physician clinical judgment will remain prominent in the treatment of male-factor infertility.

  2. Diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility in mammal: the focusing of tyrosine phosphorylation and phosphotyrosine proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Rahman, Md Saidur; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2014-11-01

    Male infertility refers to the inability of a man to achieve a pregnancy in a fertile female. In more than one-third of cases, infertility arises due to the male factor. Therefore, developing strategies for the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility is critical. Simultaneously, a satisfactory model for the cellular mechanisms that regulate normal sperm function must be established. In this regard, tyrosine phosphorylation is one of the most common mechanisms through which several signal transduction pathways are adjusted in spermatozoa. It regulates the various aspects of sperm function, for example, motility, hyperactivation, capacitation, the acrosome reaction, fertilization, and beyond. Several recent large-scale studies have identified the proteins that are phosphorylated in spermatozoa to acquire fertilization competence. However, most of these studies are basal and have not presented an overall mechanism through which tyrosine phosphorylation regulates male infertility. In this review, we focus of this mechanism, discussing most of the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that have been identified to date. We categorized tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in spermatozoa that regulate male infertility using MedScan Reader (v5.0) and Pathway Studio (v9.0).

  3. Usage and perceptions of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors among the male partners of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Seung-Hun; Kim, Dong Suk; Shim, Sung Han; Lim, Jung Jin; Yang, Seung Choul

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and the usage of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors for ED treatment in infertile couples. A total of 260 male partners in couples reporting infertility lasting at least 1 year were included in this study. In addition to an evaluation of infertility, all participants completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-5 questionnaire to evaluate their sexual function. The participants were asked about their use of PDE5 inhibitors while trying to conceive during their partner's ovulatory period and about their concerns regarding the risks of PDE5 inhibitor use to any eventual pregnancy and/or the fetus. Based on the IIEF-5 questionnaire, 41.5% of the participants (108/260) were classified as having mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 17-21), while 10.4% of the participants (27/260) had greater than mild ED (an IIEF-5 score of 16 or less). The majority (74.2%, 193/260) of male partners of infertile couples had a negative perception of the safety of using a PDE5 inhibitor while trying to conceive. Only 11.1% of men (15/135) with ED in infertile couples had used a PDE5 inhibitor when attempting conception. ED was found to be common in the male partners of infertile couples, but the use of PDE5 inhibitors among these men was found to be very low. The majority of male partners were concerned about the risks of using PDE5 inhibitors when attempting to conceive. Appropriate counseling about this topic and treatment when necessary would likely be beneficial to infertile couples in which the male partner has ED.

  4. Relation between male obesity and male infertility in a Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjkacem Loukil, L; Hadjkacem, H; Bahloul, A; Ayadi, H

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is associated with significant disturbance in the hormonal milieu that can affect the reproductive system. Male infertility affects approximately 6% of reproductive-aged men. It has been suggested that overweight men or men with obese body mass index (BMI) experience prolonged time to pregnancy, although the influence of male BMI on fertility remains understudied. We hypothesised that BMI is inversely correlated with fertility, manifested by reduced sperm concentration and varicocele. Males of mean age 32.74 ± 6.96 years with semen analyses and self-reported BMI were included (n = 98). Patient parameters analysed included age, BMI, pubertal timing, the development of varicocele, and leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone (n = 18). The mean age of the study population was 32.74 ± 6.96 years. The incidence of azospermia, oligozoospermia, normospermia and the development of varicocele did not vary across BMI categories. Male obesity is not associated with the incidence of sperm concentration and the development of varicocele.

  5. Factors predictive of abnormal semen parameters in male partners of couples attending the infertility clinic of a tertiary hospital in south-western Nigeria

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    Peter Olusola Aduloju

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is a common gynaecological problem and male factor contributes significantly in the aetiology of infertility. Semen analysis has remained a useful investigation in the search for male factor infertility. Aim: This study assessed the pattern of semen parameters and predictive factors associated with abnormal parameters in male partners of infertile couples attending a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Methods: A descriptive study of infertile couples presenting at the clinic between January 2012and December 2015 was done at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti. Seminal fluid from the male partners were analysed in the laboratory using the WHO 2010 criteria for human semen characteristics. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 and logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors associated with abnormal semen parameters. Results: A total of 443 men participated in the study and 38.2% had abnormal sperm parameters. Oligozoospermia (34.8% and asthenozoospermia (26.9% are leading single factor abnormality found, astheno-oligozoospermia occurred in 14.2% and oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia in 3.6% of cases. The prevalence of azoospermia was 3.4%. Smoking habit, past infection with mumps and previous groin surgery significantly predicted abnormal semen parameters with p values of 0.025, 0.040 and 0.017 respectively. Positive cultures were recorded in 36.2% of cases and staph aureus was the commonest organism. Conclusion: Male factor abnormalities remain significant contributors to infertility and men should be encouraged through advocacy to participate in investigation of infertility to reduce the level of stigmatization and ostracizing of women with infertility especially in sub-Saharan Africa.

  6. Combined effects of urinary phytoestrogens metabolites and polymorphisms in metabolic enzyme gene on idiopathic male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yufeng; Du, Guizhen; Chen, Minjian; Hu, Weiyue; Lu, Chuncheng; Wu, Wei; Hang, Bo; Zhou, Zuomin; Wang, Xinru; Xia, Yankai

    2014-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived compounds that may interact with estrogen receptors and mimic estrogenic effects. It remains unclear whether the individual variability in metabolizing phytoestrogens contributes to phytoestrogens-induced beneficial or detrimental effects. Our aim was to determine whether there is any interaction between metabolic rates (MR) of phytoestrogens and genetic polymorphisms in related xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes. MR was used to assess phytoestrogen exposure and individual metabolic ability. The amount of phytoestrogens in urine was measured by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in 600 idiopathic infertile male patients and 401 controls. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPstream platform combined with the Taqman method. Prototypes and metabolites of secoisolariciresinol (SEC) have inverse effects on male reproduction. It was found that low MR of SEC increased the risk of male infertility (OR 2.49, 95 % CI 1.78, 3.48, P trend = 8.00 × 10(-8)). Novel interactions were also observed between the MR of SEC and rs1042389 in CYP2B6, rs1048943 in CYP1A1, and rs1799931 in NAT2 on male infertility (P inter = 1.06 × 10(-4), 1.14 × 10(-3), 3.55 × 10(-3), respectively). By analyzing the relationships between urinary phytoestrogen concentrations, their metabolites and male infertility, we found that individual variability in metabolizing SEC contributed to the interpersonal differences in SEC's effects on male reproduction.

  7. Association of CAT-262C/T with the concentration of catalase in seminal plasma and the risk for male infertility in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousnane, Nour El Houda; May, Sadiq; Yahia, Mouloud; Abu Alhaija, Abed Alkarem

    2017-10-01

    Catalase (CAT) plays a central role in the protection of different cell types against the deleterious effects of hydrogen peroxide. In human, CAT is implicated in many physiological and pathological conditions including idiopathic male infertility. In this study we examined the association between CAT levels in seminal plasma with different sperm parameters and with CAT-262 C/T polymorphism and their risk for idiopathic male infertility in Algeria. Semen and blood samples were obtained from 111 infertile males and 104 fertile controls from the region of Eastern Algeria following informed consent. Standard semen parameters, DNA integrity, and CAT concentration in seminal plasma were evaluated. CAT-262C/T genotypes were screened using allele specific PCR. Seminal CAT activity was significantly different (pinfertile males and controls, it was also markedly decreased in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (pdirect association between CAT-262C/T polymorphism and general male infertility. However, the results presented in this study showed that CAT activity is remarkably associated with the CAT-262T allele (p=0.001) and the different CAT-262C/T genotypes. This study highlighted the major differences in the seminal plasma CAT content between infertile and fertile males and the differences of CAT concentration between different CAT-262C/T genotypes carriers.

  8. Application of Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Diagnosis of Male Infertility

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    Kang-sheng LIU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early semen detection has become a major concern due to the increasing incidence of male infertility caused by deteriorated reproductive environmental pollution in the modern society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the value of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH level in the diagnosis of male infertility.Methods: According to fertility, the subjects undergoing health examination in Nanjing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital Affiliated to Nanjing Medical University were divided into infertile group (n=61 and fertile group (n=58. The levels of AMH in both seminal plasma and blood in two groups were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. The levels of serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, testosterone (T and prolactin (PRL were all measured using electrochemiluminescence. The seminal AHM parameters in two groups were compared. The relationship between seminal AMH and other parameters, and the relationship between seminal AMH and serous AMH were analyzed in infertile group.Results: In terms of AMH levels, sperm motility, class A sperm rate and sperm vitality, infertile group was markedly inferior to fertile group, and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.01. Pearson correlation results revealed that the level of seminal AMH was positively correlated with sperm motility, class A sperm rate and sperm viability (P<0.05, but had no correlation with the level of sexual hormones (P>0.05. The level of seminal AMH was significantly higher than that of serous AMH (P<0.01. Pearson correlation results revealed that there was no significant correlation between seminal AMH and serous AMH (r=0.026, P>0.05.Conclusion: Seminal AMH can be an effective marker of insufficient sperms in infertile males, which may bring an optimized strategy to predict infertility when combined with conventional seminal parameters.

  9. CAG repeat length in androgen receptor gene and male infertility in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosaad, Y M; Shahin, D; Elkholy, A A-M; Mosbah, A; Badawy, W

    2012-02-01

    The CAG repeat and its association with infertility has been debatable. Therefore, this study was planned to assess the distribution of CAG repeat expansion in Egyptian patients and to investigate its association with male infertility. Forty-five infertile men were eligible for the study in addition to 20 aged-matched fertile males as control. Semen analysis, scrotal sonography, assay of serum testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH), and determination of the CAG repeat number within exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene were carried out. Statistically significant difference was found between infertile and control groups regarding sperm count, sperm motility, serum FSH level and CAG repeats (P CAG repeats (P = 1.0) was found between oligozoospermic and asthenospermic groups; negative correlation was found between CAG repeat length and sperm count, and a positive correlation was found between CAG repeat length and serum FSH (P CAG repeat may be associated with lower AR function with derangement of sperm production, and this may contribute to male infertility in Egyptian men.

  10. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    OpenAIRE

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was cond...

  11. Severe male infertility after failed ICSI treatment-a phenomenological study of men's experiences

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    Hellström Anna-Lena

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male-factor infertility underlies approximately 30% of infertility in couples seeking treatment; of which 10% is due to azoospermia. The development of assisted reproductive technology (ART, enabling the use of epididymal or testicular sperm for fertilization of the partner's oocytes, has made biological fatherhood possible for men with obstructive azoospermia. There is limited knowledge of men's experience of their own infertility. The aim of this study was to describe men's experiences of obstructive azoospermia infertility. Methods Eight men with obstructive azoospermia, who had terminated Swedish public health system ART treatment two years previously without subsequent childbirth, were interviewed using a descriptive phenomenological method. Results The essence of the phenomenon is expressed with a metaphor: climbing a mountain step by step with the aim of reaching the top, i.e. having a child and thus a family with a child. Four constituents are included (1 inadequacy followed by a feeling of redress (2 marginalisation, (3 chivalry (4 extension of life and starting a family as driving forces. Conclusions Knowledge of men's experiences of their own infertility is important as a supporting measure to increase the quality of care of infertile couples. By adopting this facet of gender perspective in fertility treatment guidelines, care can hopefully be optimized.

  12. Association Between Vitamin D Levels and Semen Parameters in Infertile Males

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    Erkan Ozdemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and laboratory characteristics of infertile males according to their postwash progressively motile sperm count and to evaluate whether there was a relationship between serum vitamin D (VD levels and semen parameters. Material and Method: A total of 198 infertile men were included in this cross-sectional study. Study population was mainly divided into two groups according to post wash total progressively motile sperm count (TPMSC as less than 5 million/ml (study group and equal or greater than 5 million/ml (control group. The main parameters recorded for each patient were; age, BMI (body mass index, infertility type, infertility duration, previous operation, history of disease, smoking, drug usage and serum levels of 25OHVD3, total calcium (Ca and testosterone (TT, gonadotropins, and semen parameters. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of age, BMI, infertility type, infertility duration, and previous operation, history of disease, smoking, drug usage, TT, and 25OHVD3 levels. Serum levels of gonadotropins were significantly lower in the study group (p

  13. The diagnosis and treatment of male infertility in the new millennium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmar, J L

    2001-01-01

    Treatment of male infertility accomplished far-reaching advances in the past decade. Semen analysis has given rise to sperm function tests. Microsurgery, e.g., reversal of vasectomy, has reached new heights in sperm retrieval directly from the testis/epididymis and in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Furthermore, genetic testing-for an ever-widening range of anomalies-is the norm in modern clinical practice. This review of what is possible, and now even common, in male infertility treatment focuses on sperm function, and then deficits/anomalies and their treatment; and testicular function and dysfunction, with descriptions of hormonal and surgical techniques that now offer fatherhood to men with types of infertility that strongly imply the need for genetic counseling.

  14. No CAG repeat expansion of polymerase gamma is associated with male infertility in Tamil Nadu, South India

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    J Poongothai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria contains a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA polymerase, polymerase gamma (POLG mapped to long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25, responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Exon 1 of the human POLG contains CAG trinucleotide repeat, which codes for polyglutamate. Ten copies of CAG repeat were found to be uniformly high (0.88 in different ethnic groups and considered as the common allele, whereas the mutant alleles (not -10/not -10 CAG repeats were found to be associated with oligospermia/oligoasthenospermia in male infertility. Recent data suggested the implication of POLG CAG repeat expansion in infertility, but are debated. The aim of our study was to explore whether the not -10/not -10 variant is associated with spermato g enic failure. As few study on Indian population have been conducted so far to support this view, we investigated the distribution of the POLG CAG repeats in 61 infertile men and 60 normozoospermic control Indian men of Tamil Nadu, from the same ethnic background. This analysis interestingly revealed that the homozygous wild type genotype (10/-10 was common in infertile men (77% - 47/61 and in normozoospermic control men (71.7% - 43/60. Our study failed to confirm any influence of the POLG gene polymorphism on the efficiency of the spermatogenesis.

  15. No CAG repeat expansion of polymerase gamma is associated with male infertility in Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poongothai, J

    2013-07-01

    Mitochondria contains a single deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase, polymerase gamma (POLG) mapped to long arm of chromosome 15 (15q25), responsible for replication and repair of mitochondrial DNA. Exon 1 of the human POLG contains CAG trinucleotide repeat, which codes for polyglutamate. Ten copies of CAG repeat were found to be uniformly high (0.88) in different ethnic groups and considered as the common allele, whereas the mutant alleles (not -10/not -10 CAG repeats) were found to be associated with oligospermia/oligoasthenospermia in male infertility. Recent data suggested the implication of POLG CAG repeat expansion in infertility, but are debated. The aim of our study was to explore whether the not -10/not -10 variant is associated with spermatogenic failure. As few study on Indian population have been conducted so far to support this view, we investigated the distribution of the POLG CAG repeats in 61 infertile men and 60 normozoospermic control Indian men of Tamil Nadu, from the same ethnic background. This analysis interestingly revealed that the homozygous wild type genotype (10/-10) was common in infertile men (77% - 47/61) and in normozoospermic control men (71.7% - 43/60). Our study failed to confirm any influence of the POLG gene polymorphism on the efficiency of the spermatogenesis.

  16. A CHROMOSOMAL KARYOTYPING STUDY IN MALE WITH PRIMARY INFERTILITY IN A WESTERN WEST BENGAL POPULATION

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    Abhijit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT It is interesting that the primary infertility is a major problem in a society like ours where the population is going to be exploded. It is because that infertility severely affects the family or couples psychological harmony, sexual life & social status. Of the many factors responsible for primary male infertility which may be manifested as azoospermia or oligozoospermia, one of the important etiological factors is genetic abnormality affecting the Y chromosome. Among the different parameters known to be responsible for normal spermatogenesis, a small region in the long arm of Y chromosome, containing genes or gene cluster, defined as ‘Azoospermia Factor’ (AZF is definitely maintains the normal spermatogenesis to occur. Any abnormality in that part of the Y chromosome in the form of deletion or deviation of normal gene arrangement produces azoospermia or oligozoospermia and subsequently produces primary male infertility. SETTINGS Bankura Sammilani Medical College and Hospitals, Bankura, West Bengal. DESIGN Simple random sampling method. DURATION OF STUDY November 2013 to march 2015 (One and a half year. METHOD 80 males suffering from primary infertility with azoospermia or oligozoospermia were selected attending the antenatal outpatient department. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS 2.5% patients showed numerical chromosomal abnormality i.e. Klinefelter syndrome (47XXY. Structural abnormalities were detected in 3.75% patients in the form of deletion in the long arm of Y chromosome and ring chromosome. RESULT Out of 80 patients 5 patients showed chromosomal abnormalities in the form of both numerical as Klinefelter syndrome (2 patients & qualitative as deletions (2 patients & ring chromosome (1 patient. CONCLUSION Y chromosomal abnormalities either numerical or structural, is an important factor of male infertility as oligospermia or azoospermia. These abnormalities can be easily detected by simple aids like karyotyping and does not require high

  17. A case-control study of risk factors for male infertility in Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Friday Okonofua; Uche Menakaya; S. O. Onemu; L. O. Omo-Aghoja; Staffan Bergstrom

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the association between selected potential socio-demographic and behavioral risk factors and infertility in Nigerian men. Methods: There were two groups in this study. One group consisted of 150 men with proven male infertility, and the other consisted of 150 fertile men with normal semen parameters. Both were matched for age,place of residence and key socio-demographic variables. They were compared for sexual history, past medical and surgical history, past exposures to sexually transmitted infections and treatment, past and current use of drugs as well as smoking and alcohol intake history. Results: Infertile men were significantly more likely than fertile men to report having experienced penile discharge, painful micturition and genital ulcers, less likely to seek treatment for these symptoms and more likely to seek treatment with informal sector providers. Multivariate analysis showed that male infertility was significantly associated with bacteria in semen cultures, self-reporting of previous use of traditional medications and moderate to heavy alcohol intake, but not with smoking and occupational types. Conclusion:Infertility is associated with various proxies of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and poor healthcare-seeking behavior for STIs in Nigerian men.

  18. Male infertility: An audit of 70 cases in a single centre

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    E.A. Jeje

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Varicocoele represents the most common treatable cause of male factor infertility and treatment is accompanied with improved seminal fluid parameters as well pregnancy rate. Post-treatment sperm concentration and motility were the only factors that could predict the possibility of achieving pregnancy.

  19. Gene polymorphisms and male infertility--a meta-analysis and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tüttelmann, Frank; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Nieschlag, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    where the population(s) could be clearly identified as fertile and/or infertile, and a summary of all polymorphisms that have been investigated in single case-control studies to date. The meta-analyses revealed significant associations between polymorphism and male fertility only for AZF gr/gr deletions...

  20. Association between methionine synthase reductase A66G polymorphism and primary infertility in Chinese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Ye, J Z; Ding, X P; Zhang, X H; Ma, T J; Zhong, R; Ren, H Y

    2015-04-15

    We examined the association between the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR A66G), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and A1298C), and methionine synthase (MS A2756G) genotypes and non-obstructive male infertility in a Chinese population. This case-control study included 162 infertile Chinese patients with azoospermia (N = 100) or oligoasthenozoospermia (N = 62) and 120 fertile men as controls. The polymorphisms MTRR A66G, MTHFR C677T, A1298C, and MS A2756G were identified by direct DNA sequencing and the results were statistically analyzed. We found no association between the incidence of any of these variants in azoospermia patients and control populations. The frequency of the MTRR66 polymorphic genotypes (AG, AG+GG) was significantly higher in the oligoasthenozoospermia group compared to the controls (P = 0.013, 0.012). Our findings revealed an association between the single-nucleotide polymorphism A66G in the MTRR gene and male infertility, particularly in oligoasthenozoospermia males, suggesting that this polymorphism is a genetic risk factor for male infertility in Chinese men.

  1. Semen quality of male partners of infertile couples living with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Chukwujekwu Ezechi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions: Male factor contributes about one third of infertility in this study and severity of HIV diseases impacts on semen quality. Further studies are needed to evaluate if antiretroviral therapy will reverse the effect of HIV infection on semen quality. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1423-1427

  2. The therapeutic effects of Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang in treating male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Zhang, C; Du, L; Xue, W; Zou, P

    2001-06-01

    Eight-seven cases of male infertility due to spermatopathy were treated with Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang (SJZZT [symbol: see text]) for 1-3 courses. The total effective rate was 95.40% (83/87). 56.32% (49/87) of their spouses got pregnant and the semen quality was markedly improved (P cortisol (C).

  3. Genetic screening and evaluation for chromosomal abnormalities of infertile males in Jilin Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M; Fan, H-T; Zhang, Q-S; Wang, X-Y; Yang, X; Tian, W-J; Li, R-W

    2015-12-08

    Chromosomal abnormality is the most common genetic cause of male infertility, particularly in cases of azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomal rearrangement may interrupt an important gene or exert position effects. The functionality of genes at specific breakpoints, perhaps with a specific role in spermatogenesis, may be altered by such rearrangements. Structural chromosome abnormalities are furthermore known to increase the risk of pregnancy loss. In this study, we aimed to assess chromosomal defects in infertile men from Jilin Province, China, by genetic screening and to evaluate the relationship between structural chromosome abnormalities and male infertility. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities among the study participants (receiving genetic counseling in Jilin Province, China) was 10.55%. The most common chromosome abnormality was Klinefelter syndrome, and the study findings suggested that azoospermia and oligospermia may result from structural chromosomal abnormalities. Chromosome 1 was shown to be most commonly involved in male infertility and balanced chromosomal translocation was identified as one of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Chromosomes 4, 7, and 10 were the most commonly involved chromosomes in male partners of women experiencing repeated abortion.

  4. [Analysis of sperm chromosomal abnormalities and sperm DNA fragmentation in infertile males].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi; Wang, Leiguang; Zhang, Lihong; Yang, Dantong; Zhang, Aidong; Yu, Jianchun

    2008-12-01

    To investigate changes in sperm chromosome and sperm DNA integrity of infertile males. The level of DNA fragmentation was determined by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion (SCD) test in infertile males with idiopathic severe oligoasthenozoospermia (ISOA, n= 19), couples with unexplained recurrent miscarriage (URM, n= 38) and adult healthy fertile men (control group, n= 32). Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with probes specific for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y in the control group (n= 5), the ISOA (n= 10) and the URM (n= 12). Patients with ISOA and URM showed a significantly higher abnormality with total rate of 4.02% (n= 19) and 3.91%(n= 38) for chromosomes 13, 18 and 21, and 2.03%, 1.98% for chromosomes X and Y, respectively, in their spermatozoa compared to control (1.29% and 0.61%, Pchromosomal aberration and the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation (gamma = 0.874, Pabnormal sperm (gamma = - 0.571, gamma = - 0.616 and gamma = 0.637, respectively, Pchromosomal aneuploidy and may lead to male infertility. Screening for sperm DNA damage may provide useful information in the diagnosis of male idiopathic infertility.

  5. Should sperm DNA fragmentation testing be included in the male infertility work-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sheena E M

    2015-08-01

    A response to the editorial 'Are we ready to incorporate sperm DNA fragmentation testing into our male infertility work-up? A plea for more robust studies' by Erma Drobnis and Martin Johnson. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by a number of factors. Both male and female factors can contribute to infertility. What treatment options are available for infertility? Treatment ... problems. A common problem that leads to male infertility, varicocele , sometimes can be ... are hormonal problems treated in women? Abnormal levels of hormones ...

  7. Large Vesicula Seminalis Cyst: A Very Rare Cause of Constipation and Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Ates

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We report a 35-year-old male patient with chronic constipation and infertility for 4 years. Spermiogram revealed severe oligospermia. An external mass compressing the rectum was found during rectal examination and flexible rectosigmoidoscopy. Abdominal computed tomography showed a presacral cystic mass which displaced the bladder anteriorly. The cyst was completely removed with open surgery. Histopathologic analysis revealed a cystic lesion covered with squamous epithelium including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages and sperm cells. After the operation, the patient's symptoms were relieved. We considered that the constipation was caused by external compression by the vesicula seminalis cyst. In cases of constipation with infertility, vesicula seminalis cyst should be kept in mind.

  8. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Lotti; Giovanni Corona; Linda Vignozzi; Matteo Rossi; Elisa Maseroli; Sarah Cipriani; Mauro Gacci; Gianni Forti; Mario Maggi

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ...

  9. AB28. Management of male factor infertility: present on the assisted reproductive technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Infertility is a common yet complex problem affecting approximately 10-15% of couples attempting to conceive a baby. Especially, 40-50% of these factors are known as male-related disorders. Unlike female infertility, the cause of which is often easily identified, diagnosing male factors can be difficult. Male infertility is due to low sperm production, abnormal sperm function or blockages of sperm transport. Classical semen analysis in laboratory, which include sperm concentration, motility and morphology gives an approximate evaluation of the functional competence of spermatozoa, but does not always reflect the quality of sperm DNA. The fertilizing potential of sperm depends not only on the functional competence of spermatozoa but also on sperm DNA integrity. The most commonly used techniques to assess sperm DNA integrity are the TUNEL assay, Comet assay, SCSA assay and hallo sperm assay. Recent studies have highlighted the significance of sperm DNA integrity as an important factor which affects functional competence of the sperm. Sperm DNA damage has been closely associated with numerous indicators of reproductive health including fertilization, embryo quality, implantation, spontaneous abortion, congenital malformations. To overcome male infertility, there are variety of surgical and non-surgical urological procedures and medical-pharmacological interventions, and advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART). Among the surgically retrieved methods, there are TESE, TFNA, PESA and MESA that is used with ICSI. The ART, augmented with ICSI in moderate to serve cases, efficiently treat a variety of male infertility disorders by constituting validated and successfully treatment methods. Also, this technique is employed because the limited numbers and functional capacity of motile sperm that can be obtained. Especially, there are technologies such as IMSI and PICSI that are used to select healthy sperms.

  10. Genetic Association Between Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Length Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bihui; Li, Rui; Chen, Yao; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Liping; Lu, Chuncheng; Pan, Feng; Ding, Hongjuan; Xia, Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-03-01

    The association between polymorphism of androgen receptor gene CAG (AR-CAG) and male infertility in several studies was controversial. Based on studies on association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in recent years, an updated meta-analysis is needed. We aimed to evaluate the association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in advantage of the data in all published reports.We searched for reports published before August 2015 using PubMed, CNKI, VIP, and WanFang. Data on sample size, mean, and standard deviation (SD) of AR-CAG repeat length were extracted independently by 3 investigators.Forty-four reports were selected based on criteria. The overall infertile patients and azoospermic patients were found to have longer AR-CAG repeat length (standard mean difference (SMD) = 0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-0.28, P CAG repeat length was longer in infertile men in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races (SMD = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.43, P CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility. The subgroup study on races shows that increased AR-CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Asian, Caucasian, and mixed races. Increased AR-CAG repeat length was also associated with azoospermia.This meta-analysis supports that increased androgen receptor CAG length is capable of causing male infertility susceptibility.

  11. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikkel Fode; Sheila Krogh-Jespersen; Nancy L Brackett; Dana A Ohl; Charles M Lynne; Jens Sonksen

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms.Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction,ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities.Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery,diabetes,congenital spinal abnormalities,multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury.Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications,injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant.Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases.Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases.If these measures fail,surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted.Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home,followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate.The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitrofertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection.The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate.

  12. An association study of HFE gene mutation with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ying Yu; Xu Ma; Bin-Bin Wang; Zhong-Cheng Xin; Tao Liu; Ke Ma; Jian Jiang; Xiang Fang; Li-Hua Yu; Yi-Feng Peng

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the haemochromatosis gene (HFE) influence iron status in the general population of Northern Europe,and excess iron is associated with the impairment of spermatogenesis.The aim of this study is to investigate the association between three mutations (C282Y,H63D and S65C) in the HFE gene with idiopathic male infertility in the Chinese Han population.Two groups of Chinese men were recruited:444 infertile men (including 169 with idiopathic azoospermia) and 423 controls with proven fertility.The HFEgene was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique.The experimental results demonstrated that no C282Y or S65C mutations were detected.Idiopathic male infertility was not significantly associated with heterozygous H63D mutation (odds ratio=0.801,95% confidence interval=0.452-1.421,X2=0.577,P=0.448).The H63D mutation frequency did not correlate significantly with the serum luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (T) levels in infertile men (P=0.896,P=0.404 and P=0.05,respectively).Our data suggest that the HFE H63D mutation is not associated with idiopathic male reproductive dysfunction.

  13. PCR analysis of Yq microdeletions in infertile males,a study from South India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BabuSR; SwarM

    2002-01-01

    Aim:To estimate the frequency of microdeletions in the long arm of Y-chromosome of 20 infertile males from South India.Methods:Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using Y-specific STS of azoospermia factor (AZF) regions i.e.,SY 84 for AZFa,SY 127 for AZFb and SY 254 for AZFc.Results:Of the 20 infertile subjects 3(15%),one azoospermic and two oligozoospermic,showed microdeletions in the AZF region of Y-chromosome.Conclusion:The frequency of deletions involving AZF region of the Y-chromosome is 15% in azoospermic and severely oligozoospermic infertile men.PCR amplification of AZF locus is useful for the diagnosis of microdeletions in the Y-chromosome.

  14. Recurrent X chromosome-linked deletions: discovery of new genetic factors in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giacco, D; Chianese, C; Ars, E; Ruiz-Castañé, E; Forti, G; Krausz, C

    2014-05-01

    The role of X-linked genes and copy-number variations (CNVs) in male infertility remains poorly explored. Our previous array-CGH analyses showed three recurrent deletions in Xq exclusively (CNV67) and prevalently (CNV64, CNV69) found in patients. Molecular and clinical characterisation of these CNVs was performed in this study. 627 idiopathic infertile patients and 628 controls were tested for each deletion with PCR+/-. We used PCR+/- to map deletion junctions and long-range PCR and direct sequencing to define breakpoints. CNV64 was found in 5.7% of patients and in 3.1% of controls (p=0.013; OR=1.89; 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3) and CNV69 was found in 3.5% of patients and 1.6% of controls (p=0.023; OR=2.204; 95% CI 1.05 to 4.62). For CNV69 we identified two breakpoints, types A and B, with the latter being significantly more frequent in patients than controls (p=0.011; OR=9.19; 95% CI 1.16 to 72.8). CNV67 was detected exclusively in patients (1.1%) and was maternally transmitted. The semen phenotype of one carrier (11-041) versus his normozoospermic non-carrier brother strongly indicates a pathogenic effect of the deletion on spermatogenesis. MAGEA9, an ampliconic gene reported as independently acquired on the human X chromosome with exclusive physiological expression in the testis, is likely to be involved in CNV67. We provide the first evidence for X chromosome-linked recurrent deletions associated with spermatogenic impairment. CNV67, specific to spermatogenic anomaly and with a frequency of 1.1% in oligo/azoospermic men, resembles the AZF regions on the Y chromosome with potential clinical implications.

  15. Cytogenetic and molecular screening of the DAZ gene family in a population of infertile males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Amparo Ruiz Suárez

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evalúate the frequency of Y chromosome structural, numerical, chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, as well as DAZ gene microdeletions in the Y chromosome in a population of infertile males. Genetic abnormalities have been established to date in up to 24% of males having severe abnormalities in their sperm (Dohle et al. 2002; deletion of the DAZ gene family (deleted in azoospermia is the most common cause. It has been found in 6% of the oligozoospermias and in 12% of the azoospermias (Van Landuyt et al. 2000. A popula­tion of 20 azoospermic and 10 oligozoospermic males was studied. Five males having normal sperm parameters were used as controls. Each sample was karyotyped (QFQ banding and underwent sY254, sY255 and sY257 mo­lecular amplification. Genetic study revealed alterations in 16.6% of the cases: 6.6% at chromosome level and 10% at molecule level. No chromosomal or molecular gene alterations were detected in control males. The frequencies found lead to a broader population-based study being recommended. They confirmed the need for performing judicious genetic counselling in infertile couples with male factor infertility to avoid or minimise the risks of trans-mitting these abnormalities to offspring and provide better prognosis for assisted reproductive techniques in such patients. Key words: azoospermia; oligozoospermia; microdeletions; ICSI

  16. NOS3 gene variants and male infertility: Association of 4a/4b with oligoasthenozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vučić, N L J; Nikolić, Z Z; Vukotić, V D; Tomović, S M; Vuković, I I; Kanazir, S D; Savić-Pavićević, D L J; Brajušković, G N

    2017-05-03

    Results of recent studies confirmed that oxidative stress negatively affects sperm motility and causes sperm DNA damage. Produced by nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3), nitric oxide is considered to be one of the important mediators of oxidative stress in testis tissue. The aim of this study was to assess the possible association of three genetic variants (rs2070744, rs1799983 and intron variant 4a/4b) in NOS3 gene and infertility occurrence in two groups of infertile men (idiopathic azoospermia and oligoasthenozoospermia) and fertile controls. Genotypes for the single-nucleotide genetic variants rs1799983 and rs2070744 were determined by PCR-RFLP, while genotyping of intron 4 variant 4a/4b was performed by gel electrophoresis of PCR products. Statistical analysis was performed by SNPStats software. No significant association between the three genetic variants of the NOS3 gene and infertility risk was determined comparing allele and genotype frequencies among group of patients diagnosed with azoospermia and the control group. Nevertheless, there was a significant positive association between 4a/4b and infertility in the group of males diagnosed with oligoasthenozoospermia, under overdominant genetic model. Our findings suggest that tandem repeat variant within intron 4 of the NOS3 gene is associated with an increased risk of infertility in men diagnosed with idiopathic oligoasthenozoospermia. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Clinically relevant known and candidate genes for obesity and their overlap with human infertility and reproduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-01-01

    ... reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility...

  18. Chromosomal Abnormalities in Iranian Infertile Males who are Candidates for Assisted Reproductive Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Salahshourifar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study offers our contribution on the topic by a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in a population of Iranian infertile men attending assisted reproduction programs.Materials and Methods: Cytogenetic analysis was performed according to standard methods on cultured cells obtained from the patient peripheral blood. In all, 874 files belonging to male partner of each couple were classified as follows: azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality in respect of morphology and motility.Results: Chromosomal abnormalities were observed in 136(15.5% individuals of the whole population studied including 12.0 %, 1.2 % and 2.0% of azoospermic, oligozoospermic and patients with low sperm quality, respectively. Of those, 116 (13.2% had sex chromosome abnormalities and 20(2.3% had autosomal chromosome abnormalities.Conclusion: We observed high frequency of aneuploidy and sex chromosomal mosaicism in azoospermic men and high structural aberrations in males with low sperm quality. We suggested that type of chromosomal abnormalities had an inverse relation to sperm count. So that, high chromosomal aneuploidy was detected in males with lower sperm count and high structural aberration was detected in males with low sperm quality. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of male infertility. Consequently, Genetic testing and counselling is indicated for infertile men with abnormal semen parameters with either abnormal karyotype or normal karyotype before applying assisted reproductive techniques.

