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Sample records for human intraparietal sulcus

  1. Morphological patterns of the intraparietal sulcus and the anterior intermediate parietal sulcus of Jensen in the human brain.

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    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2014-12-22

    Distinct parts of the intraparietal sulcal cortex contribute to sensorimotor integration and visual spatial attentional processing. A detailed examination of the morphological relations of the different segments of the complex intraparietal sulcal region in the human brain in standard stereotaxic space, which is a prerequisite for detailed structure-to-function studies, is not available. This study examined the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the related sulcus of Jensen in magnetic resonance imaging brain volumes registered in the Montreal Neurological Institute stereotaxic space. It was demonstrated that the IPS is divided into two branches: the anterior ramus and the posterior ramus of the IPS, often separated by a submerged gyral passage. The sulcus of Jensen emerges between the anterior and posterior rami of the IPS, and its ventral end is positioned between the first and second caudal branches of the superior temporal sulcus. In a small number of brains, the sulcus of Jensen may merge superficially with the first caudal branch of the superior temporal sulcus. The above morphological findings are discussed in relation to previously reported functional neuroimaging findings and provide the basis for future exploration of structure-to-function relations in the posterior parietal region of individual subjects.

  2. Cytoarchitectonic identification and probabilistic mapping of two distinct areas within the anterior ventral bank of the human intraparietal sulcus.

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    Choi, Hi-Jae; Zilles, Karl; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Schleicher, Axel; Fink, Gereon R; Armstrong, Este; Amunts, Katrin

    2006-03-01

    Anatomical studies in the macaque cortex and functional imaging studies in humans have demonstrated the existence of different cortical areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Such functional segregation, however, does not correlate with presently available architectonic maps of the human brain. This is particularly true for the classical Brodmann map, which is still widely used as an anatomical reference in functional imaging studies. The aim of this cytoarchitectonic mapping study was to use previously defined algorithms to determine whether consistent regions and borders can be found within the cortex of the anterior IPS in a population of 10 post-mortem human brains. Two areas, the human intraparietal area 1 (hIP1) and the human intraparietal area 2 (hIP2), were delineated in serial histological sections of the anterior, lateral bank of the human IPS. The region hIP1 is located posterior and medial to hIP2, and the former is always within the depths of the IPS. The latter, on the other hand, sometimes reaches the free surface of the superior parietal lobule. The delineations were registered to standard reference space, and probabilistic maps were calculated, thereby quantifying the intersubject variability in location and extent of both areas. In the future, they can be a tool for analyzing structure-function relationships and a basis for determining degrees of homology in the IPS among anthropoid primates. We conclude that the human IPS has a more finely grained parcellation than shown in Brodmann's map. J. Comp. Neurol. 495:53-69, 2006. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Multimodal convergence within the intraparietal sulcus of the macaque monkey.

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    Guipponi, Olivier; Wardak, Claire; Ibarrola, Danielle; Comte, Jean-Christophe; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Pinède, Serge; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2013-02-27

    The parietal cortex is highly multimodal and plays a key role in the processing of objects and actions in space, both in human and nonhuman primates. Despite the accumulated knowledge in both species, we lack the following: (1) a general description of the multisensory convergence in this cortical region to situate sparser lesion and electrophysiological recording studies; and (2) a way to compare and extrapolate monkey data to human results. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the monkey to provide a bridge between human and monkey studies. We focus on the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and specifically probe its involvement in the processing of visual, tactile, and auditory moving stimuli around and toward the face. We describe three major findings: (1) the visual and tactile modalities are strongly represented and activate mostly nonoverlapping sectors within the IPS. The visual domain occupies its posterior two-thirds and the tactile modality its anterior one-third. The auditory modality is much less represented, mostly on the medial IPS bank. (2) Processing of the movement component of sensory stimuli is specific to the fundus of the IPS and coincides with the anatomical definition of monkey ventral intraparietal area (VIP). (3) A cortical sector within VIP processes movement around and toward the face independently of the sensory modality. This amodal representation of movement may be a key component in the construction of peripersonal space. Overall, our observations highlight strong homologies between macaque and human VIP organization.

  4. Lesion evidence for the critical role of the intraparietal sulcus in spatial attention.

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    Gillebert, Céline R; Mantini, Dante; Thijs, Vincent; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2011-06-01

    Based on lesion mapping studies, the inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction are considered the critical parietal regions for spatial-attentional deficits. Lesion evidence for a key role of the intraparietal sulcus, a region featuring prominently in non-human primate studies and human functional imaging studies of the intact brain, is still lacking, probably due to the exceptional nature of isolated intraparietal sulcus lesions. We combined behavioural testing and functional imaging in two patients with a focal intraparietal sulcus lesion sparing the inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction to examine the critical contribution of the intraparietal sulcus to spatial attention. Case H.H. had a focal ischaemic lesion (1.8 cm3) that was confined to the posterior segment of the left intraparietal sulcus, whereas Case N.V. had a partially reversible lesion of the middle segment of the right intraparietal sulcus extending into the superior parietal lobule (13.8 cm3). The performance of these cases was contrasted with five cases with a classical inferior parietal lesion, as well as with a group of 31 age-matched controls. In the behavioural study, the patients performed an orientation discrimination task on a peripheral target (eccentricity 7.6°) that was preceded by a central spatial cue. We manipulated both the cue validity (17% trials with an invalid spatial cue) and the presence of a competing distracter in the visual field contralateral to the target (17% double stimulation trials). The ability of the patients with an intraparietal sulcus lesion to reorient their spatial focus of attention and to select between competing stimuli was impaired for contralesional targets compared with controls, similarly to what we saw in the inferior parietal group. Furthermore, we could observe that the deficit in Case N.V. resolved with regression of the lesion. To further evaluate the correspondence between spatial-attentional deficits and the

  5. Connections between intraparietal sulcus and a sensorimotor network underpin sustained tactile attention.

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    Goltz, Dominique; Gundlach, Christopher; Nierhaus, Till; Villringer, Arno; Müller, Matthias; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-05-20

    Previous studies on sustained tactile attention draw conclusions about underlying cortical networks by averaging over experimental conditions without considering attentional variance in single trials. This may have formed an imprecise picture of brain processes underpinning sustained tactile attention. In the present study, we simultaneously recorded EEG-fMRI and used modulations of steady-state somatosensory evoked potentials (SSSEPs) as a measure of attentional trial-by-trial variability. Therefore, frequency-tagged streams of vibrotactile stimulations were simultaneously presented to both index fingers. Human participants were cued to sustain attention to either the left or right finger stimulation and to press a button whenever they perceived a target pulse embedded in the to-be-attended stream. In-line with previous studies, a classical general linear model (GLM) analysis based on cued attention conditions revealed increased activity mainly in somatosensory and cerebellar regions. Yet, parametric modeling of the BOLD response using simultaneously recorded SSSEPs as a marker of attentional trial-by-trial variability quarried the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The IPS in turn showed enhanced functional connectivity to a modality-unspecific attention network. However, this was only revealed on the basis of cued attention conditions in the classical GLM. By considering attentional variability as captured by SSSEPs, the IPS showed increased connectivity to a sensorimotor network, underpinning attentional selection processes between competing tactile stimuli and action choices (press a button or not). Thus, the current findings highlight the potential value by considering attentional variations in single trials and extend previous knowledge on the role of the IPS in tactile attention.

  6. Specialization of the Right Intraparietal Sulcus for Processing Mathematics During Development.

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    Schel, Margot A; Klingberg, Torkel

    2016-08-27

    Mathematical ability, especially perception of numbers and performance of arithmetics, is known to rely on the activation of intraparietal sulcus (IPS). However, reasoning ability and working memory, 2 highly associated abilities also activate partly overlapping regions. Most studies aimed at localizing mathematical function have used group averages, where individual variability is averaged out, thus confounding the anatomical specificity when localizing cognitive functions. Here, we analyze the functional anatomy of the intraparietal cortex by using individual analysis of subregions of IPS based on how they are structurally connected to frontal, parietal, and occipital cortex. Analysis of cortical thickness showed that the right anterior IPS, defined by its connections to the frontal lobe, was associated with both visuospatial working memory, and mathematics in 6-year-old children. This region specialized during development to be specifically related to mathematics, but not visuospatial working memory in adolescents and adults. This could be an example of interactive specialization, where interacting with the environment in combination with interactions between cortical regions leads from a more general role of right anterior IPS in spatial processing, to a specialization of this region for mathematics.

  7. Morphological patterns of the postcentral sulcus in the human brain.

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    Zlatkina, Veronika; Petrides, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The morphological structure of the postcentral sulcus and its variability were investigated in 40 structural magnetic resonance images of the human brain registered to the Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) proportional stereotaxic space. This analysis showed that the postcentral sulcus is not a single sulcus, but rather a complex of sulcal segments separated by gyri, which merge their banks at distinct locations. Most of these gyri are submerged deep within the sulcus and can be observed only by examining the depth of the sulcus, although a small proportion may be observed from the surface of the brain. In the majority of the examined cerebral hemispheres (73.75%), the postcentral sulcus is separated into two or three segments or, less frequently, into four or five segments (12.5%), or it remains continuous (13.75%). Examination of the in-depth relationship between the postcentral sulcus and the intraparietal sulcus revealed that these two sulci may appear to join on the surface of the brain but they are in fact always separated by a gyrus in the cortical depth. In 32.5% of the examined hemispheres, a dorsoventrally oriented sulcus, the transverse postcentral sulcus, is located anterior to the postcentral sulcus on the lower part of the postcentral gyrus. Systematic examination of the morphology of the postcentral sulcus in the proportional stereotaxic space that is used in functional neuroimaging studies is the first step toward the establishment of anatomical-functional correlations in the anterior parietal lobe.

  8. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

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    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  9. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  10. Activation of left intraparietal sulcus using a fMRI conceptual praxis paradigm Ativação do sulco intraparietal esquerdo utilizando RMf e um paradigma de praxis conceitual

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    JORGE MOLL

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the results of a fMRI subtraction study of the pattern of cortical activation induced by an ideational praxis paradigm in six normal right-handed subjects. The control task consisted of a sequence of complex meaningless hand movements. A complete study was done for each hand in each subject. The left intraparietal sulcus was the only structure activated in all subjects regardless of the hand used in the task. These findings, albeit preliminary, suggest that the organization of actions involving the mediation of tools and utensils are strongly lateralized to the left hemisphere and that damage to the dominant intraparietal sulcus may be critical for the development of the clinical syndrome of conceptual apraxia.No presente artigo, reportamos os resultados de RMf da ativação cortical induzida por um paradigma de praxis de uso de ferramentas em seis pessoas dextras normais. A tarefa-controle consistiu de uma sequência de movimentos unimanuais complexos, mas desprovidos de significado. Um estudo completo de pantomima e controle foi feito para cada mão. O sulco intraparietal esquerdo foi a única estrutura ativada em todos os indivíduos, independentemente da mão utilizada. Esses achados, embora preliminares, indicam que a organização de ações mediadas por ferramentas e utensílios são fortemente lateralizadas para o hemisfério esquerdo nas pessoas normais, e sugerem que lesões na região do sulco intraparietal do hemisfério dominante são críticas para o aparecimento de apraxia conceitual.

  11. Distinct roles of the intraparietal sulcus and temporoparietal junction in attentional capture from distractor features: An individual differences approach.

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    Painter, David R; Dux, Paul E; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Setting attention for an elementary visual feature, such as color or motion, results in greater spatial attentional "capture" from items with target compared with distractor features. Thus, capture is contingent on feature-based control settings. Neuroimaging studies suggest that this contingent attentional capture involves interactions between dorsal and ventral frontoparietal networks. To examine the distinct causal influences of these networks on contingent capture, we applied continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to alter neural excitability within the dorsal intraparietal sulcus (IPS), the ventral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and a control site, visual area MT. Participants undertook an attentional capture task before and after stimulation, in which they made speeded responses to color-defined targets that were preceded by spatial cues in the target or distractor color. Cues appeared either at the target location (valid) or at a non-target location (invalid). Reaction times were slower for targets preceded by invalid compared with valid cues, demonstrating spatial attentional capture. Cues with the target color captured attention to a greater extent than those with the distractor color, consistent with contingent capture. Effects of cTBS were not evident at the group level, but emerged instead from analyses of individual differences. Target capture magnitude was positively correlated pre- and post-stimulation for all three cortical sites, suggesting that cTBS did not influence target capture. Conversely, distractor capture was positively correlated pre- and post-stimulation of MT, but uncorrelated for IPS and TPJ, suggesting that stimulation of IPS and TPJ selectively disrupted distractor capture. Additionally, the effects of IPS stimulation were predicted by pre-stimulation attentional capture, whereas the effects of TPJ stimulation were predicted by pre-stimulation distractor suppression. The results are consistent with the existence of distinct neural

  12. Mirror Observation of Finger Action Enhances Activity in Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

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    Murayama, Takashi; Takasugi, Jun; Monma, Masahiko; Oga, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy can be used to promote recovery from paralysis in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, There are a lot of reports that mirror-image observation of the unilateral moving hand enhanced the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand in healthy subjects. but the neural mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are currently unclear. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in brain regions related to visual information processing during mirror image movement observation. Thirteen healthy subjects performed a finger-thumb opposition task with the left and right hands separately, with or without access to mirror observation. In the mirror condition, one hand was reflected in a mirror placed above the abdomen in the MRI scanner. In the masked mirror condition, subjects performed the same task but with the mirror obscured. In both conditions, the other hand was held at rest behind the mirror. A between-task comparison (mirror versus masked mirror) revealed significant activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) while performing all tasks, regardless of which hand was used. The right aIP was significantly activated while moving the right hand. In contrast, in the left aIP, a small number of voxels showed a tendency toward activation during both left and right hand movement. The enhancement of ipsilateral aIP activity by the mirror image observation of finger action suggests that bimodal aIP neurons can be activated by visual information. We propose that activation in the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand can be induced by information passing through the ventral premotor area from the aIP. PMID:25792898

  13. Mirror observation of finger action enhances activity in anterior intraparietal sulcus: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

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    Numata, Kenji; Murayama, Takashi; Takasugi, Jun; Monma, Masahiko; Oga, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy can be used to promote recovery from paralysis in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, There are a lot of reports that mirror-image observation of the unilateral moving hand enhanced the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand in healthy subjects. but the neural mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are currently unclear. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in brain regions related to visual information processing during mirror image movement observation. Thirteen healthy subjects performed a finger-thumb opposition task with the left and right hands separately, with or without access to mirror observation. In the mirror condition, one hand was reflected in a mirror placed above the abdomen in the MRI scanner. In the masked mirror condition, subjects performed the same task but with the mirror obscured. In both conditions, the other hand was held at rest behind the mirror. A between-task comparison (mirror versus masked mirror) revealed significant activation in the ipsilateral hemisphere in the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIP) while performing all tasks, regardless of which hand was used. The right aIP was significantly activated while moving the right hand. In contrast, in the left aIP, a small number of voxels showed a tendency toward activation during both left and right hand movement. The enhancement of ipsilateral aIP activity by the mirror image observation of finger action suggests that bimodal aIP neurons can be activated by visual information. We propose that activation in the M1 ipsilateral to the moving hand can be induced by information passing through the ventral premotor area from the aIP.

  14. [Human interaction, social cognition, and the superior temporal sulcus].

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    Brunelle, Francis; Saitovitch, Anna; Boddaert, Nathalie; Grevent, David; Cambier, Jean; Lelord, Gilbert; Samson, Yves; Zilbovicius, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Human beings are social animals. This ability to live together is ensured by cognitive functions, the neuroanatomical bases of which are starting to be unraveled by MRI-based studies. The regions and network engaged in this process are known as the "social brain ". The core of this network is the superior temporal sulcus (STS), which integrates sensory and emotional inputs. Modeling studies of healthy volunteers have shown the role of the STS.in recognizing others as biological beings, as well as facial and eye-gaze recognition, intentionality and emotions. This cognitive capacity has been described as the "theory of mind ". Pathological models such as autism, in which the main clinical abnormality is altered social abilities and communication, have confirmed the role of the STS in the social brain. Conceptualisation of this empathic capacity has been described as "meta cognition ", which forms the basis of human social organizationand culture.

  15. Morphological patterns of the collateral sulcus in the human brain.

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    Huntgeburth, Sonja C; Petrides, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The collateral sulcal complex is an important landmark on the medial surface of the temporal lobe. Anteriorly, it delineates the limbic regions of the parahippocampal gyrus from the visual-processing areas of the fusiform gyrus. Posteriorly, it continues into the occipital lobe, bearing no relationship to the memory-related limbic regions. Given the considerable extent of the sulcus and functional heterogeneity of the surrounding cortex, an investigation of the morphology of this sulcus was carried out to examine whether it is continuous or a series of sulcal parts, i.e. independent sulci classified together under the name collateral sulcus. We investigated the collateral sulcal complex using magnetic resonance images taking into account the three-dimensional nature of the brain. Our examination demonstrated three separate sulcal segments: (i) an anterior segment, the rhinal sulcus, delineating the uncus from the adjacent temporal neocortex, (ii) a middle segment, the collateral sulcus proper, forming the lateral border of the posterior parahippocampal cortex, and (iii) a caudal segment, the occipital extent of the collateral sulcus, within the occipital lobe. Three relationships exist between the rhinal sulcus and collateral sulcus proper, only one being clearly identifiable from the surface. Posteriorly, the collateral sulcus proper and the occipital collateral sulcus, although appearing continuous on the brain surface, can be separated in the depth of the sulcus in all cases. These results provide quantification of the location and variability within standard stereotaxic space for the three collateral sulcus segments that could be used to aid accurate identification of functional activation peaks derived from neuroimaging studies.

  16. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Cortical Sulcus Development in the Human Fetus between 18 and 41 Weeks of Gestation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheng-Li Li Guo-Yang LUO Errol R Norwitz Shu-Yuan Ouyang Hua-Xuan Wen Ying Yuan Xiao-Xian Tian Jia-Min He Xi Chen

    2017-01-01

    .... This study aimed to explore a reliable method to assess cortical sulcus and to describe the normal sonographic features of cortical sulcus development in the human fetus between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation. Methods...

  17. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

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    Toemme eNoesselt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic imaging (fMRI. Subjects judged the temporal relation of (asynchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (asynchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects’ perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the ‘auditory’ and ‘visual leading areas’ lie closer to ‘synchrony areas’ than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects’ perception of (asynchrony.

