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Sample records for human macrophage foam

  1. Leucine supplementation attenuates macrophage foam-cell formation: Studies in humans, mice, and cultured macrophages.

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    Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Rom, Oren; Hamoud, Shadi; Volkova, Nina; Hayek, Tony; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Aviram, Michael

    2018-02-05

    Whereas atherogenicity of dietary lipids has been largely studied, relatively little is known about the possible contribution of dietary amino acids to macrophage foam-cell formation, a hallmark of early atherogenesis. Recently, we showed that leucine has antiatherogenic properties in the macrophage model system. In this study, an in-depth investigation of the role of leucine in macrophage lipid metabolism was conducted by supplementing humans, mice, or cultured macrophages with leucine. Macrophage incubation with serum obtained from healthy adults supplemented with leucine (5 g/d, 3 weeks) significantly decreased cellular cholesterol mass by inhibiting the rate of cholesterol biosynthesis and increasing cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Similarly, leucine supplementation to C57BL/6 mice (8 weeks) resulted in decreased cholesterol content in their harvested peritoneal macrophages (MPM) in relation with reduced cholesterol biosynthesis rate. Studies in J774A.1 murine macrophages revealed that leucine dose-dependently decreased cellular cholesterol and triglyceride mass. Macrophages treated with leucine (0.2 mM) showed attenuated uptake of very low-density lipoproteins and triglyceride biosynthesis rate, with a concurrent down-regulation of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1, a key enzyme catalyzing triglyceride biosynthesis in macrophages. Similar effects were observed when macrophages were treated with α-ketoisocaproate, a key leucine metabolite. Finally, both in vivo and in vitro leucine supplementation significantly improved macrophage mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. The above studies, conducted in human, mice, and cultured macrophages, highlight a protective role for leucine attenuating macrophage foam-cell formation by mechanisms related to the metabolism of cholesterol, triglycerides, and energy production. © 2018 BioFactors, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Human macrophage foam cells degrade atherosclerotic plaques through cathepsin K mediated processes

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    Barascuk, Natasha; Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Register, Thomas C

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteolytic degradation of Type I Collagen by proteases may play an important role in remodeling of atherosclerotic plaques, contributing to increased risk of plaque rupture.The aim of the current study was to investigate whether human macrophage foam cells degrade the extracellular...... matrix (ECM) of atherosclerotic plaques by cathepsin K mediated processes. METHODS: We 1) cultured human macrophages on ECM and measured cathepsin K generated fragments of type I collagen (C-terminal fragments of Type I collagen (CTX-I) 2) investigated the presence of CTX-I in human coronary arteries......-I in areas of intimal hyperplasia and in shoulder regions of advanced plaques. Treatment of human monocytes with M-CSF or M-CSF+LDL generated macrophages and foam cells producing CTX-I when cultured on type I collagen enriched matrix. Circulating levels of CTX-I were not significantly different in women...

  3. Macrophage Liver Kinase B1 Inhibits Foam Cell Formation and Atherosclerosis.

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    Liu, Zhaoyu; Zhu, Huaiping; Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Cheng; Ding, Ye; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2017-10-13

    LKB1 (liver kinase B1) is a serine/threonine kinase and tumor suppressor, which regulates the homeostasis of hematopoietic cells and immune responses. Macrophages transform into foam cells upon taking-in lipids. No role for LKB1 in foam cell formation has previously been reported. We sought to establish the role of LKB1 in atherosclerotic foam cell formation. LKB1 expression was examined in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques and in western diet-fed atherosclerosis-prone Ldlr -/- and ApoE -/- mice. LKB1 expression was markedly reduced in human plaques when compared with nonatherosclerotic vessels. Consistently, time-dependent reduction of LKB1 levels occurred in atherosclerotic lesions in western diet-fed Ldlr -/- and ApoE -/- mice. Exposure of macrophages to oxidized low-density lipoprotein downregulated LKB1 in vitro. Furthermore, LKB1 deficiency in macrophages significantly increased the expression of SRA (scavenger receptor A), modified low-density lipoprotein uptake and foam cell formation, all of which were abolished by blocking SRA. Further, we found LKB1 phosphorylates SRA resulting in its lysosome degradation. To further investigate the role of macrophage LKB1 in vivo, ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl LysM cre and ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl mice were fed with western diet for 16 weeks. Compared with ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl wild-type control, ApoE -/- LKB1 fl/fl LysM cre mice developed more atherosclerotic lesions in whole aorta and aortic root area, with markedly increased SRA expression in aortic root lesions. We conclude that macrophage LKB1 reduction caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein promotes foam cell formation and the progression of atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor modified macrophages transdifferentiate into endothelial-like cells and decrease foam cell formation.

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    Yan, Dan; He, Yujuan; Dai, Jun; Yang, Lili; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ruan, Qiurong

    2017-06-30

    Macrophages are largely involved in the whole process of atherosclerosis from an initiation lesion to an advanced lesion. Endothelial disruption is the initial step and macrophage-derived foam cells are the hallmark of atherosclerosis. Promotion of vascular integrity and inhibition of foam cell formation are two important strategies for preventing atherosclerosis. How can we inhibit even the reverse negative role of macrophages in atherosclerosis? The present study was performed to investigate if overexpressing endogenous human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) could facilitate transdifferentiation of macrophages into endothelial-like cells (ELCs) and inhibit foam cell formation. We demonstrated that VEGF-modified macrophages which stably overexpressed human VEGF (hVEGF 165 ) displayed a high capability to alter their phenotype and function into ELCs in vitro Exogenous VEGF could not replace endogenous VEGF to induce the transdifferentiation of macrophages into ELCs in vitro We further showed that VEGF-modified macrophages significantly decreased cytoplasmic lipid accumulation after treatment with oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Moreover, down-regulation of CD36 expression in these cells was probably one of the mechanisms of reduction in foam cell formation. Our results provided the in vitro proof of VEGF-modified macrophages as atheroprotective therapeutic cells by both promotion of vascular repair and inhibition of foam cell formation. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Tumor necrosis factor-α and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand augment human macrophage foam-cell destruction of extracellular matrix through protease-mediated processes

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    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Larsen, Lise

    2012-01-01

    By secreting proteases such as cathepsins and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), macrophage foam cells may be a major cause of ruptured atherosclerotic plaques. The aims of the present study were to investigate in vitro role of human macrophage foam cells in degrading type I collagen, a major...

  6. Role of Rab5 in the formation of macrophage-derived foam cell.

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    Chan, Lokwern; Hong, Jin; Pan, Junjie; Li, Jian; Wen, Zhichao; Shi, Haiming; Ding, Jianping; Luo, Xinping

    2017-09-12

    Foam cells play a key role in the occurrence and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Its formation starts with the ingestion of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). The process is associated with Ras related protein in brain 5 (Rab5) which plays a critical role in regulating endocytosis and early endosomal trafficking. Base on this, we presumed that Rab5 might participate in the maturation of foam cell. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Rab5 on macrophage cholesterol during the evolvement of macrophage when induced by oxLDL to the formation of foam cell. Immunohistochemistry was performed to analyze the distribution of macrophages and Rab5 in atherosclerotic plaque. RNA inteference study and transfection of inactive mutant (GFP-Rab5-S34N) and active mutant (GFP-Rab5-Q79L) in U937-derived macrophage were utilized to investigate the impact of Rab5 on the process of macrophage cholesterol, which could be detected by oil red O staining, determination of intracellular lipid content, filipin staining, nile red staining and the costaining of early endosome antigen-1 (EEA-1) and 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylin dicarbocyanine (Dil)-labelled oxLDL (Dil-oxLDL). Rab5 was found abundantly localized in macrophage rich areas of human atherosclerotic lesions. On the foam cell study, the expression of Rab5 was increased after the incubation of oxLDL. The inteference study indicated the depletion of Rab5 led to the decreases of oil red O staining areas, total cholesterol and cholesterol esters in U937-derived marophages. Moreover, the fluorescence intensity of filipin and nile red staining were lower in GFP-Rab5-S34N as compared with GFP-Rab5-Q79L. The confocal study demonstrated less Dil-oxLDL was internalized in GFP-Rab5-S34N as compared with GFP-Rab5-Q79L; the result showed also the decrease in colocalization of internalized Dil-oxLDL and EEA-1 for GFP-Rab5-S34N as compared with GFP-Rab5-Q79L. Rab5 plays an important role in modulating the

  7. Exocytosis of macrophage lysosomes leads to digestion of apoptotic adipocytes and foam cell formation[S

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    Haka, Abigail S.; Barbosa-Lorenzi, Valéria C.; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Falcone, Domenick J.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Dannenberg, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Many types of apoptotic cells are phagocytosed and digested by macrophages. Adipocytes can be hundreds of times larger than macrophages, so they are too large to be digested by conventional phagocytic processes. The nature of the interaction between macrophages and apoptotic adipocytes has not been studied in detail. We describe a cellular process, termed exophagy, that is important for macrophage clearance of dead adipocytes and adipose tissue homeostasis. Using mouse models of obesity, human tissue, and a cell culture model, we show that macrophages form hydrolytic extracellular compartments at points of contact with dead adipocytes using local actin polymerization. These compartments are acidic and contain lysosomal enzymes delivered by exocytosis. Uptake and complete degradation of adipocyte fragments, which are released by extracellular hydrolysis, leads to macrophage foam cell formation. Exophagy-mediated foam cell formation is a highly efficient means by which macrophages internalize large amounts of lipid, which may ultimately overwhelm the metabolic capacity of the macrophage. This process provides a mechanism for degradation of objects, such as dead adipocytes, that are too large to be phagocytosed by macrophages. PMID:27044658

  8. GABA and Topiramate Inhibit the Formation of Human Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells by Modulating Cholesterol-Metabolism-Associated Molecules

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    Ying Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts on GABA receptors to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage functions. The present study examined the effects of GABA and a GABA receptor agonist on modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs. Methods: ORO stain, HPLC, qRT-PCR, Western blot and EMSA were carried out using HMDMs exposed to ox-LDL with or without GABAergic agents as the experimental model. Results: GABA and topiramate reduced the percentage of cholesterol ester in lipid-laden HMDMs by down-regulating SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1 expression and up-regulating ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression in lipid-laden HMDMs. The production of TNF-a was decreased in GABA-and topiramate-treated lipid-laden HMDMs, and levels of interleukin (IL-6 did not change. The activation of two signaling pathways, p38MAPK and NF-γB, was repressed by GABA and topiramate in lipid-laden HMDMs. Conclusion: GABA and topiramate inhibit the formation of human macrophage-derived foam cells and may be a possibility for macrophage targeted therapy of atherosclerotic lesions.

  9. Macrophage specific overexpression of the human macrophage scavenger receptor in transgenic mice, using a 180-kb yeast artificial chromosome, leads to enhanced foam cell formation of isolated peritoneal macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winther, M. P.; van Dijk, K. W.; van Vlijmen, B. J.; Gijbels, M. J.; Heus, J. J.; Wijers, E. R.; van den Bos, A. C.; Breuer, M.; Frants, R. R.; Havekes, L. M.; Hofker, M. H.

    1999-01-01

    Macrophage scavenger receptors class A (MSR) are thought to play an important role in atherogenesis by mediating the unrestricted uptake of modified lipoproteins by macrophages in the vessel wall leading to foam cell formation. To investigate the in vivo role of the MSR in this process, a transgenic

  10. Inflammation induced mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation.

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    Banerjee, Dipanjan; Sinha, Archana; Saikia, Sudeshna; Gogoi, Bhaskarjyoti; Rathore, Arvind K; Das, Anindhya Sundar; Pal, Durba; Buragohain, Alak K; Dasgupta, Suman

    2018-06-05

    The transformation of macrophages into lipid loaded foam cells is a critical and early event in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Several recent reports highlighted that induction of TLR4 signaling promotes macrophage foam cell formation; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been clearly elucidated. Here, we found that the TLR4 mediated inflammatory signaling communicated with mTORC2-Akt-mTORC1 metabolic cascade in macrophage and thereby promoting lipid uptake and foam cell formation. Mechanistically, LPS treatment markedly upregulates TLR4 mediated inflammatory pathway which by activating mTORC2 induces Akt phosphorylation at serine 473 and that aggravate mTORC1 dependent scavenger receptors expression and consequent lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages. Inhibition of mTORC2 either by silencing Rictor expression or inhibiting its association with mTOR notably prevents LPS induced Akt activation, scavenger receptors expression and macrophage lipid accumulation. Although suppression of mTORC1 expression by genetic knockdown of Raptor did not produce any significant change in Akt S473 phosphorylation, however, incubation with Akt activator in Rictor silenced cells failed to promote scavenger receptors expression and macrophage foam cell formation. Thus, present research explored the signaling pathway involved in inflammation induced macrophage foam cells formation and therefore, targeting this pathway might be useful for preventing macrophage foam cell formation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  11. microRNA-150 inhibits the formation of macrophage foam cells through targeting adiponectin receptor 2

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    Li, Jing [Department of Geratory, Linzi District People’s Hospital of Zibo City, Zibo, Shandong (China); Zhang, Suhua, E-mail: drsuhuangzhang@qq.com [Department of HealthCare, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University (Qingdao), Qingdao City, Qingdao (China)

    2016-08-05

    Transformation of macrophages into foam cells plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression and biological roles of microRNA (miR)-150 in the formation of macrophage foam cells and to identify its functional target(s). Exposure to 50 μg/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) led to a significant upregulation of miR-150 in THP-1 macrophages. Overexpression of miR-150 inhibited oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, while knockdown of miR-150 enhanced lipid accumulation. apoA-I- and HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux was increased by 66% and 43%, respectively, in miR-150-overexpressing macrophages relative to control cells. In contrast, downregulation of miR-150 significantly reduced cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. Bioinformatic analysis and luciferase reporter assay revealed adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) as a direct target of miR-150. Small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of AdipoR2 phenocopied the effects of miR-150 overexpression, reducing lipid accumulation and facilitating cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-treated THP-1 macrophages. Knockdown of AdipoR2 induced the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), liver X receptor alpha (LXRα), ABCA1, and ABCG1. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of PPARγ or LXRα impaired AdipoR2 silencing-induced upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Taken together, our results indicate that miR-150 can attenuate oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages via promotion of cholesterol efflux. The suppressive effects of miR-150 on macrophage foam cell formation are mediated through targeting of AdipoR2. Delivery of miR-150 may represent a potential approach to prevent macrophage foam cell formation in atherosclerosis. -- Highlights: •miR-150 inhibits macrophage foam cell formation. •miR-150 accelerates cholesterol efflux from oxLDL-laden macrophages. •miR-150 suppresses macrophage foam cell

  12. Andrographolide Inhibits Oxidized LDL-Induced Cholesterol Accumulation and Foam Cell Formation in Macrophages.

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    Lin, Hung-Chih; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Chen, Hui-Chun; Lin, Ai-Hsuan; Yang, Ya-Chen; Chen, Haw-Wen

    2018-01-01

    oxLDL is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through cholesterol accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide, the bioactive component of Andrographis paniculata, possesses several biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anticancer functions. Scavenger receptors (SRs), including class A SR (SR-A) and CD36, are responsible for the internalization of oxLDL. In contrast, receptors for reverse cholesterol transport, including ABCA1 and ABCG1, mediate the efflux of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells. Transcription factor liver X receptor [Formula: see text] (LXR[Formula: see text] plays a key role in lipid metabolism and inflammation as well as in the regulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 expression. Because of the contribution of inflammation to macrophage foam cell formation and the potent anti-inflammatory activity of andrographolide, we hypothesized that andrographolide might inhibit oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation. The results showed that andrographolide reduced oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophage foam cells. Andrographolide decreased the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 by inducing the degradation of CD36 mRNA; however, andrographolide had no effect on SR-A expression. In contrast, andrographolide increased the mRNA and protein expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1, which were dependent on LXR[Formula: see text]. Andrographolide enhanced LXR[Formula: see text] nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. Treatment with the LXR[Formula: see text] antagonist GGPP and transfection with LXR[Formula: see text] siRNA reversed the ability of andrographolide to stimulate ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. In conclusion, inhibition of CD36-mediated oxLDL uptake and induction of ABCA1- and ABCG1-dependent cholesterol efflux are two working mechanisms by which andrographolide inhibits macrophage foam cell formation, which suggests that andrographolide could be a potential candidate to prevent

  13. Streptococcus sanguinis induces foam cell formation and cell death of macrophages in association with production of reactive oxygen species.

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    Okahashi, Nobuo; Okinaga, Toshinori; Sakurai, Atsuo; Terao, Yutaka; Nakata, Masanobu; Nakashima, Keisuke; Shintani, Seikou; Kawabata, Shigetada; Ooshima, Takashi; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-10-01

    Streptococcus sanguinis, a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, is a common streptococcal species implicated in infective endocarditis. Herein, we investigated the effects of infection with S. sanguinis on foam cell formation and cell death of macrophages. Infection with S. sanguinis stimulated foam cell formation of THP-1, a human macrophage cell line. At a multiplicity of infection >100, S. sanguinis-induced cell death of the macrophages. Viable bacterial infection was required to trigger cell death because heat-inactivated S. sanguinis did not induce cell death. The production of cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α from macrophages was also stimulated during bacterial infection. Inhibition of the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulted in reduced cell death, suggesting an association of ROS with cell death. Furthermore, S. sanguinis-induced cell death appeared to be independent of activation of inflammasomes, because cleavage of procaspase-1 was not evident in infected macrophages. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH Promotes Macrophage Foam Cell Formation via Reduced Expression of ATP Binding Cassette Transporter-1 (ABCA1.

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    Wonkyoung Cho

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis, the major pathology of cardiovascular disease, is caused by multiple factors involving psychological stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, which is released by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus, peripheral nerve terminals and epithelial cells, regulates various stress-related responses. Our current study aimed to verify the role of CRH in macrophage foam cell formation, the initial critical stage of atherosclerosis. Our quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, and Western blot results indicate that CRH down-regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-1 (ABCA1 and liver X receptor (LXR-α, a transcription factor for ABCA1, in murine peritoneal macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Oil-red O (ORO staining and intracellular cholesterol measurement of macrophages treated with or without oxidized LDL (oxLDL and with or without CRH (10 nM in the presence of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1 revealed that CRH treatment promotes macrophage foam cell formation. The boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY-conjugated cholesterol efflux assay showed that CRH treatment reduces macrophage cholesterol efflux. Western blot analysis showed that CRH-induced down-regulation of ABCA1 is dependent on phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473 induced by interaction between CRH and CRH receptor 1(CRHR1. We conclude that activation of this pathway by CRH accelerates macrophage foam cell formation and may promote stress-related atherosclerosis.

  15. Amalgamation of Chlamydia pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets in foam cells in human atherosclerotic plaque.

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    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Tran, Dihn; Lord, Reginald

    2008-07-01

    Chlamydia pneumoniae (Chlamydophila pneumoniae) infect macrophages and accelerates foam cell formation in in vitro experiments, but whether this might occur in human atherosclerosis is unknown. In the present study, we examined 17 carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae in the cytoplasm of macrophage foam cells. The volume of the cytoplasm that was free from vacuoles and lipid droplets in C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells was dramatically reduced, and a phenomenon of the amalgamation of C. pneumoniae inclusions with lipid droplets was detected. Double immunohistochemistry showed that C. pneumoniae-infected foam cells contained a large number of oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The observations provide support to the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae could affect foam cell formation in human atherosclerosis.

  16. Enhanced SCAP glycosylation by inflammation induces macrophage foam cell formation.

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    Chao Zhou

    Full Text Available Inflammatory stress promotes foam cell formation by disrupting LDL receptor feedback regulation in macrophages. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs Cleavage-Activating Protein (SCAP glycosylation plays crucial roles in regulating LDL receptor and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCoAR feedback regulation. The present study was to investigate if inflammatory stress disrupts LDL receptor and HMGCoAR feedback regulation by affecting SCAP glycosylation in THP-1 macrophages. Intracellular cholesterol content was assessed by Oil Red O staining and quantitative assay. The expression of molecules controlling cholesterol homeostasis was examined using real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The translocation of SCAP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER to the Golgi was detected by confocal microscopy. We demonstrated that exposure to inflammatory cytokines increased lipid accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, accompanying with an increased SCAP expression even in the presence of a high concentration of LDL. These inflammatory cytokines also prolonged the half-life of SCAP by enhancing glycosylation of SCAP due to the elevated expression of the Golgi mannosidase II. This may enhance translocation and recycling of SCAP between the ER and the Golgi, escorting more SREBP2 from the ER to the Golgi for activation by proteolytic cleavages as evidenced by an increased N-terminal of SREBP2 (active form. As a consequence, the LDL receptor and HMGCoAR expression were up-regulated. Interestingly, these effects could be blocked by inhibitors of Golgi mannosidases. Our results indicated that inflammation increased native LDL uptake and endogenous cholesterol de novo synthesis, thereby causing foam cell formation via increasing transcription and protein glycosylation of SCAP in macrophages. These data imply that inhibitors of Golgi processing enzymes might have a potential vascular-protective role in prevention of atherosclerotic foam

  17. TRPV4 calcium-permeable channel is a novel regulator of oxidized LDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation.

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    Goswami, Rishov; Merth, Michael; Sharma, Shweta; Alharbi, Mazen O; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim; Zhu, Xiaoping; Rahaman, Shaik O

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in United States, and atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease, is the most dominant underlying pathology. Macrophages are thought to orchestrate atherosclerosis by generating lipid-laden foam cells and by secreting inflammatory mediators. Emerging data support a role for a mechanical factor, e.g., matrix stiffness, in regulation of macrophage function, vascular elasticity, and atherogenesis. However, the identity of the plasma membrane mechanosensor and the mechanisms by which pro-atherogenic signals are transduced/maintained are unknown. We have obtained evidence that TRPV4, an ion channel in the transient receptor potential vanilloid family and a known mechanosensor, is the likely mediator of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-dependent macrophage foam cell formation, a critical process in atherogenesis. Specifically, we found that: i) genetic ablation of TRPV4 or pharmacologic inhibition of TRPV4 activity by a specific antagonist blocked oxLDL-induced macrophage foam cell formation, and ii) TRPV4 deficiency prevented pathophysiological range matrix stiffness or scratch-induced exacerbation of oxLDL-induced foam cell formation. Mechanistically, we found that: i) plasma membrane localization of TRPV4 was sensitized to the increasing level of matrix stiffness, ii) lack of foam cell formation in TRPV4 null cells was not due to lack of expression of CD36, a major receptor for oxLDL, and iii) TRPV4 channel activity regulated oxLDL uptake but not its binding on macrophages. Altogether, these findings identify a novel role for TRPV4 in regulating macrophage foam cell formation by modulating uptake of oxLDL. These findings suggest that therapeutic targeting of TRPV4 may provide a selective approach to the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Gly[14]-humanin inhibits ox-LDL uptake and stimulates cholesterol efflux in macrophage-derived foam cells.

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    Zhu, Wa-Wa; Wang, Shu-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Cao, Yong-Jun; Wang, Fen; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chun-Feng; Xie, Ying; Xie, Ying; Zhang, Yan-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Foam cell formation, which is caused by imbalanced cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages, plays a vital role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Humanin (HN), a mitochondria-derived peptide, can prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and death of human aortic endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and has a protective effect on patients with in early atherosclerosis. However, the effects of HN on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism in RAW 264.7 macrophages are still unknown. This study was designed to investigate the role of [Gly14]-humanin (HNG) in lipid uptake and cholesterol efflux in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Flow cytometry and live cell imaging results showed that HNG reduced Dil-ox-LDL accumulation in the RAW 264.7 macrophages. A similar result was obtained for lipid accumulation by measuring cellular cholesterol content. Western blot analysis showed that ox-LDL treatment upregulated not only the protein expression of CD36 and LOX-1, which mediate ox-LDL endocytosis, but also ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 and ABCG1, which mediate ox-LDL exflux. HNG pretreatment inhibited the upregulation of CD36 and LOX-1 levels, prompting the upregulation of ABCA1 and ABCG1 levels induced by ox-LDL. Therefore we concluded that HNG could inhibit ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation, which occurs because of a decrease in lipid uptake and an increase in cholesterol efflux from macrophage cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acyl Chain Preference in Foam Cell Formation from Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages.

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    Fujiwara, Yuko; Hama, Kotaro; Tsukahara, Makoto; Izumi-Tsuzuki, Ryosuke; Nagai, Toru; Ohe-Yamada, Mihoko; Inoue, Keizo; Yokoyama, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    Macrophage foam cells play critical roles in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis by synthesizing and accumulating cholesteryl ester (CE) in lipid droplets. However, in analyzing lipid metabolism in foam cell formation, studies have focused on the sterol group, and little research has been done on the acyl chains. Therefore, we adapted a model system using liposomes containing particular acyl chains and examined the effect of various acyl chains on foam cell formation. Of the phosphatidylserine (PS) liposomes tested containing PS, phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol, we found that unsaturated (C18:1), but not saturated (C16:0 and C18:0), PS liposomes induced lipid droplet formation, indicating that foam cell formation depends on the nature of the acyl chain of the PS liposomes. Experiments on the uptake and accumulation of cholesterol from liposomes by adding [ 14 C]cholesterol suggested that foam cell formation could be induced only when cholesterol was converted to CE in the case of C18:1 PS liposomes. Both microscopic observations and metabolic analysis suggest that cholesterol incorporated into either C16:0 or C18:0 PS liposomes may stay intact after being taken in by endosomes. The [ 14 C]C18:1 fatty acyl chain in the C18:1 PS liposome was used to synthesize CE and triacylglycerol (TG). Interestingly, the [ 14 C]C16:0 in the C18:1 PS liposome was metabolized to sphingomyelin rather than being incorporated into either CE or TG, which could be because of enzymatic acyl chain selectivity. In conclusion, our results indicate that the acyl chain preference of macrophages could have some impact on their progression to foam cells.

  20. Neopterin negatively regulates expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 by the LXRα signaling pathway in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells.

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    Yan, Jin-quan; Tan, Chun-zhi; Wu, Jin-hua; Zhang, Dong-cui; Chen, Ji-ling; Zeng, Bin-yuan; Jiang, Yu-ping; Nie, Jin; Liu, Wei; Liu, Qin; Dai, Hao

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effects of neopterin on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and to explore the role of the liver X receptor alpha (LXRα) involved. In the present study, THP-1 cells were pre-incubated with ox-LDL to become foam cells. The protein and mRNA expression were examined by Western blot assays and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. Liquid scintillation counting and high performance liquid chromatography assays were used to test cellular cholesterol efflux and cholesterol content. Neopterin decreased ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, and the LXRα siRNA can reverse the inhibitory effects induced by neopterin. Neoterin has a negative regulation on ABCA1 expression via the LXRα signaling pathway, which suggests the aggravated effects of neopterin on atherosclerosis.

  1. The inhibition of macrophage foam cell formation by tetrahydroxystilbene glucoside is driven by suppressing vimentin cytoskeleton.

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    Yao, Wenjuan; Huang, Lei; Sun, Qinju; Yang, Lifeng; Tang, Lian; Meng, Guoliang; Xu, Xiaole; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Macrophage foam cell formation triggered by oxLDL is an important event that occurs during the development of atherosclerosis. 2,3,5,4'-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside (TSG) exhibits significant anti-atherosclerotic activity. Herein we used U937 cells induced by PMA and oxLDL in vitro to investigate the inhibitory effects of TSG on U937 differentiation and macrophage foam cell formation. TSG pretreatment markedly inhibited cell differentiation induced by PMA, macrophage apoptosis and foam cell formation induced by oxLDL. The inhibition of vimentin expression and cleavage was involved in these inhibitory effects of TSG. The suppression of vimentin by siRNA in U937 significantly inhibited cell differentiation, apoptosis and foam cell formation. Using inhibitors for TGFβR1 and PI3K, we found that vimentin production in U937 cells is regulated by TGFβ/Smad signaling, but not by PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling. Meanwhile, TSG pretreatment inhibited both the expression of TGFβ1 and the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3, and TSG suppressed the nuclear translocation of Smad4 induced by PMA and oxLDL. Furthermore, TSG attenuated the induced caspase-3 activation and adhesion molecules levels by PMA and oxLDL. PMA and oxLDL increased the co-localization of vimentin with ICAM-1, which was attenuated by pretreatment with TSG. These results suggest that TSG inhibits macrophage foam cell formation through suppressing vimentin expression and cleavage, adhesion molecules expression and vimentin-ICAM-1 co-localization. The interruption of TGFβ/Smad pathway and caspase-3 activation is responsible for the downregulation of TSG on vimentin expression and degradation, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Decreased expression of liver X receptor-α in macrophages infected with Chlamydia pneumoniae in human atherosclerotic arteries in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Orekhov, Alexander N; Killingsworth, Murray C; Lu, Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    In in vitro experiments, Chlamydia pneumoniae has been shown to infect macrophages and to accelerate foam cell formation. It has been hypothesized that the C. pneumoniae infection affects foam cell formation by suppressing the expression of liver X receptors (LXR), but whether such an event occurs in human atherosclerosis is not known. In this study we examined carotid artery segments, obtained by endarterectomy, in which the presence of C. pneumoniae was confirmed by both polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The expression of LXR-α in macrophages infected with C. pneumoniae and macrophages that were not infected was compared using a quantitative immunohistochemical analysis. The analysis revealed a 2.2-fold reduction in the expression of LXR-α in C. pneumoniae-infected cells around the lipid cores in atherosclerotic plaques. In the cytoplasm of laser-capture microdissected cells that were immunopositive for C. pneumoniae, electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of structures with the appearance of elementary, reticulate and aberrant bodies of C. pneumoniae. We conclude that LXR-α expression is reduced in C. pneumoniae-infected macrophages in human atherosclerotic lesions which supports the hypothesis that C. pneumoniae infection might suppress LXR expression in macrophages transforming into foam cells. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Lysophosphatidic acid directly induces macrophage-derived foam cell formation by blocking the expression of SRBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linmu; Zhang, Jun; Deng, Xiao; Liu, Yan; Yang, Xi; Wu, Qiong; Yu, Chao

    2017-09-23

    The leading cause of morbidity and mortality is the result of cardiovascular disease, mainly atherosclerosis. The formation of macrophage foam cells by ingesting ox-LDL and focal retention in the subendothelial space are the hallmarks of the early atherosclerotic lesion. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which is a low-molecular weight lysophospholipid enriched in oxidized LDL, exerts a range of effects on the cardiovascular system. Previous reports show that LPA increases the uptake of ox-LDL to promote the formation of foam cells. However, as the most active component of ox-LDL, there is no report showing whether LPA directly affects foam cell formation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of LPA on foam cell formation, as well as to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Oil red O staining and a Cholesterol/cholesteryl ester quantitation assay were used to evaluate foam cell formation in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. We utilized a Western blot and RT-PCR to investigate the relationship between LPA receptors and lipid transport related proteins. We found that LPA promoted foam cell formation, using 200 μM for 24 h. Meanwhile, the expression of the Scavenger receptor BI (SRBI), which promotes the efflux of free cholesterol, was decreased. Furthermore, the LPA 1/3 receptor antagonist Ki16425 significantly abolished the LPA effects, indicating that LPA 1/3 was involved in the foam cell formation and SRBI expression induced by LPA. Additionally, the LPA-induced foam cell formation was blocked with an AKT inhibitor. Our results suggest that LPA-enhanced foam cell formation is mediated by LPA 1/3 -AKT activation and subsequent SRBI expression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Steven, E-mail: steven.hsu@av.abbott.com [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu [CVPath Institute, Inc., 19 Firstfield Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878 (United States); Feder, Debra [Abbott Vascular, 3200 Lakeside Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of everolimus on foam cell (FC) viability, mRNA levels, and inflammatory cytokine production to better understand its potential inhibitory effects on atheroma progression. Methods and materials: Human THP1 macrophage-derived FC were formed using acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 μg/mL) for 72 hours, followed by everolimus treatment (10{sup -5}–10{sup -11} M) for 24 hours. FC viability was quantified using fluorescent calcein AM/DAPI staining. FC lysates and media supernatants were analyzed for apoptosis and necrosis using a Cell Death ELISA{sup PLUS} assay. FC lysates and media supernatants were also analyzed for inflammatory cytokine (IL1β, IL8, MCP1, TNFα) mRNA levels and protein expression using quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and a Procarta® immunoassay, respectively. mRNA levels of autophagy (MAP1LC3), apoptosis (survivin, clusterin), and matrix degradation (MMP1, MMP9) markers were evaluated by Quantigene® Plex assay and verified with QPCR. Additionally, hypercholesterolemic rabbits received everolimus-eluting stents (EES) for 28 or 60 days. RAM-11 immunohistochemical staining was performed to compare %RAM-11 positive area between stented sections and unstented proximal sections. Statistical significance was calculated using one-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Results: Calcein AM/DAPI staining showed that FC exposed to everolimus (10{sup -5} M) had significantly decreased viability compared to control. FC apoptosis was significantly increased at a high dose of everolimus (10{sup -5} M), with no necrotic effects at any dose tested. Everolimus did not affect endothelial (HUVEC) and smooth muscle (HCASMC) cell apoptosis or necrosis. Everolimus (10{sup -5} M) significantly increased MAP1LC3, caused an increased trend in clusterin (p = 0.10), and significantly decreased survivin and MMP1 mRNA levels in FC. MCP1 cytokine mRNA levels and secreted protein

  5. Effects of everolimus on macrophage-derived foam cell behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Steven; Koren, Eugen; Chan, Yen; Koscec, Mirna; Sheehy, Alexander; Kolodgie, Frank; Virmani, Renu; Feder, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of everolimus on foam cell (FC) viability, mRNA levels, and inflammatory cytokine production to better understand its potential inhibitory effects on atheroma progression. Methods and materials: Human THP1 macrophage-derived FC were formed using acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 μg/mL) for 72 hours, followed by everolimus treatment (10 -5 –10 -11 M) for 24 hours. FC viability was quantified using fluorescent calcein AM/DAPI staining. FC lysates and media supernatants were analyzed for apoptosis and necrosis using a Cell Death ELISA PLUS assay. FC lysates and media supernatants were also analyzed for inflammatory cytokine (IL1β, IL8, MCP1, TNFα) mRNA levels and protein expression using quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and a Procarta® immunoassay, respectively. mRNA levels of autophagy (MAP1LC3), apoptosis (survivin, clusterin), and matrix degradation (MMP1, MMP9) markers were evaluated by Quantigene® Plex assay and verified with QPCR. Additionally, hypercholesterolemic rabbits received everolimus-eluting stents (EES) for 28 or 60 days. RAM-11 immunohistochemical staining was performed to compare %RAM-11 positive area between stented sections and unstented proximal sections. Statistical significance was calculated using one-way ANOVA (p ≤ 0.05). Results: Calcein AM/DAPI staining showed that FC exposed to everolimus (10 -5 M) had significantly decreased viability compared to control. FC apoptosis was significantly increased at a high dose of everolimus (10 -5 M), with no necrotic effects at any dose tested. Everolimus did not affect endothelial (HUVEC) and smooth muscle (HCASMC) cell apoptosis or necrosis. Everolimus (10 -5 M) significantly increased MAP1LC3, caused an increased trend in clusterin (p = 0.10), and significantly decreased survivin and MMP1 mRNA levels in FC. MCP1 cytokine mRNA levels and secreted protein expression was significantly decreased

  6. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Cho, Kyung-Hyun; Zabel, Brian A.; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis

  7. Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ha Young, E-mail: hayoung@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Doo [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Suk-Hwan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joon Hyuk [Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu 705-717 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kyung-Hyun [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Zabel, Brian A. [Palo Alto Institute for Research and Education, Veterans Affairs Hospital, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Bae, Yoe-Sik, E-mail: yoesik@skku.edu [Department of Biological Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Dong-A University, Busan 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. ► SAA stimulated upregulation of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1). ► SAA-induced LOX1 expression and foam cell formation is mediated by JNK/NF-κB signaling. ► HDL-conjugated SAA also stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 upregulation. ► The finding reveals a novel mechanism of action of SAA in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.

  8. Impact of glutathione peroxidase-1 deficiency on macrophage foam cell formation and proliferation: implications for atherogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Cheng

    Full Text Available Clinical and experimental evidence suggests a protective role for the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1 in the atherogenic process. GPx-1 deficiency accelerates atherosclerosis and increases lesion cellularity in ApoE(-/- mice. However, the distribution of GPx-1 within the atherosclerotic lesion as well as the mechanisms leading to increased macrophage numbers in lesions is still unknown. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were (1 to analyze which cells express GPx-1 within atherosclerotic lesions and (2 to determine whether a lack of GPx-1 affects macrophage foam cell formation and cellular proliferation. Both in situ-hybridization and immunohistochemistry of lesions of the aortic sinus of ApoE(-/- mice after 12 weeks on a Western type diet revealed that both macrophages and - even though to a less extent - smooth muscle cells contribute to GPx-1 expression within atherosclerotic lesions. In isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages differentiated for 3 days with macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (MCSF, GPx-1 deficiency increased oxidized low density-lipoprotein (oxLDL induced foam cell formation and led to increased proliferative activity of peritoneal macrophages. The MCSF- and oxLDL-induced proliferation of peritoneal macrophages from GPx-1(-/-ApoE(-/- mice was mediated by the p44/42 MAPK (p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase, namely ERK1/2 (extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2, signaling pathway as demonstrated by ERK1/2 signaling pathways inhibitors, Western blots on cell lysates with primary antibodies against total and phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, p90RSK (p90 ribosomal s6 kinase, p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and immunohistochemistry of mice atherosclerotic lesions with antibodies against phosphorylated ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and p90RSK. Representative effects of GPx-1 deficiency on both macrophage proliferation and

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus impairs reverse cholesterol transport from macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedi Mujawar

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Several steps of HIV-1 replication critically depend on cholesterol. HIV infection is associated with profound changes in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Whereas numerous studies have investigated the role of anti-HIV drugs in lipodystrophy and dyslipidemia, the effects of HIV infection on cellular cholesterol metabolism remain uncharacterized. Here, we demonstrate that HIV-1 impairs ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux from human macrophages, a condition previously shown to be highly atherogenic. In HIV-1-infected cells, this effect was mediated by Nef. Transfection of murine macrophages with Nef impaired cholesterol efflux from these cells. At least two mechanisms were found to be responsible for this phenomenon: first, HIV infection and transfection with Nef induced post-transcriptional down-regulation of ABCA1; and second, Nef caused redistribution of ABCA1 to the plasma membrane and inhibited internalization of apolipoprotein A-I. Binding of Nef to ABCA1 was required for down-regulation and redistribution of ABCA1. HIV-infected and Nef-transfected macrophages accumulated substantial amounts of lipids, thus resembling foam cells. The contribution of HIV-infected macrophages to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis was supported by the presence of HIV-positive foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques of HIV-infected patients. Stimulation of cholesterol efflux from macrophages significantly reduced infectivity of the virions produced by these cells, and this effect correlated with a decreased amount of virion-associated cholesterol, suggesting that impairment of cholesterol efflux is essential to ensure proper cholesterol content in nascent HIV particles. These results reveal a previously unrecognized dysregulation of intracellular lipid metabolism in HIV-infected macrophages and identify Nef and ABCA1 as the key players responsible for this effect. Our findings

  10. Quantification of sterol-specific response in human macrophages using automated imaged-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gater, Deborah L; Widatalla, Namareq; Islam, Kinza; AlRaeesi, Maryam; Teo, Jeremy C M; Pearson, Yanthe E

    2017-12-13

    The transformation of normal macrophage cells into lipid-laden foam cells is an important step in the progression of atherosclerosis. One major contributor to foam cell formation in vivo is the intracellular accumulation of cholesterol. Here, we report the effects of various combinations of low-density lipoprotein, sterols, lipids and other factors on human macrophages, using an automated image analysis program to quantitatively compare single cell properties, such as cell size and lipid content, in different conditions. We observed that the addition of cholesterol caused an increase in average cell lipid content across a range of conditions. All of the sterol-lipid mixtures examined were capable of inducing increases in average cell lipid content, with variations in the distribution of the response, in cytotoxicity and in how the sterol-lipid combination interacted with other activating factors. For example, cholesterol and lipopolysaccharide acted synergistically to increase cell lipid content while also increasing cell survival compared with the addition of lipopolysaccharide alone. Additionally, ergosterol and cholesteryl hemisuccinate caused similar increases in lipid content but also exhibited considerably greater cytotoxicity than cholesterol. The use of automated image analysis enables us to assess not only changes in average cell size and content, but also to rapidly and automatically compare population distributions based on simple fluorescence images. Our observations add to increasing understanding of the complex and multifactorial nature of foam-cell formation and provide a novel approach to assessing the heterogeneity of macrophage response to a variety of factors.

  11. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuates foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages by suppressing ox-LDL uptake and promoting cholesterol efflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Yao, Qiying; Xu, Siwei; Wang, Hongyan; Qu, Peng

    2018-01-01

    The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. The activated NLRP3 inflammasome has been reported to promote macrophage foam cell formation, but not all studies have obtained the same result, and how NLRP3 inflammasome is involved in the formation of foam cells remains elusive. We used selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors and NLRP3-deficient THP-1 cells to assess the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition on macrophage foam cell formation, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) uptake, esterification, and cholesterol efflux, as well as the expression of associated proteins. Inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome attenuated foam cell formation, diminished ox-LDL uptake, and promoted cholesterol efflux from THP-1 macrophages. Moreover, it downregulated CD36, acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase-1 and neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase expression; upregulated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) expression; but had no effect on the expression of scavenger receptor class A and ATP-binding cassette transporter G1. Collectively, our findings show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome decreases foam cell formation of THP-1 macrophages via suppression of ox-LDL uptake and enhancement of cholesterol efflux, which may be due to downregulation of CD36 expression and upregulation of ABCA1 and SR-BI expression, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  13. Perturbed microRNA Expression by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Promotes Macrophage Polarization Leading to Pro-survival Foam Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Pankaj Kumar; Pandey, Rajan Kumar; Sehajpal, Prabodh Kumar; Prajapati, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the prevalent causes of death worldwide, with 95% of these deaths occurring in developing countries, like India. The causative agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) has the tenacious ability to circumvent the host's immune system for its own advantage. Macrophages are one of the phagocytic cells that are central to immunity against MTb. These are highly plastic cells dependent on the milieu and can showcase M1/M2 polarization. M1 macrophages are bactericidal in action, but M2 macrophages are anti-inflammatory in their immune response. This computational study is an effort to elucidate the role of miRNAs that influences the survival of MTb in the macrophage. To identify the miRNAs against critical transcription factors, we selected only conserved hits from TargetScan database. Further, validation of these miRNAs was achieved using four databases viz . DIANA-microT, miRDB, miRanda-mirSVR, and miRNAMap. All miRNAs were identified through a conserved seed sequence against the 3'-UTR of transcription factors. This bioinformatics study found that miR-27a and miR-27b has a putative binding site at 3'-UTR of IRF4, and miR-302c against IRF5. miR-155, miR-132, and miR-455-5p are predicted microRNAs against suppressor of cytokine signaling transcription factors. Several other microRNAs, which have an affinity for critical transcription factors, are also predicted in this study. This MTb-associated modulation of microRNAs to modify the expression of the target gene(s) plays a critical role in TB pathogenesis. Other than M1/M2 plasticity, MTb has the ability to convert macrophage into foam cells that are rich in lipids and cholesterol. We have highlighted few microRNAs which overlap between M2/foam cell continuums. miR-155, miR-33, miR-27a, and miR-27b plays a dual role in deciding macrophage polarity and its conversion to foam cells. This study shows a glimpse of microRNAs which can be modulated by MTb not only to prevent its elimination but also

  14. Urotensin II increases foam cell formation by repressing ABCA1 expression through the ERK/NF-κB pathway in THP-1 macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Department of Anesthesiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Wu, Jian-Feng [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Tang, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuan [Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Chen, Kong; Zeng, Meng-Ya [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Yao, Feng; Xie, Wei [Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Zheng, Xi-Long [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Health Sciences Center, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N1 (Canada); Zeng, Gao-Feng, E-mail: qichingnudou@tom.com [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China); Tang, Chao-Ke, E-mail: tangchaoke@qq.com [Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Key Laboratory for Atherosclerology of Hunan Province, University of South China, Hengyang 421001, Hunan (China)

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • U II reduces cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages. • U II decreases the expression of ABCA1. • Inhibition of the ERK/NF-κB pathway reduces U II effects on ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux. - Abstract: Objective: Foam cell formation in the arterial wall plays a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recent studies showed that Urotensin II (U II) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Here we examined the effects of human U II on ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and the underlying mechanism in THP-1 macrophages. Methods and results: Cultured THP-1 macrophages were treated with U II, followed by measuring the intracellular lipid contents, cholesterol efflux and ABCA1 levels. The results showed that U II dramatically decreased ABCA1 levels and impaired cholesterol efflux. However, the effects of U II on ABCA1 protein expression and cellular cholesterol efflux were partially reversed by inhibition of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activity, suggesting the potential roles of ERK1/2 and NF-κB in ABCA1 expression, respectively. Conclusion: Our current data indicate that U II may have promoting effects on the progression of atherosclerosis, likely through suppressing ABCA1 expression via activation of the ERK/NF-κB pathway and reducing cholesterol efflux to promote macrophage foam cell formation.

  15. Phytosterols Differentially Influence ABC transporter Expression, Cholesterol Efflux and Inflammatory Cytokine Secretion in Macrophage Foam Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeva, Nadezhda S; McPhaul, Christopher M; Li, Xiangan; Cory, Theodore J.; Feola, David J.; Graf, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol supplements lower low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but accumulate in vascular lesions of patients and limit the anti-atherosclerotic effects of LDL lowering in apolipoprotein E deficient mice, suggesting that the cholesterol lowering benefit of phytosterol supplementation may not be fully realized. Individual phytosterols have cell-type specific effects that may either be beneficial or deleterious with respect to atherosclerosis, but little is known concerning their effects on macrophage function. The effects of phytosterols on ABCA1 and ABCG1 abundance, cholesterol efflux, and inflammatory cytokine secretion were determined in cultured macrophage foam cells. Among the commonly consumed phytosterols, stigmasterol increased expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 and increased efflux of cholesterol to apolipoprotein (Apo) AI and high density lipoprotein (HDL). Campesterol and sitosterol had no effect on ABCA1 or ABCG1 levels. Sitosterol had no effect of cholesterol efflux to Apo AI or HDL, whereas campesterol had a modest, but significant reduction in cholesterol efflux to HDL in THP-1 macrophages. Whereas stigmasterol blunted aggregated LDL-induced increases in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β secretion, sitosterol exacerbated these effects. The presence of campesterol had no effect on agLDL-induced inflammatory cytokine secretion from THP-1 macrophages. In conclusion, the presence of stigmasterol in modified lipoproteins promoted cholesterol efflux and suppressed inflammatory cytokine secretion in response to lipid loading in macrophage foam cells. While campesterol was largely inert, the presence of sitosterol increased the proinflammatory cytokine secretion. PMID:21111593

  16. Overexpression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Increases Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Transgenic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucui Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of human CETP did not change the plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but lowered plasma HDL-C and increased triglycerides. These data revealed that human CETP may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis mainly by decreasing HDL-C levels and increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells.

  17. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-01-02

    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Insulin-like growth factor I reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Snarski, Patricia; Vaughn, Charlotte; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Kim, Catherine; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2015-02-01

    We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) infusion in Apoe(-/-) mice decreased atherosclerotic plaque size and plaque macrophage and lipid content suggesting that IGF-1 suppressed formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Since 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays an important role in OxLDL and foam cell formation, we hypothesized that IGF-1 downregulates 12/15-LOX, thereby suppressing lipid oxidation and foam cell formation. We found that IGF-1 decreased 12/15-LOX plaque immunopositivity and serum OxLDL levels in Apoe(-/-) mice. IGF-1 reduced 12/15-LOX protein and mRNA levels in cultured THP-1 macrophages and IGF-1 also decreased expression of STAT6 transcription factor. IGF-1 reduction in macrophage 12/15-LOX was mediated in part via a PI3 kinase- and STAT6-dependent transcriptional mechanism. IGF-1 suppressed THP-1 macrophage ability to oxidize lipids and form foam cells. IGF-1 downregulated 12/15-LOX in human blood-derived primary macrophages and IGF-1 decreased LDL oxidation induced by these cells. IGF-1 reduced LDL oxidation and formation of foam cells by wild type murine peritoneal macrophages, however these effects were completely blocked in 12/15-LOX-null macrophages suggesting that the ability of IGF-1 to reduce LDL oxidation and foam cells formation is dependent on its ability to downregulate 12/15-LOX. Overall our data demonstrate that IGF-1 reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-LOX and this mechanism may play a major role in the anti-atherosclerotic effects of IGF-1. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Insulin-like Growth Factor I Reduces Lipid Oxidation and Foam Cell Formation via Downregulation of 12/15-lipoxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Snarski, Patricia; Vaughn, Charlotte; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Kim, Catherine; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) infusion in Apoe−/− mice decreased atherosclerotic plaque size and plaque macrophage and lipid content suggesting that IGF-1 suppressed formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Since 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays an important role in OxLDL and foam cell formation, we hypothesized that IGF-1 downregulates 12/15-LOX, thereby suppressing lipid oxidation and foam cell formation. Approach and Results We found that IGF-1 decreased 12/15-LOX plaque immunopositivity and serum OxLDL levels in Apoe−/− mice. IGF-1 reduced 12/15-LOX protein and mRNA levels in cultured THP-1 macrophages and IGF-1 also decreased expression of STAT6 transcription factor. IGF-1 reduction in macrophage 12/15-LOX was mediated in part via a PI3 kinase- and STAT6-dependent transcriptional mechanism. IGF-1 suppressed THP-1 macrophage ability to oxidize lipids and form foam cells. IGF-1 downregulated 12/15-LOX in human blood-derived primary macrophages and IGF-1 decreased LDL oxidation induced by these cells. IGF-1 reduced LDL oxidation and formation of foam cells by wild type murine peritoneal macrophages, however these effects were completely blocked in 12/15-LOX-null macrophages suggesting that the ability of IGF-1 to reduce LDL oxidation and foam cells formation is dependent on its ability to downregulate 12/15-LOX. Conclusions Overall our data demonstrate that IGF-1 reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-LOX and this mechanism may play a major role in the anti-atherosclerotic effects of IGF-1. PMID:25549319

  20. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions.

  1. Specific Kv1.3 blockade modulates key cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human macrophages exposed to ox-LDL[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Yan-Fu; Yang, Xiao-Fang; Wang, Zhao-Hui; Lian, Yi-Tian; Yang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Wei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Jian; Shu, Yan-Wen; Cheng, Long-Xian; Liao, Yu-Hua; Liu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules, including scavenger receptor class A (SR-A), lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1), CD36, ACAT1, ABCA1, ABCG1, and scavenger receptor class B type I, can modulate cholesterol metabolism in the transformation from macrophages to foam cells. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 has increasingly been demonstrated to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage function. Here, we investigate the role of Kv1.3 in modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human acute monocytic leukemia cell-derived macrophages (THP-1 macrophages) and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL (ox-LDL). Human Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 channels (hKv1.3 and hKv1.5) are expressed in macrophages and form a heteromultimeric channel. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.3 blocker inhibited outward delayed rectifier potassium currents, whereas the hKv1.5-E313 antibody that we had generated as a specific hKv1.5 blocker failed. Accordingly, the hKv1.3-E314 antibody reduced percentage of cholesterol ester and enhanced apoA-I-mediated cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages exposed to ox-LDL. The hKv1.3-E314 antibody downregulated SR-A, LOX-1, and ACAT1 expression and upregulated ABCA1 expression in THP-1 macrophages and human monocyte-derived macrophages. Our results reveal that specific Kv1.3 blockade represents a novel strategy modulating cholesterol metabolism in macrophages, which benefits the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:23099443

  2. Salidroside protects against foam cell formation and apoptosis, possibly via the MAPK and AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jing; Li, Yuanmin; Li, Weiming; Guo, Rong

    2017-10-10

    Foam cell formation and apoptosis are closely associated with atherosclerosis pathogenesis. We determined the effect of salidroside on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and apoptosis in THP1 human acute monocytic leukemia cells and investigated the associated molecular mechanisms. THP1-derived macrophages were incubated with salidroside for 5 h and then exposed to ox-LDL for 24 h to induce foam cell formation. Cytotoxicity, lipid deposition, apoptosis, and the expression of various proteins were tested using the CCK8 kit, Oil Red O staining, flow cytometry, and western blotting, respectively. Ox-LDL treatment alone promoted macrophage-derived foam cell formation, while salidroside treatment alone inhibited it (p foam cell formation and apoptosis, partly by regulating the MAPK and Akt signaling pathways.

  3. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Macrophages for Unraveling Human Macrophage Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-11-01

    Despite a substantial appreciation for the critical role of macrophages in cardiometabolic diseases, understanding of human macrophage biology has been hampered by the lack of reliable and scalable models for cellular and genetic studies. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived macrophages (IPSDM), as an unlimited source of subject genotype-specific cells, will undoubtedly play an important role in advancing our understanding of the role of macrophages in human diseases. In this review, we summarize current literature in the differentiation and characterization of IPSDM at phenotypic, functional, and transcriptomic levels. We emphasize the progress in differentiating iPSC to tissue resident macrophages, and in understanding the ontogeny of in vitro differentiated IPSDM that resembles primitive hematopoiesis, rather than adult definitive hematopoiesis. We review the application of IPSDM in modeling both Mendelian genetic disorders and host-pathogen interactions. Finally, we highlighted the potential areas of research using IPSDM in functional validation of coronary artery disease loci in genome-wide association studies, functional genomic analyses, drug testing, and cell therapeutics in cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. SIRT6 reduces macrophage foam cell formation by inducing autophagy and cholesterol efflux under ox-LDL condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangping; Zhang, Guangya; Pang, Qi; Yu, Cong; Xiong, Jie; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Fengling

    2017-05-01

    SIRT6 is a pivotal regulator of lipid metabolism. It is also closely connected to cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause of death in diabetic patients. We observed a decrease in the expression of SIRT6 and key autophagy effectors (ATG5, LC3B, and LAMP1) in ox-LDL-induced foam cells, a special form of lipid-laden macrophages. In these cells, SIRT6 WT but not SIRT6 H133Y overexpression markedly reduced foam cell formation, as shown by Oil Red O staining, while inducing autophagy flux, as determined by both mRFP-GFP-LC3 labeling and transmission electron microscopy. Silencing the key autophagy initiation gene ATG5, reversed the autophagy-promoting effect of SIRT6 in ox-LDL-treated THP1 cells, as evidenced by an increase in foam cells. Cholesterol efflux assays indicated that SIRT6 overexpression in foam cells promoted cholesterol efflux, increased the levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, and reduced miR-33 levels. By transfecting miR-33 into cells overexpressing SIRT6, we observed that reduced foam cell formation and autophagy flux induction were largely reversed. These data imply that SIRT6 plays an essential role in protecting against atherosclerosis by reducing foam cell formation through an autophagy-dependent pathway. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  5. [Macrophages in human semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Beatriz Reina; Brufman, Adriana Silvia; Paparella, Cecilia Vicenta; Feldman, Rodolfo Nestor; Gatti, Vanda Nora; Solis, Edita Amalia

    2003-11-01

    To investigate the presence of macrophages in human semen samples and the function they carry out in the seminal fluid. Their presence was studied in relation to spermatic morphology, percentage of spermatozoids with native DNA, and presence of antispermatic antibodies. The work was performed with semen samples from 31 unfertile males from 63 couples in which the "female factor" was ruled out as the cause of infertility. Sperm study according to WHO (1992) was carried out in all samples, in addition to: DNA study with acridine orange as fluorocrom, macrophage concentration by neutral red in a Neubauer camera, and detection of antispermatic antibodies with a mixed agglutination test (TAC II) (validated with Mar Screen-Fertility technologies). Sperm morphology was evaluated by Papanicolaou test. 19/31 selected sperm samples (61.3%) showed increased concentration of macrophages, 13 of them (41.9%) with denaturalized DNA, and 8 (25.8%) abnormal morphology. Six samples showed increased macrophage concentration and predominance of native DNA, whereas 11 samples showed increased macrophages and abnormal morphology. Among 18 (58.1%) samples showing antispermatic antibodies 14 (77.7%) had an increased concentration of macrophages. Statistical analysis resulted in a high correlation between macrophage concentration and increased percentage of spermatozoids with denaturalized DNA (p < 0.05). An increased concentration of macrophages is associated with the presence of antispermatic antibodies (p < 0.05). There was not evidence of significant association between concentration of macrophages and percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoids (p < 0.05). We can conclude that macrophages are present in human semen and participate in immunovigilance contributing to improve the seminal quality.

  6. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  7. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  8. Ocimum basilicum ethanolic extract decreases cholesterol synthesis and lipid accumulation in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Elena; Amrani, Souliman; Aziz, Mohammed; Harnafi, Hicham; Napolitano, Mariarosaria

    2008-12-01

    Macrophage lipid accumulation induced by low density lipoproteins (LDL) plays a pivotal role in atherosclerotic plaque development. Previous work showed that Ocimum basilicum extract, used as hypocholesterolemic agent by traditional medicine in Morocco, has hypolipidemic activity in rat acute hyperlipimidemia. This study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of O. basilicum on lipid accumulation in human macrophages. As modification of LDL increase atherogenicity of the particles we evaluated the effects of the extract on LDL oxidation. The extract caused a dose-related increase of LDL-resistance to Cu(2+)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, at the dose of 60 microg/ml, significantly decreases the accumulation of macrophage lipid droplets induced by modified LDL evaluated as by red-oil staining. Cholesterol esterification and triacylglycerol synthesis in the cells were not affected. Macrophage treatment with 60 microg/ml, but not 20 microg/ml, of the extract reduced newly synthesized unesterified cholesterol by about 60% and decreased scavenger receptors activity by about 20-30%, evaluated by the internalization of cholesterol carried by [(3)H]CE-aggregated-LDL. The results suggest that O. basilicum ethanolic extract has the capability to reduce foam cell formation through the reduction of cholesterol synthesis and the modulation of the activity of surface scavenger receptors.