  19. The dynamics of mitochondrial mutations causing male infertility in spatially structured populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Guillaume, Frédéric; Engelstädter, Jan

    2012-10-01

    Mitochondrial genomes are usually inherited maternally and therefore there is no direct selection against mutations that have deleterious effects in males only (mother's curse). This is true in particular for mitochondrial mutations that reduce the fertility of their male carriers, as has been reported in a number of species. Using both analytical methods and computer simulations, we demonstrate that spatial population structure can induce strong selection against such male infertility mutations. This is because (1) infertile males may reduce the fecundity of the females they mate with and (2) population structure induces increased levels of inbreeding, so that the fitness of females carrying the mutation is more strongly reduced than the fitness of wild-type females. Selection against mitochondrial male infertility mutations increases with decreasing deme size and migration rates, and in particular with female migration rates. On the other hand, the migration model (e.g., island or stepping stone model) has generally only minor effects on the fate of the mitochondrial mutations. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Importance of Seminal Hyaluronidase Activity and Hypo-Osmotic Swelling Test in Male Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Tambe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional seminal parameters like sperm density, motility, morphology, etc. are not perfect indicators of seminal functional quality. Hence, Seminal Hyaluronidase Activity (SHA and Hypo-osmotic Swelling (HOS score of sperms that evaluate healthy sperms of fertilizing potential, were studied in male partners of infertile couples. The semen samples were obtained, by masturbation after 4 days of abstinence, from recently Fertility Proven Males (Group-I, n=30 and Male Partners of Infertile Couples Normozoospermic (Group-II, n=30 and Oligozoospermic (Group-III, n=30]. After performing routine seminal analysis, the semen samples were subjected for SHA and HOS score assessment. The mean  standard deviation values of SHA (mm of ring diameter were 9.901.65, 8.771.87 and 6.501.33 in Group-I, Group-II and Group-III, respectively. Similarly, the mean  standard deviation values of HOS score (% were 65.508.69, 58.7715.95 and 39.009.78 in Group-I, Group-II and Group-III, respectively. The difference in values of SHA and HOS score amongst different Groups was very highly significant statistically (p0.001. Also, we found significant correlation of SHA and HOS score with sperm density, % motility and % normal morphology. This study shows that Normozoospermic Infertile Males, although having normal conventional seminal parameters, have lower SHA and HOS score than Fertility Proven Males. Thus, it emphasizes the importance of SHA and HOS score assessment in infertile males.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, Francesco; Corona, Giovanni; Vignozzi, Linda; Rossi, Matteo; Maseroli, Elisa; Cipriani, Sarah; Gacci, Mauro; Forti, Gianni; Maggi, Mario

    2014-01-01

    No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old) males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT) and insulin), seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8), seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8)), scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8) and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation but not with prostate-related symptoms, which suggests that MetS is a trigger for a subclinical, early-onset form of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  2. Stem cell therapeutic possibilities: future therapeutic options for male-factor and female-factor infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Charles A.; Simerly, Calvin R.; Schatten, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in assisted reproduction treatment have enabled some couples with severe infertility issues to conceive, but the methods are not successful in all cases. Notwithstanding the significant financial burden of assisted reproduction treatment, the emotional scars from an inability to conceive a child enacts a greater toll on affected couples. While methods have circumvented some root causes for male and female infertility, often the underlying causes cannot be treated, thus true cures for restoring a patient’s fertility are limited. Furthermore, the procedures are only available if the affected patients are able to produce gametes. Patients rendered sterile by medical interventions, exposure to toxicants or genetic causes are unable to utilize assisted reproduction to conceive a child – and often resort to donors, where permitted. Stem cells represent a future potential avenue for allowing these sterile patients to produce offspring. Advances in stem cell biology indicate that stem cell replacement therapies or in-vitro differentiation may be on the horizon to treat and could cure male and female infertility, although significant challenges need to be met before this technology can reach clinical practice. This article discusses these advances and describes the impact that these advances may have on treating infertility. PMID:23664220

  3. Clinical Factors Associated with Sperm DNA Fragmentation in Male Patients with Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, Akira; Kato, Tomonori; Kawauchi, Yoko; Watanabe, Akihiko; Fuse, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The clinical factors associated with sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) were investigated in male patients with infertility. Materials and Methods. Fifty-four ejaculates from infertile Japanese males were used. Thirty-three and twenty-one were from the patients with varicoceles and idiopathic causes of infertility, respectively. We performed blood tests, including the serum sex hormone levels, and conventional and computer-assisted semen analyses. The sperm nuclear vacuolization (SNV) was evaluated using a high-magnification microscope. The SDF was evaluated using the sperm chromatin dispersion test (SCDt) to determine the SDF index (SDFI). The SDFI was compared with semen parameters and other clinical variables, including lifestyle factors. Results. The SDFI was 41.3 ± 22.2% (mean ± standard deviation) and did not depend on the cause of infertility. Chronic alcohol use increased the SDFI to 49.6 ± 23.3% compared with 33.9 ± 18.0% in nondrinkers. The SDFI was related to adverse conventional semen parameters and sperm motion characteristics and correlated with the serum FSH level. The SNV showed a tendency to increase with the SDFI. The multivariate analysis revealed that the sperm progressive motility and chronic alcohol use were significant predictors of the SDF. Conclusion. The SCDt should be offered to chronic alcohol users and those with decreased sperm progressive motility. PMID:25165747

  4. ROLE OF FINE NEEDLE ASPIRATION CYTOLOGY IN THE EVALUATION OF MALE INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male infertility is a common problem and needs a minimally invasive method to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis . Alternative to open testicular biopsy the fine needle aspiration cytology of the testis is being increasingly used as a minimally invasive method of evaluating testicular function . AIM OF THE STUDY: To know whether FNAC of testes is as informative as biopsy in cases of male infertility . To establish that FNAC is cost effective , safe , out p atient investigation with no complications . METHODOLOGY: Fifty patients with primary male infertility in the age group of 20 - 40 years were included in the study . All the cases with oligospermia and azoospermia were subjected for Doppler study to rule out varicocele . Cord block was achieved with 1% lignocaine and aspiration was done with 23 gauge 1 . 5 inch needle . Smears were made on albuminised slides and stained with Leishman Stain . Forresta et al scoring system was adopted to analyse the smears . In the same sitting testicular biopsy was taken , fixed in Bouins fluid , routinely processed and stained with H&E stain . RESULTS: The commonest group with infertility were in the age group 21 - 30 years . On semen analysis 78% were azoospermic and 22% were oligozoospermic . The testicular size was normal in 90 % of subjects and 10% had small testis . Out of fifty subjects with infertility , 40% subjects had varicocele . Varicocele was commonly associated with duct obstruction . The commonest patterns observed on cytology were; normal spermatogenesis ( 14/50 , 28 % , duct obstruction ( 8/50 , 16 % , maturation arre st ( 7/50 , 14 % and testicular atrophy ( 7/50 , 14 % . In the present study diagnostic accuracy was 93 . 4% . CONCLUSION: Fine needle aspiration cytology is as informative as biopsy and can be done as a routine procedure . It is a simple and cost effective . In cases where FNAC shows normal spermatogenesis with azoospermia and oligospermia , biopsy and doppler study

  5. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters....

  6. High risk genetic factor in Chinese patients with idiopathic male infertility:deletion of DAZ gene copy on Y chromosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨元; 肖翠英; 张思仲; 张思孝; 黄明孔; 林立

    2004-01-01

    @@ Idiopathic azoospermia or oligozoospermia affects approximately 2%-4% of all married males. Recently studies have confirmed that the deletion of DAZ in AZFc region of Y chromosome may be one of the important genetic aetiologies of Caucasian male infertility. To determine the relationship between DAZ gene deletion and idiopathic male infertility in Chinese population, we analysed the DAZ gene copy number of AZFc region in patients with idiopathic azoospermia or oligozoospermia, as well as fertile Chinese men.

  7. [Bacterial infection as a cause of infertility in humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleha, Radek; Boštíková, Vanda; Salavec, Miloslav; Mosio, Petra; Kusáková, Eva; Kukla, Rudolf; Mazurová, Jaroslava; Spliňo, Miroslav

    2013-04-01

    Microorganisms which are present in the human urogenital tract may be involved in the development of inflammatory changes negatively affecting the genitals in both men and women. Pathological conditions due to inflammatory alterations may result in complete loss of fertility. Infections of the urogenital tract are responsible for 15% of all cases of infertility in couples. Negative impact on the human reproduction is mainly caused by direct damage to the genital tract mucosa by metabolic products of microorganisms or by induction of pro-inflammatory responses of the body. Another mechanism is indirect impact of microorganisms on the genital function. Moreover, the effect of bacteria on spermatogenesis and semen quality is important in men. Infections mainly caused by Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae represent the greatest risk in terms of permanent consequences for human reproduction. As for other sexually transmitted disorders, such as infections caused by Gardnerella vaginalis, urogenital mycoplasmas or ureaplasmas, the link between infection and infertility has been intensively researched.

  8. Varicocele and Male Factor Infertility Treatment : A New Meta-analysis and Review of the Role of Varicocele Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Belzile, Eric; Ciampi, Antonio; Dohle, Gert; Jarvi, Keith; Salonia, Andrea; Weidner, Wolfgang; Zini, Armand

    2011-01-01

    Context: Varicocele is a common condition, found in many men who present for infertility evaluation. Objective: To assess the effect of varicocelectomy on male infertility. Evidence acquisition: A literature search was performed using Embase and Medline. Literature reviewed included meta-analyses an

  9. Genetic Association Between Androgen Receptor Gene CAG Repeat Length Polymorphism and Male Infertility: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Bihui; Li, Rui; CHEN, YAO; Tang, Qiuqin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Liping; Lu, Chuncheng; Pan, Feng; Hongjuan DING; Xia,Yankai; Hu, Lingqing; Chen, Daozhen; Sha, Jiahao; Wang, Xinru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between polymorphism of androgen receptor gene CAG (AR-CAG) and male infertility in several studies was controversial. Based on studies on association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in recent years, an updated meta-analysis is needed. We aimed to evaluate the association between AR-CAG repeat length and male infertility in advantage of the data in all published reports. We searched for reports published before August 2015 using PubMed, CNKI, VIP, an...

  10. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Polymorphism and Risk for Male Infertility in Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Vandana; Kumar, Pradeep

    2017-07-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzyme of folate pathway and required for DNA synthesis and methylation. MTHFE C677T polymorphisms is reported as risk factors for various diseases and disorders like birth defects, metabolic, neurological, psychiatric disorders, and cancers. Several studies have investigated association between the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and male infertility. To assess the risk associated with MTHFR C677T polymorphism in Asian population, a meta-analysis was performed. Included articles were collected from the following electronic databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, and Science direct up to March 2015. Risk was estimated as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs) for assessment. Seventeen case-control studies involving 4392 breast infertile males and 3667 fertile males were found suitable for the inclusion in the present meta-analysis. Results showed that the C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with male infertility in Asian population using all the five genetic models (ORT vs. C (allele contrast model) = 1.86, 95% CI 1.7-2.0; ORTT vs. CC (homozygote model) = 1.96, 95% CI 1.67-2.30; ORCT vs. CC (co-dominant model) = 1.40, 95% CI 1.18-1.62; ORTT+CT vs. CC (dominant model) = 1.53, 95% CI 1.30-1.77; ORTT vs. CT+CC (recessive model) = 1.67, 95% CI 1.44-1.92). In conclusion, results of present meta-analysis strongly supported an association between C677T polymorphism and male infertility in Asians.

  11. Identification of polymorphisms and balancing selection in the male infertility candidate gene, ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkins John F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antizyme family is a group of small proteins that play a role in cell growth and division by regulating the biosynthesis of polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, spermine. Antizymes regulate polyamine levels primarily through binding ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, an enzyme key to polyamine production, and targeting ODC for destruction by the 26S proteosome. Ornithine decarboxylase antizyme 3 (OAZ3 is a testis-specific antizyme paralog and the only antizyme expressed in the mid to late stages of spermatogenesis. Methods To see if mutations in the OAZ3 gene are responsible for some cases of male infertility, we sequenced and evaluated the genomic DNA of 192 infertile men, 48 men of known paternity, and 34 African aborigines from the Mbuti tribe in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The coding sequence of OAZ3 was further screened for polymorphisms by SSCP analysis in the infertile group and an additional 250 general population controls. Identified polymorphisms in the OAZ3 gene were further subjected to a haplotype analysis using PHASE 2.02 and Arlequin 2.0 software programs. Results A total of 23 polymorphisms were identified in the promoter, exons or intronic regions of OAZ3. The majority of these fell within a region of less than two kilobases. Two of the polymorphisms, -239 A/G in the promoter and 4280 C/T, a missense polymorphism in exon 5, may show evidence of association with male infertility. Haplotype analysis identified 15 different haplotypes, which can be separated into two divergent clusters. Conclusion Mutations in the OAZ3 gene are not a common cause of male infertility. However, the presence of the two divergent haplotypes at high frequencies in all three of our subsamples (infertile, control, African suggests that they have been maintained in the genome by balancing selection, which was supported by a test of Tajima's D statistic. Evidence for natural selection in this region implies that these haplotypes

  12. Surgical treatment of male infertility in the era of intracytoplasmic sperm injection - new insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C. Esteves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Assisted reproductive technology is an evolving area, and several adjuvant procedures have been created to increase a couple's chance of conceiving. For male infertility, the current challenges are to properly accommodate old and new techniques that are both cost-effective and evidence-based. In this context, urologists are expected to diagnose, counsel, provide medical or surgical treatment whenever possible and/or correctly refer male patients for assisted conception. Urologists are sometimes part of a multiprofessional team in an assisted reproduction unit and are responsible for the above-cited tasks as well as the surgical retrieval of sperm from either the epididymides or testicles. We present a comprehensive review of the surgical treatment options for infertile males, including the perioperative planning and prognostic aspects, with an emphasis on the role of microsurgery in the optimization of treatment results. This review also discusses current techniques for sperm retrieval that are used in association with assisted reproductive technology and includes sperm retrieval success rates according to the technique and the type of azoospermia. New insights are provided with regard to each surgical treatment option in view of the availability of assisted conception to overcome male infertility.

  13. Cryptorchidism is not a risk factor for antisperm antibody production in post-orchidopexy males with infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huan; Zhu, Wei-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Infertility in adulthood is a well-recognized consequence of cryptorchidism, even after successful orchidopexy. Autoimmune reactions against spermatozoa are associated with infertility and often found in cryptorchids. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the linkage between antisperm antibody (ASA) and cryptorchidism, and furthermore, to clarify whether ASA is involved in cryptorchidism-associated infertility. We investigated a total of 48 infertile males with a history of unilateral (n = 30) or bilateral (n = 18) cryptorchidism who had undergone successful orchidopexy in prepuberty, and 20 age-matched fertile and healthy males were collected as controls. ASA in sperm samples was detected by the direct immunobead test, and semen analysis was performed concomitantly. No infertile case satisfied the diagnostic criteria of ASA-mediated infertility set forth by the World Health Organization. Decreases in both sperm concentration and motility accompanied by increases in abnormal morphology were seen in infertile cryptorchids when compared with the healthy controls. Testicular heat exposure in prepuberty is not a risk factor for ASA production. It is evident that the mechanisms that underlie cryptorchidism-associated infertility do not involve ASA. Poor sperm characteristics in cryptorchids resulting from thermal damage to the testes seem to be responsible for their infertility, even after successful orchidopexy. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Zinc levels in seminal plasma and their correlation with male infertility: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiang; Dong, Xingyou; Hu, Xiaoyan; Long, Zhou; Wang, Liang; Liu, Qian; Sun, Bishao; Wang, Qingqing; Wu, Qingjian; Li, Longkun

    2016-03-02

    Zinc is an essential trace mineral for the normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Current studies have investigated the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library for studies that examined the relationship between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility, as well as the effects of zinc supplementation on sperm parameters. Twenty studies were identified, including 2,600 cases and 867 controls. Our meta-analysis results indicated that the seminal plasma zinc concentrations from infertile males were significantly lower than those from normal controls (SMD (standard mean differences) [95% CI] -0.64 [-1.01, -0.28]). Zinc supplementation was found to significantly increase the semen volume, sperm motility and the percentage of normal sperm morphology (SMD [95% CI]: -0.99 [-1.60, -0.38], -1.82 [-2.63, -1.01], and -0.75 [-1.37, -0.14], respectively). The present study showed that the zinc level in the seminal plasma of infertile males was significantly lower than that of normal males. Zinc supplementation could significantly increase the sperm quality of infertile males. However, further studies are needed to better elucidate the correlation between seminal plasma zinc and male infertility.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of male infertility associated with immotile ciliasyndrome: a report of 6 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei Qian-jin; Huang Xue-feng; Ye Bi-lu

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical characteristics,diagnosis and treatment of male infertility associated with immotile cilia syndrome (ICS).Methods:The clinical data of six cases of male infertility associated with ICS were reviewed retrospectively.Results:The clinical features in all cases included chronic or recurrent infections of the upper and lower airways and male infertility.Sinusitis,bronchitis and bronchiectasis were found in all cases and situs inversus totalis found in two cases.Sex hormone levels,chromosome karyotype and Y chromosome microdeletion (AZF) in all cases were normal.All cases were diagnosed as severe asthenospermia by routine semen analysis.Five cases had no motile spermatozoa in semen,while there were less than 0.2% of motile sperm in one case.The total sperm count and sperm viability were normal in four cases and there were very few immotile sperm in two cases.Transmission electron microscopic examination of sperm flagellum revealed disarrangement or a partial absence of 9 + 2 microtubules and/or an absence of the dynein arms in six cases.The bronchial cilia in one case showed to be devoid of inner dynein arms.Five cases underwent six intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles and the rates of fertilization,embryo cleavage and good quality embryos were 50.0%,69.2% and 55.6%,respectively.Two clinical pregnancies and one chemical pregnancy were achieved,with one birth of a healthy baby boy.Conclusions:The ultrastructural defect of cilia or flagellum is the most important diagnostic criteria of ICS.ICSI is an effective treatment for male infertility associated with ICS.

  16. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  17. Outcomes for offspring of men having ICSI for male factor infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jane Halliday

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using single sperm isolated from testicular tissue in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia,or using ejaculated sperm in those with poor semen quality,there have been concerns that this might have adverse effects on the offspring compared to conventional in vitrofertilisation (IVF) and natural conceptions.ICSI is done for reasons other than male factor infertility,and on the whole has not been shown to have any more negative effects than those seen with IVF.There have however,been very few studies of ICSI with a focus on,or large enough numbers to examine,the specific outcomes associated with male factor infertility.From the limited information available in relation to the source of the sperm and aetiology of infertility in the presence of ICSI,there appears to be no increased risk of congenital malformations.There is,however,a small increase in both de novoand inherited chromosome abnormalities.In terms of growth and neurodevelopment,there are very few studies,and so far,no adverse outcomes have been found in young children whose fathers have a sperm defect.The origin of the sperm used in ICSI does not have a major influence on the early life outcomes for the offspring,but transgenerational and epigenetic effects remain unknown.When the male factor infertility is known or thought to be due to a Y-chromosome deletion,this information should be given to the voung male offspring at a time that will ensure his own reproductive health and plans are optimized.

  18. Outcomes for offspring of men having ICSI for male factor infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Since the introduction of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) using single sperm isolated from testicular tissue in men with obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia, or using ejaculated sperm in those with poor semen quality, there have been concerns that this might have adverse effects on the offspring compared to conventional in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and natural conceptions. ICSI is done for reasons other than male factor infertility, and on the whole has not been shown to have any more negative effects than those seen with IVF. There have however, been very few studies of ICSI with a focus on, or large enough numbers to examine, the specific outcomes associated with male factor infertility. From the limited information available in relation to the source of the sperm and aetiology of infertility in the presence of ICSI, there appears to be no increased risk of congenital malformations. There is, however, a small increase in both de novo and inherited chromosome abnormalities. In terms of growth and neurodevelopment, there are very few studies, and so far, no adverse outcomes have been found in young children whose fathers have a sperm defect. The origin of the sperm used in ICSI does not have a major influence on the early life outcomes for the offspring, but transgenerational and epigenetic effects remain unknown. When the male factor infertility is known or thought to be due to a Y-chromosome deletion, this information should be given to the young male offspring at a time that will ensure his own reproductive health and plans are optimized. PMID:22157986

  19. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sunnotel, Olaf

    2010-03-08

    Abstract Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR) signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL) maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis.

  20. Alterations in the steroid hormone receptor co-chaperone FKBPL are associated with male infertility: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton David

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Male infertility is a common cause of reproductive failure in humans. In mice, targeted deletions of the genes coding for FKBP6 or FKBP52, members of the FK506 binding protein family, can result in male infertility. In the case of FKBP52, this reflects an important role in potentiating Androgen Receptor (AR signalling in the prostate and accessory glands, but not the testis. In infertile men, no mutations of FKBP52 or FKBP6 have been found so far, but the gene for FKBP-like (FKBPL maps to chromosome 6p21.3, an area linked to azoospermia in a group of Japanese patients. Methods To determine whether mutations in FKBPL could contribute to the azoospermic phenotype, we examined expression in mouse and human tissues by RNA array blot, RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and sequenced the complete gene from two azoospermic patient cohorts and matching control groups. FKBPL-AR interaction was assayed using reporter constructs in vitro. Results FKBPL is strongly expressed in mouse testis, with expression upregulated at puberty. The protein is expressed in human testis in a pattern similar to FKBP52 and also enhanced AR transcriptional activity in reporter assays. We examined sixty patients from the Japanese patient group and found one inactivating mutation and one coding change, as well as a number of non-coding changes, all absent in fifty-six controls. A second, Irish patient cohort of thirty showed another two coding changes not present in thirty proven fertile controls. Conclusions Our results describe the first alterations in the gene for FKBPL in azoospermic patients and indicate a potential role in AR-mediated signalling in the testis.

  1. Functional polymorphism in H2BFWT-5'UTR is associated with susceptibility to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinu; Park, Hee Suk; Kim, Hwan Hee; Yun, Yeo-Jin; Lee, Dong Ryul; Lee, Suman

    2009-08-01

    H2B histone family, member W, testis-specific (H2BFWT) gene encodes a testis-specific histone that becomes incorporated into sperm chromatin. A male infertility-associated single nucleotide polymorphism (-9C > T) within the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the H2BFWT gene was identified by direct sequencing. Statistical association studies showed the polymorphism significantly associated with male infertility (n = 442, P = 0.0157), especially in non-azoospermia (n = 262, P = 0.018). Furthermore, this polymorphism is also associated with sperm parameters, especially sperm count (n = 164, P = 0.0127) and vitality (n = 164, P = 0.0076). We investigated how the genetic variant at 5'UTR confers susceptibility to non-azoospermia. Western blotting of His-tag H2BFWT revealed a difference at the translational level between -9T and the wild-type -9C in the absence of change at the transcriptional level. Reporter assays showed that this reducing translational change originated from an upstream open reading frame (uORF) generated by the -9C to -9T change. Finally, in vivo H2BFWT expression in sperm was significantly dependent on the -9C > T genotype from non-azoospermia (P = 0.0061). Therefore, this polymorphism could affect the translational efficiency of a quantitatively important histone protein by the uORF. Our data implicate H2BFWT as a susceptibility factor for male infertility, possibly with other genetic and environmental factors.

  2. Oxidation flux change on spermatozoa membrane in important pathologic conditions leading to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2008-06-01

    Free radicals or reactive oxygen species mediate their action through proinflammatory cytokines and this mechanism has been proposed as a common underlying factor for male infertility. There is extensive literature on oxidative stress and its role in male infertility and sperm DNA damage and its effects on assisted reproductive techniques. However, there has never been a report on the oxidation flux change in spermatozoa. Here, the author determined the oxidation flux change in such hypoxic cases, using the simulation test based on nanomedicine technique is used. Of interest, change of flux can be detected. The main pathogenesis should be the direct injury of membrane structure of spermatozoa by free radicals which can lead to sperm defect. Therefore, this work can support the finding that the oxidation flux change corresponding to oxygen pressure change in spermatozoa does not exist. However, the flux change can be seen if the membrane thickness of spermatozoa is varied. Thin membrane spermatozoa are more prone to oxidative stress than thick membrane ones. The defect in the enzymatic system within the spermatozoa should be a better explanation for vulnerability of spermatozoa to oxidative stress. The use of enzymatic modification technique by antioxidants can be useful alternative in management of male infertility.

  3. TCM Treatment of Male Immune Infertility--A Report of 100 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of Yikang Tang (益抗汤 Yikang Decoction) for male immune infertility. Methods: 100 cases of male immune infertility in the treatment group were treated with Yikang Decoction, while 100 cases treated with prednisone as the controls. Physical exam, routine semen and prostate exams, and exams for presence of anti-sperm antibody (AsAb) and mycoplasma in the serum or seminal plasma were carried out. Results: 1) The serum and seminal plasma AsAb levels decreased significantly (P<0.01) in both the groups after treatment, with a more remarkable effect in the treatment group. 2) The sperm density and percentage of motile spermatozoa increased significantly in the two groups,but more significantly in the treatment group after treatment. The pregnancy rate of their wives was higher in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01). 3) The sperm agglutination rate in the two groups decreased, but more significantly in the treatment group after treatment. 4) The improvement rate of the symptoms and the stability of the therapeutic effect were more dramatic in the treatment group than that in the control group (P<0.01)after termination of drug administration. Conclusion: The Yikang Decoction has a more stable effect for male immune infertility than prednisone.

  4. Infertility caused by male partners with genetic defects in Sichuan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Q; Li, T J; Ding, X P; Wei, J; Li, L X; Fu, L

    2013-12-11

    The purpose of this study was to detect chromosomal aberrations and azoospermia factor (AZF) microdeletions in male patients with reproductive problems and to summarize related clinical features to provide reliable information for evaluating prenatal and preimplantation diagnoses. A large cohort of 5083 men with various phenotypes of male infertility was analyzed via G-banding karyotyping, and Origin 8.0 was used to analyze the prevalence of abnormalities. Additionally, patients with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia were analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction to detect microdeletion in the AZF. We identified 387 patients with abnormal karyotypes, and the ratio was 7.61%. Among them were 175 patients with Klinefelter's syndrome, which was the most common numerical chromosomal abnormality and accounted for 45.22% of all chromosomal aberrations. The frequencies of increased satellites, balanced translocations, and Robertsonian translocations were 6.47, 7.00, and 3.62%, respectively. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed in 810 cases with azoospermia, oligozoospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia found a ratio of AZF microdeletions of 4.94%. The finding suggests that chromosomal abnormalities and AZF deletion are main factors that result in male infertility. Detecting these common genetic variations is necessary in infertile men seeking assisted reproductive technology.

  5. FSH treatment in infertile males candidate to assisted reproduction improved sperm DNA fragmentation and pregnancy rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garolla, Andrea; Ghezzi, Marco; Cosci, Ilaria; Sartini, Barbara; Bottacin, Alberto; Engl, Bruno; Di Nisio, Andrea; Foresta, Carlo

    2016-07-27

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether follicle-stimulating hormone treatment improves sperm DNA parameters and pregnancy outcome in infertile male candidates to in-vitro fertilization.Observational study in 166 infertile male partners of couples undergoing in-vitro fertilization. Eighty-four patients were receiving follicle-stimulating hormone treatment (cases) and 82 refused treatment (controls). Semen parameters, sexual hormones, and sperm nucleus (fluorescence in-situ hybridization, acridine orange, TUNEL, and γH2AX) were evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 3 months (T1), when all subjects underwent assisted reproduction techniques. Statistical analysis was performed by analysis of variance.Compared to baseline, cases showed significant improvements in seminal parameters and DNA fragmentation indexes after follicle-stimulating hormone therapy (all P fragmentation index and lower double strand breaks (P fragmentation, which in turn leads to increased pregnancy rates in infertile males undergoing in-vitro fertilization. In particular, double strand breaks (measured with γH2AX test) emerged as the most sensible parameter to follicle-stimulating hormone treatment in predicting reproductive outcome.

  6. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozoemena, Ofn; Ezugworie, Jo; Mbah, Au; Esom, Ea; Ayogu, Bo; Ejezie, Fe

    2011-01-01

    Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%-70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility. Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed. Of 216 men, 173 (80.1%) were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30-55) years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33-61) years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80%) primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%), hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%), and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%). Among the 111 (64.2%) cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55%) cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, 52 (46.85%) of hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, and four (3.60%) of hyperprolactinemia. There was no statistically significant difference in the mean values between the two groups (χ(2) 0.05) for hormonal indices. The hormonal profile should be considered as the gold standard for diagnosis and management of male infertility.

  7. Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, S C; Rajasekaran, M; Hellstrom, W J

    1995-01-01

    Oxygen toxicity is an inherent challenge to aerobic life, including spermatozoa, the cells responsible for propagation of the species. How this toxicity affects the spermatozoan in its interactions with the ovum is still unknown. An increase in oxidative damage to sperm membranes, proteins, and DNA is associated with alterations in signal transduction mechanisms that affect fertility. Recent evidence suggests that spermatozoa and oocytes possess an inherent but limited capacity to generate ROS to aid in the fertilization process. Though a variety of defense mechanisms encompassing antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase, and GSH peroxidase and reductase), vitamins (E, C, and carotenoids), and biomolecules (GSH and ubiquinol) are available, a balance of the benefits and risks from ROS and antioxidants appears to be necessary for the survival and functioning of spermatozoa. An assay system for the evaluation of OSS needs to be developed. Such an assay will assist the clinician in the assessment of fertility status of both male and female partners. The determination of this OSS value will also theoretically identify the subgroups of responders and nonresponders to any putative antioxidant therapy. Though the therapeutic use of antioxidants appears attractive, clinicians need to be aware of exaggerated claims of antioxidant benefits by various commercial supplements for fertility purposes until proper multicenter clinical trial have been completed.

  8. A human reproductive approach to the study of infertility in chimpanzees: An experience at Leon’s Zoological Park, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; López-Saucedo, Janet; Ruiz-Galaz, Lilia Ivone; Barroso-Padilla, José de Jesús; Gallegos-Rivas, Mayra Celina; González-Ortega, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Antonio Martin

    2016-01-01

    Great apes are mammals close to humans in their genetic, behavioral, social and evolutionary characteristics and new genomic information is revolutionizing our understanding of evolution in primates. However, all these species are endangered. While there are many global programs to protect these species, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) projects that in a near future the wild populations will decrease significantly. Nowadays, the relevance of captive populations of great apes is becoming critical for research and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases. In this report, the evaluation of infertility in a group of captive chimpanzees maintained at Leon’s Zoological Park using a human infertility protocol is described. Our results suggested that infertility in this group was due to low hormonal levels and sperm alterations in the male characterized by hormonal assessment and a sperm sample obtained by electroejaculation and cryopreserved using human protocols. In the females, it was demonstrated that it is possible to follow the follicular cycle using non-invasive methods based on morphological changes in genitalia, detection of blood in urine and measurement of hormones in saliva samples; concluding that fertility in females was normal. Also, we demonstrate that human artificial insemination procedures may be applied. Our human approach was successful in finding the infertility cause in this group of captive chimpanzees. In countries with limited resources, collaboration of zoos with human infertility clinics can be beneficial for research and management of reproductive aspects of great apes. PMID:27872723

  9. A human reproductive approach to the study of infertility in chimpanzees: An experience at Leon's Zoological Park, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Aguilar, Raul Eduardo; López-Saucedo, Janet; Ruiz-Galaz, Lilia Ivone; Barroso-Padilla, José de Jesús; Gallegos-Rivas, Mayra Celina; González-Ortega, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Antonio Martin

    2016-01-01

    Great apes are mammals close to humans in their genetic, behavioral, social and evolutionary characteristics and new genomic information is revolutionizing our understanding of evolution in primates. However, all these species are endangered. While there are many global programs to protect these species, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) projects that in a near future the wild populations will decrease significantly. Nowadays, the relevance of captive populations of great apes is becoming critical for research and understanding of pathophysiology of diseases. In this report, the evaluation of infertility in a group of captive chimpanzees maintained at Leon's Zoological Park using a human infertility protocol is described. Our results suggested that infertility in this group was due to low hormonal levels and sperm alterations in the male characterized by hormonal assessment and a sperm sample obtained by electroejaculation and cryopreserved using human protocols. In the females, it was demonstrated that it is possible to follow the follicular cycle using non-invasive methods based on morphological changes in genitalia, detection of blood in urine and measurement of hormones in saliva samples; concluding that fertility in females was normal. Also, we demonstrate that human artificial insemination procedures may be applied. Our human approach was successful in finding the infertility cause in this group of captive chimpanzees. In countries with limited resources, collaboration of zoos with human infertility clinics can be beneficial for research and management of reproductive aspects of great apes.

  10. A phytotherapic approach to reduce sperm DNA fragmentation in patients with male infertility.

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    Capece, Marco; Romeo, Giuseppe; Ruffo, Antonio; Romis, Leo; Mordente, Salvatore; Di Lauro, Giovanni

    2017-04-28

    Infertility affects 50 to 80 million (between 8 and 12% of couples). Male factor is a cause of infertility in almost half of the cases, mainly due to oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. DNA fragmentation is now considered an important factor in the aetiology of male infertility. We studied the effects on semen analysis and on DNA fragmentation of in vivo admnistration of Myo-Inositol and Tribulus Terrestris plus Alga Ecklonia plus Biovis (Tradafertil; Tradapharma Sagl, Swizerland) in men with previously diagnosed male infertility. Sixty patients were enrolled in the present study and were randomized into two subgroups: the group A who received Myo-inositol 1000 mg, Tribulus Terrestris 300 mg, Alga Ecklonia Bicyclis 200 mg and Biovis one tablet a day for 90 days, and the group B (placebo group) who received one placebo tablet a day for 90 days. The primary efficacy outcome was the improvement of semen characteristics after 3 months' therapy and the secondary outcome was the reduction of the DNA fragmentation after treatment. The groups were homogenous for age, hormonal levels, sperm concentration and all parameters of sperm analysis. Sperm concentration and progressive motility improved after treatment with Tradafertil (3.82 Mil/ml vs. 1.71 Mil/ml; p<0.05; 4.86% vs. 1.00%; p<0.05) as well as the DNA fragmentation (-1.64% vs -0.39%, p<0.001). No side effects were revealed. In conclusion, we can affirm that Tradafertil is safe and tolerable. It is a new phytotherapic approach to Oligoasthenoteratospermia (OAT) syndrome that could lead to good results without interacting with hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  11. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in extreme cases of male infertility.

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    Gianpiero D Palermo

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Severely compromised spermatogenesis typical of men with virtual azoospermia or non-obstructive azoospermia requires an extreme search for spermatozoa. Our goal was to evaluate the usefulness of a meticulous search carried out in ejaculated or surgically retrieved specimens in achieving pre- and post-implantation embryo development. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study carried out in an academic institution, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI outcomes were reviewed as a function of length of microscopic sperm search in ejaculated and surgically retrieved specimens. Couples whose male partner presented with either virtual or non-obstructive azoospermia were treated by ICSI and categorized according to the time spent in identifying and retrieving enough spermatozoa to inject all the oocyte cohort. Semen parameter, fertilization, pregnancies, deliveries, and child welfare in relation to increasing search time were analyzed and compared. RESULT(S: The maternal and paternal ages were comparable in both ejaculated and testicular sperm extraction (TESE groups along with the oocytes retrieved. The fertilization rates for both ejaculated and TESE progressively decreased with increasing time (P<0.0001. Clinical pregnancies in the ejaculated cohort remained satifactory. In the TESE cohort, there was a decrease in pregnancy rate with increasing time, from 44% to 23%. In a limited number of cases, offspring health was evaluated in both semen sources and appeared reassuring. CONCLUSION(S: An extensive and at time exhaustive sperm quest yields kinetically and morphologically impaired spermatozoa without apparent impact on embryo developmental competence. Retrieval of spermatozoa from the seminiferous tubules provided more consistent fertilization and pregnancy outcomes than those retrieved from the ejaculate. A trend indicated that pregnancy rate decreased as search time increased in the TESE group. The utilization of the

  12. Polymorphism rs3088232 in the BRDT gene is associated with idiopathic male infertility in the West Siberian Region of Russia

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    A. S. Wainer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelic variants of genes involved in spermatogenesis can contribute to the genetic predisposition to idiopathic male infertility. In the present study we investigated the association of polymorphism rs3088232 in the BRDT gene with the risk of this pathology on the sample of 105 infertile patients and 230 healthy controls. We revealed the association of allele G (OR = 1.80; CI 1.16—2.80; p = 0.008 and genotype GG (OR = 6.47; CI 1.23—34.15; p = 0.01 with idiopathic male infertility.