  18. Localization of the central sulcus and adjacent sulci in human. A study by MRI

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    Erbil, M.; Oenderoglu, S.; Yener, N.; Cumhur, M.; Cila, A. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-08-01

    Variations in localization of the central sulcus and the sulci around the central sulcus namely the superior frontal sulcus, precentral sulcus, postcentral sulcus, marginal ramus of cingulate sulcus were studied in vertex sections retrospectively by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method in 3580 cases. Out of total number of cases, 1000 who did not show any macroscopic intracranial pathology were carefully selected for research. Additionally, 0-1 age group was excluded from the study because the sulci develop in first year of postnatal life, excluding the possibility of considering these as anatomical variations. Thus, the total number of cases is decreased to 990. Sixteen variations related to localization of the superior frontal sulcus, precentral sulcus, central sulcus, postcentral sulcus and the marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus were identified. The asymmetries of the sulci, the most variable sulci and the distribution of the variations according to sex were statistically analysed. (author)

  19. New human-specific brain landmark: the depth asymmetry of superior temporal sulcus.

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    Leroy, François; Cai, Qing; Bogart, Stephanie L; Dubois, Jessica; Coulon, Olivier; Monzalvo, Karla; Fischer, Clara; Glasel, Hervé; Van der Haegen, Lise; Bénézit, Audrey; Lin, Ching-Po; Kennedy, David N; Ihara, Aya S; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Poupon, Cyril; Brysbaert, Marc; Roberts, Neil; Hopkins, William D; Mangin, Jean-François; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine

    2015-01-27

    Identifying potentially unique features of the human cerebral cortex is a first step to understanding how evolution has shaped the brain in our species. By analyzing MR images obtained from 177 humans and 73 chimpanzees, we observed a human-specific asymmetry in the superior temporal sulcus at the heart of the communication regions and which we have named the "superior temporal asymmetrical pit" (STAP). This 45-mm-long segment ventral to Heschl's gyrus is deeper in the right hemisphere than in the left in 95% of typical human subjects, from infanthood till adulthood, and is present, irrespective of handedness, language lateralization, and sex although it is greater in males than in females. The STAP also is seen in several groups of atypical subjects including persons with situs inversus, autistic spectrum disorder, Turner syndrome, and corpus callosum agenesis. It is explained in part by the larger number of sulcal interruptions in the left than in the right hemisphere. Its early presence in the infants of this study as well as in fetuses and premature infants suggests a strong genetic influence. Because this asymmetry is barely visible in chimpanzees, we recommend the STAP region during midgestation as an important phenotype to investigate asymmetrical variations of gene expression among the primate lineage. This genetic target may provide important insights regarding the evolution of the crucial cognitive abilities sustained by this sulcus in our species, namely communication and social cognition.

  20. Development and structure of the glandopreputial sulcus of the human clitoris with a special reference to glandopreputial glands.

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    van der Putte, Sebastian C J; Sie-Go, Daisy M D S

    2011-01-01

    The structure and development of the sulcus between the glans and prepuce of the human clitoris have hardly been investigated. Interest in its structure was raised when in the female, in contrast to the male, glands were found to develop from the solid lamella-like precursor of the glandopreputial sulcus. It prompted a further histological analysis of the sulcus in female fetuses and newborn and an extension of that study to clitorises of adult women. The investigation showed that in the clitoris, in contrast to the penis, the transformation of the glandopreputial lamella into the open sulcus was mostly incomplete and apparently remained so throughout life. As a most striking and probably exclusively female feature, two to eight eccrine glands developed from the base of the lamella in fetuses older than 14.5 weeks gestation. These glands formed secretory coils near and occasionally inside the adjacent distal corpora cavernosa. Some glands showed atresia, cystic dilatation, and squamous metaplasia. A remarkably similar picture was observed in the adult clitorises, in which the secretory coils were often found between the large blood vessels and nerves to the glans and were connected to the sulcus by long excretory ducts. All glands revealed unmistakably eccrine features. It is suggested that their secretion moistens the female glandopreputial sulcus, which is not lubricated by urethral secretion as in the male. The findings may explain the rare clitoral phimosis, cysts, and some pilonidal sinuses.

  1. Visual processing of optic flow and motor control in the human posterior cingulate sulcus.

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    Field, David T; Inman, Laura A; Li, Li

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the human posterior cingulate contains a visual processing area selective for optic flow (CSv). However, other studies performed in both humans and monkeys have identified a somatotopic motor region at the same location (CMA). Taken together, these findings suggested the possibility that the posterior cingulate contains a single visuomotor integration region. To test this idea we used fMRI to identify both visual and motor areas of the posterior cingulate in the same brains and to test the activity of those regions during a visuomotor task. Results indicated that rather than a single visuomotor region the posterior cingulate contains adjacent but separate motor and visual regions. CSv lies in the fundus of the cingulate sulcus, while CMA lies in the dorsal bank of the sulcus, slightly superior in terms of stereotaxic coordinates. A surprising and novel finding was that activity in CSv was suppressed during the visuomotor task, despite the visual stimulus being identical to that used to localize the region. This may provide an important clue to the specific role played by this region in the utilization of optic flow to control self-motion.

  2. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Cortical Sulcus Development in the Human Fetus between 18 and 41 Weeks of Gestation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Chen; Sheng-Li Li; Guo-Yang Luo; Errol R Norwitz; Shu-Yuan Ouyang; Hua-Xuan Wen; Ying Yuan; Xiao-Xian Tian; Jia-Min He

    2017-01-01

    Background:Fetal brain development is a complicated process that continues throughout pregnancy.Fetal sulcus development has typical morphological features.Assessment of fetal sulcus development to understand the cortical maturation and development by prenatal ultrasound has become widespread.This study aimed to explore a reliable method to assess cortical sulcus and to describe the normal sonographic features of cortical sulcus development in the human fetus between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation.Methods:A cross-sectional study was designed to examine the fetal cortical sulcus development at 18-41 weeks of gestation.Ultrasound was used to examine the insula,sylvian fissure (SF),parieto-occipital fissure (POF),and calcarine fissure (CF).Bland-Altman plots were used for assessing the concordance,and the intraclass correlation coefficient was used for assessing the reliability.Results:SF images were successfully obtained in 100% of participants at 22 weeks of gestation,while the POF images and CF images could be obtained in 100% at 23 weeks of gestation and 24 weeks of gestation,respectively.The SF width,temporal lobe depth,POF depth,and the CF depth increased with the developed gestation.The width of uncovered insula and the POF angle decreased with the developed gestation.By 23 weeks of gestation,the insula was beginning to be covered.Moreover,it completed at 35 weeks of gestation.The intra-and inter-observer agreements showed consistent reproducibility.Conclusions:This study defined standard views of the fetal sulcus as well as the normal reference ranges of these sulcus measurements between 18 and 41 weeks of gestation.Such ultrasonographic measurements could be used to identify fetuses at risk of fetal neurological structural disorders.

  3. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo;

    2015-01-01

    of the central sulcus following the bending of the central sulcus (CURVED). CURVED mapping employed a fixed (CURVED-450 FIX) or flexible coil orientation producing always a current perpendicular to the sulcal wall (CURVED-900 FLEX). During relaxation, CURVED but not STRAIGHT mapping revealed distinct......Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a “linear” TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape...... was lowest for CURVED-900 FLEX. Together, the results show that within-M1HAND somatotopy can be readily probed with linear TMS mapping aligned to the sulcal shape. Sulcus-aligned linear mapping will benefit non-invasive studies of representational plasticity in human M1HAND....

  4. Mouth and Voice: A Relationship between Visual and Auditory Preference in the Human Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin L; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2017-03-08

    Cortex in and around the human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is known to be critical for speech perception. The pSTS responds to both the visual modality (especially biological motion) and the auditory modality (especially human voices). Using fMRI in single subjects with no spatial smoothing, we show that visual and auditory selectivity are linked. Regions of the pSTS were identified that preferred visually presented moving mouths (presented in isolation or as part of a whole face) or moving eyes. Mouth-preferring regions responded strongly to voices and showed a significant preference for vocal compared with nonvocal sounds. In contrast, eye-preferring regions did not respond to either vocal or nonvocal sounds. The converse was also true: regions of the pSTS that showed a significant response to speech or preferred vocal to nonvocal sounds responded more strongly to visually presented mouths than eyes. These findings can be explained by environmental statistics. In natural environments, humans see visual mouth movements at the same time as they hear voices, while there is no auditory accompaniment to visual eye movements. The strength of a voxel's preference for visual mouth movements was strongly correlated with the magnitude of its auditory speech response and its preference for vocal sounds, suggesting that visual and auditory speech features are coded together in small populations of neurons within the pSTS.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Humans interacting face to face make use of auditory cues from the talker's voice and visual cues from the talker's mouth to understand speech. The human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), a brain region known to be important for speech perception, is complex, with some regions responding to specific visual stimuli and others to specific auditory stimuli. Using BOLD fMRI, we show that the natural statistics of human speech, in which voices co-occur with mouth movements, are reflected in the neural architecture of

  5. Bringing transcranial mapping into shape: Sulcus-aligned mapping captures motor somatotopy in human primary motor hand area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffin, Estelle; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2015-10-15

    Motor representations express some degree of somatotopy in human primary motor hand area (M1HAND), but within-M1HAND corticomotor somatotopy has been difficult to study with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Here we introduce a "linear" TMS mapping approach based on the individual shape of the central sulcus to obtain mediolateral corticomotor excitability profiles of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and first dorsal interosseus (FDI) muscles. In thirteen young volunteers, we used stereotactic neuronavigation to stimulate the right M1HAND with a small eight-shaped coil at 120% of FDI resting motor threshold. We pseudorandomly stimulated six targets located on a straight mediolateral line corresponding to the overall orientation of the central sulcus with a fixed coil orientation of 45° to the mid-sagittal line (STRAIGHT-450FIX) or seven targets in the posterior part of the crown of the central sulcus following the bending of the central sulcus (CURVED). CURVED mapping employed a fixed (CURVED-450FIX) or flexible coil orientation producing always a current perpendicular to the sulcal wall (CURVED-900FLEX). During relaxation, CURVED but not STRAIGHT mapping revealed distinct corticomotor excitability peaks in M1HAND with the excitability maximum of ADM located medially to the FDI maximum. This mediolateral somatotopy was still present during tonic contraction of the ADM or FDI. During ADM contraction, cross-correlation between the spatial excitability profiles of ADM and FDI was lowest for CURVED-900FLEX. Together, the results show that within-M1HAND somatotopy can be readily probed with linear TMS mapping aligned to the sulcal shape. Sulcus-aligned linear mapping will benefit non-invasive studies of representational plasticity in human M1HAND.

  6. The mid-fusiform sulcus: a landmark identifying both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of human ventral temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Kevin S; Golarai, Golijeh; Caspers, Julian; Chuapoco, Miguel R; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin; Grill-Spector, Kalanit

    2014-01-01

    Human ventral temporal cortex (VTC) plays a pivotal role in high-level vision. An under-studied macroanatomical feature of VTC is the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS), a shallow longitudinal sulcus separating the lateral and medial fusiform gyrus (FG). Here, we quantified the morphological features of the MFS in 69 subjects (ages 7-40), and investigated its relationship to both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of VTC with four main findings. First, despite being a minor sulcus, we found that the MFS is a stable macroanatomical structure present in all 138 hemispheres with morphological characteristics developed by age 7. Second, the MFS is the locus of a lateral-medial cytoarchitectonic transition within the posterior FG serving as the boundary between cytoarchitectonic regions FG1 and FG2. Third, the MFS predicts a lateral-medial functional transition in eccentricity bias representations in children, adolescents, and adults. Fourth, the anterior tip of the MFS predicts the location of a face-selective region, mFus-faces/FFA-2. These findings are the first to illustrate that a macroanatomical landmark identifies both cytoarchitectonic and functional divisions of high-level sensory cortex in humans and have important implications for understanding functional and structural organization in the human brain.

  7. Role of the human retrosplenial cortex/parieto-occipital sulcus in perspective priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Valentina; Committeri, Giorgia; Lambrey, Simon; Berthoz, Alain; Galati, Gaspare

    2016-01-15

    The ability to imagine the world from a different viewpoint is a fundamental competence for spatial reorientation and for imagining what another individual sees in the environment. Here, we investigated the neural bases of such an ability using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy participants detected target displacements across consecutive views of a familiar virtual room, either from the perspective of an avatar (primed condition) or in the absence of such a prime (unprimed condition). In the primed condition, the perspective at test always corresponded to the avatar's perspective, while in the unprimed condition it was randomly chosen as 0, 45 or 135deg of viewpoint rotation. We observed a behavioral advantage in performing a perspective transformation during the primed condition as compared to an equivalent amount of unprimed perspective change. Although many cortical regions (dorsal parietal, parieto-temporo-occipital junction, precuneus and retrosplenial cortex/parieto-occipital sulcus or RSC/POS) were involved in encoding and retrieving target location from different perspectives and were modulated by the amount of viewpoint rotation, the RSC/POS was the only area showing decreased activity in the primed as compared to the unprimed condition, suggesting that this region anticipates the upcoming perspective change. The retrosplenial cortex/parieto-occipital sulcus appears to play a special role in the allocentric coding of heading directions.

  8. Paracingulate Sulcus Asymmetry in the Human Brain: Effects of Sex, Handedness, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuehu; Yin, Yan; Rong, Menglin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Lijie; Wu, Yan; Cai, Qing; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is thought to play a key role in cognitive and affective regulation, has been widely reported to have a high degree of morphological inter-individual variability and asymmetry. An obvious difference is in the morphology of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS). Three types of PCS have been identified: prominent, present, and absent. In this study, we examined the relationship between PCS asymmetry and whether the asymmetry of the PCS is affected by sex, handedness, or race. PCS measurements were obtained from four datasets. The statistical results revealed that the PCS was more often prominent and present in the left hemisphere than in the right. The percentage of right-handed males with a prominent PCS was greater than that of right-handed females, but the percentage of left-handed males with a prominent PCS was lower than that of left-handed females. In addition, both male and female and both left-handed and right-handed subjects showed a leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Furthermore there were no significant racial differences in the leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Our findings about the morphological characteristics of the PCS may facilitate future clinical and cognitive studies of this area. PMID:28195205

  9. Paracingulate Sulcus Asymmetry in the Human Brain: Effects of Sex, Handedness, and Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xuehu; Yin, Yan; Rong, Menglin; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wang, Lijie; Wu, Yan; Cai, Qing; Yu, Chunshui; Wang, Jiaojian; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-02-14

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is thought to play a key role in cognitive and affective regulation, has been widely reported to have a high degree of morphological inter-individual variability and asymmetry. An obvious difference is in the morphology of the paracingulate sulcus (PCS). Three types of PCS have been identified: prominent, present, and absent. In this study, we examined the relationship between PCS asymmetry and whether the asymmetry of the PCS is affected by sex, handedness, or race. PCS measurements were obtained from four datasets. The statistical results revealed that the PCS was more often prominent and present in the left hemisphere than in the right. The percentage of right-handed males with a prominent PCS was greater than that of right-handed females, but the percentage of left-handed males with a prominent PCS was lower than that of left-handed females. In addition, both male and female and both left-handed and right-handed subjects showed a leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Furthermore there were no significant racial differences in the leftward asymmetry of the PCS. Our findings about the morphological characteristics of the PCS may facilitate future clinical and cognitive studies of this area.

  10. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging - the first description of a divided central sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Renate; Helms, Gunther; Frahm, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation - bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the post-central sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the post-central sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented post-central sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus.

  11. Revisiting a historic human brain with magnetic resonance imaging – the first description of a divided central sulcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Renate; Helms, Gunther; Frahm, Jens

    2014-01-01

    In 1860 and 1862, the German physiologist Wagner published two studies, in which he compared the cortical surfaces of brain specimens. This provided the first account of a rare anatomical variation – bridges across the central sulci in both hemispheres connecting the forward and backward facing central convolutions in one of the brains. The serendipitous rediscovery of the preserved historic brain specimen in the collections at Göttingen University, being mistaken as the brain of the mathematician C.F. Gauss, allowed us to further investigate the morphology of the bridges Wagner had described with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On the historic lithograph, current photographs and MRI surface reconstructions of the brain, a connection across the central sulcus can only be seen in the left hemisphere. In the right hemisphere, contrary to the description of Wagner, a connecting structure is only present across the post-central sulcus. MRI reveals that the left-hemispheric bridge extends into the depth of the sulcus, forming a transverse connection between the two opposing gyri. This rare anatomical variation, generally not associated with neurological symptoms, would nowadays be categorized as a divided central sulcus. The left-hemispheric connection seen across the post-central sulcus, represents the very common case of a segmented post-central sulcus. MRI further disclosed a connection across the right-hemispheric central sulcus, which terminates just below the surface of the brain and is therefore not depicted on the historical lithography. This explains the apparent inconsistency between the bilateral description of bridges across the central sulci and the unilateral appearance on the brain surface. The results are discussed based on the detailed knowledge of anatomists of the late 19th century, who already recognized the divided central sulcus as an extreme variation of a deep convolution within the central sulcus. PMID:24904304

  12. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starke Marc

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural mechanisms underlying developmental dyscalculia are scarce and results are thus far inconclusive. Main aim of the present study is to investigate the neural correlates of nonsymbolic number magnitude processing in children with and without dyscalculia. Methods 18 children (9 with dyscalculia were asked to solve a non-symbolic number magnitude comparison task (finger patterns during brain scanning. For the spatial control task identical stimuli were employed, instructions varying only (judgment of palm rotation. This design enabled us to present identical stimuli with identical visual processing requirements in the experimental and the control task. Moreover, because numerical and spatial processing relies on parietal brain regions, task-specific contrasts are expected to reveal true number-specific activations. Results Behavioral results during scanning reveal that despite comparable (almost at ceiling performance levels, task-specific activations were stronger in dyscalculic children in inferior parietal cortices bilaterally (intraparietal sulcus, supramarginal gyrus, extending to left angular gyrus. Interestingly, fMRI signal strengths reflected a group × task interaction: relative to baseline, controls produced significant deactivations in (intraparietal regions bilaterally in response to number but not spatial processing, while the opposite pattern emerged in dyscalculics. Moreover, beta weights in response to number processing differed significantly between groups in left – but not right – (intraparietal regions (becoming even positive in dyscalculic children. Conclusion Overall, findings are suggestive of (a less consistent neural activity in right (intraparietal regions upon processing nonsymbolic number magnitudes; and (b compensatory neural activity in left (intraparietal regions in developmental dyscalculia.

  13. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Jung, Su-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket suffer from cosmetic problems. To resolve those problems, the authors present the surgical outcomes of deep superior sulcus (DSS) augmentation using acellular dermal matrix in patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket. The authors retrospectively reviewed anophthalmic or phthisis patients who underwent surgery for DSS augmentation using acellular dermal matrix. To evaluate surgical outcomes, the authors focused on 3 aspects: the possibility of wearing contact prosthesis, the degree of correction of the DSS, and any surgical complications. The degree of correction of DSS was classified as excellent: restoration of superior sulcus enough to remove sunken sulcus shadow; fair: gain of correction effect but sunken shadow remained; or fail: no effect of correction at all. Ten eyes of 10 patients were included. There was a mean 21.3 ± 37.1-month period from evisceration or enucleation to the operation for DSS augmentation. All patients could wear contact prosthesis after the operation (100%). The degree of correction was excellent in 8 patients (80%) and fair in 2. Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal. Uneven skin surface and paresthesia in the forehead area of the affected eye may be observed after surgery. The overall surgical outcomes were favorable, showing an excellent degree of correction of DSS and low surgical complication rates. This procedure is effective for patients who have DSS in the absence or atrophy of the eyeball.