  9. Classical and alternative activation and metalloproteinase expression occurs in foam cell macrophages in male and female ApoE null mice in the absence of T- and B-lymphocytes

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    Elaine Mo Hayes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rupture of advanced atherosclerotic plaques accounts for most life-threatening myocardial infarctions. Classical (M1 and alternative (M2 macrophage activation could promote atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture by increasing production of proteases, including matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs. Lymphocyte-derived cytokines may be essential for generating M1 and M2 phenotypes in plaques, although this has not been rigorously tested until now.Methods and Results: We validated the expression of M1 markers (iNOS and COX-2 and M2 markers (arginase-1, Ym-1 and CD206 and then measured MMP mRNA levels in mouse macrophages during classical and alternative activation in vitro. We then compared mRNA expression of these genes ex vivo in foam cells from subcutaneous granulomas in fat-fed immune-competent ApoE knockout and immune-compromised ApoE/Rag-1 double knockout mice, which lack all T and B cells. Furthermore, we performed immunohistochemistry in subcutaneous granulomas and in aortic root and brachiocephalic artery atherosclerotic plaques to measure the extent of M1/M2 marker and MMP protein expression in vivo. Classical activation of mouse macrophages with bacterial lipopolysaccharide in vitro increased MMPs-13, -14 and -25 but decreased MMP-19 and TIMP-2 mRNA expressions. Alternative activation with IL-4 increased MMP-19 expression. Foam cells in subcutaneous granulomas expressed all M1/M2 markers and MMPs at ex vivo mRNA and in vivo protein levels, irrespective of Rag-1 genotype. There were also similar percentages of foam cell macrophages carrying M1/M2 markers and MMPs in atherosclerotic plaques from ApoE knockout and ApoE/Rag-1 double knockout mice. Conclusions: Classical and alternative activation leads to distinct MMP expression patterns in mouse macrophages in vitro. M1 and M2 polarization in vivo occurs in the absence of T and B lymphocytes in either granuloma or plaque foam cell macrophages.

  10. ACAT1 deletion in murine macrophages associated with cytotoxicity and decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Annabelle; Ashen, M. Dominique; Chen, Edward S.

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some published studies of murine macrophages, we previously showed that ACAT inhibitors appeared to be anti-atherogenic in primary human macrophages in that they decreased foam cell formation without inducing cytotoxicity. Herein, we examined foam cell formation and cytotoxicity in murine ACAT1 knockout (KO) macrophages in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies. Elicited peritoneal macrophages from normal C57BL6 and ACAT1 KO mice were incubated with DMEM containing acetylated LDL (acLDL, 100 μg protein/ml) for 48 h. Cells became cholesterol enriched and there were no differences in the total cholesterol mass. Esterified cholesterol mass was lower in ACAT1 KO foam cells compared to normal macrophages (p 14 C]adenine from macrophages, was approximately 2-fold greater in ACAT1 KO macrophages as compared to normal macrophages (p < 0.0001), and this was independent of cholesterol enrichment. cDNA microarray analysis showed that ACAT1 KO macrophages expressed substantially less collagen type 3A1 (26-fold), which was confirmed by RT-PCR. Total collagen content was also significantly reduced (57%) in lung homogenates isolated from ACAT1 KO mice (p < 0.02). Thus, ACAT1 KO macrophages show biochemical changes consistent with increased cytotoxicity and also a novel association with decreased expression of collagen type 3A1

  11. CML/CD36 accelerates atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Suining; Li, Lihua; Yan, Jinchuan; Ye, Fei; Shao, Chen; Sun, Zhen; Bao, Zhengyang; Dai, Zhiyin; Zhu, Jie; Jing, Lele; Wang, Zhongqun

    2018-01-01

    Among the various complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis causes the highest disability and morbidity. A multitude of macrophage-derived foam cells are retained in atherosclerotic plaques resulting not only from recruitment of monocytes into lesions but also from a reduced rate of macrophage migration from lesions. Nε-carboxymethyl-Lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is responsible for most complications of diabetes. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of CML/CD36 accelerating atherosclerotic progression via inhibiting foam cell migration. In vivo study and in vitro study were performed. For the in vivo investigation, CML/CD36 accelerated atherosclerotic progression via promoting the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta and inhibited macrophage-derived foam cells in aorta migrating to the para-aorta lymph node of diabetic apoE -/- mice. For the in vitro investigation, CML/CD36 inhibited RAW264.7-derived foam cell migration through NOX-derived ROS, FAK phosphorylation, Arp2/3 complex activation and F-actin polymerization. Thus, we concluded that CML/CD36 inhibited foam cells of plaque migrating to para-aorta lymph nodes, accelerating atherosclerotic progression. The corresponding mechanism may be via free cholesterol, ROS generation, p-FAK, Arp2/3, F-actin polymerization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphene foam as a biocompatible scaffold for culturing human neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Cristiana; Nasr, Babak; Hudson, Emma J.; Alshawaf, Abdullah J.; Chana, Gursharan; Everall, Ian P.; Dottori, Mirella; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we explore the use of electrically active graphene foam as a scaffold for the culture of human-derived neurons. Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived cortical neurons fated as either glutamatergic or GABAergic neuronal phenotypes were cultured on graphene foam. We show that graphene foam is biocompatible for the culture of human neurons, capable of supporting cell viability and differentiation of hESC-derived cortical neurons. Based on the findings, we propose that graphene foam represents a suitable scaffold for engineering neuronal tissue and warrants further investigation as a model for understanding neuronal maturation, function and circuit formation. PMID:29657752

  13. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Macrophages Share Ontogeny with MYB-Independent Tissue-Resident Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Buchrieser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-resident macrophages, such as microglia, Kupffer cells, and Langerhans cells, derive from Myb-independent yolk sac (YS progenitors generated before the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. Myb-independent YS-derived resident macrophages self-renew locally, independently of circulating monocytes and HSCs. In contrast, adult blood monocytes, as well as infiltrating, gut, and dermal macrophages, derive from Myb-dependent HSCs. These findings are derived from the mouse, using gene knockouts and lineage tracing, but their applicability to human development has not been formally demonstrated. Here, we use human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs as a tool to model human hematopoietic development. By using a CRISPR-Cas9 knockout strategy, we show that human iPSC-derived monocytes/macrophages develop in an MYB-independent, RUNX1-, and SPI1 (PU.1-dependent fashion. This result makes human iPSC-derived macrophages developmentally related to and a good model for MYB-independent tissue-resident macrophages, such as alveolar and kidney macrophages, microglia, Kupffer cells, and Langerhans cells.

  14. Moderate restriction of macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Kahoru; Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage-tropic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains are able to grow to high titers in human monocyte-derived macrophages. However, it was recently reported that cellular protein SAMHD1 restricts HIV-1 replication in human cells of the myeloid lineage, including monocyte-derived macrophages. Here we show that degradation of SAMHD1 in monocyte-derived macrophages was associated with moderately enhanced growth of the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. SAMHD1 degradation was induced by treating target macrophages with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein-pseudotyped human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) particles containing viral protein X. For undifferentiated monocytes, HIV-2 particle treatment allowed undifferentiated monocytes to be fully permissive for productive infection by the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain. In contrast, untreated monocytes were totally resistant to HIV-1 replication. These results indicated that SAMHD1 moderately restricts even a macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strain in monocyte-derived macrophages, whereas the protein potently restricts HIV-1 replication in undifferentiated monocytes.

  15. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Editing in Human iPSC-Derived Macrophage Reveals Lysosomal Acid Lipase Function in Human Macrophages-Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hanrui; Shi, Jianting; Hachet, Melanie A; Xue, Chenyi; Bauer, Robert C; Jiang, Hongfeng; Li, Wenjun; Tohyama, Junichiro; Millar, John; Billheimer, Jeffrey; Phillips, Michael C; Razani, Babak; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2017-11-01

    To gain mechanistic insights into the role of LIPA (lipase A), the gene encoding LAL (lysosomal acid lipase) protein, in human macrophages. We used CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) technology to knock out LIPA in human induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate to macrophage (human-induced pluripotent stem cells-derived macrophage [IPSDM]) to explore the human macrophage LIPA loss-of-function phenotypes. LIPA was abundantly expressed in monocyte-derived macrophages and was markedly induced on IPSDM differentiation to comparable levels as in human monocyte-derived macrophage. IPSDM with knockout of LIPA ( LIPA -/- ) had barely detectable LAL enzymatic activity. Control and LIPA -/- IPSDM were loaded with [ 3 H]-cholesteryl oleate-labeled AcLDL (acetylated low-density lipoprotein) followed by efflux to apolipoprotein A-I. Efflux of liberated [ 3 H]-cholesterol to apolipoprotein A-I was abolished in LIPA -/- IPSDM, indicating deficiency in LAL-mediated lysosomal cholesteryl ester hydrolysis. In cells loaded with [ 3 H]-cholesterol-labeled AcLDL, [ 3 H]-cholesterol efflux was, however, not different between control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily A, member 1) expression was upregulated by AcLDL loading but to a similar extent between control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. In nonlipid loaded state, LIPA -/- IPSDM had high levels of cholesteryl ester mass compared with minute amounts in control IPSDM. Yet, with AcLDL loading, overall cholesteryl ester mass was increased to similar levels in both control and LIPA -/- IPSDM. LIPA -/- did not impact lysosomal apolipoprotein-B degradation or expression of IL1B , IL6 , and CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: LIPA -/- IPSDM reveals macrophage-specific hallmarks of LIPA deficiency. CRISPR/Cas9 and IPSDM provide important tools to study human macrophage biology and more broadly for future studies of disease-associated LIPA genetic variation in human

  16. Spiromastixones Inhibit Foam Cell Formation via Regulation of Cholesterol Efflux and Uptake in RAW264.7 Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongming Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided evaluation shows that a deep sea-derived fungus, Spiromastix sp. MCCC 3A00308, possesses lipid-lowering activity. Chromatographic separation of a culture broth resulted in the isolation of 15 known depsidone-based analogues, labeled spiromastixones A–O (1–15. Each of these compounds was tested for its ability to inhibit oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Spiromastixones 6–8 and 12–14 significantly decreased oxLDL-induced lipid over-accumulation, reduced cell surface area, and reduced intracellular cholesterol concentration. Of these compounds, spiromastixones 6 and 14 exerted the strongest inhibitory effects. Spiromastixones 6 and 14 dramatically inhibited cholesterol uptake and stimulated cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL in RAW264.7 macrophages. Mechanistic investigation indicated that spiromastixones 6, 7, 12 and 14 significantly up-regulated the mRNA levels of ATP-binding cassette sub-family A1 (ABCA1 and down-regulated those of scavenger receptor CD36, while the transcription of ATP-binding cassette sub-family A1 (ABCG1 and proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ were selectively up-regulated by 6 and 14. A transactivation reporter assay revealed that spiromastixones 6 and 14 remarkably enhanced the transcriptional activity of PPARγ. These results suggest that spiromastixones inhibit foam cell formation through upregulation of PPARγ and ABCA1/G1 and downregulation of CD36, indicating that spiromastixones 6 and 14 are promising lead compounds for further development as anti-atherogenic agents.

  17. Daintain/AIF-1 Plays Roles in Coronary Heart Disease via Affecting the Blood Composition and Promoting Macrophage Uptake and Foam Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhan Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daintain/AIF-1 is an inflammatory polypeptide factor/allograft inflammatory factor 1 derived from macrophages. It is characterized in APOE-/- mice as a novel inflammatory factor associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize its function in human atherosclerosis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the expression of daintain/AIF-1 in vessel segments within and far from atherosclerotic plaques; High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to display the effects of daintain/AIF-1 on C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD in vivo; Oil Red O Staining was used to show the effects of daintain/AIF-1 on uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL into U937 cells, a macrophage line; Western Blot was used to test scavenger receptor A (SRA expression. Results: A high density of daintain/AIF-1 was observed in the tunica intima and media of coronary artery with atherosclerotic plaque, and fewer daintain/AIF-1 in the vessels without atherosclerotic plaque; Daintain/AIF-1 injected intravenously into BALB/c mice boosted oxidative capacity, significantly impaired SOD activities and augmented the CRP level in blood. According to the oil red O test, daintain/AIF-1 profoundly facilitated the uptake of ox-LDL in U937 macrophages and formation of foam cells in the endothelium. We also found that the molecular mechanisms are effective by promoting overexpression of SRA on macrophages. Conclusion: These findings implicate that the inflammatory factor daintain/AIF-1 is closely associated with atherogenesis, and could be further characterized as a novel risk factor for atherosclerosis

  18. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Interacts with the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta to Induce Genes Affecting Fatty Acid Oxidation in Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kemmerer

    Full Text Available AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK maintains energy homeostasis by suppressing cellular ATP-consuming processes and activating catabolic, ATP-producing pathways such as fatty acid oxidation (FAO. The transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ also affects fatty acid metabolism, stimulating the expression of genes involved in FAO. To question the interplay of AMPK and PPARδ in human macrophages we transduced primary human macrophages with lentiviral particles encoding for the constitutively active AMPKα1 catalytic subunit, followed by microarray expression analysis after treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516. Microarray analysis showed that co-activation of AMPK and PPARδ increased expression of FAO genes, which were validated by quantitative PCR. Induction of these FAO-associated genes was also observed upon infecting macrophages with an adenovirus coding for AMPKγ1 regulatory subunit carrying an activating R70Q mutation. The pharmacological AMPK activator A-769662 increased expression of several FAO genes in a PPARδ- and AMPK-dependent manner. Although GW501516 significantly increased FAO and reduced the triglyceride amount in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL-loaded foam cells, AMPK activation failed to potentiate this effect, suggesting that increased expression of fatty acid catabolic genes alone may be not sufficient to prevent macrophage lipid overload.

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce migration and adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and accelerate foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yuka; Tada-Oikawa, Saeko [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Yabata, Masayuki; Izuoka, Kiyora [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan); Suzuki, Masako; Sakai, Kiyoshi [Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, Nagoya (Japan); Ichihara, Sahoko, E-mail: saho@gene.mie-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies, Mie University, Tsu (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are widely used in industry, cosmetics, and biomedicine. However, the effects of exposure to these nanoparticles on the cardiovascular system remain unknown. The present study investigated the effects of nanosized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO particles on the migration and adhesion of monocytes, which are essential processes in atherosclerogenesis, using an in vitro set-up of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1). We also examined the effects of exposure to nanosized metal oxide particles on macrophage cholesterol uptake and foam cell formation. The 16-hour exposure to ZnO particles increased the level of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and induced the migration of THP-1 monocyte mediated by increased MCP-1. Exposure to ZnO particles also induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Moreover, exposure to ZnO particles, but not TiO{sub 2} particles, upregulated the expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL and increased cholesterol uptake in THP-1 monocytes/macrophages. In the present study, we found that exposure to ZnO particles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake, which was mediated by an upregulation of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL. These results suggest that nanosized ZnO particles could potentially enhance atherosclerogenesis and accelerate foam cell formation. - Highlights: • Effects of metal oxide nanoparticles on foam cell formation were investigated. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles induced migration and adhesion of monocytes. • Exposure to ZnO nanoparticles increased macrophage cholesterol uptake. • Expression of membrane scavenger receptors of modified LDL was also increased. • These effects were not observed after exposure to TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles.

  20. Soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 polarizes differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheuk-Lun; Guo, YiFan; So, Kam-Hei; Vijayan, Madhavi; Guo, Yue; Wong, Vera H H; Yao, YuanQing; Lee, Kai-Fai; Chiu, Philip C N; Yeung, William S B

    2015-10-01

    What are the actions of soluble human leukocyte antigen G5 (sHLAG5) on macrophage differentiation? sHLAG5 polarizes the differentiation of macrophages toward a decidual macrophage-like phenotype, which could regulate fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. sHLAG5 is a full-length soluble isoform of human leukocyte antigen implicated in immune tolerance during pregnancy. Low or undetectable circulating level of sHLAG5 in first trimester of pregnancy is associated with pregnancy complications such as pre-eclampsia and spontaneous abortion. Decidual macrophages are located in close proximity to invasive trophoblasts, and are involved in regulating fetomaternal tolerance and placental development. Human peripheral blood monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presence or absence of recombinant sHLAG5 during the differentiation process. The phenotypes and the biological activities of the resulting macrophages were compared. Recombinant sHLAG5 was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 and the protein identity was verified by tandem mass spectrometry. The expression of macrophage markers were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative PCR. Phagocytosis was determined by flow cytometry. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 expression and activity were measured by western blot analysis and kynurenine assay, respectively. Cell proliferation and cell cycling were determined by fluorometric cell proliferation assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytokine secretion was determined by cytokine array and ELISA kits. Intracellular cytokine expression was measured by flow cytometry. Cell invasion and migration were determined by trans-well invasion and migration assay, respectively. sHLAG5 drove the differentiation of macrophages with 'immuno-modulatory' characteristics, including reduced expression of M1 macrophage marker CD86 and increased expression of M2 macrophage marker CD163. sHLAG5-polarized

  1. Native low-density lipoprotein uptake by macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated human macrophages is mediated by macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzinger, Joshua J; Chang, Janet; Xu, Qing; Buono, Chiara; Li, Yifu; Leyva, Francisco J; Park, Bum-Chan; Greene, Lois E; Kruth, Howard S

    2010-10-01

    To examine the pinocytotic pathways mediating native low-density lipoprotein (LDL) uptake by human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages (the predominant macrophage phenotype in human atherosclerotic plaques). We identified the kinase inhibitor SU6656 and the Rho GTPase inhibitor toxin B as inhibitors of macrophage fluid-phase pinocytosis of LDL. Assessment of macropinocytosis by time-lapse microscopy revealed that both drugs almost completely inhibited macropinocytosis, although LDL uptake and cholesterol accumulation by macrophages were only partially inhibited (approximately 40%) by these agents. Therefore, we investigated the role of micropinocytosis in mediating LDL uptake in macrophages and identified bafilomycin A1 as an additional partial inhibitor (approximately 40%) of macrophage LDL uptake that targeted micropinocytosis. When macrophages were incubated with both bafilomycin A1 and SU6656, inhibition of LDL uptake was additive (reaching 80%), showing that these inhibitors target different pathways. Microscopic analysis of fluid-phase uptake pathways in these macrophages confirmed that LDL uptake occurs through both macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis. Our findings show that human macrophage colony-stimulating factor-differentiated macrophages take up native LDL by macropinocytosis and micropinocytosis, underscoring the importance of both pathways in mediating LDL uptake by these cells.

  2. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaschi, S.; Spagnoli, L.G. (Universita degli Studi, Rome (Italy). Istituto di Anatomia ed Istologia Patologica)

    1983-07-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells.

  3. Autoradiographic and ultrastructural studies on the human fibro-atheromatous plaque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villaschi, Sergio; Spagnoli, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    Foam cells, either myogenic or macrophagic, are commonly detected in experimental and human fibro-atheromatous plaques. Their role in human atherosclerosis is not yet understood. This paper reports on a preliminary autoradiographic study combined with ultrastructural observations in the human fibro-atheromatous plaque. Most of the autoradiographic silver grains appeared on foam cells and monocytelike cells, thus suggesting a local proliferation of these cells. (author)

  4. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1-mediated effects were

  5. T3 Regulates a Human Macrophage-Derived TSH-β Splice Variant: Implications for Human Bone Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliram, R; Latif, R; Morshed, S A; Zaidi, M; Davies, T F

    2016-09-01

    TSH and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) are intimately involved in bone biology. We have previously reported the presence of a murine TSH-β splice variant (TSH-βv) expressed specifically in bone marrow-derived macrophages and that exerted an osteoprotective effect by inducing osteoblastogenesis. To extend this observation and its relevance to human bone biology, we set out to identify and characterize a TSH-β variant in human macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses using human TSH-β-specific primers identified a 364-bp product in macrophages, bone marrow, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells that was sequence verified and was homologous to a human TSH-βv previously reported. We then examined TSH-βv regulation using the THP-1 human monocyte cell line matured into macrophages. After 4 days, 46.1% of the THP-1 cells expressed the macrophage markers CD-14 and macrophage colony-stimulating factor and exhibited typical morphological characteristics of macrophages. Real-time PCR analyses of these cells treated in a dose-dependent manner with T3 showed a 14-fold induction of human TSH-βv mRNA and variant protein. Furthermore, these human TSH-βv-positive cells, induced by T3 exposure, had categorized into both M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes as evidenced by the expression of macrophage colony-stimulating factor for M1 and CCL-22 for M2. These data indicate that in hyperthyroidism, bone marrow resident macrophages have the potential to exert enhanced osteoprotective effects by oversecreting human TSH-βv, which may exert its local osteoprotective role via osteoblast and osteoclast TSH receptors.

  6. Mechanisms of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Melnichenko, Alexandra A; Myasoedova, Veronika A; Grechko, Andrey V; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2017-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and cholesterol homeostasis in the peripheral blood is maintained by specialized cells, such as macrophages. Macrophages express a variety of scavenger receptors (SR) that interact with lipoproteins, including SR-A1, CD36, and lectin-like oxLDL receptor-1 (LOX-1). These cells also have several cholesterol transporters, including ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI, that are involved in reverse cholesterol transport. Lipids internalized by phagocytosis are transported to late endosomes/lysosomes, where lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) digests cholesteryl esters releasing free cholesterol. Free cholesterol in turn is processed by acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (ACAT1), an enzyme that transforms cholesterol to cholesteryl esters. The endoplasmic reticulum serves as a depot for maintaining newly synthesized cholesteryl esters that can be processed by neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (NCEH), which generates free cholesterol that can exit via cholesterol transporters. In atherosclerosis, pro-inflammatory stimuli upregulate expression of scavenger receptors, especially LOX-1, and downregulate expression of cholesterol transporters. ACAT1 is also increased, while NCEH expression is reduced. This results in deposition of free and esterified cholesterol in macrophages and generation of foam cells. Moreover, other cell types, such as endothelial (ECs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), can also become foam cells. In this review, we discuss known pathways of foam cell formation in atherosclerosis.

  7. Curcumin enhances human macrophage control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Oberley-Deegan, Rebecca E; Bai, An; Ovrutsky, Alida R; Kinney, William H; Weaver, Michael; Zhang, Gong; Honda, Jennifer R; Chan, Edward D

    2016-07-01

    With the worldwide emergence of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB), novel agents that have direct antimycobacterial effects or that enhance host immunity are urgently needed. Curcumin is a polyphenol responsible for the bright yellow-orange colour of turmeric, a spice derived from the root of the perennial herb Curcuma longa. Curcumin is a potent inducer of apoptosis-an effector mechanism used by macrophages to kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). An in vitro human macrophage infection model was used to determine the effects of curcumin on MTB survival. We found that curcumin enhanced the clearance of MTB in differentiated THP-1 human monocytes and in primary human alveolar macrophages. We also found that curcumin was an inducer of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis and autophagy. Curcumin mediated these anti-MTB cellular functions, in part, via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB) activation. Curcumin protects against MTB infection in human macrophages. The host-protective role of curcumin against MTB in macrophages needs confirmation in an animal model; if validated, the immunomodulatory anti-TB effects of curcumin would be less prone to drug resistance development. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Extracts of human atherosclerotic lesions modify LDL inducing enhanced macrophage uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, H.F.; O'Neill, J.

    1986-01-01

    Both an LDL-like fraction isolated from human aortic plaques and LDL incubated with cultured aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells have been shown to be internalized by macrophages in vitro in an unregulated fashion leading to foam cell formation. Lipid peroxidation induced by free radicals released from cells was shown to be responsible for cell-modified LDL. The authors incubated LDL with a supernatant fraction of leached, i.e. non-homogenized, extracts of aortic plaques for one hour at 37 0 C, to determine whether extracellular components present in arteries were also capable of modifying LDL. Extract-treated LDL showed the following changes relative to untreated LDL: 1) increased electrophretic mobility, 2) altered pattern of B-100 on SDS-PAGE, i.e. presence of a doublet with higher M/sub r/ than B-100, and 3) enhanced uptake by cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages as measured by increased degradation of 125 I-LDL, and increased stimulation of cholesterol esterification using 14 C-oleate. Extracts from homogenized plaques and grossly normal intima induced similar changes. The modification was tissue specific in that extracts of arteries but not of liver, muscle or skin modified LDL. Protease degradation of LDL during incubation was probably not responsible since inhibitors did not prevent modification. It is possible that products of lipid peroxidation present in extracellular lipid of arteries may propagate free radicals or be incorporated into LDL, leading to modifications similar to those found in cell-modified LDL

  9. Induction of ER stress in macrophages of tuberculosis granulomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracie A Seimon

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress pathway known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR is an adaptive survival pathway that protects cells from the buildup of misfolded proteins, but under certain circumstances it can lead to apoptosis. ER stress has been causally associated with macrophage apoptosis in advanced atherosclerosis of mice and humans. Because atherosclerosis shares certain features with tuberculosis (TB with regard to lesional macrophage accumulation, foam cell formation, and apoptosis, we investigated if the ER stress pathway is activated during TB infection.Here we show that ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP; also known as GADD153, phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (Ire1α and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α, and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 are expressed in macrophage-rich areas of granulomas in lungs of mice infected with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. These areas were also positive for numerous apoptotic cells as assayed by TUNEL. Microarray analysis of human caseous TB granulomas isolated by laser capture microdissection reveal that 73% of genes involved in the UPR are upregulated at the mRNA transcript level. The expression of two ER stress markers, ATF3 and CHOP, were also increased in macrophages of human TB granulomas when assayed by immunohistochemistry. CHOP has been causally associated with ER stress-induced macrophage apoptosis. We found that apoptosis was more abundant in granulomas as compared to non-granulomatous tissue isolated from patients with pulmonary TB, and apoptosis correlated with CHOP expression in areas surrounding the centralized areas of caseation.In summary, ER stress is induced in macrophages of TB granulomas in areas where apoptotic cells accumulate in mice and humans. Although macrophage apoptosis is generally thought to be beneficial in initially protecting the host from Mtb infection, death of infected macrophages in

  10. DMPD: Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10534111 Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-4 and IL-1...):575-8. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Differential responses of human monocytes and macrophages to IL-...4 and IL-13. PubmedID 10534111 Title Differential responses of human monocytes an

  11. Chronic skin inflammation accelerates macrophage cholesterol crystal formation and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Qimin; Sanda, Gregory E.; Dey, Amit K.; Teague, Heather L.; Sorokin, Alexander V.; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Silverman, Joanna I.; Harrington, Charlotte L.; Rodante, Justin A.; Rose, Shawn M.; Varghese, Nevin J.; Belur, Agastya D.; Goyal, Aditya; Gelfand, Joel M.; Springer, Danielle A.; Bleck, Christopher K.E.; Thomas, Crystal L.; Yu, Zu-Xi; Winge, Mårten C.G.; Kruth, Howard S.; Marinkovich, M. Peter; Joshi, Aditya A.; Playford, Martin P.; Mehta, Nehal N.

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation is critical to atherogenesis. Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that accelerates atherosclerosis in humans and provides a compelling model to understand potential pathways linking these diseases. A murine model capturing the vascular and metabolic diseases in psoriasis would accelerate our understanding and provide a platform to test emerging therapies. We aimed to characterize a new murine model of skin inflammation (Rac1V12) from a cardiovascular standpoint to identify novel atherosclerotic signaling pathways modulated in chronic skin inflammation. The RacV12 psoriasis mouse resembled the human disease state, including presence of systemic inflammation, dyslipidemia, and cardiometabolic dysfunction. Psoriasis macrophages had a proatherosclerotic phenotype with increased lipid uptake and foam cell formation, and also showed a 6-fold increase in cholesterol crystal formation. We generated a triple-genetic K14-RacV12–/+/Srb1–/–/ApoER61H/H mouse and confirmed psoriasis accelerates atherogenesis (~7-fold increase). Finally, we noted a 60% reduction in superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) expression in human psoriasis macrophages. When SOD2 activity was restored in macrophages, their proatherogenic phenotype reversed. We demonstrate that the K14-RacV12 murine model captures the cardiometabolic dysfunction and accelerates vascular disease observed in chronic inflammation and that skin inflammation induces a proatherosclerotic macrophage phenotype with impaired SOD2 function, which associated with accelerated atherogenesis. PMID:29321372

  12. LDL Receptor-Related Protein-1 (LRP1 Regulates Cholesterol Accumulation in Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna P Lillis

    Full Text Available Within the circulation, cholesterol is transported by lipoprotein particles and is taken up by cells when these particles associate with cellular receptors. In macrophages, excessive lipoprotein particle uptake leads to foam cell formation, which is an early event in the development of atherosclerosis. Currently, mechanisms responsible for foam cell formation are incompletely understood. To date, several macrophage receptors have been identified that contribute to the uptake of modified forms of lipoproteins leading to foam cell formation, but the in vivo contribution of the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1 to this process is not known [corrected]. To investigate the role of LRP1 in cholesterol accumulation in macrophages, we generated mice with a selective deletion of LRP1 in macrophages on an LDL receptor (LDLR-deficient background (macLRP1-/-. After feeding mice a high fat diet for 11 weeks, peritoneal macrophages isolated from Lrp+/+ mice contained significantly higher levels of total cholesterol than those from macLRP1-/- mice. Further analysis revealed that this was due to increased levels of cholesterol esters. Interestingly, macLRP1-/- mice displayed elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels resulting from accumulation of large, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in the circulation. This increase did not result from an increase in hepatic VLDL biosynthesis, but rather results from a defect in catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in macLRP1-/- mice. These studies reveal an important in vivo contribution of macrophage LRP1 to cholesterol homeostasis.

  13. Adipose tissue macrophages impair preadipocyte differentiation in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Fen Liu

    Full Text Available The physiologic mechanisms underlying the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance are not fully understood. Impaired adipocyte differentiation and localized inflammation characterize adipose tissue from obese, insulin-resistant humans. The directionality of this relationship is not known, however. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether adipose tissue inflammation is causally-related to impaired adipocyte differentiation.Abdominal subcutaneous(SAT and visceral(VAT adipose tissue was obtained from 20 human participants undergoing bariatric surgery. Preadipocytes were isolated, and cultured in the presence or absence of CD14+ macrophages obtained from the same adipose tissue sample. Adipocyte differentiation was quantified after 14 days via immunofluorescence, Oil-Red O, and adipogenic gene expression. Cytokine secretion by mature adipocytes cultured with or without CD14+macrophages was quantified.Adipocyte differentiation was significantly lower in VAT than SAT by all measures (p<0.001. With macrophage removal, SAT preadipocyte differentiation increased significantly as measured by immunofluorescence and gene expression, whereas VAT preadipocyte differentiation was unchanged. Adipocyte-secreted proinflammatory cytokines were higher and adiponectin lower in media from VAT vs SAT: macrophage removal reduced inflammatory cytokine and increased adiponectin secretion from both SAT and VAT adipocytes. Differentiation of preadipocytes from SAT but not VAT correlated inversely with systemic insulin resistance.The current results reveal that proinflammatory immune cells in human SAT are causally-related to impaired preadipocyte differentiation, which in turn is associated with systemic insulin resistance. In VAT, preadipocyte differentiation is poor even in the absence of tissue macrophages, pointing to inherent differences in fat storage potential between the two depots.

  14. Dual Transcriptome Profiling of Leishmania-Infected Human Macrophages Reveals Distinct Reprogramming Signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Dillon, Laura A L; Belew, Ashton Trey; Bravo, Hector Corrada; Mosser, David M; El-Sayed, Najib M

    2016-05-10

    Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes that constitute a first line of defense against pathogens. While lethal to many microbes, they are the primary host cells of Leishmania spp. parasites, the obligate intracellular pathogens that cause leishmaniasis. We conducted transcriptomic profiling of two Leishmania species and the human macrophage over the course of intracellular infection by using high-throughput RNA sequencing to characterize the global gene expression changes and reprogramming events that underlie the interactions between the pathogen and its host. A systematic exclusion of the generic effects of large-particle phagocytosis revealed a vigorous, parasite-specific response of the human macrophage early in the infection that was greatly tempered at later time points. An analogous temporal expression pattern was observed with the parasite, suggesting that much of the reprogramming that occurs as parasites transform into intracellular forms generally stabilizes shortly after entry. Following that, the parasite establishes an intracellular niche within macrophages, with minimal communication between the parasite and the host cell later during the infection. No significant difference was observed between parasite species transcriptomes or in the transcriptional response of macrophages infected with each species. Our comparative analysis of gene expression changes that occur as mouse and human macrophages are infected by Leishmania spp. points toward a general signature of the Leishmania-macrophage infectome. Little is known about the transcriptional changes that occur within mammalian cells harboring intracellular pathogens. This study characterizes the gene expression signatures of Leishmania spp. parasites and the coordinated response of infected human macrophages as the pathogen enters and persists within them. After accounting for the generic effects of large-particle phagocytosis, we observed a parasite-specific response of the human macrophages early in

  15. Human macrophage hemoglobin-iron metabolism in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custer, G.; Balcerzak, S.; Rinehart, J.

    1982-01-01

    An entirely in vitro technique was employed to characterize hemoglobin-iron metabolism by human macrophages obtained by culture of blood monocytes and pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Macrophages phagocytized about three times as many erythrocytes as monocytes and six times as many erythrocytes as pulmonary alveolar macrophages. The rate of subsequent release of 59 Fe to the extracellular transferrin pool was two- to fourfold greater for macrophages as compared to the other two cell types. The kinetics of 59 Fe-transferrin release were characterized by a relatively rapid early phase (hours 1-4) followed by a slow phase (hours 4-72) for all three cell types. Intracellular movement of iron was characterized by a rapid shift from hemoglobin to ferritin that was complete with the onset of the slow phase of extracellular release. A transient increase in 59 Fe associated with an intracellular protein eluting with transferrin was also observed within 1 hour after phagocytosis. The process of hemoglobin-iron release to extracellular transferrin was inhibited at 4 degrees C but was unaffected by inhibitory of protein synthesis, glycolysis, microtubule function, and microfilament function. These data emphasize the rapidity of macrophage hemoglobin iron metabolism, provide a model for characterization of this process in vitro, and in general confirm data obtained utilizing in vivo animal models

  16. Automobile diesel exhaust particles induce lipid droplet formation in macrophages in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Jantzen, Kim; Gouveia, Ana Cecilia Damiao

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has been associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects, which may be related to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. In this study, THP-1 derived macrophages were exposed to an automobile generated DEP (A...

  17. Increased expression of interleukin-1β in triglyceride-induced macrophage cell death is mediated by p38 MAP kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ho Joong; Son, Sin Jee; Yang, Seung-ju; Rhee, Ki-Jong; Kim, Yoon Suk

    2012-07-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are implicated in the development of atherosclerosis through formation of foam cells and induction of macrophage cell death. In this study, we report that addition of exogenous TG induced cell death in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-differentiated THP-1 human macrophages. TG treatment induced a dramatic decrease in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The expression of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule remained unchanged. To identify signaling pathways involved in TG-induced downregulation of IL-1β, we added p38 MAPK, protein kinase C (PKC) or c-Raf1 specific inhibitors. We found that inhibition of p38 MAPK alleviated the TG-induced downregulation of IL-1β, whereas inhibition of PKC and c-Raf1 had no effect. This is the first report showing decreased IL-1β expression during TG-induced cell death in a human macrophage line. Our results suggest that downregulation of IL-1β expression by TG-treated macrophages may play a role during atherogenesis.

  18. NF-κB inhibitors that prevent foam cell formation and atherosclerotic plaque accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, Jesse D; Elias, Michael G; Dellinger, Anthony L; Kepley, Christopher L

    2017-08-01

    The transformation of monocyte-derived macrophages into lipid-laden foam cells is one inflammatory process underlying atherosclerotic disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that fullerene derivatives (FDs) have inflammation-blunting properties. Thus, it was hypothesized that FD could inhibit the transformation process underlying foam cell formation. Fullerene derivatives inhibited the phorbol myristic acid/oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced differentiation of macrophages into foam cells as determined by lipid staining and morphology.Lipoprotein-induced generation of TNF-α, C5a-induced MC activation, ICAM-1 driven adhesion, and CD36 expression were significantly inhibited in FD treated cells compared to non-treated cells. Inhibition appeared to be mediated through the NF-κB pathway as FD reduced expression of NF-κB and atherosclerosis-associated genes. Compared to controls, FD dramatically inhibited plaque formation in arteries of apolipoprotein E null mice. Thus, FD may be an unrecognized therapy to prevent atherosclerotic lesions via inhibition of foam cell formation and MC stabilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Curcuma oil attenuates accelerated atherosclerosis and macrophage foam-cell formation by modulating genes involved in plaque stability, lipid homeostasis and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vishal; Rana, Minakshi; Jain, Manish; Singh, Niharika; Naqvi, Arshi; Malasoni, Richa; Dwivedi, Anil Kumar; Dikshit, Madhu; Barthwal, Manoj Kumar

    2015-01-14

    In the present study, the anti-atherosclerotic effect and the underlying mechanism of curcuma oil (C. oil), a lipophilic fraction from turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), was evaluated in a hamster model of accelerated atherosclerosis and in THP-1 macrophages. Male golden Syrian hamsters were subjected to partial carotid ligation (PCL) or FeCl3-induced arterial oxidative injury (Ox-injury) after 1 week of treatment with a high-cholesterol (HC) diet or HC diet plus C. oil (100 and 300 mg/kg, orally). Hamsters fed with the HC diet were analysed at 1, 3 and 5 weeks following carotid injury. The HC diet plus C. oil-fed group was analysed at 5 weeks. In hyperlipidaemic hamsters with PCL or Ox-injury, C. oil (300 mg/kg) reduced elevated plasma and aortic lipid levels, arterial macrophage accumulation, and stenosis when compared with those subjected to arterial injury alone. Similarly, elevated mRNA transcripts of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), MMP-9, cluster of differentiation 45 (CD45), TNF-α, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1β and IL-6 were reduced in atherosclerotic arteries, while those of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and IL-10 were increased after the C. oil treatment (300 mg/kg). The treatment with C. oil prevented HC diet- and oxidised LDL (OxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation, decreased the mRNA expression of CD68 and CD36, and increased the mRNA expression of PPARα, LXRα, ABCA1 and ABCG1 in both hyperlipidaemic hamster-derived peritoneal and THP-1 macrophages. The administration of C. oil suppressed the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IFN-γ and increased the expression of TGF-β in peritoneal macrophages. In THP-1 macrophages, C. oil supplementation prevented OxLDL-induced production of TNF-α and IL-1β and increased the levels of TGF-β. The present study shows that C. oil attenuates arterial injury-induced accelerated atherosclerosis, inflammation and macrophage foam-cell formation.

  20. The Role of Macrophage Lipophagy in Reverse Cholesterol Transport

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    Se-Jin Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage cholesterol efflux is a central step in reverse cholesterol transport, which helps to maintain cholesterol homeostasis and to reduce atherosclerosis. Lipophagy has recently been identified as a new step in cholesterol ester hydrolysis that regulates cholesterol efflux, since it mobilizes cholesterol from lipid droplets of macrophages via autophagy and lysosomes. In this review, we briefly discuss recent advances regarding the mechanisms of the cholesterol efflux pathway in macrophage foam cells, and present lipophagy as a therapeutic target in the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  1. Wip1-dependent modulation of macrophage migration and phagocytosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Yiting; Pan, Bing; Zhou, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Macrophage accumulation within the vascular wall is a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Controlling macrophage conversion into foam cells remains a major challenge for treatment of atherosclerotic diseases. Here, we show that Wip1, a member of the PP2C family of Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, modulates...... macrophage migration and phagocytosis associated with atherosclerotic plaque formation. Wip1 deficiency increases migratory and phagocytic activities of the macrophage under stress conditions. Enhanced migration of Wip1-/- macrophages is mediated by Rac1-GTPase and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways. Elevated...... phagocytic ability of Wip1-/- macrophages is linked to CD36 plasma membrane recruitment that is regulated by AMPK activity. Our study identifies Wip1 as an intrinsic negative regulator of macrophage chemotaxis. We propose that Wip1-dependent control of macrophage function may provide avenues for preventing...

  2. CCR8 signaling influences Toll-like receptor 4 responses in human macrophages in inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Martina Kvist; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-12-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients.

  3. Rhinovirus infection induces distinct transcriptome profiles in polarized human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Charu; Walsh, Megan P; Eder, Breanna N; Metitiri, Ediri E; Popova, Antonia P; Hershenson, Marc B

    2018-05-01

    Infections with rhinovirus (RV) cause asthma exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that macrophages play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation and the innate immune response to RV infection. Macrophages exhibit phenotypes based on surface markers and gene expression. We hypothesized that macrophage polarization state alters gene expression in response to RV infection. Cells were derived from human peripheral blood derived monocytes. M1 and M2 polarization was carried out by using IFN-γ and IL-4, respectively, and RNA was extracted for Affymetrix Human Gene ST2.1 exon arrays. Selected genes were validated by quantitative (q)PCR. Treatment of nonactivated (M0) macrophages with IFN-γ and IL-4 induced the expression of 252 and 153 distinct genes, respectively, including previously-identified M1 and M2 markers. RV infection of M0 macrophages induced upregulation of 232 genes; pathway analysis showed significant overrepresentation of genes involved in IFN-α/β signaling and cytokine signaling in the immune system. RV infection induced differential expression of 195 distinct genes in M1-like macrophages but only seven distinct genes in M2-like-polarized cells. In a secondary analysis, comparison between M0-, RV-infected, and M1-like-polarized, RV-infected macrophages revealed differential expression of 227 genes including those associated with asthma and its exacerbation. qPCR demonstrated increased expression of CCL8, CXCL10, TNFSF10, TNFSF18, IL6, NOD2, and GSDMD and reduced expression of VNN1, AGO1, and AGO2. Together, these data show that, in contrast to M2-like-polarized macrophages, gene expression of M1-like macrophages is highly regulated by RV.

  4. Inhibiting epigenetic enzymes to improve atherogenic macrophage functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bossche, Jan; Neele, Annette E.; Hoeksema, Marten A.; de Heij, Femke; Boshuizen, Marieke C. S.; van der Velden, Saskia; de Boer, Vincent C.; Reedquist, Kris A.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages determine the outcome of atherosclerosis by propagating inflammatory responses, foam cell formation and eventually necrotic core development. Yet, the pathways that regulate their atherogenic functions remain ill-defined. It is now apparent that chromatin remodeling chromatin modifying

  5. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  6. Decreased inducibility of TNF expression in lipid-loaded macrophages

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    Kallin Bengt

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and immune responses are considered to be very important in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages of the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis which can influence the inflammatory potential of macrophages. We studied the effects of lipid loading on the regulation of TNF expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Results In macrophages incubated with acetylated low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL for 2 days, mRNA expression of TNF in cells stimulated with TNF decreased by 75%. In cell cultures stimulated over night with IL-1β, lipid loading decreased secretion of TNF into culture medium by 48%. These results suggest that lipid accumulation in macrophages makes them less responsive to inflammatory stimuli. Decreased basal activity and inducibility of transcription factor AP-1 was observed in lipid-loaded cells, suggesting a mechanism for the suppression of cytokine expression. NF-κB binding activity and inducibility were only marginally affected by ac-LDL. LDL and ac-LDL did not activate PPARγ. In contrast, oxidized LDL stimulated AP-1 and PPARγ but inhibited NF-κB, indicating that the effects of lipid loading with ac-LDL were not due to oxidation of lipids. Conclusions Accumulation of lipid, mainly cholesterol, results in down-regulation of TNF expression in macrophages. Since monocytes are known to be activated by cell adhesion, these results suggest that foam cells in atherosclerotic plaques may contribute less potently to an inflammatory reaction than newly arrived monocytes/macrophages.

  7. High Uric Acid Activates the ROS-AMPK Pathway, Impairs CD68 Expression and Inhibits OxLDL-Induced Foam-Cell Formation in a Human Monocytic Cell Line, THP-1

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    Chaohuan Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Hyperuricemia is part of the metabolic-syndrome cluster of abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Monocytes/macrophages are critical in the development of metabolic syndrome, including gout, obesity and atherosclerosis. However, how high uric acid (HUA exposure affects monocyte/macrophage function remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism of HUA exposure in monocytes/macrophages and its impact on oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL-induced foam-cell formation in a human monocytic cell line, THP-1. Methods: We primed THP-1 cells with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA for differentiation, then exposed cells to HUA and detected the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and analyzed the level of phospho-AMPKα. THP-1 cells were pre-incubated with Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, or N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger, or HUA before PMA, to assess CD68 expression and phospho-AMPKα level. PMA-primed THP-1 cells were pre-treated with oxLDL before Compound C and HUA treatment. Western blot analysis was used to examine the levels of phospho-AMPKα, CD68, ABCG1, ABCA1, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and NF-κB (p65. Flow cytometry was used to assess ROS production and CD68 expression in live cells. Oil-red O staining was used to observe oxLDL uptake in cells. Results: HUA treatment increased ROS production in PMA-primed THP-1 cells; NAC blocked HUA-induced oxidative stress. HUA treatment time-dependently increased phospho-AMPKα level in PMA-primed THP-1 cells. The HUA-induced oxidative stress increased phospho-AMPKα levels, which was blocked by NAC. HUA treatment impaired CD68 expression during cell differentiation by activating the AMPK pathway, which was reversed by Compound C treatment. Finally, HUA treatment inhibited oxLDL uptake in the formation of foam cells in THP-1 cells, which was blocked by Compound C treatment. HUA treatment

  8. Macrophage-specific nanotechnology-driven CD163 overexpression in human macrophages results in an M2 phenotype under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Vazquez, Perla Abigail; Bernal, Laura; Paige, Candler A; Grosick, Rachel L; Moracho Vilrriales, Carolina; Ferreira, David Wilson; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    M1 macrophages release proinflammatory factors during inflammation. They transit to an M2 phenotype and release anti-inflammatory factors to resolve inflammation. An imbalance in the transition from M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages contributes to the development of persistent inflammation. CD163, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich family, is an M2 macrophage marker. The functional role of CD163 during the resolution of inflammation is not completely known. We postulate that CD163 contributes to the transition from M1 to M2 phenotype in macrophages. We induced CD163 gene in THP-1 and primary human macrophages using polyethylenimine nanoparticles grafted with a mannose ligand (Man-PEI). This nanoparticle specifically targets cells of monocytic origin via mannose receptors. Cells were challenged with a single or a double stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A CD163 or empty plasmid was complexed with Man-PEI nanoparticles for cell transfections. Quantitative RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, and ELISAs were used for molecular assessments. CD163-overexpressing macrophages displayed reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α and monocytes chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 after a single stimulation with LPS. Following a double stimulation paradigm, CD163-overexpressing macrophages showed an increase of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-1ra and a reduction of MCP-1. This anti-inflammatory phenotype was partially blocked by an anti-CD163 antibody (effects on IL-10 and IL-1ra). A decrease in the release of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 was observed in CD163-overexpressing human primary macrophages. The release of IL-6 was blocked by an anti-CD163 antibody in the CD163-overexpressing group. Our data show that the induction of the CD163 gene in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions produces changes in cytokine secretion in favor of an anti-inflammatory phenotype. Targeting macrophages to induce CD163 using cell-directed nanotechnology is an attractive

  9. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M; van Es, Inge E; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  10. Macrophage Activation Mechanisms in Human Monocytic Cell Line-derived Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Yu; Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2015-08-01

    Although the mechanisms of macrophage activation are important for cancer immunotherapy, they are poorly understood. Recently, easy and robust assay systems for assessing the macrophage-activating factor (MAF) using monocytic cell line-derived macrophages were established. Gene-expression profiles of U937- and THP-1-derived macrophages were compared using gene expression microarray analysis and their responses against several MAFs were examined by in vitro experiments. Activated states of these macrophages could not be assigned to a specific sub-type but showed, however, different unique characteristics. The unique of monocytic cell line-derived macrophages could provide clues to understand the activation mechanism of macrophages and, therefore, help to develop effective cancer immunotherapy with MAFs. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Viral infection of human lung macrophages increases PDL1 expression via IFNβ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl J Staples

    Full Text Available Lung macrophages are an important defence against respiratory viral infection and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-induced macrophage PDL1 expression in the murine lung leads to rapid modulation of CD8+ T cell responses via the PD1 receptor. This PD1/PDL1 pathway may downregulate acute inflammatory responses to prevent tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of PDL1 regulation by human macrophages in response to viral infection. Ex-vivo viral infection models using influenza and RSV were established in human lung explants, isolated lung macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM and analysed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Incubation of lung explants, lung macrophages and MDM with X31 resulted in mean cellular infection rates of 18%, 18% and 29% respectively. Viral infection significantly increased cell surface expression of PDL1 on explant macrophages, lung macrophages and MDM but not explant epithelial cells. Infected MDM induced IFNγ release from autologous CD8+ T cells, an effect enhanced by PDL1 blockade. We observed increases in PDL1 mRNA and IFNβ mRNA and protein release by MDM in response to influenza infection. Knockdown of IFNβ by siRNA, resulted in a 37.5% reduction in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection, and a significant decrease in PDL1 mRNA. Furthermore, when MDM were incubated with IFNβ, this cytokine caused increased expression of PDL1 mRNA. These data indicate that human macrophage PDL1 expression modulates CD8+ cell IFNγ release in response to virus and that this expression is regulated by autologous IFNβ production.

  12. CCR8 Signaling Influences Toll-Like Receptor 4 Responses in Human Macrophages in Inflammatory Diseases ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist Reimer, Martina; Brange, Charlotte; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    CCR8 immunity is generally associated with Th2 responses in allergic diseases. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time a pronounced attenuated influx of macrophages in ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged CCR8 knockout mice. To explore whether macrophages in human inflamed lung tissue also were CCR8 positive, human lung tissue from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was evaluated. Indeed, CCR8 expression was pronounced in invading monocytes/macrophages from lungs of patients with Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage IV COPD. Given this expression pattern, the functional role of CCR8 on human macrophages was evaluated in vitro. Human peripheral blood monocytes expressed low levels of CCR8, while macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-derived human macrophages expressed significantly elevated surface levels of CCR8. Importantly, CCL1 directly regulated the expression of CD18 and CD49b and hence influenced the adhesion capacity of human macrophages. CCL1 drives chemotaxis in M-CSF-derived macrophages, and this could be completely inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Whereas both CCL1 and LPS monotreatment inhibited spontaneous superoxide release in macrophages, CCL1 significantly induced superoxide release in the presence of LPS in a dose-dependent manner. Finally, CCL1 induced production of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and could inhibit LPS-induced cytokine production in a dose-dependent manner. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of CCR8 on inflammatory macrophages in human COPD lung tissue. Importantly, the functional data from human macrophages suggest a potential cross talk between the CCR8 and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathways, both of which are present in COPD patients. PMID:21976223

  13. CD14 is a key mediator of both lysophosphatidic acid and lipopolysaccharide induction of foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Dong; Hao, Feng; Zhang, Fuqiang; Kong, Wei; Chun, Jerold; Xu, Xuemin; Cui, Mei-Zhen

    2017-09-01

    Macrophage uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays an important role in foam cell formation and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. We report here that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) enhances lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages. Our data revealed that both LPA and LPS highly induce the CD14 expression at messenger RNA and protein levels in macrophages. The role of CD14, one component of the LPS receptor cluster, in LPA-induced biological functions has been unknown. We took several steps to examine the role of CD14 in LPA signaling pathways. Knockdown of CD14 expression nearly completely blocked LPA/LPS-induced oxLDL uptake in macrophages, demonstrating for the first time that CD14 is a key mediator responsible for both LPA- and LPS-induced oxLDL uptake/foam cell formation. To determine the molecular mechanism mediating CD14 function, we demonstrated that both LPA and LPS significantly induce the expression of scavenger receptor class A type I (SR-AI), which has been implicated in lipid uptake process, and depletion of CD14 levels blocked LPA/LPS-induced SR-AI expression. We further showed that the SR-AI-specific antibody, which quenches SR-AI function, blocked LPA- and LPS-induced foam cell formation. Thus, SR-AI is the downstream mediator of CD14 in regulating LPA-, LPS-, and LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. Taken together, our results provide the first experimental evidence that CD14 is a novel connecting molecule linking both LPA and LPS pathways and is a key mediator responsible for LPA/LPS-induced foam cell formation. The LPA/LPS-CD14-SR-AI nexus might be the new convergent pathway, contributing to the worsening of atherosclerosis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Cigarette smoking decreases global microRNA expression in human alveolar macrophages.

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    Joel W Graff

    Full Text Available Human alveolar macrophages are critical components of the innate immune system. Cigarette smoking-induced changes in alveolar macrophage gene expression are linked to reduced resistance to pulmonary infections and to the development of emphysema/COPD. We hypothesized that microRNAs (miRNAs could control, in part, the unique messenger RNA (mRNA expression profiles found in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers. Activation of macrophages with different stimuli in vitro leads to a diverse range of M1 (inflammatory and M2 (anti-inflammatory polarized phenotypes that are thought to mimic activated macrophages in distinct tissue environments. Microarray mRNA data indicated that smoking promoted an "inverse" M1 mRNA expression program, defined by decreased expression of M1-induced transcripts and increased expression of M1-repressed transcripts with few changes in M2-regulated transcripts. RT-PCR arrays identified altered expression of many miRNAs in alveolar macrophages of smokers and a decrease in global miRNA abundance. Stratification of human subjects suggested that the magnitude of the global decrease in miRNA abundance was associated with smoking history. We found that many of the miRNAs with reduced expression in alveolar macrophages of smokers were predicted to target mRNAs upregulated in alveolar macrophages of smokers. For example, miR-452 is predicted to target the transcript encoding MMP12, an important effector of smoking-related diseases. Experimental antagonism of miR-452 in differentiated monocytic cells resulted in increased expression of MMP12. The comprehensive mRNA and miRNA expression profiles described here provide insight into gene expression regulation that may underlie the adverse effects cigarette smoking has on alveolar macrophages.

  15. Unlike PPARγ, PPARα or PPARβ/δ activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhlel, Mohamed Amine; Brozek, John; Derudas, Bruno; Zawadzki, Christophe; Jude, Brigitte; Staels, Bart; Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages adapt their response to micro-environmental signals. While Th1 cytokines promote pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages, Th2 cytokines promote an 'alternative' anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors expressed in macrophages where they control the inflammatory response. It has been shown that PPARγ promotes the differentiation of monocytes into anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in humans and mice, while a role for PPARβ/δ in this process has been reported only in mice and no data are available for PPARα. Here, we show that in contrast to PPARγ, expression of PPARα and PPARβ/δ overall does not correlate with the expression of M2 markers in human atherosclerotic lesions, whereas a positive correlation with genes of lipid metabolism exists. Moreover, unlike PPARγ, PPARα or PPARβ/δ activation does not influence human monocyte differentiation into M2 macrophages in vitro. Thus, PPARα and PPARβ/δ do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages.

  16. Degalactosylated/desialylated human serum containing GcMAF induces macrophage phagocytic activity and in vivo antitumor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchiike, Daisuke; Uto, Yoshihiro; Mukai, Hirotaka; Ishiyama, Noriko; Abe, Chiaki; Tanaka, Daichi; Kawai, Tomohito; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Inui, Toshio; Endo, Yoshio; Hori, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has various biological activities, such as macrophage activation and antitumor activity. Clinical trials of GcMAF have been carried out for metastatic breast cancer, prostate cancer, and metastatic colorectal cancer. In this study, despite the complicated purification process of GcMAF, we used enzymatically-treated human serum containing GcMAF with a considerable macrophage-stimulating activity and antitumor activity. We detected GcMAF in degalactosylated/desialylated human serum by western blotting using an anti-human Gc globulin antibody, and Helix pomatia agglutinin lectin. We also found that GcMAF-containing human serum significantly enhanced the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages and extended the survival time of mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors. We demonstrated that GcMAF-containing human serum can be used as a potential macrophage activator for cancer immunotherapy.

  17. Modulation of human macrophage activity by Ascaris antigens is dependent on macrophage polarization state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Sara; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Parasitic worms (helminths) are known to actively modulate host immune responses and inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate if adult body fluid (ABF) from the helminth Ascaris suum has immunomodulatory effects on different subtypes of human monocyte-derived macrophages (Mɸ) in vitro...

  18. Cysteamine-mediated clearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in human cystic fibrosis macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L Shrestha

    Full Text Available Members of the Burkholderia cepacia complex are virulent, multi-drug resistant pathogens that survive and replicate intracellularly in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. We have discovered that B. cenocepacia cannot be cleared from CF macrophages due to defective autophagy, causing continued systemic inflammation and infection. Defective autophagy in CF is mediated through constitutive reactive oxygen species (ROS activation of transglutaminase-2 (TG2, which causes the sequestration (accumulation of essential autophagy initiating proteins. Cysteamine is a TG2 inhibitor and proteostasis regulator with the potential to restore autophagy. Therefore, we sought to examine the impact of cysteamine on CF macrophage autophagy and bacterial killing. Human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs and alveolar macrophages were isolated from CF and non-CF donors. Macrophages were infected with clinical isolates of relevant CF pathogens. Cysteamine caused direct bacterial growth killing of live B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, P. aeruginosa and MRSA in the absence of cells. Additionally, B. cenocepacia, B. multivorans, and P. aeruginosa invasion were significantly decreased in CF MDMs treated with cysteamine. Finally, cysteamine decreased TG2, p62, and beclin-1 accumulation in CF, leading to increased Burkholderia uptake into autophagosomes, increased macrophage CFTR expression, and decreased ROS and IL-1β production. Cysteamine has direct anti-bacterial growth killing and improves human CF macrophage autophagy resulting in increased macrophage-mediated bacterial clearance, decreased inflammation, and reduced constitutive ROS production. Thus, cysteamine may be an effective adjunct to antibiotic regimens in CF.

  19. The impact of splenectomy on human coronary artery atherosclerosis and vascular macrophage distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Stone, James R

    Splenectomy can potentially impact atherosclerosis through multiple mechanisms including altered lipid homeostasis, increased coagulation, and altered macrophage recruitment to the plaque. In patients, splenectomy has been associated with increased rates of coronary artery events, while in experimental mice, splenectomy causes increased atherosclerosis but reduces systemic monocyte supply. In this study, the direct impact of splenectomy on human coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque severity and macrophage content was investigated. Coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque severity was determined at autopsy in 18 long-term (≥10 years) splenectomy patients and 90 matched control patients. Coronary artery macrophage content was evaluated in mild atherosclerotic plaques of 11 mid- to long-term (≥1 year) splenectomy patients and 11 matched control patients. Splenectomy was associated with reduced coronary artery atherosclerosis (P=.03). The association was most pronounced for the subgroup of patients who had undergone splenectomy 20 years or more prior to death (P=.02). There was no difference in the density of macrophages in the plaque, media, or adventitia upon comparing splenectomy and control patients. In the control group, there was no correlation between the macrophage densities in the three arterial layers. However, in the splenectomy patients, there was a strong correlation in the macrophage densities across the plaque, media, and adventitia (P≤.0002), with resulting slopes that were significantly greater than seen in the control patients (P=.0007-.011). These findings indicate that, in humans, splenectomy is associated with lower coronary artery atherosclerotic plaque severity and altered coronary artery macrophage distribution. These results suggest that the spleen can modulate the recruitment of macrophages into human coronary arteries and the progression of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Liu, Hao [Affiliated Cancer Hospital and Cancer Research Institute, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510095 (China); Wang, Hongsheng [Department of Microbial and Biochemical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Xu, Meiying, E-mail: xumy@gdim.cn [State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangzhou 510070 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070 (China)

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health.