  13. Novel methods of treating ovarian infertility in older and POF women, testicular infertility, and other human functional diseases.

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    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2015-02-25

    In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis) in newly emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiation of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small blood volume replacement may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation

  14. MODES OF INTERACTION BETWEEN SPERMATOZOID ABNORMALITIES AND CYTOKINES IN SEMINAL PLASMA FROM INFERTILE MALES

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    B. I. Aisikovich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Spearman rank correlation analysis was applied to assess some interrelations between morphological abnormalities of spermatozoids in males with long-term infertility, and cytokine levels in their seminal plasma. Such statistical analysis has revealed a significant positive correlation between prevalence of morphologically abnormal spermatozoids and the levels of IL-1β, MIP-1β, G-CSF, along with negative relationship with IL-5 and IL-10 contents in seminal fluid. The data are, generally, demonstrating participation of cytokines in regulation of male fertility. (Med. Immunol., 2008, Vol. 10, N 2-3, pp 203-208.

  15. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences

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    Ashok Agarwal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  16. Antioxidants and Polyphenols: Concentrations and Relation to Male Infertility and Treatment Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Tali; Har-Vardi, Iris; Harlev, Avi; Friger, Michael; Hamou, Batel; Barac, Tamar; Levitas, Eli; Saphier, Oshra

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is induced by reactive oxygen substances (ROS) that are known to affect male fertility. The aims of this study were to prospectively investigate and characterize total antioxidant and specifically polyphenols concentrations and their relations to sperm quality and fertility treatment success. During their infertility treatment, sixty-seven males were prospectively recruited to this study. After separation of the sperm from the semen sample, the semen fluid samples antioxidants and polyphenols concentrations were determined. Antioxidant concentration was significantly associated with sperm concentration and total motile count. Antioxidants concentration in the group of male with sperm concentration ≥ 15 × 10(6) was significantly higher than in the group of male with antioxidants concentration antioxidants or polyphenols concentrations. This is the first study that reports on polyphenols concentration within semen fluid. More studies are needed in order to investigate polyphenols role in male fertility.

  17. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p < 0.001). Of survivors who met the definition for infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ≥ 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥ 3 versus AAD<3), surgical excision of any organ of the genital tract (RR=1.63, 95% CI 1.20-2.21), testicular radiation ≥ 4Gy (RR=1.99, 95% CI 1.52-2.61), and exposure to bleomycin (RR=1.55, 95% CI 1.20-2.01). Conclusion Many survivors who experience infertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  18. Male attitude towards masturbating: an impediment to infertility evaluation and sperm parameters.

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    Pottinger, A M; Carroll, K; Mason, G

    2016-09-01

    Male attitude about masturbation may influence early diagnosis and treatment of infertility and may be of particular burden in developing countries. We sought to explore attitude about masturbating and examine comfort/discomfort with masturbating and sexual history, pregnancy history and sperm quality in men investigating fertility potential. The study consisted of 83 male volunteers, 23-61 years, attending a fertility management unit in Kingston, Jamaica. Comfort with masturbation was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Participants also completed the unit's standard intake form for infertility investigations and produced a semen sample. T-tests, Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-square were used to compare differences in comfort level with outcome variables. We found 59% were comfortable masturbating although requiring external stimulation to produce a sample (48%); 6% (n = 5) failed to produce a sample after repeated attempts. A higher percentage of men uncomfortable with masturbating reported sexual problems (P < 0.05) and spending a longer time trying to have a baby (P < 0.05). Semen quality was not associated with masturbating comfort. Producing a sample by masturbation is standard for many assisted conception treatments. As comfort with masturbating may influence delay in infertility investigations and fertility outcome, efforts to improve men's comfort level with semen production should be considered in pre-treatment fertility counselling.

  19. Clinical relevance of oxidative stress and sperm chromatin damage in male infertility: an evidence based analysis

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    Marcello Cocuzza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS in the reproductive tract is now a real entity and concern due to the potential harmful effects of high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS on sperm number, motility, quality, and function including damage to sperm nuclear DNA. Evaluation of OS related damage to non-functional sperm is highly relevant as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI technique, an effective therapy for severe male factor infertility, bypasses the majority of reproductive tract deficiencies. Despite the controversial findings in the existing literature, there is now enough evidence to show that sperm DNA damage is detrimental to reproductive outcomes. In addition, spermatozoa of infertile men are suggested to carry more DNA damage than do the spermatozoa from fertile men. Besides impairment of fertility such damage is likely to increase the transmission of genetic diseases during the assisted reproductive procedures. Standardization of protocols to assess reactive oxygen species and DNA damage is very important in introducing these tests in such clinical practice. Thus evaluation of seminal ROS levels and extent of sperm DNA damage especially in an infertile male may help develop new therapeutic strategies and improve success of assisted reproductive techniques (ART.

  20. Seminal, ultrasound and psychobiological parameters correlate with metabolic syndrome in male members of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Degli Innocenti, S; Filimberti, E; Scognamiglio, V; Vignozzi, L; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2013-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a diagnostic category which identifies subjects at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, erectile dysfunction (ED) and male hypogonadism. However, MetS impact on male infertility has been poorly studied. We systematically evaluated possible associations between MetS and clinical characteristics in men with couple infertility. Out of 367 consecutive subjects, 351 men without genetic abnormalities were studied. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation&American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung, and Blood Institute classification. All men underwent physical, hormonal, seminal and scrotal ultrasound evaluation. Erectile and ejaculatory functions were assessed by International Index of Erectile Function-15 erectile function domain (IIEF-15-EFD) and Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), respectively, while psychological symptoms by Middlesex Hospital Questionnaire. Out of 351 patients, 27 (7.7%) fulfilled MetS criteria. Among ultrasound features, in an age-adjusted logistic model, only testis inhomogeneity was significantly associated with increasing MetS factors (HR = 1.36 [1.09-1.70]; p men with couple infertility, MetS is associated with hypogonadism, poor sperm morphology, testis ultrasound inhomogeneity, ED, somatization and depression. Recognizing MetS could help patients to improve not only fertility but also sexual and overall health.

  1. [Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms of 5'-untranslated region of GPx4 gene and male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-yuan; Zhang, Chang-jun; Si, Xiao-min; Yao, Yu-feng; Shi, Lei; Ke, Jin-kun; Yu, Liang; Shi, Li; Yang, Zhao-qin; Huang, Xiao-qin; Sun, Hao; Chu, Jia-you

    2011-06-01

    To study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPx4 or PHGPx) gene and oligo- or asthenozoospermic male infertility. The 5'-UTR region of the GPx4 gene was amplified from infertile men and controls using the polymerase chain reaction and was analyzed for polymorphisms by direct sequencing. A total of 9 SNPs were present in the cohort, however there were no significant differences in these 9 SNPs between the case and control groups. According to the results of linkage disequilibrium analysis and haplotype construction, one haplotype (rs757229-rs757230-rs4588110-rs3746165-rs3746166: C-G-G-T-A) was present only in the control men, and significant difference was detected(Pinfertility. However, the haplotype (rs757229-rs757230-rs4588110- rs3746165-rs3746166: C-G-G-T-A) might be a protective haplotype.

  2. Cytogenetic and andrological status and ICSI-results in couples with severe male factor infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Haidl; B.Peschka; G.Schwanitz; M.Montag; K.vanderVen; H.vanderVen

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To pursue whether cytogenetic aberrations correlate with specific spermatological or hormonal abnormalities.Methods: 305 infertile couples were investigated. All male partners were referred to a complete andrological workup with physical examination, determination of hormones, HIV testing and semen analysis. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in both partners by means of standard techniques using cultured lymphocytes from peripheral blood. Results: Among the 305 couples, 10 men (3.2%) and 10 women (3.2%) showed constitutional chromosomal aberrations, including reciprocal translocations (n=7), Robertsonian translocations (n=3), inversions (n=3), other structural aberrations (n=4) and sex chromosome aberrations (n=3). In addition to the impaired sperm count in most of the patients, a tendency to an increased proportion of spermatozoa with acrosome defect was observed. Conclusion. Chromosomal aberrations may contribute to the low fertilization and pregnancy rates in the infertile couples.(Asian J Androl 2000 Dec;2:293-296)

  3. Occupational risk for male infertility: a case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, S E; Tay, S K

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the study was to determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility (of no known cause) among a group of infertile men compared with a group of fertile men. A total of 640 consecutive men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. Of these, 218 men (cases) were found to have no known cause for their infertility. A total of 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. The Singapore Standard Occupational Classification was used to code the subjects' occupations. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85 and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.91 to 4.24. Work, independently, is not a risk factor for infertility. Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.36 to 5.54), finance analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66; 95% CI, 1.90 to 11.40), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.98), and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72; 95% CI, 1.86 to 32.10) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers." Using services and clerical workers as a reference group, certain occupations are at a higher risk for infertility. Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility.

  4. The pattern of abnormalities on sperm analysis: A study of 1186 infertile male in Yasmin IVF clinic Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulia, S. N.; Lestari, S. W.; Pratama, G.; Harzief, A. K.; Sumapraja, K.; Hestiantoro, A.; Wiweko, B.

    2017-08-01

    A declined in semen quality resulted an increase of male infertility has been reported. The pattern of abnormalities differs from one country to another. Conflicting results from different studies may be influenced by many factor. The aims are to evaluate the pattern of semen analysis of male partners of infertile couples and identify the current status of the contribution of male factor towards the infertility in our environment. The study is a descriptive analysis of the semen analysis of male partners in infertile couples, who were present at Yasmin IVF Clinic, infertility clinic of a Tertiary Care University Teaching Hospital between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2015. A total of 1186 consenting male partners of infertile couple were recruited into the study. According to 2010 WHO normal reference values for semen parameters, 795 (67%) of patients were normozoospermia which had normal semen parameters and 391 (33%) patients had abnormal semen parameters. Oligozospermia was evident in 155 (39.5%) patients, being the most common disorder observed. It is followed by azoospermia (24.4%), oligoasthenozospermia (17.8%), asthenozospermia (5.9%), oligoasthenotera-tozospermia (5,7%), teratozospermia (2.6%), asthenoteratozospermia (2.8%), cryptozoospermia (0.8%), necrozospermia (0.3%), and oligoteratozospermia (0.3%). Abnormal semen quality remains a significant contribution to the overall infertility with oligozospermia being the most common semen quality abnormality. This condition is an indication for the need to focus on the prevention and management of male infertility. In addition, further studies are needed to address possible etiologies and treatment in order to improve fertility rates.

  5. Histology and Immunohistochemistry Study on Mianbu Fang Healing Immunological Infertility of Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王望九; 黄震; 汤明礼; 李笑梅; 陈永华; 产美英; 胡德宝; 戴宁; 孔梅

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the histological and immunohistochemical changes caused by of Traditional Chinese Medicine——Mianbu Fang (Immunological Infertility Healing Mixture) in testis and epididymus of male mice with immunological infertility induced by antisperm antibody (AsAb ).Materials & Methods Models of mice with immunological infertility were used by in-jection of mice sperm. These mice were treated with Mianbu Ⅰ , Mianbu Ⅱ or Pred-nisone Acetates. The characteristics on histology and immunohistochemistry of mice were analyzed.Results High level of AsAb was detected in serum and seminal vesicle plasma of model mice after treatment. Immune compounds mostly deposited in limiting membrane of seminiferous tubules, spermatogonium and epithelia of epididymis ducts. The num-ber of spermatogenic cells per convoluted seminiferous tubule decreased. However, the Chinese medicine could significantly reduce the level of AsAb, or even eliminate the an-tibodies and clear out the immune compounds and increase the number of spermatogenic cells of semini ferous tubules.Conclusion Chinese Medicine Mianbu Ⅰ and Ⅱ can regulate, absorb and clear out cir-culation and partial AsAb, as well as immunological compound. Hence, they can in-crease the number of spermatogenic cells of semini ferous tubules and increase the preg-nancy of mice.

  6. Relationships between personality traits, seminal parameters and hormones in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, R; Schilling, G; Haidl, G; Geiser, F; Imbierowicz, K; Liedtke, R

    2002-10-01

    In this study we investigated the relationship between personality attitudes, psychopathological symptoms and biological parameters in male infertility. Eighty-four infertile men underwent a psychological and medical examination at our clinic. The psychological tests comprised the Symptom Checklist 90-R, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Seminal parameters, gonadotrophins, sex steroids, cortisol and prolactin were analyzed to obtain biological data. Compared with questionnaires completed by normal populations those in the study group scored higher on the scales for 'conscientiousness', 'agreeableness', 'alexithymia' and 'somatization' and lower on the scale for 'neuroticism'. Regarding psychobiological correlations we found a negative correlation between seminal parameters and 'extraversion', 'anxiety' and 'psychoticism'. 'Alexithymia' was negatively correlated with stress hormones and 'conscientiousness' was correlated with sex steroids. The findings suggest above average social competence in the study group. The psychobiological correlations indicate a link between social-competence-related personality traits such as 'extraversion' and 'conscientiousness' and biological fertility characteristics. Implications of a higher alexithymia in infertile men, which is negatively correlated with stress hormones, are discussed.

  7. Histology and Immunohistochemistry Study on Mianbu Fang Healing Immunological Infertility of Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the histological and immunohistochemical changes caused by of Traditional Chinese Medicine--Mianbu Fang (Immunological Infertility Healing Mixture) in testis and epididymus of male mice with immunological infertility induced by antisperm antibody (AsAb ). Materials & Methods Models of mice with immunological infertility were used by in jection of mice sperm. These mice were treated with Mianbu Ⅰ , Mianbu Ⅱ or Pred nisone Acetates. The characteristics on histology and immunohistochemistry of mice were analyzed. Results High level of AsAb was detected in serum and seminal vesicle plasma of model mice after treatment. Immune compounds mostly deposited in limiting membrane of seminiferous tubules, spermatogonium and epithelia of epididymis ducts. The num ber of spermatogenic cells per convoluted seminiferous tubule decreased. However, the Chinese medicine could significantly reduce the level of As Ab, or even eliminate the an tibodies and clear out the immune compounds and increase the number of spermatogenic cells of seminiferous tubules. Conclusion Chinese Medicine Mianbu Ⅰ and Ⅱ can regulate, absorb and clear out cir culation and partial AsAb, as well as immunological compound. Hence, they can in crease the number of spermatogenic cells of seminiferous tubules and increase the preg nancy of mice.

  8. Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms and risk of male idiopathic infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Pan, Jinhong; Liu, Qigui; Xiong, Enqing; Chen, Zhiwen; Zhou, Zhansong; Su, Yongping; Lu, Gensheng

    2013-03-01

    The Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) polymorphisms have been implicated in susceptibility to male idiopathic infertility, but study results are still controversial. To investigate the genetic associations between GSTs polymorphisms and risk of male idiopathic infertility, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Meta-analysis was performed by pooling odds ratio (OR) with its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) form studies in electronic databases up to March 16, 2012. Glutathione S-transferase M 1 (GSTM1) null genotype, Glutathione S-transferase T 1 (GSTT1) null genotype, and dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 were analyzed independently. 14 eligible studies with a total of 1,845 idiopathic infertility males and 1,729 controls were included. There were 13 studies on GSTM1 polymorphism, 10 ones on GSTT1 polymorphism and 5 ones on GSTM1-GSTT1 interaction analysis. Meta-analyses of total relevant studies showed GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of male idiopathic infertility (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.07-1.84, P OR = 0.015). The GSTM1-GSTT1 interaction analysis showed dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 was also significantly associated with increased risk of male idiopathic infertility (OR = 1.85, 95 % CI 1.07-3.21, P OR = 0.028). Subgroup analyses by ethnicity showed the associations above were still statistically significant in Caucasians (For GSTM1, OR = 1.51, 95 % CI 1.11-2.05, P OR = 0.009; For GSTM1/GSTT1, OR = 2.10, 95 % CI 1.51-2.91, P OR < 0.001). This meta-analysis suggests GSTM1 null genotype contributes to increased risk of male idiopathic infertility in Caucasians, and males with dual null genotype of GSTM1/GSTT1 are particularly susceptible to developing idiopathic infertility.

  9. Combined conventional/antioxidant "Astaxanthin" treatment for male infertility: a double blind, randomized trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. H. Comhaire; Y. El Garem; A. Mahmoud; F. Eertmans; F. Schoonjans

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the treatment of male infertility with a strong natural antioxidant, in addition to conventional treatment.Methods: Using a double blind, randomized trial design, 30 men with infertility of ≥12 months and female partners with no demonstrable cause of infertility received conventional treatment according to the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), and either a strong antioxidant Astaxanthin 16 mg/day (AstaCarox(R), AstaReal AB,Gustavsberg, Sweden) or placebo for 3 months. The effects of treatment on semen parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS), zona-free hamster oocyte test, serum hormones including testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Inhibin B, and spontaneous or intrauterine insemination (IUI)-induced pregnancies were evaluated. Results: ROS and Inhibin B decreased significantly and sperm linear velocity increased in the Astaxanthin group (n = 11), but not in the placebo group (n = 19). The results of the zona-free hamster oocyte test tended to improve in the Astaxanthin group in contrast with the placebo group, though not reaching statistical significance.The total and per cycle pregnancy rates among the placebo cases (10.5 % and 3.6 %) were lower compared with 54.5 % and 23.1% respectively in the Astaxanthin group (P = 0.028; P = 0.036). Conclusion: Although the present study suggests a positive effect of Astaxanthin on sperm parameters and fertility, the results need to be confirmed in a larger trial before recommending Astaxanthin for the complementary treatment of infertile men.

  10. Study of pentoxifylline effects on motility and viability of spermatozoa from infertile asthenozoospermic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye Ghasemzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of semen is one of the major parameters in male infertility. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, is an agent primarily used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and other vascular disorders. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline enhances the quality and quantity of sperms. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of pentoxifylline on viability and motility of spermatozoa in samples of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males. Materials and Methods: In this observer-blinded clinical trial, semen samples of 25 infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males were collected in Alzahra Educational Medical Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from August 2010 to August 2012. After the isolation of spermatozoa by the swim-up method, they were randomized into four groups in ISM1 environment: The controls treated normally: Group 1 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 50 ΅g/ml, Group 2 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 100 ΅g/ml, and Group 3 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 200 ΅g/ml. Sperm viability and motility were compared among the groups on 45 min, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h intervals. Results: Mean percentages of live sperms were 98.40%, 51.40%, 20.60%, and 6.00% in control group and 98.40%, 69.20%, 38.60%, and 14.60% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. This mean percentage decrease of live sperms was significantly lower in Group 3 comparing with that of other groups (P = 0.01. Mean percentages of motile sperms were 54%, 8.40%, 2.80%, and 0% in control group; and 54%, 16%, 4.80%, and 1.40% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. There was not a significant difference between the four groups in this regard (P = 0.19. Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can enhance the viability of sperm of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males with no significant effect on its motility.

  11. Study of pentoxifylline effects on motility and viability of spermatozoa from infertile asthenozoospermic males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Aliye; Karkon-Shayan, Farid; Yousefzadeh, Solmaz; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Hamdi, Kobra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quality of semen is one of the major parameters in male infertility. Pentoxifylline, a methylxanthine derivative, is an agent primarily used in the treatment of intermittent claudication and other vascular disorders. Studies have shown that pentoxifylline enhances the quality and quantity of sperms. In this study, we have investigated the in vitro effects of pentoxifylline on viability and motility of spermatozoa in samples of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males. Materials and Methods: In this observer-blinded clinical trial, semen samples of 25 infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males were collected in Alzahra Educational Medical Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences from August 2010 to August 2012. After the isolation of spermatozoa by the swim-up method, they were randomized into four groups in ISM1 environment: The controls treated normally: Group 1 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 50 μg/ml, Group 2 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 100 μg/ml, and Group 3 treated by pentoxifylline at a dose of 200 μg/ml. Sperm viability and motility were compared among the groups on 45 min, 24 h, 36 h, and 48 h intervals. Results: Mean percentages of live sperms were 98.40%, 51.40%, 20.60%, and 6.00% in control group and 98.40%, 69.20%, 38.60%, and 14.60% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. This mean percentage decrease of live sperms was significantly lower in Group 3 comparing with that of other groups (P = 0.01). Mean percentages of motile sperms were 54%, 8.40%, 2.80%, and 0% in control group; and 54%, 16%, 4.80%, and 1.40% in Group 3 on the mentioned intervals, respectively. There was not a significant difference between the four groups in this regard (P = 0.19). Conclusion: Pentoxifylline can enhance the viability of sperm of infertile oligoasthenozoospermic males with no significant effect on its motility. PMID:27942099

  12. 45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis in an infertile adult male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassó-Matoses, M; Picó-Alfonso, A; Fernández-García, J; Lobato-Encinas, J; Mira-Llinares, A

    1992-01-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred for infertility. Examination revealed bilateral scrotal gonads of soft consistency and small size. Semen analysis showed azoospermia. Elevated serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and normal testosterone values were found. Surgical exploration and histopathology diagnosed dysgenetic testes with complete epididymis, and remnants of Fallopian tubes attached to the albuginea, with normal vas deferens and seminal vesicles showed on deferentovesiculography. Karyotype was 45,X/46,XY del(Y)(q11) with only 15% of 46XY cells in gonadal tissue. The clinical spectrum of 45,X/46,XY mosaicism and significance of this chromosomic anomaly is discussed.

  13. The Therapeutic Effects of Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang in Treating Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保存; 张彩霞; 杜雷; 薛武军; 邹鹏

    2001-01-01

    Eight-seven cases of male infertility due to spermatopathy were treated with Sheng Jing Zhong Zi Tang (SJZZT生精种子汤) for 1-3 courses. The total effective rate was 95.40% (83/87). 56.32% (49/87) of their spouses got pregnant and the semen quality was markedly improved (P<0.01). The results showed that the decoction could dual-directionally regulate the levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolan B luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C).

  14. Abnormality of pituitary gonadal axis among Nigerian males with infertility: study of patterns and possible etiologic interrelationships

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    Ozoemena OF

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available OFN Ozoemena1, JO Ezugworie2, AU Mbah3, EA Esom4, BO Ayogu5, FE Ejezie61Department of Anatomy and Surgery, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, 4Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus; 5Urology Unit, Department of Surgery, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla; 6Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu, NigeriaBackground: Hormonal derangements potentially contribute to the diagnosis of infertility in over 60%–70% of couples investigated. Use of hormonal and antihormonal agents has achieved great success in the treatment of male infertility. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of hormonal abnormalities in males diagnosed with infertility.Methods: Males diagnosed clinically with infertility and referred from the gynecologic clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu State University Teaching Hospital, and some private hospitals in and around Enugu metropolis were recruited for the study. They were grouped according to whether they had primary or secondary infertility on the basis of the World Health Organization definition. Routine fertility test profiles for the subjects were evaluated, and detailed hormonal assays were analyzed.Results: Of 216 men, 173 (80.1% were found to have a hormonal imbalance. The mean age was 47.7 ± 3.5 (range 30–55 years for primary infertility and 47.2 ± 6.8 (range 33–61 years for secondary infertility. Patterns of hormonal abnormalities diagnosed amongst the 62 (35.80% primary infertility subjects included hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism in 39 (62.90%, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism in 18 (29.03%, and hyperprolactinemia in five (8.07%. Among the 111 (64.2% cases of secondary infertility, there were 55 (49.55% cases of hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism

  15. Male infertility in China: laboratory finding for AZF microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men from Northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui-Xue; Fu, Chao; Yang, Ya-Ping; Han, Rong-Rong; Dong, Yuan; Dai, Ru-Lin; Liu, Rui-Zhi

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the frequencies of AZF microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men from Northeastern China. Moreover, to compare the prevalence of these abnormalities with other countries and regions in the world. 305 infertile men were enrolled. A complete semen analysis and reproductive hormones were measured according to standard methods. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using nine specific sequence-tagged sites (STS) were used to detect AZF microdeletions. Karyotype analyses were performed on peripheral blood lymphocytes with standard G-banding. Of the 305 infertile men, 28 (9.2%) had AZF microdeletions and 26 (8.5%) had chromosomal abnormalities. The most frequent microdeletions were in the AZFc+d, followed by AZFc, AZFb+c+d and AZFa. A total of 19 patients (82.6%) had Klinefelter's syndrome (47, XXY) in the azoospermic group. The freqencies of AZF microdeletions and chromosomal abnormalities in infertile men from Northeastern China were comparable with infertile men from other countries and regions. However, there was a slightly higher prevalence rate of AZF microdeletions in oligozoospermic patients than reported in previous studies.

  16. Impact of CAG repeat length in the androgen receptor gene on male infertility - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feifan; Lan, Aihua; Lin, Zhidi; Song, Jianfei; Zhang, Yuening; Li, Jiatong; Gu, Kailong; Lv, Baihao; Zhao, Dong; Zeng, Siping; Zhang, Ruoheng; Zhao, Wei; Pan, Zhengyan; Deng, Xiaozhen; Yang, Xiaoli

    2016-07-01

    CAG repeats are polymorphic nucleotide repeats present in the androgen receptor gene. Many studies have estimated the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility, but the conclusions are controversial. Previous meta-analyses have come to different conclusions; however, new studies have been published. An updated meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, CBM, CNKI and Web of Science databases were systematically searched for studies published from 1 January 2000 to 1 October 2015. Case-control studies on the association between CAG repeat length and male infertility using appropriate methodology were included. Forty studies were selected, including 3858 cases and 3161 controls. Results showed statistically significantly longer CAG repeat length among cases compared with controls (SMD = 0.14; 95% CI, 0.02-0.26). Shorter repeat length was associated with a lower risk of male infertility compared with a longer repeat length in the overall analysis (OR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.95). Moreover, CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in Caucasian populations, but not Asian or Egyptian populations. Subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference in German populations, but CAG repeat length was associated with male infertility in China and the USA. There were no significant differences between cases and controls in azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia.

  17. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-11-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0‑100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal

  18. Protective effect of resveratrol on spermatozoa function in male infertility induced by excess weight and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility is a complex, multifactorial and polygenic disease that contributes to ~50% cases of infertility. Previous studies have demonstrated that excess weight and obesity factors serve an important role in the development of male infertility. An increasing number of studies have reported that resveratrol may regulate the response of cells to specific stimuli that induce cell injury, as well as decrease germ cell apoptosis in mice or rats. In the present study, the semen quality and serum sex hormone levels were evaluated in 324 men, which included 73 underweight, 82 normal weight, 95 overweight and 74 obese men. All patients were referred to The Reproductive Medicine Center of Shanxi Women and Infants Hospital (Taiyuan, China) between January 2013 and January 2015. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of resveratrol treatment on the motility, plasma zinc concentration and acrosin activity of sperm from obese males. The sperm concentration, normal sperm morphology, semen volumes, DNA fragmentation rates and testosterone levels in men from the overweight and obese groups were markedly decreased when compared with men in the normal weight group. In addition, the progressive motility, seminal plasma zinc concentration and spermatozoa acrosin activity were notably decreased in the obese group compared with the normal weight group. However, estradiol levels were significantly increased in the overweight, obese and underweight groups compared with the normal weight group. Notably, semen samples from obese males with astenospermia treated with 0–100 µmol/l resveratrol for 30 min demonstrated varying degrees of improvement in sperm motility. When these semen samples were treated with 30 µmol/l resveratrol, sperm motility improved when compared to other doses of resveratrol. Therefore, 30 µmol/l resveratrol was selected for further experiments. Upon treatment of semen samples with resveratrol (30 µmol/l) for 30 min, the seminal plasma

  19. Cryopreservation of very low numbers of spermatozoa from male patients undergoing infertility treatment using agarose capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Shota; Tokuoka, Susumu; Abe, Hiroyuki; Araki, Yasuyuki; Araki, Yasuhisa

    2017-07-01

    This study tried to cryopreserve low numbers of spermatozoa from men undergoing infertility treatments by inserting into agarose capsules. The capsules were transferred into a drop of cryoprotectant solution and injected 3-4 motile spermatozoa that were selected by the swim-up method by conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection. These capsules were put on a Cryotop(®) and frozen in liquid nitrogen vapor, and then submerged into liquid nitrogen and subsequently thawed and recovered. The motile spermatozoa in the capsules were counted. Eventually, we cryopreserved 2142 motile spermatozoa in 702 agarose capsules from 26 male patients and 1356 (63%) spermatozoa maintained their motility after thawing. The spermatozoa motility rates after thawing (MRAT) ranged from 20.0% (5/25) to 95.1% (58/61) among patients. The median MRAT was 68.3% (interquartile range 46.1-75.7). The total number of motile spermatozoa collected by swim-up method strongly correlated with MRAT (r = 0.746). It was possible to cryopreserve spermatozoa from male patients undergoing infertility treatment using agarose capsules. However, there were wide differences in MRAT among patients. It seems the spermatozoa from semen where there were many motile spermatozoa may have higher freezing resistance. Further studies using this method in cryptozoospermic semen, testicular and epididymal spermatozoa are required.

  20. The role of antioxidant therapy in the treatment of male infertility: an overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesco Lombardo; Andrea Sansone; Francesco Romanelli; Donatella Paoli; Loredana Gandini; Andrea Lenzi

    2011-01-01

    @@ In recent years,many studies have focused on the effect of oxidative stress,reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants on the male eproductive system.Under physiological conditions,sperm produces small amounts of ROS,which are needed for fertilisation,acrosome reaction and capacitation.However,if an increased production of ROS is not associated with a similar increase in scavenging systems,peroxidative damage of the sperm plasma membrane and loss of DNA integrity typically occur,which leads to cell death and reduced fertility.Furthermore,since there is no linear correlation between sperm quality and pregnancy rates,an improvement in semen parameters should not be the sole outcome considered in studies of antioxidant therapies.A definitive conclusion regarding the benefit of these therapies is difficult to obtain,as most of the previous studies lacked control groups,considered different antioxidants in different combinations and doses,or did not evaluate pregnancy rates in previously infertile couples.Even if beneficial effects were reported in a few cases of male infertility,more multicentre,double-blind studies performed with the same criteria are necessary for an increased understanding of the effects of various antioxidants on fertility.

  1. Prevalences of oligozoospermia and azoospermia in male partners of infertile couples from different parts of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajvi H. Mehta; Sanjay Makwana; Geetha M. Ranga; R. J. Srinivasan; S. S. Virk

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether there was any regional variation in the prevalence of azoospermia, oligozoospermia and mean sperm counts in male partners of infertile couples from different parts of India. Methods: Data on 16 714 semen samples analyzed over the past five years from six different laboratories located in five cities of India were collated and evaluated. Results: There was a regional variation in the prevalence of azoospermia. The prevalence of azoospermia was extremely high in Kurnool and Jodhpur (38.3 % and 37.4 %, respectively). There was als o a regional variation in the prevalence of oligozoospermia (51%) in Kurnool. There was no significant difference in the mean sperm counts in normospermic men. Conclusion: There is a regional variation in the prevalence of azoospermia and oligozoospermia in the male partners of infertile couples from different regions of India. The prevalence of azoospermia in Kurnool and Jodhpur is higher than any other worldwide reported literature. Further studies need to be carried out to determine the cause of this.

  2. Current approach to male infertility treatment: sperm selection procedure based on hyaluronic acid binding ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zobova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracytoplasmic sperm injection into an oocyte is widely used throughout the world in assisted reproductive technologies programs in the presence of male infertility factor. However, this approach can allow selection of a single sperm, which is carrying different types of pathologies. Minimizing of any potential risks, entailing the occurrence of abnormalities in the embryos development (apoptosis, fragmentation of embryos, alterations in gene expression, aneuploidies is a very important condition for reducing the potential negative consequences resulting the manipulation with gametes. Processes that could be influenced by the embryologist must be fulfilled in safe and physiological way as much as it is possible. Data of numerous publications reporting about the positive effects of using the technology of sperm selection by hyaluronic acid binding, let make a conclusion about the high prospects of this approach in the treatment of male infertility by methods of in vitro fertilization. The selection of sperm with improved characteristics, which determine the maturity and genetic integrity, provides an opportunity to improve the parameters of pre-implantation embryogenesis, having thus a positive effect on clinical outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies programs.

  3. Outdoor air pollution and human infertility: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa Vizcaíno, Miguel A; González-Comadran, Mireia; Jacquemin, Benedicte

    2016-09-15

    Air pollution is a current research priority because of its adverse effects on human health, including on fertility. However, the mechanisms through which air pollution impairs fertility remain unclear. In this article, we perform a systematic review to evaluate currently available evidence on the impact of air pollution on fertility in humans. Several studies have assessed the impact of air pollutants on the general population, and have found reduced fertility rates and increased risk of miscarriage. In subfertile patients, women exposed to higher concentrations of air pollutants while undergoing IVF showed lower live birth rates and higher rates of miscarriage. After exposure to similar levels of air pollutants, comparable results have been found regardless of the mode of conception (IVF versus spontaneous conception), suggesting that infertile women are not more susceptible to the effects of pollutants than the general population. In addition, previous studies have not observed impaired embryo quality after exposure to air pollution, although evidence for this question is sparse.