  14. Superior intraparietal sulcus controls the variability of visual working memory precision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galeano Weber, E.M.; Peters, B.; Hahn, T.; Bledowski, C.; Fiebach, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Limitations of working memory (WM) capacity depend strongly on the cognitive resources that are available for maintaining WM contents in an activated state. Increasing the number of items to be maintained in WM was shown to reduce the precision of WM and to increase the variability of WM precision o

  15. Developmental Specialization in the Right Intraparietal Sulcus for the Abstract Representation of Numerical Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian D.; Ansari, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Because number is an abstract quality of a set, the way in which a number is externally represented does not change its quantitative meaning. In this study, we examined the development of the brain regions that support format-independent representation of numerical magnitude. We asked children and adults to perform both symbolic (Hindu-Arabic…

  16. Eye can see what you want: Posterior Intraparietal Sulcus encodes the object of an actor's gaze

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsey, R.; Cross, E.S.; Hamilton, A.F.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    In a social setting, seeing Sally look at a clock means something different to seeing her gaze longingly at a slice of chocolate cake. In both cases, her eyes and face might be turned rightward, but the information conveyed is markedly different, depending on the object of her gaze. Numerous studies

  17. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerle Neyens

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity, where the effect is situated compared to regions that have been previously implicated in visuospatial attention, and how it compares to effects of object identity and location. Forty-six subjects participated. Subjects passively viewed pictures from two categories, musical instruments and vehicles. Semantic similarity between entities was estimated based on a concept-feature matrix obtained in more than 1,000 subjects. Visuoperceptual similarity was modeled based on the HMAX model, the AlexNet deep convolutional learning model, and thirdly, based on subjective visuoperceptual similarity ratings. Among the IPS regions examined, only left middle IPS showed a semantic similarity effect. The effect was significant in hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3. Visuoperceptual similarity did not correlate with similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS. The semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS was significantly stronger than in the right middle IPS and also stronger than in the left or right posterior IPS. The semantic similarity effect was similar to that seen in the angular gyrus. Object identity effects were much more widespread across nearly all parietal areas examined. Location effects were relatively specific for posterior IPS and area 7 bilaterally. To conclude, the current findings replicate the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS under passive viewing conditions, and demonstrate its anatomical specificity within a cytoarchitectonic reference frame. We propose that the semantic similarity effect in left middle IPS reflects the transient uploading of semantic representations in working memory.

  18. Representation of Semantic Similarity in the Left Intraparietal Sulcus : Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyens, Veerle; Bruffaerts, Rose; Liuzzi, Antonietta Gabriella; Kalfas, Ioannis; Peeters, Ronald; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Vogels, Rufin; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2017-01-01

    According to a recent study, semantic similarity between concrete entities correlates with the similarity of activity patterns in left middle IPS during category naming. We examined the replicability of this effect under passive viewing conditions, the potential role of visuoperceptual similarity,

  19. Unfolding the Sulcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlfeld, Evan; Mahadevan, L.

    2011-03-01

    Sulci are localized furrows on the surface of soft materials that form by a compression-induced instability. We unfold this instability by breaking its natural scale and translation invariance, and compute a limiting bifurcation diagram for sulcfication showing that it is a scale-free, subcritical nonlinear instability. In contrast with classical nucleation, sulcification is continuous, occurs in purely elastic continua and is structurally stable in the limit of vanishing surface energy. During loading, a sulcus nucleates at a point with an upper critical strain and an essential singularity in the linearized spectrum. On unloading, it quasistatically shrinks to a point with a lower critical strain, explained by breaking of scale symmetry. At intermediate strains the system is linearly stable but nonlinearly unstable with no energy barrier. Simple experiments confirm the existence of these two critical strains.

  20. Development of a superior frontal-intraparietal network for visuo-spatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingberg, Torkel

    2006-01-01

    Working memory capacity increases throughout childhood and adolescence, which is important for the development of a wide range of cognitive abilities, including complex reasoning. The spatial-span task, in which subjects retain information about the order and position of a number of objects, is a sensitive task to measure development of spatial working memory. This review considers results from previous neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of this development. Older children and adolescents, with higher capacity, have been found to have higher brain activity in the intraparietal cortex and in the posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus, during the performance of working memory tasks. The structural maturation of white matter has been investigated by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). This has revealed several regions in the frontal lobes in which white matter maturation is correlated with the development of working memory. Among these is a superior fronto-parietal white matter region, located close to the grey matter regions that are implicated in the development of working memory. Furthermore, the degree of white matter maturation is positively correlated with the degree of cortical activation in the frontal and parietal regions. This suggests that during childhood and adolescence, there is development of networks related to specific cognitive functions, such as visuo-spatial working memory. These networks not only consist of cortical areas but also the white matter tracts connecting them. For visuo-spatial working memory, this network could consist of the superior frontal and intraparietal cortex.

  1. The postcentral sulcal complex and the transverse postcentral sulcus and their relation to sensorimotor functional organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatkina, Veronika; Amiez, Céline; Petrides, Michael

    2016-05-01

    It has been demonstrated that the postcentral sulcus, which forms the posterior boundary of the sensorimotor region, is a complex of distinct sulcal segments. Although the general somatotopic arrangement in the human sensorimotor cortex is relatively well known, we do not know whether the different segments of the postcentral sulcus relate in a systematic way to the sensorimotor functional representations. Participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while they made movements of different body parts and the location of functional activity was examined on a subject-by-subject basis with respect to the morphological features of the postcentral sulcus. The findings demonstrate that the postcentral sulcus of each subject may be divided into five segments and there is a tight relationship between sensorimotor representations of different body parts and specific segments of the postcentral sulcus. The results also addressed the issue of the transverse postcentral sulcus, a short sulcus that is present within the ventral part of the postcentral gyrus in some brains. It was shown that, when present, this sulcus is functionally related to the oral (mouth and tongue) sensorimotor representation. When this sulcus is not present, the inferior postcentral sulcus which is also related to the oral representation is longer. Thus, the sulcal morphology provides an improved framework for functional assignments in individual subjects.

  2. Biological Motion Task Performance Predicts Superior Temporal Sulcus Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, John D.; Nymberg, Charlotte; Schultz, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies implicate superior temporal sulcus (STS) in the perception of human movement. More recent theories hold that STS is also involved in the "understanding" of human movement. However, almost no studies to date have associated STS function with observable variability in action understanding. The present study directly associated STS…

  3. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marulli, Giuseppe; Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-06-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner's syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach.

  4. Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eArtemenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuro-imaging research identified the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS to be a key area associated with number processing. However, causal structure-function relationships are hard to evaluate from neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Nevertheless, brain stimulation methods like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS allow for investigating the functional relevance of the IPS for number processing. Following up on a study using bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over the IPS, the current study aimed at evaluating the differential lateralized functional contributions of the left and right IPS to number processing using unilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over either the left or right IPS. Results indicated a right lateralization for the processing of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Importantly, the processing of number magnitude information was not affected by unilateral IPS corroborating the assumption that number magnitude is processed in the bilateral IPS. Taken together, these data suggest that even though number magnitude is represented bilaterally, the left and right IPS seem to contribute differentially to numerical cognition with respect to the processing of specific other aspects of numerical information.

  5. The femoral sulcus in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingaraj, Krishna; Bartlett, John

    2009-05-01

    The position of the femoral sulcus relative to the midline of the distal femoral resection in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) was studied to determine if centralized placement of the femoral component on the distal femur was justified in terms of aligning the prosthetic sulcus with the native femoral sulcus. The location of the femoral sulcus was studied in 112 consecutive patients undergoing TKA. The mean sulcus position was 0.7 mm lateral to the midline of the distal femoral resection (SD 1.4, 95% CI, 0.5-1.0 mm). However, the variation in sulcus positions ranged from 4 mm medial to 4 mm lateral to the midline. The mean sulcus position in valgus knees was 1.0 mm lateral to the midline (SD 1.8), and that in varus knees was 0.7 mm lateral to the midline (SD 1.2) (P = 0.501). It appears prudent to centre the femoral component on the native sulcus rather than the midline of the distal femoral resection, so as to ensure accurate alignment of the prosthetic sulcus with the native sulcus and to encourage normal patella tracking.

  6. Mirror Observation of Finger Action Enhances Activity in Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Numata, Kenji; Murayama, Takashi; Takasugi, Jun; Monma, Masahiko; Oga, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy can be used to promote recovery from paralysis in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, There are a lot of reports that mirror-image observation of the unilateral moving hand enhanced the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand in healthy subjects. but the neural mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are currently unclear. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in brain regions rela...

  7. Radiology of the paraglenoid sulcus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemmer, D. [McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada); White, P.G. [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Friedman, L. [Dept. of Radiology, McMaster Univ. Medical Centre, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The paraglenoid sulcus is a variable groove in the ilium adjacent to the inferior end of the sacroiliac joint. This study investigates the hypothesis that the groove is due to resorption at the insertion of the anterior sacroiliac ligament in response to stress. The anatomical relationships of the groove are shown with plain films, arteriography and computed tomography. Relationship to parity was tested in 70 adult female subjects; a statistically significant relationship was found, with deep grooves occurring only in parous women. An association with osteitis condensans ilii was also demonstrated. Relationship to lumbosacral posture was tested in 102 adult females, and an association with increased lumbar lordosis was found. These findings are consistent with our initial hypothesis. (orig.)

  8. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language...

  9. Overlapping activity periods in early visual cortex and posterior intraparietal area in conscious visual shape perception: a TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, Mika; Lähteenmäki, Mikko; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Parkkola, Riitta; Railo, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Parietal cortex is often activated in brain imaging studies on conscious visual processing, but its causal role and timing in conscious and nonconscious perception are poorly understood. We studied the role of posterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and early visual areas (V1/V2) in conscious and nonconscious vision by interfering with their functioning with MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The observers made binary forced-choice decisions concerning the shape or color of the metacontrast masked targets and rated the quality of their conscious perception. TMS was applied 30, 60, 90, or 120ms after stimulus-onset. In the shape discrimination task, TMS of V1/V2 impaired conscious perception at 60, 90, and 120ms and nonconscious perception at 90ms. TMS of IPS impaired only conscious shape perception, also around 90ms. Conscious color perception was facilitated or suppressed depending on the strength of the TMS-induced electric field in V1/V2 at 90ms. The results suggest that simultaneous activity in V1/V2 and IPS around 90ms is necessary for visual awareness of shape but not for nonconscious perception. The overlapping activity periods of IPS and V1/V2 may reflect recurrent interaction between parietal cortex and V1 in conscious shape perception.

  10. Ectopic folliculosebaceous units at the coronal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel

    2014-12-01

    Tyson glands were described in the 17th century as modified sebaceous glands of the coronal sulcus of the penis. However, this description and other early texts supporting the existence of Tyson glands were not accompanied by illustrations. The existence of such glands has been passing through the literature without adequate graphical demonstration, which has contributed to controversial debates. Herein we present a case of a partial penectomy performed on a 65-year-old man with a squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. In this case we identified sebaceous glands as well as folliculosebaceous units in the coronal sulcus. We also comparatively examined 12 cases of partial penectomy to search for sebaceous glands or folliculosebaceous units in the coronal sulcus or the preputium. We found neither sebaceous glands nor folliculosebaceous units at the coronal sulcus or the mucosal aspect of the prepuce. We conclude that: (1) folliculosebaceous units are possible in the coronal sulcus, as the current case illustrates for the first time in literature and (2) the current case is an oddity, probably induced by the accompanying squamous cell carcinoma, and therefore it may represent an ectopic folliculosebaceous unit rather than an anatomic variation.

  11. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Rodrigues, Mariana; Paz, Daniel; Costa, Marcos Devanir; Santos, Bruno; Braga, Vinicius; Paiva Neto, Manoel de; Centeno, Ricardo; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2015-11-01

    The central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  12. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  13. The human dorsal stream adapts to real actions and 3D shape processing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Króliczak, G; McAdam, T D; Quinlan, D J; Culham, J C

    2008-11-01

    We tested whether the control of real actions in an ever-changing environment would show any dependence on prior actions elicited by instructional cues a few seconds before. To this end, adaptation of the functional magnetic resonance imaging signal was measured while human participants sequentially grasped three-dimensional objects in an event-related design, using grasps oriented along the same or a different axis of either the same or a different object shape. We found that the bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, an area previously linked to the control of visually guided grasping, along with other areas of the intraparietal sulcus, the left supramarginal gyrus, and the right mid superior parietal lobe showed clear adaptation following both repeated grasps and repeated objects. In contrast, the left ventral premotor cortex and the bilateral dorsal premotor cortex, the two premotor areas often linked to response selection, action planning, and execution, showed only grasp-selective adaptation. These results suggest that, even in real action guidance, parietofrontal areas demonstrate differential involvement in visuomotor processing dependent on whether the action or the object has been previously experienced.

  14. A safe method of ciliary sulcus fixation of foldable intraocular lens using a ciliary sulcus guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ertuğrul; Gül, Adem; Birinci, Hakkı

    2016-08-01

    To describe a novel technique for implantation of intraocular lens in the absence of capsular support using a ciliary sulcus guide. Based on the anatomic knowledge of the ciliary sulcus and the sclera, a new instrument was developed to pierce the needle safely through the ciliary sulcus and sclera. While the foldable lens is stored inside the cartridge, the leading haptic is sutured with a cow-hitch knot. The needle is then inserted into the ciliary sulcus guide. The tip of the guide is inserted from the corneal incision and proceeded under the iris to touch and fit the ciliary sulcus. The needle is pushed from back side. The needle comes out at precise point at the sclera. Implantation of the lens was performed through a 2.8 mm clear cornea incision using the injector. The trailing haptic is tied after implantation, and then the same procedure is performed at the opposite side. We performed this technique to 15 aphakic eyes without sufficient capsular support. There was no bleeding or other intraoperative complication. All the points coming out the sclera were between 2 and 2.5 mm from the limbus. The ab interno technique for scleral fixation of IOL is quicker, easier and less traumatic then ab externo techniques. A new ciliary sulcus guide which is usable with both straight and curved needles eliminates the blind maneuvers of ab interno technique and makes this technique more safe and precise.

  15. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygin, Ayse Pinar; Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the 'uncanny valley' phenomenon.

  16. Decoding target distance and saccade amplitude from population activity in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Bremmer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades towards moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP. Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction towards either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a, b. Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  17. The management of superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, J.D.; Putnam, J.B. Jr [Texas Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Anderson Cancer Center] (and others)

    2001-09-01

    Superior sulcus tumors are a rare type of lung cancer arising in the apex of the lung above the sulcus and cause specific symptoms and signs depending on the location and whether the tumor extends into the surrounding structures. Because of the closeness of critical structures to the tumor (e.g., the subclavian artery for anterior lesions, the brachial plexus for lesions in the middle location, and the sympathetic stellate ganglion causing Horner's syndrome [Pancoast's tumor], the vertebral bodies, nerve foramen, and spinal cord for posterior lesions), superior sulcus tumors were often considered marginally respectable or unresectable. Therefore, for many years, preoperative radiation therapy was considered routine treatment for those tumors. However, with the evolution in our understanding of these tumors and modern imaging techniques such as computerized tomography (CT) and magnetic resonant imaging (MRI) and surgical techniques, there is now considerable debate about the roles and timing of surgical resection, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with these tumors. If mediastinoscopy reveals microscopic mediastinal lymph node involvement, the patient can be treated with preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery. If there was a gross mediastinal lymph node involvement (N2) on CT, N3 or T4 lesions, the patient can be treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy with a curative intent; the outcome of such treatment appears to be better than that of sequential chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy. Whenever possible, without compromising the patient's quality of life, surgery should be considered to improve outcome. (author)

  18. Radiation treatment of superior sulcus lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, J.; Ball, D.; Worotniuk, V.; Smith, J.; Crennan, E.; Bishop, M. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Inst., East Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    The survival of patients with superior sulcus lung carcinoma and the effects of treatment were reviewed. From a prospective database of 4123 consecutive new patients with lung carcinoma, 131 (3.2%) cases of superior sulcus lung carcinoma were identified. Seventy-four patients were planned to receive radiation with palliative intent, 53 radical radiotherapy and one was observed only. The remaining three patients, with small-cell carcinoma, were treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Of the 53 radically treated patients, nine were treated with pre-operative radiation prior to intended radical resection. Analysis was carried out on the effect on survival of performance status, nodal involvement, weight loss, vertebral body or rib involvement, treatment intent and radical combined modality treatment compared with radical radiation alone. The estimated median survival for the whole group was 7.6 months; for those treated radically it was 18.3 months, while for the palliatively treated patients it was 3.7 months. Radically treated patients with no initial nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 22 months, while radically treated patients with nodal involvement had an estimated median survival of 8.4 months (P = 0.003). There were no statistically significant differences in survival between radically treated patients grouped according to initial weight loss, performance status, or vertebral body and rib involvement. Patients treated with pre-operative radiation did not survive significantly longer than patients treated with radiation alone, although the numbers are small. 33 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. Anatomy and Surgical Relevance of Rouviere's Sulcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morjane, Abdelwaheb

    2013-01-01

    Rouviere's sulcus (RS) (i.e., incisura hepatis dextra, Gans incisura) represents an important anatomical landmark. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of the RS, its description, its location, its relations to the right portal pedicle and to the plane of the common bile duct, and the evaluation of the surgical relevance of the obtained data. Forty macroscopically healthy and undamaged livers were removed during autopsies from cadavers of both sexes. The RS was present in 82% of the cases and in these the open RS was identified in 70% of the livers. The fused type was observed in 12% of the cases; 18% of the livers had no sulcus. The mean length of the open type RS was 28 ± 2 mm (range 24–32 mm) and its mean depth was 6 ± 2 mm (range 4–8 mm). The right posterior sectional pedicle was found in the RS in 70% of the cases. In 5% of the livers, we also dissected a branch of the anterior sectional pedicle. Inside 25% of the RS, we found the vein of segment 6. The RS identification may avoid bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and enables elective vascular control during the right liver resection. PMID:24319350

  20. Sulcus vocalis: a rational analytical approach to diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C N; Inagi, K; Khidr, A; Bless, D M; Gilchrist, K W

    1996-03-01

    The term sulcus vocalis has been applied to a spectrum of disorders ranging from minor vocal fold indentations to destructive lesions causing severe dysphonia. To clarify the pathophysiology and to develop a more rational approach to treatment, we report a series of sulcus patients including 20 surgical cases. Clinical and histopathologic analysis produced a clinically useful classification: type 1 is a physiologic variant accentuated by atrophy but with intact lamina propria; types 2 (sulcus vergeture) and 3 (sulcus vocalis) are characterized by severe dysphonia, loss of vibratory activity, and destruction of the functional superficial lamina propria. These latter cases respond favorably to microsurgery designed to remove destroyed tissue, release scar contracture, and promote mucosal redraping by regional undermining. Further study of the extracellular matrix of the superficial lamina propria (Reinke's space) might indicate a common pathway in the pathogenesis of sulcus deformities and other related benign vocal fold lesions.

  1. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sebastian J; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2015-01-01

    The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand) has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013), and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP). To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP) in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively). Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach) information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  2. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Lehmann

    Full Text Available The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013, and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP. To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively. Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  3. Sulcus Fixation of Foldable Intraocular Lenses Guided by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shasha; Qin, Tingyu; Wang, Shengnan; Lu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of suture fixation of foldable intraocular lens (IOL) in ciliary sulcus guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods. Thirty-five eyes of 32 cases needing suture fixation of foldable IOL in ciliary sulcus in our hospital were collected and divided into two groups: group A and group B. In group A, UBM was performed on 19 eyes of 17 cases before surgery to locate the projection position of ciliary sulcus in iris surface. In group B, the traditional sulcus fixation of IOL was performed on 16 eyes of 15 cases. The inserting position of needles, the haptics position of IOL and the IOL tilt, and decentration were observed by UBM examination 3 months after the surgery. Meanwhile, the vision and contrast sensitivity were analysed. Results. The differences in inserting position of the needle, the IOL tilt and decentration, the ratio of IOL haptics in sulcus, and uncorrected visual acuity were statistically significant (P 0.05). Conclusions. Sulcus fixation of foldable IOL aided by UBM can increase the accuracy of IOL haptics implanted into ciliary sulcus and reduce the IOL tilt and decentration.