  1. Modulation of cytokine expression in human macrophages by endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yanzhen; Mei, Chenfang; Liu, Hao; Wang, Hongsheng; Zeng, Guoqu; Lin, Jianhui; Xu, Meiying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of BPA on the cytokines expression of human macrophages were investigated. • BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 production. • BPA decreased anti-inflammation IL-10 and TGF-β production. • ERα/β/ERK/NF-κB signaling involved in BPA-mediated cytokines expression. - Abstract: Exposure to environmental endocrine-disrupting chemical Bisphenol-A (BPA) is often associated with dysregulated immune homeostasis, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of BPA on the cytokines responses of human macrophages were investigated. Treatment with BPA increased pro-inflammation cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production, but decreased anti-inflammation cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production in THP1 macrophages, as well as in primary human macrophages. BPA effected cytokines expression through estrogen receptor α/β (ERα/β)-dependent mechanism with the evidence of ERα/β antagonist reversed the expression of cytokines. We also identified that activation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK)/nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signal cascade marked the effects of BPA on cytokines expression. Our results indicated that BPA effected inflammatory responses of macrophages via modulating of cytokines expression, and provided a new insight into the link between exposure to BPA and human health

  2. In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers: Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

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    Jones William

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/stone (mineral wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm. It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity; i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was

  3. Tofacitinib ameliorates atherosclerosis and reduces foam cell formation in apoE deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zaicun; Wang, Shumei; Wang, Zunzhe; Yun, Tiantian; Wang, Chenchen; Wang, Huating

    2017-08-19

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory cardiovascular disease with high mortality worldwide. Tofacitinib (CP-690,550), an oral small-molecule Janus kinase inhibitor, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ulcerative colitis. However, its protective effect against atherosclerosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Tofacitinib on atherogenic diet (ATD)-induced atherosclerosis using apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice. Atherosclerosis-prone apoE-/- mice were fed with ATD and treated with or without Tofacitinib through intragastrical administration (10 mg kg -1 day -1 ) for 8 weeks. Our results showed that Tofacitinib did not change plasma lipids, while significantly reduced the levels of plasma pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α. It also significantly attenuated atherosclerotic plaque lesion in the aortic root and macrophages contained in plaque as shown with Mac2 immuno-staining. Peritoneal macrophages (PMC) were separated from apoE-/- mice fed with 8-week ATD, and then subjected to inflammation tests. Flow cytometry analysis of F4/80 and CD206 and mRNA levels of M1 and M2 macrophages markers showed that M1 macrophages decreased while M2 macrophages increased in Tofacitinib treated group. Expressions of other inflammatory genes also indicated an anti-inflammatory status in mice treated with Tofacitinib. Ox-LDL was used to induce foam cell formation from PMC in wild type mice, and the results displayed a reduced formation of foam cells and decreased inflammation in mice with Tofacitinib administration (1 μM). The mRNA and protein levels of ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), a key gene involved in cholesterol efflux, remarkably increased, while it was absence of alterations in scavenger receptors expression. Therefore, we demonstrated that Tofacitinib could attenuate atherosclerosis and foam cells formation by

  4. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation decreases survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages.

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    Xiyuan Bai

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB is a ubiquitous transcription factor that mediates pro-inflammatory responses required for host control of many microbial pathogens; on the other hand, NFκB has been implicated in the pathogenesis of other inflammatory and infectious diseases. Mice with genetic disruption of the p50 subunit of NFκB are more likely to succumb to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB. However, the role of NFκB in host defense in humans is not fully understood. We sought to examine the role of NFκB activation in the immune response of human macrophages to MTB. Targeted pharmacologic inhibition of NFκB activation using BAY 11-7082 (BAY, an inhibitor of IκBα kinase or an adenovirus construct with a dominant-negative IκBα significantly decreased the number of viable intracellular mycobacteria recovered from THP-1 macrophages four and eight days after infection. The results with BAY were confirmed in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and alveolar macrophages. NFκB inhibition was associated with increased macrophage apoptosis and autophagy, which are well-established killing mechanisms of intracellular MTB. Inhibition of the executioner protease caspase-3 or of the autophagic pathway significantly abrogated the effects of BAY. We conclude that NFκB inhibition decreases viability of intracellular MTB in human macrophages via induction of apoptosis and autophagy.

  5. Comparative analysis of the internalization of the macrophage receptor sialoadhesin in human and mouse primary macrophages and cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schryver, Marjorie; Leemans, Annelies; Pintelon, Isabel; Cappoen, Davie; Maes, Louis; Caljon, Guy; Cos, Paul; Delputte, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    Sialoadhesin (Sn) is a surface receptor expressed on resident macrophages with the ability to bind with sialic acids. During inflammation, an upregulation of Sn is observed. Upon binding of monoclonal antibodies to Sn, the receptor becomes internalized and this has been observed in multiple species. The latter characteristic, combined with the strong upregulation of Sn on inflammatory macrophages and the fact that Sn-positive macrophages contribute to certain inflammatory diseases, makes Sn an interesting entry portal for phenotype-modulating or cytotoxic drugs. Such drugs or toxins can be linked to Sn-specific antibodies which should enable their targeted uptake by macrophages. However, the activity of such drugs depends not only on their internalization but also on the intracellular trafficking and final fate in the endolysosomal system. Although information is available for porcine Sn, the detailed mechanisms of human and mouse Sn internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking are currently unknown. To allow development of Sn-targeted therapies, differences across species and cellular background need to be characterized in more detail. In the current report, we show that internalization of human and mouse Sn is dynamin-dependent and clathrin-mediated, both in primary macrophages and CHO cell lines expressing a recombinant Sn. In primary macrophages, internalized Sn-specific F(ab') 2 fragments are located mostly in the early endosomes. With Fc containing Sn-specific antibodies, there is a slight shift towards lysosomal localization in mouse macrophages, possibly because of an interaction with Fc receptors. Surprisingly, in CHO cell lines expressing Sn, there is a predominant lysosomal localization. Our results show that the mechanism of Sn internalization and intracellular trafficking is concurrent in the tested species. The cellular background in which Sn is expressed and the type of antibody used can affect the intracellular fate, which in turn can

  6. Entrance and Survival of Brucella pinnipedialis Hooded Seal Strain in Human Macrophages and Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briquemont, Benjamin; Sørensen, Karen K.; Godfroid, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammal Brucella spp. have been isolated from pinnipeds (B. pinnipedialis) and cetaceans (B. ceti) from around the world. Although the zoonotic potential of marine mammal brucellae is largely unknown, reports of human disease exist. There are few studies of the mechanisms of bacterial intracellular invasion and multiplication involving the marine mammal Brucella spp. We examined the infective capacity of two genetically different B. pinnipedialis strains (reference strain; NTCT 12890 and a hooded seal isolate; B17) by measuring the ability of the bacteria to enter and replicate in cultured phagocytes and epithelial cells. Human macrophage-like cells (THP-1), two murine macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1), and a human malignant epithelial cell line (HeLa S3) were challenged with bacteria in a gentamicin protection assay. Our results show that B. pinnipedialis is internalized, but is then gradually eliminated during the next 72 – 96 hours. Confocal microscopy revealed that intracellular B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain colocalized with lysosomal compartments at 1.5 and 24 hours after infection. Intracellular presence of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain was verified by transmission electron microscopy. By using a cholesterol-scavenging lipid inhibitor, entrance of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in human macrophages was significantly reduced by 65.8 % (± 17.3), suggesting involvement of lipid-rafts in intracellular entry. Murine macrophages invaded by B. pinnipedialis do not release nitric oxide (NO) and intracellular bacterial presence does not induce cell death. In summary, B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain can enter human and murine macrophages, as well as human epithelial cells. Intracellular entry of B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain involves, but seems not to be limited to, lipid-rafts in human macrophages. Brucella pinnipedialis does not multiply or survive for prolonged periods intracellulary. PMID:24376851

  7. Progastrin represses the alternative activation of human macrophages and modulates their influence on colon cancer epithelial cells.

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    Carlos Hernández

    Full Text Available Macrophage infiltration is a negative prognostic factor for most cancers but gastrointestinal tumors seem to be an exception. The effect of macrophages on cancer progression depends on their phenotype, which may vary between M1 (pro-inflammatory, defensive to M2 (tolerogenic, pro-tumoral. Gastrointestinal cancers often become an ectopic source of gastrins and macrophages present receptors for these peptides. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether gastrins can affect the pattern of macrophage infiltration in colorectal tumors. We have evaluated the relationship between gastrin expression and the pattern of macrophage infiltration in samples from colorectal cancer and the influence of these peptides on the phenotype of macrophages differentiated from human peripheral monocytes in vitro. The total number of macrophages (CD68+ cells was similar in tumoral and normal surrounding tissue, but the number of M2 macrophages (CD206+ cells was significantly higher in the tumor. However, the number of these tumor-associated M2 macrophages correlated negatively with the immunoreactivity for gastrin peptides in tumor epithelial cells. Macrophages differentiated from human peripheral monocytes in the presence of progastrin showed lower levels of M2-markers (CD206, IL10 with normal amounts of M1-markers (CD86, IL12. Progastrin induced similar effects in mature macrophages treated with IL4 to obtain a M2-phenotype or with LPS plus IFNγ to generate M1-macrophages. Macrophages differentiated in the presence of progastrin presented a reduced expression of Wnt ligands and decreased the number and increased cell death of co-cultured colorectal cancer epithelial cells. Our results suggest that progastrin inhibits the acquisition of a M2-phenotype in human macrophages. This effect exerted on tumor associated macrophages may modulate cancer progression and should be taken into account when analyzing the therapeutic value of gastrin immunoneutralization.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of human polarized macrophages: more than one role of alternative activation?

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    Eleonora Derlindati

    Full Text Available Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population which in response to the cytokine milieu polarize in either classically activated macrophages (M1 or alternatively activated macrophages (M2. This plasticity makes macrophages essential in regulating inflammation, immune response and tissue remodeling and a novel therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. The aim of the study was to describe the transcriptomic profiles of differently polarized human macrophages to generate new hypotheses on the biological function of the different macrophage subtypes.Polarization of circulating monocytes/macrophages of blood donors was induced in vitro by IFN-γ and LPS (M1, by IL-4 (M2a, and by IL-10 (M2c. Unstimulated cells (RM served as time controls. Gene expression profile of M1, M2a, M2c and RM was assessed at 6, 12 and 24h after polarization with Whole Human Genome Agilent Microarray technique. When compared to RM, M1 significantly upregulated pathways involved in immunity and inflammation, whereas M2a did the opposite. Conversely, decreased and increased expression of mitochondrial metabolism, consistent with insulin resistant and insulin sensitive patterns, was seen in M1 and M2a, respectively. The time sequence in the expression of some pathways appeared to have some specific bearing on M1 function. Finally, canonical and non-canonical Wnt genes and gene groups, promoting inflammation and tissue remodeling, were upregulated in M2a compared to RM.Our data in in vitro polarized human macrophages: 1. confirm and extend known inflammatory and anti-inflammatory gene expression patterns; 2. demonstrate changes in mitochondrial metabolism associated to insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity in M1 and M2a, respectively; 3. highlight the potential relevance of gene expression timing in M1 function; 4. unveil enhanced expression of Wnt pathways in M2a suggesting a potential dual (pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory role of M2a in

  9. Ionic channels and membrane hyperpolarization in human macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ince, C.; van Duijn, B.; Ypey, D. L.; van Bavel, E.; Weidema, F.; Leijh, P. C.

    1987-01-01

    Microelectrode impalement of human macrophages evokes a transient hyperpolarizing response (HR) of the membrane potential. This HR was found to be dependent on the extracellular concentration of K+ but not on that of Na+ or Cl-. It was not influenced by low temperature (12 degrees C) or by 0.2 mM

  10. Deficiency of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in Macrophages Increases Inflammation and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Mi; Pagler, Tamara A.; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Kappus, Mojdeh S.; Gorman, Darren J.; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R.; Zhu, Xuewei; Abramowicz, Sandra; Parks, John S.; Welch, Carrie; Fisher, Edward A.; Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Tall, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Plasma HDL levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is due to the ability of HDL to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this hypothesis is lacking. Objective To assess the role of macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways in atherogenesis. Methods and Results We developed MAC-ABCDKO mice with efficient deletion of the ATP Binding Cassette Transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) in macrophages but not in hematopoietic stem or progenitor populations. MAC-ABCDKO bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into Ldlr-/- recipients. On the chow diet, these mice had similar plasma cholesterol and blood monocyte levels but increased atherosclerosis compared to controls. On the Western type diet (WTD), MAC-ABCDKO BM transplanted Ldlr-/- mice had disproportionate atherosclerosis, considering they also had lower VLDL/LDL cholesterol levels than controls. ABCA1/G1 deficient macrophages in lesions showed increased inflammatory gene expression. Unexpectedly, WTD-fed MAC-ABCDKO BM transplanted Ldlr-/- mice displayed monocytosis and neutrophilia in the absence of HSPC proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed increased expression of M-CSF and G-CSF in splenic macrophage foam cells, driving BM monocyte and neutrophil production. Conclusion These studies 1) show that macrophage deficiency of ABCA1/G1 is pro-atherogenic likely by promoting plaque inflammation and 2) uncover a novel positive feedback loop in which cholesterol-laden splenic macrophages signal BM progenitors to produce monocytes, with suppression by macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways. PMID:23572498

  11. Activated human mast cells induce LOX-1-specific scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

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    Mervi Alanne-Kinnunen

    Full Text Available Activated mast cells in atherosclerotic lesions degranulate and release bioactive compounds capable of regulating atherogenesis. Here we examined the ability of activated human primary mast cells to regulate the expression of the major scavenger receptors in cultured human primary monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs.Components released by immunologically activated human primary mast cells induced a transient expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1 mRNA in HMDMs, while the expression of two other scavenger receptors, MSR1 and CD36, remained unaffected. The LOX-1-inducing secretory components were identified as histamine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1, which exhibited a synergistic effect on LOX-1 mRNA expression. Histamine induced a transient expression of LOX-1 protein. Mast cell -induced increase in LOX-1 expression was not associated with increased uptake of oxidized LDL by the macrophages.Mast cell-derived histamine, TNF-α, and TGF-β1 act in concert to induce a transient increase in LOX-1 expression in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. The LOX-1-inducing activity potentially endows mast cells a hitherto unrecognized role in the regulation of innate immune reactions in atherogenesis.

  12. The effects of exogenous fatty acids and niacin on human monocyte-macrophage plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Rodriguez, Dolores; Cardelo, Magdalena P; Naranjo, Maria C; Bermudez, Beatriz; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G; Lopez, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Macrophage plasticity allows adapting to different environments, having a dual activity in inflammatory-related diseases. Our hypothesis is that the type of dietary fatty acids into human postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), alone or in combination with niacin (vitamin B3), could modulate the plasticity of monocytes-macrophages. We isolated TRLs at the postprandial peak from blood samples of healthy volunteers after the ingestion of a meal rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or MUFAs plus omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Autologous monocytes isolated at fasting were first induced to differentiate into naïve macrophages. We observed that postprandial TRL-MUFAs, particularly in combination with niacin, enhance competence to monocytes to differentiate and polarise into M2 macrophages. Postprandial TRL-SFAs made polarised macrophages prone to an M1 phenotype. In contrast to dietary SFAs, dietary MUFAs in the meals plus immediate-release niacin primed circulating monocytes for a reduced postprandial pro-inflammatory profile. Our study underlines a role of postprandial TRLs as a metabolic entity in regulating the plasticity of the monocyte-macrophage lineage and also brings an understanding of the mechanisms by which dietary fatty acids are environmental factors fostering the innate immune responsiveness in humans. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Human macrophage scavenger receptors: Primary structure, expression, and localization in atherosclerotic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Akiyo; Itakura, Hiroshige; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Naito, Makoto; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Ikemoto, Shinji; Asaoka, Hitoshi; Hayakawa, Ikuho; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Takaku, Fumimaro; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kobari, Yukage; Miyai, Tatsuya; Cohen, E.H.; Wydro, R.; Housman, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two types of cDNAs for human macrophage scavenger receptors were cloned from a cDNA library derived from the phorbol ester-treated human monocytic cell line THP-1. The type I and type II human scavenger receptors encoded by these cDNAs are homologous (73% and 71% amino acid identity) to their previously characterized bovine counterparts and consist of six domains: cytoplasmic (I), membrane-spanning (II), spacer (III), α-helical coiled-coil (IV), collagen-like (V), and a type-specific C-terminal (VI). The receptor gene is located on human chromosome 8. The human receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells mediated endocytosis of modified low density lipoproteins. Two mRNAs, 4.0 and 3.2 kilobases, have been detected in human liver, placenta, and brain. Immunohistochemical studies using an anti-peptide antibody which recognizes human scavenger receptors indicated the presence of the scavenger receptors in the macrophages of lipid-rich atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting the involvement of scavenger receptors in atherogenesis

  14. Angiogenic potential of human macrophages on electrospun bioresorbable vascular grafts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, K; Sell, S A; Madurantakam, P; Bowlin, G L, E-mail: glbowlin@vcu.ed [Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of key angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor and acidic fibroblast growth factor. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1) secretion was relatively low and there was negligible production of basic fibroblast growth factor. Therefore, it can be anticipated that these scaffolds will support tissue regeneration and angiogenesis. (communication)

  15. Efficient, long term production of monocyte-derived macrophages from human pluripotent stem cells under partly-defined and fully-defined conditions.

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    Bonnie van Wilgenburg

    Full Text Available Human macrophages are specialised hosts for HIV-1, dengue virus, Leishmania and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yet macrophage research is hampered by lack of appropriate cell models for modelling infection by these human pathogens, because available myeloid cell lines are, by definition, not terminally differentiated like tissue macrophages. We describe here a method for deriving monocytes and macrophages from human Pluripotent Stem Cells which improves on previously published protocols in that it uses entirely defined, feeder- and serum-free culture conditions and produces very consistent, pure, high yields across both human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC and multiple human induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (hiPSC lines over time periods of up to one year. Cumulatively, up to ∼3×10(7 monocytes can be harvested per 6-well plate. The monocytes produced are most closely similar to the major blood monocyte (CD14(+, CD16(low, CD163(+. Differentiation with M-CSF produces macrophages that are highly phagocytic, HIV-1-infectable, and upon activation produce a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile similar to blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Macrophages are notoriously hard to genetically manipulate, as they recognise foreign nucleic acids; the lentivector system described here overcomes this, as pluripotent stem cells can be relatively simply genetically manipulated for efficient transgene expression in the differentiated cells, surmounting issues of transgene silencing. Overall, the method we describe here is an efficient, effective, scalable system for the reproducible production and genetic modification of human macrophages, facilitating the interrogation of human macrophage biology.

  16. Isolation of human monocytes by double gradient centrifugation and their differentiation to macrophages in teflon-coated cell culture bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menck, Kerstin; Behme, Daniel; Pantke, Mathias; Reiling, Norbert; Binder, Claudia; Pukrop, Tobias; Klemm, Florian

    2014-09-09

    Human macrophages are involved in a plethora of pathologic processes ranging from infectious diseases to cancer. Thus they pose a valuable tool to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases. We therefore present a straightforward protocol for the isolation of human monocytes from buffy coats, followed by a differentiation procedure which results in high macrophage yields. The technique relies mostly on commonly available lab equipment and thus provides a cost and time effective way to obtain large quantities of human macrophages. Briefly, buffy coats from healthy blood donors are subjected to a double density gradient centrifugation to harvest monocytes from the peripheral blood. These monocytes are then cultured in fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) Teflon-coated cell culture bags in the presence of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). The differentiated macrophages can be easily harvested and used for subsequent studies and functional assays. Important methods for quality control and validation of the isolation and differentiation steps will be highlighted within the protocol. In summary, the protocol described here enables scientists to routinely and reproducibly isolate human macrophages without the need for cost intensive tools. Furthermore, disease models can be studied in a syngeneic human system circumventing the use of murine macrophages.

  17. Legionella pneumophila transcriptome during intracellular multiplication in human macrophages

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    Sebastien P Faucher

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, an acute pulmonary infection. L. pneumophila is able to infect and multiply in both phagocytic protozoa, such as Acanthamoeba castellanii, and mammalian professional phagocytes. The best-known L. pneumophila virulence determinant is the Icm/Dot Type IVB secretion system (TFBSS, which is used to translocate more than 150 effector proteins to host cells. While the transcriptional response of Legionella to the intracellular environment of A. castellanii has been investigated, much less is known about the Legionella transcriptional response inside human macrophages. In this study, the transcriptome of L. pneumophila was monitored during exponential and post-exponential phase in rich AYE broth as well as during infection of human cultured macrophages. This was accomplished with microarrays and an RNA amplification procedure called SCOTS to detect small amounts of mRNA from low numbers of intracellular bacteria. Among the genes induced intracellularly are those involved in amino acid biosynthetic pathways leading to L-arginine, L-histidine and L-proline as well as many transport systems involved in amino acid and iron uptake. Gene involved in catabolism of glycerol is also induced during intracellular growth and could be used as a carbon source. The genes encoding the Icm/Dot system are not differentially expressed inside cells compared to control bacteria grown in rich broth, but the genes encoding several translocated effectors are strongly induced. Moreover, we used the transcriptome data to predict previously unrecognized Icm/Dot effector genes based on their expression pattern and confirmed translocation for three candidates. This study provides a comprehensive view of how L. pneumophila responds to the human macrophage intracellular environment.

  18. Preservation Analysis of Macrophage Gene Coexpression Between Human and Mouse Identifies PARK2 as a Genetically Controlled Master Regulator of Oxidative Phosphorylation in Humans

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    Veronica Codoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages are key players involved in numerous pathophysiological pathways and an in-depth characterization of their gene regulatory networks can help in better understanding how their dysfunction may impact on human diseases. We here conducted a cross-species network analysis of macrophage gene expression data between human and mouse to identify conserved networks across both species, and assessed whether such networks could reveal new disease-associated regulatory mechanisms. From a sample of 684 individuals processed for genome-wide macrophage gene expression profiling, we identified 27 groups of coexpressed genes (modules. Six modules were found preserved (P < 10−4 in macrophages from 86 mice of the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel. One of these modules was significantly [false discovery rate (FDR = 8.9 × 10−11] enriched for genes belonging to the oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS pathway. This pathway was also found significantly (FDR < 10−4 enriched in susceptibility genes for Alzheimer, Parkinson, and Huntington diseases. We further conducted an expression quantitative trait loci analysis to identify SNP that could regulate macrophage OXPHOS gene expression in humans. This analysis identified the PARK2 rs192804963 as a trans-acting variant influencing (minimal P-value = 4.3 × 10−8 the expression of most OXPHOS genes in humans. Further experimental work demonstrated that PARK2 knockdown expression was associated with increased OXPHOS gene expression in THP1 human macrophages. This work provided strong new evidence that PARK2 participates to the regulatory networks associated with oxidative phosphorylation and suggested that PARK2 genetic variations could act as a trans regulator of OXPHOS gene macrophage expression in humans.

  19. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Activity Is Required for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages.

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    Punsiri M Colonne

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV. C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication. In this study, we identified the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP as a PKA substrate that is increasingly phosphorylated at S157 and S239 during C. burnetii infection. Avirulent and virulent C. burnetii triggered increased levels of phosphorylated VASP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells and primary human alveolar macrophages, and this event required the Cα subunit of PKA. VASP phosphorylation also required bacterial protein synthesis and secretion of effector proteins via a type IV secretion system, indicating the pathogen actively triggers prolonged VASP phosphorylation. Optimal PV formation and intracellular bacterial replication required VASP activity, as siRNA-mediated depletion of VASP reduced PV size and bacterial growth. Interestingly, ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic VASP (S239E mutant protein prevented optimal PV formation, whereas VASP (S157E mutant expression had no effect. VASP (S239E expression also prevented trafficking of bead-containing phagosomes to the PV, indicating proper VASP activity is critical for heterotypic fusion events that control PV expansion in macrophages. Finally, expression of dominant negative VASP (S157A in C. burnetii-infected cells impaired PV formation, confirming importance of the protein for proper infection. This study provides the first evidence of VASP manipulation by an intravacuolar bacterial pathogen via activation of PKA

  20. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  1. Enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in human helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and in vaccinated mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Quiding-Järbrink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infection with Helicobacter pylori triggers a chronic gastric inflammation that can progress to atrophy and gastric adenocarcinoma. Polarization of macrophages is a characteristic of both cancer and infection, and may promote progression or resolution of disease. However, the role of macrophages and their polarization during H. pylori infection has not been well defined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a mouse model of infection and gastric biopsies from 29 individuals, we have analyzed macrophage recruitment and polarization during H. pylori infection by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. We found a sequential recruitment of neutrophils, eosinophils and macrophages to the gastric mucosa of infected mice. Gene expression analysis of stomach tissue and sorted macrophages revealed that gastric macrophages were polarized to M1 after H. pylori infection, and this process was substantially accelerated by prior vaccination. Human H. pylori infection was characterized by a mixed M1/M2 polarization of macrophages. However, in H. pylori-associated atrophic gastritis, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was markedly increased compared to uncomplicated gastritis, indicative of an enhanced M1 macrophage polarization in this pre-malignant lesion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that vaccination of mice against H. pylori amplifies M1 polarization of gastric macrophages, and that a similar enhanced M1 polarization is present in human H. pylori-induced atrophic gastritis.

  2. Sida rhomboidea.Roxb aqueous extract down-regulates in vivo expression of vascular cell adhesion molecules in atherogenic rats and inhibits in vitro macrophage differentiation and foam cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thounaojam, Menaka C; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N; Salunke, Sunita P; Devkar, Ranjitsinh V; Ramachandran, A V

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluates efficacy of Sida rhomboidea.Roxb (SR) leaves extract in ameliorating experimental atherosclerosis using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Atherogenic (ATH) diet fed rats recorded significant increment in the serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very LDL (VLDL), autoantibody against oxidized LDL (Ox-LDL), markers of LDL oxidation and decrement in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) along with increment in aortic TC and TG. The ex vivo LDL oxidation assay revealed an increased susceptibility of LDL isolated from ATH rats to undergo copper mediated oxidation. These set of changes were minimized by simultaneous co-supplementation of SR extract to ATH diet fed rats. Histopathology of aorta and immunolocalization studies recorded pronounced atheromatous plaque formation, vascular calcification, significant elastin derangements and higher expression of macrophage surface marker (F4/80), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-selectin in ATH rats. Whereas, ATH+SR rats depicted minimal evidence of atheromatous plaque formation, calcium deposition, distortion/defragmentation of elastin and accumulation of macrophages along with lowered expression of VCAM-1 and P-selectin compared to ATH rats. Further, monocyte to macrophage differentiation and in vitro foam cell formation were significantly attenuated in presence of SR extract. In conclusion, SR extract has the potency of controlling experimental atherosclerosis and can be used as promising herbal supplement in combating atherosclerosis.

  3. Hyperglycemia induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moganti, Kondaiah; Li, Feng; Schmuttermaier, Christina; Riemann, Sarah; Klüter, Harald; Gratchev, Alexei; Harmsen, Martin C; Kzhyshkowska, Julia

    2017-10-01

    Hyperglycaemia is a key factor in diabetic pathology. Macrophages are essential regulators of inflammation which can be classified into two major vectors of polarisation: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). Both types of macrophages play a role in diabetes, where M1 and M2-produced cytokines can have detrimental effects in development of diabetes-associated inflammation and diabetic vascular complications. However, the effect of hyperglycaemia on differentiation and programming of primary human macrophages was not systematically studied. We established a unique model to assess the influence of hyperglycaemia on M1 and M2 differentiation based on primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. The effects of hyperglycaemia on the gene expression and secretion of prototype M1 cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and prototype M2 cytokines IL-1Ra and CCL18 were quantified by RT-PCR and ELISA. Hyperglycaemia stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-1Ra during macrophage differentiation. The effect of hyperglycaemia on TNF-alpha was acute, while the stimulating effect on IL-1beta and IL-1Ra was constitutive. Expression of CCL18 was supressed in M2 macrophages by hyperglycaemia. However the secreted levels remained to be biologically significant. Our data indicate that hyperglycaemia itself, without additional metabolic factors induces mixed M1/M2 cytokine profile that can support of diabetes-associated inflammation and development of vascular complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.; Lai, Ying-Chih; He, Xu; Liu, Ruiyuan; Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  5. Auxetic Foam-Based Contact-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Highly Sensitive Self-Powered Strain Sensing Capabilities to Monitor Human Body Movement

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Steven L.

    2017-05-15

    The first contact-mode triboelectric self-powered strain sensor using an auxetic polyurethane foam, conductive fabric, and polytetrafluroethylene (PTFE) is fabricated. Utilizing the auxetic properties of the polyurethane foam, the auxetic polyurethane foam would expand into the PTFE when the foam is stretched, causing contact electrification. Due to a larger contact area between the PTFE and the foam as the foam is stretched, this device can serve effectively as a strain sensor. The sensitivity of this method is explored, and this sensor has the highest sensitivity in all triboelectric nanogenerator devices that are used previously as a strain sensor. Different applications of this strain sensor are shown, and this sensor can be used as a human body monitoring system, self-powered scale to measure weight, and a seat belt to measure body movements inside a car seat.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond on primary human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentecost, A E; Witherel, C E; Gogotsi, Y; Spiller, K L

    2017-09-26

    Chronic inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis are characterized by excessive pro-inflammatory or "M1" activation of macrophages, the primary cells of the innate immune system. Current treatments include delivery of glucocorticoids (e.g. dexamethasone - Dex), which reduce pro-inflammatory M1 behaviour in macrophages. However, these treatments have many off-target effects on cells other than macrophages, resulting in broad immunosuppression. To limit such side effects, drug-incorporated nano- and microparticles may be used to selectively target macrophages via phagocytosis, because of their roles as highly effective phagocytes in the body. In this study, surface-modified nanodiamond (ND) was explored as a platform for the delivery of dexamethasone to macrophages because of ND's rich surface chemistry, which contributes to ND's high potential as a versatile drug delivery platform. After finding that octadecylamine-functionalized nanodiamond (ND-ODA) enhanced adsorption of Dex compared to carboxylated ND, the effects of Dex, ND-ODA, and Dex-adsorbed ND-ODA on primary human macrophage gene expression were characterized. Surprisingly, even in the absence of Dex, ND-ODA had strong anti-inflammatory effects, as determined by multiplex gene expression via NanoString and by protein secretion analysis via ELISA. ND-ODA also inhibited expression of M2a markers yet increased the expression of M2c markers and phagocytic receptors. Interestingly, the adsorption of Dex to ND-ODA further increased some anti-inflammatory effects, but abrogated the effect on phagocytic receptors, compared to its individual components. Overall, the ability of ND-ODA to promote anti-inflammatory and pro-phagocytic behaviour in macrophages, even in the absence of loaded drugs, suggests its potential for use as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic to directly target macrophages through phagocytosis.

  7. Vitamin D Is Required for IFN-γ–Mediated Antimicrobial Activity of Human Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabri, Mario; Stenger, Steffen; Shin, Dong-Min; Yuk, Jae-Min; Liu, Philip T.; Realegeno, Susan; Lee, Hye-Mi; Krutzik, Stephan R.; Schenk, Mirjam; Sieling, Peter A.; Teles, Rosane; Montoya, Dennis; Iyer, Shankar S.; Bruns, Heiko; Lewinsohn, David M.; Hollis, Bruce W.; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S.; Steinmeyer, Andreas; Zügel, Ulrich; Cheng, Genhong; Jo, Eun-Kyeong; Bloom, Barry R.; Modlin, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Control of tuberculosis worldwide depends on our understanding of human immune mechanisms, which combat the infection. Acquired T cell responses are critical for host defense against microbial pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they act in humans remain unclear. We report that T cells, by the release of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), induce autophagy, phagosomal maturation, the production of antimicrobial peptides such as cathelicidin, and antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages via a vitamin D–dependent pathway. IFN-γ induced the antimicrobial pathway in human macrophages cultured in vitamin D–sufficient sera, but not in sera from African-Americans that have lower amounts of vitamin D and who are more susceptible to tuberculosis. In vitro supplementation of vitamin D–deficient serum with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 restored IFN-γ–induced antimicrobial peptide expression, autophagy, phagosome-lysosome fusion, and antimicrobial activity. These results suggest a mechanism in which vitamin D is required for acquired immunity to overcome the ability of intracellular pathogens to evade macrophage-mediated antimicrobial responses. The present findings underscore the importance of adequate amounts of vitamin D in all human populations for sustaining both innate and acquired immunity against infection. PMID:21998409

  8. Dopamine receptor activation increases HIV entry into primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Gaskill

    Full Text Available Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis decreases human macrophage IFN-γ responsiveness through miR-132 and miR-26a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bin; Rajaram, Murugesan V S; Lafuse, William P; Landes, Michelle B; Schlesinger, Larry S

    2014-11-01

    IFN-γ-activated macrophages play an essential role in controlling intracellular pathogens; however, macrophages also serve as the cellular home for the intracellular pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Based on previous evidence that M. tuberculosis can modulate host microRNA (miRNA) expression, we examined the miRNA expression profile of M. tuberculosis-infected primary human macrophages. We identified 31 differentially expressed miRNAs in primary human macrophages during M. tuberculosis infection by NanoString and confirmed our findings by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. In addition, we determined a role for two miRNAs upregulated upon M. tuberculosis infection, miR-132 and miR-26a, as negative regulators of transcriptional coactivator p300, a component of the IFN-γ signaling cascade. Knockdown expression of miR-132 and miR-26a increased p300 protein levels and improved transcriptional, translational, and functional responses to IFN-γ in human macrophages. Collectively, these data validate p300 as a target of miR-132 and miR-26a, and demonstrate a mechanism by which M. tuberculosis can limit macrophage responses to IFN-γ by altering host miRNA expression. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. NOD2 enhances the innate response of alveolar macrophages to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Esmeralda; Carranza, Claudia; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; León-Contreras, Juan C; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Escobedo, Dante; Torres, Martha; Sada, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    A role for the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) receptor in pulmonary innate immune responses has recently been explored. In the present study, we investigated the role that NOD2 plays in human alveolar macrophage innate responses and determined its involvement in the response to infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our results showed that NOD2 was expressed in human alveolar macrophages, and significant amounts of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were produced upon ligand recognition with muramyldipeptide (MDP). NOD2 ligation induced the transcription and protein expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL37 and the autophagy enzyme IRGM in alveolar macrophages, demonstrating a novel function for this receptor in these cells. MDP treatment of alveolar macrophages improved the intracellular growth control of virulent M. tuberculosis; this was associated with a significant release of TNF-α and IL-6 and overexpression of bactericidal LL37. In addition, the autophagy proteins IRGM, LC3 and ATG16L1 were recruited to the bacteria-containing autophagosome after treatment with MDP. In conclusion, our results suggest that NOD2 can modulate the innate immune response of alveolar macrophages and play a role in the initial control of respiratory M. tuberculosis infections. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The transcriptome of Legionella pneumophila-infected human monocyte-derived macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T D Price

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that invades and replicates within alveolar macrophages through injection of ∼ 300 effector proteins by its Dot/Icm type IV translocation apparatus. The bona fide F-box protein, AnkB, is a nutritional virulence effector that triggers macrophages to generate a surplus of amino acids, which is essential for intravacuolar proliferation. Therefore, the ankB mutant represents a novel genetic tool to determine the transcriptional response of human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs to actively replicating L. pneumophila.Here, we utilized total human gene microarrays to determine the global transcriptional response of hMDMs to infection by wild type or the ankB mutant of L. pneumophila. The transcriptomes of hMDMs infected with either actively proliferating wild type or non-replicative ankB mutant bacteria were remarkably similar. The transcriptome of infected hMDMs was predominated by up-regulation of inflammatory pathways (IL-10 anti-inflammatory, interferon signaling and amphoterin signaling, anti-apoptosis, and down-regulation of protein synthesis pathways. In addition, L. pneumophila modulated diverse metabolic pathways, particularly those associated with bio-active lipid metabolism, and SLC amino acid transporters expression.Taken together, the hMDM transcriptional response to L. pneumophila is independent of intra-vacuolar replication of the bacteria and primarily involves modulation of the immune response and metabolic as well as nutritional pathways.

  12. The effect of Alcoholic garlic (Allium sativum extract on ABCA1 expression in human THP-1 macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malekpour-Dehkordi Z

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 is a key mediator of cholesterol efflux to apoA-I in lipid-laden macrophages, the first step of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT in vivo and a critical step in preventing atherosclerosis. Enhanced ABCA1 expression may inhibit foam cell formation and consequently reduce atherogenic risk. On the other hand, garlic, Allium sativum, and garlic extracts have been demonstrated to have potential cardiovascular benefits. Moreover, garlic has direct antiatherogenic and antiathersclerotic effects on artery walls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1 in macrophages."n"nMethods: Cell viability assay was used in order to detect the cytotoxic dose of alcoholic garlic extract on macrophages. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to study the effects of alcoholic garlic extract on the expression of ABCA1. Macrophage cells were treated by different concentrations of alcoholic garlic extract for 48 h. The total RNA of the treated macrophages were extracted and analyzed by real-time PCR. ABCA1 protein expression was also analyzed using the Western blotting technique."n"nResults: Alcoholic garlic extract

  13. Deficiency of ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 in macrophages increases inflammation and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J; Wang, Mi; Pagler, Tamara A; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Kappus, Mojdeh S; Gorman, Darren J; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R; Zhu, Xuewei; Abramowicz, Sandra; Parks, John S; Welch, Carrie; Fisher, Edward A; Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Tall, Alan R

    2013-05-24

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is attributable to the ability of high-density lipoprotein to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this hypothesis is lacking. To assess the role of macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways in atherogenesis. We developed mice with efficient deletion of the ATP-binding cassette transporters A1 and G1 (ABCA1 and ABCG1) in macrophages (MAC-ABC(DKO) mice) but not in hematopoietic stem or progenitor populations. MAC-ABC(DKO) bone marrow (BM) was transplanted into Ldlr(-/-) recipients. On the chow diet, these mice had similar plasma cholesterol and blood monocyte levels but increased atherosclerosis compared with controls. On the Western-type diet, MAC-ABC(DKO) BM-transplanted Ldlr(-/-) mice had disproportionate atherosclerosis, considering they also had lower very low-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than controls. ABCA1/G1-deficient macrophages in lesions showed increased inflammatory gene expression. Unexpectedly, Western-type diet-fed MAC-ABC(DKO) BM-transplanted Ldlr(-/-) mice displayed monocytosis and neutrophilia in the absence of hematopoietic stem and multipotential progenitor cells proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed increased expressions of machrophage colony stimulating factor and granulocyte colony stimulating factor in splenic macrophage foam cells, driving BM monocyte and neutrophil production. These studies show that macrophage deficiency of ABCA1/G1 is proatherogenic likely by promoting plaque inflammation and uncover a novel positive feedback loop in which cholesterol-laden splenic macrophages signal BM progenitors to produce monocytes, with suppression by macrophage cholesterol efflux pathways.

  14. Purple perilla extracts with α-asarone enhance cholesterol efflux from oxidized LDL-exposed macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sin-Hye; Paek, Ji Hun; Shin, Daekeun; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-04-01

    The cellular accumulation of cholesterol is critical in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an essential role in mediating the efflux of excess cholesterol. In the current study, we investigated whether purple Perilla frutescens extracts (PPE) at a non-toxic concentration of 1-10 µg/ml stimulate the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and cholesterol efflux from lipid-laden J774A.1 murine macrophages exposed to 50 ng/ml oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Purple perilla, an annual herb in the mint family and its constituents, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant and cytostatic activity, as well as to exert anti-allergic effects. Our results revealed that treatment with oxidized LDL for 24 h led to the accumulation of lipid droplets in the macrophages. PPE suppressed the oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation by blocking the induction of scavenger receptor B1. However, PPE promoted the induction of the ABC transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, and subsequently accelerated cholesterol efflux from the lipid-loaded macrophages. The liver X receptor (LXR) agonist, TO-091317, and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist, pioglitazone, increased ABCA1 expression and treatment with 10 µg/ml PPE further enhanced this effect. PPE did not induce LXRα and PPARγ expression per se, but enhanced their expression in the macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone was isolated from PPE and characterized as a major component enhancing the induction of ABCA1 and ABCG1 in macrophages exposed to oxidized LDL. α-asarone, but not β-asarone was effective in attenuating foam cell formation and enhancing cholesterol efflux, revealing an isomeric difference in their activity. The results from the present study demonstrate that PPE promotes cholesterol efflux from macrophages by activating the interaction of PPARγ-LXRα-ABC transporters.

  15. Synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules expression by the irradiated human monocyte/macrophage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, I.

    1997-09-01

    As lesions induced by ionizing radiations are essentially noticed in organs the functional and structural organisation of which depend on the highly proliferative stem cell pool, the author reports an in-vivo investigation of the effect of a gamma irradiation on the expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines par human monocytes/macrophages. In order to study the role of the cell environment in the radiation-induced inflammation, the author studied whether a co-stimulation of monocytes/macrophages by gamma irradiation, or the exposure of co-cultures of monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes, could modulate the regulation of inflammatory cytokines. The author also studied the modulation of the expression of adhesion molecules mainly expressed by the monocyte/macrophage, and the membrane density of the CD14 receptor after irradiation of monocytes/macrophages during 24 hours, and of totally differentiated macrophages after seven days of culture

  16. Forming foam structures with carbon foam substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Coronado, Paul R.; Baumann, Theodore F.

    2012-11-06

    The invention provides foams of desired cell sizes formed from metal or ceramic materials that coat the surfaces of carbon foams which are subsequently removed. For example, metal is located over a sol-gel foam monolith. The metal is melted to produce a metal/sol-gel composition. The sol-gel foam monolith is removed, leaving a metal foam.

  17. Cytoskeletal stability and metabolic alterations in primary human macrophages in long-term microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svantje Tauber

    Full Text Available The immune system is one of the most affected systems of the human body during space flight. The cells of the immune system are exceptionally sensitive to microgravity. Thus, serious concerns arise, whether space flight associated weakening of the immune system ultimately precludes the expansion of human presence beyond the Earth's orbit. For human space flight, it is an urgent need to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which altered gravity influences and changes the functions of immune cells. The CELLBOX-PRIME (= CellBox-Primary Human Macrophages in Microgravity Environment experiment investigated for the first time microgravity-associated long-term alterations in primary human macrophages, one of the most important effector cells of the immune system. The experiment was conducted in the U.S. National Laboratory on board of the International Space Station ISS using the NanoRacks laboratory and Biorack type I standard CELLBOX EUE type IV containers. Upload and download were performed with the SpaceX CRS-3 and the Dragon spaceship on April 18th, 2014 / May 18th, 2014. Surprisingly, primary human macrophages exhibited neither quantitative nor structural changes of the actin and vimentin cytoskeleton after 11 days in microgravity when compared to 1g controls. Neither CD18 or CD14 surface expression were altered in microgravity, however ICAM-1 expression was reduced. The analysis of 74 metabolites in the cell culture supernatant by GC-TOF-MS, revealed eight metabolites with significantly different quantities when compared to 1g controls. In particular, the significant increase of free fucose in the cell culture supernatant was associated with a significant decrease of cell surface-bound fucose. The reduced ICAM-1 expression and the loss of cell surface-bound fucose may contribute to functional impairments, e.g. the activation of T cells, migration and activation of the innate immune response. We assume that the surprisingly small

  18. [EVALUATION OF THE HUMAN SENSITIVITY TO SMALLPOX VIRUS BY THE PRIMARY CULTURES OF THE MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Sergeev, Al A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, Ar A; Galakhova, D O; Nesterov, A E; Nosareva, O V; Shishkina, L N; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the primary cultures of granulocytes, mononuclear, and monocyte-macrophage cells derived from human blood were performed using variola virus (VARV) in the doses of 0.001-0.021 PFU/cell (plaques-forming units per cell). Positive dynamics of the virus accumulation was observed only in the monocyte-macrophages with maximum values of virus concentration (5.0-5.5 Ig PFU/ml) mainly within six days after the infection. The fact of VARV replication in the monocyte-macrophages was confirmed by the data of electron microscopy. At the same time, virus vaccines when tested in doses 3.3 and 4.2 Ig PFU/ml did not show the ability to reproduce in these human cells. The people sensitivity to VARV as assessed from the data obtained on human monocyte-macrophages corresponded to -1 PFU (taking into account the smooth interaction of the virus in the body to the cells of this type), which is consistent to previously found theoretical data on the virus sensitivity. The human susceptibility to VARV assessed experimentally can be used to predict the adequacy of developed smallpox models (in vivo) based on susceptible animals. This is necessary for reliable assessment of the efficiency of development of drugs for treatment and prophylaxis of the smallpox.

  19. Apoptotic death of Listeria monocytogenes-infected human macrophages induced by lactoferricin B, a bovine lactoferrin-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, C; Conte, M P; Ranaldi, S; Penta, M; Valenti, P; Tinari, A; Superti, F; Seganti, L

    2005-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, an intracellular facultative food-borne pathogen, was reported to induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a variety of cell types with the exception of murine macrophages. These cells represent the predominant compartment of bacterial multiplication and die as a result of necrosis. In this study we showed that human non-activated and IFN-gamma-activated macrophagic-like (THP-1) cells infected with L. monocytogenes, mainly die by necrosis rather than by an apoptotic process. Two natural products derived from bovine milk, lactoferrin and its derivative peptide lactoferricin B, are capable of regulating the fate of infected human macrophages. Bovine lactoferrin treatment of macrophages protects them from L. monocytogenes-induced death whereas lactoferricin B, its derivative peptide, determines a shifting of the equilibrium from necrosis to apoptosis.

  20. Foam, Foam-resin composite and method of making a foam-resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranston, John A. (Inventor); MacArthur, Doug E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to a foam, a foam-resin composite and a method of making foam-resin composites. The foam set forth in this invention comprises a urethane modified polyisocyanurate derived from an aromatic amino polyol and a polyether polyol. In addition to the polyisocyanurate foam, the composite of this invention further contains a resin layer, wherein the resin may be epoxy, bismaleimide, or phenolic resin. Such resins generally require cure or post-cure temperatures of at least 350.degree. F.

  1. mdFoam+: Advanced molecular dynamics in OpenFOAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longshaw, S. M.; Borg, M. K.; Ramisetti, S. B.; Zhang, J.; Lockerby, D. A.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces mdFoam+, which is an MPI parallelised molecular dynamics (MD) solver implemented entirely within the OpenFOAM software framework. It is open-source and released under the same GNU General Public License (GPL) as OpenFOAM. The source code is released as a publicly open software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial cases. Since mdFoam+ is designed entirely within the OpenFOAM C++ object-oriented framework, it inherits a number of key features. The code is designed for extensibility and flexibility, so it is aimed first and foremost as an MD research tool, in which new models and test cases can be developed and tested rapidly. Implementing mdFoam+ in OpenFOAM also enables easier development of hybrid methods that couple MD with continuum-based solvers. Setting up MD cases follows the standard OpenFOAM format, as mdFoam+ also relies upon the OpenFOAM dictionary-based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of an MD simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. Results show that mdFoam+ compares well to another well-known MD code (e.g. LAMMPS) in terms of benchmark problems, although it also has additional functionality that does not exist in other open-source MD codes.

  2. LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Does, Anne M; Beekhuizen, Henry; Ravensbergen, Bep; Vos, Tim; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Dissel, Jaap T; Drijfhout, Jan W; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Nibbering, Peter H

    2010-08-01

    The human cathelicidin LL-37 has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. It also participates at the interface of innate and adaptive immunity by chemoattracting immune effector cells, modulating the production of a variety of inflammatory mediators by different cell types, and regulating the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of LL-37 on the differentiation of human monocytes into anti-inflammatory macrophages (MPhi-2; driven by M-CSF) versus proinflammatory macrophages (MPhi-1; driven by GM-CSF) as well as on fully differentiated MPhi-1 and MPhi-2. Results revealed that monocytes cultured with M-CSF in the presence of LL-37 resulted in macrophages displaying a proinflammatory signature, namely, low expression of CD163 and little IL-10 and profound IL-12p40 production on LPS stimulation. The effects of LL-37 on M-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation were dose- and time-dependent with maximal effects observed at 10 microg/ml when the peptide was present from the start of the cultures. The peptide enhanced the GM-CSF-driven macrophage differentiation. Exposure of fully differentiated MPhi-2 to LL-37 for 6 d resulted in macrophages that produced less IL-10 and more IL-12p40 on LPS stimulation than control MPhi-2. In contrast, LL-37 had no effect on fully differentiated MPhi-1. Peptide mapping using a set of 16 overlapping 22-mer peptides covering the complete LL-37 sequence revealed that the C-terminal portion of LL-37 is responsible for directing macrophage differentiation. Our results furthermore indicate that the effects of LL-37 on macrophage differentiation required internalization of the peptide. Together, we conclude that LL-37 directs macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with a proinflammatory signature.

  3. Macrophages inhibit human osteosarcoma cell growth after activation with the bacterial cell wall derivative liposomal muramyl tripeptide in combination with interferon-γ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Jens H W; Kwappenberg, Kitty M C; Varypataki, Eleni M; Santos, Susy J; Kuijjer, Marieke L; Mohamed, Susan; Wijnen, Juul T; van Tol, Maarten J D; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Egeler, R Maarten; Jiskoot, Wim; Lankester, Arjan C; Schilham, Marco W

    2014-03-10

    In osteosarcoma, the presence of tumor-infiltrating macrophages positively correlates with patient survival in contrast to the negative effect of tumor-associated macrophages in patients with other tumors. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) has been introduced in the treatment of osteosarcoma patients, which may enhance the potential anti-tumor activity of macrophages. Direct anti-tumor activity of human macrophages against human osteosarcoma cells has not been described so far. Hence, we assessed osteosarcoma cell growth after co-culture with human macrophages. Monocyte-derived M1-like and M2-like macrophages were polarized with LPS + IFN-γ, L-MTP-PE +/- IFN-γ or IL-10 and incubated with osteosarcoma cells. Two days later, viable tumor cell numbers were analyzed. Antibody-dependent effects were investigated using the therapeutic anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab. M1-like macrophages inhibited osteosarcoma cell growth when activated with LPS + IFN-γ. Likewise, stimulation of M1-like macrophages with liposomal muramyl tripeptide (L-MTP-PE) inhibited tumor growth, but only when combined with IFN-γ. Addition of the tumor-reactive anti-EGFR antibody cetuximab did not further improve the anti-tumor activity of activated M1-like macrophages. The inhibition was mediated by supernatants of activated M1-like macrophages, containing TNF-α and IL-1β. However, specific blockage of these cytokines, nitric oxide or reactive oxygen species did not inhibit the anti-tumor effect, suggesting the involvement of other soluble factors released upon macrophage activation. While LPS + IFN-γ-activated M2-like macrophages had low anti-tumor activity, IL-10-polarized M2-like macrophages were able to reduce osteosarcoma cell growth in the presence of the anti-EGFR cetuximab involving antibody-dependent tumor cell phagocytosis. This study demonstrates that human macrophages can be induced to exert direct anti-tumor activity against osteosarcoma cells. Our

  4. Human Adipose Tissue Macrophages Are Enhanced but Changed to an Anti-Inflammatory Profile in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fjeldborg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Adipose tissue (AT macrophages are increased in obesity and associated with low grade inflammation. We aimed to characterize the phenotype of AT macrophages in humans in relation to obesity and insulin resistance. Design. Gene-expression levels of general macrophage markers (CD68 and CD14, proinflammatory markers/M1 (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6, and anti-inflammatory markers/M2 (CD163, CD206, and IL-10 were determined by RT-PCR in subcutaneous AT samples from lean and obese subjects. Insulin resistance was determined by HOMA-IR. Results. All the macrophage markers were elevated in the AT from obese compared to lean subjects (P<0.001. To determine the phenotype of the macrophages the level of CD14 was used to adjust the total number of macrophages. The relative expression of CD163 and IL-10 was elevated, and TNF-α and IL-6 were reduced in AT from obese subjects (all P<0.05. In a multivariate regression analysis CD163 was the only macrophage marker significantly associated with HOMA-IR (β: 0.57; P<0.05. Conclusion. Obesity is associated with elevated numbers of macrophages in the AT. Unexpectedly, the macrophages change phenotype by obesity, with a preponderance of M2 and a decrement of M1 markers in AT from obese subjects. Moreover, CD163 was the only macrophage marker associated with HOMA-IR after multiple adjustments.

  5. Influence of ER leak on resting cytoplasmic Ca2+ and receptor-mediated Ca2+ signalling in human macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layhadi, Janice A; Fountain, Samuel J

    2017-06-03

    Mechanisms controlling endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca 2+ homeostasis are important regulators of resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] cyto ) and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling. Here we investigate channels responsible for ER Ca 2+ leak in THP-1 macrophage and human primary macrophage. In the absence of extracellular Ca 2+ we employ ionomycin action at the plasma membrane to stimulate ER Ca 2+ leak. Under these conditions ionomycin elevates [Ca 2+ ] cyto revealing a Ca 2+ leak response which is abolished by thapsigargin. IP 3 receptors (Xestospongin C, 2-APB), ryanodine receptors (dantrolene), and translocon (anisomycin) inhibition facilitated ER Ca 2+ leak in model macrophage, with translocon inhibition also reducing resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . In primary macrophage, translocon inhibition blocks Ca 2+ leak but does not influence resting [Ca 2+ ] cyto . We identify a role for translocon-mediated ER Ca 2+ leak in receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in both model and primary human macrophage, whereby the Ca 2+ response to ADP (P2Y receptor agonist) is augmented following anisomycin treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrate a role of ER Ca 2+ leak via the translocon in controlling resting cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in model macrophage and receptor-mediated Ca 2+ signalling in model macrophage and primary macrophage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Dexamethasone targeted directly to macrophages induces macrophage niches that promote erythroid expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falchi, Mario; Varricchio, Lilian; Martelli, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Cultures of human CD34(pos) cells stimulated with erythroid growth factors plus dexamethasone, a model for stress erythropoiesis, generate numerous erythroid cells plus a few macrophages (approx. 3%; 3:1 positive and negative for CD169). Interactions occurring between erythroblasts and macrophages...... in these cultures and the biological effects associated with these interactions were documented by live phase-contrast videomicroscopy. Macrophages expressed high motility interacting with hundreds/thousands of erythroblasts per hour. CD169(pos) macrophages established multiple rapid 'loose' interactions...... with proerythroblasts leading to formation of transient erythroblastic island-like structures. By contrast, CD169(neg) macrophages established 'tight' interactions with mature erythroblasts and phagocytosed these cells. 'Loose' interactions of CD169(pos) macrophages were associated with proerythroblast cytokinesis (the...

  7. The Activin A-Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Axis Contributes to the Transcriptome of GM-CSF-Conditioned Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Concha; Bragado, Rafael; Municio, Cristina; Sierra-Filardi, Elena; Alonso, Bárbara; Escribese, María M; Domínguez-Andrés, Jorge; Ardavín, Carlos; Castrillo, Antonio; Vega, Miguel A; Puig-Kröger, Amaya; Corbí, Angel L

    2018-01-01

    GM-CSF promotes the functional maturation of lung alveolar macrophages (A-MØ), whose differentiation is dependent on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) transcription factor. In fact, blockade of GM-CSF-initiated signaling or deletion of the PPARγ-encoding gene PPARG leads to functionally defective A-MØ and the onset of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. In vitro , macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF display potent proinflammatory, immunogenic and tumor growth-limiting activities. Since GM-CSF upregulates PPARγ expression, we hypothesized that PPARγ might contribute to the gene signature and functional profile of human GM-CSF-conditioned macrophages. To verify this hypothesis, PPARγ expression and activity was assessed in human monocyte-derived macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF [proinflammatory GM-CSF-conditioned human monocyte-derived macrophages (GM-MØ)] or M-CSF (anti-inflammatory M-MØ), as well as in ex vivo isolated human A-MØ. GM-MØ showed higher PPARγ expression than M-MØ, and the expression of PPARγ in GM-MØ was found to largely depend on activin A. Ligand-induced activation of PPARγ also resulted in distinct transcriptional and functional outcomes in GM-MØ and M-MØ. Moreover, and in the absence of exogenous activating ligands, PPARγ knockdown significantly altered the GM-MØ transcriptome, causing a global upregulation of proinflammatory genes and significantly modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation and migration. Similar effects were observed in ex vivo isolated human A-MØ, where PPARγ silencing led to enhanced expression of genes coding for growth factors and chemokines and downregulation of cell surface pathogen receptors. Therefore, PPARγ shapes the transcriptome of GM-CSF-dependent human macrophages ( in vitro derived GM-MØ and ex vivo isolated A-MØ) in the absence of exogenous activating ligands, and its expression is primarily regulated by activin A

  8. Inhibition of transglutaminase 2 reduces efferocytosis in human macrophages: Role of CD14 and SR-AI receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eligini, S; Fiorelli, S; Tremoli, E; Colli, S

    2016-10-01

    Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2), a member of the transglutaminase family of enzymes, is a multifunctional protein involved in numerous events spanning from cell differentiation, to signal transduction, apoptosis, and wound healing. It is expressed in a variety of cells, macrophages included. Macrophage TGM2 promotes the clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) and emerging evidence suggests that defective efferocytosis contributes to the consequences of inflammation-associated diseases, including atherosclerotic lesion progression and its sequelae. Of interest, active TGM2 identified in human atherosclerotic lesions plays critical roles in plaque stability through effects on matrix cross-linking and TGFβ activity. This study explores the mechanisms by which TGM2 controls efferocytosis in human macrophages. Herein we show that TGM2 increases progressively during monocyte differentiation towards macrophages and controls their efferocytic potential as well as morphology and viability. Two experimental approaches that took advantage of the inhibition of TGM2 activity and protein silencing give proof that TGM2 reduction significantly impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Among the mechanisms involved we highlighted a role of the receptors CD14 and SR-AI whose levels were markedly reduced by TGM2 inhibition. Conversely, CD36 receptor and αvβ3 integrin levels were not influenced. Of note, lipid accumulation and IL-10 secretion were reduced in macrophages displaying defective efferocytosis. Overall, our data define a crucial role of TGM2 activity during macrophage differentiation via mechanisms involving CD14 and SR-AI receptors and show that TGM2 inhibition triggers a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Soluble immune complexes shift the TLR-induced cytokine production of distinct polarized human macrophage subsets towards IL-10.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A Ambarus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Costimulation of murine macrophages with immune complexes (ICs and TLR ligands leads to alternative activation. Studies on human myeloid cells, however, indicate that ICs induce an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. This study aimed to clarify the effect of ICs on the pro- versus anti-inflammatory profile of human polarized macrophages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of healthy donors were polarized for four days with IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, GM-CSF, M-CSF, or LPS, in the presence or absence of heat aggregated gamma-globulins (HAGGs. Phenotypic polarization markers were measured by flow cytometry. Polarized macrophages were stimulated with HAGGs or immobilized IgG alone or in combination with TLR ligands. TNF, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, and IL-23 were measured by Luminex and/or RT-qPCR. RESULTS: HAGGs did not modulate the phenotypic polarization and the cytokine production of macrophages. However, HAGGs significantly altered the TLR-induced cytokine production of all polarized macrophage subsets, with the exception of MΦ(IL-4. In particular, HAGGs consistently enhanced the TLR-induced IL-10 production in both classically and alternatively polarized macrophages (M1 and M2. The effect of HAGGs on TNF and IL-6 production was less pronounced and depended on the polarization status, while IL-23p19 and IL-12p35 expression was not affected. In contrast with HAGGs, immobilized IgG induced a strong upregulation of not only IL-10, but also TNF and IL-6. CONCLUSION: HAGGs alone do not alter the phenotype and cytokine production of in vitro polarized human macrophages. In combination with TLR-ligands, however, HAGGs but not immobilized IgG shift the cytokine production of distinct macrophage subsets toward IL-10.