  4. Fertilization of IVF/ICSI Using Sibling Oocytes from Couples with Subfertile Male or Unexplained Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志凌; 林虹; 肖婉芬; 王玉莲

    2004-01-01

    The significance of the performance of conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) using sibling oocytes from couples with subfertile male or unexplained infertility was evaluated. A total of 410 sibling oocyte cumulus-corona complexes (OCCC)from 21 couples with subfertile male (group A) and 11 unexplained infertile couples (group B) were randomly divided, in order of retrieval, into two groups inseminated either by conventional IVF or by ICSI. The treatment outcomes and the influence of infertility factors on fertilization in each group were compared. The results showed that although the two pronuclear (2PN) fertilization rate per injected sibling oocytes was significantly higher after ICSI (group A: 68.2 % ±28.8 %; group B: 66.2 %±24.9 %) than after conventional IVF (group A: 41.8 %±32.7 %; group B: 40. 1 %±22.1 %), the other variables studied included: the fertilization rates of per allocated sibling oocytes IVF/ICSI, the fertilization rates of sibling oocytes IVF/ICSI after excluding failed IVF fertilization cycles, as well as the cleavage rates of normal fertilization were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Similarly, though the total fertilization failure rate in the IVF group (group A: 42.9 %;group B: 36.4 %) was significantly higher than in the ICSI group (group A: 4.8 %; group B: 0),we did not cancel cycles due to the normal fertilization of sibling oocytes. Embryo transfer was possible in all 32 couples. There were 10 clinical pregnancies in the two groups. We also discovered a possible association between some semen parameters and sperm functions of group A, and women age and duration of infertility of group B and fertilization. It is suggested that adoption of the split IVF/ICSI technology in the above cases may help eliminate fertilization failures. This is also a useful method to investigate the effect of single factor on the employment of assisted reproductive tech nology.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and prostate abnormalities in male subjects of infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No previous study has evaluated systematically the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS and prostate-related symptoms and signs in young infertile men. We studied 171 (36.5 ± 8.3-years-old males of infertile couples. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Third Adult Treatment Panel. All men underwent hormonal (including total testosterone (TT and insulin, seminal (including interleukin-8 (IL-8, seminal plasma IL-8 (sIL-8, scrotal and transrectal ultrasound evaluations. Because we have previously assessed correlations between MetS and scrotal parameters in a larger cohort of infertile men, here, we focused on transrectal features. Prostate-related symptoms were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI and the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS. Twenty-two subjects fulfilled MetS criteria. In an age-adjusted logistic ordinal model, insulin levels increased as a function of MetS components (Wald = 29.5, P < 0.0001 and showed an inverse correlation with TT (adjusted r = -0.359, P< 0.0001. No association between MetS and NIH-CPSI or IPSS scores was observed. In an age-, TT-, insulin-adjusted logistic ordinal model, an increase in number of MetS components correlated negatively with normal sperm morphology (Wald = 5.59, P< 0.02 and positively with sIL-8 levels (Wald = 4.32, P < 0.05, which is a marker of prostate inflammation, with prostate total and transitional zone volume assessed using ultrasound (Wald = 17.6 and 12.5, both P < 0.0001, with arterial peak systolic velocity (Wald = 9.57, P = 0.002, with texture nonhomogeneity (hazard ratio (HR = 1.87 (1.05-3.33, P < 0.05, with calcification size (Wald = 3.11, P< 0.05, but not with parameters of seminal vesicle size or function. In conclusion, in males of infertile couples, MetS is positively associated with prostate enlargement, biochemical (sIL8 and ultrasound-derived signs of prostate inflammation

  6. Impact of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator (CFTR gene mutations on male infertility

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    Jlenia Elia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of most common mutations and intron 8 5T (IVS8-5T polymorphism of CFTR gene in Italian: a azoospermic males; b non azoospermic subjects, male partners of infertile couples enrolled in assisted reproductive technology (ART programs. Material and methods. We studied 242 subjects attending our Andrology Unit (44 azoospermic subjects and 198 non azoospermic subjects, male partners of infertile couples enrolled in ART programs. Semen analysis, molecular analysis for CFTR gene mutations and genomic variant of IVS8-5T polymorphic tract, karyotype and chromosome Y microdeletions, hormonal profile (LH, FSH, Testosterone and seminal biochemical markers (fructose, citric acid and L-carnitine were carried out. Results. The prevalence of the common CFTR mutations and/or the IVS8-5T polymorphism was 12.9% (4/31 cases in secretory azoospermia, while in obstructive azoospermia was 84.6% (11/13 cases; in these, the most frequent mutations were the F508del, R117H and W1282X. Regarding the non azoospermic subjects, the prevalence of the CFTR and/or the IVS8-5T polymorphism was 11.1% (11/99 cases in severe dyspermia, 8.1% (6/74 cases in moderate dyspermia and finally 4.0% (1/25 cases in normospermic subjects. Conclusions. This study confirms the highly significant prevalence of CFTR mutations in males with bilateral absence of the vas deferens or ejaculatory ducts obstruction compared with subjects with secretory azoospermia. Moreover, the significant prevalence of mutations in severely dyspermic subjects may suggest the possible involvement of CFTR even in the spermatogenic process. This could explain the unsatisfactory recovery of sperm from testicular fine needle aspiration in patients affected by genital tract blockage.

  7. 男性不育的伦理学困境%Ethical Dilemmas in Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰峰; 唐化勇

    2014-01-01

    针对男性不育这一愈来愈突出的社会现象,首先阐述了其定义和患病原因,然后主要从伦理学方面对其进行了分析。包括两部分,即男性患有不育症后的伦理学问题和诊断治疗中的伦理学问题。男性辅助生殖技术可实现患者的正常生育,但在供精上存在着诸多伦理学问题,而且对受孕女方也有一定的风险。最后介绍了精原干细胞移植法的研究现状及治疗男性不育中存在的伦理问题。%Aiming at the social phenomenon of male sterility of the increasing lyprominent,and expatiates the definition and the reason of disease,then mainly from the ethics aspect has carried on the analysis to it. Includes two parts,namely,male with ethical issues of ethics and the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in the normal fertility of assisted reproductive technology can realize the patients,but there are many problems in ethics for precision,but also have a certain risk to pregnant woman. Finally to introduce the ethical problemsstatus and treatment of infertile male spermatogonial stem cell transplantation in the law.

  8. Animal models of physiologic markers of male reproduction: genetically defined infertile mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, C.

    1987-10-01

    The present report focuses on novel animal models of male infertility: genetically defined mice bearing single-gene mutations that induce infertility. The primary goal of the investigations was to identify the reproductive defects in these mutant mice. The phenotypic effects of the gene mutations were deciphered by comparing the mutant mice to their normal siblings. Initially testicular steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis were investigated. The physiologic markers for testicular steroidogenesis were steroid secretion by testes perifused in vitro, seminal vesicle weight, and Leydig cell histology. Spermatogenesis was evaluated by the enumeration of homogenization-resistant sperm/spermatids in testes and by morphometric analyses of germ cells in the seminiferous epithelium. If testicular function appeared normal, the authors investigated the sexual behavior of the mice. The parameters of male sexual behavior that were quantified included mount patency, mount frequency, intromission latency, thrusts per intromission, ejaculation latency, and ejaculation duration. Females of pairs breeding under normal circumstances were monitored for the presence of vaginal plugs and pregnancies. The patency of the ejaculatory process was determined by quantifying sperm in the female reproductive tract after sexual behavior tests. Sperm function was studied by quantitatively determining sperm motility during videomicroscopic observation. Also, the ability of epididymal sperm to function within the uterine environment was analyzed by determining sperm capacity to initiate pregnancy after artificial insemination. Together, the experimental results permitted the grouping of the gene mutations into three general categories. They propose that the same biological markers used in the reported studies can be implemented in the assessment of the impact that environmental toxins may have on male reproduction.

  9. SPO11-C631T Gene Polymorphism: Association With Male Infertility and an in Silico-Analysis

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    Mohammad Karimian

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the association of C631T single nucleotide polymorphisms in SPO11 gene with male infertilityfollowed by an in silico approach. SPO11 is a gene involved in meiosis and spermatogenesis process, which in humans, this gene is located on chromosome 20 (20q13.2-13.3 with 13 exons.Materials and methods: In a case-control study, 200 blood samples were collected from the IVF center (Kashan, Iran including; 100 infertile and 100 healthy control men. SPO11-C631T were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP method.The effects of C631T transition on the structure of mRNA and protein of SPO11 was evaluated by bioinformatics tools.Results: Our data revealed that all subjects were wild-type homozygous inC631T positionsand just a sample from fertile group was heterozygousin C631T (OR: 0.3300, 95% CI: 0.0133 to 8.1992, p = 0.4988.Our in silico-analysis revealed that C631T transition could make fundamental changes in the structure of the mRNA (Score: 0.1983 and protein (PROVEAN Score: -3.371; Reliability Index: 4; Expected Accuracy: 82% of SPO11. Also, C631T substitution could change the aggregation prone regions of the SPO11 protein (dTANGO = 209.99.Conclusion: So even though the SPO11-C631T don’t increase the risk of male infertility, it could be deleterious for themRNA and protein.

  10. Online Health Information Regarding Male Infertility: An Evaluation of Readability, Suitability, and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Stephanie; Barr, Helena J; Idelson, Rachel; Lambert, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Background Many men lack knowledge about male infertility, and this may have consequences for their reproductive and general health. Men may prefer to seek health information online, but these sources of information vary in quality. Objective The objective of this study is to determine if online sources of information regarding male infertility are readable, suitable, and of appropriate quality for Internet users in the general population. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to evaluate online sources resulting from search engine queries. The following categories of websites were considered: (1) Canadian fertility clinics, (2) North American organizations related to fertility, and (3) the first 20 results of Google searches using the terms “male infertility” and “male fertility preservation” set to the search locations worldwide, English Canada, and French Canada. Websites that met inclusion criteria (N=85) were assessed using readability indices, the Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM), and the DISCERN tool. The associations between website affiliation (government, university/medical, non-profit organization, commercial/corporate, private practice) and Google placement to readability, suitability, and quality were also examined. Results None of the sampled websites met recommended levels of readability. Across all websites, the mean SAM score for suitability was 45.37% (SD 11.21), or “adequate”, while the DISCERN mean score for quality was 43.19 (SD 10.46) or “fair”. Websites that placed higher in Google obtained a higher overall score for quality with an r (58) value of -.328 and a P value of .012, but this position was not related to readability or suitability. In addition, 20% of fertility clinic websites did not include fertility information for men. Conclusions There is a lack of high quality online sources of information on male fertility. Many websites target their information to women, or fail to meet established

  11. [Treatment of chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial and ureaplasmic infection and complicated with male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, S N; Tiktinskiĭ, O L

    2010-01-01

    Etiologically, chronic prostatitis can result from urogenital latent infections caused by chlamydia, ureaplasma and others. First of all, such patients should be examined for urethritis. We examined 306 patients aged 23-45 years with chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial and ureaplasmic infection. The samples were taken from the urethra, urine, prostatic secretion, ejaculate and were examined using direct immunofluorescence, polymerase chain reaction, culturing. We found spermatogenetic disorders in 50% patients, 35 (11.4%) patients had a deferent duct obstruction. The patients had also immunointerferon deficiency and alterations in prostatic echostructure. In chronic prostatitis caused by chlamydial-ureaplasmic infection the treatment must combine antibacterial drugs (vilprophen, unidox, solutab) with interferons (lavomax, genferon). Male infertility treatment should be started only after elimination of the bacterial infection.

  12. Separation-Type Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction Chip for Detecting Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Seung-Mo; Ju, Jin-Kyoung; Ahn, Yoomin; Hwang, Seung Young

    2008-06-01

    A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) biochip is presented in this paper. In this PCR chip, the glass substrate integrated with the microheater and microsensor is separable from the reaction chamber where the sample is injected, which now makes repeated reuse of the glass substrate possible. The heat transfer efficiency and target gene amplification of the proposed separable PCR chip was compared with that of the conventional united PCR chip. The results showed that the sex-determining Y chromosome (SRY) gene PCR for detecting male infertility was successfully performed in the separable chip. However, repeated multiplex PCR was successful for only two genes, SPGY1 and SRY, but not for gene SY586. Future work is needed for a multiplex PCR with more than three genes.

  13. Proteomics of spermatogenesis: from protein lists to understanding the regulation of male fertility and infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyan Huang; Jiahao Sha

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic technologies have undergone significant development in recent years, which has led to extensive advances in protein research. Currently, proteomic approaches have been applied to many scientific areas, including basic research, various disease and malignant tumour diagnostics, biomarker discovery and other therapeutic applications. In addition, proteomics-driven research articles examining reproductive biology and medicine are becoming increasingly common. The key challenge for this field is to move from lists of identified proteins to obtaining biological information regarding protein function. The present article reviews the available scientific literature related to spermatogenesis. In addition, this study uses two-dimensional electrophoresis mass spectrometry (2DE-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS to construct a series of proteome profiles describing spermatogenesis. This large-scale identification of proteins provides a rich resource for elucidating the mechanisms underlying male fertility and infertility.

  14. Obesity-Induced Infertility in Male Mice Is Associated With Disruption of Crisp4 Expression and Sperm Fertilization Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Beatriz C; Garcia-Galiano, David; da Silveira Cruz-Machado, Sanseray; Han, Xingfa; Gavrilina, Galina B; Saunders, Thomas L; Auchus, Richard J; Hammoud, Saher S; Smith, Gary D; Elias, Carol F

    2017-09-01

    Approximately 15% of human couples of reproductive age have impaired fertility, and the male component accounts for about half of these cases. The etiology is usually unknown, but high correlation with the increase in obesity rates is documented. In this study, we show that diet-induced and genetically obese mice display copulatory behavior comparable to controls, but the number of females impregnated by obese males is remarkably low. Screening for changes in gene expression in the male reproductive tract showed decreased Crisp4 expression in testis and epididymis of obese mice. Lack of CRISP4 in the luminal membrane of epididymal cells indicated inadequate secretion. Consistent with CRISP4 action in acrosome reaction, sperm from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) had decreased fertilization capacity. CRISP4 treatment of sperm from HFD mice prior to in vitro fertilization improved fertilization rate. In leptin-deficient obese and infertile mice, leptin's effect to restore CRISP4 expression and function required gonadal hormones. Our findings indicate that the obesity-induced decline in sperm motility and fertilization capacity results in part from the disruption of epididymal CRISP4 expression and secretion. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  15. Office-based andrology and male infertility procedures-a cost-effective alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alom, Manaf; Ziegelmann, Matthew; Savage, Josh; Miest, Tanner; Köhler, Tobias S; Trost, Landon

    2017-08-01

    From 2014-2016, our clinical practice progressively incorporated several male infertility and andrology procedures performed under local anesthesia, including circumcision, hydrocelectomy, malleable penile prostheses, orchiectomy, penile plication, spermatocelectomy, testicular prostheses, varicocelectomy, vasectomy reversal (VR), and testicular and microepididymal sperm aspiration (TESE/MESA). Given the observed outcomes and potential financial and logistical benefits of this approach for surgeons and patients, we sought to describe our initial experience. A retrospective analysis was performed of all andrologic office-based (local anesthesia only) and select OR (general or monitored anesthesia care) procedures performed from 2014-2016. Financial and outcomes analyses were performed for infertility cases due to the homogeneity of payment modalities and number of cases available. Demographic, clinicopathologic, and procedural costs (direct and indirect) were reviewed and compared. A total of 32 VRs, 24 hydrocelectomies, 24 TESEs, 10 circumcisions, 9 MESA/TESEs, 4 spermatocelectomies, 3 orchiectomies (1 inguinal), 2 microTESEs, 2 testicular prostheses, 1 malleable penile prosthesis, 1 penile plication, and 1 varicocelectomy. Compared to the OR, male infertility procedures performed in the clinic with local anesthesia were performed for a fraction of the cost: MESA/TESE (78% reduction), TESE (89% reduction), and VR (62% reduction). All office-based procedures were completed successfully without significant modifications to technique. Outcomes were similar between the office and OR including operative time (VR: 181 vs. 190 min, P=0.34), rate of vasoepididymostomy (VE) (23% vs. 32%, P=0.56), total sperm counts (72.2 vs. 50.9 million, P=0.56), and successful sperm retrieval (MESA/TESE 100% vs. 100%, P=1.00; TESE 80% vs. 100%, P=0.36). To our knowledge, the current study also represents the first report of office-based VE under local anesthesia alone. For hydrocelectomy

  16. The sperm penetration test (P-test) can predict fecundability in the male partner from infertile couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bostofte, E; Bagger, P; Michael, A;

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and twenty-one consecutive couples were investigated for infertility at Hvidovre University Hospital in the period from November 1977 to June 1985. The male partners were evaluated in two ways: the classical semen analysis, and the ability of sperm to penetrate fresh hen egg white...

  17. STUDIES ON THE REVERSIBILITY OF INFERTILITY CAUSED BY LONG TERM ADMINISTRATION OF TRIPTERYGIUM HYPOGLAUCUM IN MALE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShi-Min; WANGYi; LINNing; XUYe; QIANShao-Zhen

    1989-01-01

    An alcoholic extract of the root of Triptcrygium hypoglaucum (ATFI) is a Chinese herbal medicine, available in the market as tabtcts, used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and some skin diseases. ATH had bccn shown to cause infertility in male

  18. Association of MDR1 C3435T and C1236T single nucleotide polymorphisms with male factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydos, S E; Karadağ, A; Özkan, T; Altınok, B; Bunsuz, M; Heidargholizadeh, S; Aydos, K; Sunguroğlu, A

    2015-06-11

    Infertility affects 1 in 6 couples and approximately 1 in 25 men. Male factor infertility is a major cause of spermatogenic anomalies, the causes of which are largely unknown. Impaired repro-ductive functions in men might result from physiological, genetic, and/or environmental factors such as xenobiotics. The multi-drug re-sistance1 (MDR1) gene encodes a P-glycoprotein which has a role in the active transport of various substrates providing protection of somatic cells from potentially toxic substances, including xenobi-otics. MDR1 is highly expressed at the luminal surface of capillary endothelial cells, and is expressed in Leydig cells, testicular mac-rophages, and Sertoli cells. We performed genotype and haplotype analyses of MDR1 in 192 infertile and 102 fertile Turkish men for the genetic markers C1236T and C3435T, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. In the overall population, correlations were analyzed in all genotype mod-els. We found that the C3435T polymorphism TT vs CT genotypes showed statistically significant differences in their association with infertility (P = 0.045), and that the CT genotype was associated with high sperm DNA damage (P = 0.02), suggesting that the CT genotype might be a susceptibility factor for infertility. Additionally, the T-T haplotype was significantly more frequent in the control group (13.2 vs 6.5%; odds ratio = 0.459, 95%CI = 0.259-0.814, P = 0.006). This study showed that MDR1 might have a role in male infertility. Fur-ther research in large cohorts with different populations is required to clarify the role of MDR in male fertility.

  19. Hormonal regulation of c-KIT receptor and its ligand: implications for human infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Marília I; Cardoso, Henrique J; Correia, Sara; Maia, Cláudio J; Socorro, Sílvia

    2014-09-01

    The c-KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor, and its ligand the stem cell factor (SCF) play an important role in the production of male and female gametes. The interaction of SCF with c-KIT is required for germ cell survival and growth, and abnormalities in the activity of the SCF/c-KIT system have been associated with human infertility. Recently, it was demonstrated that gonadotropic and sex steroid hormones, among others, regulate the expression of SCF and c-KIT in testicular and ovarian cells. Therefore, the hormonal (de)regulation of SCF/c-KIT system in the testis and ovary may be a cause underpinning infertility. In the present review, we will discuss the effects of hormones modulating the expression levels of SCF and c-KIT in the human gonads. In addition, the implications of hormonal regulation of SCF/c-KIT system for germ cell development and fertility will be highlighted. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Interactions between urinary 4-tert-octylphenol levels and metabolism enzyme gene variants on idiopathic male infertility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Qin

    Full Text Available Octylphenol (OP and Trichlorophenol (TCP act as endocrine disruptors and have effects on male reproductive function. We studied the interactions between 4-tert-Octylphenol (4-t-OP, 4-n- Octylphenol (4-n-OP, 2,3,4-Trichlorophenol (2,3,4-TCP, 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP urinary exposure levels and polymorphisms in selected xenobiotic metabolism enzyme genes among 589 idiopathic male infertile patients and 396 controls in a Han-Chinese population. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS was used to measure alkylphenols and chlorophenols in urine. Polymorphisms were genotyped using the SNPstream platform and the Taqman method. Among four phenols that were detected, we found that only exposure to 4-t-OP increased the risk of male infertility (P(trend = 1.70×10(-7. The strongest interaction was between 4-t-OP and rs4918758 in CYP2C9 (P(inter = 6.05×10(-7. It presented a significant monotonic increase in risk estimates for male infertility with increasing 4-t-OP exposure levels among men with TC/CC genotype (low level compared with non-exposed, odds ratio (OR = 2.26, 95% confidence intervals (CI = 1.06, 4.83; high level compared with non-exposed, OR = 9.22, 95% CI = 2.78, 30.59, but no associations observed among men with TT genotype. We also found interactions between 4-t-OP and rs4986894 in CYP2C19, and between rs1048943 in CYP1A1, on male infertile risk (P(inter = 8.09×10(-7, P(inter = 3.73×10(-4, respectively.We observed notable interactions between 4-t-OP exposure and metabolism enzyme gene polymorphisms on idiopathic infertility in Han-Chinese men.

  1. Double versus single homologous intrauterine insemination for male factor infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Apostolos Zavos; Alexandros Daponte; Antonios Garas; Christina Verykouki; Evangelos Papanikolaou; Georgios Anifandis; Nikolaos P Polyzos

    2013-01-01

    Male factor infertility affects 30%-50% of infertile couples worldwide,and there is an increasing interest in the optimal management of these patients.In studies comparing double and single intrauterine insemination (IUI),a trend towards higher pregnancy rates in couples with male factor infertility was observed.Therefore,we set out to perform a meta-analysis to examine the superiority of double versus single IUI with the male partner's sperm in couples with male factor infertility.An odds ratio (OR) of 95% confidence intervals (Cls) was calculated for the pregnancy rate.Outcomes were analysed by using the ManteI-Haesel or DerSimonian-Laird model according to the heterogeneity of the results.Overall,five trials involving 1125 I UI cycles were included in the meta-analysis.There was a two-fold increase in pregnancies after a cycle with a double I UI compared with a cycle with a single IUI (OR:2.0; 95% CI:1.07-3.75;P<0.03).Nevertheless,this result was mainly attributed to the presence of a large trial that weighted as almost 50% in the overall analysis.Sensitivity analysis,excluding this large trial,revealed only a trend towards higher pregnancy rates among double IUI cycles (OR:1.58; 95% CI:0.59-4.21),but without statistical significance (P=-0.20).Our systematic review highlights that the available evidence regarding the use of double I UI in couples with male factor infertility is fragmentary and weak.Although there may be a trend towards higher pregnancy rates when the number of IUIs per cycle is increased,further large and well-designed randomized trials are needed to provide solid evidence to guide current clinical practice.

  2. CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES IN INFERTILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Smogavec

    2009-08-01

    Conclusions Chromosomal analysis is an important method in diagnostic procedures of infertility, because chromosomal abnormalities could play the important role in etiology of infertility and are more frequently detected in this group of patients compared to general population. In the infertile couples balanced chromosomal abnormalities are the main cause of spontaneous abortions. Sex chromosome aneuploidies are highly correlated to infertility of females and males.

  3. To Evaluate the Efficacy of Combination Antioxidant Therapy on Oxidative Stress Parameters in Seminal Plasma in the Male Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Alpana; Radhakrishnan, Gita; Banerjee, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infertility is defined as inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse and it affects 7% of male population and 8–10% of couples. According to estimates WHO, 13-19 million couples in India are infertile. Oxidative stress is the causative factor in 25% of infertile males. Aim To study the efficacy of antioxidant therapy on oxidative stress parameters in seminal plasma of infertile male. Materials and Methods Forty patients of male infertility were enrolled in study after two abnormal semen analyses reports at 2-3 weeks interval, of oligozoospermia and/or asthenozoospermia, as per WHO guide line 1999. First semen sample was collected at a time of enrollment of study and second semen sample was collected three months after combined antioxidant therapy. Semen samples from the infertile male (the second confirmatory sample of oligoasthenozoospermia) were taken and after liquefaction semen sample were utilized for various analyses, 0.5 ml of sample for standard semen analysis, 1.2 ml sample for separation of seminal plasma to evaluate Oxidative stress (OS) parameters like Malondialdehyde (MDA), Protein Carbonyl (PC) and antioxidant capacity by Glutathione (GSH). We followed the patient for three months after completion of the treatment. Results Semen parameters – Out of 40 patients recruited in the study group 7 patients had only oligospermia (1 to 20 million/ml) and 31 patients had oligoasthenozoospermia (motility range 0-50%) and 2 patients had oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. There was no patient with asthenospermia alone as abnormal semen parameters. After the three months treatment with combined antioxidants the semen parameters like count (mean SD = -1.70±1.44) and motility (mean +SD= -9.56±9.05) were significantly increased (p-value=0.000). Oxidative Stress Assessment – The level of MDA which is a marker of oxidative stress was significantly lower after the three months therapy of antioxidants (p-value=0.002) whereas another

  4. Successful Pregnancy in a Couple with Severe Male Factor Infertility after Selection of Sperm with Cytoplasmic Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Bellish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present live births resulting from two separate IVF cycles in a couple in which ICSI was performed with sperm specifically selected for presence of small cytoplasmic droplets. These cycles followed previous cycles using standard sperm selection methods in which very poor embryo development and no pregnancies ensued. The male partner was diagnosed with severe male factor infertility including elevated DNA fragmentation.

  5. Severe oligospermia associated with a unique balanced reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3): male infertility related to t(6;12).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, B; Christofolini, D; Gava, M; Mafra, F; Moraes, E; Barbosa, C

    2011-04-01

    The prevalence of chromosome abnormalities is increased in infertile men, the incidence of a chromosomal factor being estimated to be about 8%. We report two brothers, a 38-year-old man with 10 years' primary infertility and severe oligospermia, but otherwise healthy, and a 35-year-old man with primary infertility and a history of mumps during puberty. Semen and karyotype analysis, and investigation of Y-chromosome microdeletions were performed. An apparently unique reciprocal translocation t(6;12)(q23;q24.3) was found in both infertile brothers. Semen analyses showed severe oligospermia. No Y-chromosome microdeletions were found. These two cases support the relationship between both environmental and chromosomal abnormalities, combined or separated, with male infertility. Investigation of genetic alterations in infertile males has to be performed prior to performing any assisted reproduction technique. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Impact of female age and male infertility on ovarian reserve markers to predict outcome of assisted reproduction technology cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh Kung-Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the capability of ovarian reserve markers, including baseline FSH levels, baseline anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH levels, and antral follicle count (AFC, as predictors of live births during IVF cycles, especially for infertile couples with advanced maternal age and/or male factors. Methods A prospective cohort of 336 first IVF/ICSI cycles undergoing a long protocol with GnRH agonist was investigated. Patients with endocrine disorders or unilateral ovaries were excluded. Results Among the ovarian reserve tests, AMH and age had a greater area under the receiving operating characteristic curve than FSH in predicting live births. Furthermore, AMH and age were the sole predictive factors of live births for women greater than or equal to 35 years of age; while AMH was the major determinant of live births for infertile couples with absence of male factors by multivariate logistic regression analysis. However, all the studied ovarain reserve tests were not preditive of live births for women Conclusion The serum AMH levels were prognostic for pregnancy outcome for infertile couples with advanced female age or absence of male factors. The predictive capability of ovarian reserve tests is clearly influenced by the etiology of infertility.

  7. Male infertility workup needs additional testing of expressed prostatic secretion and/or post-massage urine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margus Punab

    Full Text Available The male factor accounts for almost 50% of infertility cases. Inflammation may reduce semen quality via several pathways, including oxidative stress (OxS. As male infertility routinely is assessed using semen analysis only, the possible presence of non-leukocytospermic asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis may be overlooked. We compared local and systemic OxS levels in male partners of infertile couples with different inflammation patterns in their genital tract and/or oligospermia. Subjects (n=143 were grouped according to inflammation in their semen, expressed prostatic secretion (EPS, and/or post-massage urine (post-M. Systemic (8-isoprostanes in urine and local (diene conjugates and total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma OxS was measured The levels of OxS markers were significantly elevated in both severe inflammation groups--leukocytospermic men and subjects whose inflammation was limited only to EPS and/or post-M. Comparison between oligospermic and non-oligospermic men with genital tract inflammation, and oligozoospermic men with or without inflammation in the genital tract indicated that inflammation but not oligospermia status had significant impact on the measured OxS markers. Hence, a high leukocyte count in prostate-specific materials (EPS, post-M, even in absence of clear leukocytopsermia, is an important source of local and systemic OxS that may be associated with male infertility and affect general health. We suggest including the tests for detection of inflammation of the prostate into the workup of infertile men as was suggested in the WHO 1993 recommendation.

  8. Bacterial agents as a cause of infertility in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Melania; Cannas, Sara; Cubeddu, Marina; Molicotti, Paola; Piras, Gennarina Laura; Dessole, Salvatore; Zanetti, Stefania

    2016-07-01

    Infertility is a problem affecting almost 15% of couples. There are many causes for this condition, among which urogenital bacterial infections seem to play an important role. Many studies have explained the mechanisms by which bacteria cause infertility both in men and women. Therefore we undertook this study to evaluate the presence of genito-urinary infections in infertile couples who sought counselling to investigate their condition. Microbiological analysis was performed on semen and vaginal/cervical samples of both partners of each couple. The percentage of individuals affected by a urogenital bacterial infection was between 14 and 20%. More significantly, most of the species isolated both in men and women have been described in the literature as potential causes of infertility.

  9. Molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in diabetes-related male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, M G; Martins, A D; Rato, L; Moreira, P I; Socorro, S; Oliveira, P F

    2013-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the greatest public health threats in modern societies. Although during a few years it was suggested that DM had no significant effect in male reproductive function, this view has been challenged in recent years. The increasing incidence of DM worldwide will inevitably result in a higher prevalence of this pathology in men of reproductive age and subfertility or infertility associated with DM is expected to dramatically rise in upcoming years. From a clinical perspective, the evaluation of semen parameters, as well as spermatozoa deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) integrity, are often studied due to their direct implications in natural and assisted conception. Nevertheless, recent studies based on the molecular mechanisms beyond glucose transport in testicular cells provide new insights in DM-induced alterations in male reproductive health. Testicular cells have their own glucose sensing machinery that react to hormonal fluctuations and have several mechanisms to counteract hyper- and hypoglycemic events. Moreover, the metabolic cooperation between testicular cells is crucial for normal spermatogenesis. Sertoli cells (SCs), which are the main components of blood-testis barrier, are not only responsible for the physical support of germ cells but also for lactate production that is then metabolized by the developing germ cells. Any alteration in this tied metabolic cooperation may have a dramatic consequence in male fertility potential. Therefore, we present an overview of the clinical significance of DM in the male reproductive health with emphasis on the molecular mechanisms beyond glucose fluctuation and transport in testicular cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. CAG-repeat variant in the polymerase γ gene and male infertility in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Zhang, Chang-Jun; Peng, Hai-Ying; Yao, Yu-Feng; Shi, Lei; Chen, Jin-Bao; Lin, Ke-Qin; Yu, Liang; Shi, Li; Huang, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Hao; Chu, Jia-You

    2011-03-01

    Several studies have reported a relationship between the length of the CAG-repeat in the polymerase γ (POLG) gene and male infertility. However, other studies have not reproduced this result. In our study, the POLG-CAG-repeat length was analyzed in 535 healthy individuals from six Chinese Han populations living in different provinces. The frequencies of 10-CAG alleles and genotypes were high (97.38 and 94.13%, respectively), with no significant difference among the six Chinese Han populations. Furthermore, we determined the distribution of the POLG-CAG-repeat in 150 infertile men and 126 fertile men. Our study suggested that the distributions of POLG-CAG-repeat alleles and genotypes were not significantly different between infertile (95.67 and 92.67%, respectively) and fertile men (97.22 and 94.44%, respectively). In a subsequent meta-analysis, combining our data with data from previous studies, a comparison of the CAG-repeat alleles in fertile versus infertile men showed no obvious risk for male infertility associated with any particular allele (pooled odds ratio (OR)=0.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-1.48). The significance level was not attained with any of the following genetic models: homozygote comparison (not 10/not 10 versus 10/10: OR=1.34; 95% CI: 0.66-2.72), heterozygote comparison (10/not 10 versus 10/10: OR=1.04; 95% CI: 0.78-1.38), dominant model comparison (not 10/not 10+10/not 10 versus 10/10: OR=1.08; 95% CI: 0.79-1.47) and recessive genetic comparison (not 10/not 10 versus 10/not 10+10/10: OR=1.31; 95% CI: 0.68-2.55). In conclusion, there is no significant difference of the frequencies of POLG-CAG-repeat variants among six Chinese Han populations, and this polymorphism may not be associated with Chinese male infertility. On the basis of a meta-analysis, there is no obvious association between CAG-repeat variants of the POLG gene and male infertility.

  11. Seipin deficiency increases chromocenter fragmentation and disrupts acrosome formation leading to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zowalaty, A E; Baumann, C; Li, R; Chen, W; De La Fuente, R; Ye, X

    2015-07-16

    The Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy type 2 (Bscl2, seipin) gene is involved in adipogenesis. Bscl2-/- males were infertile but had normal mating behavior. Both Bscl2-/- cauda epididymis sperm count and sperm motility were ~20×less than control. Bscl2-/- seminiferous tubules had relatively normal presence of spermatogonia and spermatocytes but had reduced spermatids and sperm. Spatiotemporal expression analyses in Bscl2+/+ testes demonstrated prominent Bscl2 transcriptional activity in spermatocytes with a plateau reached around postnatal day 28. Seipin protein localization was most abundant in postmeiotic spermatids, suggesting translational repression of Bscl2 mRNA in spermatocytes. In situ end-labeling plus detected increased spermatid apoptosis in Bscl2-/- testis and annexin V detected increased percentage of positive Bscl2-/- round spermatids compared with control. Immunofluorescence of marker proteins synaptonemal complex proteins 3 and 1 (SYCP3 and SYCP1), and H3K9me3 (histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9) in germ cell spreads detected normal meiotic chromosome pairing and homologous chromosome synapsis in Bscl2-/- spermatocytes, but significantly increased percentages of round spermatids with chromocenter fragmentation and late spermatids and sperm with chromatin vacuoles, indicating defective chromatin condensation in Bscl2-/- spermatids. Bscl2-/- late spermatids were disorganized within the seminiferous epithelium, despite normal appearance of Sertoli cells detected by vimentin immunofluorescence. Peanut agglutinin staining revealed various abnormalities of acrosomes in Bscl2-/- late spermatids, including the absence, irregular-shaped, and fragmented acrosomes, indicating defective acrosome formation in Bscl2-/- late spermatids, which may affect late spermatid orientation in the seminiferous epithelium. Mitotracker strongly stained the midpiece of control sperm but only very weakly labeled the midpiece of Bscl2-/- sperm, indicating defective

  12. Partial AZFc duplications not deletions are associated with male infertility in the Yi population of Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-jie YE; Li MA; Li-juan YANG; Jin-huan WANG; Yue-li WANG; Hai GUO; Ning GONG

    2013-01-01

    There are many reports on associations between spermatogenesis and partial azoospermia factor c (AZFc) deletions as well as duplications; however,results are conflicting,possibly due to differences in methodology and ethnic background.The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of AZFc polymorphisms and male infertility in the Yi ethnic population,residents within Yunnan Province,China.Methods:A total of 224 infertile patients and 153 fertile subjects were selected in the Yi ethnic population.The study was performed by sequence-tagged site plus/minus (STS+/-) analysis followed by gene dosage and gone copy definition analysis.Y haplotypes of 215 cases and 115 controls were defined by 12 binary markers using single nucleotide polymorphism on Y chromosome (Y-SNP) multiplex assays based on single base primer extension technology.Results:The distribution of Y haplotypes was not significantly different between the case and control groups.The frequencies of both gr/gr (7.6% vs.8.5%) and b2/b3 (6.3% vs.8.5%) deletions do not show significant differences.Similarly,single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis shows no significant difference of gene copy definition between the cases and controls.However,the frequency of partial duplications in the infertile group (4.0%) is significantly higher than that in the control group (0.7%).Further,we found a case with sY1206 deletion which had two CDY1 copies but removed half of DAZ genes.Conclusions:Our results show that male infertility is associated with partial AZFc duplications,but neither gr/gr nor b2/b3 deletions,suggesting that partial AZFc duplications rather than deletions are risk factors for male infertility in Chinese-Yi population.

  13. Impaired hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis activity, spermatogenesis, and sperm function promote infertility in males with lead poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Jason; Hernandez, Rafael J; Chen, Andrew; Smith, Noel L; Sheynkin, Yefim R; Joshi, Gargi; Khan, Sardar Ali

    2017-02-10

    Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility. Environmental and occupational exposure of lead may adversely affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis, impairing the induction of spermatogenesis. Dysfunction at the reproductive axis, namely testosterone suppression, is most susceptible and irreversible during pubertal development. Lead poisoning also appears to directly impair the process of spermatogenesis itself as well as sperm function. Spermatogenesis issues may manifest as low sperm count and stem from reproductive axis dysfunction or testicular degeneration. Generation of excessive reactive oxygen species due to lead-associated oxidative stress can potentially affect sperm viability, motility, DNA fragmentation, membrane lipid peroxidation, capacitation, hyperactivation, acrosome reaction, and chemotaxis for sperm-oocyte fusion, all of which can contribute to deter fertilization. Reproductive toxicity has been tested through cross-sectional analysis studies in humans as well as in vivo and in vitro studies in animals.

  14. Male-mediated infertility in sons of building painters and gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev G; Hougaard, K S

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians.......To investigate whether sons of gardeners and building painters have increased risk of infertility in comparison with sons of bricklayers, carpenters and electricians....