  4. Sulcus Fixation of Foldable Intraocular Lenses Guided by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasha Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the clinical efficacy of suture fixation of foldable intraocular lens (IOL in ciliary sulcus guided by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Methods. Thirty-five eyes of 32 cases needing suture fixation of foldable IOL in ciliary sulcus in our hospital were collected and divided into two groups: group A and group B. In group A, UBM was performed on 19 eyes of 17 cases before surgery to locate the projection position of ciliary sulcus in iris surface. In group B, the traditional sulcus fixation of IOL was performed on 16 eyes of 15 cases. The inserting position of needles, the haptics position of IOL and the IOL tilt, and decentration were observed by UBM examination 3 months after the surgery. Meanwhile, the vision and contrast sensitivity were analysed. Results. The differences in inserting position of the needle, the IOL tilt and decentration, the ratio of IOL haptics in sulcus, and uncorrected visual acuity were statistically significant (P0.05. Conclusions. Sulcus fixation of foldable IOL aided by UBM can increase the accuracy of IOL haptics implanted into ciliary sulcus and reduce the IOL tilt and decentration.

  5. Evolution of the Central Sulcus Morphology in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Meguerditchian, Adrien; Coulon, Olivier; Bogart, Stephanie; Mangin, Jean- François; Sherwood, Chet C.; Grabowski, Mark W.; Bennett, Allyson J.; Pierre, Peter J.; Fears, Scott; Woods, Roger; Hof, Patrick R.; Vauclair, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The central sulcus (CS) divides the pre- and post-central gyri along the dorsal-ventral plane of which all motor and sensory functions are topographically organized. The motor-hand area of the precentral gyrus or knob has been described as the anatomical substrate of the hand in humans. Given the importance of the hand in primate evolution, here we examined the evolution of the motor-hand area by comparing the relative size and pattern of cortical folding of the CS surface area from magnetic resonance images in 131 primates including Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. We found that humans and great apes have a well-formed motor-hand area that can be seen in the variation in depth of the CS along the dorsal-ventral plane. We further found that great apes have relatively large CS surface areas compared to Old World monkeys. However, relative to great apes, humans have a small motor-hand area in terms of both adjusted and absolute surface areas. PMID:25139259

  6. Sexual dimorphism in auricular surface projection and postauricular sulcus morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wescott, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    The presence of an elevated auricular surface and a postauricular sulcus is presented in numerous reference books as osteological indicators of sex, but the validity of these traits has not been adequately evaluated. The ilia of 322 (181 male, 141 female) adults were examined, the auricular surface was scored as completely, partially, or nonelevated, and the postauricular sulcus was scored as present or absent. Complete elevation occurred almost exclusively in females (67% of females and 0.6% of males). The postauricular sulcus was present in 27% of males and 85% of females. When present, an elevated auricular surface is a reliable indicator that the individual is female. However, the absence of the trait is a less reliable indicator of sex. The postauricular sulcus is a moderately accurate estimator of sex.

  7. Surround suppression sharpens the priority map in the lateral intraparietal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkner, Annegret L; Krishna, B Suresh; Goldberg, Michael E

    2010-09-22

    In the visual world, stimuli compete with each other for allocation of the brain's limited processing resources. Computational models routinely invoke wide-ranging mutually suppressive interactions in spatial priority maps to implement active competition for attentional and saccadic allocation, but such suppressive interactions have not been physiologically described, and their existence is controversial. Much evidence implicates the lateral intraparietal area as a candidate priority map in the macaque (Macaca mulatta). Here, we demonstrate that the responses of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) to a task-irrelevant distractor are strongly suppressed when the monkey plans saccades to locations outside their receptive fields. Suppression can be evoked both by flashed visual stimuli and by a memorized saccade plan. The suppressive surrounds of LIP neurons are spatially tuned and wide ranging. Increasing the monkey's motivation enhances target-distractor discriminability by enhancing both distractor suppression and the saccade goal representation; these changes are accompanied by correlated improvements in behavioral performance.

  8. Decision and action planning signals in human posterior parietal cortex during delayed perceptual choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosoni, Annalisa; Corbetta, Maurizio; Calluso, Cinzia; Committeri, Giorgia; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Romani, G L; Galati, Gaspare

    2014-04-01

    During simple perceptual decisions, sensorimotor neurons in monkey fronto-parietal cortex represent a decision variable that guides the transformation of sensory evidence into a motor response, supporting the view that mechanisms for decision-making are closely embedded within sensorimotor structures. Within these structures, however, decision signals can be dissociated from motor signals, thus indicating that sensorimotor neurons can play multiple and independent roles in decision-making and action selection/planning. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether response-selective human brain areas encode signals for decision-making or action planning during a task requiring an arbitrary association between face pictures (male vs. female) and specific actions (saccadic eye vs. hand pointing movements). The stimuli were gradually unmasked to stretch the time necessary for decision, thus maximising the temporal separation between decision and action planning. Decision-related signals were measured in parietal and motor/premotor regions showing a preference for the planning/execution of saccadic or pointing movements. In a parietal reach region, decision-related signals were specific for the stimulus category associated with its preferred pointing response. By contrast, a saccade-selective posterior intraparietal sulcus region carried decision-related signals even when the task required a pointing response. Consistent signals were observed in the motor/premotor cortex. Whole-brain analyses indicated that, in our task, the most reliable decision signals were found in the same neural regions involved in response selection. However, decision- and action-related signals within these regions can be dissociated. Differences between the parietal reach region and posterior intraparietal sulcus plausibly depend on their functional specificity rather than on the task structure. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons

  9. Differential diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy and superior pulmonary sulcus tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Rui; KANG Ming-yang; GAO Zhong-li; ZHAO Jian-wu; WANG Jin-cheng

    2012-01-01

    Background The result would be disastrous if the superior pulmonary sulcus tumor (Pancoast tumor) was misdiagnosed as degenerative cervical spine diseases.The aim of this study was to investigate the differential diagnosis methods of cervical radiculopathy and superior pulmonary sulcus tumor.Methods Clinical manifestations,physical,and radiological findings of 10 patients,whose main complaints were radiating shoulder and arm pain and later were diagnosed with superior pulmonary sulcus tumor,were reviewed and compared with those of cervical radiculopathy.Results Superior pulmonary sulcus tumor patients have shorter mean history and fewer complaints of neck pain or limitation of neck movement.Physical examination showed almost normal cervical spine range of motion.Spurling's neck compression test was negative in all patients.Anteroposterior cervical radiographs showed the lack of pulmonary air at the top of the affected lung in all cases and first rib encroachment in one case.The diagnosis of superior pulmonary sulcus tumor can be further confirmed by CT and MRI.Conclusions By the method of combination of history,physical examination,and radiological findings,superior pulmonary sulcus tumor can be efficiently differentiated from cervical radiculopathy.Normal motion range of the cervical spine,negative Spurling's neck compression test,and the lack of pulmonary air at the top of the affected lung in anteroposterior cervical radiographs should be considerad as indications for further chest radiograph examinations.

  10. Motor Skill Acquisition Promotes Human Brain Myelin Plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimal Lakhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience-dependent structural changes are widely evident in gray matter. Using diffusion weighted imaging (DWI, the neuroplastic effect of motor training on white matter in the brain has been demonstrated. However, in humans it is not known whether specific features of white matter relate to motor skill acquisition or if these structural changes are associated to functional network connectivity. Myelin can be objectively quantified in vivo and used to index specific experience-dependent change. In the current study, seventeen healthy young adults completed ten sessions of visuomotor skill training (10,000 total movements using the right arm. Multicomponent relaxation imaging was performed before and after training. Significant increases in myelin water fraction, a quantitative measure of myelin, were observed in task dependent brain regions (left intraparietal sulcus [IPS] and left parieto-occipital sulcus. In addition, the rate of motor skill acquisition and overall change in myelin water fraction in the left IPS were negatively related, suggesting that a slower rate of learning resulted in greater neuroplastic change. This study provides the first evidence for experience-dependent changes in myelin that are associated with changes in skilled movements in healthy young adults.

  11. Face-infringement space: the frame of reference of the ventral intraparietal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin; Klam, François; Graf, Werner

    2012-07-01

    Experimental studies have shown that responses of ventral intraparietal area (VIP) neurons specialize in head movements and the environment near the head. VIP neurons respond to visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli, smooth pursuit eye movements, and passive and active movements of the head. This study demonstrates mathematical structure on a higher organizational level created within VIP by the integration of a complete set of variables covering face-infringement. Rather than positing dynamics in an a priori defined coordinate system such as those of physical space, we assemble neuronal receptive fields to find out what space of variables VIP neurons together cover. Section 1 presents a view of neurons as multidimensional mathematical objects. Each VIP neuron occupies or is responsive to a region in a sensorimotor phase space, thus unifying variables relevant to the disparate sensory modalities and movements. Convergence on one neuron joins variables functionally, as space and time are joined in relativistic physics to form a unified spacetime. The space of position and motion together forms a neuronal phase space, bridging neurophysiology and the physics of face-infringement. After a brief review of the experimental literature, the neuronal phase space natural to VIP is sequentially characterized, based on experimental data. Responses of neurons indicate variables that may serve as axes of neural reference frames, and neuronal responses have been so used in this study. The space of sensory and movement variables covered by VIP receptive fields joins visual and auditory space to body-bound sensory modalities: somatosensation and the inertial senses. This joining of allocentric and egocentric modalities is in keeping with the known relationship of the parietal lobe to the sense of self in space and to hemineglect, in both humans and monkeys. Following this inductive step, variables are formalized in terms of the mathematics of graph theory to deduce which

  12. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrfuss, J.; Vogt, V.L.; Fiebach, C.J.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Tittgemeyer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focuse

  13. The impact of vascular factors on language localization in the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen M

    2014-08-01

    The left superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been shown in numerous functional imaging studies to be a critical region for language processing, as it is reliably activated when language comprehension is compared with acoustically matched control conditions. Studies in non-human primates have demonstrated several subdivisions in the STS, yet the precise region(s) within the STS that are important for language remain unclear, in large part because the presence of draining veins in the sulcus makes it difficult to determine whether neural activity is localized to the dorsal or ventral bank of the sulcus. We used functional MRI to localize language regions, and then acquired several additional sequences in order to account for the impact of vascular factors. A breath-holding task was used to induce hypercapnia in order to normalize voxel-wise differences in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responsivity, and veins were identified on susceptibility-weighted and T2*-weighted BOLD images, and masked out. We found that the precise locations of language areas in individual participants were strongly influenced by vascular factors, but that these vascular effects could be ameliorated by hypercapnic normalization and vein masking. After these corrections were applied, the majority of regions activated by language processing were localized to the dorsal bank of the STS.

  14. Effect of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis: A single case study

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajasudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sulcus vocalis is a structural deformity of the vocal ligament. It is the focal invagination of the epithelium deeply attaching to the vocal ligament. There is a dearth of literature on the outcome of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis condition.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document voice characteristics of sulcus vocalis and the secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of voice therapy in a patient with sulcus vocalis.Method: A trial of voice therap...

  15. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrfuss, J; Vogt, V L; Fiebach, C J; von Cramon, D Y; Tittgemeyer, M

    2012-02-15

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focused on the iFEF. Recently, it was suggested that the iFEF is located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. A similar location was proposed for the inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), an area thought to be involved in cognitive control processes. The present study used fMRI to clarify the topographical and functional relationship of the iFEF and the IFJ in the left hemispheres of individual participants. The results show that both the iFEF and the IFJ are indeed located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. Nevertheless, the activations were spatially dissociable in every individual examined. The IFJ was located more towards the depth of the inferior precentral sulcus, close to the junction with the inferior frontal sulcus, whereas the iFEF assumed a more lateral, posterior and superior position. Furthermore, the results provided evidence for a functional double dissociation: the iFEF was activated only in a comparison of saccades vs. button presses, but not in a comparison of incongruent vs. congruent Stroop conditions, while the opposite pattern was found at the IFJ. These results provide evidence for a spatial and functional dissociation of two directly adjacent areas in the left posterior frontal lobe.

  16. Effects of Microstimulation in the Anterior Intraparietal Area during Three-Dimensional Shape Categorization.

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    Bram-Ernst Verhoef

    Full Text Available The anterior intraparietal area (AIP of rhesus monkeys is part of the dorsal visual stream and contains neurons whose visual response properties are commensurate with a role in three-dimensional (3D shape perception. Neuronal responses in AIP signal the depth structure of disparity-defined 3D shapes, reflect the choices of monkeys while they categorize 3D shapes, and mirror the behavioral variability across different stimulus conditions during 3D-shape categorization. However, direct evidence for a role of AIP in 3D-shape perception has been lacking. We trained rhesus monkeys to categorize disparity-defined 3D shapes and examined AIP's contribution to 3D-shape categorization by microstimulating in clusters of 3D-shape selective AIP neurons during task performance. We find that microstimulation effects on choices (monkey M1 and reaction times (monkey M1 and M2 depend on the 3D-shape preference of the stimulated site. Moreover, electrical stimulation of the same cells, during either the 3D-shape-categorization task or a saccade task, could affect behavior differently. Interestingly, in one monkey we observed a strong correlation between the strength of choice-related AIP activity (choice probabilities and the influence of microstimulation on 3D-shape-categorization behavior (choices and reaction time. These findings propose AIP as part of the network responsible for 3D-shape perception. The results also show that the anterior intraparietal cortex contains cells with different tuning properties, i.e. 3D-shape- or saccade-related, that can be dynamically read out depending on the requirements of the task at hand.

  17. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing...... of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception...... was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive...

  18. Use of hyaluronic acid gel in the treatment of lagophthalmos in sunken superior sulcus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyngold, Ilya M; Berbos, Zachary J; McCann, John D; Pariseau, Brett; Leyngold, Ariel R; Anderson, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the use of hyaluronic acid gel in the management of lagophthalmos in sunken superior sulcus syndrome. Lagophthalmos associated with orbital fat atrophy and deep superior sulcus is a known entity described previously. Orbital fat atrophy results in deep superior sulcus where skin, orbicularis muscle, and orbital septum retract posteriorly in the deep superior sulcus, leading to lagophthalmos from suboptimal orbicularis function and effective skin shortening. The authors define this condition as sunken superior sulcus syndrome (SSSS) when the deep superior sulcus leads to exposure keratopathy. Thus, the syndrome consists of deep superior sulcus, lagophthalmos, and exposure keratopathy. Although the use of hyaluronic acid gel has been proposed as a management option for paralytic lagophthalmos, its application in the treatment of lagophthalmos in SSSS has not been reported. In this study, 5 patients (10 eyelids) with SSSS were injected with hyaluronic acid gel in the superior sulcus of the upper eyelid. Injected amount was titrated until the desired point was reached: complete or nearly complete eyelid closure. After an average follow up of 9.5 months, lagoph thalmos improved by 2 mm or 69% (p = 0.02) on the right side and by 1 mm or 71% (p = 0.01) on the left side. Most patients also reported significantly improved ocular comfort and appearance of the superior sulcus. The only complications noted were bruising and temporary uneven contour of the upper eyelid sulcus. Management of lagophthalmos in SSSS with hyaluronic acid gel is an effective and safe alternative to surgery.

  19. The role of binocular disparity in stereoscopic images of objects in the macaque anterior intraparietal area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Romero

    Full Text Available Neurons in the macaque Anterior Intraparietal area (AIP encode depth structure in random-dot stimuli defined by gradients of binocular disparity, but the importance of binocular disparity in real-world objects for AIP neurons is unknown. We investigated the effect of binocular disparity on the responses of AIP neurons to images of real-world objects during passive fixation. We presented stereoscopic images of natural and man-made objects in which the disparity information was congruent or incongruent with disparity gradients present in the real-world objects, and images of the same objects where such gradients were absent. Although more than half of the AIP neurons were significantly affected by binocular disparity, the great majority of AIP neurons remained image selective even in the absence of binocular disparity. AIP neurons tended to prefer stimuli in which the depth information derived from binocular disparity was congruent with the depth information signaled by monocular depth cues, indicating that these monocular depth cues have an influence upon AIP neurons. Finally, in contrast to neurons in the inferior temporal cortex, AIP neurons do not represent images of objects in terms of categories such as animate-inanimate, but utilize representations based upon simple shape features including aspect ratio.

  20. Sensorimotor locus of the buildup activity in monkey lateral intraparietal area neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonkoo; Zhang, Jun

    2010-05-01

    A study in 2002 using a random-dot motion-discrimination paradigm showed that an information accumulation model with a threshold-crossing mechanism can account for activity of the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) neurons. Here, mathematical techniques were applied to the same dataset to quantitatively address the sensory versus motor representation of the neuronal activity during the time course of a trial. A technique based on Signal Detection Theory was applied to provide indices to quantify how neuronal firing activity is responsible for encoding the stimulus or selecting the response at the behavioral level. Additionally, a statistical model based on Poisson regression was used to provide an orthogonal decomposition of the neural activity into stimulus, response, and stimulus-response mapping components. The temporal dynamics of the sensorimotor locus of the LIP activity indicated that there is no stimulus-response mapping-specific neuronal firing activity throughout a trial; the neural activity toward the saccadic onset reflects the development of the motor representation, and the neural activity in the beginning of a trial contains little, if any, information about the sensory representation. Sensorimotor analysis on individual neurons also showed that the neuronal activation, as a population, represent pending saccadic direction and carry little information about the direction of the motion stimulus.

  1. Orbitofrontal sulcal and gyrus pattern in human: an anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Pereira Rodrigues

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex in human is limited in literature instead of many functional and clinical studies involving it. Objective Anatomically define the orbitofrontal region aiming to possible neurosurgical treatments and unify the scientific nomenclature as well. Method We analyze eighty four human hemispheres using a surgical microscope. Then we chose four hemispheres and dissect them according to Klinger’ technique. Results We found five main sulcus: olfatory sulcus, orbital medial sulcus, orbital lateral sulcus, orbital transverse sulcus and orbital intermediate sulcus. These sulcus, excluding the intermediate sulcus, delimit five gyrus: rectus gurys, orbital medial gyrus, orbital anterior gyrus, orbital lateral gyrus and orbital posterior gyrus. The main sulcal configuration can be divided on four more frequently patterns. Conclusion Orbitofrontal cortex is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Better anatomical and functional characterization of the orbitofrontal cortex and its connections will improve our knowledge about these diseases.

  2. The anatomy of Rouviere's sulcus as seen during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A proposed classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohinder Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although Rouviere's sulcus is being increasingly mentioned as the first landmark to be seen so as to begin dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy to prevent bile duct injuries, the anatomy of the sulcus has not been described in clear and simple terms. Objectives: To define the detailed anatomy of Rouviere sulcus as seen during laparoscopic surgery in simple terms for the surgeons to refer to and begin their dissection from this, always staying above this sulcus in order to eliminate bile duct injury. Methods: 100 recordings of laparoscopic cholecystectomy were analysed to define the anatomy of the Rouviere's sulcus. Results: Majority of the sulci (71 were seen as a deep sulcus and were labelled as simply the 'sulcus'. This was further seen to be of two types – open (60 or closed (11. Some of the sulci (23 were small and so narrow and shallow as to be labelled as a 'slit'. Rarely, the sulcus was found to be fused and represented by a white fusion line (6 cases, and this was simply labelled as a 'scar'. Conclusions: The Rouviere's sulcus can now be defined in three simple terms – a deep sulcus, or a slit or a scar. We recommend that as a first step in laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon must look for this reference point (whether it is in the form of a scar, or a slit or a real sulcus which will be the plane of the main bile duct, and thus avoid any dissection below this point in order to eliminate any danger to the bile duct during surgery.