  10. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein regulates APOB48 receptor gene expression in human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Beatriz; Lopez, Sergio; Varela, Lourdes M; Ortega, Almudena; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Moreda, Wenceslao; Moreno-Luna, Rafael; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2012-02-01

    The postprandial metabolism of dietary fats implies that the production of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) contributes to the progression of plaque development. TRL and their remnants cause rapid receptor-mediated monocyte/macrophage lipid engorgement via the cell surface apoB48 receptor (apoB48R). However, the mechanistic basis for apoB48 receptor (APOB48R) regulation by postprandial TRL in monocytes and macrophages is not well established. In this study, we investigated the effects of postprandial TRL from healthy volunteers on the expression of APOB48R mRNA and lipid uptake in human THP-1 monocytes and THP-1-derived macrophages. The expression of APOB48R mRNA was upregulated in THP-1 monocytes, but downregulated in THP-1-derived macrophages when treated with postprandial TRL (P < 0.05), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. TG and free cholesterol were dramatically increased in THP-1-derived macrophages (140 and 50%, respectively; P < 0.05) and in THP-1 monocytes (160 and 95%, respectively; P < 0.05). This lipid accumulation was severely decreased (~50%; P < 0.05) in THP-1-derived macrophages by small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting of APOB48R. Using PPAR and retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists, antagonists, and siRNA, our data indicate that PPARα, PPARγ, and RXRα are involved in postprandial TRL-induced APOB48R transcriptional regulation. Co-incubation with acyl-CoA synthetase or acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitors potentiated the effects of postprandial TRL on the expression of APOB48R mRNA in THP-1 monocytes and THP-1-derived macrophages. Our findings collectively suggest that APOB48R represents a molecular target of postprandial TRL via PPAR-dependent pathways in human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages and advance a potentially important link between postprandial metabolism of dietary fats and atherogenesis.

  11. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages : similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Fernando O.; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N.; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; Ten Hacken, Nick H.; Jimenez, Viviana Cobos; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Hamann, Jorg; Greaves, David R.; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-01-01

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4-activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues.

  12. Genetic programs expressed in resting and IL-4 alternatively activated mouse and human macrophages: similarities and differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, Fernando O.; Helming, Laura; Milde, Ronny; Varin, Audrey; Melgert, Barbro N.; Draijer, Christina; Thomas, Benjamin; Fabbri, Marco; Crawshaw, Anjali; Ho, Ling Pei; ten Hacken, Nick H.; Cobos Jiménez, Viviana; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Hamann, Jörg; Greaves, David R.; Locati, Massimo; Mantovani, Alberto; Gordon, Siamon

    2013-01-01

    The molecular repertoire of macrophages in health and disease can provide novel biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Th2-IL-4-activated macrophages (M2) have been associated with important diseases in mice, yet no specific markers are available for their detection in human tissues.

  13. Improved gene expression in resting macrophages using an oligopeptide derived from Vpr of human immunodeficiency virus type-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoguchi, Izuru; Ooe, Yoshihiro; Hoshino, Shigeki; Shimura, Mari; Kasahara, Tadashi; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Toshiko; Takaku, Fumimaro; Nakayama, Yasuhide; Ishizaka, Yukihito

    2005-01-01

    Vpr, an accessory gene product of human immunodeficiency virus type-1, is thought to transport a viral DNA from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in resting macrophages. Previously, we reported that a peptide encompassing amino acids 52-78 of Vpr (C45D18) promotes the nuclear trafficking of recombinant proteins that are conjugated with C45D18. Here, we present evidence that C45D18, when conjugated with a six-branched cationic polymer of poly(N,N-dimethylaminopropylacrylamide)-block-oligo(4-aminostyrene) (SV: star vector), facilitates gene expression in resting macrophages. Although there was no difference between SV alone and C45D18-SV with respect to gene transduction into growing cells, C45D18-SV resulted in more than 40-fold greater expression of the exogenous gene upon transduction into chemically differentiated macrophages and human quiescent monocyte-derived macrophages. The data suggest that C45D18 contributes to improving the ability of a non-viral vector to transduce macrophages with exogenous genes and we discuss its further application

  14. mTOR signaling promotes foam cell formation and inhibits foam cell egress through suppressing the SIRT1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixiang; Fu, Yucai; Huang, Yusheng; Zheng, Xinde; Yu, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic immuno‑inflammatory disease accompanied by dyslipidemia. The authors previously demonstrated that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) may prevent atherogenesis through influencing the liver X receptor/C‑C chemokine receptor type 7/nuclear factor‑κB (LXR‑CCR7/NF‑κB) signaling pathway. Previous studies have suggested a role for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the potential association between mTOR signaling and SIRT1‑LXR‑CCR7/NF‑κB signaling (SIRT1 signaling) in AS pathogenesis. To induce foam cell formation, U937 cells were differentiated into macrophages by exposure to phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate (PMA) for 24 h, followed by treatment with palmitate and oxidized low density lipoprotein for a further 24 h. Oil red O staining revealed a large accumulation of lipid droplets present in foam cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased protein levels of phosphorylated (p)‑mTOR and its downstream factor p‑ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses additionally revealed decreased expression of SIRT1, LXRα and CCR7 and increased expression of NF‑κB and its downstream factor tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in an atherogenetic condition induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, abundant lipid droplets accumulated in U937‑LPA‑treated foam cells. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, suppressed the expression and activity of mTOR and p70S6K, however enhanced expression of SIRT1, LXRα, and CCR7. Conversely, rapamycin deceased TNF‑α and NF‑κB activity, the latter of which was further confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis demonstrating increased levels of NF‑κB present in the cytoplasm compared with the nucleus. The findings of the present study suggest that mTOR signaling promotes foam cell formation and inhibits foam

  15. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors increases intracellular accumulation of berberine in murine and human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Zha

    Full Text Available HIV protease inhibitor (PI-induced inflammatory response in macrophages is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that berberine (BBR, a traditional herbal medicine, prevents HIV PI-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in macrophages. We also found that HIV PIs significantly increased the intracellular concentrations of BBR in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms of HIV PI-induced BBR accumulation are unknown. This study examined the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp in HIV PI-mediated accumulation of BBR in macrophages.Cultured mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, human THP-1-derived macrophages, Wild type MDCK (MDCK/WT and human P-gp transfected (MDCK/P-gp cells were used in this study. The intracellular concentration of BBR was determined by HPLC. The activity of P-gp was assessed by measuring digoxin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123 efflux. The interaction between P-gp and BBR or HIV PIs was predicated by Glide docking using Schrodinger program. The results indicate that P-gp contributed to the efflux of BBR in macrophages. HIV PIs significantly increased BBR concentrations in macrophages; however, BBR did not alter cellular HIV PI concentrations. Although HIV PIs did not affect P-gp expression, P-gp transport activities were significantly inhibited in HIV PI-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the molecular docking study suggests that both HIV PIs and BBR fit the binding pocket of P-gp, and HIV PIs may compete with BBR to bind P-gp.HIV PIs increase the concentration of BBR by modulating the transport activity of P-gp in macrophages. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of potential drug-drug interactions is critical prior to applying successful combinational therapy in the clinic.

  16. Macrophage-mediated proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix in atherosclerosis results in neoepitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøt-Arkil, Helene; Barascuk, Natasha; Register, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    in almost all stages of atherosclerosis, by both initiating atherosclerotic plaques and degrading them through the secretion of proteolytic enzymes leading to rupture. This review summarizes the literature on the role of macrophages and their proteolytic activity on proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM......) of the atherosclerotic plaque with a view to suggest a novel approach for identification of vulnerable plaques and turnover by the use of a new type of biomarker. The PubMed database was searched using the terms macrophages, foam cells, atherosclerosis, CVD, ECM remodeling, biomarker, neoepitope, matrix...... of the constituents of the ECM of the atherosclerotic plaque. At present it is not clear which proteases play pivotal roles at distinct stages of pathogenesis, rather that the combined proteolytic potential with some proteases at early stages and other at later stages may result in plaque rupture. This macrophage...

  17. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages

    KAUST Repository

    Bokil, Nilesh J.

    2011-11-01

    Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) are the primary cause of urinary tract infections. Recent studies have demonstrated that UPEC can invade and replicate within epithelial cells, suggesting that this bacterial pathogen may occupy an intracellular niche within the host. Given that many intracellular pathogens target macrophages, we assessed the interactions between UPEC and macrophages. Colonization of the mouse bladder by UPEC strain CFT073 resulted in increased expression of myeloid-restricted genes, consistent with the recruitment of inflammatory macrophages to the site of infection. In in vitro assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post-infection. Three additional well-characterized clinical UPEC isolates associated with distinct UTI symptomatologies displayed variable long-term survival within BMM. UPEC strains UTI89 and VR50, originally isolated from patients with cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria respectively, showed elevated bacterial loads in BMM at 24h post-infection as compared to CFT073 and the asymptomatic bacteriuria strain 83972. These differences did not correlate with differential effects on macrophage survival or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1 + vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data suggest that some UPEC isolates may subvert macrophage anti-microbial pathways, and that host species differences may impact on intracellular UPEC survival. © 2011 Elsevier GmbH.

  18. Human oxidation-specific antibodies reduce foam cell formation and atherosclerosis progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsimikas, Sotirios; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Hartvigsen, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    We sought to assess the in vivo importance of scavenger receptor (SR)-mediated uptake of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) in atherogenesis and to test the efficacy of human antibody IK17-Fab or IK17 single-chain Fv fragment (IK17-scFv), which lacks immunologic properties of intact antibod...... antibodies other than the ability to inhibit uptake of OxLDL by macrophages, to inhibit atherosclerosis....

  19. Human CD68 promoter GFP transgenic mice allow analysis of monocyte to macrophage differentiation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Asif J; McNeill, Eileen; Kapellos, Theodore S; Regan-Komito, Daniel; Norman, Sophie; Burd, Sarah; Smart, Nicola; Machemer, Daniel E W; Stylianou, Elena; McShane, Helen; Channon, Keith M; Chawla, Ajay; Greaves, David R

    2014-10-09

    The recruitment of monocytes and their differentiation into macrophages at sites of inflammation are key events in determining the outcome of the inflammatory response and initiating the return to tissue homeostasis. To study monocyte trafficking and macrophage differentiation in vivo, we have generated a novel transgenic reporter mouse expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the human CD68 promoter. CD68-GFP mice express high levels of GFP in both monocyte and embryo-derived tissue resident macrophages in adult animals. The human CD68 promoter drives GFP expression in all CD115(+) monocytes of adult blood, spleen, and bone marrow; we took advantage of this to directly compare the trafficking of bone marrow-derived CD68-GFP monocytes to that of CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes in vivo using a sterile zymosan peritonitis model. Unlike CX3CR1(GFP) monocytes, which downregulate GFP expression on differentiation into macrophages in this model, CD68-GFP monocytes retain high-level GFP expression for 72 hours after differentiation into macrophages, allowing continued cell tracking during resolution of inflammation. In summary, this novel CD68-GFP transgenic reporter mouse line represents a powerful resource for analyzing monocyte mobilization and monocyte trafficking as well as studying the fate of recruited monocytes in models of acute and chronic inflammation. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Impact of foamed matrix components on foamed concrete properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The improvement of the matrix foam structure by means of foam stabilizing additives is aimed at solving the technology-oriented problems as well as at the further improvement of physical and mechanical properties of cellular-concrete composites. The dry foam mineralization is the mainstream of this research. Adding the concrete densifiers, foam stabilizers and mineral powders reduces the drying shrinkage, which makes the foam concrete products technologically effective.

  1. Deficiency of ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters A1 and G1 in Macrophages Increases Inflammation and Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, Marit; Murphy, Andrew J.; Wang, Mi; Pagler, Tamara A.; Vengrenyuk, Yuliya; Kappus, Mojdeh S.; Gorman, Darren J.; Nagareddy, Prabhakara R.; Zhu, Xuewei; Abramowicz, Sandra; Parks, John S.; Welch, Carrie; Fisher, Edward A.; Wang, Nan; Yvan-Charvet, Laurent; Tall, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Plasma high-density lipoprotein levels are inversely correlated with atherosclerosis. Although it is widely assumed that this is attributable to the ability of high-density lipoprotein to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophage foam cells, direct experimental support for this

  2. Efficient internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes by primary human macrophages without impairment of macrophage clearance of apoptotic or antibody-opsonized target cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witasp, Erika; Kupferschmidt, Natalia; Bengtsson, Linnea; Hultenby, Kjell; Smedman, Christian; Paulie, Staffan; Garcia-Bennett, Alfonso E.; Fadeel, Bengt

    2009-01-01

    Macrophage recognition and ingestion of apoptotic cell corpses, a process referred to as programmed cell clearance, is of considerable importance for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in the resolution of inflammation. Moreover, macrophages are the first line of defense against microorganisms and other foreign materials including particles. However, there is sparse information on the mode of uptake of engineered nanomaterials by primary macrophages. In this study, mesoporous silica particles with cubic pore geometries and covalently fluorescein-grafted particles were synthesized through a novel route, and their interactions with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages were assessed. Efficient and active internalization of mesoporous silica particles of different sizes was observed by transmission electron microscopic and flow cytometric analysis and studies using pharmacological inhibitors suggested that uptake occurred through a process of endocytosis. Moreover, uptake of silica particles was independent of serum factors. The silica particles with very high surface areas due to their porous structure did not impair cell viability or function of macrophages, including the ingestion of different classes of apoptotic or opsonized target cells. The current findings are relevant to the development of mesoporous materials for drug delivery and other biomedical applications.

  3. CCR5 Signal Transduction in Macrophages by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    Arthos, James; Rubbert, Andrea; Rabin, Ronald L.; Cicala, Claudia; Machado, Elizabeth; Wildt, Kathryne; Hanbach, Meredith; Steenbeke, Tavis D.; Swofford, Ruth; Farber, Joshua M.; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2000-01-01

    The capacity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelopes to transduce signals through chemokine coreceptors on macrophages was examined by measuring the ability of recombinant envelope proteins to mobilize intracellular calcium stores. Both HIV and SIV envelopes mobilized calcium via interactions with CCR5. The kinetics of these responses were similar to those observed when macrophages were treated with MIP-1β. Distinct differences in the capacity o...

  4. Evaluation of a nanotechnology-based approach to induce gene-expression in human THP-1 macrophages under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Laura; Alvarado-Vázquez, Abigail; Ferreira, David Wilson; Paige, Candler A; Ulecia-Morón, Cristina; Hill, Bailey; Caesar, Marina; Romero-Sandoval, E Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Macrophages orchestrate the initiation and resolution of inflammation by producing pro- and anti-inflammatory products. An imbalance in these mediators may originate from a deficient or excessive immune response. Therefore, macrophages are valid therapeutic targets to restore homeostasis under inflammatory conditions. We hypothesize that a specific mannosylated nanoparticle effectively induces gene expression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions without undesirable immunogenic responses. THP-1 macrophages were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5μg/mL). Polyethylenimine (PEI) nanoparticles grafted with a mannose receptor ligand (Man-PEI) were used as a gene delivery method. Nanoparticle toxicity, Man-PEI cellular uptake rate and gene induction efficiency (GFP, CD14 or CD68) were studied. Potential immunogenic responses were evaluated by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10. Man-PEI did not produce cytotoxicity, and it was effectively up-taken by THP-1 macrophages (69%). This approach produced a significant expression of GFP (mRNA and protein), CD14 and CD68 (mRNA), and transiently and mildly reduced IL-6 and IL-10 levels in LPS-challenged macrophages. Our results indicate that Man-PEI is suitable for inducing an efficient gene overexpression in human macrophages under inflammatory conditions with limited immunogenic responses. Our promising results set the foundation to test this technology to induce functional anti-inflammatory genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Lipsa, Dan; Roberts, Richard; Laramee, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design ...

  6. The Reactive Oxygen Species in Macrophage Polarization: Reflecting Its Dual Role in Progression and Treatment of Human Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hor-Yue; Li, Sha; Hong, Ming; Wang, Xuanbin

    2016-01-01

    High heterogeneity of macrophage is associated with its functions in polarization to different functional phenotypes depending on environmental cues. Macrophages remain in balanced state in healthy subject and thus macrophage polarization may be crucial in determining the tissue fate. The two distinct populations, classically M1 and alternatively M2 activated, representing the opposing ends of the full activation spectrum, have been extensively studied for their associations with several disease progressions. Accumulating evidences have postulated that the redox signalling has implication in macrophage polarization and the key roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in tissue environment have provided the clue for the reasons of ROS abundance in certain phenotype. M1 macrophages majorly clearing the pathogens and ROS may be crucial for the regulation of M1 phenotype, whereas M2 macrophages resolve inflammation which favours oxidative metabolism. Therefore how ROS play its role in maintaining the homeostatic functions of macrophage and in particular macrophage polarization will be reviewed here. We also review the biology of macrophage polarization and the disturbance of M1/M2 balance in human diseases. The potential therapeutic opportunities targeting ROS will also be discussed, hoping to provide insights for development of target-specific delivery system or immunomodulatory antioxidant for the treatment of ROS-related diseases. PMID:27143992

  7. Role of foam drainage in producing protein aggregates in foam fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuran; Chang, Yunkang; Wu, Zhaoliang; Wang, Yanji; Chen, Xiang'e; Wang, Tao

    2017-10-01

    It is essential to obtain a clear understanding of the foam-induced protein aggregation to reduce the loss of protein functionality in foam fractionation. The major effort of this work is to explore the roles of foam drainage in protein aggregation in the entire process of foam fractionation with bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. The results show that enhancing foam drainage increased the desorption of BSA molecules from the gas-liquid interface and the local concentration of desorbed molecules in foam. Therefore, it intensified the aggregation of BSA in foam fractionation. Simultaneously, it also accelerated the flow of BSA aggregates from rising foam into the residual solution along with the drained liquid. Because enhancing foam drainage increased the relative content of BSA molecules adsorbed at the gas-liquid interface, it also intensified the aggregation of BSA during both the defoaming process and the storage of the foamate. Furthermore, enhancing foam drainage more readily resulted in the formation of insoluble BSA aggregates. The results are highly important for a better understanding of foam-induced protein aggregation in foam fractionation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Niacin and its metabolites as master regulators of macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Naranjo, M Carmen; Lopez, Sergio; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J Garcia; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    Niacin is a broad-spectrum lipid-regulating drug used for clinical therapy of chronic high-grade inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms by which either niacin or the byproducts of its catabolism ameliorate these inflammatory diseases are not clear yet. Human circulating monocytes and mature macrophages were used to analyze the effects of niacin and its metabolites (NAM, NUA and 2-Pyr) on oxidative stress, plasticity and inflammatory response by using biochemical, flow cytometry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot technologies. Niacin, NAM and 2-Pyr significantly decreased ROS, NO and NOS2 expression in LPS-treated human mature macrophages. Niacin and NAM skewed macrophage polarization toward antiinflammatory M2 macrophage whereas a trend toward proinflammatory M1 macrophage was noted following treatment with NUA. Niacin and NAM also reduced the inflammatory competence of LPS-treated human mature macrophages and promoted bias toward antiinflammatory CD14 + CD16 ++ nonclassical human primary monocytes. This study reveals for the first time that niacin and its metabolites possess antioxidant, reprogramming and antiinflammatory properties on human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. Our findings imply a new understanding of the mechanisms by which niacin and its metabolites favor a continuous and gradual plasticity process in the human monocyte/macrophage system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of sclerosant foams by mechanical methods increases the foam temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lulu; Wong, Kaichung; Connor, David; Fakhim, Babak; Behnia, Masud; Parsi, Kurosh

    2017-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of agitation on foam temperature. Methods Sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol were used. Prior to foam generation, the sclerosant and all constituent equipment were cooled to 4-25℃ and compared with cooling the sclerosant only. Foam was generated using a modified Tessari method. During foam agitation, the temperature change was measured using a thermocouple for 120 s. Results Pre-cooling all the constituent equipment resulted in a cooler foam in comparison with only cooling the sclerosant. A starting temperature of 4℃ produced average foam temperatures of 12.5 and 13.2℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. It was also found that only cooling the liquid sclerosant provided minimal cooling to the final foam temperature, with the temperature 20 and 20.5℃ for sodium tetradecyl sulphate and polidocanol, respectively. Conclusion The foam generation process has a noticeable impact on final foam temperature and needs to be taken into consideration when creating foam.

  10. FoamVis, A Visualization System for Foam Research: Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan R. Lipsa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liquid foams are used in areas such as mineral separation, oil recovery, food and beverage production, sanitation and fire fighting. To improve the quality of products and the efficiency of processes in these areas, foam scientists wish to understand and control foam behaviour. To this end, foam scientists have used foam simulations to model foam behaviour; however, analysing these simulations presents difficult challenges. We describe the main foam research challenges and present the design of FoamVis, the only existing visualization, exploration and analysis application created to address them. We describe FoamVis’ main features, together with relevant design and implementation notes. Our goal is to provide a global overview and individual feature implementation details that would allow a visualization scientist to extend the FoamVis system with new algorithms and adapt it to new requirements. The result is a detailed presentation of the software that is not provided in previous visualization research papers.

  11. Enhanced uptake of multiple sclerosis-derived myelin by THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Debbie A E; Schuurman, Karianne G; van Draanen, Michael; Hamann, Jörg; Huitinga, Inge

    2014-03-31

    The pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is myelin phagocytosis. It remains unclear why microglia and macrophages demyelinate axons in MS, but previously found or yet-unknown changes in the myelin of MS patients could contribute to this process. We therefore studied whether myelin from normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) of MS donors is phagocytosed more efficiently than myelin from control donors. Myelin was isolated from 11 MS and 12 control brain donors and labeled with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye pHrodo to quantify uptake in lysosomes. Phagocytosis by differentiated THP-1 macrophages and by primary human microglia was quantified with flow cytometry. Whereas myelin uptake by THP-1 macrophages reached a plateau after approximately 24 hours, uptake by primary human microglia showed an almost linear increase over a 72-hour period. Data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. MS-derived myelin was phagocytosed more efficiently by THP-1 macrophages after 6-hour incubation (P = 0.001 for the percentage of myelin-phagocytosing cells and P = 0.0005 for total myelin uptake) and after 24-hour incubation (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0001, respectively), and by microglia after 24-hour incubation (P = 0.0106 for total myelin uptake). This enhanced uptake was not due to differences in the oxidation status of the myelin. Interestingly, myelin phagocytosis correlated negatively with the age of myelin donors, whereas the age of microglia donors showed a positive trend with myelin phagocytosis. Myelin isolated from normal-appearing white matter of MS donors was phagocytosed more efficiently than was myelin isolated from control brain donors by both THP-1 macrophages and primary human microglia. These data indicate that changes in MS myelin might precede phagocyte activation and subsequent demyelination in MS. Identifying these myelin changes responsible for enhancing phagocytic ability could be an interesting therapeutic target to

  12. Extracellular traps are associated with human and mouse neutrophil and macrophage mediated killing of larval Strongyloides stercoralis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne-Année, Sandra; Kerepesi, Laura A; Hess, Jessica A; Wesolowski, Jordan; Paumet, Fabienne; Lok, James B; Nolan, Thomas J; Abraham, David

    2014-06-01

    Neutrophils are multifaceted cells that are often the immune system's first line of defense. Human and murine cells release extracellular DNA traps (ETs) in response to several pathogens and diseases. Neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is crucial to trapping and killing extracellular pathogens. Aside from neutrophils, macrophages and eosinophils also release ETs. We hypothesized that ETs serve as a mechanism of ensnaring the large and highly motile helminth parasite Strongyloides stercoralis thereby providing a static target for the immune response. We demonstrated that S. stercoralis larvae trigger the release of ETs by human neutrophils and macrophages. Analysis of NETs revealed that NETs trapped but did not kill larvae. Induction of NETs was essential for larval killing by human but not murine neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. In mice, extracellular traps were induced following infection with S. stercoralis larvae and were present in the microenvironment of worms being killed in vivo. These findings demonstrate that NETs ensnare the parasite facilitating larval killing by cells of the immune system. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor primes interleukin-13 production by macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Manabu; Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Ono, Tomomichi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is often linked to the presence of type 2-polarized macrophages, which are induced by the T helper type 2 cytokines interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 (IL-13). IL-13 is a key mediator of tissue fibrosis caused by T helper type 2-based inflammation. Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. This study investigated the priming effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on IL-13 expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. Expression of IL-13 mRNA and protein by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages was investigated after stimulation with HNE, using the polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. GM-CSF had a priming effect on IL-13 mRNA and protein expression by macrophages stimulated with HNE, while this effect was not observed for various other cytokines. GM-CSF-dependent macrophages showed a significant increase in the expression of protease activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) mRNA and protein. The response of IL-13 mRNA to HNE was significantly decreased by pretreatment with alpha1-antitrypsin, a PAR-2 antibody (SAM11), or a PAR-2 antagonist (ENMD-1068). These findings suggest that stimulation with HNE can induce IL-13 production by macrophages, especially GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. Accordingly, neutrophil elastase may have a key role in fibrosis associated with chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Liver X Receptor (LXR) activation negatively regulates visfatin expression in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayi, Therese Hervee; Rigamonti, Elena [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Pattou, Francois [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Department of Endocrine Surgery, University Hospital, Lille (France); U859 Biotherapies for Diabetes, INSERM, Lille (France); Staels, Bart, E-mail: bart.staels@pasteur-lille.fr [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France); Chinetti-Gbaguidi, Giulia [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); INSERM UR1011, F-59000 Lille (France); UDSL, F-59000 Lille (France); Institut Pasteur de Lille, F-59019 Lille (France)

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin expression in human macrophages. {yields} LXR activation leads to a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration. {yields} LXR activation decreased PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin in human macrophages. -- Abstract: Adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) are the major source of visfatin, a visceral fat adipokine upregulated during obesity. Also known to play a role in B cell differentiation (pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF)) and NAD biosynthesis (nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (NAMPT)), visfatin has been suggested to play a role in inflammation. Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR){gamma} are nuclear receptors expressed in macrophages controlling the inflammatory response. Recently, we reported visfatin as a PPAR{gamma} target gene in human macrophages. In this study, we examined whether LXR regulates macrophage visfatin expression. Synthetic LXR ligands decreased visfatin gene expression in a LXR-dependent manner in human and murine macrophages. The decrease of visfatin mRNA was paralleled by a decrease of protein secretion. Consequently, a modest and transient decrease of NAD{sup +} concentration was observed. Interestingly, LXR activation decreased the PPAR{gamma}-induced visfatin gene and protein secretion in human macrophages. Our results identify visfatin as a gene oppositely regulated by the LXR and PPAR{gamma} pathways in human macrophages.

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Varahram, Mohammad; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve) attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05) in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05). The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05). This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Mortaz

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown.To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR activation.We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation.Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05 in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05. The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05.This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  17. Macrophages under pressure: the role of macrophage polarization in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwani, Sailesh C

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is a multifactorial disease involving the nervous, renal, and cardiovascular systems. Macrophages are the most abundant and ubiquitous immune cells, placing them in a unique position to serve as key mediators between these components. The polarization of macrophages confers vast phenotypic and functional plasticity, allowing them to act as proinflammatory, homeostatic, and anti-inflammatory agents. Key differences between the M1 and M2 phenotypes, the 2 subsets at the extremes of this polarization spectrum, place macrophages at a juncture to mediate many mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Neuronal and non-neuronal regulation of the immune system, that is, the "neuroimmuno" axis, plays an integral role in the polarization of macrophages. In hypertension, the neuroimmuno axis results in synchronization of macrophage mobilization from immune cell reservoirs and their chemotaxis, via increased expression of chemoattractants, to end organs critical in the development of hypertension. This complicated system is largely coordinated by the dichotomous actions of the autonomic neuronal and non-neuronal activation of cholinergic, adrenergic, and neurohormonal receptors on macrophages, leading to their ability to "switch" between phenotypes at sites of active inflammation. Data from experimental models and human studies are in concordance with each other and support a central role for macrophage polarization in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-01-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO 2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength)

  19. Biopolymer foams - Relationship between material characteristics and foaming behavior of cellulose based foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, F.; Schneider, A.; Elsner, P.

    2014-05-01

    Biopolymers are becoming increasingly important to both industry and consumers. With regard to waste management, CO2 balance and the conservation of petrochemical resources, increasing efforts are being made to replace standard plastics with bio-based polymers. Nowadays biopolymers can be built for example of cellulose, lactic acid, starch, lignin or bio mass. The paper will present material properties of selected cellulose based polymers (cellulose propionate [CP], cellulose acetate butyrate [CAB]) and corresponding processing conditions for particle foams as well as characterization of produced parts. Special focus is given to the raw material properties by analyzing thermal behavior (differential scanning calorimetry), melt strength (Rheotens test) and molecular weight distribution (gel-permeation chromatography). These results will be correlated with the foaming behavior in a continuous extrusion process with physical blowing agents and underwater pelletizer. Process set-up regarding particle foam technology, including extrusion foaming and pre-foaming, will be shown. The characteristics of the resulting foam beads will be analyzed regarding part density, cell morphology and geometry. The molded parts will be tested on thermal conductivity as well as compression behavior (E-modulus, compression strength).

  20. The response of macrophages to titanium particles is determined by macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajarinen, Jukka; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Jämsen, Eemeli; Li, Tian-Fang; Mandelin, Jami; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2013-11-01

    Aseptic loosening of total joint replacements is driven by the reaction of macrophages to foreign body particles released from the implant. It was hypothesized that the macrophages' response to these particles is dependent, in addition to particle characteristics and contaminating biomolecules, on the state of macrophage polarization as determined by the local cytokine microenvironment. To test this hypothesis we differentiated M1 and M2 macrophages from human peripheral blood monocytes and compared their responses to titanium particles using genome-wide microarray analysis and a multiplex cytokine assay. In comparison to non-activated M0 macrophages, the overall chemotactic and inflammatory responses to titanium particles were greatly enhanced in M1 macrophages and effectively suppressed in M2 macrophages. In addition, the genome-wide approach revealed several novel, potentially osteolytic, particle-induced mediators, and signaling pathway analysis suggested the involvement of toll-like and nod-like receptor signaling in particle recognition. It is concluded that the magnitude of foreign body reaction caused by titanium particles is dependent on the state of macrophage polarization. Thus, by limiting the action of M1 polarizing factors, e.g. bacterial biofilm formation, in peri-implant tissues and promoting M2 macrophage polarization by biomaterial solutions or pharmacologically, it might be possible to restrict wear-particle-induced inflammation and osteolysis. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exosomes derived from human macrophages suppress endothelial cell migration by controlling integrin trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Doo; Kim, Yeon Hyang; Kim, Doo-Sik

    2014-04-01

    Integrin trafficking, including internalization, recycling, and lysosomal degradation, is crucial for the regulation of cellular functions. Exosomes, nano-sized extracellular vesicles, are believed to play important roles in intercellular communications. This study demonstrates that exosomes released from human macrophages negatively regulate endothelial cell migration through control of integrin trafficking. Macrophage-derived exosomes promote internalization of integrin β1 in primary HUVECs. The internalized integrin β1 persistently accumulates in the perinuclear region and is not recycled back to the plasma membrane. Experimental results indicate that macrophage-derived exosomes stimulate trafficking of internalized integrin β1 to lysosomal compartments with a corresponding decrease in the integrin destined for recycling endosomes, resulting in proteolytic degradation of the integrin. Moreover, ubiquitination of HUVEC integrin β1 is enhanced by the exosomes, and exosome-mediated integrin degradation is blocked by bafilomycin A, a lysosomal degradation inhibitor. Macrophage-derived exosomes were also shown to effectively suppress collagen-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway and HUVEC migration, which are both dependent on integrin β1. These observations provide new insight into the functional significance of exosomes in the regulation of integrin trafficking. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Liquid foam templating - A route to tailor-made polymer foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrieux, Sébastien; Quell, Aggeliki; Stubenrauch, Cosima; Drenckhan, Wiebke

    2018-06-01

    Solid foams with pore sizes between a few micrometres and a few millimetres are heavily exploited in a wide range of established and emerging applications. While the optimisation of foam applications requires a fine control over their structural properties (pore size distribution, pore opening, foam density, …), the great complexity of most foaming processes still defies a sound scientific understanding and therefore explicit control and prediction of these parameters. We therefore need to improve our understanding of existing processes and also develop new fabrication routes which we understand and which we can exploit to tailor-make new porous materials. One of these new routes is liquid templating in general and liquid foam templating in particular, to which this review article is dedicated. While all solid foams are generated from an initially liquid(-like) state, the particular notion of liquid foam templating implies the specific condition that the liquid foam has time to find its "equilibrium structure" before it is solidified. In other words, the characteristic time scales of the liquid foam's stability and its solidification are well separated, allowing to build on the vast know-how on liquid foams established over the last 20 years. The dispersed phase of the liquid foam determines the final pore size and pore size distribution, while the continuous phase contains the precursors of the desired porous scaffold. We review here the three key challenges which need to be addressed by this approach: (1) the control of the structure of the liquid template, (2) the matching of the time scales between the stability of the liquid template and solidification, and (3) the preservation of the structure of the template throughout the process. Focusing on the field of polymer foams, this review gives an overview of recent research on the properties of liquid foam templates and summarises a key set of studies in the emerging field of liquid foam templating. It

  3. Quantitative GPCR and ion channel transcriptomics in primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot-Kormelink Paul J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are one of the first lines of defence against invading pathogens and play a central role in modulating both the innate and acquired immune systems. By responding to endogenous stimuli within the lung, alveolar macrophages contribute towards the regulation of the local inflammatory microenvironment, the initiation of wound healing and the pathogenesis of viral and bacterial infections. Despite the availability of protocols for isolating primary alveolar macrophages from the lung these cells remain recalcitrant to expansion in-vitro and therefore surrogate cell types, such as monocyte derived macrophages and phorbol ester-differentiated cell lines (e.g. U937, THP-1, HL60 are frequently used to model macrophage function. Methods The availability of high throughput gene expression technologies for accurate quantification of transcript levels enables the re-evaluation of these surrogate cell types for use as cellular models of the alveolar macrophage. Utilising high-throughput TaqMan arrays and focussing on dynamically regulated families of integral membrane proteins, we explore the similarities and differences in G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR and ion channel expression in alveolar macrophages and their widely used surrogates. Results The complete non-sensory GPCR and ion channel transcriptome is described for primary alveolar macrophages and macrophage surrogates. The expression of numerous GPCRs and ion channels whose expression were hitherto not described in human alveolar macrophages are compared across primary macrophages and commonly used macrophage cell models. Several membrane proteins known to have critical roles in regulating macrophage function, including CXCR6, CCR8 and TRPV4, were found to be highly expressed in macrophages but not expressed in PMA-differentiated surrogates. Conclusions The data described in this report provides insight into the appropriate choice of cell models for

  4. Intramacrophage survival of uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Differences between diverse clinical isolates and between mouse and human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokil, Nilesh J.; Totsika, Makrina; Carey, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post-infection. Three additional well-characterized clinical UPEC isolates associated with distinct UTI symptomatologies displayed variable long-term survival within BMM. UPEC strains UTI89 and VR50...... or initial uptake of bacteria. E. coli UTI89 localized to a Lamp1+ vesicular compartment within BMM. In contrast to survival within mouse BMM, intracellular bacterial loads of VR50 were low in both human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM) and in human T24 bladder epithelial cells. Collectively, these data...

  5. HIV-1 Resistant CDK2-Knockdown Macrophage-Like Cells Generated from 293T Cell-Derived Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Teh Jeang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in studies of human diseases involving macrophages is low yield and heterogeneity of the primary cells and limited ability of these cells for transfections and genetic manipulations. To address this issue, we developed a simple and efficient three steps method for somatic 293T cells reprogramming into monocytes and macrophage-like cells. First, 293T cells were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs through a transfection-mediated expression of two factors, Oct-4 and Sox2, resulting in a high yield of iPSC. Second, the obtained iPSC were differentiated into monocytes using IL-3 and M-CSF treatment. And third, monocytes were differentiated into macrophage-like cells in the presence of M-CSF. As an example, we developed HIV-1-resistant macrophage-like cells from 293T cells with knockdown of CDK2, a factor critical for HIV-1 transcription. Our study provides a proof-of-principle approach that can be used to study the role of host cell factors in HIV-1 infection of human macrophages.

  6. Morphometric Characterization of Rat and Human Alveolar Macrophage Cell Models and their Response to Amiodarone using High Content Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ewelina; Patel, Aateka; Ball, Doug; Klapwijk, Jan; Millar, Val; Kumar, Abhinav; Martin, Abigail; Mahendran, Rhamiya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Forbes, Ben; Hutter, Victoria

    2017-12-01

    Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation. Cell health, morphology and lipid content were comparable (p content. Responses to amiodarone, a known inducer of phospholipidosis, required analysis of shifts in cell population profiles (the proportion of cells with elevated vacuolation or lipid content) rather than average population data which was insensitive to the changes observed. A high content image analysis assay was developed and used to provide detailed morphological characterization of rat and human alveolar-like macrophages and their response to a phospholipidosis-inducing agent. This provides a basis for development of assays to predict or understand macrophage vacuolation following inhaled drug exposure.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-12 gene regulation by a PPAR alpha agonist in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi, Imen Jguirim; Billiet, Ludivine; Cuaz-Perolin, Clarisse; Slimane, Mohamed-Naceur; Rouis, Mustapha

    2008-01-01

    MMP-12, a macrophage-specific matrix metalloproteinase with large substrate specificity, has been reported to be highly expressed in mice, rabbits and human atherosclerotic lesions. Increased MMP-12 from inflammatory macrophages is associated with several degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis. In this manuscript, we show that IL-1β, a proinflammatory cytokine found in atherosclerotic plaques, increases both mRNA and protein levels of MMP-12 in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM). Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), such as PPARα and PPARγ, are expressed in macrophages and because PPAR activation exerts an anti-inflammatory effect on vascular cells, we have investigated the effect of PPARα and γ isoforms on MMP-12 regulation in HMDM. Our results show that MMP-12 expression (mRNA and protein) is down regulated in IL-1β-treated macrophages only in the presence of a specific PPARα agonist, GW647, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, this inhibitory effect was abolished in IL-1β-stimulated peritoneal macrophages isolated from PPARα -/- mice and treated with the PPARα agonist, GW647. Moreover, reporter gene transfection experiments using different MMP-12 promoter constructs showed a reduction of the promoter activities by ∼ 50% in IL-1β-stimulated PPARα-pre-treated cells. However, MMP-12 promoter analysis did not reveal the presence of a PPRE response element. The IL-1β effect is known to be mediated through the AP-1 binding site. Mutation of the AP-1 site, located at - 81 in the MMP-12 promoter region relative to the transcription start site, followed by transfection analysis, gel shift and ChIP experiments revealed that the inhibitory effect was the consequence of the protein-protein interaction between GW 647-activated PPARα and c-Fos or c-Jun transcription factors, leading to inhibition of their binding to the AP-1 motif. These studies suggest that PPARα agonists may be used therapeutically, not only for lipid

  8. Therapeutic Antibody-Like Immunoconjugates against Tissue Factor with the Potential to Treat Angiogenesis-Dependent as Well as Macrophage-Associated Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that tissue factor (TF is selectively expressed in pathological angiogenesis-dependent as well as macrophage-associated human diseases. Pathological angiogenesis, the formation of neovasculature, is involved in many clinically significant human diseases, notably cancer, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, endometriosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Macrophage is involved in the progression of a variety of human diseases, such as atherosclerosis and viral infections (human immunodeficiency virus, HIV and Ebola. It is well documented that TF is selectively expressed on angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VECs in these pathological angiogenesis-dependent human diseases and on disease-associated macrophages. Under physiology condition, TF is not expressed by quiescent VECs and monocytes but is solely restricted on some cells (such as pericytes that are located outside of blood circulation and the inner layer of blood vessel walls. Here, we summarize TF expression on angiogenic VECs, macrophages and other diseased cell types in these human diseases. In cancer, for example, the cancer cells also overexpress TF in solid cancers and leukemia. Moreover, our group recently reported that TF is also expressed by cancer-initiating stem cells (CSCs and can serve as a novel oncotarget for eradication of CSCs without drug resistance. Furthermore, we review and discuss two generations of TF-targeting therapeutic antibody-like immunoconjugates (ICON and L-ICON1 and antibody-drug conjugates that are currently being tested in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of some of these human diseases. If efficacy and safety are proven in current and future clinical trials, TF-targeting immunoconjugates may provide novel therapeutic approaches with potential to broadly impact the treatment regimen of these significant angiogenesis-dependent, as well as macrophage-associated, human diseases.

  9. Macrophage mitochondrial oxidative stress promotes atherosclerosis and nuclear factor-κB-mediated inflammation in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Wang, Gary Z; Rabinovitch, Peter S; Tabas, Ira

    2014-01-31

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress (mitoOS) has been shown to correlate with the progression of human atherosclerosis. However, definitive cell type-specific causation studies in vivo are lacking, and the molecular mechanisms of potential proatherogenic effects remain to be determined. Our aims were to assess the importance of macrophage mitoOS in atherogenesis and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. We first validated Western diet-fed Ldlr(-/-) mice as a model of human mitoOS-atherosclerosis association by showing that non-nuclear oxidative DNA damage, a marker of mitoOS in lesional macrophages, correlates with aortic root lesion development. To investigate the importance of macrophage mitoOS, we used a genetic engineering strategy in which the OS suppressor catalase was ectopically expressed in mitochondria (mCAT) in macrophages. MitoOS in lesional macrophages was successfully suppressed in these mice, and this led to a significant reduction in aortic root lesional area. The mCAT lesions had less monocyte-derived cells, less Ly6c(hi) monocyte infiltration into lesions, and lower levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. The decrease in lesional monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was associated with the suppression of other markers of inflammation and with decreased phosphorylation of RelA (NF-κB p65), indicating decreased activation of the proinflammatory NF-κB pathway. Using models of mitoOS in cultured macrophages, we showed that mCAT suppressed monocyte chemotactic protein-1 expression by decreasing the activation of the IκB-kinase β-RelA NF-κB pathway. MitoOS in lesional macrophages amplifies atherosclerotic lesion development by promoting NF-κB-mediated entry of monocytes and other inflammatory processes. In view of the mitoOS-atherosclerosis link in human atheromata, these findings reveal a potentially new therapeutic target to prevent the progression of atherosclerosis.

  10. Changes in the topology of gene expression networks by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Girón, María Juliana; García-Vallejo, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    One key step of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is the integration of its viral cDNA. This process is mediated through complex networks of host-virus interactions that alter several normal cell functions of the host. To study the complexity of disturbances in cell gene expression networks by HIV-1 integration, we constructed a network of human macrophage genes located close to chromatin regions rich in proviruses. To perform the network analysis, we selected 28 genes previously identified as the target of cDNA integration and their transcriptional profiles were obtained from GEO Profiles (NCBI). A total of 2770 interactions among the 28 genes located around the HIV-1 proviruses in human macrophages formed a highly dense main network connected to five sub-networks. The overall network was significantly enriched by genes associated with signal transduction, cellular communication and regulatory processes. To simulate the effects of HIV-1 integration in infected macrophages, five genes with the most number of interaction in the normal network were turned off by putting in zero the correspondent expression values. The HIV-1 infected network showed changes in its topology and alteration in the macrophage functions reflected in a re-programming of biosynthetic and general metabolic process. Understanding the complex virus-host interactions that occur during HIV-1 integration, may provided valuable genomic information to develop new antiviral treatments focusing on the management of some specific gene expression networks associated with viral integration. This is the first gene network which describes the human macrophages genes interactions related with HIV-1 integration. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Foam Microrheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRAYNIK, ANDREW M.; LOEWENBERG, MICHAEL; REINELT, DOUGLAS A.

    1999-01-01

    The microrheology of liquid foams is discussed for two different regimes: static equilibrium where the capillary number Ca is zero, and the viscous regime where viscosity and surface tension are important and Ca is finite. The Surface Evolver is used to calculate the equilibrium structure of wet Kelvin foams and dry soap froths with random structure, i.e., topological disorder. The distributions of polyhedra and faces are compared with the experimental data of Matzke. Simple shearing flow of a random foam under quasistatic conditions is also described. Viscous phenomena are explored in the context of uniform expansion of 2D and 3D foams at low Reynolds number. Boundary integral methods are used to calculate the influence of Ca on the evolution of foam microstructure, which includes bubble shape and the distribution of liquid between films, Plateau borders, and (in 3D) the nodes where Plateau borders meet. The micromechanical point of view guides the development of structure-property-processing relationships for foams

  12. dsmcFoam+: An OpenFOAM based direct simulation Monte Carlo solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C.; Borg, M. K.; Scanlon, T. J.; Longshaw, S. M.; John, B.; Emerson, D. R.; Reese, J. M.

    2018-03-01

    dsmcFoam+ is a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) solver for rarefied gas dynamics, implemented within the OpenFOAM software framework, and parallelised with MPI. It is open-source and released under the GNU General Public License in a publicly available software repository that includes detailed documentation and tutorial DSMC gas flow cases. This release of the code includes many features not found in standard dsmcFoam, such as molecular vibrational and electronic energy modes, chemical reactions, and subsonic pressure boundary conditions. Since dsmcFoam+ is designed entirely within OpenFOAM's C++ object-oriented framework, it benefits from a number of key features: the code emphasises extensibility and flexibility so it is aimed first and foremost as a research tool for DSMC, allowing new models and test cases to be developed and tested rapidly. All DSMC cases are as straightforward as setting up any standard OpenFOAM case, as dsmcFoam+ relies upon the standard OpenFOAM dictionary based directory structure. This ensures that useful pre- and post-processing capabilities provided by OpenFOAM remain available even though the fully Lagrangian nature of a DSMC simulation is not typical of most OpenFOAM applications. We show that dsmcFoam+ compares well to other well-known DSMC codes and to analytical solutions in terms of benchmark results.

  13. Cloning of a cDNA encoding chitotriosidase, a human chitinase produced by macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, R. G.; Renkema, G. H.; Strijland, A.; van Zonneveld, A. J.; Aerts, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    We have recently observed that chitotriosidase, a chitinolytic enzyme, is secreted by activated human macrophages and is markedly elevated in plasma of Gaucher disease patients (Hollak, C. E. M., van Weely, S., van Oers, M. H. J., and Aerts, J. M. F. G. (1994) J. Clin. Invest. 93, 1288-1292). Here,

  14. The Probiotic Mixture VSL#3 Alters the Morphology and Secretion Profile of Both Polarized and Unpolarized Human Macrophages in a Polarization-Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Raymond A.; Bonilla, Fernando J.; Pagan, Hendrick; Cruz, Myrella L.; Lopez, Pablo; Godoy, Lenin; Hernandez, Siomara; Loucil-Alicea, Raisa Y.; Rivera-Amill, Vanessa; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Isidro, Angel A.; Appleyard, Caroline B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), most commonly Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC), suffer from chronic intestinal inflammation of unknown etiology. Increased proinflammatory macrophages (M1) have been documented in tissue from patients with CD. Anti-inflammatory macrophages (M2) may play a role in UC given the preponderance of Th2 cytokines in this variant of IBD. Animal and clinical studies have shown that the probiotic VSL#3 can ameliorate signs and symptoms of IBD. Although animal data suggests a modulatory effect on macrophage phenotype, the effect of VSL#3 on human macrophages remains unknown. Objective To determine the effect of the probiotic VSL#3 on the phenotype of polarized (M1/M2) and unpolarized (MΦ) human macrophages. Methods Human monocyte-derived macrophages, generated by culturing monocytes with M-CSF, were left unpolarized or were polarized towards an M1 or an M2 phenotype by culture with LPS and IFN-γ or IL-4, respectively, and were then cultured in the presence or absence of VSL#3 for 3 days. Changes in macrophage morphology were assessed. Cytokine and chemokine levels in supernatants were determined by multiplex assay. Results VSL#3 decreased the granuloma-like aggregates of M1 macrophages, increased fibroblast-like M2 macrophages, and decreased fibroblast-like MΦ macrophages. VSL#3 increased the secretion of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and G-CSF by M1, M2, and MΦ macrophages. VSL#3 exposure maintained the proinflammatory phenotype of M1 macrophages, sustaining IL-12 secretion, increasing IL-23 secretion, and decreasing MDC secretion. Both VSL#3-treated M2 and MΦ macrophages secreted higher levels of anti-inflammatory and pro-healing factors such as IL-1Ra, IL-13, EGF, FGF-2, TGF-α, and VEGF, as well as proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-12 and TNF-α. Conclusion Under our experimental conditions VSL#3 induced a mixed proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotype in polarized and unpolarized

  15. Flexible Foam Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K.; Lu, Wei-Yang; Werner, Brian T.; Scherzinger, William M.; Lo, Chi S.

    2018-03-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of a 15 pcf flexible polyurethane foam to large deformation at different strain rates and temperatures. Results from these experiments indicated that at room temperature, flexible polyurethane foams exhibit significant nonlinear elastic deformation and nearly return to their original undeformed shape when unloaded. However, when these foams are cooled to temperatures below their glass transition temperature of approximately -35 o C, they behave like rigid polyurethane foams and exhibit significant permanent deformation when compressed. Thus, a new model which captures this dramatic change in behavior with temperature was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Flex_Foam to describe the mechanical response of both flexible and rigid foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments. Next, development of the Flex Foam model for flexible polyurethane and other flexible foams is described. Selection of material parameters are discussed and finite element simulations with the new Flex Foam model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this new model.

  16. Benzo(a)pyrene activation and detoxification by human pulmonary alveolar macrophages and lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, M.V.; McLemore, T.L.; Martin, R.R.; Marshall, M.H.; Wray, N.P.; Busbee, D.L.; Cantrell, E.T.; Arnott, M.S.; Griffin, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of pulmonary alveolar macrophages and circulating lymphocytes from five smokers and five nonsmokers for their ability to metabolize benzo(a)pyrene as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography were carried out. Utilizing this approach, further investigation of activation and detoxification by several human cell types could provide the basis for more precise and comprehensive studies of carcinogen and drug metabolism in the human lung, and for a better assessment of cancer risk in selected populations

  17. TAM receptor-dependent regulation of SOCS3 and MAPKs contributes to proinflammatory cytokine downregulation following chronic NOD2 stimulation of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shasha; Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2015-02-15

    Microbial-induced cytokine regulation is critical to intestinal immune homeostasis. Acute stimulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), the Crohn's disease-associated sensor of bacterial peptidoglycan, induces cytokines. However, cytokines are attenuated after chronic NOD2 and pattern recognition receptor stimulation of macrophages; similar attenuation is observed in intestinal macrophages. The role of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors in regulating chronic pattern recognition receptor stimulation and NOD2-induced outcomes has not been examined. Moreover, TAM receptors have been relatively less investigated in human macrophages. Whereas TAM receptors did not downregulate acute NOD2-induced cytokines in primary human macrophages, they were essential for downregulating signaling and proinflammatory cytokine secretion after chronic NOD2 and TLR4 stimulation. Axl and Mer were similarly required in mice for cytokine downregulation after chronic NOD2 stimulation in vivo and in intestinal tissues. Consistently, TAM expression was increased in human intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Chronic NOD2 stimulation led to IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent TAM upregulation in human macrophages, which, in turn, upregulated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression. Restoring suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression under TAM knockdown conditions restored chronic NOD2-mediated proinflammatory cytokine downregulation. In contrast to the upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, attenuated IL-10 secretion was maintained in TAM-deficient macrophages upon chronic NOD2 stimulation. The level of MAPK activation in TAM-deficient macrophages after chronic NOD2 stimulation was insufficient to upregulate IL-10 secretion; however, full restoration of MAPK activation under these conditions restored c-Fos, c-Jun, musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog K, and PU.1 binding to the IL-10 promoter and IL-10 secretion. Therefore, TAM receptors are critical for

  18. Downregulation of host tryptophan-aspartate containing coat (TACO gene restricts the entry and survival of Leishmania donovani in human macrophage model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswara Reddy Gogulamudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania are obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of mammalian hosts. Promastigotes of Leishmania are internalized by macrophages and transformed into amastigotes in phagosomes, and replicate in phagolysosomes. Phagosomal maturation arrest is known to play a central role in the survival of pathogenic Leishmania within activated macrophages. Recently, tryptophan-aspartate containing coat (TACO gene has been recognized as playing a crucial role in the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis within human macrophages by arresting the phagosome maturation process. We postulated that a similar association of TACO gene with phagosomes would prevent the vacuole from maturation in the case of Leishmania. In this study we attempted to define the effect of TACO gene downregulation on the uptake/survival of Leishmania donovani intracellularly, by treatment with Vitamin D3/Retinoic acid (RA & Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA/Retinoic acid (RA combinations in human THP-1 macrophages (in vitro. Treatment with these molecules downregulated the TACO gene in macrophages, resulting in reduced parasite load and marked reduction of disease progression in L. donovani infected macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that TACO gene downregulation may play a role in subverting macrophage machinery in establishing the L.donovani replicative niche inside the host. Our study is the first to highlight the importantrole of the TACO gene in Leishmania entry, and to identify TACO gene downregulation as potential drug target against leishmaniasis.

  19. PUR-PIR foam produced based on poly(hydroxybutyl citrate foamed founded with different factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liszkowska Joanna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A poly(hydroxybutyl citrate p(HBC was obtained. The product compound produced in the solution during esterification, was added to rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate foams (PUR-PIR. The amount of petrochemical polyol in the foams was decreased in favor of the p(HBC from 0.1 to 0.5 equivalent. The foams were foamed in two ways: with distilled water (W foams and with Solkane 365/227 (S foams. The examination results of both foam series were compared. They showed that the foams foamed with water have higher softening temperature than the foams foamed with solkane. The retention values for both foam series are around 91–95%, and water absorption in the range of 0.7–3.2%. The anisotropy coefficient did not exceed 1.08 (the lowest value being 1.01.

  20. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  1. The Dipeptidyl Peptidases 4, 8, and 9 in Mouse Monocytes and Macrophages: DPP8/9 Inhibition Attenuates M1 Macrophage Activation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waumans, Yannick; Vliegen, Gwendolyn; Maes, Lynn; Rombouts, Miche; Declerck, Ken; Van Der Veken, Pieter; Vanden Berghe, Wim; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien; De Meester, Ingrid

    2016-02-01

    Atherosclerosis remains the leading cause of death in Western countries. Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) 4 has emerged as a novel target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Family members DPP8 and 9 are abundantly present in macrophage-rich regions of atherosclerotic plaques, and DPP9 inhibition attenuates activation of human M1 macrophages in vitro. Studying this family in a mouse model for atherosclerosis would greatly advance our knowledge regarding their potential as therapeutic targets. We found that DPP4 is downregulated during mouse monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation. DPP8 and 9 expression seems relatively low in mouse monocytes and macrophages. Viability of primary mouse macrophages is unaffected by DPP4 or DPP8/9 inhibition. Importantly, DPP8/9 inhibition attenuates macrophage activation as IL-6 secretion is significantly decreased. Mouse macrophages respond similarly to DPP inhibition, compared to human macrophages. This shows that the mouse could become a valid model species for the study of DPPs as therapeutic targets in atherosclerosis.

  2. HSV-1-induced chemokine expression via IFI16-dependent and IFI16-independent pathways in human monocyte-derived macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søby, Stine; Laursen, Rune R; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Innate recognition is essential in the antiviral response against infection by herpes simplex virus (HSV). Chemokines are important for control of HSV via recruitment of natural killer cells, T lymphocytes, and antigen-presenting cells. We previously found that early HSV-1......-mediated chemokine responses are not dependent on TLR2 and TLR9 in human macrophages. Here, we investigated the role of the recently identified innate IFN-inducible DNA receptor IFI16 during HSV-1 infection in human macrophages. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were purified from buffy coats...

  3. Genome-wide analysis reveals loci encoding anti-macrophage factors in the human pathogen Burkholderia pseudomallei K96243.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea J Dowling

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei is an important human pathogen whose infection biology is still poorly understood. The bacterium is endemic to tropical regions, including South East Asia and Northern Australia, where it causes melioidosis, a serious disease associated with both high mortality and antibiotic resistance. B. pseudomallei is a Gram-negative facultative intracellular pathogen that is able to replicate in macrophages. However despite the critical nature of its interaction with macrophages, few anti-macrophage factors have been characterized to date. Here we perform a genome-wide gain of function screen of B. pseudomallei strain K96243 to identify loci encoding factors with anti-macrophage activity. We identify a total of 113 such loci scattered across both chromosomes, with positive gene clusters encoding transporters and secretion systems, enzymes/toxins, secondary metabolite, biofilm, adhesion and signal response related factors. Further phenotypic analysis of four of these regions shows that the encoded factors cause striking cellular phenotypes relevant to infection biology, including apoptosis, formation of actin 'tails' and multi-nucleation within treated macrophages. The detailed analysis of the remaining host of loci will facilitate genetic dissection of the interaction of this important pathogen with host macrophages and thus further elucidate this critical part of its infection cycle.

  4. Dielectric and Radiative Properties of Sea Foam at Microwave Frequencies: Conceptual Understanding of Foam Emissivity

    OpenAIRE

    Peter W. Gaiser; Magdalena D. Anguelova

    2012-01-01

    Foam fraction can be retrieved from space-based microwave radiometric data at frequencies from 1 to 37 GHz. The retrievals require modeling of ocean surface emissivity fully covered with sea foam. To model foam emissivity well, knowledge of foam properties, both mechanical and dielectric, is necessary because these control the radiative processes in foam. We present a physical description of foam dielectric properties obtained from the foam dielectric constant including foam skin depth; foam ...