  15. Recurrent Microdeletions at Xq27.3-Xq28 and Male Infertility: A Study in the Czech Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Chylíková

    Full Text Available Genetic causes of male infertility are hypothesized to involve multiple types of mutations, from single gene defects to complex chromosome rearrangements. Recently, several recurrent X-chromosome microdeletions (located in subtelomeric region of the long arm were reported to be associated with male infertility in Spanish and Italian males. The aim of our study was to test their prevalence and infertility association in population of men from the Czech Republic.107 males with pathological sperm evaluation resulting in nonobstructive infertility were compared to 131 males with normal fecundity. X-chromosome microdeletions were assessed by +/- PCR with three primer pairs for each region Xcnv64 (Xq27.3, Xcnv67 (Xq28 and Xcnv69 (Xq28. The latter microdeletion was further characterized by amplification across the deleted region, dividing the deletion into three types; A, B and C.We detected presence of isolated Xcnv64 deletion in 3 patients and 14 controls, and Xcnv69 in 3 patients and 6 controls (1 and 1 patient vs.4 and 1 control for types A and B respectively. There was one control with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type B deletions, and one patient with combination of Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 type C deletions. The frequency of the deletions was thus not higher in patient compared to control group, Xcnv64 was marginally associated with controls (adjusted Fisher´s exact test P = 0.043, Xcnv69 was not associated (P = 0.452. We excluded presence of more extensive rearrangements in two subjects with combined Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 deletions. There was no Xcnv67 deletion in our cohort.In conclusion, the two previously reported X-linked microdeletions (Xcnv64 and Xcnv69 do not seem to confer a significant risk to impaired spermatogenesis in the Czech population. The potential clinical role of the previously reported patient-specific Xcnv67 remains to be determined in a larger study population.

  16. Relationship of oxidative stress with male infertility in sulfur mustard-exposed injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Tahmasbpour Marzony

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur mustard (SM is a cytotoxic and chemical agent that targets different tissues such as reproductive system. SM causes a wide variety of pathological effects on reproductive system such as disturbance in reproductive hormones, testis atrophy, spermatogenesis deficiency, low quality of sperm and fertility problem. However, molecular and cellular mechanisms of its adverse effects are still not well known. General events such as tissue damage, inflammation, DNA alkylation, cell membrane defects, apoptosis and cell death are observed frequently in SM-exposed subjects. Oxidative stress (OS and antioxidants depletion induced by SM seem to be one of the main factors that lead to low sperm quality and male infertility among exposed patients. It is believed that SM can trigger several molecular and cellular pathways linked to OS and inflammation in reproductive system that can cause impaired spermatogenesis, sperm apoptosis and poor sperm quality as well as loss of tissue structure and function. Identification of these signaling pathways and molecules gives us valuable information regarding the mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive dysfunction and the way for developing a better clinical treatment. Therefore, in this review we aimed to discuss the proposed cellular and molecular mechanisms of SM effect on reproductive system, the significance of oxidative stress and the mechanisms by which SM induces OS and antioxidants depletion in SM exposed men.

  17. Novel FSHβ mutation in a male patient with isolated FSH deficiency and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Junjie; Mao, Jiangfeng; Cui, Mingxuan; Liu, Zhaoxiang; Wang, Xi; Xiong, Shuyu; Nie, Min; Wu, Xueyan

    2017-06-01

    Isolated follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) deficiency due to mutations in FSHβ is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disease that has only been reported in ten patients to date. Symptoms of the disease include amenorrhoea and hypogonadism in women and azoospermia and normal testosterone levels in men. This study describes a Chinese male patient who presented with cryptorchidism and infertility. His serum hormonal profile revealed low FSH, elevated LH and normal testosterone levels. Sequence analysis identified a novel homozygous mutation in the FSHβ gene (c.343C > T) predicted to result in a premature termination codon and a truncated FSH protein (p.R115X). Both parents were heterozygous carriers of the mutation with normal pubertal development and fertility. The patient's testicular volume increased after one year of exogenous FSH replacement therapy at which point spermatocytes were detected in seminal samples, indicating potential future spermatogenesis. The expanded spectrum of FSHβ mutations and associated clinical manifestations described in this study may improve the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Abnormal spermatogenesis and male infertility in testicular zinc finger protein Zfp318-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Masamichi; Ohtsuka, Eri; Inoue, Atsuto; Odaka, Mirei; Ohshima, Hirotaka; Tamura, Norihisa; Yoshida, Kaoru; Sako, Norihisa; Baba, Tadashi; Kashiwabara, Shin-Ichi; Okabe, Masaru; Noguchi, Junko; Hagiwara, Hiromi

    2016-09-01

    Zfp318, a mouse gene with a Cys2/His2 zinc finger motif, is mainly expressed in germ cells in the testis. It encodes two alternative transcripts, which regulate androgen receptor-mediated transcriptional activation or repression by overexpression of them. However, the role of Zfp318 is still obscure in vivo, especially in spermatogenesis. To elucidate the role of Zfp318 during gamete production, we established a knockout mouse line. Zfp318-null male mice exhibited infertility, whereas Zfp318-null female mice displayed normal fertility. ZFP318 was expressed during multiple stages of spermatogenesis, from spermatocytes to round spermatids. The nuclei of secondary spermatocytes showed high levels of expression. Histological analysis and quantitative analysis of DNA content showed decreased numbers of both spermatids in the seminiferous tubules and mature spermatozoa in the epididymides of Zfp318-null mice. These results suggest that Zfp318 is expressed as a functional protein in testicular germ cells and plays an important role in meiosis during spermatogenesis.

  19. Testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs) as a male infertility factor. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedziela, Marek; Joanna, Talarczyk; Piotr, JedrzejczaK

    2012-09-01

    Since testes and adrenal cortex derive from the same urogenital ridge, adrenal tissue with descending gonads may migrate in early embryonic period. Although most often ectopic tissue undergoes atrophy in some cases, when adrenocorticotrophic (ACTH) overstimulation occurs, the adrenal remnants in the testes may become hypertrophic and form testicular adrenal rest tumors (TARTs). The growth of TARTs in the testes leads to obstruction of the seminiferous tubules which can mechanically impair the function of the gonads and cause irreversible azoospermia. We describe a patient suffering since neonatal period from congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), disorder with defected pathway of cortisol production, which leads to increased ACTH production and to overstimulation of adrenal cortex. He had very poor disease control and therefore in late puberty he was diagnosed with TARTs. At the age of 19.5 he was diagnosed with azoospermia, most likely caused by TARTs. It is the first evidence of TARTs in Polish literature. Although not many cases have been published so far the incidence of TARTs seems to be highly underdiagnosed, so it seems reasonable to consider the disease in differential diagnosis of male infertility.

  20. A clinical appraisal of the genetic basis in unexplained male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C.

    2013-01-01

    Unexplained male infertility (UMI), the inability to reproduce despite having a normal sexual history, physical exam and semen analysis, can have a genetic origin. Currently, few diagnostic tools are available for detecting such genetic abnormalities. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are respectively used for chromosomal alterations in somatic cells and sperm aneuploidy assessment. Gene sequencing and mutational analysis have been introduced for identifying specific mutations and polymorphisms. Other approaches to the molecular evaluation of spermatozoa are under investigation, including array comparative genomic hybridization and whole-genome sequencing and non-coding ribonucleic acid arrays. Although treating cytogenetic abnormalities and genetic aberrations is still out of reach, the integration of these novel techniques may unravel hidden genetic defects in UMI. Finally, a deeper understanding of the sperm epigenome might allow the development of therapies based on epigenome modifications. This review focuses on the genetic basis of UMI and highlights the current and future methods for the evaluation of genetic defects as they relate to UMI. Review of the literature was carried out using ScienceDirect, OVID, PubMed and MedLine search engines. PMID:24347931

  1. A clinical appraisal of the genetic basis in unexplained male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro C Esteves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unexplained male infertility (UMI, the inability to reproduce despite having a normal sexual history, physical exam and semen analysis, can have a genetic origin. Currently, few diagnostic tools are available for detecting such genetic abnormalities. Karyotyping and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH are respectively used for chromosomal alterations in somatic cells and sperm aneuploidy assessment. Gene sequencing and mutational analysis have been introduced for identifying specific mutations and polymorphisms. Other approaches to the molecular evaluation of spermatozoa are under investigation, including array comparative genomic hybridization and whole-genome sequencing and non-coding ribonucleic acid arrays. Although treating cytogenetic abnormalities and genetic aberrations is still out of reach, the integration of these novel techniques may unravel hidden genetic defects in UMI. Finally, a deeper understanding of the sperm epigenome might allow the development of therapies based on epigenome modifications. This review focuses on the genetic basis of UMI and highlights the current and future methods for the evaluation of genetic defects as they relate to UMI. Review of the literature was carried out using ScienceDirect, OVID, PubMed and MedLine search engines.

  2. Male infertility and the present status of its management by drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathur V

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility is a common problem and in about 40% of childless couples the husband may also need treatment, alone or alongwith the wife. ln India, however, not much attention has been paid to problems of male fertility and traditionally it is the wife who is primarily held at faith. A proper evaluation of every individual patient and exclusion of surgical conditions like varicocele or obstruction are necessary before starting any drug treatment. No stereotyped regime can succeed for each and every case. Andro-gens, gonadotropins, vitamins A & E, antibiotics and anti-inflam-matory agents are well established modes of therapy, but the dose-schedule has to be carefully determined. Some newer androgens (mesterolone and fIuoxymesterone can be given orally and are very effective in directly stimulating spermatogenesis. Indigenous drugs (Speman can be of considerable help in properly selected cases. The hypothalamic releasing factors (GH-RH, Bromocrip-tine etc. are still on trial but hold-promise for the future. Thyroid, anti-estrogens (Clomiphen, corticosteroids, arginine and vitamin B 12 are of doubtful value only. Excessive smoking and alcohol ought to be discouraged. Since the beneficial effect of treatment could be only short lived, it is essential that the wife′s fertility is simultaneously assured.

  3. Zinc Levels in Seminal Fluid in Infertile Males and its Relation with Serum Free Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Ajay Rajeshwar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The role of zinc is critical to reproduction potential. Seminal zinc is thought to be derived almost exclusively from prostatic secretions. Sperm motility is significantly influenced by zinc. Zinc deficiency has been linked with male sterility and subfertility. Aim To assess the influence of seminal plasma zinc on seminogram characteristics and whether endogenous testosterone affects the seminal levels of zinc. Materials and Methods The semen samples were obtained from 150 male partners of infertile couples who attended the Reproductive Biology Unit of the Department of Physiology, within the age 21-50 years and semen samples were analysed for the routine seminogram parameters. All the subjects were classified into two main groups, A- the subjects with normal ejaculates (n=62) and B- the subjects with abnormal ejaculates, who were further sub divided into the following groups: i) Asthenoteratozoospermics (n=43); ii) Oligoasthenoteratozoospermics (n=24); and iii) Azoospermics (n=21). The seminal plasma zinc was measured spectrophotometrically. The sample for serum free testosterone was sent to Thyrocare laboratory. Results The seminal plasma zinc was found to be significantly lower in the abnormal ejaculates than in the normal ejaculates. A statistically significant positive correlation was observed between the seminal plasma zinc and serum free testosterone (p<0.05, r=0.449). Statistically significant correlation was also found between seminal plasma zinc and all the seminogram parameters such as the sperm concentration, sperm motility and sperm morphology (p<0.05, r= 0.86, 0.87 and 0.86 respectively). Conclusion Low seminal plasma zinc might be a significant causative factor in impairing sperm functions and its dependence on endogenous free testosterone, is observed from a positive correlation between the two. PMID:27437207

  4. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone, Progesterone, Seminal Antisperm Antibody, and Fructose Levels among Jordanian Males with a History of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala I. Al-Daghistani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the biochemical complexity of seminal fluid, we attempt to study the possible correlation between fructose, which is secreted under the effect of androgen hormone, and autoimmunity, which might play a role in varicocele associated infertility, in reducing sperm motility. Seminal fructose, antisperm antibodies (ASAs and blood steroids hormones (testosterone and progesterone levels were measured in 66 infertile males with varicocele and 84 without varicocele referred for fertility treatment. Seminal analysis was performed with biochemical measurements of seminal fructose and mixed agglutination reaction (MAR for ASA. Serum levels of progesterone and testosterone were estimated using a competitive chemoluminescent enzyme immunoassay. The mean values for serum testosterone were 380.74±24.331, 365.9±16.55, and 367.5±21.8 ng/dl, progesterone 0.325±0.243, 0.341±0.022, and 0.357  ±  0.0306 ng/ml, and seminal plasma fructose 359.6  ±  26.75, 315.6  ±  13.08, and 332.08  ±  24.38 mg/dl in males with varicocele, without varicocele, and fertile males, respectively. A significant high level of testosterone was observed within varicocele group (P=.001. This result showed that testosterone may play a role as an infertility determinant in subjects with varicocele. ASA was detected in 18 (26.47% of cases with varicocele, 20 (38.46% without varicocele, and in 16 (32.0% fertile men. Cases with ASAs associated with low sperm motility morphology. An inverse correlation between sperm-bound antibodies and viscosity has been shown (P=.017. ASA showed some significant inverse relations with ages, durations of infertility, and viscosity (P<.05. In addition, a significant correlation was observed between ASA positive seminal plasma and testosterone concentration among infertile cases (with or without varicocele and fertile (P<.05. Our results suggest a relationship between testicular steroid hormone levels with

  5. The genetic variation in Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2) has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinu Lee; Dong Ryul Lee; Suman Lee

    2014-01-01

    Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2(MCT2) transports pyruvate and lactate outside and inside of sperms, mainly as energy sources and plays roles in the regulation of spermatogenesis. We investigated the association among genetic variations in theMCT2 gene, male infertility andMCT2 expression levels in sperm. The functional and genetic signiifcance of the intron 2(+28201A>G, rs10506398) and 3’ untranslated region(UTR) single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)(+2626G>A, rs10506399) of MCT2 variants were investigated. Two MCT2 polymorphisms were associated with male infertility(n=471,PA) had a strong association with the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia(OAT) group. The+2626GG type had an almost 2.4‑fold higher sperm count than that of the+2626AA type(+2626GG; 66×106vs+2626AA; 27×106, P<0.0001). The MCT2‑3’ UTR SNP may be important for expression, as it is located at the MCT23’ UTR. The average MCT2 protein amount in sperm of the+2626GG type was about two times higher than that of the+2626AA type. The results suggest that genetic variation in MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility.

  6. The genetic variation in Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinu Lee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monocarboxylic acid transporter 2 (MCT2 transports pyruvate and lactate outside and inside of sperms, mainly as energy sources and plays roles in the regulation of spermatogenesis. We investigated the association among genetic variations in the MCT2 gene, male infertility and MCT2 expression levels in sperm. The functional and genetic significance of the intron 2 (+28201A > G, rs10506398 and 3' untranslated region (UTR single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP (+2626G > A, rs10506399 of MCT2 variants were investigated. Two MCT2 polymorphisms were associated with male infertility (n = 471, P A had a strong association with the oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT group. The +2626GG type had an almost 2.4-fold higher sperm count than that of the +2626AA type (+2626GG; 66 × 10 6 vs +2626AA; 27 × 10 6 , P < 0.0001. The MCT2-3' UTR SNP may be important for expression, as it is located at the MCT2 3' UTR. The average MCT2 protein amount in sperm of the +2626GG type was about two times higher than that of the +2626AA type. The results suggest that genetic variation in MCT2 has functional and clinical relevance with male infertility.

  7. Effects of the Combined Therapy of Acupuncture with Herbal Drugs on Male Immune Infertility-- A Clinical Report of 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Bing; Lun Xin; Gong Yuzhuo; Wang Xinzhong

    2005-01-01

    To study the clinical effects of the combined therapy of acupuncture with herbal drugs on male immune infertility and on antisperm antibody (AsAb), 100 male cases of infertility with positive AsAb were divided randomly into two groups, each consisting of 50 cases. The acupuncture-drug group was treated with acupuncture on Ganshu (BL 18), Shenshu (BL 23), Taichong (LR 3), Taixi (KI 3), Xinshu (BL 15),Geshu (BL 17), Shenmen (HT 7), and Xuehai (SP 10), combined with oral medication of Liuwei treated with oral prednisone. The clinical therapeutic effects and the impact on AsAb were observed in the two groups. The results showed that the total effective rate in the acupuncture-drug group was 90%;while that of the control group was 64%, the comparison showing a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). The positive rate of blood serum and/or AsAb in both the two groups decreased in varying degrees, but the negative-turning rate of AsAb in the acupuncture-drug group was more obvious, the comparison showing also a significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusion: The combined therapy of acupuncture with herbal drugs has definite therapeutic effects on male immune infertility, which can regulate AsAb and raise the immunity of the patients.

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in a Male Infertility-Related Gene CatSper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei CHEN; Hong LI; Song-shan JIANG; Shi-ling CHEN; Fu-qi XING

    2004-01-01

    Objective To identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of human CatSper gene, the mouse homologous gene product, which plays a crucial role in mouse male sterility.Methods We demonstrated a systematic screening of SNPs in coding regions and flanking intronic regions of human CatSper gene in a sample subset from a total 210 male individuals by DNA sequencing. Then we used PCR single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis to determine the allele frequencies of the possible SNPs among the whole 210 Chinese Han male individuals.Results Three SNPs, including two novels, were identified and their allele frequencies were determined in the 210 Chinese Han male individuals. These SNPs were assembled into large SNP database that promises to enable the dissection of the genetic basis of disease.

  9. Clinically relevant known and candidate genes for obesity and their overlap with human infertility and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Merlin G; McGuire, Austen; Manzardo, Ann M

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is a growing public health concern now reaching epidemic status worldwide for children and adults due to multiple problems impacting on energy intake and expenditure with influences on human reproduction and infertility. A positive family history and genetic factors are known to play a role in obesity by influencing eating behavior, weight and level of physical activity and also contributing to human reproduction and infertility. Recent advances in genetic technology have led to discoveries of new susceptibility genes for obesity and causation of infertility. The goal of our study was to provide an update of clinically relevant candidate and known genes for obesity and infertility using high resolution chromosome ideograms with gene symbols and tabular form. We used computer-based internet websites including PubMed to search for combinations of key words such as obesity, body mass index, infertility, reproduction, azoospermia, endometriosis, diminished ovarian reserve, estrogen along with genetics, gene mutations or variants to identify evidence for development of a master list of recognized obesity genes in humans and those involved with infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols for known and candidate genes for obesity were plotted on high resolution chromosome ideograms at the 850 band level. Both infertility and obesity genes were listed separately in alphabetical order in tabular form and those highlighted when involved with both conditions. By searching the medical literature and computer generated websites for key words, we found documented evidence for 370 genes playing a role in obesity and 153 genes for human reproduction or infertility. The obesity genes primarily affected common pathways in lipid metabolism, deposition or transport, eating behavior and food selection, physical activity or energy expenditure. Twenty-one of the obesity genes were also associated with human infertility and reproduction. Gene symbols were plotted on high resolution

  10. Evidence of increased chromosomal instability in infertile males after exposure to mitomycin C and caffeine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fotini Papachristou; Theodore Lialiaris; Stavros Touloupidis; Christos Kalaitzis; Constantinos Simopoulos; Nikolaos Sofikitis

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the genetic instability of 11 fertile and 25 infertile men. Methods: The methodology of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was applied to cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes, and the levels of SCEss were analyzed as a quantitative index of genotoxicity, along with the values of the mitotic index (MI) and the proliferation rate index (PRI) as qualitative indices of cytotoxicity and cytostaticity, respectively. The genotoxic and antineoplastic agent, mitomycin C (MMC), and caffeine (CAF) - both well-known inhibitors of DNA repair mechanism - were used in an attempt to induce chromosomal instability in infertile men, so as to more easily detect the probable underlying damage on DNA. Results: Our experiments illustrated that infertile men, compared with fertile ones, demonstrated a statistically significant DNA instability in peripheral blood lymphocytes after being exposed simultaneously to MMC and CAF. Conclusion: The current study showed vividly that there was genetic instability in infertile men which probably contributes to the development of an impaired reproductive capacity.

  11. TNF-α −308 polymorphisms and male infertility risk: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Taymour; Taymour, Mai

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies discussing TNF-α −308 polymorphism and male infertility. This study was conformed to Preferred Reported Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant studies by two independent reviewers. Hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect or random-effects models when appropriate. Q-test was performed to evaluate study heterogeneity and publication bias appraised using funnel plots. The search yielded five studies (three of Caucasians ethnicity and 2 of Asian ethnicity) comprising 2939 men (2262 infertile men and 677 fertile controls). Most of the studied cases were carried out on TNF-α promoter region at positions −308 G/A (four studies) where −308 C/T was dealt with in one study. Overall, significant associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and idiopathic male infertility risk were observed (fixed effect: OR = 0.472, 95% CI: 0.378–0.589; P = 0.001; random effect: OR = 0.407, 95% CI: 0.211–0.785; P = 0.007) with robust findings according to sensitivity analyses. Funnel plot inspections did not give evidences of publication bias. A stratified analysis performed for ethnic groups revealed significant association in both Caucasian and Asian populations. It is concluded that there are evidences of associations between TNF-α −308 gene polymorphisms and male infertility risk. PMID:26966560

  12. Association study of folate-related enzymes (MTHFR, MTR, MTRR genetic variants with non-obstructive male infertility in a Polish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Kurzawski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a process where an important contribution of genes involved in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism is observed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between male infertility and the MTHFR (677C > T; 1298A > C, MTR (2756A > G and MTRR (66A > G polymorphisms in a Polish population. No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were detected between the groups of 284 infertile men and of 352 fertile controls. These results demonstrate that common polymorphisms in folate pathway genes are not major risk factors for non-obstructive male infertility in the Polish population.

  13. Active vitamin D deficiency mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus results in male infertility in young mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Weiwei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Rong; Goltzman, David; Miao, Dengshun

    2015-01-01

    We used mice with targeted deletion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase [1α(OH)ase(-/-)] to investigate whether 1,25(OH)2D3 deficiency results in male infertility mediated by 1,25(OH)2D3 or extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) and their wild-type littermates fed either a normal diet or a rescue diet from weaning were mated at 6-14 wk of age with female wild-type mice on the same diet. The fertility efficiency of females was analyzed, and the reproductive phenotypes of males were evaluated by histopathological and molecular techniques. Hypocalcemic and hypophosphatemic male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice on a normal diet developed infertility characterized by hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, with downregulation of testicular calcium channels, lower intracellular calcium levels, decreased sperm count and motility, and histological abnormalities of the testes. The proliferation of spermatogenic cells was decreased with downregulation of cyclin E and CDK2 and upregulation of p53 and p21 expression, whereas apoptosis of spermatogenic cells was increased with upregulation of Bax and p-caspase 3 expression and downregulation of Bcl-xl expression. When serum calcium and phosphorus were normalized by the rescue diet, the defective reproductive phenotype in the male 1α(OH)ase(-/-) mice, including the hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, decreased sperm count and motility, histological abnormalities of testis, and defective spermatogenesis, was reversed. These results indicate that the infertility seen in male 1,25(OH)2D3-deficient mice is not a direct effect of active vitamin D deficiency on the reproductive system but is an indirect effect mediated by extracellular calcium and phosphorus. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Spinal Cord Injury and Male Infertility%脊髓损伤与男性不育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ManojMONGA; ZacharyGORDON; 等

    2002-01-01

    脊髓损伤(SCI)通常会对育龄男性造成一定的影响.脊髓受损后的男性大多会在以下方面发生问题:如勃起和射精功能障碍,精子发生受损,精子存活力、活率及形态异常,泌尿生殖系统感染以及内分泌异常.本文将从病理生理、评价和治疗等方面对脊髓损伤引起的男性不育症进行论述.脊髓损伤可对精浆产生影响并加速精液氧化,从而使得SCI男性的精液质量下降.本文还将对用于SCI男性的精子复苏技术和辅助生育技术所取得的进展进行讨论.%Spinal cord injury (SCI)commonly affects males in their reproductive years. After spinal cord injury, most men experience fertility related problems including erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction, impaired spermatogenesis, abnormal sperm viability, motility, and morphology, genitourinary infection and endocrine abnormalities. In this article we will review the pathophysiology, evaluation and management of infertility in spinal cord injury. The impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma and the contribution of seminal oxidative stress to the poor sperm quality of men with spinal cord injury will be presented. Success with sperm retrieval techniques and assisted reproductive technology in SCI men with spinal cord injury will be discussed. Natl J Androl,2002,8(4):235~240

  15. The role of the antisperm antibodies in male infertility assessment after microsurgical varicocelectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozhedomov, V A; Lipatova, N A; Alexeev, R A; Alexandrova, L M; Nikolaeva, M A; Sukhikh, G T

    2014-11-01

    Antisperm antibodies (ASA) are a cause of male infertility. ASA are often found in varicocele patients. The study objective was to assess the ASA role in fertility recovery after varicocelectomy. The longitudinal study involved 99 patients with varicocele. Patients were examined according to the WHO recommendations; ASA level was measured using the direct method of Sperm MAR test: 66 patients were ASA-negative, 33 had MAR-IgG ≥ 10%. All patients underwent microsurgical varicocelectomy. Student's t-test, Wilcoxon test, Chi-squared test and signed rank test were used for data analysis. The retrospective analysis of all operated patients data showed that the patients without spermiogram improvement after varicocelectomy had higher ASA levels. 3 months after the surgery, the initially ASA-negative varicocele patients demonstrated 2.5 times increase in number of progressive motile spermatozoa in the ejaculate (p 0.05). The main outcome in this group was a favourable response to the surgery (ASA level decrease) vs. no reduction in autoimmune process. The improvement in the ASA-positive group was demonstrated in the patients with higher varicocele grade (median--2 vs. 1; p < 0.05) and lower ASA level (MAR-IgG = 48% vs. 92%; p < 0.01). The pregnancy rate within a year after surgery was 2.8 times more frequent in couples with ASA-negative men: 39% (25 of 65) in the ASA-negative group compared to 14% (4 of 28) in the ASA-positive group (p < 0.05). Thus, antisperm immune response decreases the varicocelectomy efficacy for reproductive function recovery: the higher percentage of ASA and lower grade of varicocele are associated with an unfavourable prognosis. © 2014 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  16. Dysregulation of nectin-2 in the testicular cells: an explanation of cadmium-induced male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Lui, Wing-Yee

    2014-09-01

    Nectin-2, a junction molecule, is found at the basal and apical ectoplasmic specializations (ES) for the formation of the blood-testis barrier (BTB) (constituted by tight junctions and basal ES) and Sertoli-spermatid adhesion. Loss of nectin-2 causes male infertility, suggesting nectin-2-based ES is crucial for spermatogenesis. Cadmium (Cd) has been known to induce severe testicular injury. Recent evidence has shown that the basal ES at the BTB and apical ES are the targets of Cd, suggesting that unique junction protein at the ES may explain why testis is more susceptible than other tissues. Since nectin-2 is expressed exclusively at the ES, it is highly possible that nectin-2 is the direct target of Cd. In this study, we investigate if nectin-2 is the target protein of Cd toxicity and the mechanism on how Cd down-regulates nectin-2 to achieve ES disruption. Our results revealed that Cd suppresses nectin-2 at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Inhibitor and shRNA knockdown have shown that Cd induces nectin-2 protein degradation via clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Immunofluorescence staining and endocytosis assays further confirmed that nectin-2 internalization is promoted upon Cd treatment. Besides, Cd directly represses nectin-2 transcription. EMSA and ChIP assays showed that Cd inhibits the binding of positive regulators to nectin-2 promoter. siRNA and overexpression analyses have demonstrated that Cd reduces the expression and binding affinity of positive regulators for transcription. Taken together, nectin-2 is the direct molecular target of Cd and its disruptive effects are mediated via direct repressing nectin-2 transcription and endocytosis of nectin-2 for degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of Blood and Semen Lead and Zinc Level with Semen Parameter in the Male Partner of Infertile Couple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Hossain, M M; Rahman, D; Rahman, M W; Mugni, C R; Sumon, G M; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N

    2015-07-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out in Center for Assisted Reproduction, Dhaka, and in the Department of Biochemistry, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh from July 2012 to December 2012. The study population was 71 consecutive male partners of infertile couple suffering from at least one year of infertility. Lead and Zinc level was measured in blood and semen in the male partner of infertile couple and compared with semen parameters. Serum zinc at different values did not show any statistically significant change in semen volume, total count of sperm and total motility of sperm. At serum zinc level 80-sperm (54.00 ± 46.67 million/ml) but was not statistically significant. Rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology was also highest at values 80-zinc level > 90 μg/dl semen lead level was significantly higher (120.73 ± 58.02 μg/dl) and showed statistically significant decrease in rapid linear motility and normal sperm morphology. Total count of sperm was lowest at blood zinc level of 70-Sperm morphology also showed statistically significant improvement at Serum zinc values of 80-zinc level of values 80-zinc levels higher as well as lower than values 80-< 90 μg/dl was associated with increased semen lead values and with negative impact on semen parameters.

  18. Sperm DNA Integrity and Meiotic Behavior Assessment in an Infertile Male Carrier of a 9qh+++ Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. García-Peiró

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several reports on male infertility suggest a relationship between chromosome 9 polymorphisms and infertility, the effects on the phenotype have not been extensively reported. In this study, an infertile patient was found to carry a 9qh+++ chromosome. The flow cytometric TUNEL assay and SCD test have been applied to characterize sperm DNA integrity. In order to assess its meiotic behaviour, synapsis, recombination, and aneuploidy, analyses have been also performed. Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF was 77.81% and 87% for the TUNEL and SCD tests, respectively. Ninety-two percent of pachytene cells analyzed showed meiotic abnormalities. The mean number of MLH1 foci per pachytene in the control group was higher (49 than the mean found in the 9qh+++ patient (38 (P<.0001. In spermatozoa, significant increases of disomy rates were observed for chromosome 18 and for the sex chromosomes (P<.0001. These disturbances could be present in other male carriers of a less marked 9qh+.

  19. [The relationship between herpes simplex virus II, human papillomavirus infection and infertility after artificial abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Huang, T; Zhang, Z

    1998-06-01

    In order to study the relationship between infection of sexually transmitted virus Herpes simplex virus II (HSV2), Human papillomavirus (HPV) and female infertility after artificial abortion, we collected 60 genital samples from infertile women who had accepted artificial abortions and 39 genital samples from normal women. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect HSV2 and HPV. The results were compared by x2. The positive rate of HSV2 in infertile and normal women were 80.0% and 25.6% respectively, there was a significant difference (P 0.05). Mixed infection rates of HSV2 and HPV were 43.3% and 23.1% in infertile and normal women, a significant difference (P < 0.05) was statistically calculated. The results showed that there was a relationship between infertility after artificial abortion and genital infection of HSV2 and HPV or mited infection of HSV 2 and HPV. Taking total 99 genital samples into calculation, the mired infection rate of HSV 2 was 35.35%, a significant relatedness of HSV2 and HPV infection to infertility was proved by chi 2, chi 2 = 12.5, P < 0.01.

  20. Searching for help online: An analysis of peer-to-peer posts on a male-only infertility forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2016-04-22

    Men's experiences of infertility help seeking are under-researched and thus less widely understood than women's experiences, with men's needs for support often missing from reproductive research knowledge. This article presents a thematic analysis of peer-to-peer posts within the context of a UK men-only online infertility forum. The key themes demonstrate that men value male support from those with experience, and that masculinity influences help-seeking requests and men's accounts more broadly. We highlight the value of such online communities in offering support to men in need while recognising the importance of further research across other online settings in order to inform practice around supporting men in the reproductive realm.

  1. Causes of male infertility: a 9-year prospective monocentre study on 1737 patients with reduced total sperm counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punab, M.; Poolamets, O.; Paju, P.; Vihljajev, V.; Pomm, K.; Ladva, R.; Korrovits, P.; Laan, M.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the primary causes of severe male factor infertility? SUMMARY ANSWER Although 40% of all patients showed primary causes of infertility, which could be subdivided into three groups based on the severity of their effect, ~75% of oligozoospermia cases remained idiopathic. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY There are few large-scale epidemiological studies analyzing the causes of male factor infertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A prospective clinical-epidemiological study was conducted at the Andrology Centre, Tartu University Hospital between 2005 and 2013, recruiting male partners of couples failing to conceive a child for over ≥12 months. Among 8518 patients, 1737 (20.4%) were diagnosed with severe male factor infertility. A reference group of fertile controls was comprised of 325 partners of pregnant women. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS The mean age of infertility patients and fertile controls was 33.2 ± 7.3 and 31.7 ± 6.3 years, respectively. All participants were examined using a standardized andrology workup, accompanied by a structured medical interview. Hormonal analysis included serum FSH, LH and testosterone. Semen quality was determined in accordance to the World Health Organization recommendations. Cases with spermatozoa concentrations of ≤5 million/ml were screened for chromosomal aberrations and Y-chromosomal microdeletions. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE The primary cause of infertility was defined for 695 of 1737 patients (~40%). The analyzed causal factors could be divided into absolute (secondary hypogonadism, genetic causes, seminal tract obstruction), severe (oncological diseases, severe sexual dysfunction) and plausible causal factors (congenital anomalies in uro-genital tract, acquired or secondary testicular damage). The latter were also detected for 11 (3.4%) men with proven fertility (diagnoses: unilateral cryptorchidism, testis cancer, orchitis, mumps orchitis). The causal factors behind the most

  2. Molecular detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and other sexually transmitted bacteria in semen of male partners of infertile couples in Tunisia: the effect on semen parameters and spermatozoa apoptosis markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanen Sellami

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasmas, and Ureaplasmas in semen samples of the male partners of infertile couples and to investigate whether Chlamydia trachomatis could initiate apoptosis in human spermatozoa. A total of 85 males partners of infertile couples undergoing routine semen analysis according to World Health Organization guidelines were included. Specimens were examined for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum by Real time PCR (qPCR. Semen specimens were analysed for the appearance of apoptotic markers (sperm DNA fragmentation, activated caspase 3 levels, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm using flow cytometry. C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae, U. urealyticum, M genitalium were detected in semen samples of 13 (15.2%, 5 (5.8%, 5 (5.8% and 3 (3.5% male partners of infertile couples, respectively. M. hominis and U. parvum were detected in semen sample of only one patient (1.1%. The semen of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis showed lower mean of semen count and lower rapid progressive motility (category [a] of spermatozoa compared to uninfected men with statistically significances (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively. Flow cytometry analyses demonstrated a significant increase of the mean rate of semen with low ΔΨm and caspase 3 activation of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men (p = 0.006 and p = 0.001, respectively. DNA fragmentation was also increased in sperm of infertile men positive for C. trachomatis compared to uninfected men but without statistical significances (p = 0.62. Chlamydial infection was associated to loss of ΔΨm and caspase 3activation. Thus, C. trachomatis infection could be incriminated in apoptosis induction of spermatozoa. These effects may explain the negative direct impact of C

  3. Epigenetics of reproductive infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Laxmidhar; Parbin, Sabnam; Pradhan, Nibedita; Kausar, Chahat; Patra, Samir K

    2017-06-01

    Infertility is a complex pathophysiological condition. It may caused by specific or multiple physical and physiological factors, including abnormalities in homeostasis, hormonal imbalances and genetic alterations. In recent times various studies implicated that, aberrant epigenetic mechanisms are associated with reproductive infertility. There might be transgenerational effects associated with epigenetic modifications of gametes and studies suggest the importance of alterations in epigenetic modification at early and late stages of gametogenesis. To determine the causes of infertility it is necessary to understand the altered epigenetic modifications of associated gene and mechanisms involved therein. This review is devoted to elucidate the recent mechanistic advances in regulation of genes by epigenetic modification and emphasizes their possible role related to reproductive infertility. It includes environmental, nutritional, hormonal and physiological factors and influence of internal structural architecture of chromatin nucleosomes affecting DNA and histone modifications in both male and female gametes, early embryogenesis and offspring. Finally, we would like to emphasize that research on human infertility by gene knock out of epigenetic modifiers genes must be relied upon animal models.