  3. The thing that should not be: predictive coding and the uncanny valley in perceiving human and humanoid robot actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Driver, Jon; Frith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) repetition suppression, we explored the selectivity of the human action perception system (APS), which consists of temporal, parietal and frontal areas, for the appearance and/or motion of the perceived agent. Participants watched body movements of a human (biological appearance and movement), a robot (mechanical appearance and movement) or an android (biological appearance, mechanical movement). With the exception of extrastriate body area, which showed more suppression for human like appearance, the APS was not selective for appearance or motion per se. Instead, distinctive responses were found to the mismatch between appearance and motion: whereas suppression effects for the human and robot were similar to each other, they were stronger for the android, notably in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key node in the APS. These results could reflect increased prediction error as the brain negotiates an agent that appears human, but does not move biologically, and help explain the ‘uncanny valley’ phenomenon. PMID:21515639

  4. Eye-centered visual receptive fields in the ventral intraparietal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2014-07-15

    The ventral intraparietal area (VIP) processes multisensory visual, vestibular, tactile, and auditory signals in diverse reference frames. We recently reported that visual heading signals in VIP are represented in an approximately eye-centered reference frame when measured using large-field optic flow stimuli. No VIP neuron was found to have head-centered visual heading tuning, and only a small proportion of cells had reference frames that were intermediate between eye- and head-centered. In contrast, previous studies using moving bar stimuli have reported that visual receptive fields (RFs) in VIP are head-centered for a substantial proportion of neurons. To examine whether these differences in previous findings might be due to the neuronal property examined (heading tuning vs. RF measurements) or the type of visual stimulus used (full-field optic flow vs. a single moving bar), we have quantitatively mapped visual RFs of VIP neurons using a large-field, multipatch, random-dot motion stimulus. By varying eye position relative to the head, we tested whether visual RFs in VIP are represented in head- or eye-centered reference frames. We found that the vast majority of VIP neurons have eye-centered RFs with only a single neuron classified as head-centered and a small minority classified as intermediate between eye- and head-centered. Our findings suggest that the spatial reference frames of visual responses in VIP may depend on the visual stimulation conditions used to measure RFs and might also be influenced by how attention is allocated during stimulus presentation.

  5. Numerical and Non-Numerical Ordinality Processing in Children with and without Developmental Dyscalculia: Evidence from fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, L.; Vogel, S. E.; Starke, M.; Kremser, C.; Schocke, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ordinality is--beyond numerical magnitude (i.e., quantity)--an important characteristic of the number system. There is converging empirical evidence that (intra)parietal brain regions mediate number magnitude processing. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) supports magnitude and ordinality in a…

  6. The effect of handedness on the shape of the central sulcus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhong Yi; Klöppel, Stefan; Rivière, Denis

    2012-01-01

    sulcus is largely unexplored. In this paper, we propose first an original strategy based on manifold learning to quantify the shape of the central sulcus. Using this approach we show that the "hand knob", a major landmark of the hand motor representation, is sited more dorsally in the left hemisphere...

  7. SULCUS TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE ABSENCE AND PRESENCE OF ORAL HYGIENE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PERDOK, JF; LUKACOVIC, M; MAJETI, S; ARENDS, J; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1992-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using sulcus temperature measurements as an early indicator for the beginning of gingival inflammation. Sulcus temperature distributions over the arches appeared to obey a quadratic polynomial. With a test group of 10 volunteers, all dental students,

  8. Pneumopericardium and Deep Sulcus Sign After Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Tarladacalisir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pneumopericardium is defined as air between the leaves of the pericardium, which is usually self-limited. In tension pneumopericardium, however, rapid fluid resuscitation and haemodynamic monitoring followed by pericardial fenestration and drainage should be performed. A 49-year-old male falling from height was brought to the emergency room. On chest X-ray in supine position, a deep sulcus sign and subcutaneous emphysema with multiple rib fractures were detected. At computerized tomography, pericardial free air, right pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema were detected. A tube thoracostomy was applied to the patient. During follow-up with cardiac enzymes in the intensive care unit, no tension pneumopericardium developed, and subcutaneous emphysema regressed. A control computerized tomography scan showed a complete regression in the pneumopericardium on the tenth day.

  9. Development of identification of the central sulcus in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Norio; Sakuta, Keita; Minehiro, Kaori; Takanaga, Masako; Sanada, Shigeru; Suzuki, Masayuki; Miyati, Tosiaki; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Matsui, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful in the quantitative evaluation of brain atrophy, because the superior contrast resolution facilitates separation of the gray and white matter. Quantitative assessment of brain atrophy has mainly been performed by manual measurement, which requires considerable time and effort to determine the brain volume. Therefore, computer-aided quantitative measurement methods for the diagnosis of brain atrophy are required. We have developed a method of segmenting the cerebrum, cerebellum-brainstem, and temporal lobe simultaneously on MR images obtained in a single sequence. It is important to measure the volume of not only these regions but also the frontal lobe in clinical use. However, for segmenting the frontal lobe, it is necessary to identify the Sylvian fissure and the central sulcus, which represent boundaries. Here, we developed a method of identifying the central sulcus from MR images obtained with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. The brain and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) regions were segmented using semiautomated segmentation method on MR images. The central sulcus shows an oblique line from the inside to the outside on the convexity view. The almost straight appearance of the central sulcus was used for segmentation of the central sulcus from the segmented CSF images. The central sulcus was identified with this technique in 77% of the images obtained by all sequences. This technique for identifying the central sulcus is very important not only for volumetry, but also for clinical diagnosis.

  10. Nonvisual responses to light exposure in the human brain during the circadian night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Fabien; Peigneux, Philippe; Fuchs, Sonia; Verhaeghe, Stéphane; Laureys, Steven; Middleton, Benita; Degueldre, Christian; Del Fiore, Guy; Vandewalle, Gilles; Balteau, Evelyne; Poirrier, Robert; Moreau, Vincent; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2004-10-26

    The brain processes light information to visually represent the environment but also to detect changes in ambient light level. The latter information induces non-image-forming responses and exerts powerful effects on physiology such as synchronization of the circadian clock and suppression of melatonin. In rodents, irradiance information is transduced from a discrete subset of photosensitive retinal ganglion cells via the retinohypothalamic tract to various hypothalamic and brainstem regulatory structures including the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei, the master circadian pacemaker. In humans, light also acutely modulates alertness, but the cerebral correlates of this effect are unknown. We assessed regional cerebral blood flow in 13 subjects attending to auditory and visual stimuli in near darkness following light exposures (>8000 lux) of different durations (0.5, 17, 16.5, and 0 min) during the biological night. The bright broadband polychromatic light suppressed melatonin and enhanced alertness. Functional imaging revealed that a large-scale occipito-parietal attention network, including the right intraparietal sulcus, was more active in proportion to the duration of light exposures preceding the scans. Activity in the hypothalamus decreased in proportion to previous illumination. These findings have important implications for understanding the effects of light on human behavior.

  11. Functional Organization of Social Perception and Cognition in the Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Ben; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy; Saxe, Rebecca

    2015-11-01

    The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is considered a hub for social perception and cognition, including the perception of faces and human motion, as well as understanding others' actions, mental states, and language. However, the functional organization of the STS remains debated: Is this broad region composed of multiple functionally distinct modules, each specialized for a different process, or are STS subregions multifunctional, contributing to multiple processes? Is the STS spatially organized, and if so, what are the dominant features of this organization? We address these questions by measuring STS responses to a range of social and linguistic stimuli in the same set of human participants, using fMRI. We find a number of STS subregions that respond selectively to certain types of social input, organized along a posterior-to-anterior axis. We also identify regions of overlapping response to multiple contrasts, including regions responsive to both language and theory of mind, faces and voices, and faces and biological motion. Thus, the human STS contains both relatively domain-specific areas, and regions that respond to multiple types of social information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Statistical sulcal shape comparisons: application to the detection of genetic encoding of the central sulcus shape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Goualher, G; Argenti, A.M.; Duyme, M

    2000-01-01

    Principal Component Analysis allows a quantitative description of shape variability with a restricted number of parameters (or modes) which can be used to quantify the difference between two shapes through the computation of a modal distance. A statistical test can then be applied to this set...... encoding. When applied to real data, this study highlighted genetic constraints on the shape of the central sulcus. We found from 10 pairs of monozygotic twins that the intrapair modal distance of the central sulcus was significantly smaller than the interpair modal distance, for both the left central...... sulcus (Z = -2.66; P definition of the central sulcus shape were confirmed by applying the same experiment to 10 pairs of normal young individuals (Z = -1.39; Z = -0.63, i.e., values not significant at the P

  13. High relapse-free survival after preoperative and intraoperative radiotherapy and resection for sulcus superior tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.N. van Geel (Albert); P.P. Jansen (Peter); R.J. van Klaveren (Rob); J.R. van der Sijp (Joost)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVES: Relapse-free survival in patients with sulcus superior tumors. DESIGN: Prospective registration study. SETTING: Department of surgical oncology of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-one patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy (46 Gy), lobe

  14. Reaching with the sixth sense: Vestibular contributions to voluntary motor control in the human right parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Thielscher, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system constitutes the silent sixth sense: It automatically triggers a variety of vital reflexes to maintain postural and visual stability. Beyond their role in reflexive behavior, vestibular afferents contribute to several perceptual and cognitive functions and also support voluntary control of movements by complementing the other senses to accomplish the movement goal. Investigations into the neural correlates of vestibular contribution to voluntary action in humans are challenging and have progressed far less than research on corresponding visual and proprioceptive involvement. Here, we demonstrate for the first time with event-related TMS that the posterior part of the right medial intraparietal sulcus processes vestibular signals during a goal-directed reaching task with the dominant right hand. This finding suggests a qualitative difference between the processing of vestibular vs. visual and proprioceptive signals for controlling voluntary movements, which are pre-dominantly processed in the left posterior parietal cortex. Furthermore, this study reveals a neural pathway for vestibular input that might be distinct from the processing for reflexive or cognitive functions, and opens a window into their investigation in humans.

  15. Accuracy and repeatability of direct ciliary sulcus diameter measurements by full-scale 50-megahertz ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI De-jiao; WANG Ning-li; CHEN Shu; LI Shu-ning; MU Da-peng; WANG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Background Phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) implantation has been a popular means for the treatment of high ametropia. Measurements of ciliary sulcus diameter is important for pIOL size determining. But till now, no perfect system can directly measure it. The present study was to evaluate the accuracy, repeatability and reproducibility of direct sulcus diameter measurements obtained by a full-scale 50-megahertz (MHz) ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods A fresh cadaver human eye with a scale marker inserted through the posterior chamber plane from 3 o'clock to 9 o'clock meridian and 30 randomly selected eyes from 30 normal subjects were scanned by full-scale 50-MHz UBM in horizontal meridional scan plane. The distance between the scales and the whole length of the marker inside the cadaver eye were measured by the same observer using the "built-in" measurement tools and the indicating error of instrument was calculated. Reproducibility of the measurement was evaluated in 30 eyes by 2 operators using Blander and Altman plot test. Repeatability was evaluated from 10 successive eyes randomly selected from the 30 eyes by one operator.Results On a scale of 1 mm, the greatest indicating error was 40 μm; the mean largest indicating error of 1 mm scale from the 10 images was (26±14) μm; on a scale of 11 mm, the greatest indicating error was 70 μo; the error rate was 0.64%. The mean length of the needle inside the eye of the 10 images was 11.05 mm, with the mean indicating error of 47 μm, the average error rate was 0.43%. For ciliary sulcus diameter measurements in vivo, the coefficient of variation was 0.38%; the coefficients of repeatability for intra-observer and inter-observer measurements were 1.99% and 2.55%, respectively. The limits of agreement for intra-observer and inter-observer measurement were-0.41 mm to 0.48 mm and -0.59 mm to 0.58 ram, respectively.Conclusion The full-scale 50-MHz UBM can be a high accuracy and good repeatability means for direct

  16. Comparative morphology of dendritic arbors in populations of Purkinje cells in mouse sulcus and apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelescu, Hermina; Abdelhack, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Foliation divides the mammalian cerebellum into structurally distinct subdivisions, including the concave sulcus and the convex apex. Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic morphology varies between subdivisions and changes significantly ontogenetically. Since dendritic morphology both enables and limits sensory-motor circuit function, it is important to understand how neuronal architectures differ between brain regions. This study employed quantitative confocal microcopy to reconstruct dendritic arbors of cerebellar PCs expressing green fluorescent protein and compared arbor morphology between PCs of sulcus and apex in young and old mice. Arbors were digitized from high z-resolution (0.25 µm) image stacks using an adaptation of Neurolucida's (MBF Bioscience) continuous contour tracing tool, designed for drawing neuronal somata. Reconstructed morphologies reveal that dendritic arbors of sulcus and apex exhibit profound differences. In sulcus, 72% of the young PC population possesses two primary dendrites, whereas in apex, only 28% do. Spatial constraints in the young sulcus cause significantly more dendritic arbor overlap than in young apex, a distinction that disappears in adulthood. However, adult sulcus PC arbors develop a greater number of branch crossings. These results suggest developmental neuronal plasticity that enables cerebellar PCs to attain correct functional adult architecture under different spatial constraints.

  17. Altered depth of the olfactory sulcus in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Yumiko; Nakamura, Kazue; Ikeda, Eiji; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Noguchi, Kyo; Seto, Hikaru; Suzuki, Michio

    2013-01-10

    A shallow olfactory sulcus has been reported in chronic schizophrenia, possibly reflecting abnormal forebrain development during early gestation. However, it remains unclear whether this abnormality exists at the early illness stage and/or develops progressively over the course of the illness. This magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study investigated the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 64 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 64 controls, of whom longitudinal MRI data (mean inter-scan interval=2.6 years) were available for 20 patients and 21 controls. In the cross-sectional comparison at the baseline, the schizophrenia patients had a significantly shallower olfactory sulcus compared with the controls bilaterally, but there was no group difference in its anterior-posterior length. A longitudinal comparison demonstrated that the sulcus length and depth did not change over time in either group. The olfactory sulcus measures of the patients did not significantly correlate with clinical variables such as onset age, medication or symptom severity. These findings suggest that the olfactory sulcus depth, but not length, may be a static vulnerability marker of schizophrenia that reflects early neurodevelopmental abnormality.

  18. Sulcus vocalis: excision, primary suture and medialization laryngoplasty: personal experience with 44 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Taner

    2012-11-01

    This is a prospective, cohort study to present personal experience on excision of sulcus, primary suture of defect and medialization laryngoplasty. An article about this subject is not present in medical literature. Forty-four patients with sulcus vocalis who were operated on by excision, primary suture of epithelial defect and medialization laryngoplasty were included. Pre- and postoperative evaluations included GRBAS, VHI-30, stroboscopy, aerodynamic and acoustic analysis. Grade, roughness and breathiness of GRBAS were significantly better postoperatively (p  0.05). All VHI-30 results decreased significantly after surgery (p  0.05). Maximum phonation time, mean airflow rate, mean efficiency and mean pressure of aerodynamic analysis improved significantly after surgery (p  0.05). All parameters, except F (0) and soft phonation index during acoustic analysis with /a/, and except F (0), voice turbulence index and soft phonation index during acoustic analysis with constant phrase improved significantly after surgery (p sulcus vocalis are not satisfactory enough, yet. Excision of sulcus, primary suture of epithelial defect and medialization laryngoplasty is one of the successful surgical options. Intact vocal ligament at the bottom of sulcus is a good prognostic sign for good postoperative voice result. Success appears to depend on how long, how wide and how deep sulcus is. Good patient selection may increase the percentage of happy patients.

  19. Olfactory sulcus morphology in patients with current and past major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Yücel, Murat; Whittle, Sarah; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Walterfang, Mark; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Suzuki, Michio; Pantelis, Christos; Allen, Nicholas B

    2016-09-30

    Olfactory deficits have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains largely unknown whether MDD is associated with abnormalities in olfactory sulcus morphology, a potential marker of olfactory system development. This magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 29 currently depressed patients, 27 remitted depressed patients, and 33 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects. Both current and remitted MDD patients had significantly shallower olfactory sulci bilaterally as compared with controls. Only for male subjects, the right olfactory sulcus was significantly shorter in remitted MDD patients than in controls. The right sulcus depth was negatively correlated with number of depressive episodes in the entire MDD group and with residual depressive symptoms in the remitted MDD group. Medication status, presence of melancholia, and comorbidity with anxiety disorders did not affect the sulcus morphology. These findings suggest that abnormality of the olfactory sulcus morphology, especially its depth, may be a trait-related marker of vulnerability to major depression.

  20. Effect of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis: A single case study

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    R. Rajasudhakar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulcus vocalis is a structural deformity of the vocal ligament. It is the focal invagination of the epithelium deeply attaching to the vocal ligament. There is a dearth of literature on the outcome of voice therapy in sulcus vocalis condition.Objective: The primary objective of this study was to document voice characteristics of sulcus vocalis and the secondary objective was to establish the efficacy of voice therapy in a patient with sulcus vocalis.Method: A trial of voice therapy was given to the client who was diagnosed as having sulcus vocalis. Boon’s facilitation techniques were used in voice therapy along with other techniques such as breath holding and push and pull approach prior to surgery. Acoustic, aerodynamic, perceptual, quantitative measures of voice quality and self-rating measurements were performed before and after voice therapy.Results: Improvement was noticed in 10/10 acoustic, 4/4 aerodynamic, perceptual, dysphonia severity index and voice handicap index scores, which hinted that voice therapy can be an option critically for clients with sulcus vocalis in the initial stage.Conclusion: Voice therapy showed promising improvement in the study and it must be recommended as the initial treatment option before any surgical management.

  1. High-frequency oscillations in distributed neural networks reveal the dynamics of human decision making

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    Adrian G Guggisberg

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relative timing of numerous brain regions involved in human decisions that are based on external criteria, learned information, personal preferences, or unconstrained internal considerations. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG and advanced signal analysis techniques, we were able to non-invasively reconstruct oscillations of distributed neural networks in the high-gamma frequency band (60–150 Hz. The time course of the observed neural activity suggested that two-alternative forced choice tasks are processed in four overlapping stages: processing of sensory input, option evaluation, intention formation, and action execution. Visual areas are activated fi rst, and show recurring activations throughout the entire decision process. The temporo-occipital junction and the intraparietal sulcus are active during evaluation of external values of the options, 250–500 ms after stimulus presentation. Simultaneously, personal preference is mediated by cortical midline structures. Subsequently, the posterior parietal and superior occipital cortices appear to encode intention, with different subregions being responsible for different types of choice. The cerebellum and inferior parietal cortex are recruited for internal generation of decisions and actions, when all options have the same value. Action execution was accompanied by activation peaks in the contralateral motor cortex. These results suggest that high-gamma oscillations as recorded by MEG allow a reliable reconstruction of decision processes with excellent spatiotemporal resolution.

  2. Asymmetric development of dorsal and ventral attention networks in the human brain

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    Kristafor Farrant

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Two neural systems for goal-directed and stimulus-driven attention have been described in the adult human brain; the dorsal attention network (DAN centered in the frontal eye fields (FEF and intraparietal sulcus (IPS, and the ventral attention network (VAN anchored in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ and ventral frontal cortex (VFC. Little is known regarding the processes governing typical development of these attention networks in the brain. Here we use resting state functional MRI data collected from thirty 7 to 12 year-old children and thirty 18 to 31 year-old adults to examine two key regions of interest from the dorsal and ventral attention networks. We found that for the DAN nodes (IPS and FEF, children showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with adults, whereas adults showed greater functional connectivity between the FEF and extra-network regions including the posterior cingulate cortex. For the VAN nodes (TPJ and VFC, adults showed greater functional connectivity with regions within the network compared with children. Children showed greater functional connectivity between VFC and nodes of the salience network. This asymmetric pattern of development of attention networks may be a neural signature of the shift from over-representation of bottom-up attention mechanisms to greater top-down attentional capacities with development.