  5. Operator spin foam models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Benjamin; Hellmann, Frank; Kaminski, Wojciech; Kisielowski, Marcin; Lewandowski, Jerzy

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to introduce a systematic approach to spin foams. We define operator spin foams, that is foams labelled by group representations and operators, as our main tool. A set of moves we define in the set of the operator spin foams (among other operations) allows us to split the faces and the edges of the foams. We assign to each operator spin foam a contracted operator, by using the contractions at the vertices and suitably adjusted face amplitudes. The emergence of the face amplitudes is the consequence of assuming the invariance of the contracted operator with respect to the moves. Next, we define spin foam models and consider the class of models assumed to be symmetric with respect to the moves we have introduced, and assuming their partition functions (state sums) are defined by the contracted operators. Briefly speaking, those operator spin foam models are invariant with respect to the cellular decomposition, and are sensitive only to the topology and colouring of the foam. Imposing an extra symmetry leads to a family we call natural operator spin foam models. This symmetry, combined with assumed invariance with respect to the edge splitting move, determines a complete characterization of a general natural model. It can be obtained by applying arbitrary (quantum) constraints on an arbitrary BF spin foam model. In particular, imposing suitable constraints on a spin(4) BF spin foam model is exactly the way we tend to view 4D quantum gravity, starting with the BC model and continuing with the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine (EPRL) or Freidel-Krasnov (FK) models. That makes our framework directly applicable to those models. Specifically, our operator spin foam framework can be translated into the language of spin foams and partition functions. Among our natural spin foam models there are the BF spin foam model, the BC model, and a model corresponding to the EPRL intertwiners. Our operator spin foam framework can also be used for more general spin

  6. Bubble and foam chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    This indispensable guide will equip the reader with a thorough understanding of the field of foaming chemistry. Assuming only basic theoretical background knowledge, the book provides a straightforward introduction to the principles and properties of foams and foaming surfactants. It discusses the key ideas that underpin why foaming occurs, how it can be avoided and how different degrees of antifoaming can be achieved, and covers the latest test methods, including laboratory and industrial developed techniques. Detailing a variety of different kinds of foams, from wet detergents and food foams, to polymeric, material and metal foams, it connects theory to real-world applications and recent developments in foam research. Combining academic and industrial viewpoints, this book is the definitive stand-alone resource for researchers, students and industrialists working on foam technology, colloidal systems in the field of chemical engineering, fluid mechanics, physical chemistry, and applied physics.

  7. Increased platelet reactivity is associated with circulating platelet-monocyte complexes and macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Rutten

    Full Text Available Platelet reactivity, platelet binding to monocytes and monocyte infiltration play a detrimental role in atherosclerotic plaque progression. We investigated whether platelet reactivity was associated with levels of circulating platelet-monocyte complexes (PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.Platelet reactivity was determined by measuring platelet P-selectin expression after platelet stimulation with increasing concentrations of adenosine diphosphate (ADP, in two independent cohorts: the Circulating Cells cohort (n = 244 and the Athero-Express cohort (n = 91. Levels of PMCs were assessed by flow cytometry in blood samples of patients who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (Circulating Cells cohort. Monocyte infiltration was semi-quantitatively determined by histological examination of atherosclerotic carotid plaques collected during carotid endarterectomy (Athero-Express cohort.We found increased platelet reactivity in patients with high PMCs as compared to patients with low PMCs (median (interquartile range: 4153 (1585-11267 area under the curve (AUC vs. 9633 (3580-21565 AUC, P<0.001. Also, we observed increased platelet reactivity in patients with high macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques as compared to patients with low macrophage levels in atherosclerotic plaques (mean ± SD; 8969 ± 3485 AUC vs. 7020 ± 3442 AUC, P = 0.02. All associations remained significant after adjustment for age, sex and use of drugs against platelet activation.Platelet reactivity towards ADP is associated with levels of PMCs and macrophages in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.

  8. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-01-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO 2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO 2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO 2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO 2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO 2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment. (paper)

  9. Differential trafficking of oxidized LDL and oxidized LDL immune complexes in macrophages: impact on oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Al Gadban

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC contribute to formation of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells. It has been shown that oxLDL-IC are considerably more efficient than oxLDL in induction of foam cell formation, inflammatory cytokines secretion, and cell survival promotion. Whereas oxLDL is taken up by several scavenger receptors, oxLDL-IC are predominantly internalized through the FCgamma receptor I (FCgamma RI. This study examined differences in intracellular trafficking of lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL and oxLDL-IC and the impact on oxidative stress.Fluorescently labeled lipid and protein moieties of oxLDL co-localized within endosomal and lysosomal compartments in U937 human monocytic cells. In contrast, the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC was detected in the endosomal compartment, whereas its apolipoprotein moiety advanced to the lysosomal compartment. Cells treated with oxLDL-IC prior to oxLDL demonstrated co-localization of internalized lipid moieties from both oxLDL and oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This sequential treatment likely inhibited oxLDL lipid moieties from trafficking to the lysosomal compartment. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, oxLDL-IC but not oxLDL induced GFP-tagged heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and HSP70B', which co-localized with the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This suggests that HSP70 family members might prevent the degradation of the internalized lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC by delaying its advancement to the lysosome. The data also showed that mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was increased in U937 cell treated with oxLDL compared to oxLDL-IC.Findings suggest that lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL-IC traffic to separate cellular compartments, and that HSP70/70B' might sequester the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This mechanism could

  10. Foam engineering fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Containing contributions from leading academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a much needed update of foam science research. The first section of the book presents an accessible summary of the theory and fundamentals of foams. This includes chapters on morphology, drainage, Ostwald ripening, coalescence, rheology, and pneumatic foams. The second section demonstrates how this theory is used in a wide range of industrial applications, including foam fractionation, froth flotation and foam mitigation. It includes chapters on suprafroths, flotation of oil sands, foams in enhancing petroleum recovery, Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in foam, foams in glass manufacturing, fire-fighting foam technology and consumer product foams.

  11. The differential role of human macrophage in triggering secondary bystander effects after either gamma-ray or carbon beam irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chen; He, Mingyuan; Tu, Wenzhi; Konishi, Teruaki; Liu, Weili; Xie, Yuexia; Dang, Bingrong; Li, Wenjian; Uchihori, Yukio; Hei, Tom K; Shao, Chunlin

    2015-07-10

    The abscopal effect could be an underlying factor in evaluating prognosis of radiotherapy. This study established an in vitro system to examine whether tumor-generated bystander signals could be transmitted by macrophages to further trigger secondary cellular responses after different irradiations, where human lung cancer NCI-H446 cells were irradiated with either γ-rays or carbon ions and co-cultured with human macrophage U937 cells, then these U937 cells were used as a bystander signal transmitter and co-cultured with human bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B. Results showed that U937 cells were only activated by γ-irradiated NCI-H446 cells so that the secondary injuries in BEAS-2B cells under carbon ion irradiation were weaker than γ-rays. Both TNF-α and IL-1α were involved in the γ-irradiation induced secondary bystander effect but only TNF-α contributed to the carbon ion induced response. Further assay disclosed that IL-1α but not TNF-α was largely responsible for the activation of macrophages and the formation of micronucleus in BEAS-2B cells. These data suggest that macrophages could transfer secondary bystander signals and play a key role in the secondary bystander effect of photon irradiation, while carbon ion irradiation has conspicuous advantage due to its reduced secondary injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Foams theory, measurements, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Saad A

    1996-01-01

    This volume discusses the physics and physical processes of foam and foaming. It delineates various measurement techniques for characterizing foams and foam properties as well as the chemistry and application of foams. The use of foams in the textile industry, personal care products, enhanced oil recovery, firefighting and mineral floatation are highlighted, and the connection between the microstructure and physical properties of foam are detailed. Coverage includes nonaqueous foams and silicone antifoams, and more.

  13. Inhibitory effect of Piper betel leaf extracts on copper-mediated LDL oxidation and oxLDL-induced lipid accumulation via inducing reverse cholesterol transport in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Gwo-Chin; Wu, Pei-Fang; Tseng, Hsien-Chun; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2013-12-15

    Piper betel leaf (PBL) has the biological capabilities of detoxification and can work as an anti-inflammatory agent and an anti-oxidant. In this study, we evaluated the anti-oxidative activity of the extract of Piper betel leaves (PBLs) on the basis of Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation, and its ability to prevent foam cell formation in a model for oxidised low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages. Our data demonstrated that PBLs were able to inhibit LDL oxidation in vitro and are able to reduce the lipid accumulation in macrophages. We showed the underlying mechanisms to be the following: PBLs up-regulated the protein levels of the class A and class B scavenger receptors, the membrane lipid transporter ABCA1, and its upstream regulator Liver X receptor (LXR) in the macrophages exposed to oxLDL. The results suggested that PBLs activated the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism to enhance the metabolism of the oxLDL that could prevent both lipid accumulation and foam cell formation and further minimise the possible damage of vessels caused by the oxLDL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Noninvasive imaging of intracellular lipid metabolism in macrophages by Raman microscopy in combination with stable isotopic labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthäus, Christian; Krafft, Christoph; Dietzek, Benjamin; Brehm, Bernhard R; Lorkowski, Stefan; Popp, Jürgen

    2012-10-16

    Monocyte-derived macrophages play a key role in atherogenesis because their transformation into foam cells is responsible for deposition of lipids in plaques within arterial walls. The appearance of cytosolic lipid droplets is a hallmark of macrophage foam cell formation, and the molecular basics involved in this process are not well understood. Of particular interest is the intracellular fate of different individual lipid species, such as fatty acids or cholesterol. Here, we utilize Raman microscopy to image the metabolism of such lipids and to trace their subsequent storage patterns. The combination of microscopic information with Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful molecular imaging method, which allows visualization at the diffraction limit of the employed laser light and biochemical characterization through associated spectral information. In order to distinguish the molecules of interest from other naturally occurring lipids spectroscopically, deuterium labels were introduced. Intracellular distribution and metabolic changes were observed for serum albumin-complexed palmitic and oleic acid and cholesterol and quantitatively evaluated by monitoring the increase in CD scattering intensities at 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 24, 30, and 36 h. This approach may also allow for investigating the cellular trafficking of other molecules, such as nutrients, metabolites, and drugs.

  15. alpha-MSH and its receptors in regulation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by human monocyte/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherzadeh, S; Sharma, S; Chhajlani, V; Gantz, I; Rajora, N; Demitri, M T; Kelly, L; Zhao, H; Ichiyama, T; Catania, A; Lipton, J M

    1999-05-01

    The hypothesis that macrophages contain an autocrine circuit based on melanocortin [ACTH and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)] peptides has major implications for neuroimmunomodulation research and inflammation therapy. To test this hypothesis, cells of the THP-1 human monocyte/macrophage line were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence and absence of alpha-MSH. The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha was inhibited in relation to alpha-MSH concentration. Similar inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha were observed with ACTH peptides that contain the alpha-MSH amino acid sequence and act on melanocortin receptors. Nuclease protection assays indicated that expression of the human melanocortin-1 receptor subtype (hMC-1R) occurs in THP-1 cells; Southern blots of RT-PCR product revealed that additional subtypes, hMC-3R and hMC-5R, also occur. Incubation of resting macrophages with antibody to hMC-1R increased TNF-alpha concentration; the antibody also markedly reduced the inhibitory influence of alpha-MSH on TNF-alpha in macrophages treated with LPS. These results in cells known to produce alpha-MSH at rest and to increase secretion of the peptide when challenged are consistent with an endogenous regulatory circuit based on melanocortin peptides and their receptors. Targeting of this neuroimmunomodulatory circuit in inflammatory diseases in which myelomonocytic cells are prominent should be beneficial.

  16. Comparison of the effects of pioglitazone and rosiglitazone on macrophage foam cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirakata, Masao; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Imura, Yoshimi; Sugiyama, Yasuo

    2004-01-01

    In order to elucidate the antiatherogenic effects of pioglitazone (a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]γ agonist with PPARα agonistic activity) and rosiglitazone (a more selective PPARγ agonist), we examined gene expression and cholesteryl ester accumulation in THP-1-derived macrophages. Pioglitazone enhanced the mRNA expression of the proatherogenic factors CD36 and adipophilin, but was approximately 10 times less potent than rosiglitazone. The potencies of the two agents appeared to correspond to their PPARγ agonistic activities in this respect. However, both agents were similarly potent in enhancing the mRNA expression of the antiatherogenic factors liver X receptor α and ATP-binding cassette-transporter A1. Furthermore, both agents enhanced cholesteryl ester hydrolase mRNA expression and inhibited acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase-1 mRNA expression and cholesteryl ester accumulation in macrophages. In this respect, their potencies appeared to correspond to their PPARα agonistic activities. These results suggest that pioglitazone has an equally beneficial effect on antiatherogenic events to rosiglitazone, despite being almost 10 times less potent than a PPARγ agonist

  17. Starch/fiber/poly(lactic acid) foam and compressed foam composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composites of starch, fiber, and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were made using a foam substrate formed by dehydrating starch or starch/fiber gels. PLA was infiltrated into the dry foam to provide better moisture resistance. Foam composites were compressed into plastics using force ranging from 4-76MPa. Te...

  18. Th1-like human T-cell clones recognizing Leishmania gp63 inhibit Leishmania major in human macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Hey, A S; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    The major surface protease of Leishmania major, gp63, has been suggested as a vaccine candidate for cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study gp63 was purified from L. major promastigotes. A panel of human T-cell clones recognizing this protein were generated from individuals who had previously had...... resembling Th1 cells. Autologous mononuclear cells and Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cell lines were equally efficient in presenting the antigen to the T cells. The gp63 reactive T cells induced resistance to infection in cultured human macrophages by L. major. The data confirm that human CD4+ T cells...... recognizing gp63 can take part in the host defence against L. major infections....

  19. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Induces the Expression of Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1 in Human Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chinetti-Gbaguidi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is the initiator of the blood coagulation cascade after interaction with the activated factor VII (FVIIa. Moreover, the TF/FVIIa complex also activates intracellular signalling pathways leading to the production of inflammatory cytokines. The TF/FVIIa complex is inhibited by the tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI-1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ is a transcription factor that, together with PPARα and PPARβ/δ, controls macrophage functions. However, whether PPARγ activation modulates the expression of TFP1-1 in human macrophages is not known. Here we report that PPARγ activation increases the expression of TFPI-1 in human macrophages in vitro as well as in vivo in circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The induction of TFPI-1 expression by PPARγ ligands, an effect shared by the activation of PPARα and PPARβ/δ, occurs also in proinflammatory M1 and in anti-inflammatory M2 polarized macrophages. As a functional consequence, treatment with PPARγ ligands significantly reduces the inflammatory response induced by FVIIa, as measured by variations in the IL-8, MMP-2, and MCP-1 expression. These data identify a novel role for PPARγ in the control of TF the pathway.

  20. Multifunctional foaming agent to prepare aluminum foam with enhanced mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xun; Liu, Ying; Ye, Jinwen; An, Xuguang; Ran, Huaying

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, CuSO4 was used as foaming agent to prepare close cell Aluminum foam(Al foam) at the temperature range of 680 °C ∼ 758 °C for the first time. The results show that CuSO4 has multifunctional such as, foaming, viscosity increasing, reinforcement in Al matrix, it has a wide decomposition temperature range of 641 °C ∼ 816 °C, its sustain-release time is 5.5 min at 758 °C. The compression stress and energy absorption of CuSO4-Al foam is 6.89 Mpa and 4.82 × 106 J m‑3(compression strain 50%), which are 77.12% and 99.17% higher than that of TiH2-Al foam at the same porosity(76% in porosity) due to the reinforcement in Al matrix and uniform pore dispersion.

  1. Foam Glass for Construction Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund

    2016-01-01

    Foaming is commonly achieved by adding foaming agents such as metal oxides or metal carbonates to glass powder. At elevated temperature, the glass melt becomes viscous and the foaming agents decompose or react to form gas, causing a foamy glass melt. Subsequent cooling to room temperature, result...... in a solid foam glass. The foam glass industry employs a range of different melt precursors and foaming agents. Recycle glass is key melt precursors. Many parameters influence the foaming process and optimising the foaming conditions is very time consuming. The most challenging and attractive goal is to make...... low density foam glass for thermal insulation applications. In this thesis, it is argued that the use of metal carbonates as foaming agents is not suitable for low density foam glass. A reaction mechanism is proposed to justify this result. Furthermore, an in situ method is developed to optimise...

  2. Cloning the human lysozyme cDNA: Inverted Alu repeat in the mRNA and in situ hybridization for macrophages and Paneth cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, L.P.; Keshav, S.; Gordon, S.

    1988-01-01

    Lysozyme is a major secretory product of human and rodent macrophages and a useful marker for myelomonocytic cells. Based on the known human lysozyme amino acid sequence, oligonucleotides were synthesized and used as probes to screen a phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-treated U937 cDNA library. A full-length human lysozyme cDNA clone, pHL-2, was obtained and characterized. Sequence analysis shows that human lysozyme, like chicken lysozyme, has in 18-amino-acid-long signal peptide, but unlike the chicken lysozyme cDNA, the human lysozyme cDNA has a >1-kilobase-long 3' nontranslated sequence. Interestingly, within this 3' region, an inverted repeat of the Alu family of repetitive sequences was discovered. In RNA blot analyses, DNA probes prepared from pHL-2 can be used to detect lysozyme mRNA not only from human but also from mouse and rat. Moreover, by in situ hybridization, complementary RNA transcripts have been used as probes to detect lysozyme mRNA in mouse macrophages and Paneth cells. This human lysozyme cDNA clone is therefore likely to be a useful molecular probe for studying macrophage distribution and gene expression

  3. Physiological and behavioral responses of poultry exposed to gas-filled high expansion foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, D E F; Reimert, H G M; Hindle, V A; Boulcott, P; Sparrey, J M; Wathes, C M; Demmers, T G M; Gerritzen, M A

    2013-05-01

    Disease control measures require poultry to be killed on farms to minimize the risk of disease being transmitted to other poultry and, in some cases, to protect public health. We assessed the welfare implications for poultry of the use of high-expansion gas-filled foam as a potentially humane, emergency killing method. In laboratory trials, broiler chickens, adult laying hens, ducks, and turkeys were exposed to air-, N2-, or CO2-filled high expansion foam (expansion ratio 300:1) under standardized conditions. Birds were equipped with sensors to measure cardiac and brain activity, and measurements of oxygen concentration in the foam were carried out. Initial behavioral responses to foam were not pronounced but included headshakes and brief bouts of wing flapping. Both N2- and CO2-filled foam rapidly induced ataxia/loss of posture and vigorous wing flapping in all species, characteristic of anoxic death. Immersion in air-filled, high expansion foam had little effect on physiology or behavior. Physiological responses to both N2- and CO2-filled foam were characterized by a pronounced bradyarrythymia and a series of consistent changes in the appearance of the electroencephalogram. These were used to determine an unequivocal time to loss of consciousness in relation to submersion. Mean time to loss of consciousness was 30 s in hens and 18 s in broilers exposed to N2-filled foam, and 16 s in broilers, 1 s in ducks, and 15 s in turkeys exposed to CO2-filled foam. Euthanasia achieved with anoxic foam was particularly rapid, which is explained by the very low oxygen concentrations (below 1%) inside the foam. Physiological observations and postmortem examination showed that the mode of action of high expansion, gas-filled foam is anoxia, not occlusion of the airway. These trials provide proof-of-principle that submersion in gas-filled, high expansion foam provides a rapid and highly effective method of euthanasia, which may have potential to provide humane emergency killing

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection causes different levels of apoptosis and necrosis in human macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelishvili, Lia; McGarvey, Jeffery; Li, Yong-Jun; Bermudez, Luiz E

    2003-09-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis interacts with macrophages and epithelial cells in the alveolar space of the lung, where it is able to invade and replicate in both cell types. M. tuberculosis-associated cytotoxicity to these cells has been well documented, but the mechanisms of host cell death are not well understood. We examined the induction of apoptosis and necrosis of human macrophages (U937) and type II alveolar epithelial cells (A549) by virulent (H37Rv) and attenuated (H37Ra) M. tuberculosis strains. Apoptosis was determined by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay, whereas necrosis was evaluated by the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Both virulent and attenuated M. tuberculosis induced apoptosis in macrophages; however, the attenuated strain resulted in significantly more apoptosis than the virulent strain after 5 days of infection. In contrast, cytotoxicity of alveolar cells was the result of necrosis, but not apoptosis. Although infection with M. tuberculosis strains resulted in apoptosis of 14% of the cells on the monolayer, cell death associated with necrosis was observed in 59% of alveolar epithelial cells after 5 days of infection. Infection with M. tuberculosis suppressed apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells induced by the kinase inhibitor, staurosporine. Because our findings suggest that M. tuberculosis can modulate the apoptotic response of macrophages and epithelial cells, we carried out an apoptosis pathway-specific cDNA microarray analysis of human macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells. Whereas the inhibitors of apoptosis, bcl-2 and Rb, were upregulated over 2.5-fold in infected (48 h) alveolar epithelial cells, the proapoptotic genes, bad and bax, were downregulated. The opposite was observed when U937 macrophages were infected with M. tuberculosis. Upon infection of alveolar epithelial cells with M. tuberculosis, the generation of apoptosis, as determined by the

  5. Preparation of three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam by two-step foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, J.T.; Xuming, Chu; Deping, He

    2008-01-01

    A novel method, named two-step foaming, was investigated to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foam used in car industry, spaceflight, packaging and related areas. Calculations of thermal decomposition kinetics of titanium hydride showed that there is a considerable amount of hydrogen releasing when the titanium hydride is heated at a relatively high temperature after heated at a lower temperature. The hydrogen mass to sustain aluminum alloy foam, having a high porosity, was also estimated by calculations. Calculations indicated that as-received titanium hydride without any pre-treatment can be used as foaming agents in two-step foaming. The processes of two-step foaming, including preparing precursors and baking, were also studied by experiments. Results showed that, low titanium hydride dispersion temperature, long titanium hydride dispersion time and low precursors porosity are beneficial to prepare three-dimensional shaped aluminum alloy foams with uniform pores

  6. Thermal performance enhancement of erythritol/carbon foam composites via surface modification of carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfeng; Lu, Wu; Luo, Zhengping; Zeng, Yibing

    2017-03-01

    The thermal performance of the erythritol/carbon foam composites, including thermal diffusivity, thermal capacity, thermal conductivity and latent heat, were investigated via surface modification of carbon foam using hydrogen peroxide as oxider. It was found that the surface modification enhanced the wetting ability of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol of the carbon foam surface and promoted the increase of erythritol content in the erythritol/carbon foam composites. The dense interfaces were formed between erythritol and carbon foam, which is due to that the formation of oxygen functional groups C=O and C-OH on the carbon surface increased the surface polarity and reduced the interface resistance of carbon foam surface to the liquid erythritol. The latent heat of the erythritol/carbon foam composites increased from 202.0 to 217.2 J/g through surface modification of carbon foam. The thermal conductivity of the erythritol/carbon foam composite before and after surface modification further increased from 40.35 to 51.05 W/(m·K). The supercooling degree of erythritol also had a large decrease from 97 to 54 °C. Additionally, the simple and effective surface modification method of carbon foam provided an extendable way to enhance the thermal performances of the composites composed of carbon foams and PCMs.

  7. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  8. Foam-oil interaction in porous media: implications for foam assisted enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, R; Andrianov, A; Krastev, R; Hirasaki, G J; Rossen, W R

    2012-11-15

    The efficiency of a foam displacement process in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) depends largely on the stability of foam films in the presence of oil. Experimental studies have demonstrated the detrimental impact of oil on foam stability. This paper reviews the mechanisms and theories (disjoining pressure, coalescence and drainage, entering and spreading of oil, oil emulsification, pinch-off, etc.) suggested in the literature to explain the impact of oil on foam stability in the bulk and porous media. Moreover, we describe the existing approaches to foam modeling in porous media and the ways these models describe the oil effect on foam propagation in porous media. Further, we present various ideas on an improvement of foam stability and longevity in the presence of oil. The outstanding questions regarding foam-oil interactions and modeling of these interactions are pointed out. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials for blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitek, John H.

    The pressure wave released from an explosion can cause injury to the lungs. A personal armor system concept for blast lung injury protection consists of a polymer foam layer behind a rigid armor plate to be worn over the chest. This research develops a method for testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials to be used for down-selection of materials for this application. Constitutive equations for foam materials are incorporated into a lumped parameter model of the combined armor plate and foam system. Impact testing and shock tube testing are used to measure the foam model parameters and validate the model response to a pressure wave load. The plate and foam armor model is then coupled to a model of the human thorax. With a blast pressure wave input, the armor model is evaluated based on how it affects the injury-causing mechanism of chest wall motion. Results show that to reduce chest wall motion, the foam must compress at a relatively constant stress level, which requires a sufficient foam thickness.

  10. Carbon particle induced foaming of molten sucrose for the preparation of carbon foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narasimman, R.; Vijayan, Sujith; Prabhakaran, K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An easy method for the preparation of carbon foam from sucrose is presented. • Wood derived activated carbon particles are used to stabilize the molten sucrose foam. • The carbon foams show relatively good mechanical strength. • The carbon foams show excellent CO 2 adsorption and oil absorption properties. • The process could be scaled up for the preparation of large foam bodies. - Abstract: Activated carbon powder was used as a foaming and foam setting agent for the preparation of carbon foams with a hierarchical pore structure from molten sucrose. The rheological measurements revealed the interruption of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in molten sucrose by the carbon particles. The carbon particles stabilized the bubbles in molten sucrose by adsorbing on the molten sucrose–gas interface. The carbon foams obtained at the activated carbon powder to sucrose weight ratios in the range of 0–0.25 had a compressive strength in the range of 1.35–0.31 MPa. The produced carbon foams adsorb 2.59–3.04 mmol/g of CO 2 at 760 mmHg at 273 K and absorb oil from oil–water mixtures and surfactant stabilized oil-in-water emulsions with very good selectivity and recyclability

  11. Macrophage deficiency of miR-21 promotes apoptosis, plaque necrosis, and vascular inflammation during atherogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Rotllan, Noemi; Zhang, Xinbo; Fernández-Fuertes, Marta; Ramírez-Hidalgo, Cristina; Araldi, Elisa; Daimiel, Lidia; Busto, Rebeca; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Suárez, Yajaira

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis, the major cause of cardiovascular disease, is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the accumulation of lipids and inflammatory cells in the artery wall. Aberrant expression of microRNAs has been implicated in the pathophysiological processes underlying the progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we define the contribution of miR-21 in hematopoietic cells during atherogenesis. Interestingly, we found that miR-21 is the most abundant miRNA in macrophages and its absence results in accelerated atherosclerosis, plaque necrosis, and vascular inflammation. miR-21 expression influences foam cell formation, sensitivity to ER-stress-induced apoptosis, and phagocytic clearance capacity. Mechanistically, we discovered that the absence of miR-21 in macrophages increases the expression of the miR-21 target gene, MKK3, promoting the induction of p38-CHOP and JNK signaling. Both pathways enhance macrophage apoptosis and promote the post-translational degradation of ABCG1, a transporter that regulates cholesterol efflux in macrophages. Altogether, these findings reveal a major role for hematopoietic miR-21 in atherogenesis. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  12. C–C Chemokines Released by Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Human Macrophages Suppress HIV-1 Infection in Both Macrophages and T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Alessia; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Comar, Manola; Tresoldi, Eleonora; Polo, Simona; Giacca, Mauro; Lusso, Paolo; Siccardi, Antonio G.; Vercelli, Donata

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) expression in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) infected in vitro is known to be inhibited by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanisms are incompletely understood. We show here that HIV-1 suppression is mediated by soluble factors released by MDM stimulated with physiologically significant concentrations of LPS. LPS-conditioned supernatants from MDM inhibited HIV-1 replication in both MDM and T cells. Depletion of C–C chemokines (RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β) neutralized the ability of LPS-conditioned supernatants to inhibit HIV-1 replication in MDM. A combination of recombinant C–C chemokines blocked HIV-1 infection as effectively as LPS. Here, we report an inhibitory effect of C–C chemokines on HIV replication in primary macrophages. Our results raise the possibility that monocytes may play a dual role in HIV infection: while representing a reservoir for the virus, they may contribute to the containment of the infection by releasing factors that suppress HIV replication not only in monocytes but also in T lymphocytes. PMID:9120386

  13. Adventitial fibroblasts induce a distinct proinflammatory/profibrotic macrophage phenotype in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Karim C; Pugliese, Steven C; Riddle, Suzette R; Poth, Jens M; Anderson, Aimee L; Frid, Maria G; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A; Fini, Mehdi A; Graham, Brian B; Tuder, Rubin M; Friedman, Jacob E; Eltzschig, Holger K; Sokol, Ronald J; Stenmark, Kurt R

    2014-07-15

    Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but is also a critical component of pulmonary artery remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Using multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, and primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive pulmonary arteries (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL-6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation, complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, and deficiency in C/EBPβ or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast-driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL-4/IL-13-STAT6-mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH, and uncover a cross-talk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL-6-activated STAT3, HIF1α, and C/EBPβ signaling are critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL-6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBPβ or HIF1α or by partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL-6 and absent IL-4/IL-13 signaling. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists

  14. Tacaribe virus but not junin virus infection induces cytokine release from primary human monocytes and macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Groseth

    Full Text Available The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV, in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation.

  15. State-of-the-Art Review on the Characteristics of Surfactants and Foam from Foam Concrete Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Sritam Swapnadarshi; Gandhi, Indu Siva Ranjani; Khwairakpam, Selija

    2018-06-01

    Foam concrete finds application in many areas, generally as a function of its relatively lightweight and its beneficial properties in terms of reduction in dead load on structure, excellent thermal insulation and contribution to energy conservation. For production of foam concrete with desired properties, stable and good quality foam is the key requirement. It is to be noted that the selection of surfactant and foam production parameters play a vital role in the properties of foam which in turn affects the properties of foam concrete. However, the literature available on the influence of characteristics of foaming agent and foam on the properties of foam concrete are rather limited. Hence, a more systematic research is needed in this direction. The focus of this work is to provide a review on characteristics of surfactant (foaming agent) and foam for use in foam concrete production.

  16. Analysis of Influence of Foaming Mixture Components on Structure and Properties of Foam Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandashova, N. S.; Goltsman, B. M.; Yatsenko, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    It is recommended to use high-quality thermal insulation materials to increase the energy efficiency of buildings. One of the best thermal insulation materials is foam glass - durable, porous material that is resistant to almost any effect of substance. Glass foaming is a complex process depending on the foaming mode and the initial mixture composition. This paper discusses the influence of all components of the mixture - glass powder, foaming agent, enveloping material and water - on the foam glass structure. It was determined that glass powder is the basis of the future material. A foaming agent forms a gas phase in the process of thermal decomposition. This aforementioned gas foams the viscous glass mass. The unreacted residue thus changes a colour of the material. The enveloping agent slows the foaming agent decomposition preventing its premature burning out and, in addition, helps to accelerate the sintering of glass particles. The introduction of water reduces the viscosity of the foaming mixture making it evenly distributed and also promotes the formation of water gas that additionally foams the glass mass. The optimal composition for producing the foam glass with the density of 150 kg/m3 is defined according to the results of the research.

  17. The Predominant Pathway of Apoptosis in THP-1 Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells Induced by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Mediated Sonodynamic Therapy is the Mitochondria-Caspase Pathway Despite the Participation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In advanced atherosclerosis, chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress induces foam cells apoptosis and generates inflammatory reactions. Methods: THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells (FC were incubated with 1 mM 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA. After ALA mediated sonodynamic therapy (ALA-SDT, apoptosis of FC was assayed by Annexin V-PI staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by staining with CellROX® Green Reagent and jc-1. Pretreatment of FC with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, Z-VAD-FMK or 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, mitochondria apoptotic pathway associated proteins and C/EBP-homologous (CHOP expressions were assayed by wertern blotting. Results: Burst of apoptosis of FC was observed at 5-hour after ALA-SDT with 6-hour incubation of ALA and 0.4 W/cm2 ultrasound. After ALA-SDT, intracellular ROS level increased and mitochondrial membrane potential collapsed. Translocations of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol and Bax from cytosol into mitochondria, cleaved caspase 9, cleaved caspase 3, upregulation of CHOP, as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 after ALA-SDT were detected, which could be suppressed by NAC. Activation of mitochondria-caspase pathway could not be inhibited by 4-PBA. Cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 3 as well as apoptosis induced by ALA-SDT could be inhibited by Z-VAD-FMK. Conclusion: The mitochondria-caspase pathway is predominant in the apoptosis of FC induced by ALA-SDT though ER stress participates in.

  18. Lysosomal Disorders Drive Susceptibility to Tuberculosis by Compromising Macrophage Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Russell D.; Levitte, Steven; O’Sullivan, Mary P.; O’Leary, Seónadh M.; Cambier, C.J.; Cameron, James; Takaki, Kevin K.; Moens, Cecilia B.; Tobin, David M.; Keane, Joseph; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    Summary A zebrafish genetic screen for determinants of susceptibility to Mycobacterium marinum identified a hypersusceptible mutant deficient in lysosomal cysteine cathepsins that manifests hallmarks of human lysosomal storage diseases. Under homeostatic conditions, mutant macrophages accumulate undigested lysosomal material, which disrupts endocytic recycling and impairs their migration to, and thus engulfment of, dying cells. This causes a buildup of unengulfed cell debris. During mycobacterial infection, macrophages with lysosomal storage cannot migrate toward infected macrophages undergoing apoptosis in the tuberculous granuloma. The unengulfed apoptotic macrophages undergo secondary necrosis, causing granuloma breakdown and increased mycobacterial growth. Macrophage lysosomal storage similarly impairs migration to newly infecting mycobacteria. This phenotype is recapitulated in human smokers, who are at increased risk for tuberculosis. A majority of their alveolar macrophages exhibit lysosomal accumulations of tobacco smoke particulates and do not migrate to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The incapacitation of highly microbicidal first-responding macrophages may contribute to smokers’ susceptibility to tuberculosis. PMID:27015311

  19. Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived macrophages and their immunological function in response to tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Danping; Ding, Jiongyan; Li, Ouyang; He, Quan; Ke, Minxia; Zhu, Mengyi; Liu, Lili; Ou, Wen-Bin; He, Yulong; Wu, Yuehong

    2018-02-26

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) represent an innovative source for the standardized in vitro generation of macrophages (Mφ). Mφ show great promise in disease pathogenesis, particularly tuberculosis. However, there is no information about human iPS-derived (hiPS) macrophages (hiPS-Mφ) in response to tuberculosis infection. In the present study, macrophages derived from hiPS were established via embryoid body (EB) formation by using feeder-free culture conditions, and the human monocyte cell line THP-1 (THP-1-Mφ) was used as control. iPS-Mφ were characterized by using morphology, Giemsa staining, nonspecific esterase staining (α-NAE), phagocytosis, and surface phenotype. Additionally, after treatment with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) for 24 h, cell apoptosis was detected by using an Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection assay. The production of nitric oxide (NO), expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), activity of apoptosis-related protein cysteine-3 (Caspase-3) and expression of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) were analyzed. With respect to morphology, surface phenotype, and function, the iPS-Mφ closely resembled their counterparts generated in vitro from a human monocyte cell line. iPS-Mφ exhibited the typically morphological characteristics of macrophages, such as round, oval, fusiform and irregular characteristics. The cells were Giemsa-stained-positive, α-NAE-positive, and possessed phagocytic ability. iPS-Mφ express high levels of CD14, CD11b, CD40, CD68, and major histocompatibility complex II (MHC-II). Moreover, with regard to the apoptotic rate, the production of NO, expression of TNF-α, and activity of Caspase-3 and Bcl-2, iPS-Mφ closely resemble that of their counterparts generated in vitro from human monocyte cell line in response to BCG infection. The rate of apoptosis of BCG-treated iPS-Mφ was 37.77 ± 7.94% compared to that of the untreated group at 4.97 ± 1.60% (P immunological function in response to Bacillus Calmette

  20. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Chi-Ping; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu 2+ -induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression

  1. Anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin via inhibiting LDL oxidation and foam cell formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jing-Hsien [School of Nutrition, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Chia-Wen [Department of Nutrition, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chi-Ping [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Lin, Hui-Hsuan, E-mail: linhh@csmu.edu.tw [Department of Medical Research, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); School of Medical Laboratory and Biotechnology, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

    2013-10-15

    Gossypetin, a flavone originally isolated from Hibiscus species, has been shown to possess antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antimutagenic activities. Here, we investigated the mechanism(s) underlying the anti-atherosclerotic potential of gossypetin. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity assay showed that the addition of > 50 μM of gossypetin could scavenge over 50% of DPPH radicals. The inhibitory effects of gossypetin on the lipid and protein oxidation of LDL were defined by thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay, the relative electrophoretic mobility (REM) of oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and fragmentation of apoB in the Cu{sup 2+}-induced oxidation of LDL. Gossypetin showed potential in reducing ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation, and uptake ability of macrophages under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed that these influences of gossypetin might be mediated via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)/liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and PPARγ/scavenger receptor CD36 pathways, as demonstrated by the transfection of PPARα siRNA or PPARγ expression vector. Our data implied that gossypetin regulated the PPAR signals, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that gossypetin potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. - Highlights: • The anti-atherosclerotic effect of gossypetin in vitro was examined. • Gossypetin inhibited LDL oxidation. • Gossypetin showed potential in reducing on the formation of foam cells. • Gossypetin functions against ox-LDL through PPARa activation and PPARγ depression.

  2. THIRD-GENERATION FOAM BLOWING AGENTS FOR FOAM INSULATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of third-generation blowing agents for foam insulation. (NOTE: the search for third-generation foam blowing agents has led to the realization that, as the number of potential substitutes increases, new concerns, such as their potential to act a...

  3. Ebola virion attachment and entry into human macrophages profoundly effects early cellular gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Wahl-Jensen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV infections are associated with high lethality in primates. ZEBOV primarily targets mononuclear phagocytes, which are activated upon infection and secrete mediators believed to trigger initial stages of pathogenesis. The characterization of the responses of target cells to ZEBOV infection may therefore not only further understanding of pathogenesis but also suggest possible points of therapeutic intervention. Gene expression profiles of primary human macrophages exposed to ZEBOV were determined using DNA microarrays and quantitative PCR to gain insight into the cellular response immediately after cell entry. Significant changes in mRNA concentrations encoding for 88 cellular proteins were observed. Most of these proteins have not yet been implicated in ZEBOV infection. Some, however, are inflammatory mediators known to be elevated during the acute phase of disease in the blood of ZEBOV-infected humans. Interestingly, the cellular response occurred within the first hour of Ebola virion exposure, i.e. prior to virus gene expression. This observation supports the hypothesis that virion binding or entry mediated by the spike glycoprotein (GP(1,2 is the primary stimulus for an initial response. Indeed, ZEBOV virions, LPS, and virus-like particles consisting of only the ZEBOV matrix protein VP40 and GP(1,2 (VLP(VP40-GP triggered comparable responses in macrophages, including pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signals. In contrast, VLP(VP40 (particles lacking GP(1,2 caused an aberrant response. This suggests that GP(1,2 binding to macrophages plays an important role in the immediate cellular response.

  4. Cyclic GMP protects human macrophages against peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Catherine A; Webb, David J; Rossi, Adriano G; Megson, Ian L

    2009-05-07

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-). In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMvarphi), and investigated whether preconditioning by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is able to limit apoptosis in this cell type. Characterisation of the NO-related species generated by (Z)-1- [2-(2-aminoethyl)-N-(2-ammonioethyl)amino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO) and 1,2,3,4-oxatriazolium, 5-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-, chloride (GEA-3162) was performed by electrochemistry using an isolated NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured to allow differentiation into MDMvarphi. Resultant MDMvarphi were treated for 24 h with DETA/NO (100 - 1000 muM) or GEA-3162 (10 - 300 muM) in the presence or absence of BAY 41-2272 (1 muM), isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1 muM), 1H- [1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 muM) or 8-bromo-cGMP (1 mM). Apoptosis in MDMvarphi was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding in combination with propidium iodide staining. Electrochemistry and EPR revealed that DETA/NO liberated free NO radical, whilst GEA-3162 concomitantly released NO and O2-, and is therefore a ONOO- generator. NO (DETA/NO) had no effect on cell viability, but ONOO- (GEA-3162) caused a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in MDMvarphi. Preconditioning of MDMvarphi with NO in combination with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), or the NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY 41-2272, significantly attenuated ONOO--induced apoptosis in a cGMP-dependent manner. These results

  5. Cyclic GMP protects human macrophages against peroxynitrite-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Adriano G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO can be both pro- and anti-apoptotic in various cell types, including macrophages. This apparent paradox may result from the actions of NO-related species generated in the microenvironment of the cell, for example the formation of peroxynitrite (ONOO-. In this study we have examined the ability of NO and ONOO- to evoke apoptosis in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMϕ, and investigated whether preconditioning by cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP is able to limit apoptosis in this cell type. Methods Characterisation of the NO-related species generated by (Z-1- [2-(2-aminoethyl-N-(2-ammonioethylamino]diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate (DETA/NO and 1,2,3,4-oxatriazolium, 5-amino-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-, chloride (GEA-3162 was performed by electrochemistry using an isolated NO electrode and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectrometry. Mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and cultured to allow differentiation into MDMϕ. Resultant MDMϕ were treated for 24 h with DETA/NO (100 – 1000 μM or GEA-3162 (10 – 300 μM in the presence or absence of BAY 41–2272 (1 μM, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 1 μM, 1H- [1,2,4]oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 20 μM or 8-bromo-cGMP (1 mM. Apoptosis in MDMϕ was assessed by flow cytometric analysis of annexin V binding in combination with propidium iodide staining. Results Electrochemistry and EPR revealed that DETA/NO liberated free NO radical, whilst GEA-3162 concomitantly released NO and O2-, and is therefore a ONOO- generator. NO (DETA/NO had no effect on cell viability, but ONOO- (GEA-3162 caused a concentration-dependent induction of apoptosis in MDMϕ. Preconditioning of MDMϕ with NO in combination with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX, or the NO-independent stimulator of soluble guanylate cyclase, BAY 41–2272, significantly attenuated ONOO--induced apoptosis in a cGMP-dependent manner

  6. Low-density carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, F.M.; Buckley, S.R.; Giles, C.L. Jr.; Haendler, B.L.; Hair, L.M.; Letts, S.A.; Overturf, G.E. III; Price, C.W.; Cook, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents research and development on resorcinol- formaldehyde-based foam materials conducted between 1986 and June 1990, when the effort was discontinued. The foams discussed are resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) foam, carbonized RF (CRF) foam, and two composite foams, a polystyrene/RF (PS/RF) foam and its carbonized derivative (CPR). The RF foams are synthesized by the polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in a slightly basic solution. Their structure and density depend strongly on the concentration of the sodium carbonate catalyst. The have an interconnected bead structure similar to that of silica aerogels; bead sizes range from 30 to 130 Angstrom, and cell sizes are less than 0.1 μm. We have achieved densities of 16 to 200 mg/cm 3 . The RF foams can be pyrolyzed in an inert atmosphere to form a vitreous carbon foam (CRF), which has a similar microstructure but much higher mechanical strength. The PS/RF foams are obtained by filling the 2- to 3-μm cells of PS foam (a low-density hydrocarbon foam we have developed) with RF. The resultant foams have the outstanding handling and machinability of the PS foam matrix and the small cell size of RF. Pyrolyzing PS/RF foams causes depolymerization and loss of the PS; the resulting CPR foams have a structure similar to the PS foams in which CRF both replicates and fills the PS cells

  7. Activated prostaglandin D2 receptors on macrophages enhance neutrophil recruitment into the lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, Katharina; Stacher, Elvira; Bálint, Zoltán; Sturm, Eva Maria; Maric, Jovana; Peinhaupt, Miriam; Luschnig, Petra; Aringer, Ida; Fauland, Alexander; Konya, Viktoria; Dahlen, Sven-Erik; Wheelock, Craig E.; Kratky, Dagmar; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is an early-phase mediator in inflammation, but its action and the roles of the 2 D-type prostanoid receptors (DPs) DP1 and DP2 (also called chemoattractant receptor–homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells) in regulating macrophages have not been elucidated to date. Objective We investigated the role of PGD2 receptors on primary human macrophages, as well as primary murine lung macrophages, and their ability to influence neutrophil action in vitro and in vivo. Methods In vitro studies, including migration, Ca2+ flux, and cytokine secretion, were conducted with primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and neutrophils and freshly isolated murine alveolar and pulmonary interstitial macrophages. In vivo pulmonary inflammation was assessed in male BALB/c mice. Results Activation of DP1, DP2, or both receptors on human macrophages induced strong intracellular Ca2+ flux, cytokine release, and migration of macrophages. In a murine model of LPS-induced pulmonary inflammation, activation of each PGD2 receptor resulted in aggravated airway neutrophilia, tissue myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine contents, and decreased lung compliance. Selective depletion of alveolar macrophages abolished the PGD2-enhanced inflammatory response. Activation of PGD2 receptors on human macrophages enhanced the migratory capacity and prolonged the survival of neutrophils in vitro. In human lung tissue specimens both DP1 and DP2 receptors were located on alveolar macrophages along with hematopoietic PGD synthase, the rate-limiting enzyme of PGD2 synthesis. Conclusion For the first time, our results show that PGD2 markedly augments disease activity through its ability to enhance the proinflammatory actions of macrophages and subsequent neutrophil activation. PMID:26792210

  8. Viral Inhibition of Bacterial Phagocytosis by Human Macrophages: Redundant Role of CD36.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace E Cooper

    Full Text Available Macrophages are essential to maintaining lung homoeostasis and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-infected lung macrophages downregulate their expression of the scavenger receptor CD36. This receptor has also been shown to be involved in phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, a primary agent associated with pneumonia secondary to viral infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of CD36 in the effects of viral infection on macrophage phagocytic function. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were exposed to H3N2 X31 influenza virus, M37 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV or UV-irradiated virus. No infection of MDM was seen upon exposure to UV-irradiated virus but incubation with live X31 or M37 resulted in significant levels of viral detection by flow cytometry or RT-PCR respectively. Infection resulted in significantly diminished uptake of S. pneumoniae by MDM and significantly decreased expression of CD36 at both the cell surface and mRNA level. Concurrently, there was a significant increase in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection and we observed a significant decrease in bacterial phagocytosis (p = 0.031 and CD36 gene expression (p = 0.031 by MDM cultured for 24 h in 50IU/ml IFNβ. Knockdown of CD36 by siRNA resulted in decreased phagocytosis, but this was mimicked by transfection reagent alone. When MDM were incubated with CD36 blocking antibodies no effect on phagocytic ability was observed. These data indicate that autologous IFNβ production by virally-infected cells can inhibit bacterial phagocytosis, but that decreased CD36 expression by these cells does not play a major role in this functional deficiency.

  9. Thermal Conductivity of Foam Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    Due to the increased focus on energy savings and waste recycling foam glass materials have gained increased attention. The production process of foam glass is a potential low-cost recycle option for challenging waste, e.g. CRT glass and industrial waste (fly ash and slags). Foam glass is used...... as thermal insulating material in building and chemical industry. The large volume of gas (porosity 90 – 95%) is the main reason of the low thermal conductivity of the foam glass. If gases with lower thermal conductivity compared to air are entrapped in the glass melt, the derived foam glass will contain...... only closed pores and its overall thermal conductivity will be much lower than that of the foam glass with open pores. In this work we have prepared foam glass using different types of recycled glasses and different kinds of foaming agents. This enabled the formation of foam glasses having gas cells...

  10. The macrophage scavenger receptor CD163

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Madsen, Mette; Møller, Holger J

    2006-01-01

    CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants are subs......CD163 is the monocyte/macrophage-specific receptor for haptoglobin-hemoglobin (Hp-Hb) complexes. The cytoplasmic tail of human CD163 exists as a short tail variant and two long tail variants. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that all three CD163 variants...

  11. Aerosol-foam interaction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Luscombe, C.DeM.; Mitchell, J.P.

    1990-03-01

    Foam treatment offers the potential to clean gas streams containing radioactive particles. A large decontamination factor has been claimed for the removal of airborne plutonium dust when spraying a commercially available foam on the walls and horizontal surfaces of an alpha-active room. Experiments have been designed and undertaken to reproduce these conditions with a non-radioactive simulant aerosol. Careful measurements of aerosol concentrations with and without foam treatment failed to provide convincing evidence to support the earlier observation. The foam may not have been as well mixed with the aerosol in the present studies. Further work is required to explore more efficient mixing methods, including systems in which the aerosol steam is passed through the foam, rather than merely spraying foam into the path of the aerosol. (author)

  12. Cholesterol Oxidase Binds TLR2 and Modulates Functional Responses of Human Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxidase (ChoD is considered to be an important virulence factor for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb, but its influence on macrophage activity is unknown. Here we used Nocardia erythropolis ChoD, which is very similar to the Mtb enzyme (70% identity at the amino-acid level, to evaluate the impact of bacterial ChoD on the activity of THP-1-derived macrophages in vitro. We found that ChoD decreased the surface expression of Toll-like receptor type 2 (TLR2 and complement receptor 3 (CR3 on these macrophages. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that ChoD competed with lipoteichoic acid for ligand binding sites on TLR2 but not on CR3, suggesting that ChoD signaling is mediated via TLR2. Binding of ChoD to the membrane of macrophages had diverse effects on the activity of macrophages, activating p38 mitogen activated kinase and stimulating production of a large amount of interleukin-10. Moreover, ChoD primed macrophages to enhance the production of reactive oxygen species in response to the phorbol myristate acetate, which was reduced by “switching off” TLR-derived signaling through interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases 1 and 4 inhibition. Our study revealed that ChoD interacts directly with macrophages via TLR2 and influences the biological activity of macrophages during the development of the initial response to infection.

  13. Foam patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R; Dzugan, Robert; Harrington, Richard M; Neece, Faurice D; Singh, Nipendra P; Westendorf, Travis

    2013-11-26

    A method of creating a foam pattern comprises mixing a polyol component and an isocyanate component to form a liquid mixture. The method further comprises placing a temporary core having a shape corresponding to a desired internal feature in a cavity of a mold and inserting the mixture into the cavity of the mold so that the mixture surrounds a portion of the temporary core. The method optionally further comprises using supporting pins made of foam to support the core in the mold cavity, with such pins becoming integral part of the pattern material simplifying subsequent processing. The method further comprises waiting for a predetermined time sufficient for a reaction from the mixture to form a foam pattern structure corresponding to the cavity of the mold, wherein the foam pattern structure encloses a portion of the temporary core and removing the temporary core from the pattern independent of chemical leaching.

  14. Macrophage Depletion Ameliorates Peripheral Neuropathy in Aging Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xidi; Klein, Dennis; Kerscher, Susanne; West, Brian L; Weis, Joachim; Katona, Istvan; Martini, Rudolf

    2018-05-09

    Aging is known as a major risk factor for the structure and function of the nervous system. There is urgent need to overcome such deleterious effects of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we show that peripheral nerves of 24-month-old aging C57BL/6 mice of either sex show similar pathological alterations as nerves from aging human individuals, whereas 12-month-old adult mice lack such alterations. Specifically, nerve fibers showed demyelination, remyelination and axonal lesion. Moreover, in the aging mice, neuromuscular junctions showed features typical for dying-back neuropathies, as revealed by a decline of presynaptic markers, associated with α-bungarotoxin-positive postsynapses. In line with these observations were reduced muscle strengths. These alterations were accompanied by elevated numbers of endoneurial macrophages, partially comprising the features of phagocytosing macrophages. Comparable profiles of macrophages could be identified in peripheral nerve biopsies of aging persons. To determine the pathological impact of macrophages in aging mice, we selectively targeted the cells by applying an orally administered CSF-1R specific kinase (c-FMS) inhibitor. The 6-month-lasting treatment started before development of degenerative changes at 18 months and reduced macrophage numbers in mice by ∼70%, without side effects. Strikingly, nerve structure was ameliorated and muscle strength preserved. We show, for the first time, that age-related degenerative changes in peripheral nerves are driven by macrophages. These findings may pave the way for treating degeneration in the aging peripheral nervous system by targeting macrophages, leading to reduced weakness, improved mobility, and eventually increased quality of life in the elderly. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is a major risk factor for the structure and function of the nervous system. Here we show that peripheral nerves of 24-month-old aging mice show similar degenerative alterations as nerves from aging

  15. Networked T cell death following macrophage infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen H-F Macdonald

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Depletion of T cells following infection by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb impairs disease resolution, and interferes with clinical test performance that relies on cell-mediated immunity. A number of mechanisms contribute to this T cell suppression, such as activation-induced death and trafficking of T cells out of the peripheral circulation and into the diseased lungs. The extent to which Mtb infection of human macrophages affects T cell viability however, is not well characterised. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that lymphopenia (<1.5 × 10(9 cells/l was prevalent among culture-positive tuberculosis patients, and lymphocyte counts significantly improved post-therapy. We previously reported that Mtb-infected human macrophages resulted in death of infected and uninfected bystander macrophages. In the current study, we sought to examine the influence of infected human alveolar macrophages on T cells. We infected primary human alveolar macrophages (the primary host cell for Mtb or PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells with Mtb H37Ra, then prepared cell-free supernatants. The supernatants of Mtb-infected macrophages caused dose-dependent, caspase-dependent, T cell apoptosis. This toxic effect of infected macrophage secreted factors did not require TNF-α or Fas. The supernatant cytotoxic signal(s were heat-labile and greater than 50 kDa in molecular size. Although ESAT-6 was toxic to T cells, other Mtb-secreted factors tested did not influence T cell viability; nor did macrophage-free Mtb bacilli or broth from Mtb cultures. Furthermore, supernatants from Mycobacterium bovis Bacille de Calmette et Guerin (BCG- infected macrophages also elicited T cell death suggesting that ESAT-6 itself, although cytotoxic, was not the principal mediator of T cell death in our system. CONCLUSIONS: Mtb-Infected macrophages secrete heat-labile factors that are toxic to T cells, and may contribute to the immunosuppression seen in tuberculosis as well as

  16. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human macrophages: uptake, intracellular distribution and cellular responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, A.; Tentschert, J.; Jungnickel, H.; Graf, P.; Mantion, A.; Draude, F.; Plendl, J.; Goetz, M. E.; Galla, S.; Mašić, A.; Thuenemann, A. F.; Taubert, A.; Arlinghaus, H. F.; Luch, A.

    2011-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNP) are among the most commercialized nanoparticles worldwide. They can be found in many diverse products, mostly because of their antibacterial properties. Despite its widespread use only little data on possible adverse health effects exist. It is difficult to compare biological data from different studies due to the great variety in sizes, coatings or shapes of the particles. Here, we applied a novel synthesis approach to obtain SNP, which are covalently stabilized by a small peptide. This enables a tight control of both size and shape. We applied these SNP in two different sizes of 20 or 40 nm (Ag20Pep and Ag40Pep) and analyzed responses of THP-1-derived human macrophages. Similar gold nanoparticles with the same coating (Au20Pep) were used for comparison and found to be non-toxic. We assessed the cytotoxicity of particles and confirmed their cellular uptake via transmission electron microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy. Importantly a majority of the SNP could be detected as individual particles spread throughout the cells. Furthermore we studied several types of oxidative stress related responses such as induction of heme oxygenase I or formation of protein carbonyls. In summary, our data demonstrate that even low doses of SNP exerted adverse effects in human macrophages.

  17. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in human macrophages: uptake, intracellular distribution and cellular responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A; Tentschert, J; Jungnickel, H; Goetz, M E; Luch, A; Graf, P; Mantion, A; Thuenemann, A F; Draude, F; Galla, S; Arlinghaus, H F; Plendl, J; Masic, A; Taubert, A

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (SNP) are among the most commercialized nanoparticles worldwide. They can be found in many diverse products, mostly because of their antibacterial properties. Despite its widespread use only little data on possible adverse health effects exist. It is difficult to compare biological data from different studies due to the great variety in sizes, coatings or shapes of the particles. Here, we applied a novel synthesis approach to obtain SNP, which are covalently stabilized by a small peptide. This enables a tight control of both size and shape. We applied these SNP in two different sizes of 20 or 40 nm (Ag20Pep and Ag40Pep) and analyzed responses of THP-1-derived human macrophages. Similar gold nanoparticles with the same coating (Au20Pep) were used for comparison and found to be non-toxic. We assessed the cytotoxicity of particles and confirmed their cellular uptake via transmission electron microscopy and confocal Raman microscopy. Importantly a majority of the SNP could be detected as individual particles spread throughout the cells. Furthermore we studied several types of oxidative stress related responses such as induction of heme oxygenase I or formation of protein carbonyls. In summary, our data demonstrate that even low doses of SNP exerted adverse effects in human macrophages.

  18. IL-17A influences essential functions of the monocyte/macrophage lineage and is involved in advanced murine and human atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbel, Christian; Akhavanpoor, Mohammadreza; Okuyucu, Deniz; Wangler, Susanne; Dietz, Alex; Zhao, Li; Stellos, Konstantinos; Little, Kristina M; Lasitschka, Felix; Doesch, Andreas; Hakimi, Maani; Dengler, Thomas J; Giese, Thomas; Blessing, Erwin; Katus, Hugo A; Gleissner, Christian A

    2014-11-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Lesion progression is primarily mediated by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine, which modulates immune cell trafficking and is involved inflammation in (auto)immune and infectious diseases. But the role of IL-17A still remains controversial. In the current study, we investigated effects of IL-17A on advanced murine and human atherosclerosis, the common disease phenotype in clinical care. The 26-wk-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a standard chow diet and treated either with IL-17A mAb (n = 15) or irrelevant Ig (n = 10) for 16 wk. Furthermore, essential mechanisms of IL-17A in atherogenesis were studied in vitro. Inhibition of IL-17A markedly prevented atherosclerotic lesion progression (p = 0.001) by reducing inflammatory burden and cellular infiltration (p = 0.01) and improved lesion stability (p = 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IL-17A plays a role in chemoattractance, monocyte adhesion, and sensitization of APCs toward pathogen-derived TLR4 ligands. Also, IL-17A induced a unique transcriptome pattern in monocyte-derived macrophages distinct from known macrophage types. Stimulation of human carotid plaque tissue ex vivo with IL-17A induced a proinflammatory milieu and upregulation of molecules expressed by the IL-17A-induced macrophage subtype. In this study, we show that functional blockade of IL-17A prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression and induces plaque stabilization in advanced lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The underlying mechanisms involve reduced inflammation and distinct effects of IL-17A on monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, translational experiments underline the relevance for the human system. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. Thermosetting Fluoropolymer Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1987-01-01

    New process makes fluoropolymer foams with controllable amounts of inert-gas fillings in foam cells. Thermosetting fluoropolymers do not require foaming additives leaving undesirable residues and do not have to be molded and sintered at temperatures of about 240 to 400 degree C. Consequently, better for use with electronic or other parts sensitive to high temperatures or residues. Uses include coatings, electrical insulation, and structural parts.