  4. A hormonal, physical, and proteomic view of obesity-induced effects on male infertility and possible lifestyle modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karishma Khullar; Ashok Agarwal; SS du Plessis

    2012-01-01

    The increasing incidence of obesity worldwide combined with the parallel trend of declining sperm quality has given rise to the notion that obesity and infertility are linked.While investigations of sperm quality in obese individuals have yielded inconclusive results, studies of the adverse hormonal, physical, and proteomic changes induced by obesity are more definitive.Unfavorable hormonal abnormalities reported in obese males that affect reproduction are decreased levels of testosterone, inhibinB, and ghrelin and increased levels of estrogen, leptin, and resistin.Moreover, erectile dysfunction and elevated scrotal temperatures have been associated with obesity and are important physical barriers to successful male reproduction. Recently, important advances have been made in proteomics and factors have been identified in obese individuals that may impair spermatogenesis and sperm quality.Although obesity contributes to a host of adverse effects on the reproductive system, certain lifestyle modifications can be made to alleviate such effects.Natural weight loss and surgical weight loss have demonstrated favorable results in obese patients by restoring normal hormone levels and reversing the effects of both erectile dysfunction and testicular heat stress.Pharmacological interventions have also proven to be promising in combating the effects of obesity.Particularly, aromatase inhibitors such as anastrozole, letrozole, and testolactone, have been reported to decrease the aromatase over-activity and increased estrogen levels present in obese males.An understanding of abnormalities associated with obesity and possible lifestyle modifications may help clinicians effectively guide their infertile obese male patients and increase fertility rates.

  5. [A case of male infertility with a reciprocal translocation t(X;14)(p11.4;p12)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sang Hyun; Lee, Sun Min; Seo, Eul Ju; Choi, Kyung Un; Park, Hyun Jun; Park, Nam Cheol; Choi, Jin; Lee, Eun Yup

    2007-04-01

    A chromosomal abnormality was found in about 3.6-7.6% of males presenting with azoospermia or oligospermia. Translocations between X chromosome and autosomes are rarely seen genetic disorders that cause male infertility. We described here a 26-year-old infertile male with t(X;14)(p11.4; p12). He showed a normal phenotype without any familial history of congenital abnormalities. The cytogenetic analysis of the proband revealed an X-autosomal translocation, 46,Y,t(X;14)(p11.4;p12), which was inherited from his mother. The testis biopsies indicated the arrest of spermatogenesis. There were no microdeletions of the azoospermia factor a (AZFa), AZFb and AZFc regions in the Y chromosome shown by PCR with 11 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. According to the literature, male carriers of an X-autosome translocation are invariably sterile, regardless of the position of the break-point in the X chromosome. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of azoospermia with t(X;14)(p11.4;p12) in Korea.

  6. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

  7. Human male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke de Vries

    Full Text Available In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.

  8. The polymorphism (-600 C>A) of CpG methylation site at the promoter region of CYP17A1 and its association of male infertility and testosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Jinu; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Suman

    2014-01-15

    Cytochrome P450, family 17, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP17A1) is a key regulatory enzyme in the steroidogenic pathway. The functional and clinical relevance of novel CYP17A1 promoter single nucleotide polymorphism (-600 C>A, rs17115149) was investigated with male infertility. Case-control association study of CYP17A1 from 456 infertile men performed with 465 normal fertile men. The rs17115149 at the promoter region of CYP17A1 was significantly associated with Oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, P=0.0015, n=265). 5-aza-dC treatment to B lymphocyte cells increased the CYP17A1 expression. Direct bisulfite sequencing of five human tissues showed that the rs17115149 is located at -600bp (-600C>A) before transcription start site within the CpG islands of CYP17A1 promoter. This -600 Cytosine of CpG site was highly methylated in colon and stomach tissues, but low methylated in adrenal gland, kidney and testis with higher CYP17A1 RNA expression. Especially, this polymorphism is statistically significant associated with testosterone levels from infertile males (n=197, PA) is a functional regulatory SNP which associated with its expression possibly by epigenetic pathway, which may signify a genetic risk factor for male infertility. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nishi; Gupta, Saraswati; Dama, Madhukar; David, Archana; Khanna, Geeta; Khanna, Anil; Rajender, Singh

    2011-01-01

    Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522) and confirmed fertile (N = 315) individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR) and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2). The frequency of mutant (T) allele (p = 0.0025) and genotypes (CT+TT) (p = 0.0187) was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR) for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000), 1.310 (p = 0.000), respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  10. Strong association of 677 C>T substitution in the MTHFR gene with male infertility--a study on an indian population and a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishi Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is an important enzyme of folate and methionine metabolism, making it crucial for DNA synthesis and methylation. The objective of this study was to analyze MTHFR gene 677C>T polymorphism in infertile male individuals from North India, followed by a meta-analysis on our data and published studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook genotyping on a total of 837 individuals including well characterized infertile (N = 522 and confirmed fertile (N = 315 individuals. The SNP was typed by direct DNA sequencing. Chi square test was done for statistical analysis. Published studies were searched using appropriate keywords. Source of data collection for meta-analysis included 'Pubmed', 'Ovid' and 'Google Scholar'. Those studies analyzing 677C>T polymorphism in male infertility and presenting all relevant data were included in meta-analysis. The genotype data for infertile subjects and fertile controls was extracted from each study. Chi square test was done to obtain odds ratio (OR and p-value. Meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Version 2. The frequency of mutant (T allele (p = 0.0025 and genotypes (CT+TT (p = 0.0187 was significantly higher in infertile individuals in comparison to fertile controls in our case-control study. The overall summary estimate (OR for allele and genotype meta-analysis were 1.304 (p = 0.000, 1.310 (p = 0.000, respectively, establishing significant association of 677C>T polymorphism with male infertility. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: 677C>T substitution associated strongly with male infertility in Indian population. Allele and genotype meta-analysis also supported its strong correlation with male infertility, thus establishing it as a risk factor.

  11. Psychological and cross-cultural aspects of infertility and human sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Palha, Antonio; Lourenço, Mário F

    2011-01-01

    The influences of culture are present in different areas of human health, as is the case with reproductive behaviors. To have a child means to have made a responsible decision. If conception takes longer to happen, these patients require the help of doctors to stimulate the refractory body. In light of data suggesting that psychosexual symptoms may interfere with fertility, successful infertility treatment and the ability to tolerate ongoing treatment rely on paying attention to these symptoms. Infertility is not only a fault of nature, but it is also something that does not respect the established order, a fact that casts doubt on the truth of the femininity and masculinity representations prevailing in a culture. Infertility is always a disease of the couple, and it is the couple that must be treated. The same is true when it comes to addressing sexual dysfunction. The dominant values and cultural practices indelibly affect the sexuality of infertile couples. In order to be credible, humanization of the treatment protocols for infertile couples must take into account the problems of intimacy as well as the sexual health of these couples.

  12. Male infertility during antihypertensive therapy: are we addressing correctly the problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Simone Laganà

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Male fertility significantly decreased in the last 50 years, as showed in several studies reporting a reduction of sperm counts per ml in the seminal fluid. Several “acute” pharmacological treatments, as antibiotics, could cause subclinical and temporary reduction of male fertility; conversely, long-term medical treatment may severely affect male fertility, although this effect could be considered transient in most of the cases. Thus, nowadays, several long-term pharmacological treatments may represent a clinical challenge. The association between several kind of antihypertensive drugs and reduction of male fertility has been showed in the mouse model, although the modification(s which may alter this fine-regulated machinery are still far to be elucidated. Furthermore, well-designed observational studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to accurately define this association in human model, meaning a narrative overview synthesizing the findings of literature retrieved from searches of computerized databases. We strongly solicit future human studies (both observational and randomized clinical trials on large cohorts with adequate statistical power which may clarify this possible association and the effects (reversible or permanent of each drug. Furthermore, we suggest a close collaboration between general practitioners, cardiologists, and andrologists in order to choose the most appropriate antihypertensive therapy considering also patient’s reproductive desire and possible risk for his fertility.

  13. Finasteride-associated male infertility Infertilidade masculina associada ao uso de finasterida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Glina

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is a potent and specific inhibitor of the 5alpha-reductase enzyme in men. Clinical studies have shown that finasteride 1mg/day is effective for promoting hair growth in men with male pattern hair loss. However, there is a concern about the use of finasteride, especially in young fertile patients, because of its action on testosterone metabolism. This paper describes 3 cases of young patients who had very poor seminal quality during finasteride treatment (1 mg/day, and their seminal quality greatly improved after cessation of finasteride treatment. Two of them presented with a left varicocele and the other was obese. We hypothesize that finasteride may not dramatically change the spermatogenesis process in healthy men, but in patients with conditions related to infertility, an amplification of the negative influence of finasteride could occur. Future studies should be done to clarify the extent of the effect of finasteride in patients fertility problems.A finasterida é um potente e específico inibidor da enzima 5alfa-redutase em homens. Estudos clínicos demonstraram que finasterida 1mg/dia diminui a progressão da queda e aumenta o crescimento do cabelo em homens que sofrem de queda de cabelo hereditária. Por sua influência no metabolismo dos andrógenos existe uma preocupação a respeito do seu uso, principalmente em pacientes em idade fértil. Neste trabalho são descritos 3 casos de pacientes jovens, que apresentaram piora do espermograma durante o uso continuado de finasterida 1mg revertida após a suspensão do mesmo. Dois deles tinham varicocele unilateral e o terceiro era obeso. Aparentemente o tratamento com finasterida promoveu alteração significativa na qualidade seminal. Pode-se especular que talvez a finasterida por si só não traga alteração para a espermatogênese como reportado por Overstreet et al. (1999, mas que em pacientes de risco com possíveis causas de infertilidade associadas, possa ocorrer a

  14. Evaluating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, June 2012 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  15. Treating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Treating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page ... Treating Infertility FAQ137, March 2015 PDF Format Treating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is infertility? What treatment options ...

  16. Evaluating Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Evaluating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Evaluating Infertility Page ... Evaluating Infertility FAQ136, June 2012 PDF Format Evaluating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is an infertility evaluation? When ...

  17. A Case of Male Infertility Caused by Drug-Induced Hyperprolactinemia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man complaining of infertility was referred to our hospital. He was diagnosed with oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia and hyperprolactinemia probably induced by sulpiride for depression, because semen quality gradually improved after cessation of sulpiride administration. Five months after the cessation, his serum prolactin level declined to the normal level, and his wife achieved spontaneous pregnancy.

  18. [A case of male infertility caused by drug-induced hyperprolactinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Teppei; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Kobayashi, Masataka; Kato, Yoshitake; Yumura, Yasushi; Noguchi, Kazumi; Iwasaki, Akira

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old man complaining of infertility was referred to our hospital. He was diagnosed with oligozoospermia, asthenozoospermia and hyperprolactinemia probably induced by sulpiride for depression, because semen quality gradually improved after cessation of sulpiride administration. Five months after the cessation, his serum prolactin level declined to the normal level, and his wife achieved spontaneous pregnancy.

  19. Cytogenetic, molecular and testicular tissue studies in an infertile 45,X male carrying an unbalanced (Y;22) translocation: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisset, S; Izard, V; Misrahi, M; Aboura, A; Madoux, S; Ferlicot, S; Schoevaert, D; Soufir, J C; Frydman, R; Tachdjian, G

    2005-08-01

    (Y;autosome) translocations have been reported in association with male infertility. Different mechanisms have been suggested to explain the male infertility, such as deletion of the azoospermic factor (AZF) on the long arm of the Y chromosome, or meiosis impairment. We describe a new case with a de novo unbalanced translocation t(Y;22) and discuss the genotype-phenotype correlation. A 36 year old male with azoospermia was found to have a mosaic 45,X/46,X, + mar karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) showed the presence of a derivative Y chromosome containing the short arm, the centromere and a small proximal part of the long-arm euchromatin of the Y chromosome and the long arm of chromosome 22. The unstable small marker chromosome included the short arm and the centromere of chromosome 22. This unbalanced translocation t(Y;22)(q11.2;q11.1) generated the loss of the long arm of the Y chromosome involving a large part of AZFb, AZFc and Yq heterochromatin regions. Testicular tissue analyses showed sperm in the wet preparation. Our case shows the importance of documenting (Y;autosome) translocations with molecular and testicular tissue analyses.

  20. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) asthenozoospermia (A), teratozoospermia (T) or combination (O+A+T) and azoospermia (A). Although this classification indicates the accuracy of findings its relevance for prognosis in infertile couple and the choice of treatment is questionable. Materials and Methods: The study included 98 couples with male infertility factor (bad spermiogram) and couples with normospermia and normal female factor (unexplained infertility). Testing group is randomized at: group (A) with TMSC> 3,106 / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 106 / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. Main results: From a total of 98 pairs of men’s and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 106 / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 106 / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. PMID:26980930

  1. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF HUMAN SPERMATOZOA: POTENTIAL FOR INFERTILITY RESEARCH AND SCREENING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molecular Analysis of Human Spermatozoa: Potential for Infertility Research and ScreeningDavid Miller1, David Dix2, Robert Reid3, Susan Wykes3 and Stephen Krawetz3 1Reproductive Biology Group, University of Leeds, UK2Reproductive Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmenta...

  2. Potential pathways of pesticide action on erectile function-a contributory factor in male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RP Kaur; V Gupta; AF Christopher; P Bansal

    2015-01-01

    One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on the place of erectile dysfunction as an important factor for infertility. The review is about correlating the indiscriminate use of pesticides and to find out and highlight the evidences for mechanism of action of these pesticides for erectile dysfunction and find out the most used and most dangerous pesticide from erectile dysfunction point of view. The review suggests that erectile dysfunction is having a significant place as a causal factor for infertility. Study infers that pesticides are having multiple mechanisms of action through which these cause erectile dysfunction. It also reflects that acetamiprid is having most devastating effect causing erectile dysfunction as it acts through multiple inhibitory pathways. The review successfully highlights the indiscriminate regional use of pesticides.

  3. Impact of age, verified occupation and lifestyle on semen parameters of infertile males in Jaipur: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Asha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle factors are the amendable habits and ways of life that can greatly influence overall health and well-being, including fertility. Infertility is a medico-socio problem, and a large proportion of childless people are confronted with social stigmatization and personal frustration. It has become more socially acceptable to delay fatherhood, but the heritable consequences of this trend remain poorly understood. Advancing paternal age, occupation and lifestyle has been implicated in a broad range of abnormal reproductive and genetic outcomes. Objective: The study presents a preliminary datum about the relationship of age, occupation and verified lifestyle on semen parameters in infertile males of Jaipur (Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: Clinical examination, history of infertility, age, occupation, lifestyle, etc., of 102 infertile subjects were recorded predesigned performa. Results: Based on age subjects were divided into two groups. The respective age of infertile subjects in groups I and II ranged 19-30 years and 31-45 years. A significant (P < 0.05 decline was observed in sperm motility and vitality above the age of 30 years (group II as compared to below than 30 years (group I of age. A significant inverse (r = −0.25, −0.20, P < 0.05 correlation were found between sperm motility and vitality to age of group II. In group I, conversely, these parameters was found to be positively correlated with age. Highest prevalence of azoospermia occurs in farmers (66.66%, 50% in groups I and II. The least azoospermia was found among casual laborers in both high and low age groups. In group, I highest percentage of azoospermia (55.55% subject were alcoholic, and smoker (50% and 50% severe oligozoospermia subjects were smokers in both the groups. Conclusion: The age is intimately related to decreasing in sperm motility and vitality, whereas, least effect is observed on sperm count. Occupationally, the highest prevalence of abnormal

  4. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian C. Nanagas MD, MSc

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4 before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1 uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice.

  5. Comparison of Spermatozoa Quality in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers of Iranian Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamadmehdi Akhoundi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking has a negative effect on fertility and sperm quality. This study was designedto evaluate the effects of smoking on sperm quality and the related parameters such as spermconcentration, morphology and motility.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 infertile men with at leastone year history of idiopathic infertility, who admitted to the Avicenna Infertility Center, Tehran, Iran.A complete history including smoking habits and other diseases was obtained and semen analysis wasperformed for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16 andt test and Mann-whitney tests with a significance level of α= 0.05.Results: Comparison of sperm parameters in the two groups of smoker and nonsmoker subjectsshowed that active smoking (p=0.04 and cigarette consumption even in small amounts (p=0.03decreased sperm concentration, However, no significant correlation was detected between smokingstatus and morphology or motility of sperms.Conclusion: This study failed to find a significant correlation between sperm analysis and smokingstatus except for sperm concentration, which was significantly decreased in the active smokers ,evenin those consuming small amounts of tobacco. This finding propounds that tobacco consumptionmay negatively affect fertility.

  6. Comparison of Spermatozoa Quality in Male Smokers and Nonsmokers of Iranian Infertile Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanpur, Mahshid; Tarahomi, Majid; Sharifi, Hooman; Heydari, Gholamreza; Hessami, Zahra; Akhoundi, Mohamadmehdi; Masjedi, Mohamad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking has a negative effect on fertility and sperm quality. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of smoking on sperm quality and the related parameters such as sperm concentration, morphology and motility. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 infertile men with at least one year history of idiopathic infertility, who admitted to the Avicenna Infertility Center, Tehran, Iran. A complete history including smoking habits and other diseases was obtained and semen analysis was performed for all participants. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 16 and t test and Mann-whitney tests with a significance level of α= 0.05. Results Comparison of sperm parameters in the two groups of smoker and nonsmoker subjects showed that active smoking (p=0.04) and cigarette consumption even in small amounts (p=0.03) decreased sperm concentration, However, no significant correlation was detected between smoking status and morphology or motility of sperms. Conclusion This study failed to find a significant correlation between sperm analysis and smoking status except for sperm concentration, which was significantly decreased in the active smokers ,even in those consuming small amounts of tobacco. This finding propounds that tobacco consumption may negatively affect fertility. PMID:25101159

  7. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn.

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    Ghanashyam Keshav Mahajan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of ID based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil (ENO fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P< 0.01 along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis- and agrave;-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of beta-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(2.000: 125-128

  8. Can intracytoplasmic sperm injection prevent total fertilization failure and enhance embryo quality in patients with non-male factor infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Yeong; Kim, Jee Hyun; Jee, Byung Chul; Lee, Jung Ryeol; Suh, Chang Suk; Kim, Seok Hyun

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could prevent total fertilization failure (TFF) and enhance the embryo quality in patients with non-male factor infertility. A total of 296 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles performed in patients with non-male factor infertility between April 2009 and March 2013 were included in this retrospective study. During the period, ICSI and conventional IVF were performed in 142 and 154 cycles, respectively. The usual indications for ICSI were in the cycles of patients with (1) known low fertilization rate, (2) repetitive implantation failure, (3) advanced maternal age, (4) presence of endometrioma, (5) low oocyte yield (number of oocytes ≤3), or (6) poor quality oocytes. The rate of TFF, normal fertilization, abnormal pronuclei (PN) formation, embryo quality, and pregnancy outcomes between the patients treated with ICSI and conventional IVF cycles were compared. The patients treated with ICSI (ICSI group, n=142) presented fewer number of oocytes than patients treated with conventional IVF cycles (n=154). The TFF rate was not different (4.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.059), but the ICSI group presented a significantly higher rate of normal fertilization (83.4% vs. 79.1%, P=0.04) and lower rate of abnormal PN formation (3.9% vs. 13.3%, Pfertilization rate and the embryo quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seminal, clinical and colour-Doppler ultrasound correlations of prostatitis-like symptoms in males of infertile couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotti, F; Corona, G; Mondaini, N; Maseroli, E; Rossi, M; Filimberti, E; Noci, I; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-01-01

    'Prostatitis-like symptoms' (PLS) are a cluster of bothersome conditions defined as 'perineal and/or ejaculatory pain or discomfort and National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) pain subdomain score ≥4' (Nickel's criteria). PLS may originate from the prostate or from other portions of the male genital tract. Although PLS could be associated with 'prostatitis', they should not be confused. The NIH-CPSI is considered the gold-standard for assessing PLS severity. Although previous studies investigated the impact of prostatitis, vesiculitis or epididymitis on semen parameters, correlations between their related symptoms and seminal or scrotal/transrectal colour-Doppler ultrasound (CDU) characteristics have not been carefully determined. And no previous study evaluated the CDU features of PLS in infertile men. This study was aimed at investigating possible associations among NIH-CPSI (total and subdomain) scores and PLS, with seminal, clinical and scrotal/transrectal CDU parameters in a cohort of males of infertile couples. PLS of 400 men (35.8 ± 7.2 years) with a suspected male factor were assessed by the NIH-CPSI. All patients underwent, during the same day, semen analysis, seminal plasma interleukin 8 (sIL-8, a marker of male genital tract inflammation), biochemical evaluation, urine/seminal cultures, scrotal/transrectal CDU. PLS was detected in 39 (9.8%) subjects. After adjusting for age, waist and total testosterone (TT), no association among NIH-CPSI (total or subdomain) scores or PLS and sperm parameters was observed. However, we found a positive association with current positive urine and/or seminal cultures, sIL-8 levels and CDU features suggestive of inflammation of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, but not of the testis. The aforementioned significant associations of PLS were further confirmed by comparing PLS patients with age-, waist- and TT-matched PLS-free patients (1 : 3 ratio). In conclusion, NIH

  10. Defining Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  11. Intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm: comparison of pregnancy rates in couples with cervical factor, male factor, immunological factor and idiopathic infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, J; Stephenson, M; Smith, H

    1993-05-01

    Intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm (IUI) is offered to couples with infertility due to various causes although there is no general agreement on which of these causes should be so treated. In this report 77 couples were diagnosed as having either cervical factor, male factor, immunological factor or unexplained infertility. Insemination was performed 24-32 hours after a rapid rise in the serum LH level. Two of 16 pregnancies which resulted miscarried, 1 was ectopic and the remainder were full term. Eleven occurred in the cervical factor group, 3 in the immunological factor and only 1 in each of the male factor and unexplained infertility groups. The differences in the number of pregnancies between the cervical factor and male and unexplained infertility groups are significant but not between the groups with cervical and immunological factors. The majority of pregnancies (81%) were achieved in the first 4 cycles. Patients with the cervical factor as the cause of their subfertility are likely to benefit from the IUI with their husband's sperm. The small number of patients with the immunological factor in this study does not allow for a conclusion. In our experience the male factor and unexplained infertility patients are unlikely to benefit from intrauterine insemination with husband's sperm.

  12. Mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor in an infertile male with Klinefelter syndrome:A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Pradhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a well-documented abnormality of the sex chromosome, with an incidence of 1 in 600 newborn males. It is characterized by a 47, XXY or a mosaic karyotype, hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, infertility, reduced body hair, gynecomastia, and tall stature. Different neoplasms such as breast, testicular, and lymphoreticular malignancies may occur in 1% to2% of the cases with KS. Herein we describe a case of mediastinal mixed germ cell tumor (GCT in a 40-year-old male with KS. Interestingly, this case also had mitral valve prolapse, and an incidental papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland. In view of the presence of pulmonary nodules, antemortem differential diagnoses considered were mycobacterial infection, lymphoma, thymic carcinoma, and a primary/metastatic neoplasm of the lung. As GCT was not considered, the serum markers of a GCT were not performed. The diagnosis of this rare mediastinal mixed GCT with KS was made at autopsy.

  13. Effects of Nursing Care Based on Watson’s Theory of Human Caring on Anxiety, Distress, And Coping, When Infertility Treatment Fails: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yeter Durgun Ozan; Hülya Okumuş

    2017-01-01

    ...: Watson's theory of human caring is recommended as a guide to nursing patients with infertility treatment to decrease levels of anxiety and distress, and to increase the positive coping style among infertile women...

  14. Human and Pathogen Factors Associated with Chlamydia trachomatis-Related Infertility in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, S.; Timms, P.; Allan, J. A.; Alexander, K.; Rombauts, L.; Horner, P.; Keltz, M.; Hocking, J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted pathogen worldwide. Infection can result in serious reproductive pathologies, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility, in women. However, the processes that result in these reproductive pathologies have not been well defined. Here we review the evidence for the human disease burden of these chlamydial reproductive pathologies. We then review human-based evidence that links Chlamydia with reproductive pathologies in women. We present data supporting the idea that host, immunological, epidemiological, and pathogen factors may all contribute to the development of infertility. Specifically, we review the existing evidence that host and pathogen genotypes, host hormone status, age of sexual debut, sexual behavior, coinfections, and repeat infections are all likely to be contributory factors in development of infertility. Pathogen factors such as infectious burden, treatment failure, and tissue tropisms or ascension capacity are also potential contributory factors. We present four possible processes of pathology development and how these processes are supported by the published data. We highlight the limitations of the evidence and propose future studies that could improve our understanding of how chlamydial infertility in women occurs and possible future interventions to reduce this disease burden. PMID:26310245

  15. General aspects of fertility and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damario, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fertility rates have been declining in most Western nations over the past several decades, although it is not entirely clear if an increased rate of infertility substantially contributes to this. As compared to other species, the reproductive efficiency of humans is relatively low. Factors related to fertility include age, exposure to sexually transmitted diseases, frequency of intercourse, coital timing, as well as diet and lifestyle habits. Infertility is considered a disease due to its major disruption of major organ systems and life functions. An infertility evaluation is recommended after 12 months or more of regular, unprotected intercourse and may be considered after 6 months for those female patients over the age of 35 or with other known abnormalities. A proper infertility evaluation is a comprehensive examination of possibly identifiable infertility factors of both female and male partners, lending itself to the most appropriate and potentially effective treatment.

  16. More attention paid to the drug treatment of male infertility -whether to use testosterone or not%应关注男性不育的药物治疗:睾酮,用还是不用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏军

    2014-01-01

    Whethertousetestosteroneornotinthetreatmentofmaleinfertilityisabigproblem.The2013 guidelines on male infertility of European Association of Urology (EAU)point out that testosterone replacement is strictly contraindicated in the treatment of male infertility,which has brought extensive concerns.Although absence of well performed and controlled clinical trials for drugs treatment of male infertility at present,the opportunity to prove the effectiveness of such drugs should not be deprived.Exploration on drug treatment should be encouraged and strengthened rather than forbidden simply.No matter from the perspective of basic medical principles or devel-opment of medicine or medical research status or humanity medicine,empirical drug treatment (including testoster-one)of male infertility should be the first-line option or basic option.Therefore,I believe that the conclusion from EAU guidelines on male infertility is poorly conceived and major reasons for application of testosterone in the treat-ment of male infertility are discussed in this article.%在治疗男性不育症中是否使用睾酮是一个大问题。2013年欧洲泌尿外科学会(EAU)的《男性不育指南》指出:雄激素补充治疗被严格禁止用于男性不育的治疗,这种观点引起强烈关注和质疑。尽管一些临床研究的证据目前还没有支持用于男性不育的药物治疗,但不应该妨碍证明这些药物有效的机会,药物治疗的广泛探索应该被鼓励和加强,而不是简单地禁止。无论是从医学基本原则、促进医学发展、医学研究现状以及人文医学角度,男性不育的经验性药物治疗(包括睾酮)应该成为一线选择或基础选择。因此,笔者认为EAU《指南》的上述结论考虑不周,故对在治疗男性不育症中应用睾酮的主要理由进行了论述。

  17. Novel association between sperm deformity index and oxidative stress-induced DNA damage in infertile male patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamer M. Said; Nabil Aziz; Rakesh K. Sharma; Iwan Lewis-Jones; Anthony J. Thomas Jr; Ashok Agarwal

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the impact of abnormal sperm morphology using the sperm deformity index (SDI) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and its correlation with sperm DNA damage. Methods: Semen samples were collected from men undergoing infertility screening (n = 7) and healthy donors (n = 6). Mature spermatozoa were isolated and incubated with 5 mmol/L β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for up to 24 h to induce ROS. Sperm morphology was evaluated using strict Tygerberg's criteria and the SDI. ROS levels and DNA damage were assessed using chemiluminescence and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluoresceindUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays, respectively. Results: SDI values (median [interquartiles]) were higher in patients than donors (2 [1.8, 2.1] vs. 1.53 [1.52, 1.58], P = 0.008). Aliquots treated with NADPH showed higher ROS levels (1.22 [0.30, 1.87] vs. 0.39 [0.10, 0.57], P = 0.03) and higher incidence of DNA damage than those not treated (10 [4.69, 24.85] vs. 3.85 [2.58, 5.10], P = 0.008). Higher DNA damage was also seen following 24 h of incubation in patients compared to donors. SDI correlated with the percentage increase in sperm DNA damage following incubation for 24 h in samples treated with NADPH (r = 0.7, P = 0.008) and controls (r = 0.58, P = 0.04).Conclusion: SDI may be a useful tool in identifying potential infertile males with abnormal prevalence of oxidative stress (OS)-induced DNA damage. NADPH plays a role in ROS-mediated sperm DNA damage, which appears to be more evident in infertile patients with semen samples containing a high incidence of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa.

  18. Karyotype analysis in large sample cases from Shenyang Women's and Children's hospital: a study of 16,294 male infertility patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, M; Pang, H; Zhao, Y-H; Hua, J; Tong, D; Zhao, H; Liu, Y; Zhao, Y; Zhang, M; Yan, X-J; Chen, H; Ma, H-P; Jin, T-Y; Dong, S-L

    2017-05-01

    To explore that it is necessary to routinely detect chromosomes in infertile patients, we investigated peripheral blood lymphocyte karyotype in 16,294 male infertile patients in the north-east of China and analysed the incidence and type of chromosomal anomaly and polymorphism. G-banding karyotype analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed in 16,294 cases. Semen analysis was performed three times in all the men. PCR and FISH confirmed the presence of the SRY gene. The rate of chromosomal anomaly in the 16,294 male infertile patients was 4.15% (677/16,294). The rates of chromosomal anomaly were 0.24% in normal semen group, 12.6% in light oligoasthenospermia group, 4.7% in moderate-to-severe oligoasthenospermia group and 9.59% in azoospermia group. There are two male infertile patients with 45,X chromosome karyotype. One X male patient had confirmed the presence of the SRY gene and FISH analysis demonstrated its location on the p arm of chromosome 13. The other X male patient had not found SRY gene in its whole-genome DNA. Meanwhile, sperm motility is slightly oligo-asthenozoospermic at the age of 35-39 and nearly azoospermic at the age of 40-45. As the rates of chromosomal anomaly are 0.24% and 12.6% even in normal semen group and light oligoasthenospermia group, the rates of chromosomal polymorphism are 5.36% and 25.51% in normal semen group and light oligoasthenospermia group, respectively; it is necessary to explore peripheral blood lymphocyte karyotype in all infertile couples. We mentioned that Y, 1, 2, 9 and 12 chromosomes were quite important about male infertility. These findings demonstrate that autosomal retention of SRY can be submicroscopic and emphasise the importance of PCR and FISH in the genetic workup of the monosomic X male. At the same time, it suggested that male infertility might be related to meiotic disturbances with spermatogenetic arrest in Y-autosome translocations, which could result in infertility by reduction of sperm

  19. Oral antioxidant treatment partly improves integrity of human sperm DNA in infertile grade I varicocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gual-Frau, Josep; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María J; Hannaoui, Naim; Checa, Miguel A; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Lozano, Iris; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Benet, Jordi; García-Peiró, Agustín; Prats, Juan

    2015-09-01

    Infertile males with varicocele have the highest percentage of sperm cells with damaged DNA, compared to other infertile groups. Antioxidant treatment is known to enhance the integrity of sperm DNA; however, there are no data on the effects in varicocele patients. We thus investigated the potential benefits of antioxidant treatment specifically in grade I varicocele males. Twenty infertile patients with grade I varicocele were given multivitamins (1500 mg L-Carnitine, 60 mg vitamin C, 20 mg coenzyme Q10, 10 mg vitamin E, 200 μg vitamin B9, 1 μg vitamin B12, 10 mg zinc, 50 μg selenium) daily for three months. Semen parameters including total sperm count, concentration, progressive motility, vitality, and morphology were determined before and after treatment. In addition, sperm DNA fragmentation and the amount of highly degraded sperm cells were analyzed by Sperm Chromatin Dispersion. After treatment, patients showed an average relative reduction of 22.1% in sperm DNA fragmentation (p = 0.02) and had 31.3% fewer highly degraded sperm cells (p = 0.07). Total numbers of sperm cells were increased (p = 0.04), but other semen parameters were unaffected. These data suggest that sperm DNA integrity in grade I varicocele patients may be improved by oral antioxidant treatment.

  20. Association of a miR-34b binding site single nucleotide polymorphism in the 3'-untranslated region of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene with susceptibility to male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Lin, W-Q; Cao, H-F; Li, C-Y; Li, F

    2015-10-09

    This study aims to explore the possible associations between a genetic variation in the miR-34b binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene (rs55763075) with male infertility in a Chinese population. Genotype distributions of the rs55763075 single nucleotide polymorphism were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing in a Chinese cohort that included 464 infertile men with idiopathic azoospermia or oligospermia and 458 controls with normal fertility. Overall, no significant differences in the distributions of the genotypes of the MTHFR rs55763075 polymorphism were detected between the infertility and control groups. A statistically significant increased risk of male infertility was found for carriers of the rs55763075 AA genotype when compared with homozygous carriers of the rs55763075 GG genotype in the azoospermia subgroup (OR = 1.721; 95% CI = 1.055-2.807; P = 0.031). Furthermore, we found that rs55763075 was associated with folate and homocysteine levels in patients with idiopathic azoospermia. Our results indicated that the MTHFR 3'-UTR rs55763075 polymorphism might modify the susceptibility to male infertility with idiopathic azoospermia.

  1. The testicular form of hormone-sensitive lipase HSLtes confers rescue of male infertility in HSL-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet-Erdtmann, Virginie; Tavernier, Geneviève; Contreras, Juan Antonio; Mairal, Aline; Rieu, Cécile; Touzalin, Anne-Marie; Holm, Cecilia; Jégou, Bernard; Langin, Dominique

    2004-10-01

    Inactivation of the hormone-sensitive lipase gene (HSL) confers male sterility with a major defect in spermatogenesis. Several forms of HSL are expressed in testis. HSLtes mRNA and protein are found in early and elongated spermatids, respectively. The other forms are expressed in diploid germ cells and interstitial cells of the testis. To determine whether the absence of the testis-specific form of HSL, HSLtes, was responsible for the infertility in HSL-null mice, we generated transgenic mice expressing HSLtes under the control of its own promoter. The transgenic animals were crossed with HSL-null mice to produce mice deficient in HSL in nongonadal tissues but expressing HSLtes in haploid germ cells. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity was almost completely blunted in HSL-deficient testis. Mice with one allele of the transgene showed an increase in enzymatic activity and a small elevation in the production of spermatozoa. The few fertile hemizygous male mice produced litters of very small to small size. The presence of the two alleles led to a doubling in cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity, which represented 25% of the wild type values associated with a qualitatively normal spermatogenesis and a partial restoration of sperm reserves. The fertility of these mice was totally restored with normal litter sizes. In line with the importance of the esterase activity, HSLtes transgene expression reversed the cholesteryl ester accumulation observed in HSL-null mice. Therefore, expression of HSLtes and cognate cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity leads to a rescue of the infertility observed in HSL-deficient male mice.