  3. TMS investigations into the task-dependent functional interplay between human posterior parietal and motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Giacomo; Rothwell, John C

    2009-09-14

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used in two different ways to investigate the contribution of cortical areas involved in grasp/reach movements in humans. It can produce "virtual lesions" that interfere with activity in particular cortical areas at specific times during a task, or it can be used in a twin coil design to test the excitability of cortical projections to M1 at different times during a task. The former method has described how cortical structures such as the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) are important for specific aspects of reaching, grasping and lifting objects. In the latter method, a conditioning stimulus (CS) is first used to activate putative pathways to the motor cortex from, for example, posterior parietal cortex (PPC) or PMd, while a second, test stimulus (TS), delivered over the primary motor cortex a few ms later probes any changes in excitability that are produced by the input. Thus changes in the effectiveness of the conditioning pulse give an indication of how the excitability of the connection changes over time and during a specific task. Here we review studies describing the time course of operation of parallel intracortical circuits and cortico-cortical connections between the PMd, PMv, PPC and M1, thus demonstrating that functional interplay between these areas and the primary motor cortices is not fixed, but can change in a highly task-, condition- and time-dependent manner.

  4. Alpha stimulation of the human parietal cortex attunes tactile perception to external space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2014-02-03

    An intriguing question in neuroscience concerns how somatosensory events on the skin are represented in the human brain. Since Head and Holmes' [1] neuropsychological dissociation between localizing touch on the skin and localizing body parts in external space, touch is considered to operate in a variety of spatial reference frames [2]. At least two representations of space are in competition during orienting to touch: a somatotopic one, reflecting the organization of the somatosensory cortex (S1) [3], and a more abstract, external reference frame that factors postural changes in relation to body parts and/or external space [4, 5]. Previous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays a key role in supporting representations as well as orienting attention in an external reference frame [4, 6]. Here, we capitalized on the TMS entrainment approach [7, 8], targeting the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). We found that frequency-specific (10 Hz) tuning of the PPC induced spatially specific enhancement of tactile detection that was expressed in an external reference frame. This finding establishes a tight causal link between a concrete form of brain activity (10 Hz oscillation) and a specific type of spatial representation, revealing a fundamental property of how the parietal cortex encodes information.

  5. Activity in the superior temporal sulcus highlights learning competence in an interaction game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruno, Masahiko; Kawato, Mitsuo

    2009-04-08

    During behavioral adaptation through interaction with human and nonhuman agents, marked individual differences are seen in both real-life situations and games. However, the underlying neural mechanism is not well understood. We conducted a neuroimaging experiment in which subjects maximized monetary rewards by learning in a prisoner's dilemma game with two computer agents: agent A, a tit-for-tat player who repeats the subject's previous action, and agent B, a simple stochastic cooperator oblivious to the subject's action. Approximately 1/3 of the subjects (group I) learned optimally in relation to both A and B, while another 1/3 (group II) did so only for B. Post-experiment interviews indicated that group I exploited the agent strategies more often than group II. Significant differences in learning-related brain activity between the two groups were only found in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) for both A and B. Furthermore, the learning performance of each group I subject was predictable based on this STS activity, but not in the group II subjects. This differential activity could not be attributed to a behavioral difference since it persisted in relation to agent B for which the two groups behaved similarly. In sharp contrast, the brain structures for reward processing were recruited similarly by both groups. These results suggest that STS provides knowledge of the other agent's strategies for association between action and reward and highlights learning competence during interactive reinforcement learning.

  6. Orbitofrontal sulcogyral pattern and olfactory sulcus depth in the schizophrenia spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Yumiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Nakamura, Mihoko; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2016-02-01

    Morphological changes in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), such as an altered sulcogyral pattern of the 'H-shaped' orbital sulcus and a shallow olfactory sulcus, have been demonstrated in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting deviations in early neurodevelopment. However, it remains unclear whether patients with schizotypal features exhibit similar OFC changes. This magnetic resonance imaging study examined the OFC sulcogyral pattern (Types I, II, III, and IV) and olfactory sulcus morphology in 102 patients with schizophrenia, 47 patients with schizotypal disorder, and 84 healthy controls. The OFC sulcogyral pattern distribution between the groups was significantly different on the right hemisphere, with the schizophrenia patients showing a decrease in Type I (vs controls and schizotypal patients) and an increase in Type III (vs controls) expression. However, the schizotypal patients and controls did not differ in the OFC pattern. There were significant group differences in the olfactory sulcus depth bilaterally (schizophrenia patients < schizotypal patients < controls). Our findings suggest that schizotypal disorder, a milder form of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, partly shares the OFC changes (i.e., altered depth of the olfactory sulcus) with schizophrenia, possibly reflecting a common disease vulnerability. However, altered distribution of the OFC pattern specific to schizophrenia may at least partly reflect neurodevelopmental pathology related to a greater susceptibility to overt psychosis.

  7. The effect of handedness on the shape of the central sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhong Yi; Klöppel, Stefan; Rivière, Denis; Perrot, Matthieu; Frackowiak, Richard; Siebner, Hartwig; Mangin, Jean-François

    2012-03-01

    Sinistrals differ from dextrals in the size of certain cortical folds. For instance, handedness has an impact on central sulcus surface area: the sulcus is larger in the dominant left hemisphere of dextrals and vice versa for sinistrals. However, the impact of handedness on the shape of the central sulcus is largely unexplored. In this paper, we propose first an original strategy based on manifold learning to quantify the shape of the central sulcus. Using this approach we show that the "hand knob", a major landmark of the hand motor representation, is sited more dorsally in the left hemisphere in dextrals than in sinistrals. Sinistrals forced to write with their non-preferred right hand display a pattern of central sulcus size asymmetry which is typical of dextrals, yet forced dextrality does not shift the handedness-specific location of the "hand knob". Hence, cortical morphology in adults holds an accumulated record of both innate biases and early developmental experience. Characterizing normal variation of cortical morphology provides a means of systematically correlating behavior with cortical development.

  8. Correlation between hippocampal sulcus width and severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhan, Galip; Songu, Murat; Ayik, Sibel Oktem; Altay, Canan; Kalemci, Serdar

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) severity and the hippocampal sulcus width in a cohort of subjects with OSAS and controls. A total of 149 OSAS patients and 60 nonapneic controls were included in the study. Overnight polysomnograpy was performed in all patients. Hippocampal sulcus width of the patients was measured by a radiologist blinded to the diagnosis of the patients. Other variables noted for each patient were as follows: gender, age, body mass index, apnea hypopnea index, Epworth sleepiness scale, sleep efficacy, mean saturation, lowest O2 saturation, longest apnea duration, neck circumference, waist circumference, hip circumference. A total of 149 OSAS patients were divided into three groups: mild OSAS (n = 54), moderate OSAS (n = 40), severe OSAS (n = 55) groups. The control group consisted of patients with AHI sulcus width was 1.6 ± 0.83 mm in the control group; while 1.9 ± 0.81 mm in mild OSAS, 2.1 ± 0.60 mm in moderate OSAS, and 2.9 ± 0.58 mm in severe OSAS groups (p sulcus width. Our findings demonstrated that severity of OSAS might be associated with various pathologic mechanisms including increased hippocampal sulcus width.

  9. Dual Endotemponade for Extensive Long-standing Cyclodialysis Using Sulcus-fixated Cionni Ring and PCIOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shikha; Sagar, Pradeep; Gogia, Varun; Khokhar, Sudarshan; Dada, Tanuj

    2016-03-01

    A young patient presented with visual acuity of hand movements only, unrecordable intraocular pressure, and total cataract after trauma 12 months ago. She reported failure to improve with conservative therapy as well as a direct cycloplexy elsewhere. After cleft localization on preoperative gonioscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and intraoperative gonioscopy, a partial-thickness scleral flap was fashioned at the site of maximum cleft height. Following phacoaspiration, a multipiece intraocular lens was implanted in the sulcus; its haptics aligned to the axis with maximum height of cyclodialysis. A Cionni ring placed in sulcus was sutured to sclera under the flap to provide additional tamponading effect. Postoperative UBM and gonioscopy confirmed cleft closure. Normalization of intraocular pressure was found on repeated follow-ups till 1 year (12 to 14 mm Hg). UBM showed increase in sulcus diameter, and "double indentation sign" on the ciliary body.

  10. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals the neural substrates of arm transport and grip formation in reach-to-grasp actions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Monaco, Simona; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio; McAdam, Teresa D; Quinlan, Derek J; Goodale, Melvyn A; Culham, Jody C

    2010-08-01

    Picking up a cup requires transporting the arm to the cup (transport component) and preshaping the hand appropriately to grasp the handle (grip component). Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the human neural substrates of the transport component and its relationship with the grip component. Participants were shown three-dimensional objects placed either at a near location, adjacent to the hand, or at a far location, within reach but not adjacent to the hand. Participants performed three tasks at each location as follows: (1) touching the object with the knuckles of the right hand; (2) grasping the object with the right hand; or (3) passively viewing the object. The transport component was manipulated by positioning the object in the far versus the near location. The grip component was manipulated by asking participants to grasp the object versus touching it. For the first time, we have identified the neural substrates of the transport component, which include the superior parieto-occipital cortex and the rostral superior parietal lobule. Consistent with past studies, we found specialization for the grip component in bilateral anterior intraparietal sulcus and left ventral premotor cortex; now, however, we also find activity for the grasp even when no transport is involved. In addition to finding areas specialized for the transport and grip components in parietal cortex, we found an integration of the two components in dorsal premotor cortex and supplementary motor areas, two regions that may be important for the coordination of reach and grasp.

  11. Altered depth of the olfactory sulcus in ultra high-risk individuals and patients with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; Nelson, Barnaby; Lin, Ashleigh; Yücel, Murat; Phillips, Lisa J; Nakamura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Michio; Brewer, Warrick J; Proffitt, Tina M; McGorry, Patrick D; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos

    2014-03-01

    A shallow olfactory sulcus has been reported in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting abnormal forebrain development during early gestation. However, it remains unclear whether this anomaly exists prior to the onset of psychosis and/or differs according to illness stage. In the current study, magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 135 ultra high-risk (UHR) individuals [of whom 52 later developed psychosis (UHR-P) and 83 did not (UHR-NP)], 162 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 89 patients with chronic schizophrenia, and 87 healthy controls. While there was no group difference in the length of the sulcus, UHR-P subjects had significantly shallower olfactory sulcus at baseline as compared with UHR-NP and control subjects. The depth of this sulcus became increasingly more superficial as one moved from UHR-P subjects to FEP patients to chronic schizophrenia patients. Finally, the depth of the olfactory sulcus in the UHR-P subjects was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. These findings suggest that the altered depth of the olfactory sulcus, which exists before psychosis onset, could be predictive of transition to psychosis, but also suggest ongoing changes of the sulcus morphology during the course of the illness.

  12. Auditory, Visual and Audiovisual Speech Processing Streams in Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venezia, Jonathan H; Vaden, Kenneth I; Rong, Feng; Maddox, Dale; Saberi, Kourosh; Hickok, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) is responsive to visual and auditory information, including sounds and facial cues during speech recognition. We investigated the functional organization of STS with respect to modality-specific and multimodal speech representations. Twenty younger adult participants were instructed to perform an oddball detection task and were presented with auditory, visual, and audiovisual speech stimuli, as well as auditory and visual nonspeech control stimuli in a block fMRI design. Consistent with a hypothesized anterior-posterior processing gradient in STS, auditory, visual and audiovisual stimuli produced the largest BOLD effects in anterior, posterior and middle STS (mSTS), respectively, based on whole-brain, linear mixed effects and principal component analyses. Notably, the mSTS exhibited preferential responses to multisensory stimulation, as well as speech compared to nonspeech. Within the mid-posterior and mSTS regions, response preferences changed gradually from visual, to multisensory, to auditory moving posterior to anterior. Post hoc analysis of visual regions in the posterior STS revealed that a single subregion bordering the mSTS was insensitive to differences in low-level motion kinematics yet distinguished between visual speech and nonspeech based on multi-voxel activation patterns. These results suggest that auditory and visual speech representations are elaborated gradually within anterior and posterior processing streams, respectively, and may be integrated within the mSTS, which is sensitive to more abstract speech information within and across presentation modalities. The spatial organization of STS is consistent with processing streams that are hypothesized to synthesize perceptual speech representations from sensory signals that provide convergent information from visual and auditory modalities.

  13. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A. M.; Rampersad, S. M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, Ü.; Wolters, C. H.; Stegeman, D. F.; Oostendorp, T. F.

    2013-07-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  14. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Lew, S; Aydin, U; Wolters, C H; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F

    2013-07-21

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and grey matter (Thielscher et al 2011 NeuroImage 54 234-43, Bijsterbosch et al 2012 Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 50 671-81), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al 2008 Exp. Brain Res. 186 539-50). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images, was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location.

  15. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, A M; Rampersad, S M; Lucka, F; Lanfer, B; Lew, S; Aydin, Ü; Wolters, C H; Stegeman, D F; Oostendorp, T F

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know how accurate the geometry has to be represented. Previous studies only looked at the differences caused by neglecting the complete boundary between the CSF and GM (Thielscher et al. 2011; Bijsterbosch et al. 2012), or by resizing the whole brain (Wagner et al. 2008). However, due to the high conductive properties of the CSF, it can be expected that alterations in sulcus width can already have a significant effect on the distribution of the electric field. To answer this question, the sulcus width of a highly realistic head model, based on T1-, T2- and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI), was altered systematically. This study shows that alterations in the sulcus width do not cause large differences in the majority of the electric field values. However, considerable overestimation of sulcus width produces an overestimation of the calculated field strength, also at locations distant from the target location. PMID:23787706

  16. Human left ventral premotor cortex mediates matching of hand posture to object use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Vingerhoets

    Full Text Available Visuomotor transformations for grasping have been associated with a fronto-parietal network in the monkey brain. The human homologue of the parietal monkey region (AIP has been identified as the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, whereas the putative human equivalent of the monkey frontal region (F5 is located in the ventral part of the premotor cortex (vPMC. Results from animal studies suggest that monkey F5 is involved in the selection of appropriate hand postures relative to the constraints of the task. In humans, the functional roles of aIPS and vPMC appear to be more complex and the relative contribution of each region to grasp selection remains uncertain. The present study aimed to identify modulation in brain areas sensitive to the difficulty level of tool object - hand posture matching. Seventeen healthy right handed participants underwent fMRI while observing pictures of familiar tool objects followed by pictures of hand postures. The task was to decide whether the hand posture matched the functional use of the previously shown object. Conditions were manipulated for level of difficulty. Compared to a picture matching control task, the tool object - hand posture matching conditions conjointly showed increased modulation in several left hemispheric regions of the superior and inferior parietal lobules (including aIPS, the middle occipital gyrus, and the inferior temporal gyrus. Comparison of hard versus easy conditions selectively modulated the left inferior frontal gyrus with peak activity located in its opercular part (Brodmann area (BA 44. We suggest that in the human brain, vPMC/BA44 is involved in the matching of hand posture configurations in accordance with visual and functional demands.

  17. Separate evaluation of target facilitation and distractor suppression in the activity of macaque lateral intraparietal neurons during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Satoshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Tadashi

    2013-12-01

    During visual search, neurons in the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) discriminate the target from distractors by exhibiting stronger activation when the target appears within the receptive field than when it appears outside the receptive field. It is generally thought that such target-discriminative activity is produced by the combination of target-related facilitation and distractor-related suppression. However, little is known about how the target-discriminative activity is constituted by these two types of neural modulation. To address this issue, we recorded activity from LIP of monkeys performing a visual search task that consisted of target-present and target-absent trials. Monkeys had to make a saccade to a target in the target-present trials, whereas they had to maintain fixation in the target-absent trials, in which only distractors were presented. By introducing the activity from the latter trials as neutral activity, we were able to separate the target-discriminative activity into target-related elevation and distractor-related reduction components. We found that the target-discriminative activity of most LIP neurons consisted of the combination of target-related elevation and distractor-related reduction or only target-related elevation. In contrast, target-discriminative activity composed of only distractor-related reduction was observed for very few neurons. We also found that, on average, target-related elevation was stronger and occurred earlier compared with distractor-related reduction. Finally, we consider possible underlying mechanisms, including lateral inhibitory interactions, responsible for target-discriminative activity in visual search. The present findings provide insight into how neuronal modulations shape target-discriminative activity during visual search.

  18. Formation of category representations in superior temporal sulcus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, M. Van der; Turennout, M. van; Indefrey, P.

    2010-01-01

    The human brain contains cortical areas specialized in representing object categories. Visual experience is known to change the responses in these category-selective areas of the brain. However, little is known about how category training specifically affects cortical category selectivity. Here, we

  19. INTRAOPERATIVE LOCALIZATION OF CORTICAL MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS IN CENTRAL SULCUS LESIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study direct cortical electrical stimulation technique for the recording of motor evoked potentials under general anesthesia in central sulcus lesions. Methods The largest N20-P25 response was recorded from postcentral gyrus by intraoperative monitoring of cortical motor evoked potentials in 10 patients with intracranial lesions near or in the central area. The muscles of upper extremity in all patients were activated by delivering stimulus to cortical areas continuously. Moving the cortical electrodes forward, the largest P20-N25 response, SEP phase reversal,was obtained as a motor center stimulus. In this site of cortex, a short train stimulation elicited reproducible muscle action potentials that could be observed from the oscilloscope without averaging.Results MEPs can be recorded, pre- and post-operatively, without motor deficits of upper limbs in all patients.Conclusion This technique seems to be preferable for intraoperative localization of motor evoked potentials in central sulcus lesions under total intravenous anesthesia.

  20. Cryoclast distribution on the damascus sulcus region of enceladus moon (saturn) using vims images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, L. M.; Sánchez, J.; Saavedra, F.

    2017-07-01

    At Damascus Sulcus area within SPT (South Polar Terrain) there were interpreted a series of images where it was analyzed the distribution of different size particles that are ejected by distinct criovolcanic sources based on the analysis of the morphology, tectonic, reflectance and spectral signature of the surface material. This work shows these observations by comparing high resolution images of VIMS and ISS in combination with a Digital Elevation Model.