  20. Pipe Decontamination Involving String-Foam Circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchet, J.P.; Estienne, G.; Fournel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Foam applications number for nuclear decontamination purposes has recently increased. The major advantage of foam decontamination is the reduction of secondary liquid wastes volumes. Among foam applications, we focus on foam circulation in contaminated equipment. Dynamic properties of the system ensures an homogeneous and rapid effect of the foam bed-drifted chemical reagents present in the liquid phase. This paper describes a new approach of foam decontamination for pipes. It is based on an alternated air and foam injections. We called it 'string-foam circulation'. A further reduction of liquid wastes is achieved compared to continuous foam. Secondly, total pressure loss along the pipe is controlled by the total foam length in the pipe. It is thus possible to clean longer pipes keeping the pressure under atmospheric pressure value. This ensures the non dispersion of contamination. This study describes experimental results obtained with a neutral foam as well with an acid foam on a 130 m long loop. Finally, the decontamination of a 44 meters pipe is presented. (authors)

  1. Classification of M1/M2-polarized human macrophages by label-free hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, Francesca R; Mozetic, Pamela; Fioramonti, Marco; Iuliani, Michele; Ribelli, Giulia; Pantano, Francesco; Santini, Daniele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Trombetta, Marcella; Businaro, Luca; Selci, Stefano; Rainer, Alberto

    2017-08-21

    The possibility of detecting and classifying living cells in a label-free and non-invasive manner holds significant theranostic potential. In this work, Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) has been successfully applied to the analysis of macrophagic polarization, given its central role in several pathological settings, including the regulation of tumour microenvironment. Human monocyte derived macrophages have been investigated using hyperspectral reflectance confocal microscopy, and hyperspectral datasets have been analysed in terms of M1 vs. M2 polarization by Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Following PCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis has been implemented for semi-automatic classification of macrophagic polarization from HSI data. Our results confirm the possibility to perform single-cell-level in vitro classification of M1 vs. M2 macrophages in a non-invasive and label-free manner with a high accuracy (above 98% for cells deriving from the same donor), supporting the idea of applying the technique to the study of complex interacting cellular systems, such in the case of tumour-immunity in vitro models.

  2. Experimental Evolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Macrophages Results in Low-Frequency Mutations Not Associated with Selective Advantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Guerrini

    Full Text Available Isolates of the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis recovered from clinical samples exhibit genetic heterogeneity. Such variation may result from the stressful environment encountered by the pathogen inside the macrophage, which is the host cell tubercle bacilli parasitize. To study the evolution of the M. tuberculosis genome during growth inside macrophages, we developed a model of intracellular culture in which bacteria were serially passaged in macrophage-like THP-1 cells for about 80 bacterial generations. Genome sequencing of single bacterial colonies isolated before and after the infection cycles revealed that M. tuberculosis developed mutations at a rate of about 5.7 × 10-9 / bp/ generation, consistent with mutation rates calculated during in vivo infection. Analysis of mutant growth in macrophages and in mice showed that the mutations identified after the cyclic infection conferred no advantage to the mutants relative to wild-type. Furthermore, activity testing of the recombinant protein harboring one of these mutations showed that the presence of the mutation did not affect the enzymatic activity. The serial infection protocol developed in this work to study M. tuberculosis genome microevolution can be applied to exposure to stressors to determine their effect on genome remodeling during intra-macrophage growth.

  3. The humanized anti-human AMHRII mAb 3C23K exerts an anti-tumor activity against human ovarian cancer through tumor-associated macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougherara, Houcine; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Massonnet, Gérald; Pugnière, Martine; Ngô, Charlotte; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Leary, Alexandra; Alexandre, Jérôme; Meseure, Didier; Barret, Jean-Marc; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Prost, Jean-François; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Decaudin, Didier

    2017-11-21

    Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient's tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker. We then provided evidence that the tumor stroma of OC is enriched in tumor-associated macrophages and that these cells are responsible for 3C23K-induced killing of tumor cells through ADCP and ADCC mechanisms. In addition, we showed that 3C23K reduced macrophages induced-T cells immunosuppression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 3C23K alone and in combination with a carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in a panel of OC Patient-Derived Xenografts. In those experiments, we showed that 3C23K significantly increased the proportion and the quality of chemotherapy-based in vivo responses. Altogether, our data support the potential interest of AMHRII targeting in human ovarian cancers and the evaluation of 3C23K in further clinical trials.

  4. Influence of foaming agents on solid thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared from CRT panel glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of the thermal transport mechanism of foam glass is still lacking. The contribution of solid- and gas conduction to the total thermal conductivity remains to be reported. In many foam glasses, the solid phase consist of a mix of an amorphous and a crystalline part where foaming...... containing glass and crystalline foaming agents and amorphous samples where the foaming agents are completely dissolved in the glass structure, respectively. Results show that the samples prepared by sintering have a higher thermal conductivity than the samples prepared by melt-quenching. The thermal...... conductivities of the sintered and the melt-quenched samples represent an upper and lower limit of the solid phase thermal conductivity of foam glasses prepared with these foaming agents. The content of foaming agents dissolved in the glass structure has a major impact on the solid thermal conductivity of foam...

  5. Mechanism of interleukin-13 production by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent macrophages via protease-activated receptor-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Rui; Yamamoto, Takatoshi; Sakamoto, Arisa; Ishimaru, Yasuji; Narahara, Shinji; Sugiuchi, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Eiji; Yamaguchi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) promotes classically activated M1 macrophages. GM-CSF upregulates protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) protein expression and activation of PAR-2 by human neutrophil elastase (HNE) regulates cytokine production. This study investigated the mechanism of PAR-2-mediated interleukin (IL)-13 production by GM-CSF-dependent macrophages stimulated with HNE. Adherent macrophages were obtained from primary cultures of human mononuclear cells. After stimulation with HNE to activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway, IL-13 mRNA and protein levels were assessed by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. PAR-2 protein was detected in GM-CSF-dependent macrophages by Western blotting. Unexpectedly, PD98059 (an ERK1 inhibitor) increased IL-13 production, even at higher concentrations. Interestingly, U0126 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor) reduced IL-13 production in a concentration-dependent manner. Neither SB203580 (a p38alpha/p38beta inhibitor) nor BIRB796 (a p38gamma/p38delta inhibitor) affected IL-13 production, while TMB-8 (a calcium chelator) diminished IL-13 production. Stimulation with HNE promoted the production of IL-13 (a Th2 cytokine) by GM-CSF-dependent M1 macrophages. PAR-2-mediated IL-13 production may be dependent on the Ca(2+)/ERK2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  7. Production of lightweight foam glass (invited talk)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass production allows low cost recycling of postconsumer glass and industrial waste materials as foaming agent or as melt resource. Foam glass is commonly produced by utilising milled glass mixed with a foaming agent. The powder mixture is heat-treated to around 10^3.7 – 10^6 Pa s, which...... result in viscous sintering and subsequent foaming of the glass melt. The porous glass melt is cooled down to room temperature to freeze-in the foam structure. The resulting foam glass is applied in constructions as a light weight material to reduce load bearing capacity and as heat insulating material...... in buildings and industry. We foam panel glass from old televisions with different foaming agents. We discuss the foaming ability and the foaming mechanism of different foaming systems. We compare several studies to define a viscous window for preparing low density foam glass. However, preparing foam glass...

  8. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  9. The Effects of First-Line Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs on the Actions of Vitamin D in Human Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesdachai, Supavit; Zughaier, Susu M; Hao, Li; Kempker, Russell R; Blumberg, Henry M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health problem. Patients with TB have a high rate of vitamin D deficiency, both at diagnosis and during the course of treatment with anti-tuberculosis drugs. Although data on the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) clearance is uncertain from randomized controlled trials (RCTs), vitamin D enhances the expression of the anti-microbial peptide human cathelicidin (hCAP18) in cultured macrophages in vitro. One possible explanation for the mixed (primarily negative) results of RCTs examining vitamin D treatment in TB infection is that anti-TB drugs given to enrolled subjects may impact actions of vitamin D to enhance cathelicidin in macrophages. To address this hypothesis, human macrophage-like monocytic (THP-1) cells were treated with varying doses of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in the presence of the active form of vitamin D, 1N1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 (1,25(OH) 2 D 3 ). The expression of hCAP18 was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). 1,25(OH) 2 D 3 strongly induced expression of hCAP18 mRNA in THP-1 cells (fold-change from control). The combination of the standard 4-drug TB therapy (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol) in the cultured THP-1 cells demonstrated a significant decrease of hCAP18 mRNA at the dosage of 10 ug/mL. In 31 subjects with newly diagnosed drug-sensitive TB randomized to either high-dose vitamin D 3 (1.2 million IU over 8 weeks, n=13) versus placebo (n=18), there was no change from baseline to week 8 in hCAP18 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells or in plasma concentrations of LL-37, the protein product of hCAP18.These data suggest that first-line anti-TB drugs may alter the vitamin D-dependent increase in hCAP18 and LL-37 human macrophages.

  10. Adventitial Fibroblasts induce a distinct Pro-inflammatory/Pro-fibrotic Macrophage Phenotype in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kasmi, Karim C.; Pugliese, Steven C.; Riddle, Suzette R.; Poth, Jens M.; Anderson, Aimee L.; Frid, Maria G.; Li, Min; Pullamsetti, Soni S.; Savai, Rajkumar; Nagel, Maria A.; Fini, Mehdi A.; Graham, Brian B.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Friedman, Jacob E.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Sokol, Ronald J.; Stenmark, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage accumulation is not only a characteristic hallmark but also a critical component of pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling associated with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that drive vascular macrophage activation and their functional phenotype remain poorly defined. Utilizing multiple levels of in vivo (bovine and rat models of hypoxia-induced PH, together with human tissue samples) and in vitro (primary mouse, rat, and bovine macrophages, human monocytes, as well as primary human and bovine fibroblasts) approaches, we observed that adventitial fibroblasts derived from hypertensive Pas (bovine and human) regulate macrophage activation. These fibroblasts activate macrophages through paracrine IL6 and STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling to drive expression of genes previously implicated in chronic inflammation, tissue remodeling, and PH. This distinct fibroblast-activated macrophage phenotype was independent of IL4/IL13-STAT6 and TLR-MyD88 signaling. We found that genetic STAT3 haplodeficiency in macrophages attenuated macrophage activation while complete STAT3 deficiency increased macrophage activation through compensatory upregulation of STAT1 signaling, while deficiency in C/EBPβ or HIF1 attenuated fibroblast driven macrophage activation. These findings challenge the current paradigm of IL4/IL13-STAT6 mediated alternative macrophage activation as the sole driver of vascular remodeling in PH and uncover a crosstalk between adventitial fibroblasts and macrophages in which paracrine IL6 activated STAT3, HIF1, and C/EBPβ signaling is critical for macrophage activation and polarization. Thus, targeting IL6 signaling in macrophages by completely inhibiting C/EBPβ, HIF1a or partially inhibiting STAT3 may hold therapeutic value for treatment of PH and other inflammatory conditions characterized by increased IL6 and absent IL4/IL13 signaling. PMID:24928992

  11. Interaction of differentiated human adipocytes with macrophages leads to trogocytosis and selective IL-6 secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárvári, A K; Doan-Xuan, Q-M; Bacsó, Z; Csomós, I; Balajthy, Z; Fésüs, L

    2015-01-22

    Obesity leads to adipose tissue inflammation that is characterized by increased release of proinflammatory molecules and the recruitment of activated immune cells. Although macrophages are present in the highest number among the immune cells in obese adipose tissue, not much is known about their direct interaction with adipocytes. We have introduced an ex vivo experimental system to characterize the cellular interactions and the profile of secreted cytokines in cocultures of macrophages and human adipocytes differentiated from either mesenchymal stem cells or a preadipocyte cell line. As observed by time-lapse microscopy, flow, and laser-scanning cytometry, macrophages phagocytosed bites of adipocytes (trogocytosis), which led to their de novo, phagocytosis and NF-κB-dependent synthesis, then release of interleukin (IL)-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1. IL-6 secretion was not accompanied by secretion of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-8, except MCP-1. LPS-induced release of TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1 was decreased in the presence of the differentiated adipocytes but the IL-6 level did not subside suggesting that phagocytosis-dependent IL-6 secretion may have significant regulatory function in the inflamed adipose tissue.

  12. Tfe3 expression is closely associated to macrophage terminal differentiation of human hematopoietic myeloid precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanocco-Marani, Tommaso; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Gemelli, Claudia; Pirondi, Sara; Testa, Anna; Montanari, Monica; Parenti, Sandra; Tenedini, Elena; Grande, Alexis; Ferrari, Sergio

    2006-01-01

    The MItf-Tfe family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors encodes four family members: MItf, Tfe3, TfeB and TfeC. In vitro, each protein of the family binds DNA in a homo- or heterodimeric form with other family members. Tfe3 is involved in chromosomal translocations recurrent in different tumors and it has been demonstrated, by in vivo studies, that it plays, redundantly with MItf, an important role in the process of osteoclast formation, in particular during the transition from mono-nucleated to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Since mono-nucleated osteoclasts derive from macrophages we investigated whether Tfe3 might play a role upstream during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that Tfe3 is able to induce mono-macrophagic differentiation of U937 cells, in association with a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. We also show that Tfe3 does not act physiologically during commitment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), since it is not able to direct HSCs toward a specific lineage as observed by clonogenic assay, but is a strong actor of terminal differentiation since it allows human primary myeloblasts' maturation toward the macrophage lineage

  13. Fire-retardant foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    Family of polyimide resins are being developed as foams with exceptional fire-retardant properties. Foams are potentially useful for seat cushions in aircraft and ground vehicles and for applications such as home furnishings and building-construction materials. Basic formulations can be modified with reinforcing fibers or fillers to produce celular materials for variety of applications. By selecting reactants, polymer structure can be modified to give foams with properties ranging from high resiliency and flexibility to brittleness and rigidity.

  14. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  15. Influence of the glass particle size on the foaming process and physical characteristics of foam glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared low-density foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass using carbon and MnO2 as the foaming agents. The effect of the glass particle size on the foaming process, the apparent density and the pore morphology is revealed. The results show that the foaming is mainly caused...... by the reduction of manganese. Foam glasses with a density of

  16. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-albumin from activated macrophage is critical in human mesenchymal stem cells survival and post-ischemic reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Myeongjoo; Kang, Woong Chol; Oh, Seyeon; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Ahn, Hyosang; Lee, Jaesuk; Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Sojung; Choi, Junwon; Lee, Hye Sun; Yang, Phillip C; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2017-09-14

    Post-ischemic reperfusion injury (PIRI) triggers an intense inflammatory response which is essential for repair but is also implicated in pathogenesis of post-ischemic remodeling in several organs in human. Stem cell therapy has recently emerged as a promising method for treatment of PIRI in human. However, satisfactory results have not been reported due to severe loss of injected stem cells in PIRI including critical limb ischemia (CLI). For investigating the advanced glycation end-product-albumin (AGE-albumin) from activated macrophages is critical in both muscle cell and stem cell death, we evaluated the recovery of PIRI-CLI by injection of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBD-MSCs) with or without soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE). Our results showed that activated M1 macrophages synthesize and secrete AGE-albumin, which induced the skeletal muscle cell death and injected hBD-MSCs in PIRI-CLI through RAGE increase. Combined injection of sRAGE and hBD-MSCs resulted in enhanced survival of hBD-MSCs and angiogenesis in PIRI-CLI mice. Taken together, AGE-albumin from activated macrophages is critical for both skeletal muscle cell and hBD-MSCs death in PIRI-CLI. Therefore, the inhibition of AGE-albumin from activated macrophages could be a successful therapeutic strategy for treatment of PIRI including CLI with or without stem cell therapy.

  17. Induced-Pluripotent-Stem-Cell-Derived Primitive Macrophages Provide a Platform for Modeling Tissue-Resident Macrophage Differentiation and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kazuyuki; Kozaki, Tatsuya; Lee, Christopher Zhe Wei; Thion, Morgane Sonia; Otsuka, Masayuki; Lim, Shawn; Utami, Kagistia Hana; Fidan, Kerem; Park, Dong Shin; Malleret, Benoit; Chakarov, Svetoslav; See, Peter; Low, Donovan; Low, Gillian; Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Zeng, Ruizhu; Zhang, Jinqiu; Goh, Chi Ching; Gul, Ahmet; Hubert, Sandra; Lee, Bernett; Chen, Jinmiao; Low, Ivy; Shadan, Nurhidaya Binte; Lum, Josephine; Wei, Tay Seok; Mok, Esther; Kawanishi, Shohei; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Larbi, Anis; Poidinger, Michael; Renia, Laurent; Ng, Lai Guan; Wolf, Yochai; Jung, Steffen; Önder, Tamer; Newell, Evan; Huber, Tara; Ashihara, Eishi; Garel, Sonia; Pouladi, Mahmoud A; Ginhoux, Florent

    2017-07-18

    Tissue macrophages arise during embryogenesis from yolk-sac (YS) progenitors that give rise to primitive YS macrophages. Until recently, it has been impossible to isolate or derive sufficient numbers of YS-derived macrophages for further study, but data now suggest that induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be driven to undergo a process reminiscent of YS-hematopoiesis in vitro. We asked whether iPSC-derived primitive macrophages (iMacs) can terminally differentiate into specialized macrophages with the help of growth factors and organ-specific cues. Co-culturing human or murine iMacs with iPSC-derived neurons promoted differentiation into microglia-like cells in vitro. Furthermore, murine iMacs differentiated in vivo into microglia after injection into the brain and into functional alveolar macrophages after engraftment in the lung. Finally, iPSCs from a patient with familial Mediterranean fever differentiated into iMacs with pro-inflammatory characteristics, mimicking the disease phenotype. Altogether, iMacs constitute a source of tissue-resident macrophage precursors that can be used for biological, pathophysiological, and therapeutic studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Activated, coal-based carbon foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Darren Kenneth; Plucinski, Janusz Wladyslaw

    2004-12-21

    An ablation resistant, monolithic, activated, carbon foam produced by the activation of a coal-based carbon foam through the action of carbon dioxide, ozone or some similar oxidative agent that pits and/or partially oxidizes the carbon foam skeleton, thereby significantly increasing its overall surface area and concurrently increasing its filtering ability. Such activated carbon foams are suitable for application in virtually all areas where particulate or gel form activated carbon materials have been used. Such an activated carbon foam can be fabricated, i.e. sawed, machined and otherwise shaped to fit virtually any required filtering location by simple insertion and without the need for handling the "dirty" and friable particulate activated carbon foam materials of the prior art.

  19. Foam pad of appropriate thickness can improve diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Leng, Yangming; Zhou, Renhong; Liu, Jingjing; Liu, Dongdong; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Su-Lin; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2018-04-01

    The present study investigated the effect of foam thickness on postural stability in patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) during foam posturography. Static and foam posturography were performed in 33 patients (UVH group) and 30 healthy subjects (control group) with eyes open (EO) and closed (EC) on firm surface and on 1-5 foam pad(s). Sway velocity (SV) of center of pressure, standing time before falling (STBF) and falls reaction were recorded and analyzed. (1) SVs had an increasing tendency in both groups as the foam pads were added under EO and EC conditions. (2) STBFs, only in UVH group with EC, decreased with foam thickness increasing. (3) Significant differences in SV were found between the control and UVH group with EO (except for standing on firm surface, on 1 and 2 foam pad(s)) and with EC (all surface conditions). (4) Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the SV could better reflect the difference in postural stability between the two groups while standing on the 4 foam pads with EC. Our study showed that diagnostic value of foam posturography in detecting postural instability might be enhanced by using foam pad of right thickness.

  20. Comparison of sound absorbing performances of copper foam and iron foam with the same parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. C.; Shen, X. M.; Xu, P. J.; Zhang, X. N.; Bai, P. F.; Peng, K.; Yin, Q.; Wang, D.

    2018-01-01

    Sound absorbing performances of the copper foam and the iron foam with the same parameters were investigated by the AWA6128A detector according to standing wave method. Two modes were investigated, which included the pure metal foam mode and the combination mode with the settled thickness of metal foam. In order to legibly compare the sound absorbing coefficients of the two metal foams, the detected sound frequency points were divided into the low frequency range (100 Hz ~ 1000 Hz), the middle frequency range (1000 Hz ~ 3200 Hz), and the high frequency range (3500 Hz ~ 6000 Hz). Sound absorbing performances of the two metal foams in the two modes were discussed within the three frequency ranges in detail. It would be calculated that the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam in the pure metal foam mode were 12.6%, 22.7%, 34.6%, 43.6%, 51.1%, and 56.2% when the thickness was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm. meanwhile, in the combination mode, the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam with the thickness of 10 mm were 30.6%, 34.8%, 36.3%, and 35.8% when the cavity was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. In addition, those of iron foam in the pure metal foam mode were 13.4%, 20.1%, 34.4%, 43.1%, 49.6%, and 56.1%, and in the combination mode were 25.6%, 30.5%, 34.3%, and 33.4%.

  1. Bio-based Polymer Foam from Soyoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnaillie, Laetitia M.; Wool, Richard P.

    2006-03-01

    The growing bio-based polymeric foam industry is presently lead by plant oil-based polyols for polyurethanes and starch foams. We developed a new resilient, thermosetting foam system with a bio-based content higher than 80%. The acrylated epoxidized soybean oil and its fatty acid monomers is foamed with pressurized carbon dioxide and cured with free-radical initiators. The foam structure and pore dynamics are highly dependent on the temperature, viscosity and extent of reaction. Low-temperature cure hinds the destructive pore coalescence and the application of a controlled vacuum results in foams with lower densities ˜ 0.1 g/cc, but larger cells. We analyze the physics of foam formation and stability, as well as the structure and mechanical properties of the cured foam using rigidity percolation theory. The parameters studied include temperature, vacuum applied, and cross-link density. Additives bring additional improvements: nucleating agents and surfactants help produce foams with a high concentration of small cells and low bulk density. Hard and soft thermosetting foams with a bio content superior to 80% are successfully produced and tested. Potential applications include foam-core composites for hurricane-resistant housing, structural reinforcement for windmill blades, and tissue scaffolds.

  2. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  3. Heme oxygenase-1 induction alters chemokine regulation and ameliorates human immunodeficiency virus-type-1 infection in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Zhao-Hua; Kumari, Namita; Nekhai, Sergei; Clouse, Kathleen A.; Wahl, Larry M.; Yamada, Kenneth M.; Dhawan, Subhash

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Lipopolysaccharide stimulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) ameliorated HIV-1 infection of primary human macrophages. •The partial protection by HO-1 against HIV infection was associated with induction of chemokines such as MIP1α and MIP1β. •This mechanism explains lipopolysaccharide-stimulated HO-1-mediated inhibition of HIV-1 infection of macrophages. -- Abstract: We have elucidated a putative mechanism for the host resistance against HIV-1 infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We show that LPS-activated MDM both inhibited HIV-1 entry into the cells and were refractory to post-entry productive viral replication. LPS-treated cells were virtually negative for mature virions as revealed by transmission electron microscopy. LPS activation of MDM markedly enhanced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a potent inducible cytoprotective enzyme. Increased HO-1 expression was accompanied by elevated production of macrophage inflammatory chemokines (MIP1α and MIP1β) by LPS-activated MDM, significantly decreased surface chemokine receptor-5 (CCR-5) expression, and substantially reduced virus replication. Treatment of cells with HO-1 inhibitor SnPP IX (tin protoporphyrin IX) attenuated the LPS-mediated responses, HIV-1 replication and secretion of MIP1α, MIP1β, and LD78β chemokines with little change in surface CCR-5 expression. These results identify a novel role for HO-1 in the modulation of host immune response against HIV infection of MDM

  4. MIR144* inhibits antimicrobial responses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human monocytes and macrophages by targeting the autophagy protein DRAM2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Kyung; Lee, Hye-Mi; Park, Ki-Sun; Shin, Dong-Min; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Yi Sak; Suh, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Kim, In Soo; Kim, Jin-Man; Son, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Jung, Sung Soo; Chung, Chaeuk; Han, Sang-Bae; Yang, Chul-Su; Jo, Eun-Kyeong

    2017-02-01

    Autophagy is an important antimicrobial effector process that defends against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the human pathogen causing tuberculosis (TB). MicroRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous noncoding RNAs, are involved in various biological functions and act as post-transcriptional regulators to target mRNAs. The process by which miRNAs affect antibacterial autophagy and host defense mechanisms against Mtb infections in human monocytes and macrophages is largely uncharacterized. In this study, we show that Mtb significantly induces the expression of MIR144*/hsa-miR-144-5p, which targets the 3'-untranslated region of DRAM2 (DNA damage regulated autophagy modulator 2) in human monocytes and macrophages. Mtb infection downregulated, whereas the autophagy activators upregulated, DRAM2 expression in human monocytes and macrophages by activating AMP-activated protein kinase. In addition, overexpression of MIR144* decreased DRAM2 expression and formation of autophagosomes in human monocytes, whereas inhibition of MIR144* had the opposite effect. Moreover, the levels of MIR144* were elevated, whereas DRAM2 levels were reduced, in human peripheral blood cells and tissues in TB patients, indicating the clinical significance of MIR144* and DRAM2 in human TB. Notably, DRAM2 interacted with BECN1 and UVRAG, essential components of the autophagic machinery, leading to displacement of RUBCN from the BECN1 complex and enhancement of Ptdlns3K activity. Furthermore, MIR144* and DRAM2 were critically involved in phagosomal maturation and enhanced antimicrobial effects against Mtb. Our findings identify a previously unrecognized role of human MIR144* in the inhibition of antibacterial autophagy and the innate host immune response to Mtb. Additionally, these data reveal that DRAM2 is a key coordinator of autophagy activation that enhances antimicrobial activity against Mtb.

  5. Haemophilus ducreyi infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in nonpolarized but not in polarized human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Bauer, Margaret E; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of microbial infection by certain intracellular pattern recognition receptors leads to the formation of a multiprotein complex termed the inflammasome. Inflammasome assembly activates caspase-1 and leads to cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-18, which help control many bacterial pathogens. However, excessive inflammation mediated by inflammasome activation can also contribute to immunopathology. Here, we investigated whether Haemophilus ducreyi, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid, activates inflammasomes in experimentally infected human skin and in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Although H. ducreyi is predominantly extracellular during human infection, several inflammasome-related components were transcriptionally upregulated in H. ducreyi-infected skin. Infection of MDM with live, but not heat-killed, H. ducreyi induced caspase-1- and caspase-5-dependent processing and secretion of IL-1β. Blockage of H. ducreyi uptake by cytochalasin D significantly reduced the amount of secreted IL-1β. Knocking down the expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC abolished IL-1β production. Consistent with NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, blocking ATP signaling, K(+) efflux, cathepsin B activity, and lysosomal acidification all inhibited IL-1β secretion. However, inhibition of the production and function of reactive oxygen species did not decrease IL-1β production. Polarization of macrophages to classically activated M1 or alternatively activated M2 cells abrogated IL-1β secretion elicited by H. ducreyi. Our study data indicate that H. ducreyi induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation via multiple mechanisms and suggest that the heterogeneity of macrophages within human lesions may modulate inflammasome activation during human infection.

  6. Study of two-phase foam flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurbanov, R S; Guliev, B B; Mekhtiev, K G; Kerimov, R G

    1970-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine characteristics of aqueous foam flow through porous media and to estimate the depth of foam penetration into a formation. Foam was generated by mixing air and 1% solution of surfactant PO-1. Foam density was maintained at 0.14 g/cc in all experiments. The foam was passed through sand columns (800 mm long x 30 mm diam) of permeabilities 26, 39, 80, 111, and 133 darcys. Flow rates were measured at various pressure drops and the relationship between system parameters was expressed analytically and graphically. From the data, distance of foam penetration into a formation as a function of pressure drop and permeability was calculated. The data indicate that under most conditions, foam will penetrate the formation to a negligible distance. This study indicates that when foam is used to remove sand from a well, a negligible loss of foam to the formation occurs.

  7. Dual prognostic significance of tumour-associated macrophages in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma treated or untreated with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Caro, Giuseppe; Cortese, Nina; Castino, Giovanni Francesco; Grizzi, Fabio; Gavazzi, Francesca; Ridolfi, Cristina; Capretti, Giovanni; Mineri, Rossana; Todoric, Jelena; Zerbi, Alessandro; Allavena, Paola; Mantovani, Alberto; Marchesi, Federica

    2016-10-01

    Tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) play key roles in tumour progression. Recent evidence suggests that TAMs critically modulate the efficacy of anticancer therapies, raising the prospect of their targeting in human cancer. In a large retrospective cohort study involving 110 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we assessed the density of CD68-TAM immune reactive area (%IRA) at the tumour-stroma interface and addressed their prognostic relevance in relation to postsurgical adjuvant chemotherapy (CTX). In vitro, we dissected the synergism of CTX and TAMs. In human PDAC, TAMs predominantly exhibited an immunoregulatory profile, characterised by expression of scavenger receptors (CD206, CD163) and production of interleukin 10 (IL-10). Surprisingly, while the density of TAMs associated to worse prognosis and distant metastasis, CTX restrained their protumour prognostic significance. High density of TAMs at the tumour-stroma interface positively dictated prognostic responsiveness to CTX independently of T-cell density. Accordingly, in vitro, gemcitabine-treated macrophages became tumoricidal, activating a cytotoxic gene expression programme, inhibiting their protumoural effect and switching to an antitumour phenotype. In patients with human PDAC, neoadjuvant CTX was associated to a decreased density of CD206(+) and IL-10(+) TAMs at the tumour-stroma interface. Overall, our data highlight TAMs as critical determinants of prognostic responsiveness to CTX and provide clinical and in vitro evidence that CTX overall directly re-educates TAMs to restrain tumour progression. These results suggest that the quantification of TAMs could be exploited to select patients more likely to respond to CTX and provide the basis for novel strategies aimed at re-educating macrophages in the context of CTX. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Mass transfer measurements in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblond, J.G.; Fournel, B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:This study participates to the elaboration of a method for decontamination of the inside surfaces of steel structures (pipes, tanks,...). The solution which has been chosen is to attack the surface of the structure by a dipping solution. In order to reduce the quantity of product to be recovered and treated at the end of the cleaning process, the active solution will be introduced as a foam. During its free or forced drainage the foam supplies an active liquid film along the structure surfaces. It was important to know if the transfers of the dipping liquid inside the foam and between foam and wall film are sufficient to allow a correct supplying of the active liquid at the wall and a correct dragging of the dipped products. The objective of this work is to develop a numerical model which simulates the various transfers. However such a modeling cannot be performed without a thorough knowledge of the different transfer parameters in the foam and in the film. The following study has been performed on a model foam (foaming water + air) held in a smooth vertical glass pipe and submitted to a forced drainage by the foaming water (water + surfactants). The liquid transfer involves the dispersion of the drainage liquid inside the foam and the transfer between the foam and the liquid film flowing down at the wall. The different transfers has been analyzed by NMR using a PFGSE-NMR sequence, which allows to determine the propagator, i.e., the probability density of the liquid particle displacements during a given time interval Δt, along a selected direction. This study allowed to measure, firstly, the mean liquid and the liquid dispersion in the foam along the vertical and horizontal direction, and secondly, the vertical mean velocity in the parietal liquid film. (authors)

  9. Polyimide Foams Offer Superior Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    At Langley Research Center, Erik Weiser and his colleagues in the Advanced Materials and Processing Branch were working with a new substance for fabricating composites for use in supersonic aircraft. The team, however, was experiencing some frustration. Every time they tried to create a solid composite from the polyimide (an advanced polymer) material, it bubbled and foamed. It seemed like the team had reached a dead end in their research - until they had another idea. "We said, This isn t going to work for composites, but maybe we could make a foam out of it," Weiser says. "That was kind of our eureka moment, to see if we could go in a whole other direction. And it worked." Weiser and his colleagues invented a new kind of polyimide foam insulation they named TEEK. The innovation displayed a host of advantages over existing insulation options. Compared to other commercial foams, Weiser explains, polyimide foams perform well across a broad range of temperatures, noting that the NASA TEEK foams provide effective structural insulation up to 600 F and down to cryogenic temperatures. The foam does not burn or off-gas toxic fumes, and even at -423 F - the temperature of liquid hydrogen - the material stays flexible. The inventors could produce the TEEK foam at a range of densities, from 0.5 pounds per cubic foot up to 20 pounds per cubic foot, making the foam ideal for a range of applications, including as insulation for reusable launch vehicles and for cryogenic tanks and lines. They also developed a unique, friable balloon format for manufacturing the foam, producing it as hollow microspheres that allowed the foam to be molded and then cured into any desired shape - perfect for insulating pipes of different sizes and configurations. The team s originally unplanned invention won an "R&D 100" award, and a later form of the foam, called LaRC FPF-44 (Spinoff 2009), was named "NASA Invention of the Year" in 2007.

  10. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    OpenAIRE

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses ...

  11. Influence of Rubber Powders on Foaming Behavior and Mechanical Properties of Foamed Polypropylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yue

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene/rubber powders composites with different kinds of rubber powders were foamed by injection molding machine equipped with volume-adjustable cavity. The effect of dispersity of rubber powders and crystallization behavior of composites on the foaming behavior and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the addition of rubber powders can improve the cell structure of foamed PP with fine and uniform cell distribution. And cell density and size of PP/PP-MAH/NBR foams are 7.64×106cell/cm3 and 29.78μm respectively, which are the best among these foams. Combining cell structures with mechanical properties, notch impact strength of PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites increases approximately by 2.2 times while tensile strength is reduced just by 26% compared with those of the pure PP. This indicates that PP/PP-MAH/CNBR composites are ideal foamed materials.

  12. Chaotic bubbling and nonstagnant foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Sartorelli, José Carlos; Jeandet, Philippe; Liger-Belair, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    We present an experimental investigation of the agglomeration of bubbles obtained from a nozzle working in different bubbling regimes. This experiment consists of a continuous production of bubbles from a nozzle at the bottom of a liquid column, and these bubbles create a two-dimensional (2D) foam (or a bubble raft) at the top of this column. The bubbles can assemble in various dynamically stable arrangement, forming different kinds of foams in a liquid mixture of water and glycerol, with the effect that the bubble formation regimes influence the foam obtained from this agglomeration of bubbles. The average number of bubbles in the foam is related to the bubble formation frequency and the bubble mean lifetime. The periodic bubbling can generate regular or irregular foam, while a chaotic bubbling only generates irregular foam.

  13. The Scavenger Protein Apoptosis Inhibitor of Macrophages (AIM) Potentiates the Antimicrobial Response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Enhancing Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjurjo, Lucía; Amézaga, Núria; Vilaplana, Cristina; Cáceres, Neus; Marzo, Elena; Valeri, Marta; Cardona, Pere-Joan; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages (AIM), a scavenger protein secreted by tissue macrophages, is transcriptionally regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X Receptor (LXR) and Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) heterodimer. Given that LXR exerts a protective immune response against M. tuberculosis, here we analyzed whether AIM is involved in this response. In an experimental murine model of tuberculosis, AIM serum levels peaked dramatically early after infection with M. tuberculosis, providing an in vivo biological link to the disease. We therefore studied the participation of AIM in macrophage response to M. tuberculosis in vitro. For this purpose, we used the H37Rv strain to infect THP-1 macrophages transfected to stably express AIM, thereby increasing infected macrophage survival. Furthermore, the expression of this protein enlarged foam cell formation by enhancing intracellular lipid content. Phagocytosis assays with FITC-labeled M. tuberculosis bacilli indicated that this protein was not involved in bacterial uptake; however, AIM expression decreased the number of intracellular cfus by up to 70% in bacterial killing assays, suggesting that AIM enhances macrophage mycobactericidal activity. Accordingly, M. tuberculosis-infected AIM-expressing cells upregulated the production of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, real-time PCR analysis showed increased mRNA levels of the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin and defensin 4B. These increases were concomitant with greater cellular concentrations of the autophagy-related molecules Beclin 1 and LC3II, as well as enhanced acidification of mycobacterial phagosomes and LC3 co-localization. In summary, our data support the notion that AIM contributes to key macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis. PMID:24223991

  14. Determination of Acreage Thermal Protection Foam Loss From Ice and Foam Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Kelly S.; Lawrence, Charles

    2015-01-01

    A parametric study was conducted to establish Thermal Protection System (TPS) loss from foam and ice impact conditions similar to what might occur on the Space Launch System. This study was based upon the large amount of testing and analysis that was conducted with both ice and foam debris impacts on TPS acreage foam for the Space Shuttle Project External Tank. Test verified material models and modeling techniques that resulted from Space Shuttle related testing were utilized for this parametric study. Parameters varied include projectile mass, impact velocity and impact angle (5 degree and 10 degree impacts). The amount of TPS acreage foam loss as a result of the various impact conditions is presented.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON THE QUASI-STATIC AXIAL CRUSHING BEHAVIOR OF FOAM-FILLED STEEL EXTRUSION TUBES

    OpenAIRE

    AL EMRAN ISMAIL

    2010-01-01

    The concerns of automotive safety have been given special attention in order to reduce human fatalities or injuries. One of the techniques to reduce collision impact or compression energy is by filling polymeric foam into metallic tubes. In this work, polyurethane foam was introduced into the steel extrusion tubes and quasi-statically compressed at constant cross-head displacement. Different tube thicknesses and foam densities were used and these parameters were related to the crashwor...

  16. L-Plastin promotes podosome longevity and supports macrophage motility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Julie Y.; Szasz, Taylor P.; Stewart-Hutchinson, Phillip J.; Sivapalan, Janardan; Todd, Elizabeth M.; Deady, Lauren E.; Cooper, John A.; Onken, Michael D.; Morley, S. Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the molecular regulation of macrophage migration is essential for understanding the patho-physiology of multiple human diseases, including host responses to infection and autoimmune disorders. Macrophage migration is supported by dynamic rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, with formation of actin-based structures such as podosomes and lamellipodia. Here we provide novel insights into the function of the actin-bundling protein l-plastin (LPL) in primary macrophages. We found that podosome stability is disrupted in primary resident peritoneal macrophages from LPL−/− mice. Live-cell imaging of F-actin using resident peritoneal macrophages from LifeACT-RFP+ mice demonstrated that loss of LPL led to decreased longevity of podosomes, without reducing the number of podosomes initiated. Additionally, macrophages from LPL−/− mice failed to elongate in response to chemotactic stimulation. These deficiencies in podosome stabilization and in macrophage elongation correlated with impaired macrophage transmigration in culture and decreased monocyte migration into murine peritoneum. Thus, we have identified a role for LPL in stabilizing long-lived podosomes and in enabling macrophage motility. PMID:27614263

  17. A review of aqueous foam in microscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazadehsayed, Abdolhamid; Rezaee, Nastaran; Naser, Jamal; Nguyen, Anh V

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in the study of aqueous foams. Having said this, a better understanding of foam physics requires a deeper and profound study of foam elements. This paper reviews the studies in the microscale of aqueous foams. The elements of aqueous foams are interior Plateau borders, exterior Plateau borders, nodes, and films. Furthermore, these elements' contribution to the drainage of foam and hydraulic resistance are studied. The Marangoni phenomena that can happen in aqueous foams are listed as Marangoni recirculation in the transition region, Marangoni-driven flow from Plateau border towards the film in the foam fractionation process, and Marangoni flow caused by exposure of foam containing photosurfactants under UV. Then, the flow analysis of combined elements of foam such as PB-film along with Marangoni flow and PB-node are studied. Next, we contrast the behavior of foams in different conditions. These various conditions can be perturbation in the foam structure caused by injected water droplets or waves or using a non-Newtonian fluid to make the foam. Further review is about the effect of oil droplets and particles on the characteristics of foam such as drainage, stability and interfacial mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Human mesenchymal stromal cell-secreted lactate induces M2-macrophage differentiation by metabolic reprogramming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civini, Sara; Pacelli, Consiglia; Dieng, Mame Massar; Lemieux, William; Jin, Ping; Bazin, Renée; Patey, Natacha; Marincola, Francesco M.; Moldovan, Florina; Zaouter, Charlotte; Trudeau, Louis-Eric; Benabdhalla, Basma; Louis, Isabelle; Beauséjour, Christian; Stroncek, David; Le Deist, Françoise; Haddad, Elie

    2016-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to dampen immune response and promote tissue repair, but the underlying mechanisms are still under investigation. Herein, we demonstrate that umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) alter the phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC) through lactate-mediated metabolic reprogramming. UC-MSC can secrete large quantities of lactate and, when present during monocyte-to-DC differentiation, induce instead the acquisition of M2-macrophage features in terms of morphology, surface markers, migratory properties and antigen presentation capacity. Microarray expression profiling indicates that UC-MSC modify the expression of metabolic-related genes and induce a M2-macrophage expression signature. Importantly, monocyte-derived DC obtained in presence of UC-MSC, polarize naïve allogeneic CD4+ T-cells into Th2 cells. Treatment of UC-MSC with an inhibitor of lactate dehydrogenase strongly decreases lactate concentration in culture supernatant and abrogates the effect on monocyte-to-DC differentiation. Metabolic analysis further revealed that UC-MSC decrease oxidative phosphorylation in differentiating monocytes while strongly increasing the spare respiratory capacity proportional to the amount of secreted lactate. Because both MSC and monocytes are recruited in vivo at the site of tissue damage and inflammation, we propose the local increase of lactate concentration induced by UC-MSC and the consequent enrichment in M2-macrophage generation as a mechanism to achieve immunomodulation. PMID:27070086

  19. Beer foam physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronteltap, A.D.

    1989-01-01

    The physical aspects of beer foam behavior were studied in terms of the four physical processes, mainly involved in the formation and breakdown of foam. These processes are, bubble formation, drainage, disproportionation and coalescence. In detail, the processes disproportionation and

  20. G-CSF regulates macrophage phenotype and associates with poor overall survival in human triple-negative breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367

  1. FOAM3D: A numerical simulator for mechanistic prediciton of foam displacement in multidimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovscek, A.R.; Patzek, T.W. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Radke, C.J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Field application of foam is a technically viable enhanced oil recovery process (EOR) as demonstrated by recent steam-foam field studies. Traditional gas-displacement processes, such as steam drive, are improved substantially by controlling gas mobility and thereby improving volumetric displacement efficiency. For instance, Patzek and Koinis showed major oil-recovery response after about two years of foam injection in two different pilot studies at the Kern River field. They report increased production of 5.5 to 14% of the original oil in place over a five year period. Because reservoir-scale simulation is a vital component of the engineering and economic evaluation of any EOR project, efficient application of foam as a displacement fluid requires a predictive numerical model of foam displacement. A mechanistic model would also expedite scale-up of the process from the laboratory to the field scale. No general, mechanistic, field-scale model for foam displacement is currently in use.

  2. Anti-foam System design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Anti-foam System is a sub-system of the 242-A Evaporator facility. The Anti-foam is used within the C-A-1 Vapor-Liquid Separator, to reduce the effect of foaming and reduce fluid bumping while the vapor and liquid are separated within the C-A-1 Vapor-Liquid Separator. Excessive foaming within the vessel may possibly cause the liquid slurry mixture in the evaporator vessel to foul the de-entrainment pads and cause plant shutdown. The Anti-foam System consists of the following primary elements: the Anti-foam Tank and the Metering Pump. The upgrades to Anti-foam System include the following: installation of a new pump, instruments, and valves; and connection of the instruments, pump and agitator associated with the Anti-foam System to the Monitoring and Control System (MCS). The 242-A Evaporator is a waste treatment facility designed to reduce liquid waste volumes currently stored in the Hanford Area double shell Waste Storage Tanks. The evaporator uses evaporative concentration to achieve this volume reduction, returning the concentrated slurry to the double-shell tanks for storage and, at the same time, releasing the process effluent to a retention facilities for eventual treatment and release to the environment

  3. Pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft bone plugs: a comparison of cadaver tibia and rigid polyurethane foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan

    2013-09-01

    To compare the load-to-failure pullout strength of bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) allografts in human cadaver tibias and rigid polyurethane foam blocks. Twenty BPTB allografts were trimmed creating 25 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm tibial plugs. Ten-millimeter tunnels were drilled in 10 human cadaver tibias and 10 rigid polyurethane foam blocks. The BPTB anterior cruciate ligament allografts were inserted into these tunnels and secured with metal interference screws, with placement of 10 of each type in each material. After preloading (10 N), cyclic loading (500 cycles, 10 to 150 N at 200 mm/min) and load-to-failure testing (200 mm/min) were performed. The endpoints were ultimate failure load, cyclic loading elongation, and failure mode. No difference in ultimate failure load existed between grafts inserted into rigid polyurethane foam blocks (705 N) and those in cadaver tibias (669 N) (P = .69). The mean rigid polyurethane foam block elongation (0.211 mm) was less than that in tibial bone (0.470 mm) (P = .038), with a smaller standard deviation (0.07 mm for foam) than tibial bone (0.34 mm). All BPTB grafts successfully completed 500 cycles. The rigid polyurethane foam block showed less variation in test results than human cadaver tibias. Rigid polyurethane foam blocks provide an acceptable substitute for human cadaver bone tibia for biomechanical testing of BPTB allografts and offer near-equivalent results. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. High performance polymeric foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gargiulo, M.; Sorrentino, L.; Iannace, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the foamability of high-performance polymers (polyethersulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyetherimide and polyethylenenaphtalate). Two different methods have been used to prepare the foam samples: high temperature expansion and two-stage batch process. The effects of processing parameters (saturation time and pressure, foaming temperature) on the densities and microcellular structures of these foams were analyzed by using scanning electron microscopy

  5. Probiotic Bacteria Alter Pattern-Recognition Receptor Expression and Cytokine Profile in a Human Macrophage Model Challenged with Candida albicans and Lipopolysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor H. Matsubara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer benefits to the host health. The infection rate of potentially pathogenic organisms such as Candida albicans, the most common agent associated with mucosal candidiasis, can be reduced by probiotics. However, the mechanisms by which the probiotics interfere with the immune system are largely unknown. We evaluated the effect of probiotic bacteria on C. albicans challenged human macrophages. Macrophages were pretreated with lactobacilli alone (Lactobacillus rhamnosus LR32, Lactobacillus casei L324m, or Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM or associated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, followed by the challenge with C. albicans or LPS in a co-culture assay. The expression of pattern-recognition receptors genes (CLE7A, TLR2, and TLR4 was determined by RT-qPCR, and dectin-1 reduced levels were confirmed by flow cytometry. The cytokine profile was determined by ELISA using the macrophage cell supernatant. Overall probiotic lactobacilli down-regulated the transcription of CLEC7A (p < 0.05, resulting in the decreased expression of dectin-1 on probiotic pretreated macrophages. The tested Lactobacillus species down-regulated TLR4, and increased TLR2 mRNA levels in macrophages challenged with C. albicans. The cytokines profile of macrophages challenged with C. albicans or LPS were altered by the probiotics, which generally led to increased levels of IL-10 and IL-1β, and reduction of IL-12 production by macrophages (p < 0.05. Our data suggest that probiotic lactobacilli impair the recognition of PAMPs by macrophages, and alter the production of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, thus modulating inflammation.

  6. Stability of metallic foams studied under microgravity

    CERN Document Server

    Wuebben, T; Banhart, J; Odenbach, S

    2003-01-01

    Metal foams are prepared by mixing a metal powder and a gas-releasing blowing agent, by densifying the mix to a dense precursor and finally foaming by melting the powder compact. The foaming process of aluminium foams is monitored in situ by x-ray radioscopy. One observes that foam evolution is accompanied by film rupture processes which lead to foam coalescence. In order to elucidate the importance of oxides for foam stability, lead foams were manufactured from lead powders having two different oxide contents. The two foam types were generated on Earth and under weightlessness during parabolic flights. The measurements show that the main function of oxide particles is to prevent coalescence, while their influence on bulk viscosity of the melt is of secondary importance.

  7. Commensal Bacteria-Induced Inflammasome Activation in Mouse and Human Macrophages Is Dependent on Potassium Efflux but Does Not Require Phagocytosis or Bacterial Viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejie Chen

    Full Text Available Gut commensal bacteria contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease, in part by activating the inflammasome and inducing secretion of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß. Although much has been learned about inflammasome activation by bacterial pathogens, little is known about how commensals carry out this process. Accordingly, we investigated the mechanism of inflammasome activation by representative commensal bacteria, the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis and the Gram-negative Bacteroides fragilis. B. infantis and B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion by primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages after overnight incubation. IL-1ß secretion also occurred in response to heat-killed bacteria and was only partly reduced when phagocytosis was inhibited with cytochalasin D. Similar results were obtained with a wild-type immortalized mouse macrophage cell line but neither B. infantis nor B. fragilis induced IL-1ß secretion in a mouse macrophage line lacking the nucleotide-binding/leucine-rich repeat pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3 inflammasome. IL-1ß secretion in response to B. infantis and B. fragilis was significantly reduced when the wild-type macrophage line was treated with inhibitors of potassium efflux, either increased extracellular potassium concentrations or the channel blocker ruthenium red. Both live and heat-killed B. infantis and B. fragilis also induced IL-1ß secretion by human macrophages (differentiated THP-1 cells or primary monocyte-derived macrophages after 4 hours of infection, and the secretion was inhibited by raised extracellular potassium and ruthenium red but not by cytochalasin D. Taken together, our findings indicate that the commensal bacteria B. infantis and B. fragilis activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages by a mechanism that involves potassium efflux and that does not require bacterial viability or phagocytosis.

  8. Efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous film-forming foam solution by aeration-foam collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Pingping; Deng, Shubo; Maimaiti, Ayiguli; Wang, Bin; Huang, Jun; Wang, Yujue; Cousins, Ian T; Yu, Gang

    2018-07-01

    Aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) used in fire-fighting are one of the main contamination sources of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) to the subterranean environment, requiring high costs for remediation. In this study, a method that combined aeration and foam collection was presented to remove PFOS from a commercially available AFFF solution. The method utilized the strong surfactant properties of PFOS that cause it to be highly enriched at air-water interfaces. With an aeration flow rate of 75 mL/min, PFOS removal percent reached 96% after 2 h, and the PFOS concentration in the collected foam was up to 6.5 mmol/L, beneficial for PFOS recovery and reuse. Increasing the aeration flow rate, ionic strength and concentration of co-existing surfactant, as well as decreasing the initial PFOS concentration, increased the removal percents of PFOS by increasing the foam volume, but reduced the enrichment of PFOS in the foams. With the assistance of a co-existing hydrocarbon surfactant, PFOS removal percent was above 99.9% after aeration-foam collection for 2 h and the enrichment factor exceeded 8400. Aeration-foam collection was less effective for short-chain perfluoroalkyl substances due to their relatively lower surface activity. Aeration-foam collection was found to be effective for the removal of high concentrations of PFOS from AFFF-contaminated wastewater, and the concentrated PFOS in the collected foam can be reused. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hacking macrophage-associated immunosuppression for regulating glioblastoma angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Morales, Renee-Tyler Tan; Qian, Weiyi; Wang, Haoyu; Gagner, Jean-Pierre; Dolgalev, Igor; Placantonakis, Dimitris; Zagzag, David; Cimmino, Luisa; Snuderl, Matija; Lam, Raymond H W; Chen, Weiqiang

    2018-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary adult brain tumor and its pathology is hallmarked by distorted neovascularization, diffuse tumor-associated macrophage infiltration, and potent immunosuppression. Reconstituting organotypic tumor angiogenesis models with biomimetic cell heterogeneity and interactions, pro-/anti-inflammatory milieu and extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanics is critical for preclinical anti-angiogenic therapeutic screening. However, current in vitro systems do not accurately mirror in vivo human brain tumor microenvironment. Here, we engineered a three-dimensional (3D), microfluidic angiogenesis model with controllable and biomimetic immunosuppressive conditions, immune-vascular and cell-matrix interactions. We demonstrate in vitro, GL261 and CT-2A GBM-like tumors steer macrophage polarization towards a M2-like phenotype for fostering an immunosuppressive and proangiogenic niche, which is consistent with human brain tumors. We distinguished that GBM and M2-like immunosuppressive macrophages promote angiogenesis, while M1-like pro-inflammatory macrophages suppress angiogenesis, which we coin "inflammation-driven angiogenesis." We observed soluble immunosuppressive cytokines, predominantly TGF-β1, and surface integrin (α v β 3 ) endothelial-macrophage interactions are required in inflammation-driven angiogenesis. We demonstrated tuning cell-adhesion receptors using an integrin (α v β 3 )-specific collagen hydrogel regulated inflammation-driven angiogenesis through Src-PI3K-YAP signaling, highlighting the importance of altered cell-ECM interactions in inflammation. To validate the preclinical applications of our 3D organoid model and mechanistic findings of inflammation-driven angiogenesis, we screened a novel dual integrin (α v β 3 ) and cytokine receptor (TGFβ-R1) blockade that suppresses GBM tumor neovascularization by simultaneously targeting macrophage-associated immunosuppression, endothelial-macrophage interactions, and

  10. Preparation and characterization of PMMA graded microporous foams via one-step supercritical carbon dioxide foaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Huan; Li Junguo; Xiong Yuanlu; Luo Guoqiang; Shen Qiang; Zhang Lianmeng

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (ScCO 2 ) foaming which is inexpensive and environmental friendly has been widely used to prepare polymer-based microporous materials. In this paper, PMMA graded microporous materials were foamed by PMMA matrix after an unstable saturation process which was done under supercritical condition of 28MPa and 50 °C. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the morphology of the graded foam. A gas adsorption model was proposed to predict the graded gas concentration in the different region of the polymer matrix. The SEM results showed that the solid and foam region of the graded foam can be connected without laminated layers. With the increasing thickness position of the graded microporous foam, the cell size increased from 3.4 to 27.5 μm, while the cell density decreased from 1.04 × 10 9 to 1.96 × 10 7 cells/cm 3 . It also found that the gradient microporous structure of the foam came from graded gas concentration which was obtained in the initial saturation process.

  11. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is associated with aneurysmal expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Jie-Hong; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Sukhova, Galina K

    2003-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine released mainly from macrophages and activated lymphocytes. Both atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inflammatory diseases tightly linked to the function of these cells. The correlation and contribution o...... of MIF to these human diseases remain unknown, although a recent rabbit study showed expression of this cytokine in atherosclerotic lesions.......Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an inflammatory cytokine released mainly from macrophages and activated lymphocytes. Both atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) are inflammatory diseases tightly linked to the function of these cells. The correlation and contribution...

  12. Numerical Modeling of Foam Drilling Hydraulics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcan Baris

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of foam as a drilling fluid was developed to meet a special set of conditions under which other common drilling fluids had failed. Foam drilling is defined as the process of making boreholes by utilizing foam as the circulating fluid. When compared with conventional drilling, underbalanced or foam drilling has several advantages. These advantages include: avoidance of lost circulation problems, minimizing damage to pay zones, higher penetration rates and bit life. Foams are usually characterized by the quality, the ratio of the volume of gas, and the total foam volume. Obtaining dependable pressure profiles for aerated (gasified fluids and foam is more difficult than for single phase fluids, since in the former ones the drilling mud contains a gas phase that is entrained within the fluid system. The primary goal of this study is to expand the knowledge-base of the hydrodynamic phenomena that occur in a foam drilling operation. In order to gain a better understanding of foam drilling operations, a hydrodynamic model is developed and run at different operating conditions. For this purpose, the flow of foam through the drilling system is modeled by invoking the basic principles of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The model was designed to allow gas and liquid flow at desired volumetric flow rates through the drillstring and annulus. Parametric studies are conducted in order to identify the most influential variables in the hydrodynamic modeling of foam flow.

  13. Applications of Foamed Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Sari Kamarul Aini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of foamed concrete is increasing at present due to high demand on foamed concrete structures with good mechanical and physical properties. This paper discusses on the use of basic raw materials, their characteristics, production process, and their application in foamed lightweight concrete with densities between 300 kg/m3 and 1800 kg/m3. It also discusses the factors that influence the strengths and weaknesses of foamed concrete based on studies that were conducted previously.

  14. Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong

    2009-11-11

    Amendment solutions with or without surfactants have been used to remove contaminants from soil. However, it has drawbacks such that the amendment solution often mobilizes the plume, and its movement is controlled by gravity and preferential flow paths. Foam is an emulsion-like, two-phase system in which gas cells are dispersed in a liquid and separated by thin liquid films called lamellae. Potential advantages of using foams in sub-surface remediation include providing better control on the volume of fluids injected, uniformity of contact, and the ability to contain the migration of contaminant laden liquids. It is expected that foam can serve as a carrier of amendments for vadose zone remediation, e.g., at the Hanford Site. As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s EM-20 program, a numerical simulation capability will be added to the Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) flow simulator. The primary purpose of this document is to review the modeling approaches of foam transport in porous media. However, as an aid to understanding the simulation approaches, some experiments under unsaturated conditions and the processes of foam transport are also reviewed. Foam may be formed when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micelle concentration. There are two main types of foams – the ball foam (microfoam) and the polyhedral foam. The characteristics of bulk foam are described by the properties such as foam quality, texture, stability, density, surface tension, disjoining pressure, etc. Foam has been used to flush contaminants such as metals, organics, and nonaqueous phase liquids from unsaturated soil. Ball foam, or colloidal gas aphrons, reportedly have been used for soil flushing in contaminated site remediation and was found to be more efficient than surfactant solutions on the basis of weight of contaminant removed per gram of surfactant. Experiments also indicate that the polyhedral foam can be used to enhance soil remediation. The

  15. Organic UV filters exposure induces the production of inflammatory cytokines in human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Junjie; Yuan, Tao; Gao, Li; Yu, Xiaodan; Zhao, Xiaodong; Tian, Ying; Ding, Wenjin; Ma, Yuning; Shen, Zhemin

    2018-09-01

    Organic ultraviolet (UV) filters, found in many personal care products, are considered emerging contaminants due to growing concerns about potential long-term deleterious effects. We investigated the immunomodulatory effects of four commonly used organic UV filters (2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, BP-3; 4-methylbenzylidene camphor, 4-MBC; 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC; and butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane, BDM) on human macrophages. Our results indicated that exposure to these four UV filters significantly increased the production of various inflammatory cytokines in macrophages, particular tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). After exposure to the UV filters, a significant 1.1-1.5 fold increase were found in TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression. In addition, both the p38 MAPK and the NF-κB signaling pathways were enhanced 2 to 10 times in terms of phosphorylation after exposure to the UV filters, suggesting that these pathways are involved in the release of TNF-α and IL-6. Molecular docking analysis predicted that all four UV filter molecules would efficiently bind transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), which is responsible for the activation of the p38 MAPK and NF-κB pathways. Our results therefore demonstrate that exposure to the four organic UV filters investigated may alter human immune system function. It provides new clue for the development of asthma or allergic diseases in terms of the environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differentially activated macrophages orchestrate myogenic precursor cell fate during human skeletal muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saclier, Marielle; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Mackey, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    , we explored both in vitro and in vivo, in human, the interactions of differentially activated MPs with myogenic precursor cells (MPCs) during adult myogenesis and skeletal muscle regeneration. We showed in vitro that through the differential secretion of cytokines and growth factors, proinflammatory...... anti-inflammatory markers. These data demonstrate for the first time in human that MPs sequentially orchestrate adult myogenesis during regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle. These results support the emerging concept that inflammation, through MP activation, controls stem cell fate and coordinates......Macrophages (MPs) exert either beneficial or deleterious effects on tissue repair, depending on their activation/polarization state. They are crucial for adult skeletal muscle repair, notably by acting on myogenic precursor cells. However, these interactions have not been fully characterized. Here...