  2. Inhibin B is a better marker of spermatogenesis than other hormones in the evaluation of male factor infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumanov, Philip; Nandipati, Kalyana; Tomova, Analia; Agarwal, Ashok

    2006-08-01

    To assess the role of inhibin B in the evaluation of male factor infertility. Prospective study. Reproductive endocrinology clinic. Seventy-five patients with infertility problems (mean age 31.2 +/- 7.5 years) and 12 controls (32.1 +/- 8.8 years) with proven fertility. None. Semen analysis was performed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Testicular volume was assessed with the Prader's orchidometer. Serum levels of inhibin B (pg/mL), LH (mIU/mL), FSH (mIU/mL), prolactin (micro IU/mL), and testosterone (nmol/L) were assessed. The mean +/- SEM inhibin B and testosterone levels were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (inhibin B: 116.4 +/- 11.7 vs. 181.2 +/- 20.9, P=.008; testosterone: 13.6 +/- 0.9 vs. 25.1 +/- 2.9, P=.008). In general, sperm count and testicular volume in the patients were significantly and positively correlated with inhibin B (sperm count: r = 0.476, Pinfertility may provide useful information on spermatogenesis and possibly serve as a more direct marker of spermatogenesis than FSH.

  3. Up-Regulation of microRNA-210 is Associated with Spermatogenesis by Targeting IGF2 in Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dongdong; Huang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Weiqun; Zhang, Xiansheng

    2016-08-18

    BACKGROUND MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play pivotal roles in spermatogenesis. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) expression was up-regulated in the testes of sterile men with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA). However, the underlying mechanisms of miR-210 involved in the spermatogenesis in patients with NOA are unknown. MATERIAL AND METHODS Expression of miR-210 and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) in the testes of NOA cases (only including maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis) were detected in this study. We carried out in vitro experiments to determine if IGF2 was directly targeted by miR-210 in NT2 cells. RESULTS Compared with obstructive azoospermia (OA) as normal control, our results suggest that miR-210 was significantly up-regulated in testis of patients with NOA (Pspermatogenesis by targeting IGF2 in male infertility.

  4. Klinefelter's syndrome in azoospermic infertile males of Vidarbha region, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajanan L. Maske

    2016-04-01

    Results: Three subjects had a chromosomal count of 47 in all the metaphase studied. The additional chromosome was closely matching with the X chromosome. Hence the karyotype showed numerical aberration with an extra and lsquo;X' chromosome i. e. 47, XXY suggestive of Klinefelter's syndrome. This was confirmed by G-banding. All of the three subjects had bilateral testicular atrophy and one had typical features of Klinefelter's syndrome except gynecomastia. Conclusions: On cytogenetic analysis of 30 azoospermic infertile subjects, chromosomal abnormality of 47, XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome was found in 3 subjects. The total percentage of Klinefelter's syndrome in present study comes to 10%. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(4.000: 1045-1050

  5. Cytogenetic abnormalities in 179 cases with male infertility in Western Region of Turkey: report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, M; Ozkinay, F; Ercal, D; Cogulu, O; Dogan, O; Altay, B; Tavmergen, E; Gunduz, C; Ozkinay, C

    2009-03-01

    In this study we aimed to evaluate the postnatally screened karyotype results in couples who were referred because of primary infertility between 2000 and 2006 in Izmir. The records of a total of 179 cases were evaluated retrospectively. A total of 21 cases (11.74%) showed chromosomal alteration. Thirteen (7.26%) were 47,XXY; three (1.68%) were pericentric inversion of chromosome 9; one (0.56%) 46,XY/45,XO; one (0.56%) 46,XY/47,XXY/48,XXXY; one (0.56%) 46,XY,t(X;1); one (0.56%) 46,XY/46,XY,del(Y)(q11.2) and one (0.56%) 46,XX. The rate of gonosomal chromosomal abnormalities was nearly three times higher in our region than the rate in the literature. Chromosomal analysis is strongly suggested particularly in those who suffer fertility problems.

  6. Semen characteristics and diabetes mellitus: significance of insulin in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díez, L C; Corrales Hernandez, J J; Hernandez-Diaz, J; Pedraz, M J; Miralles, J M

    1991-01-01

    A study was made of semen quality and serum hormonal profiles (FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone) of patients with type I diabetes mellitus. Semen parameters and levels of prolactin and testosterone were significantly altered in the diabetic state. The concentration of insulin in serum and seminal plasma and the serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in 80 men classified in the following groups: fertile subjects, infertile normoglycemic subjects, subjects with carbohydrate intolerance, and excretory and secretory azoospermic subjects. In all groups, seminal insulin concentrations were higher than those obtained in serum. The hormone appears to freely cross the blood-testis barrier, there to be concentrated in the semen. The levels of insulin in serum and seminal plasma did not correlate with semen parameters and are not suitable markers of seminal quality. For unknown reasons, the concentrations of insulin in seminal plasma were lower in the subjects suffering from carbohydrate intolerance.

  7. LEUKEMIA INHIBITORY FACTOR IN FERTILE AND INFERTILE HUMAN REPRODUCTIVE TRACT IN VIVO

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    M. Ghaffari

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Maternal leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF is required for successful implanta¬tion in mice, but little is known about its role and expression in human reproduc¬tion. Here we report on the pattern of LIF mRNA expression in 30 samples of previously fertile and 11 infertile human endometrium, 10 samples of previously fertile post-menopausal endometrium and 10 uterine (Fallopian tubes from pre¬viously fertile women using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. All samples were removed with informed patient consent and Ethical Sheffield university Committee approval. Pieces of each sample were processed for electron microscopy to confirm tissue normality and stage of cycle. LIF mRNA was expressed throughout most of the secretory phase (from about day 18 of the cycle and menstruation phase (days 1-4 of cycles in fertile women. However it was not expressed during the proliferative phase. In addition LIF mRNA was absent from the uterine tube at all stages of the cycle and from the postmeno¬pausal and infertile tissue. These results suggest that LIF is expressed in a men¬strual cycle-dependent manner in fertile human endometrium and its expression is likely to be under hormonal control and is not dependent on pregnancy. In addition, our results showed lack of LIF production in infertile women, which may suggest a role for LIF in fertility.

  8. Gr/gr deletions on Y-chromosome correlate with male infertility: an original study, meta-analyses, and trial sequential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Jaiswal, Deepika; Gupta, Nishi; Singh, Kiran; Dada, Rima; Sankhwar, Satya Narayan; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-02-15

    We analyzed the AZFc region of the Y-chromosome for complete (b2/b4) and distinct partial deletions (gr/gr, b1/b3, b2/b3) in 822 infertile and 225 proven fertile men. We observed complete AZFc deletions in 0.97% and partial deletions in 6.20% of the cases. Among partial deletions, the frequency of gr/gr deletions was the highest (5.84%). The comparison of partial deletion data between cases and controls suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with infertility (P = 0.0004); however, the other partial deletions did not correlate with infertility. In cohort analysis, men with gr/gr deletions had a relatively poor sperm count (54.20 ± 57.45 million/ml) in comparison to those without deletions (72.49 ± 60.06), though the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.071). Meta-analysis also suggested that gr/gr deletions are significantly associated with male infertility risk (OR = 1.821, 95% CI = 1.39-2.37, p = 0.000). We also performed trial sequential analyses that strengthened the evidence for an overall significant association of gr/gr deletions with the risk of male infertility. Another meta-analysis suggested a significant association of the gr/gr deletions with low sperm count. In conclusion, the gr/gr deletions show a strong correlation with male infertility risk and low sperm count, particularly in the Caucasian populations.

  9. 286例男性不育患者细胞遗传学分析%Karyotype Analysis on 286 Cases with Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美华; 盖凌; 张爱东; 杨丹彤

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究男性不育与染色体核型异常的关系.方法 对286例男性不育患者,抽取外周血进行淋巴细胞培养、G显带、核型分析.结果 检出异常核型69例,异常检出率为24.13%.其中,52例为Klinefelter综合征,占异常核型的75.36%;9例为常染色体结构异常,占异常核型的13.04%;8例为Y染色体异常,占异常核型的11.59%.结论 染色体异常是造成男性不育的重要因素之一,对临床上男性不育患者进行染色体检查非常必要.%Objective To study the relationship between male infertility and the abnormal chromosome karyotype.Methods Blood lymphocyte isolated from 286 cases with male infertility were cultured, G banding stained and analysed.Results 69 cases of abnormal karyotype were detected in 286 cases with male infertility.The rate of anomaly detection was 24.13%.There were 52 cases of Klinefe lter syndrome,accounting for 75.36% in all abnormal karyotypes.And there were 9 cases of chromosome structure abnormality which was 13.04% in chromosome abnormalities.It also included 8 cases of Y chromosome, accounting for 11.59% in all abnormal karyotypes.Conclusion Chromosomal abnormality is the main reason for patients with male infertility.It is necessary to take the karyotype analysis of chromosome in male infertility patients.

  10. Genetic variants in nitric oxide synthase genes and the risk of male infertility in a Chinese population: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Yan

    Full Text Available In recent years, oxidative stress has been studied extensively as a main contributing factor to male infertility. Nitric Oxide, a highly reactive free radical gas, is potentially detrimental to sperm function and sperm DNA integrity at high levels. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the associations between five polymorphisms in nitric oxide synthase genes (NOSs and the risk of male infertility and sperm DNA damage as well.Genotypes were determined by the OpenArray platform. Sperm DNA fragmentation was detected using the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay, and the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG in sperm DNA was measured using immunofluorescence. The adjusted odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were estimated using unconditional logistic regression.Our results revealed a statistically significant difference between the cases and controls in both genotypic distribution (P<0.001 and allelic frequency (P = 0.021 only for the NOS3 rs1799983 SNP. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that rs1799983 was associated with a borderline significantly increased risk of male infertility (GT vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00-1.70; GT+TT vs. GG: adjusted OR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.03-1.74; P trend = 0.020. Moreover, NOS3 rs1799983 was positively associated with higher levels of sperm DNA fragmentation (β = 0.223, P = 0.044. However, the other 4 polymorphisms (NOS1 rs2682826, NOS1 rs1047735, NOS2 rs2297518, and NOS2 rs10459953 were not found to have any apparent relationships with male infertility risk.Of five NOS gene polymorphisms investigated in the present study, we found NOS3 rs1799983 might cause oxidative sperm DNA damage, thereby contributing to male infertility.

  11. Diagnostic tools in male infertility-the question of sperm dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christopher LR Barratt; Steven Mansell; Catherine Beaton; Steve Tardif; Senga K Oxenham

    2011-01-01

    Sperm dysfunction is the single most common cause of infertility,yet what is remarkable is that,there is no drug a man can take or add to his spermatozoa in vitroto improve fertility.One reason for the lack of progress in this area is that our understanding of the cellular and molecular workings of the mature spermatazoon is limited.However,over the last few years there has been considerable progress in our knowledge base and in addressing new methods to diagnose sperm dysfunction.We review the current state of the field and provide insights for further development.We conclude that:(i) there is little to be gained from more studies identifying/categorizing various populations of men using a basic semen assessment,where an effort is required in making sure the analysis is performed in an appropriate high quality way;(ii) technological development is likely to bring the reality of sperm function testing closer to implementation into the clinical pathways.In doing this,these assays must be robust,cheap (or more appropriately termed cost effective),easy to use and clinically useful;and (iii) clinical necessity,e.g.,the need to identify the highest quality spermatozoon for injection is driving basic research forward.This is an exciting time to be an andrologist and,likely,a fruitful one.

  12. Efficacy of aphrodisiac plants towards improvement in semen quality and motility in infertile males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Arun Yashwant; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram

    2012-02-17

    Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected intercourse. In the present study, herbal composition prepared by using medicinal plants having aphrodisiac potentials was administered orally to the albino rats for 40 days and to the oligospermic patients for 90 days in order to prove the efficacy of herbal composition. Herbal composition was the mixture (powder form) of the medicinal plants namely, Mucuna pruriens (Linn), Chlorophytum borivillianum (Sant and Fernand), and Eulophia campestris (Wall). In the neem oil treated albino rats, there was significant reduction in almost all the parameters viz. body weight, testes and epididymes weight, sperm density and motility, serum levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH compared with control rats. Treatment with said herbal composition for 40 days results significant increased in the body weight, testis, and epididymes weight in rats. Concomitantly the sperm motility and the sperm density were significantly increased. After 90 days of treatment with this herbal composition, sperm density vis-a-vis motility was increased in oligozoospermic patients as a result of elevation in serum testosterone levels. No side effects were noticed during the entire duration of the trial.

  13. THE EFFECTS OF ETHINYL ESTRADIOL ON SPERMATOGENESIS IN THE ADULT MALE RAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, increases in male infertility have been attributed to exposure to environmental estrogens. Decreased sperm concentrations and increased infertility have been reported in the human, while many reports have documented reproductive effects due to estrogenic exposure in ani...

  14. Cyclic corticosteroid immunosuppression is unsuccessful in the treatment of sperm antibody-related male infertility: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bals-Pratsch, M; Dören, M; Karbowski, B; Schneider, H P; Nieschlag, E

    1992-01-01

    In this double blind cross-over study, 20 infertile men, who had sperm antibodies detected by the mixed antiglobulin reaction (MAR test) in the ejaculate and by the tray agglutination test (TAT) in serum, were treated with 40 mg/day prednisolone or placebo from days 1 to 10 of the partners' menstrual cycle. Patients were randomly allocated to different treatment groups. While group 1 started with placebo followed by verum for three consecutive cycles, group 2 began with verum and continued with placebo. All patients had regular intercourse (n = 19) or intra-cervical insemination at ovulation (n = 1). A post-coital test or a sperm penetration test was performed during verum and placebo regimes. Blood samples were drawn from the male partner at this time to control the efficacy of prednisolone treatment by checking the TAT titre. No pregnancy occurred during prednisolone or placebo treatment. In eight of 12 patients, post-coital testing showed little improvement and antibody titres decreased in seven of 16 patients. Side-effects from medication were reported by eight patients (seven verum and one placebo cycle) and caused treatment to be discontinued in two cases. Five patients' partners conceived at a later stage by intrauterine insemination with spermatozoa prepared by 'swim up' (n = 3) or by in-vitro fertilization (IVF n = 2). Thus high dose corticosteroid therapy was ineffective in achieving pregnancies induced by infertile men positive for antisperm antibodies. Since side-effects of corticosteroids should not be underestimated in otherwise healthy men, other reproductive techniques such as intrauterine insemination or IVF should be offered to such couples.

  15. Zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease may contribute to poor sperm function and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tawil, A M

    2003-12-01

    In Great Britain, married couples were reported to have between 1.9 and 2.1 children, while men with Crohn's disease had a mean of 1.2 and of 0.4 children before and after diagnosis, respectively. The role of zinc for male fertility is essential. Although lack of zinc in Crohn's disease is well established in up to 70% of patients, a possible relation between zinc deficiency and male subfertility in Crohn's disease remains unclear. This study is aimed at examining a possible link between zinc deficiency in men with Crohn's disease and male subfertility in this group of patients.

  16. Evidence from enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 gene variants and male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Liu, T; Mi, Y-J; Yue, L-D; Wang, J-M; Liu, D-W; Yan, J; Tian, Q B

    2015-03-01

    Do men who carry mutations in USP26 have an increased risk of infertility? The association between mutations in USP26 gene and male infertility has been studied intensively. However, the results from different groups are controversial. In particular, biological function of the mutant proteins remains to be elucidated. In this study, we conducted a USP cleavage assay and a meta-analysis of the published literature (up to 31 May 2013) to evaluate the impact of five frequent mutations (NM_031907.1: c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T, c.1090C>T, c.1737G>A) on enzymatic activity of the USP26 and to assess the strength of the association between those mutations and male infertility. The USP cleavage assay showed that those mutations do not affect USP26 enzymatic activity. Moreover, the results of meta-analysis of ten case-control studies (in total 1716 patients and 2597 controls) revealed no significant association (P > 0.05) between USP26 mutations and male infertility. The pooled ORs were 1.58 (95% CI: 0.81, 3.10) for cluster mutations (c.363_364insACA, c.494T>C, c.1423C>T), 1.60 (95% CI: 0.93, 2.74) for c.1090 C>T and 2.64 (95% CI: 0.97, 7.20) for c.1737 G>A. Evidence from both enzymatic and meta-analyses does not support a direct association between USP26 variants and male infertility. Further research is necessary to study the biological function of USP26, which may provide clues as to the regulation of androgen receptor signalling. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  17. Clinical Application of Percutaneous Testicular Sperm Aspiration plus ICSI in Treating Azoospermia Induced Male Infertility: Report of 135 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈国武; 韩金兰; 曹英; 郑峪; 严敬明

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the effectiveness of percutaneous testicular sperm aspiration(PTSA) plus intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ISCI) in treating male infertilitycaused by azoospermia.ized in our hospital from September 1998 to December 2000 were enrolled into thisstudy. Among the 135 patients, 71 were with obstructive azoospermia, 23 were withcongenital azoospermia, and the other 41 with idiopathic azoospermia. All thesepatients underwent ICSI with testicular sperm by PTSA. The fertilization rate wasdetermined.Results The mean concentration of testicular sperm was 73. 5± 42. 59/μL and theaverage motility was 1. 5± 1. 17% (ranging from 1 % to 5% ). The motion grade ofthe sperm was 1. A total of 1 263 eggs were obtained and ICSI was performed. AfterICSI, 849 eggs were fertilized with a total fertilization rate of 67.2%. In 71 patientswith obstructive azoospermia, 79 cycles of ICSI were performed and the spouses of 32patients achieved pregnancy, with a pregnancy rate of 40. 5%. In 23 patients withcongenital azoospermia, 28 cycles of ICSI were performed and the spouses of 9 pa-tients got pregnancy, having a pregnancy rate of 32. 1%. In the group of 41 patientswith idiopathic azoospermia, 41 cases were given ICSI and the spouses of 8 patientsgot pregnancy, with a pregnancy rate of 19. 5%.Conclusion ICSI in combination with PTSA is an effective method of treatingazoospermia induced male infertility, especially obstructive azoospermia.

  18. Kisspeptin, unexplained infertility and embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaida Mumtaz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Kisspeptin (KP is a neuropeptide that causes the release of the gonadotropin releasing hormone, which controls hypothalamo pituitary ovarian axis and exerts a number of peripheral effects on reproductive organs. The primary objective of this study was to compare baseline KP levels in females with different types of infertility and identify possible correlations with risk of failure to conceive, preclinical abortion and pregnancy after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. Materials and Methods A longitudinal cohort study was carried out from August 2014 until May 2015 by recruiting 124 female patients undergoing ICSI, after obtaining ethical approval from the Australian Concept Infertility Medical Center. Cause of infertility due to male, female and unexplained factors was at a frequency of 32 (24%, 33 (31% and 59 (45% among the individuals respectively. KP levels were measured by ELISA assay before the initiation of the ICSI treatment protocol. Outcome of ICSI was categorized into three groups of non-pregnant with beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG25 mIU/ml and no cardiac activity, and clinical pregnancy declared upon confirmation of cardiac activity. Results based on cause of infertility and outcome groups were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results Females with unexplained infertility had significantly lower levels of KP when compared with those with male factor infertility (176.69 ± 5.03 vs. 397.6 ± 58.2, P=0.001. Clinical pregnancy was observed in 28 (23% females of which 17 (71% had a female cause of infertility. In the non-pregnant group of 66 (53% females, common cause of infertility was unexplained 56(85%. A weak positive correlation of KP levels with fertilized oocytes and endometrial thickness was observed (P=0.04 and 0.01 respectively. Conclusion Deficiency of KP in females with unexplained infertility was associated with reduced chances of implantation after ICSI.

  19. Current studies on bacterospermia the leading cause of male infertility: A protégé and potential threat towards mans extinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibeh Nnana Isaiah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current rise of male infertility associated with bacterospermia and urogenital infection has been on the increase amongst adult married males in Benin metropolis and a major cause of concern to male fertility and reproduction in Nigeria. Aim: To microbiologically isolate and study the infectious agent that has led to male infertility and also to study the percentage occurrence of bacteropsermia and urogenital caused infertility in adult married males in Benin metropolis Material and Method: using standard microbiological methods of isolating and identifying the organism, specimen was collected and processed which includes the susceptibility profile of isolates and sperm quality. In this study a total of 140 sperm samples was collected from patient who were referred from the consultant outpatient department of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital and then evaluated bacteriologically using standard bacterial cultural methods Results: Among the total cases, 92 (65.7% showed at least one pathogen. Staphylococcus aureus (28.3%, Staphylococcus Saprophyticus (13.0%, Pseudomonas aerouginosa (6.5%, Escherichia Coli (19.6% Proteus mirabilis (10.8% Klebsiella spp (10.8% and Proteus vulgaris (10.8%. Conclusion: There was an outstanding significant relationship between bacteriospermia and the rate of total motility and morphologically abnormal sperms, The percentage of morphologically normal sperm was lower in this study. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus saprohyticus and Escherichia coli were the most common pathogen having negative effects on sperm motility and morphology in this study.

  20. Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infertility means not being able to get pregnant after at least one year of trying (or 6 ... woman keeps having miscarriages, it is also called infertility. Female infertility can result from age, physical problems, ...

  1. Infertility FAQ's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3286 After hours (404) 639-2888 Contact Media Infertility FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Frequently Asked Questions What is infertility? In general, infertility is defined as not being ...

  2. High Prevalence of Male infertility in Africa: Are Mycotoxins to Blame?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    mycotoxins is regulated by legal limits in developed countries ... instance, studies using animal and cellular models have described that ... reproductive function in both humans and animals and .... Mycotoxins, risks in plants, animal and human.

  3. [Association of DAZL A260G and A386G polymorphisms with oligozoospermia- or azoospermia-induced male infertility: A meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Chen, Ping; Xu, Chang; Zhang, Xin-hua

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the association of A260G and A386G polymorphisms of the DAZL gene with male infertility caused by oligozoospermia or azoospermia. We searched the PubMed, Science Direct, Wiley Online Library, CNKI, VIP, and CDDB databases up to November 30, 2013 for case-control studies evaluating the relationship of SNP260 and SNP386 polymorphisms of the DAZL gene with male infertility, and meanwhile conducted manual sourcing of the references in the identified studies and relevant articles. Two reviewers independently screened the title, abstract and keywords of each article retrieved. The StataSE12. 0 software was used for meta-analysis and other statistical analyses. Totally, 13 case-control studies were included (10 about A260G and 11 about A386G), involving 2 715 infertile patients (2 500 with oligozoospermia or azoospermia) and 1 835 normozoospermic men. DAZL A260G showed no statistical significance in the allele, dominant, recessive, co-dominant, or super-dominant gene model (P >0. 05). DAZL A386G exhibited a strong correlation with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in Asians in the allele gene model (OR = 0. 15, 95% CI 0.07 -0.34, P infertility.

  4. Apparent primary follicle-stimulating hormone deficiency is a rare cause of treatable male infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, JC; Deege, M; Blankenstein, RA; Kastrop, PMM; Wijmenga, C; Lock, TTWT

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find the underlying defect in a case of primary FSH deficiency and to estimate the beneficial effect of FSH treatment. Design: Case report. Setting: University hospital fertility clinic. Patient(s): Normal, healthy, 37-year-old male patient with severe oligoteratozoospermia. Interventi

  5. Phenylpyrazole insecticide fipronil induces male infertility in the estuarine meiobenthic crustacean Amphiascus tenuiremis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Tawnya L; Chandler, G Thomas; Volz, David C; Walse, Spencer S; Ferry, John L

    2004-01-15

    Copepods are the most abundant arthropods on earth and are often the most important secondary producers in estuarine/marine food webs. The new GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-disrupting insecticide fipronil (FP) induces unique sex-specific reproductive dysfunction in male meiobenthic copepods, leading to trans-generational population depression at environmentally realistic concentrations (0.63 microg/L). Using a newly developed 96-well microplate lifecycle bioassay, more than 700 individual Stage-I juveniles were reared to adulthood in as short as 12 days in only 200 microL of control (CTL) or 0.63 microg-FP/L seawater solution. Individual virgin male: female pairs were then cross-mated for all possible combinations within and across rearing treatments and allowed to mate for an additional 12 days in CTL or 0.63 microg-FP/L solution. FP at 0.63 microg/L caused no significant lethality to any mating combinations but evoked 73% or 89% inhibition of reproduction when FP-reared males were mated with either a control- or FP-reared female in FP solution, respectively. In contrast, when CTL-reared males were mated with FP-reared females in FP solution, there was no difference in reproductive success compared to FP-free controls. When FP-reared males were mated with either female group in FP-free solution, these mating pairs displayed a 3-day delay in time to brood sac extrusion but ultimately did reproduce. As fipronil (1) has a high K(ow), (2) is persistent in sediments where meiobenthic copepods live, and (3) has been detected in estuarine waters >0.7 microg/L, it may pose high risk to copepod production in estuarine systems.

  6. Association study of telomere length with idiopathic male infertility%精子端粒长度与特发性男性不育相关

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舒媛; 张昌军; 彭海英; 黄小琴; 孙浩; 林克勤; 黄铠; 褚嘉祐; 杨昭庆

    2015-01-01

    men and normal fertile men, as well as the correlations between sperm telomere length and human semen characteristics. We analyzed 126 Chinese idiopathic infertile men and 138 normal fertile men for sperm telomere length by using quantitative PCR. We found that the relative sperm mean telomere length of infertile men was significantly shorter than that of fertile men (2.894±0.115vs. 4.016±0.603,P=5.097×10−5). Both sperm count and semen progressive motility are related with telomere length. Our results suggest that sperm telomere length is associated with idiopathic male infertility of China and we proposed the possibility that shorter telomeres in sperm chromosome will reduce spermatogenesis and sperm functions, which finally affected the fertility of male.

  7. Impact of the metabolic syndrome on reproductive health in males of infertile couples

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Lotti

    2014-01-01

    AIM OF THE THESIS Since Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is essentially based on increased adiposity and it is associated with male hypogonadism, erectile dysfunction, psychological disturbances, and BPH/LUTS, and all these factors might, in different ways, affect reproductive capacity, we investigated their possible correlations with MetS. Hence, we performed two studies. In the first study (study 1) we evaluated possible associations between MetS, semen and hormonal parameters, as well as c...

  8. Decline of semen quality among 10932 males consulting for couple infertility over a 20-year period in Marseille,France

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cendrine Geoffroy-Siraudin; Anderson Dieudonné Loundou; Fanny Romain; Vincent Achard; Blandine Courbière; Marie-Hé1ène Perrard; Philippe Durand; Marie-Roberte Guichaoua

    2012-01-01

    Semen from 10932 male partners of infertile couples was analysed and sperm parameter trends were evaluated at the Reproduction Biology Laboratory of the University Hospital of Marseille (France) between 1988 and 2007.After 3-6 days of abstinence,semen samples were collected.Measurements of seminal fluid volume,pH,sperm concentration,total sperm count,motility and detailed morphology of spermatozoa were performed.Sperm parameters were analysed on the entire population and in men with normal total numeration (≥ 40 million per ejaculate).The whole population demonstrated declining trends in sperm concentration (1.5% per year),total sperm count (1.6% per year),total motility (0.4% per year),rapid motility (5.5% per year) and normal morphology (2.2% per year).In the group of selected samples with total normal sperm count,the same trends of sperm quality deterioration with time were observed.Our results clearly indicate that the quality of semen decreased in this population over the study period.

  9. Association between C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and risk of male infertility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Luo, Y Y; Wu, S; Tang, Y D; Rao, X D; Xiong, L; Tan, M; Deng, M Z; Liu, H

    2016-04-26

    Published studies on the association between the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and male infertility risk are controversial. To obtain a more precise evaluation, we performed a meta-analysis based on published case-control studies. We conducted an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Web of Science, and the China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database for papers on MTHFR gene C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and male infertility risk. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were used to assess the strength of association in homozygote, heterozygote, dominant, recessive, and additive models. Statistical heterogeneity, test of publication bias, and sensitivity analysis were carried out using the STATA software (Version 13.0). Overall, 21 studies of C677T (4505 cases and 4024 controls) and 13 studies of A1298C (2785 cases and 3094 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. For C677T, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.629, 95%CI (1.215- 2.184), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.462 (1.155- 1.850). For A1298C, the homozygote comparison results were OR = 1.289 (1.029-1.616), and the recessive model results were OR = 1.288 (1.034-1.604). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis showed that the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased male infertility risk in the Asian and overall populations, but not in the Caucasian population, and there was a significant association between the A1298C polymorphism and male infertility risk in the Asian, Caucasian, and overall groups.

  10. HCG对不育症精子超微结构的影响%DThe effect of HCG to sperm's ultrastructure in male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞建军; 王培乐; 吴章穆; 陈昭典

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanisam of using HCG to treat male infertility. Methods 30 male infertility cases were selected randomly and their spermatozoa were fetched by masturbation. In every case, five sperms were observed under SEM (scan electronic microscope). After HCG had been given for 12 weeks, sperms were observed again. Results Sperms' ringed rips, acrosome membranes, plasmalemma, plasminic droplet changed significantly. Conclusion HCG had positive effect to sperms of male infertility patients.%目的探索 HCG治疗男性不育症的机理。方法随机选择男性不育症 30例,手淫法取精液每例扫描电镜观察精子五个,共 150个, HCG治疗 12周后,再作电镜观察。结果治疗前后的精子环状沟、顶体膜、质膜、胞浆小滴均有明显变化。结论 HCG治疗不育症疗效肯定。

  11. LINE-1 Mediated Insertion into Poc1a (Protein of Centriole 1 A Causes Growth Insufficiency and Male Infertility in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista A Geister

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias are a common, genetically heterogeneous cause of short stature that can result from disruptions in many cellular processes. We report the identification of the lesion responsible for skeletal dysplasia and male infertility in the spontaneous, recessive mouse mutant chagun. We determined that Poc1a, encoding protein of the centriole 1a, is disrupted by the insertion of a processed Cenpw cDNA, which is flanked by target site duplications, suggestive of a LINE-1 retrotransposon-mediated event. Mutant fibroblasts have impaired cilia formation and multipolar spindles. Male infertility is caused by defective spermatogenesis early in meiosis and progressive germ cell loss. Spermatogonial stem cell transplantation studies revealed that Poc1a is essential for normal function of both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The proliferative zone of the growth plate is small and disorganized because chondrocytes fail to re-align after cell division and undergo increased apoptosis. Poc1a and several other genes associated with centrosome function can affect the skeleton and lead to skeletal dysplasias and primordial dwarfisms. This mouse mutant reveals how centrosome dysfunction contributes to defects in skeletal growth and male infertility.

  12. 精子DNA甲基化异常与男性不育%Methylation Abnormality of Sperm DNA and Male Infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪梓良; 段永刚; 蔡志明

    2011-01-01

    DNA甲基化/去甲基化是表观遗传学最重要的内容并可以控制基因的表达和印迹,越来越多的研究显示DNA甲基化异常与不育男性精子发生异常、特定肿瘤的发生、神经系统疾病、Rett综合征等有关.文章通过总结近来的相关研究资料来阐述精子发生过程中的DNA甲基化状态的改变,探讨精子DNA的甲基化异常与男性不育之间的联系,旨在为男性不育的治疗提供新的临床思路.%DNA methylation is thought to be a crucial content of epigenetics and regulates expression and imprinting of genome. Accumulating data demonstrate that abnormal DNA methylation is involved in spermatogenesis abnormality of male infertility, tumorigenesis, disease of nervous system and Rett syndrome, etc. This review aims to summarize the recent studies on the dynamic changes of sperm DNA methylation in spermatogenesis, discuss the relationship between sperm DNA methylation abnormality and male infertility, and provide a new perspective on treatment for male infertility.

  13. Psychosocial Consequences of Infertility on Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, P; Rahman, D; Hossain, H B; Hossain, H N; Mughi, C R

    2015-10-01

    This study explores to find out the qualitative and quantitative psychosocial consequences of infertility in women coming for infertility treatment in tertiary infertility center. A total of 400 infertile couples who agreed to participate in the study were asked to fill up the questionnaires and later interviewed to access the psychosocial consequences of infertility on their personal life in a tertiary infertility clinic in Dhaka at Center for Assisted Reproduction (CARe Hospital), Dhaka from June 2011 to December 2011 and agreed to participate in the study were included in the study. The data was analyzed and the quantitative and qualitative psychosocial factors were evaluated. Four hundred infertile couple who filled the questionnaires was included in the study. Sixty three percent of the women belonged to age group >20 30 years at the time of interview. Regarding age at marriage 43.8% of the women were married by 20 years, 51.3% were married between 20 30 years. Mean±SD duration of present married life was 7.20±4.45 (range 1 to 28) years and 74.4% of the women were living with their husbands. Of them 75.5% women were housewife. When asked whether they knew what was the reason of infertility in the couple, 32.5% knew the cause was in the female partner, 14.5%, knew the cause was in the male partner, 10.3% knew the cause was in both partners, 21.5% knew cause of infertility was not in any of the partners, and 21.3% had no idea about the cause of infertility. The male partner's response about the issue of prognosis and outcome of couple's infertility revealed 37.3% believed their wives will conceive someday, 31.3% had no intention for a second marriage, 13% were indifferent, 11.3% blamed their wives for infertility and 4.8% threatened for a second marriage. Only 2.5% of the male partners were suggested on consulting and continuing treatment by specialist. The family pressure by in-laws and relatives towards their infertility was that 57.3% insisted on consulting

  14. Analysis of chromosome karyotypeamong 1 22 infertile males patients%122例男性不育患者染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 李新伟; 张群芝

    2015-01-01

    目的:对男性不育患者进行染色体核型的检测,探讨男性不育与染色体核型异常的关系。方法:按常规方法制作染色体标本的方法,对122例男性不育患者进行核型分析。结果:共检出染色体异常17例,异常率为13.93%。其中性染色体异常12例,占男性不育患者的9.84%,常染色体异常5例,占男性不育患者的4.10%。在所有的核型中,Klinefelter 综合征的发生率最高,占异常核型的23.53%。结论:染色体异常是导致男性不育的重要原因之一,染色体核型分析对男性不育患者的诊断和治疗具有重要的指导意义。%Objectives:To analyze the karyotypes of infertile male patients so as to investigate the relation-ship between male infertility and chromosome abnormalities.Methods:The chromosome karyotypes of 1 22 male in-fertile patients were analyzed by routinely cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes.Results:There were 1 7 cases of abnormal karyotypes which accounted for 1 3.93%,including 1 2 (9.84%)cases of sex abnormal karyotype and 5 (4.1 0%)cases of autosome abnormal karyotype.The klinefelter syndrome was the most common disease caused by abnormal karyotype and the ratio was 23.53% in all the abnormal karyotypes.Conclusion:Chromosome abnormali-ty is an important cause of male infertility.Karyotype analysis is important for the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  15. Prevalent false positives of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletions caused by single-nucleotide polymorphism rs72609647 in the sY84 screening of male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wu; Hui-Juan Shi; Guo-Wu Chen; Tao-Fei Yan; Hui Wang; Yu-Ling Liu; Zheng Li; Shi-Wei Duan; Fei Sun; Yun Feng

    2011-01-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been widely used to detect Y-chromosome microdeletions,which is one of the major causes of male infertility.Both the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) have recommended the use of sY84 and sY86 markers for the detection of azoospermia factor a (AZFa) microdeletion during DNA testing for male infertility.In this study,a large-scale analysis of AZF microdeletion in a total of 630 Chinese males,including healthy semen donors (n=200),infertile males with normal sperm count (n=226) and patients with either nonobstructive azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia (n=204),was performed.A series of nine sequence-tagged site (STS) markers from the AZF region of the Y chromosome was used to detect microdeletions.All primers were designed based on the recommendations of the National Center for Biotechnology Information.An unusually high incidence (73/630,11.6%) of sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes was observed in the AZFa microdeletion screening.Sequencing the sY84-flanking region revealed a total of 73 patients with sY84-absent but sY86-present genotypes have a T-to-G transversion at the fifth base from the 5' end of the reverse sY84 primer.These prevalent false positives,which were not only observed in infertile men,but also observed in donors,resulted from a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) named rs72609647 in the targeting sequence of the reverse sY84 primer.Our study suggests that a pre-screening of existence of rs72609647 polymorphism can prevent the frequent false positive results of AZFa microdeletions detection in the infertile Chinese males.Given the SNP rs72609647 was recently found in a deep sequencing of a Chinese individual,the current EAA and EMQN standards may need to be scrutinized among different populations to avoid the potential genetic variations in the primer binding sequences.