  1. Somatotopic organization of the lateral sulcus of owl monkeys: area 3b, S-II, and a ventral somatosensory area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusick, C G; Wall, J T; Felleman, D J; Kaas, J H

    1989-04-08

    Multiunit microelectrode recordings and injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to reveal neuron response properties, somatotopic organization, and interconnections of somatosensory cortex in the lateral sulcus (sylvian fissure) of New World owl monkeys. There were a number of main findings. 1) Representations of the face and head in areas 3b, 1, and S-II are found on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus. Most of the mouth and lip representations of area 3b were found in a rostral extension along the lip of the lateral sulcus. Adjacent cortex deeper in the lateral sulcus represented the nose, eye, ear, and scalp. 2) S-II was located on the upper bank of the lateral sulcus and extended past the fundus onto the deepest part of the lower bank. The face was represented most superficially in the sulcus, with the hand, foot, and trunk located in a rostrocaudal sequence deeper in the sulcus. The orientation of S-II is "erect," with the limbs pointing away from area 3b. 3) Neurons in S-II were activated by light tactile stimulation of the contralateral body surface. Receptive fields were several times larger than for area 3b neurons. 4) A 1-2-mm strip of cortex separating the face and hand representations in S-II was consistently responsive to the stimulation of deep receptors but was unresponsive to light cutaneous stimulation. 5) Injections of horseradish peroxidase in the electrophysiologically identified hand or foot representations of area 3b revealed somatotopically matched interconnections with mapped hand and foot representations in S-II. 6) A systematic representation of the body, termed the "ventral somatic" area, VS, was found extending laterally from S-II on the lower bank of the lateral sulcus. Within VS, the hand and foot were represented deep in the sulcus along the hand and foot regions of S-II, and the face was lateral near the ventral lip of the sulcus. 7) Neurons at most recording sites in the VS region were activated by contralateral

  2. Time course of superior temporal sulcus activity in response to eye gaze: a combined fMRI and MEG study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2008-01-01

    The human superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to be involved in gaze processing, but temporal data regarding this issue are lacking. We investigated this topic by combining fMRI and MEG in four normal subjects. Photographs of faces with either averted or straight eye gazes were presented and subjects passively viewed the stimuli. First, we analyzed the brain areas involved using fMRI. A group analysis revealed activation of the STS for averted compared to straight gazes, which was confirmed in all subjects. We then measured brain activity using MEG, and conducted a 3D spatial filter analysis. The STS showed higher activity in response to averted versus straight gazes during the 150–200 ms period, peaking at around 170 ms, after stimulus onset. In contrast, the fusiform gyrus, which was detected by the main effect of stimulus presentations in fMRI analysis, exhibited comparable activity across straight and averted gazes at about 170 ms. These results indicate involvement of the human STS in rapid processing of the eye gaze of another individual. PMID:19015114

  3. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  4. Role of Rouviere′s sulcus as anatomical landmark in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 750 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Shoujun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the role of Rouviere′s sulcus as the anatomical landmark for the cystic duct in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. MethodsThe clinical data of 750 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy operated by one beginner from October 2012 to March 2014 in the Affiliated Santai Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College were analyzed. The frequency of appearance of Rouviere′s sulcus was recorded during operation, and the Rouviere′s sulcus was used as the anatomical landmark for the cystic duct in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. ResultsOf the 750 patients, 705 had Rouviere′s sulcus. There was no mortality during operation. Bile duct injury occurred in one case (0.13%, whose Rouviere′s sulcus was not seen during operation. Among the first 300 cases, the three-hole method was used in 35 cases, and 30 cases (10% were converted to open surgery. Among the succeeding 450 cases, the three-hole method was used in 387 cases, and 15 cases (3.3% were converted to open surgery. ConclusionRouviere′s sulcus is an important anatomical landmark for the cystic duct. Its identification before Calot′s triangle dissection may help in preventing the bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for beginners. It has great clinical significance and should be applied widely.

  5. A key region in the human parietal cortex for processing proprioceptive hand feedback during reaching movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichenbach, Alexandra; Thielscher, Axel; Peer, Angelika; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Seemingly effortless, we adjust our movements to continuously changing environments. After initiation of a goal-directed movement, the motor command is under constant control of sensory feedback loops. The main sensory signals contributing to movement control are vision and proprioception. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused mainly on identifying the parts of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) that contribute to visually guided movements. We used event-related TMS and force perturbations of the reaching hand to test whether the same sub-regions of the left PPC contribute to the processing of proprioceptive-only and of multi-sensory information about hand position when reaching for a visual target. TMS over two distinct stimulation sites elicited differential effects: TMS applied over the posterior part of the medial intraparietal sulcus (mIPS) compromised reaching accuracy when proprioception was the only sensory information available for correcting the reaching error. When visual feedback of the hand was available, TMS over the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) prolonged reaching time. Our results show for the first time the causal involvement of the posterior mIPS in processing proprioceptive feedback for online reaching control, and demonstrate that distinct cortical areas process proprioceptive-only and multi-sensory information for fast feedback corrections.

  6. Imaging the femoral sulcus with ultrasound, CT, and MRI: reliability and generalizability in patients with patellar instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toms, Andoni P.; Cahir, John [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Departments of Radiology, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Swift, Louise [University of East Anglia, School of Medicine, Health Policy and Practice, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom); Donell, Simon T. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Institute of Orthopedics, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    Recent advances in surgical intervention for patellar instability have led to a need for long-term radiological monitoring. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or ultrasound (US) can replace computed tomography (CT) as the standard of care for the evaluation of the femoral sulcus. This was a prospective study comparing the reliability of CT, magnetic resonance (MR), and US for measuring the femoral sulcus in patients with patellar instability. Twenty-four patients were recruited to undergo a CT, MR, and US examination of each knee. Two observers independently measured femoral sulcus angles from subchondral bone and hyaline cartilage on two occasions. Intraclass correlations and generalizability coefficients were calculated to measure the reliability of each of the techniques. Thereafter, two observers measured the femoral sulcus angle from ultrasound images recorded by two independent operators to estimate interobserver and interoperator reliability. Forty-seven knees were examined with CT and US and 44 with MRI. The sulcus angle was consistently smaller when measured from subchondral bone compared to cartilage (5-7 ). Interobserver reliability for CT, MR, and US measurements from subchondral bone were 0.87, 0.80, and 0.82 and from cartilage 0.80, 0.81, and 0.50. Generalizability coefficients of measurements from subchondral bone for CT, MR, and US were 0.87, 0.76, and 0.81 and for cartilage 0.76, 0.73, and 0.05. Most of the variability in the US occurred at image acquisition rather than measurement. In patients with patellar instability, CT and MR are reliable techniques for measuring the femoral sulcus angle but US, particularly of the articular cartilage, is not. MR is therefore the most suitable tool for longitudinal studies of the femoral sulcus. (orig.)

  7. A case of percutaneous high dose rate brachytherapy for superior pulmonary sulcus tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakura, Tamaki; Imamura, Masahiro; Murata, Takashi [Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    A 64-year-old man with advanced superior pulmonary sulcus tumor suffered severe unrelieved pain even after chemotherapy, external irradiation and hyperthermia. So we planned to introduce a percutaneous high dose rate brachytherapy using the microselectron HDR {sup 192}Ir. With the estimation using the Pain Score, satisfying pain relief was attainable with a combination of the percutaneous high dose rate brachytherapy and conventional treatment. So the percutaneous high dose rate brachytherapy had the possibility to contribute to the alleviation of the pain. (author)

  8. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Anthony; Monaco, Simona; Kaufman, Liam D; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  9. The Neural Correlates of Chronic Symptoms of Vertigo Proneness in Humans.

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    Ola Alsalman

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are of significant importance for variable functions including gaze stabilization, spatial perception, navigation, cognition, and bodily self-consciousness. The vestibular network governs functions that might be impaired in patients affected with vestibular dysfunction. It is currently unclear how different brain regions/networks process vestibular information and integrate the information into a unified spatial percept related to somatosensory awareness and whether people with recurrent balance complaints have a neural signature as a trait affecting their development of chronic symptoms of vertigo. Pivotal evidence points to a vestibular-related brain network in humans that is widely distributed in nature. By using resting state source localized electroencephalography in non-vertiginous state, electrophysiological changes in activity and functional connectivity of 23 patients with balance complaints where chronic symptoms of vertigo and dizziness are among the most common reported complaints are analyzed and compared to healthy subjects. The analyses showed increased alpha2 activity within the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneues/cuneus and reduced beta3 and gamma activity within the pregenual and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex for the subjects with balance complaints. These electrophysiological variations were correlated with reported chronic symptoms of vertigo intensity. A region of interest analysis found reduced functional connectivity for gamma activity within the vestibular cortex, precuneus, frontal eye field, intra-parietal sulcus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, there was a positive correlation between chronic symptoms of vertigo intensity and increased alpha-gamma nesting in the left frontal eye field. When compared to healthy subjects, there is evidence of electrophysiological changes in the brain of patients with balance complaints even outside chronic

  10. The Neural Correlates of Chronic Symptoms of Vertigo Proneness in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsalman, Ola; Ost, Jan; Vanspauwen, Robby; Blaivie, Catherine; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular signals are of significant importance for variable functions including gaze stabilization, spatial perception, navigation, cognition, and bodily self-consciousness. The vestibular network governs functions that might be impaired in patients affected with vestibular dysfunction. It is currently unclear how different brain regions/networks process vestibular information and integrate the information into a unified spatial percept related to somatosensory awareness and whether people with recurrent balance complaints have a neural signature as a trait affecting their development of chronic symptoms of vertigo. Pivotal evidence points to a vestibular-related brain network in humans that is widely distributed in nature. By using resting state source localized electroencephalography in non-vertiginous state, electrophysiological changes in activity and functional connectivity of 23 patients with balance complaints where chronic symptoms of vertigo and dizziness are among the most common reported complaints are analyzed and compared to healthy subjects. The analyses showed increased alpha2 activity within the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneues/cuneus and reduced beta3 and gamma activity within the pregenual and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex for the subjects with balance complaints. These electrophysiological variations were correlated with reported chronic symptoms of vertigo intensity. A region of interest analysis found reduced functional connectivity for gamma activity within the vestibular cortex, precuneus, frontal eye field, intra-parietal sulcus, orbitofrontal cortex, and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, there was a positive correlation between chronic symptoms of vertigo intensity and increased alpha-gamma nesting in the left frontal eye field. When compared to healthy subjects, there is evidence of electrophysiological changes in the brain of patients with balance complaints even outside chronic symptoms of vertigo

  11. Human fMRI reveals that delayed action re-recruits visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Singhal

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC, a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS, dorsal premotor cortex (PMd, primary motor cortex (M1 and the supplementary motor area (SMA, showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1 ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2 early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping.

  12. Naturalistic fMRI Mapping Reveals Superior Temporal Sulcus as the Hub for the Distributed Brain Network for Social Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life. PMID:22905026

  13. Naturalistic FMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a set of 137 short (approximately 16 s each, total 27 min) audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech) and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action, and non-human sounds) lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: (1) a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, (2) a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion, and pain, (3) a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction, and speech, and (4) a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the pSTS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  14. Naturalistic fMRI mapping reveals superior temporal sulcus as the hub for the distributed brain network for social perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Marko Lahnakoski

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant data on brain networks processing static social signals, such as pictures of faces, the neural systems supporting social perception in naturalistic conditions are still poorly understood. Here we delineated brain networks subserving social perception under naturalistic conditions in 19 healthy humans who watched, during 3-tesla functional magnetic imaging (fMRI, a set of 137 short (~16 s each, total 27 min audiovisual movie clips depicting pre-selected social signals. Two independent raters estimated how well each clip represented eight social features (faces, human bodies, biological motion, goal-oriented actions, emotion, social interaction, pain, and speech and six filler features (places, objects, rigid motion, people not in social interaction, non-goal-oriented action and non-human sounds lacking social content. These ratings were used as predictors in the fMRI analysis. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS responded to all social features but not to any non-social features, and the anterior STS responded to all social features except bodies and biological motion. We also found four partially segregated, extended networks for processing of specific social signals: 1 a fronto-temporal network responding to multiple social categories, 2 a fronto-parietal network preferentially activated to bodies, motion and pain, 3 a temporo-amygdalar network responding to faces, social interaction and speech, and 4 a fronto-insular network responding to pain, emotions, social interactions, and speech. Our results highlight the role of the posterior STS in processing multiple aspects of social information, as well as the feasibility and efficiency of fMRI mapping under conditions that resemble the complexity of real life.

  15. Abnormal surface morphology of the central sulcus in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyu; Wang, Shaoyi; Li, Xinwei; Li, Qiongling; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    The central sulcus (CS) divides the primary motor and somatosensory areas, and its three-dimensional (3D) anatomy reveals the structural changes of the sensorimotor regions. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with sensorimotor and executive function deficits. However, it is largely unknown whether the morphology of the CS alters due to inappropriate development in the ADHD brain. Here, we employed the sulcus-based morphometry approach to investigate the 3D morphology of the CS in 42 children whose ages spanned from 8.8 to 13.5 years (21 with ADHD and 21 controls). After automatic labeling of each CS, we computed seven regional shape metrics for each CS, including the global average length, average depth, maximum depth, average span, surface area, average cortical thickness, and local sulcal profile. We found that the average depth and maximum depth of the left CS as well as the average cortical thickness of bilateral CS in the ADHD group were significantly larger than those in the healthy children. Moreover, significant between-group differences in the sulcal profile had been found in middle sections of the CSs bilaterally, and these changes were positively correlated with the hyperactivity-impulsivity scores in the children with ADHD. Altogether, our results provide evidence for the abnormity of the CS anatomical morphology in children with ADHD due to the structural changes in the motor cortex, which significantly contribute to the clinical symptomatology of the disorder.

  16. Semiautomated volumetric response evaluation as an imaging biomarker in superior sulcus tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, C.G.; Paul, M.A. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dahele, M.; Soernsen de Koste, J.R. van; Senan, S. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bahce, I.; Smit, E.F. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pulmonary Diseases, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Thunnissen, E. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartemink, K.J. [VU University Medical Center, Departments of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-02-15

    Volumetric response to therapy has been suggested as a biomarker for patient-centered outcomes. The primary aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether the volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was associated with pathological complete response (pCR) or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. The secondary aim was to evaluate a semiautomated method for serial volume assessment. In this retrospective study, treatment outcomes were obtained from a departmental database. The tumor was delineated on the computed tomography (CT) scan used for radiotherapy planning, which was typically performed during the first cycle of chemotherapy. These contours were transferred to the post-chemoradiotherapy diagnostic CT scan using deformable image registration (DIR) with/without manual editing. CT scans from 30 eligible patients were analyzed. Median follow-up was 51 months. Neither absolute nor relative reduction in tumor volume following chemoradiotherapy correlated with pCR or 2-year survival. The tumor volumes determined by DIR alone and DIR + manual editing correlated to a high degree (R{sup 2} = 0.99, P < 0.01). Volumetric response to induction chemoradiotherapy was not correlated with pCR or survival in patients with superior sulcus tumors managed with trimodality therapy. DIR-based contour propagation merits further evaluation as a tool for serial volumetric assessment. (orig.)

  17. Abnormal surface morphology of the central sulcus in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu eLi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The central sulcus (CS divides the primary motor and somatosensory areas, and its three-dimensional (3D anatomy reveals the structural changes of the sensorimotor regions. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is associated with sensorimotor and executive function deficits. However, it is largely unknown whether the morphology of the CS alters due to inappropriate development in the ADHD brain. Here, we employed the sulcus-based morphometry approach to investigate the 3D morphology of the CS in 42 children whose ages spanned from 8.8 to 13.5 years (21 with ADHD and 21 controls. After automatic labeling of each CS, we computed 7 regional shape metrics for each CS, including the global average length, average depth, maximum depth, average span, surface area, average cortical thickness and local sulcal profile. We found that the average depth and maximum depth of the left CS as well as the average cortical thickness of bilateral CS in the ADHD group were significantly larger than those in the healthy children. Moreover, significant between-group differences in the sulcal profile had been found in middle sections of the CSs bilaterally, and these changes were positively correlated with the hyperactivity-impulsivity scores in the children with ADHD. Altogether, our results provide evidence for the abnormity of the CS anatomical morphology in children with ADHD due to the structural changes in the motor cortex, which significantly contribute to the clinical symptomatology of the disorder.

  18. There is more into 'doing' than 'knowing': The function of the right inferior frontal sulcus is specific for implementing versus memorising verbal instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demanet, Jelle; Liefooghe, Baptist; Hartstra, Egbert; Wenke, Dorit; De Houwer, Jan; Brass, Marcel

    2016-11-01

    In the present study we examine the mechanism underlying the human ability to implement newly instructed stimulus-response mappings for their future application. We introduce a novel procedure in which we can investigate the processes underlying such implementation while controlling for more general working-memory demands. The results indicate that a region within the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in the vicinity of the inferior frontal sulcus (IFS) is specifically recruited when new instructions are implemented compared to when new instructions are memorised. In addition, we observed that this area is more strongly activated when task performance is effective. Together, these findings suggest that the DLPFC, and more specific the IFS, plays an important role during the formation of procedural representations in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

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    Zvi N Roth

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e. discriminative information may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e. relative information. For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action.We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in early visual cortex, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS, but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped.We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model’s receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC.These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representation into relative spatial representation along the visual stream.

  20. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi N

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream.

  1. Functional MRI Representational Similarity Analysis Reveals a Dissociation between Discriminative and Relative Location Information in the Human Visual System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Zvi N.

    2016-01-01

    Neural responses in visual cortex are governed by a topographic mapping from retinal locations to cortical responses. Moreover, at the voxel population level early visual cortex (EVC) activity enables accurate decoding of stimuli locations. However, in many cases information enabling one to discriminate between locations (i.e., discriminative information) may be less relevant than information regarding the relative location of two objects (i.e., relative information). For example, when planning to grab a cup, determining whether the cup is located at the same retinal location as the hand is hardly relevant, whereas the location of the cup relative to the hand is crucial for performing the action. We have previously used multivariate pattern analysis techniques to measure discriminative location information, and found the highest levels in EVC, in line with other studies. Here we show, using representational similarity analysis, that availability of discriminative information in fMRI activation patterns does not entail availability of relative information. Specifically, we find that relative location information can be reliably extracted from activity patterns in posterior intraparietal sulcus (pIPS), but not from EVC, where we find the spatial representation to be warped. We further show that this variability in relative information levels between regions can be explained by a computational model based on an array of receptive fields. Moreover, when the model's receptive fields are extended to include inhibitory surround regions, the model can account for the spatial warping in EVC. These results demonstrate how size and shape properties of receptive fields in human visual cortex contribute to the transformation of discriminative spatial representations into relative spatial representations along the visual stream. PMID:27242455

  2. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct.

  3. Four roots of abducent nerve at its exit from the pontomedullary sulcus: endoscopic case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan AA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The abducent nerve occupies a strategic position at the middle third of the clivus. With the recent advances in the field of imaging techniques and endoscopic skull base surgery it is important to understand the neurovascular relationships and variations in its course. Very limited literature is available on the cisternal course of abducent nerve as studied by an endoscope. A few studies have described the course of abducent nerve endoscopically through an endonasal approach. In this study we attempted to explore its cisternal course endoscopically through a retrosigmoid approach to the cerebello-pontine angle with emphasis on its neurovascular relationship. Duplication and triplication of the abducent nerve have been reported by some authors, but four roots of abducent nerve have not been reported. In the present study, in one of the cadavers it was found that on the left side the abducent nerve emerged as four roots from the pontomedullary sulcus.

  4. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P Said

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  5. Graded representations of emotional expressions in the left superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Moore, Christopher D; Norman, Kenneth A; Haxby, James V; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Perceptual categorization is a fundamental cognitive process that gives meaning to an often graded sensory environment. Previous research has subdivided the visual pathway into posterior regions that processes the physical properties of a stimulus, and frontal regions that process more abstract properties such as category information. The superior temporal sulcus (STS) is known to be involved in face and emotion perception, but the nature of its processing remains unknown. Here, we used targeted fMRI measurements of the STS to investigate whether its representations of facial expressions are categorical or noncategorical. Multivoxel pattern analysis showed that even though subjects were performing a categorization task, the left STS contained graded, noncategorical representations. In the right STS, representations showed evidence for both stimulus-related gradations and a categorical boundary.