  17. Effect of foam stirrer design on the catalytic performance of rotating foam stirrer reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leon Matheus, M.A.; Geers, P.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schaaf, van der J.; Schouten, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    The liquid–solid mass transfer rate in a rotating foam stirrer reactor and in a slurry reactor is studied using the hydrogenation of styrene as a model reaction. The rotating foam stirrer reactor is a novel type of multi-phase reactor where highly open-celled materials, solid foams, are used as a

  18. Pharmacological inhibition of dynamin II reduces constitutive protein secretion from primary human macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Kockx

    Full Text Available Dynamins are fission proteins that mediate endocytic and exocytic membrane events and are pharmacological therapeutic targets. These studies investigate whether dynamin II regulates constitutive protein secretion and show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of dynamin decreases secretion of apolipoprotein E (apoE and several other proteins constitutively secreted from primary human macrophages. Inhibitors that target recruitment of dynamin to membranes (MiTMABs or directly target the GTPase domain (Dyngo or Dynole series, dose- and time- dependently reduced the secretion of apoE. SiRNA oligo's targeting all isoforms of dynamin II confirmed the involvement of dynamin II in apoE secretion. Inhibition of secretion was not mediated via effects on mRNA or protein synthesis. 2D-gel electrophoresis showed that inhibition occurred after apoE was processed and glycosylated in the Golgi and live cell imaging showed that inhibited secretion was associated with reduced post-Golgi movement of apoE-GFP-containing vesicles. The effect was not restricted to macrophages, and was not mediated by the effects of the inhibitors on microtubules. Inhibition of dynamin also altered the constitutive secretion of other proteins, decreasing the secretion of fibronectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9, Chitinase-3-like protein 1 and lysozyme but unexpectedly increasing the secretion of the inflammatory mediator cyclophilin A. We conclude that pharmacological inhibitors of dynamin II modulate the constitutive secretion of macrophage apoE as a class effect, and that their capacity to modulate protein secretion may affect a range of biological processes.

  19. Human Subcutaneous Tissue Response to Glucose Sensors: Macrophages Accumulation Impact on Sensor Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigla, Mercedes; Pons, Belén; Rebasa, Pere; Luna, Alexis; Pozo, Francisco Javier; Caixàs, Assumpta; Villaplana, Maria; Subías, David; Bella, Maria Rosa; Combalia, Neus

    2018-04-01

    Subcutaneous (s.c.) glucose sensors have become a key component in type 1 diabetes management. However, their usability is limited by the impact of foreign body response (FBR) on their duration, reliability, and accuracy. Our study gives the first description of human acute and subacute s.c. response to glucose sensors, showing the changes observed in the sensor surface, the inflammatory cells involved in the FBR and their relationship with sensor performance. Twelve obese patients (seven type 2 diabetes) underwent two abdominal biopsies comprising the surrounding area where they had worn two glucose sensors: the first one inserted 7 days before and the second one 24 h before biopsy procedure. Samples were processed and studied to describe tissue changes by two independent pathologists (blind regarding sensor duration). Macrophages quantification was studied by immunohistochemistry methods in the area surrounding the sensor (CD68, CD163). Sensor surface changes were studied by scanning electron microscopy. Seven-day continuous glucose monitoring records were considered inaccurate when mean absolute relative difference was higher than 10%. Pathologists were able to correctly classify all the biopsies regarding sensor duration. Acute response (24 h) was characterized by the presence of neutrophils while macrophages were the main cell involved in subacute inflammation. The number of macrophages around the insertion hole was higher for less accurate sensors compared with those performing more accurately (32.6 ± 14 vs. 10.6 ± 1 cells/0.01 mm 2 ; P sensor-tissue interface is related with decrease in accuracy of the glucose measure.

  20. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrah K. Sleeth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling. However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138, including conventions for extrathoracic (ET deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1 and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2. For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  1. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-07

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device.

  2. The effects of a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression and inhibition on human uveal melanoma cell proliferation and macrophage nitric oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 expression has previously been identified in uveal melanoma although the biological role of COX-2 in this intraocular malignancy has not been elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a COX-2 inhibitor on the proliferation rate of human uveal melanoma cells, as well as its effect on the cytotoxic response of macrophages. Methods Human uveal melanoma cell lines were transfected to constitutively express COX-2 and the proliferative rate of these cells using two different methods, with and without the addition of Amfenac, was measured. Nitric oxide production by macrophages was measured after exposure to melanoma-conditioned medium from both groups of cells as well as with and without Amfenac, the active metabolite of Nepafenac. Results Cells transfected to express COX-2 had a higher proliferation rate than those that did not. The addition of Amfenac significantly decreased the proliferation rate of all cell lines. Nitric oxide production by macrophages was inhibited by the addition of melanoma conditioned medium, the addition of Amfenac partially overcame this inhibition. Conclusion Amfenac affected both COX-2 transfected and non-transfected uveal melanoma cells in terms of their proliferation rates as well as their suppressive effects on macrophage cytotoxic activity.

  3. Origins and Hallmarks of Macrophages: Development, Homeostasis, and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Thomas A.; Chawla, Ajay; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2013-01-01

    Preface Macrophages the most plastic cells of the hematopoietic system are found in all tissues and exhibit great functional diversity. They have roles in development, homeostasis, tissue repair, and immunity. While anatomically distinct, resident tissue macrophages exhibit different transcriptional profiles, and functional capabilities, they are all required for the maintenance of homeostasis. However, these reparative and homeostatic functions can be subverted by chronic insults, resulting in a causal association of macrophages with disease states. In this review, we discuss how macrophages regulate normal physiology and development and provide several examples of their pathophysiologic roles in disease. We define the “hallmarks” of macrophages performing particular functions, taking into account novel insights into the diversity of their lineages, identity, and regulation. This diversity is essential to understand because macrophages have emerged as important therapeutic targets in many important human diseases. PMID:23619691

  4. Macrophage heterogeneity and cholesterol homeostasis: classically-activated macrophages are associated with reduced cholesterol accumulation following treatment with oxidized LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Eugene M; Tai, Daven C; Beer, Jennifer L; Hill, John S

    2013-02-01

    Macrophages are centrally involved during atherosclerosis development and are the predominant cell type that accumulates cholesterol in the plaque. Macrophages however, are heterogeneous in nature reflecting a variety of microenvironments and different phenotypes may be more prone to contribute towards atherosclerosis progression. Using primary human monocyte-derived macrophages, we sought to evaluate one aspect of atherogenic potential of different macrophage phenotypes by determining their propensity to associate with and accumulate oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Classically-activated macrophages treated simultaneously with interferon γ (IFNγ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) associated with less oxLDL and accumulated less cholesterol compared to untreated controls. The combined treatment of IFNγ and TNFα reduced the mRNA expression of CD36 and the expression of both cell surface CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1) protein. Under oxLDL loaded conditions, IFNγ and TNFα did not reduce macrophage protein expression of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-actived receptor γ (PPARγ) which is known to positively regulate CD36 expression. However, macrophages treated with IFNγ attenuated the ability of the PPARγ-specific agonist rosiglitazone from upregulating cell surface CD36 protein expression. Our results demonstrate that the observed reduction of cholesterol accumulation in macrophages treated with IFNγ and TNFα following oxLDL treatment was due at least in part to reduced cell surface CD36 and MSR1 protein expression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The mechanical behavior of microcellular foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozkul, M.H.; Mark, J.E. (Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA)); Aubert, J.H. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of microcellular open-cell foams prepared by a thermally induced phase separation process are investigated. The foams studied were prepared from isotactic polystyrene, polyacrylonitrile, and poly(4-methyl-1-pentene) (rigid foams), and polyurethane and Lycra (elastomeric foams). Their densities were in the range 0.04--0.27 g/cm3. Conventional polystyrene foams were used for comparison. The moduli and collapse stresses of these foams were measured in compression and compared with the current constitutive laws which relate mechanical properties to densities. A reinforcement technique based on the in-situ precipitation of silica was used to improve the mechanical properties. 13 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effect of silica nanoparticles on polyurethane foaming process and foam properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francés, A B; Bañón, M V Navarro

    2014-01-01

    Flexible polyurethane foams (FPUF) are commonly used as cushioning material in upholstered products made on several industrial sectors: furniture, automotive seating, bedding, etc. Polyurethane is a high molecular weight polymer based on the reaction between a hydroxyl group (polyol) and isocyanate. The density, flowability, compressive, tensile or shearing strength, the thermal and dimensional stability, combustibility, and other properties can be adjusted by the addition of several additives. Nanomaterials offer a wide range of possibilities to obtain nanocomposites with specific properties. The combination of FPUF with silica nanoparticles could develop nanocomposite materials with unique properties: improved mechanical and thermal properties, gas permeability, and fire retardancy. However, as silica particles are at least partially surface-terminated with Si-OH groups, it was suspected that the silica could interfere in the reaction of poyurethane formation.The objective of this study was to investigate the enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of FPUF by the incorporation of different types of silica and determining the influence thereof during the foaming process. Flexible polyurethane foams with different loading mass fraction of silica nanoparticles (0-1% wt) and different types of silica (non treated and modified silica) were synthesized. PU/SiO 2 nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, and measurements of apparent density, resilience and determination of compression set. Addition of silica nanoparticles influences negatively in the density and compression set of the foams. However, resilience and thermal stability of the foams are improved. Silica nanoparticles do not affect to the chemical structure of the foams although they interfere in the blowing reaction

  7. Graded porous polyurethane foam: A potential scaffold for oro-maxillary bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannitelli, S.M. [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Basoli, F. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Mozetic, P. [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Piva, P.; Bartuli, F.N.; Luciani, F. [University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Arcuri, C. [Department of Periodontics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); U.O.C.C. Odontostomatology, “S. Giovanni Calibita, Fatebenefratelli” Hospital, Rome (Italy); Trombetta, M. [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Rainer, A., E-mail: a.rainer@unicampus.it [Department of Engineering, Tissue Engineering Unit, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Licoccia, S. [Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Bone tissue engineering applications demand for biomaterials offering a substrate for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, while inferring suitable mechanical properties to the construct. In the present study, polyurethane (PU) foams were synthesized to develop a graded porous material—characterized by a dense shell and a porous core—for the treatment of oro-maxillary bone defects. Foam was synthesized via a one-pot reaction starting from a polyisocyanate and a biocompatible polyester diol, using water as a foaming agent. Different foaming conditions were examined, with the aim of creating a dense/porous functional graded material that would perform at the same time as an osteoconductive scaffold for bone defect regeneration and as a membrane-barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. The obtained PU was characterized in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Our findings confirm that the material is potentially suitable for guided bone regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Graded porous polyurethane foams were synthesized via a one-pot foaming reaction. • The inner porous core might act as a scaffold for guided bone regeneration. • A dense outer shell was introduced to act as a barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. • The synthesized foams were non-toxic and supportive of hBMSC adhesion.

  8. Graded porous polyurethane foam: A potential scaffold for oro-maxillary bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannitelli, S.M.; Basoli, F.; Mozetic, P.; Piva, P.; Bartuli, F.N.; Luciani, F.; Arcuri, C.; Trombetta, M.; Rainer, A.; Licoccia, S.

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering applications demand for biomaterials offering a substrate for cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation, while inferring suitable mechanical properties to the construct. In the present study, polyurethane (PU) foams were synthesized to develop a graded porous material—characterized by a dense shell and a porous core—for the treatment of oro-maxillary bone defects. Foam was synthesized via a one-pot reaction starting from a polyisocyanate and a biocompatible polyester diol, using water as a foaming agent. Different foaming conditions were examined, with the aim of creating a dense/porous functional graded material that would perform at the same time as an osteoconductive scaffold for bone defect regeneration and as a membrane-barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. The obtained PU was characterized in terms of morphological and mechanical properties. Biocompatibility assessment was performed in combination with bone-marrow-derived human mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs). Our findings confirm that the material is potentially suitable for guided bone regeneration applications. - Highlights: • Graded porous polyurethane foams were synthesized via a one-pot foaming reaction. • The inner porous core might act as a scaffold for guided bone regeneration. • A dense outer shell was introduced to act as a barrier to gingival tissue ingrowth. • The synthesized foams were non-toxic and supportive of hBMSC adhesion

  9. A TNF-Regulated Recombinatorial Macrophage Immune Receptor Implicated in Granuloma Formation in Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streich, Roswita; Breysach, Caroline; Raddatz, Dirk; Oniga, Septimia; Peccerella, Teresa; Findeisen, Peter; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Gratchev, Alexei; Schweyer, Stefan; Saunders, Bernadette; Wessels, Johannes T.; Möbius, Wiebke; Keane, Joseph; Becker, Heinz; Ganser, Arnold; Neumaier, Michael; Kaminski, Wolfgang E.

    2011-01-01

    Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR) αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse monocytes and macrophages. In vitro, we find that the macrophage-TCRαβ induces the release of CCL2 and modulates phagocytosis. TNF blockade suppresses macrophage-TCRαβ expression. Infection of macrophages from healthy individuals with mycobacteria triggers formation of clusters that express restricted TCR Vβ repertoires. In vivo, TCRαβ bearing macrophages abundantly accumulate at the inner host-pathogen contact zone of caseous granulomas from patients with lung tuberculosis. In chimeric mouse models, deletion of the variable macrophage-TCRαβ or TNF is associated with structurally compromised granulomas of pulmonary tuberculosis even in the presence of intact T cells. These results uncover a TNF-regulated recombinatorial immune receptor in monocytes/macrophages and demonstrate its implication in granuloma formation in tuberculosis. PMID:22114556

  10. A TNF-regulated recombinatorial macrophage immune receptor implicated in granuloma formation in tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W Beham

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages play a central role in host defense against mycobacterial infection and anti- TNF therapy is associated with granuloma disorganization and reactivation of tuberculosis in humans. Here, we provide evidence for the presence of a T cell receptor (TCR αβ based recombinatorial immune receptor in subpopulations of human and mouse monocytes and macrophages. In vitro, we find that the macrophage-TCRαβ induces the release of CCL2 and modulates phagocytosis. TNF blockade suppresses macrophage-TCRαβ expression. Infection of macrophages from healthy individuals with mycobacteria triggers formation of clusters that express restricted TCR Vβ repertoires. In vivo, TCRαβ bearing macrophages abundantly accumulate at the inner host-pathogen contact zone of caseous granulomas from patients with lung tuberculosis. In chimeric mouse models, deletion of the variable macrophage-TCRαβ or TNF is associated with structurally compromised granulomas of pulmonary tuberculosis even in the presence of intact T cells. These results uncover a TNF-regulated recombinatorial immune receptor in monocytes/macrophages and demonstrate its implication in granuloma formation in tuberculosis.

  11. Transcriptomic signature of Leishmania infected mice macrophages: a metabolic point of view.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Rabhi

    Full Text Available We analyzed the transcriptional signatures of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages at different times after infection with promastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the macrophage metabolic pathways including carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were among the most altered pathways at later time points of infection. Indeed, L. major promastiogtes induced increased mRNA levels of the glucose transporter and almost all of the genes associated with glycolysis and lactate dehydrogenase, suggesting a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. On the other hand, L. major promastigotes enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors involved in the uptake of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL, inhibited the expression of genes coding for proteins regulating cholesterol efflux, and induced the synthesis of triacylglycerides. These data suggested that Leishmania infection disturbs cholesterol and triglycerides homeostasis and may lead to cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Using Filipin and Bodipy staining, we showed cholesterol and triglycerides accumulation in infected macrophages. Moreover, Bodipy-positive lipid droplets accumulated in close proximity to parasitophorous vacuoles, suggesting that intracellular L. major may take advantage of these organelles as high-energy substrate sources. While the effect of infection on cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation was independent on parasite development, our data indicate that anaerobic glycolysis is actively induced by L. major during the establishment of infection.

  12. Characterization of synthetic foam structures used to manufacture artificial vertebral trabecular bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, David; Senck, Sascha; Hollensteiner, Marianne; Esterer, Benjamin; Augat, Peter; Eckstein, Felix; Schrempf, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Artificial materials reflecting the mechanical properties of human bone are essential for valid and reliable implant testing and design. They also are of great benefit for realistic simulation of surgical procedures. The objective of this study was therefore to characterize two groups of self-developed synthetic foam structures by static compressive testing and by microcomputed tomography. Two mineral fillers and varying amounts of a blowing agent were used to create different expansion behavior of the synthetic open-cell foams. The resulting compressive and morphometric properties thus differed within and also slightly between both groups. Apart from the structural anisotropy, the compressive and morphometric properties of the synthetic foam materials were shown to mirror the respective characteristics of human vertebral trabecular bone in good approximation. In conclusion, the artificial materials created can be used to manufacture valid synthetic bones for surgical training. Further, they provide novel possibilities for studying the relationship between trabecular bone microstructure and biomechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Anaerobic Digestion Foaming Causes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganidi, Nafsika

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion foaming has been encountered in several sewage treatment plants in the UK. Foaming has raised major concerns for the water utilities due to significant impacts on process efficiency and operational costs. Several foaming causes have been suggested over the past few years by researchers. However, the supporting experimental information is limited and in some cases site specific. The present report aimed to provide a better understanding of the anaerobic di...

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cells alter macrophage phenotype and promote regeneration via homing to the kidney following ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wise, Andrea F; Williams, Timothy M; Kiewiet, Mensiena B G; Payne, Natalie L; Siatskas, Christopher; Samuel, Chrishan S; Ricardo, Sharon D

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) ameliorate injury and accelerate repair in many organs, including the kidney, although the reparative mechanisms and interaction with macrophages have not been elucidated. This study investigated the reparative potential of human bone marrow-derived MSCs and traced

  15. Supernatants from oral epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activation induced by periodontopathogens in monocytes/macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, O A; Ebersole, J L; Huang, C B

    2010-04-01

    Bacterial and host cell products during coinfections of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1-positive (HIV-1(+)) patients regulate HIV-1 recrudescence in latently infected cells (e.g. T cells, monocytes/macrophages), impacting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) failure and progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high frequency of oral opportunistic infections (e.g. periodontitis) in HIV-1(+) patients has been demonstrated; however, their potential to impact HIV-1 exacerbation is unclear. We sought to determine the ability of supernatants derived from oral epithelial cells (OKF4) and human gingival fibroblasts (Gin-4) challenged with periodontal pathogens, to modulate the HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages. BF24 monocytes/macrophages transfected with the HIV-1 promoter driving the expression of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) were stimulated with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, or Treponema denticola in the presence of supernatants from OKF4 or Gin4 cells either unstimulated or previously pulsed with bacteria. CAT levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and cytokine production was evaluated by Luminex beadlyte assays. OKF4 and Gin4 supernatants enhanced HIV-1 promoter activation particularly related to F. nucleatum challenge. An additive effect was observed in HIV-1 promoter activation when monocytes/macrophages were simultaneously stimulated with gingival cell supernatants and bacterial extracts. OKF4 cells produced higher levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukins -6 and -8 in response to F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Preincubation of OKF4 supernatants with anti-GM-CSF reduced the additive effect in periodontopathogen-induced HIV-1 promoter activation. These results suggest that soluble mediators produced by gingival resident cells in response to periodontopathogens could contribute to HIV-1 promoter activation in monocytes/macrophages

  16. Foam-forming properties of Ilex paraguariensis (mate saponin: foamability and foam lifetime analysis by Weibull equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Treter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Saponins are natural soaplike foam-forming compounds widely used in foods, cosmetic and pharmaceutical preparations. In this work foamability and foam lifetime of foams obtained from Ilex paraguariensis unripe fruits were analyzed. Polysorbate 80 and sodium dodecyl sulfate were used as reference surfactants. Aiming a better data understanding a linearized 4-parameters Weibull function was proposed. The mate hydroethanolic extract (ME and a mate saponin enriched fraction (MSF afforded foamability and foam lifetime comparable to the synthetic surfactants. The linearization of the Weibull equation allowed the statistical comparison of foam decay curves, improving former mathematical approaches.

  17. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  18. Nanoparticles as Antituberculosis Drugs Carriers: Effect on Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, Y.V.; Gelperina, S.I.; Peloquin, C.A.; Heifets, L.B.

    2000-01-01

    This is the first report evaluating the nanoparticle delivery system for three antituberculosis drugs: isoniazid, rifampin, and streptomycin. The typical particle size is 250 nm. We studied accumulation of these drugs in human monocytes as well as their antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Nanoparticle encapsulation increased the intracellular accumulation (cell-association) of all three tested drugs, but it enhanced the antimicrobial activity of isoniazid and streptomycin only. On the other hand, the activity of encapsulated rifampin against intracellular bacteria was not higher than that of the free drug

  19. Genome-wide identification of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and -2 binding sites in hypoxic human macrophages alternatively activated by IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausendschön, Michaela; Rehli, Michael; Dehne, Nathalie; Schmidl, Christian; Döring, Claudia; Hansmann, Martin-Leo; Brüne, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages (MΦ) often accumulate in hypoxic areas, where they significantly influence disease progression. Anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-10, generate alternatively activated macrophages that support tumor growth. To understand how alternative activation affects the transcriptional profile of hypoxic macrophages, we globally mapped binding sites of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages prestimulated with IL-10. 713 HIF-1 and 795 HIF-2 binding sites were identified under hypoxia. Pretreatment with IL-10 altered the binding pattern, with 120 new HIF-1 and 188 new HIF-2 binding sites emerging. HIF-1 binding was most prominent in promoters, while HIF-2 binding was more abundant in enhancer regions. Comparison of ChIP-seq data obtained in other cells revealed a highly cell type specific binding of HIF. In MΦ HIF binding occurred preferentially in already active enhancers or promoters. To assess the roles of HIF on gene expression, primary human macrophages were treated with siRNA against HIF-1α or HIF-2α, followed by genome-wide gene expression analysis. Comparing mRNA expression to the HIF binding profile revealed a significant enrichment of hypoxia-inducible genes previously identified by ChIP-seq. Analysis of gene expression under hypoxia alone and hypoxia/IL-10 showed the enhanced induction of a set of genes including PLOD2 and SLC2A3, while another group including KDM3A and ADM remained unaffected or was reduced by IL-10. Taken together IL-10 influences the DNA binding pattern of HIF and the level of gene induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Back, Djuna Z.; Kostova, Elena B.; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with

  1. Foam flow in a model porous medium: I. The effect of foam coarsening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S A; Getrouw, N; Vincent-Bonnieu, S

    2018-05-09

    Foam structure evolves with time due to gas diffusion between bubbles (coarsening). In a bulk foam, coarsening behaviour is well defined, but there is less understanding of coarsening in confined geometries such as porous media. Previous predictions suggest that coarsening will cause foam lamellae to move to low energy configurations in the pore throats, resulting in greater capillary resistance when restarting flow. Foam coarsening experiments were conducted in both a model-porous-media micromodel and in a sandstone core. In both cases, foam was generated by coinjecting surfactant solution and nitrogen. Once steady state flow had been achieved, the injection was stopped and the system sealed off. In the micromodel, the foam coarsening was recorded using time-lapse photography. In the core flood, the additional driving pressure required to reinitiate flow after coarsening was measured. In the micromodel the bubbles coarsened rapidly to the pore size. At the completion of coarsening the lamellae were located in minimum energy configurations in the pore throats. The wall effect meant that the coarsening did not conform to the unconstricted growth laws. The coreflood tests also showed coarsening to be a rapid process. The additional driving pressure to restart flow reached a maximum after just 2 minutes.

  2. Macrophages and Uveitis in Experimental Animal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Mérida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resident and infiltrated macrophages play relevant roles in uveitis as effectors of innate immunity and inductors of acquired immunity. They are major effectors of tissue damage in uveitis and are also considered to be potent antigen-presenting cells. In the last few years, experimental animal models of uveitis have enabled us to enhance our understanding of the leading role of macrophages in eye inflammation processes, including macrophage polarization in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis and the major role of Toll-like receptor 4 in endotoxin-induced uveitis. This improved knowledge should guide advantageous iterative research to establish mechanisms and possible therapeutic targets for human uveitis resolution.

  3. Foaming in manure based digesters: Effect of overloading and foam suppression using antifoam agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan

    Anaerobic digestion foaming is one of the major problems that occasionally occur in full-scale biogas plants, affecting negatively the overall digestion process. The foam is typically created either in the main biogas reactor or/and in the pre-storage tank and the entrapped solids in the foam cause...... severe operational problems, such as blockage of mixing devices and collapse of pumps. Furthermore, the foaming problem is linked with economic consequences for biogas plants, due to income losses derived from the reduced biogas production, extra labour work and additional maintenance costs. Moreover....... A continuous stirred tank reactor, operating under thermophilic conditions (55 oC) was fed with cattle manure. In order to investigate the effect of organic overloading on foam formation, a stepwise increase of the organic loading rate was performed by the addition of glucose in the feeding substrate. Biogas...

  4. 46 CFR 108.463 - Foam rate: Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foam rate: Protein. 108.463 Section 108.463 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.463 Foam rate: Protein. (a) If the outlets of a protein foam extinguishing system are in a space, the foam rate at each outlet must be at...

  5. Foaming Glass Using High Pressure Sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Martin Bonderup; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob

    Foam glass is a high added value product which contributes to waste recycling and energy efficiency through heat insulation. The foaming can be initiated by a chemical or physical process. Chemical foaming with aid of a foaming agent is the dominant industrial process. Physical foaming has two...... to expand. After heat-treatment foam glass can be obtained with porosities of 80–90 %. In this study we conduct physical foaming of cathode ray tube (CRT) panel glass by sintering under high pressure (5-25 MPa) using helium, nitrogen, or argon at 640 °C (~108 Pa s). Reheating a sample in a heating...... variations. One way is by saturation of glass melts with gas. The other involves sintering of powdered glass under a high gas pressure resulting in glass pellets with high pressure bubbles entrapped. Reheating the glass pellets above the glass transition temperature under ambient pressure allows the bubbles...

  6. Structural Foams of Biobased Isosorbide-Containing Copolycarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Zepnik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isosorbide-containing copolycarbonate (Bio-PC is a partly biobased alternative to conventional bisphenol A (BPA based polycarbonate (PC. Conventional PC is widely used in polymer processing technologies including thermoplastic foaming such as foam injection molding. At present, no detailed data is available concerning the foam injection molding behavior and foam properties of Bio-PC. This contribution provides first results on injection-molded foams based on isosorbide-containing PC. The structural foams were produced by using an endothermic chemical blowing agent (CBA masterbatch and the low pressure foam injection molding method. The influence of weight reduction and blowing agent concentration on general foam properties such as density, morphology, and mechanical properties was studied. The test specimens consist of a foam core in the center and compact symmetrical shell layers on the sides. The thickness of the foam core increases with increasing weight reduction irrespective of the CBA concentration. The specific (mechanical bending properties are significantly improved and the specific tensile properties can almost be maintained while reducing the density of the injection-molded parts.

  7. Investigation of Chemical-Foam Design as a Novel Approach toward Immiscible Foam Flooding for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Nasab, S M; Zitha, P L J

    2017-10-19

    Strong foam can be generated in porous media containing oil, resulting in incremental oil recovery; however, oil recovery factor is restricted. A large fraction of oil recovered by foam flooding forms an oil-in-water emulsion, so that costly methods may need to be used to separate the oil. Moreover, strong foam could create a large pressure gradient, which may cause fractures in the reservoir. This study presents a novel chemical-foam flooding process for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) from water-flooded reservoirs. The presented method involved the use of chemically designed foam to mobilize the remaining oil after water flooding and then to displace the mobilized oil to the production well. A blend of two anionic surfactant formulations was formulated for this method: (a) IOS, for achieving ultralow interfacial tension (IFT), and (b) AOS, for generating a strong foam. Experiments were performed using Bentheimer sandstone cores, where X-ray CT images were taken during foam generation to find the stability of the advancing front of foam propagation and to map the gas saturation for both the transient and the steady-state flow regimes. Then the proposed chemical-foam strategy for incremental oil recovery was tested through the coinjection of immiscible nitrogen gas and surfactant solutions with three different formulation properties in terms of IFT reduction and foaming strength capability. The discovered optimal formulation contains a foaming agent surfactant, a low IFT surfactant, and a cosolvent, which has a high foam stability and a considerably low IFT (1.6 × 10 -2 mN/m). Coinjection resulted in higher oil recovery and much less MRF than the same process with only using a foaming agent. The oil displacement experiment revealed that coinjection of gas with a blend of surfactants, containing a cosolvent, can recover a significant amount of oil (33% OIIP) over water flooding with a larger amount of clean oil and less emulsion.

  8. Foam-on-Tile Damage Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koharchik, Michael; Murphy, Lindsay; Parker, Paul

    2012-01-01

    An impact model was developed to predict how three specific foam types would damage the Space Shuttle Orbiter insulating tiles. The inputs needed for the model are the foam type, the foam mass, the foam impact velocity, the foam impact incident angle, the type being impacted, and whether the tile is new or aged (has flown at least one mission). The model will determine if the foam impact will cause damage to the tile. If it can cause damage, the model will output the damage cavity dimensions (length, depth, entry angle, exit angle, and sidewall angles). It makes the calculations as soon as the inputs are entered (less than 1 second). The model allows for the rapid calculation of numerous scenarios in a short time. The model was developed from engineering principles coupled with significant impact testing (over 800 foam impact tests). This model is applicable to masses ranging from 0.0002 up to 0.4 pound (0.09 up to 181 g). A prior tool performed a similar function, but was limited to the assessment of a small range of masses and did not have the large test database for verification. In addition, the prior model did not provide outputs of the cavity damage length, entry angle, exit angle, or sidewall angles.

  9. TPX foams for inertial fusion laser experiments: foam preparation, machining, characterization, and discussion of density issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, M.; Guillot, L.; Reneaume, B.; Fleury, E.; Hermerel, C.; Choux, A.; Jeannot, L.; Geoffray, I.; Faivre, A.; Breton, O.; Andre, J.; Collier, R.; Legaie, O.

    2011-01-01

    Low density foams (in this work, foam density refers to apparent density) are materials of interest for fusion experiments. Low density poly(4-methyl-1-pentene)(commercial name TPX) foams have been produced for 30 years. TPX foams have been shown to have densities as low as 3 mg.cm -3 , which is very close to air density (1.2 mg.cm -3 ). Around this density foams are very light and highly fragile. Their fabrication is thus a real technological challenge. However, shrinking always appears in ranges ranking from 25% to almost 200%. As a result, the apparent density of the final foam never matches the expected value given by the precursor solution concentration. Besides, even if the mold dimensions are precisely known, shrinkage is never linear, and foams have to be machined for precise density measurement. In our work we present a fabrication process for TPX foams and discuss machining and density measuring issues. Particularly, we have found that there are volume and weight limits for a determination of density within the range of 3% uncertainty. This raises the question whether density should rather be determined directly on millimeter-sized targets or should be performed on a bigger scale sample prepared from the same batch. (authors)

  10. INFLUENCE OF THE CEMENT TYPE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL FOAM APPLICABLE IN FOAMED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the research is the influence of the type of Portland cement, as well as the nature and concentration of additives that represent electrolytes and polymers, onto the foam stability. The project is implemented within the framework of the research of foamed ceramic. Detailed explanation of the influence pattern is provided. The research performed by the authors has generated the following findings. Besides the rheological properties of the solution, chemical interaction between the mix components must be taken into account in the course of development of the best foamed ceramic mix composition, as chemical processes produce a substantial influence onto the foam stability. Polymer additives based on liquid carbamyde-formaldehyde and polyacrylamide substantially improve the quality of the foam mineralized by the particles of the cement binder. They also assure the foam stability rate sufficient for the formation of a high-quality foamed material.

  11. A Novel Method for Preparing Auxetic Foam from Closed-cell Polymer Foam Based on Steam Penetration and Condensation (SPC) Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Donglei; Li, Minggang; Qiu, Jian; Xing, Haiping; Jiang, Zhiwei; Tang, Tao

    2018-05-31

    Auxetic materials are a class of materials possessing negative Poisson's ratio. Here we establish a novel method for preparing auxetic foam from closed-cell polymer foam based on steam penetration and condensation (SPC) process. Using polyethylene (PE) closed-cell foam as an example, the resultant foams treated by SPC process present negative Poisson's ratio during stretching and compression testing. The effect of steam-treated temperature and time on the conversion efficiency of negative Poisson's ratio foam is investigated, and the mechanism of SPC method for forming re-entrant structure is discussed. The results indicate that the presence of enough steam within the cells is a critical factor for the negative Poisson's ratio conversion in the SPC process. The pressure difference caused by steam condensation is the driving force for the conversion from conventional closed-cell foam to the negative Poisson's ratio foam. Furthermore, the applicability of SPC process for fabricating auxetic foam is studied by replacing PE foam by polyvinyl chloride (PVC) foam with closed-cell structure or replacing water steam by ethanol steam. The results verify the universality of SPC process for fabricating auxetic foams from conventional foams with closed-cell structure. In addition, we explored potential application of the obtained auxetic foams by SPC process in the fabrication of shape memory polymer materials.

  12. Porosity and cell size control in alumina foam preparation by thermo-foaming of powder dispersions in molten sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Vijayan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The foaming characteristics of alumina powder dispersions in molten sucrose have been studied as a function of alumina powder to sucrose weight ratio (WA/S and foaming temperature. The increase in foaming temperature significantly decreases the foaming and foam setting time and increases the foam volume due to an increase in the rate of OH condensation as well as a decrease in the viscosity of the dispersion. Nevertheless, the foam collapses beyond a critical foaming temperature, which depends on the WA/S. The sintering shrinkage depends mainly on the WA/S and marginally on the foaming temperature. The porosity (83.4–94.6 vol.% and cell size (0.55–1.6 mm increase with an increase in foaming temperature (120–170 °C and a decrease in WA/S (0.8–1.6. The drastic decrease in compressive strength and modulus beyond a WA/S of 1.2 is due to the pores generated on the cell walls and struts as a result of particle agglomeration. Gibson and Ashby plots show large deviation with respect to the model constants ‘C’ and ‘n’, especially at higher alumina powder to sucrose weight ratios.

  13. Development of drilling foams for geothermal applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, W.J.; Remont, L.J.; Rehm, W.A.; Chenevert, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of foam drilling fluids in geothermal applications is addressed. A description of foams - what they are, how they are used, their properties, equipment required to use them, the advantages and disadvantages of foams, etc. - is presented. Geothermal applications are discussed. Results of industry interviews presented indicate significant potential for foams, but also indicate significant technical problems to be solved to achieve this potential. Testing procedures and results of tests on representative foams provide a basis for work to develop high-temperature foams.

  14. Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapellos, Theodore S; Bassler, Kevin; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Fujii, Wataru; Schultze, Joachim L

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire. In this review, we summarise recent evidence from human studies and work with animal models of COPD with regard to altered functions of each of these myeloid cell populations. We primarily focus on the dysregulated capacity of alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators and proteases, induce oxidative stress, engulf microbes and apoptotic cells, and express surface and intracellular markers in patients with COPD. In addition, we discuss the differences in the responses between alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages/monocytes in the disease and propose how the field should advance to better understand the implications of lung macrophage functions in COPD.

  15. Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin; Aschenbrenner, Anna C.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a diverse respiratory disease characterised by bronchiolitis, small airway obstruction, and emphysema. Innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the disease's progression, and in particular, lung macrophages exploit their prevalence and strategic localisation to orchestrate immune responses. To date, alveolar and interstitial resident macrophages as well as blood monocytes have been described in the lungs of patients with COPD contributing to disease pathology by changes in their functional repertoire. In this review, we summarise recent evidence from human studies and work with animal models of COPD with regard to altered functions of each of these myeloid cell populations. We primarily focus on the dysregulated capacity of alveolar macrophages to secrete proinflammatory mediators and proteases, induce oxidative stress, engulf microbes and apoptotic cells, and express surface and intracellular markers in patients with COPD. In addition, we discuss the differences in the responses between alveolar macrophages and interstitial macrophages/monocytes in the disease and propose how the field should advance to better understand the implications of lung macrophage functions in COPD. PMID:29670919

  16. Industrial waste utilization for foam concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Gokul; Anand, K. B.

    2018-02-01

    Foam concrete is an emerging and useful construction material - basically a cement based slurry with at least 10% of mix volume as foam. The mix usually containing cement, filler (usually sand) and foam, have fresh densities ranging from 400kg/m3 to 1600kg/m3. One of the main drawbacks of foam concrete is the large consumption of fine sand as filler material. Usage of different solid industrial wastes as fillers in foam concrete can reduce the usage of fine river sand significantly and make the work economic and eco-friendly. This paper aims to investigate to what extent industrial wastes such as bottom ash and quarry dust can be utilized for making foam concrete. Foam generated using protein based agent was used for preparing and optimizing (fresh state properties). Investigation to find the influence of design density and air-void characteristics on the foam concrete strength shows higher strength for bottom ash mixes due to finer air void distribution. Setting characteristics of various mix compositions are also studied and adoption of Class C flyash as filler demonstrated capability of faster setting.

  17. Foam shell project: Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overturf, G.; Reibold, B.; Cook, B.; Schroen-Carey, D.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report on their work to produce a foam shell target for two possible applications: (1) as liquid-layered cryogenic target on Omega Upgrade, and (2) as a back-up design for the NIF. This target consists of a roughly 1 mm diameter and 100 μm thick spherical low-density foam shell surrounding a central void. The foam will be slightly overfilled with liquid D 2 or DT, the overfilled excess being symmetrically distributed on the inside of the shell and supported by thermal gradient techniques. The outside of the foam is overcoated with full density polymer which must be topologically smooth. The technology for manufacturing this style of foam shell involves microencapsulation techniques and has been developed by the Japanese at ILE. Their goal is to determine whether this technology can be successfully adapted to meet US ICF objectives. To this end a program of foam shell development has been initiated at LLNL in collaboration with both the General Atomics DOE Target Fabrication Contract Corporation and the Target Fabrication Group at LLE

  18. The Modification of Polyurethane Foams Using New Boroorganic Polyols (II) Polyurethane Foams from Boron-Modified Hydroxypropyl Urea Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The work focuses on research related to determination of application possibility of new, ecofriendly boroorganic polyols in rigid polyurethane foams production. Polyols were obtained from hydroxypropyl urea derivatives esterified with boric acid and propylene carbonate. The influence of esterification type on properties of polyols and next on polyurethane foams properties was determined. Nitrogen and boron impacts on the foams' properties were discussed, for instance, on their physical, mechanical, and electric properties. Boron presence causes improvement of dimensional stability and thermal stability of polyurethane foams. They can be applied even at temperature 150°C. Unfortunately, introducing boron in polyurethanes foams affects deterioration of their water absorption, which increases as compared to the foams that do not contain boron. However, presence of both boron and nitrogen determines the decrease of the foams combustibility. Main impact on the decrease combustibility of the obtained foams has nitrogen presence, but in case of proper boron and nitrogen ratio their synergic activity on the combustibility decrease can be easily seen. PMID:24587721

  19. Volcanic ash activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in murine and human macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damby, David; Horwell, Claire J.; Baxter, Peter J.; Kueppers, Ulrich; Schnurr, Max; Dingwell, Donald B.; Duewell, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Volcanic ash is a heterogeneous mineral dust that is typically composed of a mixture of amorphous (glass) and crystalline (mineral) fragments. It commonly contains an abundance of the crystalline silica (SiO2) polymorph cristobalite. Inhalation of crystalline silica can induce inflammation by stimulating the NLRP3 inflammasome, a cytosolic receptor complex that plays a critical role in driving inflammatory immune responses. Ingested material results in the assembly of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 with subsequent secretion of the interleukin-1 family cytokine IL-1β. Previous toxicology work suggests that cristobalite-bearing volcanic ash is minimally reactive, calling into question the reactivity of volcanically derived crystalline silica, in general. In this study, we target the NLRP3 inflammasome as a crystalline silica responsive element to clarify volcanic cristobalite reactivity. We expose immortalized bone marrow-derived macrophages of genetically engineered mice and primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to ash from the Soufrière Hills volcano as well as representative, pure-phase samples of its primary componentry (volcanic glass, feldspar, cristobalite) and measure NLRP3 inflammasome activation. We demonstrate that respirable Soufrière Hills volcanic ash induces the activation of caspase-1 with subsequent release of mature IL-1β in a NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent manner. Macrophages deficient in NLRP3 inflammasome components are incapable of secreting IL-1β in response to volcanic ash ingestion. Cellular uptake induces lysosomal destabilization involving cysteine proteases. Furthermore, the response involves activation of mitochondrial stress pathways leading to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Considering ash componentry, cristobalite is the most reactive pure-phase with other components inducing only low-level IL-1β secretion. Inflammasome activation mediated by inhaled ash and its potential relevance in chronic pulmonary

  20. Evaluation of Canisterized Foams and Evaluation of Radiation Hardened Foams for D&D Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-26

    The introduction of polyurethane foams has previously been examined elsewhere within the DOE complex with regards to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities, though its use has been prohibited as a result of excessive heat generation and flammability concerns per the safety basis. Should these foams be found compatible with respect to the facility safety basis requirements, D&D work involving large void containing structures such as gloveboxes could be eased through the fixation of residual contamination after decontamination efforts have concluded. To this end, SRNL embarked on a characterization of commercial epoxy foams to identify the characteristics that would be most important to safety basis requirements. Through SRNL’s efforts, the performance of commercial two-part epoxy foams was evaluated for their foaming characteristics, temperature profiles, loading capability with high-Z (high density) additives, and applicability for shielding gamma emission from isotopes including; Am-241, Cs-137, and Co-60. It was found that these foams are capable of encapsulation of a desired volume, though the ideal and experimental expansion coefficients were found to differ. While heat is generated during the reaction, no samples generated heat above 70 °C. Of the down–selected materials, heating was on the order of 40 °C for the flexible foam and 60 °C for the rigid foam. Both were found to return to room temperature after 20 minutes regardless of the volume of foam cast. It was also found that the direct introduction of high-Z additives were capable of attenuating 98% of Am-241 gamma signal, 16% of Cs-137 signal, and 9.5% of Co-60 signal at 1:1 loading capacities of total liquid constituent weight to additive weight. These efforts are currently being reviewed for the ASTM January 2017 subcommittee discussions to address the lack of test methods and standards regarding these materials with respect to D&D environments.

  1. Electrical conductivity of quasi-two-dimensional foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazhgur, Pavel; Honorez, Clément; Drenckhan, Wiebke; Langevin, Dominique; Salonen, Anniina

    2015-04-01

    Quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) foams consist of monolayers of bubbles squeezed between two narrowly spaced plates. These simplified foams have served successfully in the past to shed light on numerous issues in foam physics. Here we consider the electrical conductivity of such model foams. We compare experiments to a model which we propose, and which successfully relates the structural and the conductive properties of the foam over the full range of the investigated liquid content. We show in particular that in the case of quasi-2D foams the liquid in the nodes needs to be taken into account even at low liquid content. We think that these results may provide different approaches for the characterization of foam properties and for the in situ characterization of the liquid content of foams in confining geometries, such as microfluidics.

  2. From Foam Rubber to Volcanoes: The Physical Chemistry of Foam Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lee D.; McCarlie, V. Wallace

    2004-01-01

    The process of foam formation is used for demonstrating the way in which the application of physiochemical principles and knowledge of the physical properties of the materials contributes towards the understanding of a wide range of phenomenon. Solubility of gas and bubble growth should be considered during the development of foamed polymer…

  3. Oxidative Stress in Cardiovascular Diseases: Involvement of Nrf2 Antioxidant Redox Signaling in Macrophage Foam Cells Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Kee Ooi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an important risk factor contributing to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Oxidative stress that results from excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS production accounts for impaired endothelial function, a process which promotes atherosclerotic lesion or fatty streaks formation (foam cells. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor involved in cellular redox homeostasis. Upon exposure to oxidative stress, Nrf2 is dissociated from its inhibitor Keap-1 and translocated into the nucleus, where it results in the transcriptional activation of cell defense genes. Nrf2 has been demonstrated to be involved in the protection against foam cells formation by regulating the expression of antioxidant proteins (HO-1, Prxs, and GPx1, ATP-binding cassette (ABC efflux transporters (ABCA1 and ABCG1 and scavenger receptors (scavenger receptor class B (CD36, scavenger receptor class A (SR-A and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1. However, Nrf2 has also been reported to exhibit pro-atherogenic effects. A better understanding on the mechanism of Nrf2 in oxidative stress-induced cardiac injury, as well as the regulation of cholesterol uptake and efflux, are required before it can serve as a novel therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment.

  4. Functional characterization and phenotypic monitoring of human hematopoietic stem cell expansion and differentiation of monocytes and macrophages by whole-cell mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Vogel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The different facets of macrophages allow them to play distinct roles in tissue homeostasis, tissue repair and in response to infections. Individuals displaying dysregulated macrophage functions are proposed to be prone to inflammatory disorders or infections. However, this being a cause or a consequence of the pathology remains often unclear. In this context, we isolated and expanded CD34+ HSCs from healthy blood donors and derived them into CD14+ myeloid progenitors which were further enriched and differentiated into macrophages. Aiming for a comprehensive phenotypic profiling, we generated whole-cell mass spectrometry (WCMS fingerprints of cell samples collected along the different stages of the differentiation process to build a predictive model using a linear discriminant analysis based on principal components. Through the capacity of the model to accurately predict sample's identity of a validation set, we demonstrate that WCMS profiles obtained from bona fide blood monocytes and respectively derived macrophages mirror profiles obtained from equivalent HSC derivatives. Finally, HSC-derived macrophage functionalities were assessed by quantifying cytokine and chemokine responses to a TLR agonist in a 34-plex luminex assay and by measuring their capacity to phagocytise mycobacteria. These functional read-outs could not discriminate blood monocytes-derived from HSC-derived macrophages. To conclude, we propose that this method opens new avenues to distinguish the impact of human genetics on the dysregulated biological properties of macrophages in pathological conditions.

  5. Nanostructured metal foams: synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tappan, Bryce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mueller, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mihaila, Bogdan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Volz, Heather [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cardenas, Andreas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Papin, Pallas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Veauthier, Jackie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Stan, Marius [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Fabrication of monolithic metallic nanoporous materials is difficult using conventional methodology. Here they report a relatively simple method of synthesizing monolithic, ultralow density, nanostructured metal foams utilizing self-propagating combustion synthesis of novel metal complexes containing high nitrogen energetic ligands. Nanostructured metal foams are formed in a post flame-front dynamic assembly with densities as low as 0.011 g/cc and surface areas as high as 270 m{sup 2}/g. They have produced metal foams via this method of titanium, iron, cobalt, nickel, zirconium, copper, palladium, silver, hafnium, platinum and gold. Microstructural features vary as a function of composition and process parameters. Applications for the metal foams are discussed including hydrogen absorption in palladium foams. A model for the sorption kinetics of hydrogen in the foams is presented.

  6. Atherogenicity of amino acids in the lipid-laden macrophage model system in vitro and in atherosclerotic mice: a key role for triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Grajeda-Iglesias, Claudia; Najjar, Mahmoud; Abu-Saleh, Niroz; Volkova, Nina; Dar, Dalit Esther; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content. At nontoxic concentrations (up to 1 mM), modest effects on ROS generation or cholesterol content were noted, but six specific AAs significantly affected macrophage triglyceride content. Glycine, cysteine, alanine and leucine significantly decreased macrophage triglyceride content (by 24%-38%), through attenuated uptake of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) by macrophages. In contrast, glutamate and glutamine caused a marked triglyceride accumulation in macrophages (by 107% and 129%, respectively), via a diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1)-dependent increase in triglyceride biosynthesis rate with a concurrent maturation of the sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1). Supplementation of apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE -/- ) mice with glycine for 40 days significantly decreased the triglyceride levels in serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPMs) isolated from the mice (by 19%). In contrast, glutamine supplementation significantly increased MPM ROS generation and the accumulation of cholesterol and that of triglycerides (by 48%), via enhanced uptake of LDL and VLDL. Altogether, the present findings reveal some novel roles for specific AA in macrophage atherogenicity, mainly through modulation of cellular triglyceride metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin resistance is associated with MCP1-mediated macrophage accumulation in skeletal muscle in mice and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Patsouris

    Full Text Available Inflammation is now recognized as a major factor contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D. However, while the mechanisms and consequences associated with white adipose tissue inflammation are well described, very little is known concerning the situation in skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro and in vivo, how skeletal muscle inflammation develops and how in turn it modulates local and systemic insulin sensitivity in different mice models of T2D and in humans, focusing on the role of the chemokine MCP1. Here, we found that skeletal muscle inflammation and macrophage markers are increased and associated with insulin resistance in mice models and humans. In addition, we demonstrated that intra-muscular TNFα expression is exclusively restricted to the population of intramuscular leukocytes and that the chemokine MCP1 was associated with skeletal muscle inflammatory markers in these models. Furthermore, we demonstrated that exposure of C2C12 myotubes to palmitate elevated the production of the chemokine MCP1 and that the muscle-specific overexpression of MCP1 in transgenic mice induced the local recruitment of macrophages and altered local insulin sensitivity. Overall our study demonstrates that skeletal muscle inflammation is clearly increased in the context of T2D in each one of the models we investigated, which is likely consecutive to the lipotoxic environment generated by peripheral insulin resistance, further increasing MCP1 expression in muscle. Consequently, our results suggest that MCP1-mediated skeletal muscle macrophages recruitment plays a role in the etiology of T2D.

  8. Targeting Dexamethasone to Macrophages in a Porcine Endotoxemic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granfeldt, Asger; Hvas, Christine Lodberg; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov

    2013-01-01

    -8 minutes. CONCLUSION: Targeted delivery of dexamethasone to macrophages using a humanized CD163 antibody as carrier exhibits anti-inflammatory effects comparable with 50 times higher concentrations of free dexamethasone and does not inhibit endogenous cortisol production. This antibody-drug complex showing......OBJECTIVES: Macrophages are important cells in immunity and the main producers of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The main objective was to evaluate if specific delivery of glucocorticoid to the macrophage receptor CD163 is superior to systemic glucocorticoid therapy in dampening the cytokine response...

  9. Polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant for ion foam flotation: fundamental study from solution to foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micheau, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Ion foam flotation allows to concentrate ions in a foam phase formed by a soap. For classical systems, the strong interaction between ions and surfactant generally leads to the formation of precipitates and of froth. When the froth collapses, the solid residue thus recovered requires a recycling or conversion. In order to remedy this, the present work uses as collector a polyethoxylated carboxylic surfactant, AKYPO RO 90 VG, which forms soluble ion/surfactant complexes, even with multi-charge ions. This work presents a detailed study of the fundamental mechanisms that govern the extraction of ions by foaming. In the first part, surface activity and acid/base properties of the surfactant in solution are determined by combining numerous independent techniques which are pH-metric dosage, tensiometry and small angle scattering. The evolution of these properties in the presence of different nitrate salts (Nd, Eu, Ca, Sr, Cu, Li, Na, Cs) coupled with electrophoretic measurements give a first approach to selectivity. Finally, all of these data combined with a study of the formation of surfactant/ion complexes allow us to determine the speciation of Nd/AKYPO system as a function of pH. In the second part, the analysis of the foam by conductivity and neutron scattering provides information on the wetness and foam film thickness, parameters governing foam stability. The pH and the nature of the added ions, their number of charge and also their chemical nature thus appear to be major parameters that governed wetness and foam film thickness. The last part is devoted to the understanding of the ion extraction/separation experiments by flotation based on all previous results. It is shown that the flotation of neodymium is strongly related to its speciation, which could lead to its re-extraction or its flotation in precipitated form. It is shown that, neodymium induces a phenomenon of mono-charge ion depletion in the foam. This ionic specificity allows to consider the studied

  10. Foam rheology at large deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Géminard, J.-C.; Pastenes, J. C.; Melo, F.

    2018-04-01

    Large deformations are prone to cause irreversible changes in materials structure, generally leading to either material hardening or softening. Aqueous foam is a metastable disordered structure of densely packed gas bubbles. We report on the mechanical response of a foam layer subjected to quasistatic periodic shear at large amplitude. We observe that, upon increasing shear, the shear stress follows a universal curve that is nearly exponential and tends to an asymptotic stress value interpreted as the critical yield stress at which the foam structure is completely remodeled. Relevant trends of the foam mechanical response to cycling are mathematically reproduced through a simple law accounting for the amount of plastic deformation upon increasing stress. This view provides a natural interpretation to stress hardening in foams, demonstrating that plastic effects are present in this material even for minute deformation.

  11. Controlling of density uniformity of polyacrylate foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Wenwen; Yuan Baohe; Wang Yanhong; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Lin

    2010-01-01

    The density non-uniformity existing in most low-density foams will affect performance of the foams. The trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTA) foam targets were prepared and controlling methods of the foams, density uniformity were explored together with its forming mechanism. It has been found that the UV-light with high intensity can improve the distribution uniformity of the free radicals induced by UV photons in the solvents, thus improve the density uniformity of the foams. In addition, container wall would influence the concentration distribution of the solution, which affects the density uniformity of the foams. Thus, the UV-light with high intensity was chosen together with polytetrafluoroethylene molds instead of glass molds to prepare the foams with the density non-uniformity less than 10%. β-ray detection technology was used to measure the density uniformity of the TMPTA foams with the density in the range of 10 to 100 mg · cm -3 , and the results show that the lower the foam density is, the worse the density uniformity is. (authors)

  12. Imatinib and Nilotinib Off-Target Effects on Human NK Cells, Monocytes, and M2 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellora, Francesca; Dondero, Alessandra; Corrias, Maria Valeria; Casu, Beatrice; Regis, Stefano; Caliendo, Fabio; Moretta, Alessandro; Cazzola, Mario; Elena, Chiara; Vinti, Luciana; Locatelli, Franco; Bottino, Cristina; Castriconi, Roberta

    2017-08-15

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used in the clinical management of hematological neoplasms. Moreover, in solid tumors such as stage 4 neuroblastomas (NB), imatinib showed benefits that might depend on both on-target and immunological off-target effects. We investigated the effects of imatinib and nilotinib on human NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages. High numbers of monocytes died upon exposure to TKI concentrations similar to those achieved in patients. Conversely, NK cells were highly resistant to the TKI cytotoxic effect, were properly activated by immunostimulatory cytokines, and degranulated in the presence of NB cells. In NB, neither drug reduced the expression of ligands for activating NK receptors or upregulated that of HLA class I, B7-H3, PD-L1, and PD-L2, molecules that might limit NK cell function. Interestingly, TKIs modulated the chemokine receptor repertoire of immune cells. Acting at the transcriptional level, they increased the surface expression of CXCR4, an effect observed also in NK cells and monocytes of patients receiving imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. Moreover, TKIs reduced the expression of CXCR3 (in NK cells) and CCR1 (in monocytes). Monocytes also decreased the expression of M-CSFR, and low numbers of cells underwent differentiation toward macrophages. M0 and M2 macrophages were highly resistant to TKIs and maintained their phenotypic and functional characteristics. Importantly, also in the presence of TKIs, the M2 immunosuppressive polarization was reverted by TLR engagement, and M1-oriented macrophages fully activated autologous NK cells. Our results contribute to better interpreting the off-target efficacy of TKIs in tumors and to envisaging strategies aimed at facilitating antitumor immune responses. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  13. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor enhances the pro-inflammatory response of interferon-γ-treated macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonali Singh

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human

  14. Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulatory factor enhances the pro-inflammatory response of interferon-γ-treated macrophages to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonali; Barr, Helen; Liu, Yi-Chia; Robins, Adrian; Heeb, Stephan; Williams, Paul; Fogarty, Andrew; Cámara, Miguel; Martínez-Pomares, Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can cause severe infections at compromised epithelial surfaces, such those found in burns, wounds, and in lungs damaged by mechanical ventilation or recurrent infections, particularly in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. CF patients have been proposed to have a Th2 and Th17-biased immune response suggesting that the lack of Th1 and/or over exuberant Th17 responses could contribute to the establishment of chronic P. aeruginosa infection and deterioration of lung function. Accordingly, we have observed that interferon (IFN)-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from CF patients positively correlated with lung function, particularly in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. In contrast, IL-17A levels tended to correlate negatively with lung function with this trend becoming significant in patients chronically infected with P. aeruginosa. These results are in agreement with IFN-γ and IL-17A playing protective and detrimental roles, respectively, in CF. In order to explore the protective effect of IFN-γ in CF, the effect of IFN-γ alone or in combination with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), on the ability of human macrophages to control P. aeruginosa growth, resist the cytotoxicity induced by this bacterium or promote inflammation was investigated. Treatment of macrophages with IFN-γ, in the presence and absence of GM-CSF, failed to alter bacterial growth or macrophage survival upon P. aeruginosa infection, but changed the inflammatory potential of macrophages. IFN-γ caused up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and TNF-α and down-regulation of IL-10 expression by infected macrophages. GM-CSF in combination with IFN-γ promoted IL-6 production and further reduction of IL-10 synthesis. Comparison of TNF-α vs. IL-10 and IL-6 vs. IL-10 ratios revealed the following hierarchy in regard to the pro-inflammatory potential of human macrophages

  15. Blast wave protection of aqueous foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britan, Alexander; Ben-Dor, M. Liverts G. [Shock tube Laboratory of Protective Technologies R and D Center, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2011-07-01

    The primary intention of the present study is to present new contribution of shock tube tests to the problem of particle related stabilization and enhanced mitigation action of the wet particulate foams. The experiments reported were designed to examine (i) the reflection of a shock wave from an air/foam face, (ii) the transmission of the shock wave through the air/foam face and (iii) propagation and dispersion of the transmitted shock wave inside the foam column. Because wet aqueous foam of desired specification is difficult to reproduce, handle and quantitatively characterize the fact that experiments on all the above aspects were conducted in a single facility is a potentially important consideration. Moreover vertical position of shock tube simplified the issues since the gradient of the liquid fraction in draining foam coincides with the shock wave propagation. Under these, much simplified test conditions resulted flows could be treated as one-dimensional and the shock wave mitigation depends on three parameters: the intensity of the incident shock wave, s M , the duration of the foam decay, ∆t and on the particle concentration, n.