  16. Y chromosome b2/b3 deletions and male infertility: A comprehensive meta-analysis, trial sequential analysis and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Sandeep Kumar; Gupta, Gopal; Rajender, Singh

    2016-01-01

    The correlation of Y-chromosome b2/b3 partial deletions with spermatogenic failure remains dubious. We undertook a systematic review of the literature followed by meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses in order to compare the frequency of b2/b3 deletions between oligo/azoospermic infertile and normozoospermicmen. Out of twenty-four studies reviewed for meta-analysis, twenty reported no correlation between this deletion and male infertility and two studies each reported a direct and inverse correlation. In the collective analysis, 241 out of 8892 (2.71%) oligo/azoospermic individuals and 118 out of 5842 (2.02%) normozoospermic controls had a b2/b3 deletion, suggesting a relatively higher frequency of deletions in the cases. Eventually, meta-analysis showed a significant correlation between b2/b3 deletions and the risk of spermatogenic loss/infertility (Fixed model: OR=1.313, 95% CI=1.04-1.65, p=0.02; Random model: OR=1.315, 95% CI=1.02-1.70, p=0.037). Further meta-analysis on studies grouped by ethnicity and geographic regions showed that the b2/b3 deletions are significantly associated with spermatogenic loss/infertility in Mongolians, Nigro-Caucasians, East Asians and Africans, but not in Caucasians, Europeans, South Asians and Dravidians. In summary, the Y-chromosome b2/b3 deletions increase infertility risk; however, it may be significant only in the Mongolian populations and the East Asian region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Doenças reumáticas e infertilidade masculina Rheumatic diseases and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutília Andrade Medeiros Freire

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available As doenças reumáticas podem causar distúrbios sexuais e reprodutivos. As razões destes distúrbios são multifatoriais. Manifestações e sintomas das doenças podem reduzir a libido e interferir no sucesso da reprodução, como ocorre na artrite reumatóide (AR, lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES, espondilite anquilosante (EA e esclerose sistêmica (ES. A atividade da doença pode levar a uma alteração do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise, acarretando períodos de disfunção gonadal. Os auto-anticorpos e os distúrbios de hormônios sexuais, que podem estar presentes em muitas doenças reumáticas, podem influenciar negativamente na fertilidade. Além disso, algumas drogas usadas no tratamento de doenças reumatológicas por vezes representam um risco para a reprodução masculina, devido aos efeitos adversos que podem causar, como defeitos cromos-sômicos e gonadotoxicidade, prejudicando a espermatogênese e a motilidade dos espermatozóides. Conseqüentemente, há falência gonadal transitória ou permanente. Este trabalho faz uma revisão de um assunto pouco abordado na literatura brasileira.Rheumatic diseases affect all aspects of life, including sexuality and reproduction. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning and reproduction are multifactorial. Manifestations and symptoms of disease can reduce libido and interfere with successful reproduction, for example, in rheumatoid arthritis (AR, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, ankylosing spondylitis (AS and systemic sclerosis (SSc. Active disease disturbs the hypothalamic-pituitary-axis, giving rise to periods of gonadal dysfunction. Autoantibodies, which are present in most of the rheumatic diseases, and disturbances of sex hormone status can negatively influence the fertilization. Furthermore, some antirheumatic drugs carry a risk for male reproduction, because can present adverse effects, which includes chromosomal defects and gonadotoxicity, damaging the spermatogenesis and sperm

  18. Dicer1 depletion in male germ cells leads to infertility due to cumulative meiotic and spermiogenic defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermatogenesis is a complex biological process that requires a highly specialized control of gene expression. In the past decade, small non-coding RNAs have emerged as critical regulators of gene expression both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. DICER1, an RNAse III endonuclease, is essential for the biogenesis of several classes of small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs and endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs, but is also critical for the degradation of toxic transposable elements. In this study, we investigated to which extent DICER1 is required for germ cell development and the progress of spermatogenesis in mice. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that the selective ablation of Dicer1 at the early onset of male germ cell development leads to infertility, due to multiple cumulative defects at the meiotic and post-meiotic stages culminating with the absence of functional spermatozoa. Alterations were observed in the first spermatogenic wave and include delayed progression of spermatocytes to prophase I and increased apoptosis, resulting in a reduced number of round spermatids. The transition from round to mature spermatozoa was also severely affected, since the few spermatozoa formed in mutant animals were immobile and misshapen, exhibiting morphological defects of the head and flagellum. We also found evidence that the expression of transposable elements of the SINE family is up-regulated in Dicer1-depleted spermatocytes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that DICER1 is dispensable for spermatogonial stem cell renewal and mitotic proliferation, but is required for germ cell differentiation through the meiotic and haploid phases of spermatogenesis.

  19. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik; Seo, Ju Tae

    2016-06-01

    Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality.

  20. Serum and seminal plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 in male infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Serk; Park, Yong-Seog; Lee, Joong Shik

    2016-01-01

    Objective Growth hormone and its mediator, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been suggested to exert gonadotropic actions in both humans and animals. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between serum IGF-1 concentration, seminal plasma concentration, and sperm parameter abnormalities. Methods A total of 79 men were enrolled in this study from December 2011 to July 2012 and were prospectively analyzed. Patient parameters analyzed included age, body mass index, smoking status, urological history, and fertility history. Patients were divided into four groups based on their semen parameters: normal (A, n=31), abnormal sperm motility (B, n=12), abnormal sperm morphology (C, n=20), and two or more abnormal parameters (D, n=16). Patient seminal plasma and serum IGF-1 concentrations were determined. Results Patient baseline characteristics were not significantly different between any of the groups. The serum IGF-1 levels in groups B, C, and D were significantly lower than the levels in group A; however, the seminal plasma IGF-1 levels were not significantly different between any of the groups. Conclusion Men with abnormal sperm parameters had significantly lower levels of serum IGF-1 compared with men with normal sperm parameters. Seminal plasma IGF-1 levels, however, did not differ significantly between the groups investigated here. Further investigations will be required to determine the exact mechanisms by which growth hormone and IGF-1 affect sperm quality. PMID:27358827

  1. gr/gr-DAZ2-DAZ4-CDY1b deletion is a high-risk factor for male infertility in Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbel, Myriam; Baklouti-Gargouri, Siwar; Keskes, Rim; Chakroun, Nozha; Sellami, Afifa; Fakhfakh, Faiza; Ammar-Keskes, Leila

    2016-10-30

    The azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region harbors multi-copy genes that are expressed in the testis. Deletions of this region lead to reduced copy numbers of these genes. In this present study we aimed to determine the frequency of AZFc subdeletion in infertile and fertile men from Tunisia and to identify whether deletions of DAZ and CDY1 gene copies are deleterious on spermatogenesis and on semen quality. We studied a group of 241 infertile men and 115 fertile healthy males using a sequence tagged site (STS)±method. To gain insight into the molecular basis of the heterogeneous phenotype observed in men with the deletion we defined the type of DAZ and CDY1 genes deleted. We reported in the present study and for the first time a new type of AZFc deletion (gr/gr-DAZ2-DAZ4-CDY1b) and hypothesis that this new deletion is the result of two successive events. We also demonstrated that this deletion constitutes a relative high-risk factor for male infertility in Tunisian population.

  2. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Camperio Ciani; Paolo Cermelli; Giovanni Zanzotto

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of h...

  3. Medical Imaging and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Rebecca

    2016-11-01

    Infertility affects many couples, and medical imaging plays a vital role in its diagnosis and treatment. Radiologic technologists benefit from having a broad understanding of infertility risk factors and causes. This article describes the typical structure and function of the male and female reproductive systems, as well as congenital and acquired conditions that could lead to a couple's inability to conceive. Medical imaging procedures performed for infertility diagnosis are discussed, as well as common interventional options available to patients. © 2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  4. A de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement with a translocation 7;9 and 8q insertion in a male carrier with no infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, T; Yu, P; Tagle, D A; Lu, D; Chen, Y; Xia, J

    2001-01-01

    A de novo complex chromosomal rearrangement (CCR) involving chromosomes 7, 8 and 9 in a male carrier was ascertained through his healthy wife's recurrent spontaneous abortions. Six pregnancies over eight years resulted in four spontaneous abortions and two livebirths who died perinatally due to abnormal vital signs. Cytogenetic analyses utilizing high resolution chromosome banding technique showed a deletion of band in a der(7) chromosome and an extra band inserting at 8q21.2. Another extra band was also observed at the band 9p24, but it could not be karyotypically determined. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization using chromosome 7 and 8 specific microdissected library as probes confirmed the insertion of a segment from the translocated chromosome 7 into a chromosome 8, and additionally revealed a translocation between chromosomes 7 and 9. The karyotype of the CCR carrier was determined as 46,XY,t(7;9)(q22;p24),ins(8;7)(q21.2;q22q32).ish der(9)(wcp7+);ins(8;7)(wcp8+,wcp7+). Comparing with previously reported male CCR carriers with our case, we conclude that male CCR carriers may not always present with infertility or subfertility phenotypes. This may suggest that rare transmission of male carriers could result from abnormal chromosomal rearrangements during meiosis and gametogenesis in addition to frequent infertility.

  5. Male microchimerism in the human female brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F N Chan

    Full Text Available In humans, naturally acquired microchimerism has been observed in many tissues and organs. Fetal microchimerism, however, has not been investigated in the human brain. Microchimerism of fetal as well as maternal origin has recently been reported in the mouse brain. In this study, we quantified male DNA in the human female brain as a marker for microchimerism of fetal origin (i.e. acquisition of male DNA by a woman while bearing a male fetus. Targeting the Y-chromosome-specific DYS14 gene, we performed real-time quantitative PCR in autopsied brain from women without clinical or pathologic evidence of neurologic disease (n=26, or women who had Alzheimer's disease (n=33. We report that 63% of the females (37 of 59 tested harbored male microchimerism in the brain. Male microchimerism was present in multiple brain regions. Results also suggested lower prevalence (p=0.03 and concentration (p=0.06 of male microchimerism in the brains of women with Alzheimer's disease than the brains of women without neurologic disease. In conclusion, male microchimerism is frequent and widely distributed in the human female brain.

  6. Seminal vesicles of infertile patients with male accessory gland infection: ultrasound evaluation after prolonged treatment with tadalafil, a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vignera, S

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible ultrasound seminal vesicle (SV) changes in infertile patients with 'hypertrophic-congestive' (HCUF) or 'fibro-sclerotic' (FSUF) ultrasound form of male accessory gland infection (MAGI) after prolonged administration of tadalafil (TAD), a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor. Forty infertile patients with HCUF and 40 patients with FSUF and erectile dysfunction were selected and arbitrarily divided into two groups, who were prescribed TAD 5 mg daily for 3 months, the first 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group A1) or FSUF (group A2) or placebo, the second 20 consecutive patients with HCUF (group B1) or FSUF (group B2). All patients underwent scrotal and prostate-vesicular transrectal ultrasound evaluation and semen analysis (WHO, 2010) before and after treatment. Group A1 patients showed a significant reduction in fundus/body ratio and higher pre- and post-ejaculatory body SV antero-posterior diameter difference compared with the other three groups. These patients showed also a significant increase in SV ejection fraction and a significant improvement in the total sperm count, progressive motility, seminal levels of fructose and ejaculate volume. These results suggest that infertile patients with HCUF had an improvement in SV ultrasound features suggestive of chronic inflammation after daily treatment with low doses of TAD.

  7. 特发性男性不育症的遗传学分析%Genetic analysis of the idiopathic male infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳萍; 盖凌; 张美华; 贾颐舫

    2011-01-01

    Infertility is deined as a failure to conceive in a couple who living together for two years without contraception, about 15% reproductive -age couples suffer form intertility, and among these couples, male factor accounts for approximately 50% of causes. Male infertility child be caused by many fantors, such as endocrine disorders, infection, genital malformations, the immunological or genetic abnormalities and so on. Although several causes of male infertility have been identified, the majority remain idiopathic, which was called idiopathic male infertility. Spermatogenic disorder was the main reason for male ifertility, and most infertility in men could be diagnosed initially by semen analysis, such as the azoospermia, oligozoospermia, teratozoospermia, asthenozoospermia, ne-crospermia and pyospermia. The current estimate is that about 30% of the pateints coming to genetic counseling were found to have idiopathic oligozoospermia or azoospermia. It has been identified that the idiopathic oligozoospermia or azoospermia was related to the chromosomal abnormalities, sperm mtDNA mutations, single gene disorders, multi -gene genetic diseases and endocrine disorders caused by genetic factors, etc. This ardicle summarized the aboved genetic factors for idiopathic male infertility.%不孕症指夫妇同居生活两年、未避孕而未怀孕者.大约15%育龄夫妇患不孕症,其中男性因素占一半.造成男性不育的因素很多,比如内分泌、感染、生殖器畸形、免疫、遗传等原因,然而多半男性不育症患者找不到明确原因,我们称之为特发性男性不育症.生精障碍是男性不育的主要原因,多数男性不育症患者最初通过精液常规检查被确诊.精液常规检查可发现多种异常,比如无精子症、少精子症、弱精子症、畸精子症、死精症以及脓精症等,大约30%前来遗传咨询的男性不育患者患有特发性无精子或少精子症.已确定与特发性无精子症或少精

  8. A single nucleotide polymorphism within the novel sex-linked testis-specific retrotransposed PGAM4 gene influences human male fertility.

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    Hidenobu Okuda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes. METHODS AND FINDING: We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4 on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme's activity both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility.

  9. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Camperio Ciani

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness, accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  10. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  11. Real emotional experience of male infertile patients:a qualitative study%男性不育症患者情感体验的质性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓桂英; 王文兰; 欧阳结颜; 李彩英

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨男性不育症患者情感体验,为指导护士实施心理疏导提供依据。方法采用深度访谈法收集8例不育症男性患者资料,采用现象学分析法进行分析描述,了解男性不育症患者真实情感体验。结果不育症患者情感体验主要有5个主题:否认与焦虑,痛苦与接受,羞愧与孤立,哀伤与无价值感,性功能紊乱。结论不育症患者内心深处情感体验复杂,医护人员应主动了解不育症患者的负性情感,给予有效的正向情感引导,并尽可能提供完善的社会支持,使其尽快摆脱不育的阴霾。%Objective To investigate the real emotional experience of the male infertile patients.Method The clinical data of 8 male infertile patients were collected by in-depth interview and analyzed by phenomenologic analysis to investigate their real emotional experience.Result Five themes in related to their emotional experience were concluded,including denial and anxiety, pain and acceptance,shame and isolation,senses of sadness and worthlessness and sexual dysfunction.Conclusions Infertile patients have complex emotional experience deep in their heart.Therefore,the medical staff should take the initiative to understand negative emotions,give effective guidance of positive emotions and provide comprehensive social supports.

  12. Management of primary ciliary dyskinesia/Kartagener's syndrome in infertile male patients and current progress in defining the underlying genetic mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Wei Sha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kartagener's syndrome (KS is an autosomal recessive genetic disease accounting for approximately 50% of the cases of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD. As it is accompanied by many complications, PCD/KS severely affects the patient's quality of life. Therapeutic approaches for PCD/KS aim to enhance prevention, facilitate rapid definitive diagnosis, avoid misdiagnosis, maintain active treatment, control infection and postpone the development of lesions. In male patients, sperm flagella may show impairment in or complete absence of the ability to swing, which ultimately results in male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology will certainly benefit such patients. For PCD/KS patients with completely immotile sperm, intracytoplasmic sperm injection may be very important and even indispensable. Considering the number of PCD/KS susceptibility genes and mutations that are being identified, more extensive genetic screening is indispensable in patients with these diseases. Moreover, further studies into the potential molecular mechanisms of these diseases are required. In this review, we summarize the available information on various aspects of this disease in order to delineate the therapeutic objectives more clearly, and clarify the efficacy of assisted reproductive technology as a means of treatment for patients with PCD/KS-associated infertility.

  13. Effects of indoor air purification by an air cleaning system (Koala technology) on semen parameters in male factor infertility: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, R; Vanella, S; Barzanti, R; Cani, C; Battaglia, C; Seracchioli, R; Venturoli, S

    2009-06-01

    A number of studies indicated a clear decline in semen quality in the past 30-50 years and there is accumulating evidence that this decline might result from exposure to high levels of air pollution. To examine the impact of environment on male reproductive ability, we undertook for the first time a pilot study on semen quality of infertile men exposed to purification of indoor air. Ten subjects with a history of unexplained male infertility and poor semen quality were exposed for at least 1 year to a cleaning indoor air system (Koala technology). The key feature of this air purifier is the unique innovative multiple filtering system. The treatment of total purification of indoor air showed neither improvements in semen parameters nor variation in reproductive hormones (P = N.S.), but induced an evident increase (P indoor air does not seem enough to improve semen quality, although the increase in leucocytic concentrations could indicate an activation of the role of immunosurveillance in a purified indoor air environment.

  14. [Correlation of the penetration test of zona-free hamster ovocytes and other sperm parameters. Value of this test in evaluating male infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy-Martin, B; Saint Pol, P; Bouhdida, M; Hermand, E

    1989-01-01

    On investigating infertility in 162 couples the zona-free hamster egg penetration test was carried out. As a control we tested the ejaculates of 34 fertile men. There is a significant correlation between the percentage of oocytes that were penetrated and the count (p less than 0.001) in motility after one hour (p less than 0.001) and the count after migration (p less than 0.001). The outcome in 129 infertile couples made it possible for us to confirm that the percentage of oocytes penetrated, the initial motility and the number of motile sperms after migration are the best parameters for assessing sperm function that are known (p much less than 0.001) for investigating male fertility. Finally a study of the test in fertile sperm donors made it possible for us to raise statistically significantly the numbers of pregnancies per artificial insemination cycle when the percentage of oocytes penetrated is higher than 50% (p much less than 0.001). Although the egg penetration test did not prove male sterility it can be considered an extra test to be carried out over and above the sperm count and post-coital test in evaluating the fertilisation capacity of sperm.

  15. Brain activation during human male ejaculation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, Ger; Georgiadis, Janniko R.; Paans, Anne M.J.; Meiners, Linda C.; Graaf, Ferdinand H.C.E. van der; Reinders, A.A.T.Simone

    2003-01-01

    Brain mechanisms that control human sexual behavior in general, and ejaculation in particular, are poorly understood. We used positron emission tomography to measure increases in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during ejaculation compared with sexual stimulation in heterosexual male volunteers.

  16. Psychiatric Aspects of Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sezgin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can be defined as a crisis with cultural, religious, and class related aspects, which coexists with medical, psychiatric, psychological, and social problems. Relation between psychiatric and psychological factors stem from a mutual interaction of both. Family is an important institution in maintaining human existence and raising individuals in line with society's expectations. Fertility and reproduction are seen as universal functions unique to women with raising children as the expected result of the family institution. Incidence of infertility has increased recently and can become a life crisis for a couple. Even though not being able to have a child affects both sexes emotionally, women feel greater amounts of stress, pressure, anxiety, and depression.Consequences of infertility arise from short and long-term devastating effects on both individual's physical and mental health, and marital system. Many studies focus on infertility related psychological and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, grief, marital conflict, gender differences, relation between the causes of infertility and psychopathology, the effects of psychiatric evaluation and intervention -when necessaryon the course of infertility treatment, pregnancy rates, and childbirth. The most important underlying causes of high levels of stress and anxiety that infertile women experience are the loss of maternity, reproduction, sense of self, and genetic continuity. In this review article is to investigate the relationship between medically unexplained symptoms and psychiatric symptoms. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 165-185

  17. A case-control study on the risk factors of male infertility%男性不育影响因素的病例对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓; 侯倩; 黄河浪

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨男性不育的影响因素.方法:对122对病例和对照以1∶2配对进行影响因素的面对面问卷调查,采用Epidata3.0软件建立数据库,SPSS11.5软件进行单因素和多因素条件Logistic回归分析.结果:多因素条件Logistic回归分析表明:泌尿生殖系统感染史(OR=11.248)、肝病史(OR=12.247)、高温作业(OR=1.743)、接触有害化学物质(OR=1.597)、精神压力(OR=1.382)及每月性交次数(OR=1.378)均可能是男性不育的危险因素,而文化程度(OR=0.379)可能为其保护因素.结论:男性不育可能是由多种因素长期反复作用的结果,其预防措施的重点应为整治环境污染、加强职业防护、提高文化知识和性健康教育水平、改变不良工作及生活习惯等.%Objective:To study the risk factors of male infertility.Methods :A hospital-based matched case-control study was carried out in Nanchang.Matched by age (±2 years old), 122 cases and 240 controls(1∶2) were recruited and studied.Database was established with Epidata3.0 software.Both cases and controls were face to face interviewed with a uniformed questionnaire.Conditional logistic regression model was used for univariate and multivariate analysis on SPSS 11.5 to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence internals (95%CI).Results :Data from multiple conditional logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors of infertility were history of genitourinary infection (OR=11.248) ,history of liver disease(OR = 1.2.247) , high-temperature operation (OR = 1.743) , occupational exposure to chemical substances (OR = 1.597), mental stress (OR = 1.382)and the monthly frequency of sexual intercourse (OR= 1.378).However, level of education(OR=0.379) was the protective factor of male infertility.Conclusion :Male infertility is resulted from many factors repeatedly acting on men for a long time.In order to prevent male infertility,issues as environmental pollution,occupational protection and

  18. Rome Consensus Conference - statement; human papilloma virus diseases in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Andrea; Mirone, Vincenzo; Gentile, Vincenzo; Bartoletti, Riccardo; Ficarra, Vincenzo; Foresta, Carlo; Mariani, Luciano; Mazzoli, Sandra; Parisi, Saverio G; Perino, Antonio; Picardo, Mauro; Zotti, Carla Maria

    2013-02-07

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is a very resistant, ubiquitous virus that can survive in the environment without a host. The decision to analyse HPV-related diseases in males was due to the broad dissemination of the virus, and, above all, by the need to stress the importance of primary and secondary prevention measures (currently available for women exclusively). The objective of the Consensus Conference was to make evidence-based recommendations that were designed to facilitate the adoption of a standard approach in clinical practice in Italy. The Sponsoring Panel put a series of questions to the members of the Scientific Committee who prepared a summary of the currently available information, relevant for each question, after the review and grading of the existing scientific literature. The summaries were presented to a Jury, also called multidisciplinary Consensus Panel, who drafted a series of recommendations. The prevalence of HPV in males ranges between 1.3-72.9%;. The prevalence curve in males is much higher than that in females and does not tend to decline with age. Women appear to have a higher probability of acquiring HPV genotypes associated with a high oncogenic risk, whereas in males the probability of acquiring low- or high-risk genotypes is similar. The HPV-related diseases that affect males are anogenital warts and cancers of the penis, anus and oropharynx. The quadrivalent vaccine against HPV has proved to be effective in preventing external genital lesions in males aged 16-26 years in 90.4%; (95%; CI: 69.2-98.1) of cases. It has also proved to be effective in preventing precancerous anal lesions in 77.5%; (95%; CI: 39.6-93.3) of cases in a per-protocol analysis and in 91.7%; (95%; CI: 44.6-99.8) of cases in a post-hoc analysis. Early ecological studies demonstrate reduction of genital warts in vaccinated females and some herd immunity in males when vaccine coverage is high, although males who have sex with males gained no benefit at all. Males with

  19. 男性不育患者数量皮纹学特征及其波动性不对称%Quantitative dermatoglyphics and fluctuating asymmetry in males with infertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党洁; 霍正浩; 彭亮; 钟慧军; 焦海燕; 陆宏

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the characteristics of quantitative dermatoglyphics parameters and the fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of dermatoglyphic count in males with infertility from Ningxia,China.Methods:The sampling was conducted among 102 male infertility and 156 controls who had a normal child-bearing history.Then their finger and palm dermatoglyphic counts and 12 FA counts were analyzed.Results:(1)There was no significant difference in 4 different fingerprint patterns between the infertility males and normal controls.(2) There was a significant difference in a-b ridge count and a-b distance between the infertility males and normal controls.(3) The infertility males had a significantly higher frequency of simian line than did the normal controls.(4) The infertility males had significantly higher FA than did the normal controls.Conclusion:Infertility males have abnormal palm dermatoglyphics and high FAV,which indicates that during the course of fetal development,the male infertility fetus is much more sensitized to a variety of external environment and has higher developmental instability than does the female.%目的:研究数量皮纹学特征及其波动性不对称参数在男性不育患者中的分布特征.方法:随机分析男性不育患者102例和有正常生育史男性156例指纹及掌纹多项指标,并分析其中12项波动性不对称参数.结果:男性不育患者组与正常对照组4种指纹类型出现率差异均无统计学意义;男性不育患者组a-b指纹嵴线数及a-b间距值低于正常对照组;男性不育患者组通贯掌的出现率高于对照组;男性不育患者组与正常对照组在波动性不对称Ⅴ项有差异,表现为患者组明显增高.结论:男性不育患者掌纹指标变异明显,较高的波动性不对称Ⅴ水平提示男性不育患者在胚胎发育早期可能易受到环境因素影响,具有较高的发育不稳定性.

  20. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T polymorphisms and male infertility: study for idiopathic asthenozoospermia and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Pingping; Zou, Shasha; Chen, Tingting; Chen, Jianhua; Wang, Yanan; Yang, Juanjuan; Song, Zhijian; Jiang, Huayu; Shi, Huijuan; Huang, Yiran; Li, Zheng; Shi, Yongyong; Hu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies on the eNOS gene and male infertility show that expression of eNOS regulates normal spermatogenesis in the testis, and the eNOS gene variants (T-786C, 4a4b, and G894T) are potentially involved in impairment of spermatogenesis and sperm function. Thus, we conducted this association and meta-analysis study to further validate whether variants of those three loci affected the risk of idiopathic asthenozoospermia (AZS) and male infertility. Approximately 340 Chinese idiopathic AZS patients and 342 healthy men were included for this case-control study, genotyped by gel electrophoresis analysis or direct sequencing of PCR products. The eNOS mRNA isolated from the semen of patients was further examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Also, a meta-analysis of association between eNOS gene polymorphisms and male infertility was performed. A significant association was identified on allelic level between 4a4b variant and AZS in our study (chi-squared = 7.53, corrected P = 0.018, odds ratio (OR) = 1.808), while there were no significant difference of T-786C and G894T for asthenozoospermia in both genotype and allele distributions. In addition, expression of eNOS was up-regulated in patients compared with controls (about 2.4-fold, P infertility in both Asian and Caucasian populations. Our study provides genetic evidence for the eNOS gene being a risk factor for idiopathic AZS and male infertility. Considering genetic differences among populations and complex pathogenesis of male infertility, more validating studies using independent samples are suggested in the future. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  1. Idiopathic cases of male infertility from a region in India show low incidence of Y-chromosome microdeletion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Ambasudhan; K Singh; J K Agarwal; S K Singh; A Khanna; R K Sah; I Singh; R Raman

    2003-09-01

    Chromosomal and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analysis has been done in cases of idiopathic infertility with the objective of evaluating the frequency of chromosomal and molecular anomaly as the causal factor of infertility. Barring a few cases of Klinefelter syndrome (XXY or XY/XXY mosaics), no chromosomal anomaly was encountered. Y-microdeletion was analysed by PCR-screening of STSs from different regions of the AZF (AZFa, AZFb, AZFc) on the long arm of the Y, as well as by using DNA probes of the genes RBM, DAZ (Yq), DAZLA (an autosomal homologue of DAZ) and SRY (Yp; sex determining gene). Out of 177 cases examined, 9 (azoospermia – 8 and oligoasthenospermia – 1) showed partial deletion of AZF. The size of deletion varied among patients but AZFc was either totally or partially removed in all of them. In contrast, no deletion was detected in AZFa. Testis biopsy done on a limited number of cases (50) showed diverse stages of spermatogenic arrest with no specific correlation with the genotype. The frequency of Y-chromosome microdeletion in our samples (∼ 5%) is much lower than the frequency (∼ 10%) reported globally and the two previous reports from India. We contend that the frequency may be affected by population structures in different geographical regions.

  2. In Vitro Inhibition of Human Sperm Creatine Kinase by Nicotine,Cotinine and Cadmium, as a Mechanism in Smoker Men Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ghaffari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are harmful components of cigarettes that have aneffect on human reproductive function. Although the effects of cigarette smoke on male reproductivefunction is characterized in several articles its mechanism of action is still unknown.In the present study, we investigate the effect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium on human spermcreatine kinase activity in vitro.Materials and Methods: Total creatine kinase activity is measured in sperm homogenates afterchromatography on a diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-32 column.Results: We show that creatine kinase activity is significantly inhibited by nicotine (44%, cotinine(39% and cadmium (65% at a concentration of 60 μg/ml. Kinetic studies reveal that the inhibitoryeffect of nicotine, cotinine and cadmium are competitive in relation to creatine phosphate.Conclusion: Considering the importance of creatine kinase activity for normal sperm energymetabolism, our results suggest that inhibition of this enzyme by nicotine, cotinine and cadmium maybe an important mechanism in infertility amongst male smokers. However, further investigationsare needed to elucidate the exact mechanism of cigarette effect on male reproductive function atthe molecular level.

  3. Ritual male infant circumcision and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Allan J; Arora, Kavita Shah

    2015-01-01

    Opponents of male circumcision have increasingly used human rights positions to articulate their viewpoint. We characterize the meaning of the term "human rights." We discuss these human rights arguments with special attention to the claims of rights to an open future and to bodily integrity. We offer a three-part test under which a parental decision might be considered an unacceptable violation of a child's right. The test considers the impact of the practice on society, the impact of the practice on the individual, and the likelihood of adverse impact. Infant circumcision is permissible under this test. We conclude that infant circumcision may be proscribed as violating local norms, even though it does not violate human rights.

  4. Testicular membrane lipid damage by complex mixture of leachate from municipal battery recycling site as indication of idiopathic male infertility in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintunde, Jacob K; Oboh, Ganiyu; Akindahunsi, Akintunde A

    2013-12-01

    Leachate from a municipal battery recycling site is a potent source of mixed-metal released into the environment. The present study investigated the degree at which mixed-metal exposure to the municipal auto-battery leachate (MABL) and to the Elewi Odo municipal auto-battery recycling site leachate (EOMABRL) affected the lipid membrane of the testes in in vitro experiment. The results showed elevated level of mixed-metals over the permissible levels in drinking water, as recommended by regulatory authorities. In the leachate samples, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), a biomarker of lipid damage, was significantly (pbattery leachate (MABL) was significantly (pbattery recycling site (EOMABRL). The testicular lipid membrane capacity was compromised following treatment with leachate from the municipal battery recycling site, implicating mixed-metal exposure as the causative agent of testicular damage and male infertility.

  5. ROLE OF DIAGNOSTIC HYSTEROLAPAROSCOPY IN EVALUATION OF FEMALE INFERTILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanthy; Suvarna; Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the role of hysterolaparoscopy in female infertility. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Patients with female infertility presenting to outpatient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Kempegowda Institute of Medical sciences, Bengaluru were evaluated for infertility by hysterolaparoscopy and chromopertubation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seventy consenting subjects excluding male factor infertility with normal hormonal profile and no contraindication to ...

  6. The use of hens' egg white as a substitute for human cervical mucus in assessing human infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert-Kruse, W; Gerhard, I; Tilgen, W; Runnebaum, B

    1990-08-01

    Semen samples from 179 patients with longstanding infertility were allowed to penetrate capillaries filled with a fraction of fresh hens' egg white (HEW) as a substitute for cervical mucus (CM) for the in-vitro sperm-cervical mucus penetration test (SCPMT). Results were correlated with those obtained from human CM (HCM) used in parallel on the same semen sample, compared to results of sperm analysis and post-coital testing (PCT) and analysed for their prognostic value for a subsequent pregnancy in a prospective study. The overall pregnancy rate after 6 months was 26.3% (47/179). Whereas routine semen analysis (semen volume, pH, sperm count, progressive motility, morphology and fructose concentration) did not differentiate between patients who achieved pregnancy and those who did not, significant differences were found for the penetration distance (P less than 0.02) and the motility grade of sperm in HEW (P less than 0.02). Although the mean sperm velocity in HEW was reduced compared to HCM, a close positive correlation was found between the sperm density and the penetration distance (P less than 0.001). The percentage of samples with good HEW penetration increased significantly in parallel with better results of post-coital testing (P less than 0.001). The results indicate that, when fresh human CM is not available, HEW can be used as a medium for the SCPMT as a valuable adjunct to semen analysis which provides information about sperm functional capacity.

  7. Understanding Infertility - The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  8. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  9. Psychological Component of Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  10. Smoking and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  11. Ovarian Drilling for Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  12. Stress and Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  13. Unexplained infertility: association with inherited thrombophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatini, Cinzia; Conti, Lucia; Turillazzi, Valentina; Sticchi, Elena; Romagnuolo, Ilaria; Milanini, Maria Novella; Cozzi, Cinzia; Abbate, Rosanna; Noci, Ivo

    2012-05-01

    Unexplained infertility represents one of the most common diagnoses in fertility care. Attention is being paid to the association between inherited thrombophilia and infertility causes. In this study we investigated the prevalence of inherited thrombophilia according to infertility causes. We studied Prothrombin gene G20210A mutation, Factor V Leiden, deficiencies in protein S and C and antithrombin in 930 Caucasian infertile women referred to Fertility Center of the Department of Sciences for Woman and Child's Health, University of Florence, of whom 230 with unexplained, 195 female and 283 male infertility, and in 240 women who have conceived naturally without hormonal stimulation therapy. A significant relationship between inherited thrombophilia [OR 95%CI 1.97 (1.05-3.68), p = 0.03] and unexplained infertility was observed, whereas no association between thrombophilia and female and male infertility was found. Significantly higher prevalence of prothrombin gene mutation in unexplained infertile women in comparison to that observed in fertile women was observed (5.7% vs 2.1% p = 0.04); the prevalence of the other thrombophilia determinants was higher, even if not significantly, in the unexplained infertile group. This study demonstrates the relationship between inherited thrombophilia and unexplained infertility, thus suggesting the contribution of genetic components in modulating unexplained infertility, behind anovulation, male and tubal factor. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the treatment of male infertility due to obstructive or non-obstructive azoospermia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟信; 黄萍; 王丽; 罗孟军; 岳利民; 郑煜

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) ontreatment of infertility due to obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia..Methods: A retrospective analysis of fertilization, cleavage, embryo implantationand pregnancy rates was done in 158 ICSI cycles including 112 obstructive azoospermiaand 46 non-obstructive azoospermia. Ovarian hyperstimulation and ICSI procedureswere performed by conventional protocol. The sperm was collected by percutaneous epi-didymal sperm aspiration (PESA) or testicular sperm extraction (TESE).Results:The fertilization rate (73.1% vs. 67.0%), cleavage rate (88.6% vs. 86.3%), embryo implantation rate (20.7% vs. 11.4%), clinical pregnancy rate per trans-fer cycle (35.7% vs. 19.6%) were obtained for obstructive and non-obstructiveazoospermia, respectively.Conclusion: The results revealed that in the cases of obstructive azoospermia, ferti-lization rate, embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate were significantlyhigher than those of non-obstructive azoospermia. But there was no significant differ-ence of the