  16. Tooling Foam for Structural Composite Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom; Smith, Brett H.; Ely, Kevin; MacArthur, Doug

    1998-01-01

    Tooling technology applications for composite structures fabrication have been expanded at MSFC's Productivity Enhancement Complex (PEC). Engineers from NASA/MSFC and Lockheed Martin Corporation have developed a tooling foam for use in composite materials processing and manufacturing that exhibits superior thermal and mechanical properties in comparison with other tooling foam materials. This tooling foam is also compatible with most preimpregnated composite resins such as epoxy, bismaleimide, phenolic and their associated cure cycles. MARCORE tooling foam has excellent processability for applications requiring either integral or removable tooling. It can also be tailored to meet the requirements for composite processing of parts with unlimited cross sectional area. A shelf life of at least six months is easily maintained when components are stored between 50F - 70F. The MARCORE tooling foam system is a two component urethane-modified polyisocyanurate, high density rigid foam with zero ozone depletion potential. This readily machineable, lightweight tooling foam is ideal for composite structures fabrication and is dimensionally stable at temperatures up to 350F and pressures of 100 psi.

  17. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  18. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Back, Djuna Z; Kostova, Elena B; van Kraaij, Marian; van den Berg, Timo K; van Bruggen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC). During steady state hematopoiesis, approximately 10(10) RBC are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  19. Crosslinked polyethylene foams, via eb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, E.C.L.; Lugao, A. B.; Andrade e Silva, L. G.

    1998-01-01

    Polyethylene foams, produced by radio-induced crosslinking, show a smooth and homogeneous surface, when compared to chemical crosslinking method using peroxide as crosslinking agent. This process fosters excellent adhesive and printability properties. Besides that, closed cells, intrinsic to these foams, imparts optimum mechanical, shocks and insulation resistance, indicating these foams to some markets segments as: automotive and transport; buoyancy, flotation and marine; building and insulation; packaging; domestic sports and leisure goods. We were in search of an ideal foam, by adding 5 to 15% of blowing agent in LDPE. A series of preliminary trials defined 203 degree sign C as the right blowing agent decomposition temperature. At a 22.7 kGys/dose ratio, the lowest dose for providing an efficient foam was 30 kGy, for a formulation comprising 10% of azodicarbonamide in LDPE, within a 10 minutes foaming time

  20. Accumulation of M1-like macrophages in type 2 diabetic islets is followed by a systemic shift in macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucak, Helena; Grunnet, Lars Groth; Rosendahl, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Human T2D is characterized by a low-grade systemic inflammation, loss of β-cells, and diminished insulin production. Local islet immunity is still poorly understood, and hence, we evaluated macrophage subpopulations in pancreatic islets in the well-established murine model of T2D, the db/db mouse. Already at 8 weeks of disease, on average, 12 macrophages were observed in the diabetic islets, whereas only two were recorded in the nondiabetic littermates. On a detailed level, the islet resident macrophages increased fourfold compared with nondiabetic littermates, whereas a pronounced recruitment (eightfold) of a novel subset of macrophages (CD68+F4/80-) was observed. The majority of the CD68+F4/80+ but only 40% of the CD68+F4/80- islet macrophages expressed CD11b. Both islet-derived macrophage subsets expressed moderate MHC-II, high galectin-3, and low CD80/CD86 levels, suggesting the cells to be macrophages rather than DCs. On a functional level, the vast majority of the macrophages in the diabetic islets was of the proinflammatory, M1-like phenotype. The systemic immunity in diabetic animals was characterized by a low-grade inflammation with elevated cytokine levels and increase of splenic cytokine, producing CD68+F4/80- macrophages. In late-stage diabetes, the cytokine signature changed toward a TGF-β-dominated profile, coinciding with a significant increase of galectin-3-positive macrophages in the spleen. In summary, our results show that proinflammatory M1-like galectin-3+ CD80/CD86(low) macrophages invade diabetic islets. Moreover, the innate immunity matures in a diabetes-dependent manner from an initial proinflammatory toward a profibrotic phenotype, supporting the concept that T2D is an inflammatory disease.

  1. Disrupted epithelial/macrophage crosstalk via Spinster homologue 2-mediated S1P signaling may drive defective macrophage phagocytic function in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established a link between impaired phagocytic capacity and deregulated S1P signaling in alveolar macrophages from COPD subjects. We hypothesize that this defect may include a disruption of epithelial-macrophage crosstalk via Spns2-mediated intercellular S1P signaling.Primary alveolar macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells from COPD subjects and controls, cell lines, and a mouse model of chronic cigarette smoke exposure were studied. Cells were exposed to 10% cigarette smoke extract, or vehicle control. Spns2 expression and subcellular localization was studied by immunofluorescence, confocal microscopy and RT-PCR. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow-cytometry. Levels of intra- and extracellular S1P were measured by S1P [3H]-labeling.Spns2 expression was significantly increased (p<0.05 in alveolar macrophages from current-smokers/COPD patients (n = 5 compared to healthy nonsmokers (n = 8 and non-smoker lung transplant patients (n = 4. Consistent with this finding, cigarette smoke induced a significant increase in Spns2 expression in both human alveolar and THP-1 macrophages. In contrast, a remarkable Spns2 down-regulation was noted in response to cigarette smoke in 16HBE14o- cell line (p<0.001 in 3 experiments, primary nasal epithelial cells (p<0.01 in 2 experiments, and in smoke-exposed mice (p<0.001, n = 6 animals per group. Spns2 was localized to cilia in primary bronchial epithelial cells. In both macrophage and epithelial cell types, Spns2 was also found localized to cytoplasm and the nucleus, in line with a predicted bipartile Nuclear Localization Signal at the position aa282 of the human Spns2 sequence. In smoke-exposed mice, alveolar macrophage phagocytic function positively correlated with Spns2 protein expression in bronchial epithelial cells.Our data suggest that the epithelium may be the major source for extracellular S1P in the airway and that there is a possible disruption of epithelial/macrophage cross talk via

  2. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, Alberto; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board

  3. Stretching and folding mechanism in foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, Alberto [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Pedrosa Biscaia Tufaile, Adriana [Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades, Soft Matter Laboratory, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 03828-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-10-13

    We have described the stretching and folding of foams in a vertical Hele-Shaw cell containing air and a surfactant solution, from a sequence of upside-down flips. Besides the fractal dimension of the foam, we have observed the logistic growth for the soap film length. The stretching and folding mechanism is present during the foam formation, and this mechanism is observed even after the foam has reached its respective maximum fractal dimension. Observing the motion of bubbles inside the foam, large bubbles present power spectrum associated with random walk motion in both directions, while the small bubbles are scattered like balls in a Galton board.

  4. Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Sinjitha S; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Bhatt, Praveena; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract.

  5. Human macrophages support persistent transcription from unintegrated HIV-1 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Jeremy; Beddall, Margaret H.; Yu Dongyang; Iyer, Subashini R.; Marsh, Jon W.; Wu Yuntao

    2008-01-01

    Retroviruses require integration of their RNA genomes for both stability and productive viral replication. In HIV infection of non-dividing, resting CD4 T cells, where integration is greatly impeded, the reverse transcribed HIV DNA has limited biological activity and a short half-life. In metabolically active and proliferating T cells, unintegrated DNA rapidly diminishes with cell division. HIV also infects the non-dividing but metabolically active macrophage population. In an in vitro examination of HIV infection of macrophages, we find that unintegrated viral DNA not only has an unusual stability, but also maintains biological activity. The unintegrated linear DNA, 1-LTR, and 2-LTR circles are stable for at least 30 days. Additionally, there is persistent viral gene transcription, which is selective and skewed towards viral early genes such as nef and tat with highly diminished rev and vif. One viral early gene product Nef was measurably synthesized. We also find that independent of integration, the HIV infection process in macrophages leads to generation of numerous chemokines

  6. Technology of foamed propellants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnlein-Mauss, Jutta; Kroeber, Hartmut [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Foamed propellants are based on crystalline explosives bonded in energetic reaction polymers. Due to their porous structures they are distinguished by high burning rates. Energy content and material characteristics can be varied by using different energetic fillers, energetic polymers and porous structures. Foamed charges can be produced easily by the reaction injection moulding process. For the manufacturing of foamed propellants a semi-continuous remote controlled production plant in pilot scale was set up and a modified reaction injection moulding process was applied. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Nicotinamide: a vitamin able to shift macrophage differentiation toward macrophages with restricted inflammatory features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ronald; Schilling, Erik; Grahnert, Anja; Kölling, Valeen; Dorow, Juliane; Ceglarek, Uta; Sack, Ulrich; Hauschildt, Sunna

    2015-11-01

    The differentiation of human monocytes into macrophages is influenced by environmental signals. Here we asked in how far nicotinamide (NAM), a vitamin B3 derivative known to play a major role in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-mediated signaling events, is able to modulate monocyte differentiation into macrophages developed in the presence of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-MØ) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-MØ). We found that GM-MØ undergo biochemical, morphological and functional modifications in response to NAM, whereas M-MØ were hardly affected. GM-MØ exposed to NAM acquired an M-MØ-like structure while the LPS-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and COX-derived eicosanoids were down-regulated. In contrast, NAM had no effect on the production of IL-10 or the cytochrome P450-derived eicosanoids. Administration of NAM enhanced intracellular NAD concentrations; however, it did not prevent the LPS-mediated drain on NAD pools. In search of intracellular molecular targets of NAM known to be involved in LPS-induced cytokine and eicosanoid synthesis, we found NF-κB activity to be diminished. In conclusion, our data show that vitamin B3, when present during the differentiation of monocytes into GM-MØ, interferes with biochemical pathways resulting in strongly reduced pro-inflammatory features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Some aspects of image processing using foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufaile, A.; Freire, M.V.; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2014-01-01

    We have explored some concepts of chaotic dynamics and wave light transport in foams. Using some experiments, we have obtained the main features of light intensity distribution through foams. We are proposing a model for this phenomenon, based on the combination of two processes: a diffusive process and another one derived from chaotic dynamics. We have presented a short outline of the chaotic dynamics involving light scattering in foams. We also have studied the existence of caustics from scattering of light from foams, with typical patterns observed in the light diffraction in transparent films. The nonlinear geometry of the foam structure was explored in order to create optical elements, such as hyperbolic prisms and filters. - Highlights: • We have obtained the light scattering in foams using experiments. • We model the light transport in foams using a chaotic dynamics and a diffusive process. • An optical filter based on foam is proposed

  9. A graphite foam reinforced by graphite particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J.J.; Wang, X.Y.; Guo, L.F.; Wang, Y.M.; Wang, Y.P.; Yu, M.F.; Lau, K.T.T. [DongHua University, Shanghai (China). College of Material Science and Engineering

    2007-11-15

    Graphite foam was obtained after carbonization and graphitization of a pitch foam formed by the pyrolysis of coal tar based mesophase pitch mixed with graphite particles in a high pressure and temperature chamber. The graphite foam possessed high mechanical strength and exceptional thermal conductivity after adding the graphite particles. Experimental results showed that the thermal conductivity of modified graphite foam reached 110W/m K, and its compressive strength increased from 3.7 MPa to 12.5 MPa with the addition of 5 wt% graphite particles. Through the microscopic observation, it was also found that fewer micro-cracks were formed in the cell wall of the modified foam as compared with pure graphite foam. The graphitization degree of modified foam reached 84.9% and the ligament of graphite foam exhibited high alignment after carbonization at 1200{sup o}C for 3 h and graphitization at 3000{sup o}C for 10 min.

  10. Foam injection method and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, W C; Parmley, J B; Shepard, J C

    1977-05-10

    A method is described for more efficiently practicing in situ combustion techniques by generating a gas-water mist or foam adjacent to the combustion formation within the injection well. The mist or foam is forced out of the well into the formation to transport heat away from the burned region of the formation toward the periphery of the combustion region to conserve fuel. Also taught are a method and system for fluid treating a formation while maintaining enhanced conformance of the fluid injection profile by generating a mist or foam down-hole adjacent to the formation and then forcing the mist or foam out into the formation. (19 claims)

  11. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  12. Foam stabilization by solid particle aggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France); Pitois, O. [UniversiteParis-Est Marne-La-Valle, Lab. Physique des Materiaux Divises et des Interfaces (LPMDI), 77 - Marne la Vallee (France)

    2008-07-01

    During the dismantling of nuclear facilities, radioactive deposits on exposed areas are removed and solubilized by successive rinses of reactive liquid. Using this liquid in a foam state reduces the amount of resulting wastes. During the required decontamination time (1 to 5 hours) the foam has to be sufficiently wet (1). In the Laboratory of Advanced Processes for Decontamination, new formulations are currently studied to slow down the drainage kinetics of these foams, by adding colloidal particles of hydrophilic fumed silica into the classical mixtures of well-defined non ionic foaming surfactants previously used (2). The objective of our study is to shed light on the foam surprising stability induced by these particles. The study focuses on drainage of foams generated by air sparging through a suspension lying on a porous glass. The foaming suspensions contain between 0 and 70 g.L-1 of a fumed silica (Aerosil 380) which is well-known to form gels for concentrations above 200 g.L{sup -1}. In the studied solutions this silica builds up into aggregates of dozens of microns, whose volume-averaged mean diameter after sonication is centred around 300 nm. Under gentle stirring, they display no sign of re-aggregation during 24 h. On a free drainage configuration, a foam that contains particles keeps a significant amount of its initial liquid: up to 60 % during up to 5 hours, in contrast to classical foams that drain out all of their liquid in about 20 minutes. From a rheological point of view, the most concentrated suspensions display a yield stress behaviour. This evidences the structuring of the aggregates into a coherent network that might explain the incomplete drainage of the solutions. For the lowest concentrated solutions, such rheological properties have not been observed although the corresponding foams can retain large amount of solution. This suggests that local concentrations of aggregates can rise owing to their retention by foam channels, until they form

  13. Cryogenic foam insulation: Abstracted publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, F. R.

    1977-01-01

    A group of documents were chosen and abstracted which contain information on the properties of foam materials and on the use of foams as thermal insulation at cryogenic temperatures. The properties include thermal properties, mechanical properties, and compatibility properties with oxygen and other cryogenic fluids. Uses of foams include applications as thermal insulation for spacecraft propellant tanks, and for liquefied natural gas storage tanks and pipelines.

  14. A novel assay system for macrophage-activating factor activity using a human U937 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Mami; Inoue, Takahiro; Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Uto, Yoshihiro; Nishikata, Takahito

    2014-08-01

    Macrophages play important roles in antitumor immunity, and immunotherapy with the group-specific component protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) has been reported to be effective in patients with various types of cancers. However, in macrophage research, it is important to properly evaluate macrophage activity. U937 macrophages were induced by 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-phorbolacetate (TPA). The phagocytic activity of macrophages was evaluated as the internalized beads ratio. The MAF activity was assessed at 30 min after MAF addition as the activation ratio. We established a novel assay for phagocytic activities using differentiated U937 macrophages. The novel protocol was simple and rapid and was sensitive for GcMAF. This protocol should be useful not only for basic studies, such as those on molecular mechanisms underlying macrophage activation, but also for clinical studies, such as assessment of GcMAF activity prior to clinical use. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanical Properties of Electrolyte Jet Electrodeposited Nickel Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsong Chen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Principles of the preparation of nickel foam by electrolyte jet electrodeposition were introduced, Nickel foam samples with different porosity were fabricated. Effect of different porosity on microhardness and uniaxial tensile properties of nickel foam was discussed. The results show that the microhardness of nickel foam is 320~400 HV, lower than entitative metal clearly. The lower the porosity of nickel foam, the higher the microhardness is. During the process of uniaxial tensile, nickel foam is characterized by three distinct regions, e.g. elastic deforming region, plastic plateau region and densification region. The higher the porosity of nickel foam, the lower the plastic plateau and the poorer the strength of nickel foam, accordingly

  16. Synthesis and characterization of Ti–Ta–Nb–Mn foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, C., E-mail: claudio.aguilar@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guerra, C. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Lascano, S. [Departamento de Ingeniería Mecánica, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Guzman, D. [Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Atacama, Av. Copayapu 485, Copiapó (Chile); Rojas, P.A. [Escuela de Ingeniería Mecánica, Facultad de Ingeniería, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Av. Los Carrera, 01567 Quilpué (Chile); Thirumurugan, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Metalúrgica y Materiales, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Bejar, L.; Medina, A. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Ciudad Universitaria, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico)

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented increase in human life expectancy have produced profound changes in the prevailing patterns of disease, like the observed increased in degenerative disc diseases, which cause degradation of the bones. Ti–Nb–Ta alloys are promising materials to replace the damaged bone due to their excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. In general metallic foams are widely used for medical application due to their lower elastic moduli compare to bulk materials. In this work we studied the synthesis of 34Nb–29Ta–xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt.% Mn) alloy foams (50% v/v) using ammonium hydrogen carbonate as a space holder. Alloys were produced through mechanical alloying in a planetary mill for 50 h. Green compacts were obtained by applying 430 MPa pressure. To remove the space holder from the matrix the green compacts were heated to 180 °C for 1.5 h and after sintered at 1300 °C for 3 h. Foams were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning, transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The elastic modulus of the foam was measured as ~ 30 GPa, and the values are almost equal to the values predicted using various theoretical models. - Highlights: • Metallic foams of Ti–34Nb–29Ta–xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt.% Mn) alloys were synthetized. • The macro and micro pore produced have sizes smaller than 600 and 20 μm, respectively. • The macro and micro pores shows good characteristics to cell adhesion and bone ingrowth. • Elastic properties were comparable to that exhibited by cortical bone.

  17. Making continuous bubble type polyethylene foam incombustible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaji, Kanako; Hatada, Motoyoshi; Yoshizawa, Iwao; Komai, Kuniaki; Kohara, Choji.

    1989-01-01

    Since continuous bubble type plastic foam has excellent compression characteristics and sound absorption characteristics, it has been widely used as cushion material, sealing material, sound insulating material and so on. However, the most part of plastic foam is taken by air, therefore at the time of fires, it becomes a very dangerous material. At present, the material used mostly as the seat cushions for airliners, railroad coaches, automobiles and others is polyurethane foam, but since it contains C-N couples in its molecules, it is feared to generate cyanic gas according to the condition of combustion. As the plastic foam that does not generate harmful gas at the time of fires, there is continuous bubble type polyethylene which is excellent in its weathering property and chemical resistance. A reactive, phosphorus-containing oligomer has large molecular weight and two or more double couplings in a molecule, therefore, it does not enter the inside of polyethylene, and polymerizes and crosslinks on the surfaces of bubble walls in the foam, accordingly it is expected that the apparent graft polymerization is carried out, and it is very effective for making polyethylene foam incombustible. The method of making graft foam, the properties of graft foam and so on are reported. When the graft polymerization of this oligomer to continuous bubble type polyethylene foam was tried, highly incombustible polyethylene foam was obtained. (K.I.)

  18. Modelling of Churn-Annular foam flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westende, J.M.C. van 't; Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Vercauteren, F.F.; Nennie, E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Foam assisted lift is a deliquification method in the oil and gas industry, which aims to prevent or postpone countercurrent gas-liquid flow in maturing gas wells or to assist in removing downhole accumulated liquids. According to Nimwegen, who performed experiments with foam flows, foam

  19. Damping of liquid sloshing by foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauret, A.; Boulogne, F.; Cappello, J.; Dressaire, E.; Stone, H. A.

    2015-02-01

    When a container is set in motion, the free surface of the liquid starts to oscillate or slosh. Such effects can be observed when a glass of water is handled carelessly and the fluid sloshes or even spills over the rims of the container. However, beer does not slosh as readily as water, which suggests that foam could be used to damp sloshing. In this work, we study experimentally the effect on sloshing of a liquid foam placed on top of a liquid bath. We generate a monodisperse two-dimensional liquid foam in a rectangular container and track the motion of the foam. The influence of the foam on the sloshing dynamics is experimentally characterized: only a few layers of bubbles are sufficient to significantly damp the oscillations. We rationalize our experimental findings with a model that describes the foam contribution to the damping coefficient through viscous dissipation on the walls of the container. Then we extend our study to confined three-dimensional liquid foam and observe that the behavior of 2D and confined 3D systems are very similar. Thus, we conclude that only the bubbles close to the walls have a significant impact on the dissipation of energy. The possibility to damp liquid sloshing using foam is promising in numerous industrial applications such as the transport of liquefied gas in tankers or for propellants in rocket engines.

  20. Differential effects of malignant mesothelioma cells on THP-1 monocytes and macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzi, Valerio; Chiurchiù, Valerio; D'Aquilio, Fabiola; Palumbo, Camilla; Tresoldi, Ilaria; Modesti, Andrea; Baldini, Patrizia M

    2009-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly fatal tumor arising from inner body membranes, whose extensive growth is facilitated by its week immunogenicity and by its ability to blunt the immune response which should arise from the huge mass of leukocytes typically infiltrating this tumor. It has been reported that the inflammatory infiltrate found in MM tissues is characterized by a high prevalence of macrophages. Thus, in this work we evaluated the ability of human MM cells to modulate the inflammatory phenotype of human THP-1 monocytes and macrophages, a widely used in vitro model of monocyte/macrophage differentiation. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the exposure to MM cells could alter the differentiation of THP-1 monocytes favoring the development of alternatively activated, tumor-supporting macrophages. Our data prove for the first time that MM cells can polarize monocytes towards an altered inflammatory phenotype and macrophages towards an immunosuppressive phenotype. Moreover, we demonstrate that monocytes cocultivated with MM cells 'keep a memory' of their encounter with the tumor which influences their differentiation to macrophages. On the whole, we provide evidence that MM cells exert distinct, cell-specific effects on monocytes and macrophages. The thorough characterization of such effects may be of a crucial importance for the rational design of new immunotherapeutic protocols.

  1. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  2. Microstructure of high-strength foam concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, A.; Middendorf, B.

    2009-01-01

    Foam concretes are divided into two groups: on the one hand the physically foamed concrete is mixed in fast rotating pug mill mixers by using foaming agents. This concrete cures under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand the autoclaved aerated concrete is chemically foamed by adding aluminium powder. Afterwards it is cured in a saturated steam atmosphere. New alternatives for the application of foam concretes arise from the combination of chemical foaming and air curing in manufacturing processes. These foam concretes are new and innovative building materials with interesting properties: low mass density and high strength. Responsible for these properties are the macro-, meso- and microporosity. Macropores are created by adding aluminium powder in different volumes and with different particle size distributions. However, the microstructure of the cement matrix is affected by meso- and micropores. In addition, the matrix of the hardened cement paste can be optimized by the specific use of chemical additives for concrete. The influence of aluminium powder and chemical additives on the properties of the microstructure of the hardened cement matrices were investigated by using petrographic microscopy as well as scanning electron microscopy.

  3. A cement based syntactic foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoqiang; Muthyala, Venkata D.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a cement based syntactic foam core was proposed and experimentally investigated for composite sandwich structures. This was a multi-phase composite material with microballoon dispersed in a rubber latex toughened cement paste matrix. A trace amount of microfiber was also incorporated to increase the number of mechanisms for energy absorption and a small amount of nanoclay was added to improve the crystal structure of the hydrates. Three groups of cement based syntactic foams with varying cement content were investigated. A fourth group of specimens containing pure cement paste were also prepared as control. Each group contained 24 beam specimens. The total number of beam specimens was 96. The dimension of each beam was 30.5 cm x 5.1 cm x 1.5 cm. Twelve foam specimens from each group were wrapped with plain woven 7715 style glass fabric reinforced epoxy to prepare sandwich beams. Twelve cubic foam specimens, three from each group, with a side length of 5.1 cm, were also prepared. Three types of testing, low velocity impact test and four-point bending test on the beam specimens and compression test on the cubic specimens, were conducted to evaluate the impact energy dissipation, stress-strain behavior, and residual strength. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was also used to examine the energy dissipation mechanisms in the micro-length scale. It was found that the cement based syntactic foam has a higher capacity for dissipating impact energy with an insignificant reduction in strength as compared to the control cement paste core. When compared to a polymer based foam core having similar compositions, it was found that the cement based foam has a comparable energy dissipation capacity. The developed cement based syntactic foam would be a viable alternative for core materials in impact-tolerant composite sandwich structures

  4. Influence of the glass-calcium carbonate mixture's characteristics on the foaming process and the properties of the foam glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    König, Jakob; Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    We prepared foam glasses from cathode-ray-tube panel glass and CaCO3 as a foaming agent. We investigated the influences of powder preparation, CaCO3 concentration and foaming temperature and time on the density, porosity and homogeneity of the foam glasses. The results show that the decomposition...

  5. Class B Fire-Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of a Compressed Air Foam System at Different Air-to-Aqueous Foam Solution Mixing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ho Rie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to evaluate the fire-extinguishing performance of a compressed air foam system at different mixing ratios of pressurized air. In this system, compressed air is injected into an aqueous solution of foam and then discharged. The experimental device uses an exclusive fire-extinguishing technology with compressed air foam that is produced based on the Canada National Laboratory and UL (Underwriters Laboratories 162 standards, with a 20-unit oil fire model (Class B applied as the fire extinguisher. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture, and results with different air-to-aqueous solution foam ratios of 1:4, 1:7, and 1:10 are studied. In addition, comparison experiments between synthetic surfactant foam and a foam type which forms an aqueous film are carried out at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:4. From the experimental results, at identical discharging flows, it was found that the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam is greatest at an air-to-aqueous solution foam ratio of 1:7 and weakest at 1:10. Moreover, the fire-extinguishing effect of the aqueous film-forming foam in the comparison experiments between the aqueous film-forming foam and the synthetic surfactant foam is greatest.

  6. Experiments to Populate and Validate a Processing Model for Polyurethane Foam: Additional Data for Structural Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Rekha R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Celina, Mathias C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Giron, Nicholas Henry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Russick, Edward M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We are developing computational models to help understand manufacturing processes, final properties and aging of structural foam, polyurethane PMDI. Th e resulting model predictions of density and cure gradients from the manufacturing process will be used as input to foam heat transfer and mechanical models. BKC 44306 PMDI-10 and BKC 44307 PMDI-18 are the most prevalent foams used in structural parts. Experiments needed to parameterize models of the reaction kinetics and the equations of motion during the foam blowing stages were described for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 in the first of this report series (Mondy et al. 2014). BKC 44307 PMDI-18 is a new foam that will be used to make relatively dense structural supports via over packing. It uses a different catalyst than those in the BKC 44306 family of foams; hence, we expect that the reaction kineti cs models must be modified. Here we detail the experiments needed to characteriz e the reaction kinetics of BKC 44307 PMDI-18 and suggest parameters for the model based on these experiments. In additi on, the second part of this report describes data taken to provide input to the preliminary nonlinear visco elastic structural response model developed for BKC 44306 PMDI-10 foam. We show that the standard cu re schedule used by KCP does not fully cure the material, and, upon temperature elevation above 150°C, oxidation or decomposition reactions occur that alter the composition of the foam. These findings suggest that achieving a fully cured foam part with this formulation may be not be possible through therma l curing. As such, visco elastic characterization procedures developed for curing thermosets can provide only approximate material properties, since the state of the material continuously evolves during tests.

  7. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Czupryński

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis in diethylene glycol with the addition of ethanolamine and zinc stearate. Liquid brown products were obtained. Properties of the resulting products were defined in order to determine their suitability for synthesis of new foams. It was found that glycolysate 6 was the most suitable for reuse and its application in different amounts allowed us to prepare 4 new foams (nos. 25, 26, 27, and 28. Properties of foams prepared in this manner were determined and, on their basis, the suitability of glycolysates for production of rigid PUR-PIR foams was evaluated.

  8. Changes in Macrophage Gene Expression Associated with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Ovalle-Bracho

    Full Text Available Different Leishmania species cause distinct clinical manifestations of the infectious disease leishmaniasis. It is fundamentally important to understand the mechanisms governing the interaction between Leishmania and its host cell. Little is known about this interaction between Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis and human macrophages. In this study, we aimed to identify differential gene expression between non-infected and L. (V braziliensis-infected U937-derived macrophages. We deployed a whole human transcriptome microarray analysis using 72 hours post-infection samples and compared those samples with their non-infected counterparts. We found that 218 genes were differentially expressed between infected and non-infected macrophages. A total of 71.6% of these genes were down-regulated in the infected macrophages. Functional enrichment analyses identified the steroid and sterol/cholesterol biosynthetic processes between regulatory networks down-regulated in infected macrophages. RT-qPCR further confirmed this down-regulation in genes belonging to these pathways. These findings contrast with those from studies involving other Leishmania species at earlier infection stages, where gene up-regulation for this metabolic pathway has been reported. Sterol biosynthesis could be an important biological process associated with the expression profile of macrophages infected by L. (V. braziliensis. Differential transcriptional results suggest a negative regulation of the genetic regulatory network involved in cholesterol biosynthesis.

  9. Nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ EOR application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ning [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Lee, Robert [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Yu, Jianjia [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Li, Liangxiong [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Bustamante, Elizabeth [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Khalil, Munawar [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Mo, Di [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Jia, Bao [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); Wang, Sai [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); San, Jingshan [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States); An, Cheng [New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, Socorro, NM (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The purpose of this project was to develop nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for CO₂ -EOR application, in which nanoparticles instead of surfactants are used for stabilizing CO₂ foam to improve the CO₂ sweep efficiency and increase oil recovery. The studies included: (1) investigation of CO₂ foam generation nanoparticles, such as silica nanoparticles, and the effects of particle concentration and surface properties, CO₂/brine ratio, brine salinity, pressure, and temperature on foam generation and foam stability; (2) coreflooding tests to understand the nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam for waterflooded residual oil recovery, which include: oil-free coreflooding experiments with nanoparticle-stabilized CO₂ foam to understand the transportation of nanoparticles through the core; measurements of foam stability and CO₂ sweep efficiency under reservoir conditions to investigate temperature and pressure effects on the foam performance and oil recovery as well as the sweep efficiency in different core samples with different rock properties; and (3) long-term coreflooding experiments with the nanoparticle- stabilized CO₂ foam for residual oil recovery. Finally, the technical and economical feasibility of this technology was evaluated.

  10. Placental macrophage contact potentiates the complete replicative cycle of human cytomegalovirus in syncytiotrophoblast cells: role of interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bácsi, A; Aranyosi, J; Beck, Z; Ebbesen, P; Andirkó, I; Szabó, J; Lampé, L; Kiss, J; Gergely, L; Tóth, F D

    1999-10-01

    Although syncytiotrophoblast (ST) cells can be infected by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), in vitro studies have indicated that ST cells do not support the complete viral reproductive cycle, or HCMV replication may occur in less than 3% of ST cells. The present study tested the possibility that placental macrophages might enhance activation of HCMV carried in ST cells and, further, that infected ST cells would be capable of transmitting virus to neighboring macrophages. For this purpose, we studied HCMV replication in ST cells grown alone or cocultured with uninfected placental macrophages. Our results demonstrated that HCMV gene expression in ST cells was markedly upregulated by coculture with macrophages, resulting in release of substantial amounts of infectious virus from HCMV-infected ST cells. After having become permissive for viral replication, ST cells delivered HCMV to the cocultured macrophages, as evidenced by detection of virus-specific antigens in these cells. The stimulatory effect of coculture on HCMV gene expression in ST cells was mediated by marked interleukin-8 (IL-8) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) release from macrophages, an effect caused by contact between the different placental cells. Our findings indicate an interactive role for the ST layer and placental macrophages in the dissemination of HCMV among placental tissue. Eventually, these interactions may contribute to the transmission of HCMV from mother to the fetus.

  11. Calcineurin Orchestrates Lateral Transfer of Aspergillus fumigatus during Macrophage Cell Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Anand; Kannambath, Shichina; Herbst, Susanne; Rogers, Andrew; Soresi, Simona; Carby, Martin; Reed, Anna; Mostowy, Serge; Fisher, Matthew C; Shaunak, Sunil; Armstrong-James, Darius P

    2016-11-01

    Pulmonary aspergillosis is a lethal mold infection in the immunocompromised host. Understanding initial control of infection and how this is altered in the immunocompromised host are key goals for comprehension of the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis. To characterize the outcome of human macrophage infection with Aspergillus fumigatus and how this is altered in transplant recipients on calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants. We defined the outcome of human macrophage infection with A. fumigatus, as well as the impact of calcineurin inhibitors, through a combination of single-cell fluorescence imaging, transcriptomics, proteomics, and in vivo studies. Macrophage phagocytosis of A. fumigatus enabled control of 90% of fungal germination. However, fungal germination in the late phagosome led to macrophage necrosis. During programmed necroptosis, we observed frequent cell-cell transfer of A. fumigatus between macrophages, which assists subsequent control of germination in recipient macrophages. Lateral transfer occurred through actin-dependent exocytosis of the late endosome in a vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein envelope. Its relevance to the control of fungal germination was also shown by direct visualization in our zebrafish aspergillosis model in vivo. The calcineurin inhibitor FK506 (tacrolimus) reduced cell death and lateral transfer in vitro by 50%. This resulted in uncontrolled fungal germination in macrophages and also resulted in hyphal escape. These observations identify programmed, necrosis-dependent lateral transfer of A. fumigatus between macrophages as an important host strategy for controlling fungal germination. This process is critically dependent on calcineurin. Our studies provide fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis in the immunocompromised host.

  12. Polyurethane foam scaffold as in vitro model for breast cancer bone metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeloni, Valentina; Contessi, Nicola; De Marco, Cinzia; Bertoldi, Serena; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Farè, Silvia

    2017-11-01

    Breast cancer (BC) represents the most incident cancer case in women (29%), with high mortality rate. Bone metastasis occurs in 20-50% cases and, despite advances in BC research, the interactions between tumor cells and the metastatic microenvironment are still poorly understood. In vitro 3D models gained great interest in cancer research, thanks to the reproducibility, the 3D spatial cues and associated low costs, compared to in vivo and 2D in vitro models. In this study, we investigated the suitability of a poly-ether-urethane (PU) foam as 3D in vitro model to study the interactions between BC tumor-initiating cells and the bone microenvironment. PU foam open porosity (>70%) appeared suitable to mimic trabecular bone structure. The PU foam showed good mechanical properties under cyclic compression (E=69-109kPa), even if lower than human trabecular bone. The scaffold supported osteoblast SAOS-2 cell line proliferation, with no cytotoxic effects. Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSC) were cultured and differentiated into osteoblast lineage on the PU foam, as shown by alizarin red staining and RT-PCR, thus offering a bone biomimetic microenvironment to the further co-culture with BC derived tumor-initiating cells (MCFS). Tumor aggregates were observed after three weeks of co-culture by e-cadherin staining and SEM; modification in CaP distribution was identified by SEM-EDX and associated to the presence of tumor cells. In conclusion, we demonstrated the suitability of the PU foam to reproduce a bone biomimetic microenvironment, useful for the co-culture of human osteoblasts/BC tumor-initiating cells and to investigate their interaction. 3D in vitro models represent an outstanding alternative in the study of tumor metastases development, compared to traditional 2D in vitro cultures, which oversimplify the 3D tissue microenvironment, and in vivo studies, affected by low reproducibility and ethical issues. Several scaffold-based 3D in vitro models have been proposed

  13. Fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds through solid-state foaming of immiscible polymer blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Changchun; Li Wei; Ma Liang; Yao Donggang

    2011-01-01

    In scaffold-based tissue engineering, the fabrication process is important for producing suitable microstructures for seeded cells to grow and reformulate. In this paper, we present a new approach to scaffold fabrication by combining the solid-state foaming and the immiscible polymer-blending method. The proposed approach has the advantage of being versatile and able to create a wide range of pore size and porosity. The proposed method is studied with polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) blends. The interconnected porous structure was created by first foaming the PLA/PS blend and then extracting the PS phase. The solid-state foaming experiments were conducted under various conditions to achieve the desired pore sizes. It is shown that the PS phase of the PLA/PS blend can be extracted much faster in the foamed samples and the pore size of the scaffolds can be easily controlled with proper gas foaming parameters. The average pore size achieved in the foaming process ranged from 20 to 70 μm. After PS extraction, both pore size and porosity can be further improved. For example, the pore size and porosity increased from 48 μm and 49% to 59 μm and 67%, respectively, after the PS extraction process. The fabricated porous scaffolds were used to culture human osteoblast cells. Cells grew well and gradually formed a fibrous structure. The combined solid-state foaming and immiscible polymer blending method provides a new technique for fabricating tissue-engineering scaffolds.

  14. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  15. Viscous Control of the Foam Glass Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    The production of foam glass as heat insulating material is an important industrial process because it enables low-cost recycling of glass waste from a variety of chemical compositions. Optimization of the foaming process of new glass waste compositions is time consuming, since many factors affect...... the foaming process such as temperature, particle size, type and concentration of foaming agent. The foaming temperature is one of the key factors, because even small temperature changes can affect the melt viscosity by several orders of magnitude. Therefore, it is important to establish the viscosity range...... in which the foaming process should take place, particularly when the type of recycled cullet is changed or several types of cullet are mixed in one batch. According to recent glass literature, the foaming process should occur at viscosity 103 to 105 Pa s. However, no systematic studies have hitherto been...

  16. Oxidation behaviour of metallic glass foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, B.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States)], E-mail: bbarnard@utk.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Demetriou, M.D.; Johnson, W.L. [Department of Materials Science, Keck Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the effects of porosity on the oxidation behaviour of bulk-metallic glasses were investigated. Porous Pd- and Fe-based bulk-metallic glass (BMG) foams and Metglas ribbons were studied. Oxidizing experiments were conducted at 70 deg. C, and around 80 deg. C below glass-transition temperatures, (T{sub g}s). Scanning-electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) studies revealed little evidence of oxidation at 70 deg. C. Specimens exhibited greater oxidation at T{sub g} - 80 deg. C. Oxides were copper-based for Pd-based foams, Fe-, Cr-, and Mo-based for Fe-based foams, and Co-based with borosilicates likely for the Metglas. Pd-based foams demonstrated the best oxidation resistance, followed by Metglas ribbons, followed by Fe-based foams.

  17. Preparation of Microcellular Epoxy Foams through a Limited-Foaming Process: A Contradiction with the Time-Temperature-Transformation Cure Diagram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Zhang, Chun; Gong, Wei; Ji, Yubi; Qin, Shuhao; He, Li

    2018-01-01

    3D cross-linking networks are generated through chemical reactions between thermosetting epoxy resin and hardener during curing. The curing degree of epoxy material can be increased by increasing curing temperature and/or time. The epoxy material must then be fully cured through a postcuring process to optimize its material characteristics. Here, a limited-foaming method is introduced for the preparation of microcellular epoxy foams (Lim-foams) with improved cell morphology, high thermal expansion coefficient, and good compressive properties. Lim-foams exhibit a lower glass transition temperature (T g ) and curing degree than epoxy foams fabricated through free-foaming process (Fre-foams). Surprisingly, however, the T g of Lim-foams is unaffected by postcuring temperature and time. This phenomenon, which is related to high gas pressure in the bubbles, contradicts that indicated by the time-temperature-transformation cure diagram. High bubble pressure promotes the movement of molecular chains under heating at low temperature and simultaneously suppresses the etherification cross-linking reaction during post-curing. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. USING BIOPOLYMERS TO STABILIZE THE PROTEIN OXYGEN FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Nepovinnyh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cottage cheese whey as an oxygen cocktail foaming base and natural juices as a flavoring ingredient are analyzed. The lifetime of foam generated by the serum proteins is not long: foam falls off rapidly; because from the foam liquid is released (syneresis. The effects of plant polysaccharides on the stabilization of the protein foam oxygen cocktail is studied. It was shown that the use of plant polysaccharides (guar gum, high methoxyl citrus pectin, locust been gum prolong the life of the foam up to 20 times, compared with conventional blowing agents. It was found that oxygen foam properties depend on the molecular weight of guar gum.

  19. Dynamics of poroelastic foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Yoel; Sobac, Benjamin

    2010-11-01

    Soft poroelastic structures are widespread in biological tissues such as cartilaginous joints in bones, blood-filled placentae or plant organs. Here we investigate the dynamics of open elastic foams immersed in viscous fluids, as model soft poroelastic materials. The experiment consists in slowly compacting blocs of polyurethane solid foam embedded in silicon oil-tanks and studying their relaxation to equilibrium when the confining stress is suddenly released. Measurements of the local fluid pressure and foam velocity field are compared with a simple two-phase flow approach. For small initial compactions, the results show quantitative agreement with the classical diffusion theory of soil consolidation (Terzaghi, Biot). On the other hand, for large initial compactions, the dynamics exhibits long relaxation times and decompaction fronts, which are mainly controlled by the highly non-linear mechanical response of the foam. The analogy between this process and the evaporation of a polymer melt close to the glass transition will be briefly discussed.

  20. Numerical simulation of heat transfer in metal foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangapatnam, Priyatham; Kurian, Renju; Venkateshan, S. P.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports a numerical study of forced convection heat transfer in high porosity aluminum foams. Numerical modeling is done considering both local thermal equilibrium and non local thermal equilibrium conditions in ANSYS-Fluent. The results of the numerical model were validated with experimental results, where air was forced through aluminum foams in a vertical duct at different heat fluxes and velocities. It is observed that while the LTE model highly under predicts the heat transfer in these foams, LTNE model predicts the Nusselt number accurately. The novelty of this study is that once hydrodynamic experiments are conducted the permeability and porosity values obtained experimentally can be used to numerically simulate heat transfer in metal foams. The simulation of heat transfer in foams is further extended to find the effect of foam thickness on heat transfer in metal foams. The numerical results indicate that though larger foam thicknesses resulted in higher heat transfer coefficient, this effect weakens with thickness and is negligible in thick foams.

  1. Fibronectin induces macrophage migration through a SFK-FAK/CSF-1R pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Graziana; Tusa, Ignazia; Bacci, Marina; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Dello Sbarba, Persio; Rovida, Elisabetta

    2017-07-04

    Integrins, following binding to proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM) including collagen, laminin and fibronectin (FN), are able to transduce molecular signals inside the cells and to regulate several biological functions such as migration, proliferation and differentiation. Besides activation of adaptor molecules and kinases, integrins transactivate Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTK). In particular, adhesion to the ECM may promote RTK activation in the absence of growth factors. The Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 Receptor (CSF-1R) is a RTK that supports the survival, proliferation, and motility of monocytes/macrophages, which are essential components of innate immunity and cancer development. Macrophage interaction with FN is recognized as an important aspect of host defense and wound repair. The aim of the present study was to investigate on a possible cross-talk between FN-elicited signals and CSF-1R in macrophages. FN induced migration in BAC1.2F5 and J774 murine macrophage cell lines and in human primary macrophages. Adhesion to FN determined phosphorylation of the Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) and Src Family Kinases (SFK) and activation of the SFK/FAK complex, as witnessed by paxillin phosphorylation. SFK activity was necessary for FAK activation and macrophage migration. Moreover, FN-induced migration was dependent on FAK in either murine macrophage cell lines or human primary macrophages. FN also induced FAK-dependent/ligand-independent CSF-1R phosphorylation, as well as the interaction between CSF-1R and β1. CSF-1R activity was necessary for FN-induced macrophage migration. Indeed, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of CSF-1R prevented FN-induced macrophage migration. Our results identified a new SFK-FAK/CSF-1R signaling pathway that mediates FN-induced migration of macrophages.

  2. DMPD: Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflammatory activities. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 12472665 Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potential...:545-53. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase:...le Macrophage-stimulating protein and RON receptor tyrosine kinase: potentialregulators of macrophage inflam

  3. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  4. Macrophages are related to goblet cell hyperplasia and induce MUC5B but not MUC5AC in human bronchus epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Manuel A; Bercik, Premysl

    2012-06-01

    Airway goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH)--detectable by mucin staining--and abnormal macrophage infiltrate are pathological features present in many chronic respiratory disorders. However, it is unknown if both factors are associated. Using in-vivo and in-vitro models, we investigated whether macrophages are related with GCH and changes in mucin immunophenotypes. Lung sections from Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 48 h with one intra-tracheal dose of PBS or LPS (n=4-6 per group) were immunophenotyped for rat-goblet cells, immune, and proliferation markers. Human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) were pre-treated with or without LPS, immunophenotyped, and their supernatant, as well as cytokines at levels equivalent to supernatant were used to challenge primary culture of normal human bronchus epithelial cells (HBEC) in air-liquid interface, followed by MUC5B and MUC5AC mucin immunostaining. An association between increased bronchiolar goblet cells and terminal-bronchiolar proliferative epithelial cells confirmed the presence of GCH in our LPS rat model, which was related with augmented bronchiolar CD68 macrophage infiltration. The in-vitro experiments have shown that MUC5AC phenotype was inhibited when HBEC were challenged with supernatant from MDM pre-treated with or without LPS. In contrast, TNF-α and interleukin-1β at levels equivalent to supernatant from LPS-treated MDM increased MUC5AC. MUC5B was induced by LPS, supernatant from LPS-treated MDM, a mix of cytokines including TNF-α and TNF-α alone at levels present in supernatant from LPS-treated MDM. We demonstrated that macrophages are related with bronchiolar GCH, and that they induced MUC5B and inhibited MUC5AC in HBEC, suggesting a role for them in the pathogenesis of airway MUC5B-related GCH.

  5. First case report of M1 macrophage polarization in an untreated symptomatic patient with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Graziano; Di Lisio, Chiara; Lattanzio, Giuseppe; D'Antuono, Tommaso; Liberatore, Marcella; Aiello, Francesca Bianca

    2018-03-27

    In immunocompetent patients, acute toxoplasmosis is usually asymptomatic. We identified M1 macrophages in a case of symptomatic acute Toxoplasma gondii infection that resolved without treatment. M1 macrophages have been demonstrated in animal models of toxoplasmosis, but not in humans. A 63-year-old woman presented with laterocervical and axillary bilateral lymphadenopathy. Her anamnesis defined an episode of high fever and prolonged asthenia 4 months previously, which suggested an infectious disease. Following laboratory, radiological, and pathological analyses, she was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on lymph node sections. More than 50% of the macrophages in the lymph node microgranulomas were M1 macrophages, defined by CD68 + /p-Stat1 + staining, and the presence of T helper 1 lymphocytes indicated an immune response known to induce M1 macrophage polarization. Activated endothelial cells were found only in inflamed areas. No therapy was administered before or after diagnosis, and the lymphadenopathy resolved after a follow-up of 5 months. This is the first report to demonstrate the presence of M1 macrophages in human toxoplasmosis. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and encourage further studies on the role of macrophage polarization in human toxoplasmosis.

  6. PET Imaging of Macrophage Mannose Receptor-Expressing Macrophages in Tumor Stroma Using 18F-Radiolabeled Camelid Single-Domain Antibody Fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blykers, Anneleen; Schoonooghe, Steve; Xavier, Catarina; D'hoe, Kevin; Laoui, Damya; D'Huyvetter, Matthias; Vaneycken, Ilse; Cleeren, Frederik; Bormans, Guy; Heemskerk, Johannes; Raes, Geert; De Baetselier, Patrick; Lahoutte, Tony; Devoogdt, Nick; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Caveliers, Vicky

    2015-08-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages constitute a major component of the stroma of solid tumors, encompassing distinct subpopulations with different characteristics and functions. We aimed to identify M2-oriented tumor-supporting macrophages within the tumor microenvironment as indicators of cancer progression and prognosis, using PET imaging. This can be realized by designing (18)F-labeled camelid single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) specifically targeting the macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), which has been identified as an important biomarker on this cell population. Cross-reactive anti-MMR sdAbs were generated after immunization of an alpaca with the extracellular domains of both human and mouse MMR. The lead binder was chosen on the basis of comparisons of binding affinity and in vivo pharmacokinetics. The PET tracer (18)F-fluorobenzoate (FB)-anti-MMR sdAb was developed using the prosthetic group N-succinimidyl-4-(18)F-fluorobenzoate ((18)F-SFB), and its biodistribution, tumor-targeting potential, and specificity in terms of macrophage and MMR targeting were evaluated in mouse tumor models. Four sdAbs were selected after affinity screening, but only 2 were found to be cross-reactive for human and mouse MMR. The lead anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb, bearing an affinity of 12 and 1.8 nM for mouse and human MMR, respectively, was chosen for its favorable in vivo biodistribution profile and tumor-targeting capacity. (18)F-FB-anti-MMR 3.49 sdAb was synthesized with a 5%-10% radiochemical yield using an automated and optimized protocol. In vivo biodistribution analyses showed fast clearance via the kidneys and retention in MMR-expressing organs and tumor. The kidney retention of the fluorinated sdAb was 20-fold lower than a (99m)Tc-labeled counterpart. Compared with MMR- and C-C chemokine receptor 2-deficient mice, significantly higher uptake was observed in tumors grown in wild-type mice, demonstrating the specificity of the (18)F tracer for MMR and macrophages, respectively. Anti

  7. Biocompatible evaluation of barium titanate foamed ceramic structures for orthopedic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jordan P; Mound, Brittnee A; Nino, Juan C; Allen, Josephine B

    2014-07-01

    The potential of barium titanate (BT) to be electrically active makes it a material of interest in regenerative medicine. To enhance the understanding of this material for orthopedic applications, the in vitro biocompatibility of porous BT fabricated using a direct foaming technique was investigated. Characterization of the resultant foams yielded an overall porosity between 50 and 70% with average pore size in excess of 30 µm in diameter. A mouse osteoblast (7F2) cell line was cultured with the BT to determine the extent of the foams' toxicity using a LDH assay. After 72 h, BT foams showed a comparable cytotoxicity of 6.4 ± 0.8% to the 8.4 ± 1.5% of porous 45S5 Bioglass®. The in vitro inflammatory response elicited from porous BT was measured as a function of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secreted from a human monocytic leukemia cell line (THP-1). Results indicate that the BT foams do not cause a significant inflammatory response, eliciting a 9.4 ± 1.3 pg of TNF-α per mL of media compared with 20.2 ± 2.3 pg/mL from untreated cells. These results indicate that porous BT does not exhibit short term cytotoxicity and has potential for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The toxicity of rifampicin polylactic acid nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and human macrophage THP-1 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erokhina, M; Rybalkina, E; Lepekha, L; Barsegyan, G; Onishchenko, G

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is rapidly becoming a major health problem. The rise in tuberculosis incidence stimulates efforts to develop more effective delivery systems for the existing antituberculous drugs while decreasing the side effects. The nanotechnology may provide novel drug delivery tools allowing controlled drug release. Rifampicin is one of the main antituberculous drugs, characterized by high toxicity, and Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer used for the preparation of encapsulated drugs. The aim of our work was to evaluate the toxicity of rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG using human macrophage THP-1 cell line. Our data demonstrate that rifampicin-PLLA is effective against M. bovis BCG in the infected macrophages. The drug is inducing the dysfunction of mitochondria and apoptosis in the macrophages and is acting as a potential substrate of Pgp thereby modulating cell chemosensitivity. The severity of the toxic effects of the rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles is increasing in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest that free rifampicin induces death of M. bovis BCG after PLLA degradation and diffusion from phago-lysosomes to cytoplasm causing mitochondria dysfunction and affecting the Pgp activity. (paper)

  9. Mechanical Characterization of Lightweight Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kozłowski

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Foamed concrete shows excellent physical characteristics such as low self weight, relatively high strength and superb thermal and acoustic insulation properties. It allows for minimal consumption of aggregate, and by replacement of a part of cement by fly ash, it contributes to the waste utilization principles. For many years, the application of foamed concrete has been limited to backfill of retaining walls, insulation of foundations and roof tiles sound insulation. However, during the last few years, foamed concrete has become a promising material for structural purposes. A series of tests was carried out to examine mechanical properties of foamed concrete mixes without fly ash and with fly ash content. In addition, the influence of 25 cycles of freezing and thawing on the compressive strength was investigated. The apparent density of hardened foamed concrete is strongly correlated with the foam content in the mix. An increase of the density of foamed concrete results in a decrease of flexural strength. For the same densities, the compressive strength obtained for mixes containing fly ash is approximately 20% lower in comparison to the specimens without fly ash. Specimens subjected to 25 freeze-thaw cycles show approximately 15% lower compressive strengths compared to the untreated specimens.

  10. Postprandial phase time influences the uptake of TAG from postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins by THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Moruno, Rosana; Sinausia, Laura; Botham, Kathleen M; Montero, Emilio; Avella, Michael; Perona, Javier S

    2014-11-14

    Postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) can be taken up by macrophages, leading to the formation of foam cells, probably via receptor-mediated pathways. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the postprandial time point at which TRL are collected modulates this process. A meal containing refined olive oil was given to nine healthy young men and TRL were isolated from their serum at 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially. The lipid class and apoB compositions of TRL were determined by HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The accumulation of lipids in macrophages was determined after the incubation of THP-1 macrophages with TRL. The gene expression of candidate receptors was measured by real-time PCR. The highest concentrations of TAG, apoB48 and apoB100 in TRL were observed at 2 h after the consumption of the test meal. However, excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages was observed in response to incubation with TRL isolated at 4 h, when their particle size (estimated as the TAG:apoB ratio) was intermediate. The abundance of mRNA transcripts in macrophages in response to incubation with TRL was down-regulated for LDL receptor (LDLR), slightly up-regulated for VLDL receptor and remained unaltered for LDLR-related protein, but no effect of the postprandial time point was observed. In contrast, the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors SRB1, SRA2 and CD36 was higher when cells were incubated with TRL isolated at 4 h after the consumption of the test meal. In conclusion, TRL led to excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, which was greater when cells were incubated with intermediate-sized postprandial TRL isolated at 4 h and was associated with a significant increase in the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors.

  11. Evaluating the evidence for macrophage presence in skeletal muscle and its relation to insulin resistance in obese mice and humans: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Meha; Rudrapatna, Srikesh; Banfield, Laura; Bierbrier, Rachel; Wang, Pei-Wen; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M Constantine

    2017-08-08

    The current global rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes are staggering. In order to implement effective management strategies, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of obesity-induced insulin resistance and diabetes. Macrophage infiltration and inflammation of the adipose tissue in obesity is a well-established paradigm, yet the role of macrophages in muscle inflammation, insulin resistance and diabetes is not adequately studied. In this systematic review, we will examine the evidence for the presence of macrophages in skeletal muscle of obese humans and mice, and will assess the association between muscle macrophages and insulin resistance. We will identify published studies that address muscle macrophage content and phenotype, and its association with insulin resistance. We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for eligible studies. Grey literature will be searched in ProQuest. Quality assessment will be conducted using the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation risk of bias Tool for animal studies. The findings of this systematic review will shed light on immune-metabolic crosstalk in obesity, and allow the consideration of targeted therapies to modulate muscle macrophages in the treatment and prevention of diabetes. The review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

  12. Application of Auxetic Foam in Sports Helmets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Foster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This investigation explored the viability of using open cell polyurethane auxetic foams to augment the conformable layer in a sports helmet and improve its linear impact acceleration attenuation. Foam types were compared by examining the impact severity on an instrumented anthropomorphic headform within a helmet consisting of three layers: a rigid shell, a stiff closed cell foam, and an open cell foam as a conformable layer. Auxetic and conventional foams were interchanged to act as the helmet’s conformable component. Attenuation of linear acceleration was examined by dropping the combined helmet and headform on the front and the side. The helmet with auxetic foam reduced peak linear accelerations (p < 0.05 relative to its conventional counterpart at the highest impact energy in both orientations. Gadd Severity Index reduced by 11% for frontal impacts (38.9 J and 44% for side impacts (24.3 J. The conformable layer within a helmet can influence the overall impact attenuating properties. The helmet fitted with auxetic foam can attenuate impact severity more than when fitted with conventional foam, and warrants further investigation for its potential to reduce the risk of traumatic brain injuries in sport specific impacts.

  13. Fcγ receptor expression on splenic macrophages in adult immune thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audia, S; Santegoets, K; Laarhoven, A G; Vidarsson, G; Facy, O; Ortega-Deballon, P; Samson, M; Janikashvili, N; Saas, P; Bonnotte, B; Radstake, T R

    2017-01-01

    Splenic macrophages play a key role in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) pathogenesis by clearing opsonized platelets. Fcγ receptors (FcγR) participate in this phenomenon, but their expression on splenic macrophages and their modulation by treatment have scarcely been studied in human ITP. We aimed to

  14. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Leung, Eric; Lee, Nelson; Lui, Grace; To, Ka-Fai; Chan, Raphael C Y; Ip, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (PmicroRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems. We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  15. Divergence of macrophage phagocytic and antimicrobial programs in leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Dennis; Cruz, Daniel; Teles, Rosane M B; Lee, Delphine J; Ochoa, Maria Teresa; Krutzik, Stephan R; Chun, Rene; Schenk, Mirjam; Zhang, Xiaoran; Ferguson, Benjamin G; Burdick, Anne E; Sarno, Euzenir N; Rea, Thomas H; Hewison, Martin; Adams, John S; Cheng, Genhong; Modlin, Robert L

    2009-10-22

    Effective innate immunity against many microbial pathogens requires macrophage programs that upregulate phagocytosis and direct antimicrobial pathways, two functions generally assumed to be coordinately regulated. We investigated the regulation of these key functions in human blood-derived macrophages. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) induced the phagocytic pathway, including the C-type lectin CD209 and scavenger receptors, resulting in phagocytosis of mycobacteria and oxidized low-density lipoprotein. IL-15 induced the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway and CD209, yet the cells were less phagocytic. The differential regulation of macrophage functional programs was confirmed by analysis of leprosy lesions: the macrophage phagocytosis pathway was prominent in the clinically progressive, multibacillary form of the disease, whereas the vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial pathway predominated in the self-limited form and in patients undergoing reversal reactions from the multibacillary to the self-limited form. These data indicate that macrophage programs for phagocytosis and antimicrobial responses are distinct and differentially regulated in innate immunity to bacterial infections.

  16. Aqueous foam toxicology evaluation and hazard review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-10-01

    Aqueous foams are aggregates of bubbles mechanically generated by passing air or other gases through a net, screen, or other porous medium that is wetted by an aqueous solution of surface-active foaming agents (surfactants). Aqueous foams are important in modem fire-fighting technology, as well as for military uses for area denial and riot or crowd control. An aqueous foam is currently being developed and evaluated by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as a Less-Than-Lethal Weapon for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the toxicity of the aqueous foam developed for the NIJ and to determine whether there are any significant adverse health effects associated with completely immersing individuals without protective equipment in the foam. The toxicity of the aqueous f