  6. Additional multifocal sulcus-based intraocular lens: alternative to multifocal intraocular lens in the capsular bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Jens; Kroeber, Sandra; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2013-04-01

    To compare the visual outcomes of additional multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) for sulcus fixation with those of standard multifocal IOLs in the capsular bag. Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, Germany. Prospective controlled clinical trial. Eyes had phacoemulsification and implantation of a monofocal IOL in the capsular bag and an additional aberration-free diffractive IOL in the ciliary sulcus (multifocal add-on IOL group). Measurements of uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; contrast sensitivity; and defocus curve were performed 3 months postoperatively. Results were compared with those in eyes with an aberration-correcting diffractive posterior chamber IOL (multifocal PC IOL group). The multifocal add-on IOL group comprised 34 eyes of 20 patients and the multifocal PC IOL group, 31 eyes of 17 patients. Cataract surgery, IOL implantation, and the postoperative course were uneventful in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, or near visual acuities between the 2 groups. The median uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.00 logMAR in both groups, and the median uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.10 logMAR in both groups. Contrast sensitivity testing yielded significantly better results in the multifocal add-on IOL group, especially at spatial frequencies over 1.5 cycles per degree. Defocus curves were similar in the 2 groups. Visual performance with a multifocal diffractive add-on IOL was equivalent to that achieved with a commonly used multifocal diffractive PC IOL. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Spatial Distribution of Thermal Emission from Baghdad Sulcus, Enceladus, at 100 meter Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, John R.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Howett, C. J. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Albright, S. A.

    2012-10-01

    The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has been observing endogenic thermal emission from the south pole of Enceladus since 2005. Best spatial resolution from conventional scans is about 1km, usually from distances > 2000 km. When Cassini is closer to Enceladus, the spacecraft cannot rotate fast enough to track the surface, and the 5 seconds required to obtain a CIRS spectrum produces many kilometers of smear. However, higher-resolution mapping can be done from much closer range by exploiting the 20 msec sampling of the CIRS raw interferograms. On April 14th 2012, Cassini made a gravity pass of Enceladus at a range of 74 km. Spacecraft orientation was inertially fixed, and chosen so that the active tiger stripe Baghdad Sulcus passed through the CIRS and VIMS fields of view during the flyby. In the 7 to 17 µm region, CIRS uses linear arrays of ten detectors with IFOV of 0.29 mrad, which were oriented roughly perpendicular to the groundtrack and operated in pairs, giving five cross-track spatial resolution elements, each 43 meters wide. Along-track spatial resolution, defined by the 20 msec interferogram sampling time and the flyby speed of 7.5 km/sec, was 150 meters. At longer wavelengths, CIRS obtained a single-detector scan with a spatial resolution of 300 meters. The brief passage of the intense tiger stripe thermal emission through the field of view produced complex spikes in the CIRS interferograms. Though spectra cannot be reconstructed, we can use knowledge of the interferogram temporal response to reconstruct the time history of the incoming radiation and thus its spatial distribution. The resulting image will map tiger stripe thermal emission along a small part of Baghdad Sulcus at about ten times the spatial resolution of the best previous Cassini thermal images.

  8. Cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togao, Osamu [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)], E-mail: togao@dr.hosp.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yoshiura, Takashi; Mihara, Futoshi; Noguchi, Tomoyuki; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Maidashi 3-1-1, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: To confirm the cortical thickness difference across the central sulcus (CS) visualized in the presence of vasogenic edema on MRI. Materials and methods: T2-weighted images of 70 cerebral hemispheres showing vasogenic edema infiltrating into subcortical white matter around the CS were studied retrospectively. Two neuroradiologists measured the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of the CS, precentral sulci (PrCS), and postcentral sulci (PoCS). Additionally, we compared the cortical thickness of the anterior and posterior banks of each sulcus visually using a grading scale. Results: On T2-weighted images, the cerebral cortex was highlighted by a high signal-intensity vasogenic edema in the adjacent white matter, and its thickness was readily measurable. The unique cortical thickness difference between the anterior and posterior banks of the CS were confirmed with measurements of 2.67 and 1.48 mm (p < 0.0001). The cortical measurements across other cerebral sulci were 2.04 and 1.95 mm (NS) for the PrCS, and 1.67 and 1.77 mm (NS) for the PoCS. The cortical thickness ratios were 1.86 for the CS, 1.05 for the PrCS, and 0.96 for the PoCS. On visual evaluation, the anterior bank of the CS was thicker than the posterior bank in 93% (65/70). For the PrCS and PoCS, the thickness of the anterior and posterior banks appeared to be equal in over 70% of the patients. Conclusion: A prominent cortical thickness difference across the CS in the presence of vasogenic edema was confirmed. This finding is considered to facilitate the identification of the CS in patients with brain tumors.

  9. Non-small cell lung carcinoma of the superior sulcus : Favourable outcomes of combined modality treatment in carefully selected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, I.; Belderbos, J. S. A.; Burgers, J. A.; van Zandwijk, N.; Groen, H. J. M.; Klomp, H. M.

    The combination of radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy followed by surgery (trimodality treatment) is currently regarded as optimal treatment for non-small cell lung cancer of the superior sulcus (SST) or Pancoast tumour. The possibility to administer intensive combined modality treatment is

  10. The balanced two-string technique for sulcus intraocular lens implantation in the absence of capsular support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Hesham A; Sabry, Heba Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm). Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°). Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  11. Combined operative technique with anterior surgical approach and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy for anterior superior sulcus tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used, but surgical resections of superior sulcus tumours remain challenging because of their anatomical location. For such cases, less-invasive procedures, such as the anterior transcervical-thoracic and transmanubrial approaches, have been widely performed because of their excellent visualization of the subclavian vessels. Recently, a combined operative technique with an anterior surgical approach and VATS for anterior superior sulcus tumours has been introduced. Herein, we report three cases of anterior superior sulcus tumours successfully resected by surgical approaches combined with a VATS-based lobectomy. In all cases, operability was confirmed by VATS, and upper lobectomies with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissections were performed. Subsequently, dissections of the anterior inlet of the tumours were performed using the transmanubrial approach in two patients and the anterior trans-cervical-thoracic approach in one patient. Both approaches provided excellent access to the anterior inlet of the tumour and exposure of the subclavian vessels, resulting in radical resection of the tumour with concomitant resection of the surrounding anatomical structures, including the chest wall and vessels. In conclusion, VATS lobectomy combined with the anterior surgical approach might be an excellent procedure for the resection of anterior superior sulcus tumours.

  12. The Balanced Two-String Technique for Sulcus Intraocular Lens Implantation in the Absence of Capsular Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham A. Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe and explore an alternative approach for sulcus intraocular lens (IOL implantation in the absence of capsular support. Methods. The commonly available one-piece poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA lens is stabilized in the sulcus by two intraocular horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene suture passed through the lens dialing holes in opposite directions to achieve a mechanical balance. The horizontal strings of 10/0 polypropylene work as a rail track for the IOL optics, allowing some side to side lens adjustment even following wound closure. The stability of the IOL was tested in vitro. Six aphakic patients underwent in-sulcus IOL secondary implantation using the balanced two-string technique. Patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. Best spectacle corrected vision was assessed. Lens centration and lens tilt were measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Results. All patients had successful lens insertion. Best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA improved in all patients. Lens decentration ranged between 0.21 mm and 0.9 mm (average 0.53 mm. Lens tilt ranged between 1.2° and 2.8° (average 2.17°. Conclusion. The mechanically balanced two-string technique is an alternative option for sulcus IOL implantation in absence of capsular support, allowing lens centration adjustment with no additional risks.

  13. The relation of sulcus nervi radialis with the fracture line of humerus fracture and radial nerve injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozden, Hilmi; Demir, Ahmet; Guven, Gul

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Radial nerve is closely in contact with the bone in sulcus nervi radialis (SNR). Location of SNR shows ethnic differences. Radial nerve is a big problem in humerus fractures and its surgery. In this study, we aimed to examine if humerus fractures of this region increases the probability ...

  14. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  15. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-...

  16. Effects of the space for wash materials on sulcus depth reproduction with addition-curing silicone using two-step putty-wash technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Maho; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Finger, Werner J; Iwasaki, Naohiko

    2013-01-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate effects of space thickness and consistency of wash materials on sulcus depth reproduction with silicone impressions, low (L), medium (M), and very high consistency (VH), using two-step putty-wash technique. Impressions were taken from truncated cones with 50-, 100-, or 200-μm-wide sulci, using the combinations L+VH or M+VH and different space thickness for wash materials: 2 mm (ST2), 1 mm (ST1), and approximately 25 μm (ST0.025). Sulcus depth reproduction tended to increase with increasing sulcus width. Sulcus reproduction of ST0.025 was deeper than those of the other groups. At 100- and 200-μm sulcus widths, sulcus reproductions of ST1 and ST2 with L+HV were deeper than with M+HV. Regardless of consistency, the thin spacer produced deep reproduction. Adequate 0.5 mm sulcus reproductions were obtained with 100 and 200 μm wide sulci and 1- and 2-mm spacer widths, combined with low consistency impression material.

  17. Comprehensive physical therapy on 60 cases of sulcus syndrome%综合物理疗法为主治疗沟环综合征60例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    和家红; 李洪有

    2003-01-01

    @@ BACKGROUND:Professor Sun JY first reported the exist of sulcus for vertebral artery at posterior arch of atlas.If vertebral artery is stimulated or compressed when passing through sulcus,artery spasm occurred leading to circulatory blocking and ischemia of brain tissue which blood was supplied by that artery.Dizziness,headache and other symptoms appeared,that is called sulcus syndrom.Therapeutic principles:Overcoming unstability between head and neck,restoring internal and external balance,dynamic and static balance;Removing stimulating and compressing factors to vertebral artery and peripheral sympathetic nerve and /or spinal nerve,ensuring normal blood supply of vertebral artery.

  18. Medical image of the week: superior sulcus tumor with neural invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. A 78-year-old woman with left upper lobe squamous cell carcinoma presented with severe left arm and upper posterior chest pain. The pain was described as a severe burning sensation with “pins and needles”, and there was loss of motor function in the arm. This neuropathic pain was refractory to escalating doses of opioids and gabapentin. She was receiving chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin and completed five radiation treatments. On physical examination, there was atrophy of the left forearm and hand muscles. No evidence of Horner’s syndrome was noted. A CT of the chest with contrast (Figure 1 showed a 5.8 cm apical segment left upper lobe cavitary mass consistent with a superior sulcus tumor and concomitant pulmonary embolism. An MRI of the cervical and thoracic spine (Figure 2 showed a large apical necrotic tumor abutting the upper thoracic spine with invasion of the neural foramina at C7-T1, T1-T2, and T2-T3 …

  19. The relationship between physiologic halitosis and periodontopathic bacteria of the tongue and gingival sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohmori, Misaki; Sato, Soh

    2010-02-01

    To determine the influence of oral status on halitosis, the relationship between halitosis and periodontopathic bacteria present in plaque on the tongue and the subgingival sulcus was examined in 62 periodontally healthy adults. Halitosis indicators used were the organoleptic score; gas chromatography results [total volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) = H(2)S + CH(3)SH + (CH(3))(2)S]; Halimeter values; and the results of three clinical tests, plaque control record (PlCR), plaque index (PlI), and tongue coat status. Significant correlations with organoleptic scores was observed for PlCR, PlI, tongue coat status, VSC amounts, and Halimeter values, indicating that halitosis in periodontally healthy subjects tended to originate from tongue plaque deposits. Polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect six periodontopathic bacteria (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Treponema denticola) from the tongue and subgingival plaque. Significant effects on the organoleptic scores, tongue coat status, total VSC, H(2)S and CH(3)SH amounts, and Halimeter values were observed only for T. denticola and F. nucleatum and only in the tongue plaque, not in the subgingival plaque. Thus, therapies developed to inhibit the growth of these bacteria may lead to future treatments of halitosis.

  20. Involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior temporal sulcus in impaired social perception in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Choi, Soo-Hee; Lee, Hyeongrae; Shin, Young Seok; Jang, Dong-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2015-04-03

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by impairments in diverse thinking and emotional responses, which are related to social perception dysfunction. This fMRI study was designed to investigate a neurobiological basis of social perception deficits of patients with schizophrenia in various social situations of daily life and their relationship with clinical symptoms and social dysfunction. Seventeen patients and 19 controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which participants performed a virtual social perception task, containing an avatar's speech with positive, negative or neutral emotion in a virtual reality space. Participants were asked to determine whether or not the avatar's speech was appropriate to each situation. The significant group×appropriateness interaction was seen in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting from lower activity in patients in the inappropriate condition, and left DLPFC activity was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms and positively correlated with the level of social functioning. The significant appropriateness×emotion interaction observed in the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) was present in controls, but absent in patients, resulting from the existence and absence of a difference between the inappropriate positive and negative conditions, respectively. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the DLPFC-STS network may underlie patients' abnormal social perception in various social situations of daily life. Abnormal functioning of this network may contribute to increases of negative symptoms and decreases of social functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Christoph D; Logothetis, Nikos K; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons' responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  2. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dahl

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual representations in the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS benefit from acoustic information. To this end, we recorded neural responses in alert monkeys passively watching audio-visual scenes, and quantified the impact of simultaneously presented sounds on responses elicited by the presentation of naturalistic visual scenes. Using methods of stimulus decoding and information theory, we then asked whether the responses of STS neurons become more reliable and informative in multisensory contexts. Our results demonstrate that STS neurons are indeed sensitive to the modality composition of the sensory stimulus. Importantly, information provided by STS neurons’ responses about the particular visual stimulus being presented was highest during congruent audio-visual and unimodal visual stimulation, but was reduced during incongruent bimodal stimulation. Together, these findings demonstrate that higher visual representations in the STS not only convey information about the visual input but also depend on the acoustic context of a visual scene.

  3. Mental representations of vowel features asymmetrically modulate activity in superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharinger, Mathias; Domahs, Ulrike; Klein, Elise; Domahs, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Research in auditory neuroscience illustrated the importance of superior temporal sulcus (STS) for speech sound processing. However, evidence for abstract processing beyond the level of phonetics in STS has remained elusive. In this study, we follow an underspecification approach according to which the phonological representation of vowels is based on the presence vs. absence of abstract features. We hypothesized that phonological mismatch in a same/different task is governed by underspecification: A less specified vowel in second position of same/different minimal pairs (e.g. [e]) compared to its more specified counterpart in first position (e.g. [o]) should result in stronger activation in STS than in the reverse presentation. Whole-brain analyses confirmed this hypothesis in a bilateral cluster in STS. However, this effect interacted with the feature-distance between first and second vowel and was most pronounced for a minimal, one-feature distance, evidencing the benefit of phonological information for processing acoustically minimal sound differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Posterior superior temporal sulcus responses predict perceived pleasantness of skin stroking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Davidovic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Love and affection is expressed through a range of physically intimate gestures, including caresses. Recent studies suggest that posterior temporal lobe areas typically associated with visual processing of social cues also respond to interpersonal touch. Here, we asked whether these areas are selective to caress-like skin stroking. We collected functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data from 23 healthy participants and compared brain responses to skin stroking and vibration. We did not find any significant differences between stroking and vibration in the posterior temporal lobe; however, right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS responses predicted healthy participant's perceived pleasantness of skin stroking, but not vibration. These findings link right pSTS responses to individual variability in perceived pleasantness of caress-like tactile stimuli. We speculate that the right pSTS may play a role in the translation of tactile stimuli into positively valenced, socially relevant interpersonal touch and that this system may be affected in disorders associated with impaired attachment.

  5. In-vivo gingival sulcus imaging using full-range, complex-conjugate-free, endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Yi, WonJin; Kang, Jin U.

    2012-01-01

    Frequent monitoring of gingival sulcus will provide valuable information for judging the presence and severity of periodontal disease. Optical coherence tomography, as a 3D high resolution high speed imaging modality is able to provide information for pocket depth, gum contour, gum texture, gum recession simultaneously. A handheld forward-viewing miniature resonant fiber-scanning probe was developed for in-vivo gingival sulcus imaging. The fiber cantilever driven by magnetic force vibrates at resonant frequency. A synchronized linear phase-modulation was applied in the reference arm by the galvanometer-driven reference mirror. Full-range, complex-conjugate-free, real-time endoscopic SD-OCT was achieved by accelerating the data process using graphics processing unit. Preliminary results showed a real-time in-vivo imaging at 33 fps with an imaging range of lateral 2 mm by depth 3 mm. Gap between the tooth and gum area was clearly visualized. Further quantification analysis of the gingival sulcus will be performed on the image acquired.

  6. [Endoscopically controlled optimization of trans-scleral suture fixation of posterior chamber lenses in the ciliary sulcus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, C; Sundmacher, R

    1993-08-01

    Two technical difficulties have to be overcome in transscleral suture fixation of posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PCL) in the ciliary sulcus: first, exact needle penetration through the sulcus, and second, exact positioning of the PCL haptics in the sulcus. Incongruence of the two may lead to long-term complications by compression or even strangulation of ciliary processes. Intraocular endoscopy was used intraoperatively to visualize the site of needle penetration and the final location of the haptics in patients. It turned out that with our previously described standard techniques the precision was far less than anticipated. Thus, new technical ways had to be sought to improve the precision of positioning. In secondary implantation without perforating keratoplasty we achieved the best results when the needle was passed ab externo before opening the eye and before anterior vitrectomy, taking advantage of a precisely prepared sclerocorneal zone. Passing the needle ab externo in an already hypotonic eyeball gives much less precise results. In combination with perforating keratoplasty with an open-sky approach, needle penetration ab interno is reliable. Correct positioning of the PCL haptics is at least as difficult as correct needle penetration, a fact which up to now has mostly been ignored. In 33 consecutively operated eyes the technique of implantation and PCL design was varied under endoscopical control.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Correlation between formation of the calcarine sulcus and morphological maturation of the lateral ventricle in cynomolgus monkey fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunishi, Katsuhiro; Sawada, Kazuhiko; Kashima, Masatoshi; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Sakata-Haga, Hiromi; Sukamoto, Takayuki; Aoki, Ichio; Fukui, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    In the present study developmental changes in the cerebral sulci and volumes of subcortical and archicortical structures of the cerebrum in cynomolgus monkey fetuses were examined with T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images in 3D. On the embryonic day (ED) 90, the lateral ventricle had still an immature vesicular shape in the occipital region of the cerebrum, and it dramatically closed its lumen by ED 100. In that period the calcarine sulcus progressively infolded from the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere narrowing the lumen of the lateral ventricle in the occipital region. Volume of the lateral ventricle decreased in the period ED 90-100, increasing afterwards in spite of increasing volumes of subcortical and archicortical structures such as the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, amygdala and hippocampal formation. During the same time, the volume of the germinal matrix around lateral ventricles decreased to disappear completely by ED 120. These results suggest that the morphological maturation of lateral ventricle is linked to the development of calcarine sulcus in cynomolgus monkey fetuses. The degree of infolding of calcarine sulcus on ED 100 would be useful as a gross anatomical landmark for evaluating the cerebral maturation in cynomolgus monkey fetuses.

  8. Prevalence of the acetabular sublabral sulcus at MR arthrography in patients under 17 years of age: does it exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerkurth, Olaf [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Jacobson, Jon A.; Morag, Yoav; Fessell, David [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Bedi, Asheesh; Sekiya, Jon K. [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-04-18

    To retrospectively determine characteristics of contrast-filled acetabular labral clefts in patients under the age of 17 years at MR arthrography (Mra) correlated with arthroscopy, which may impact the thinking regarding the existence of a sublabral sulcus. After IRB approval, 41 patients under the age of 17 who had MRa were identified. The following observations of contrast-filled clefts were assessed: (1) presence/absence, (2) location, (3) depth, (4) abnormal signal within the labrum and (5) shape (linear, gaping, complex). Fisher's exact and the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test were performed. Interreader agreement was calculated with Cohen's k. Reader 1 found clefts in 41 %. Depth was less than half in 6 %, more than half in 65 % and full thickness in 29 %. Shape was linear in 53 %, gaping in 18 % and complex in 29 %. Signal changes occurred in 88 %. Reader 2 found clefts in 29 %. Depth was less than half in 17 %, more than half in 58 % and full thickness in 25 %. Shape was linear in 50 %, gaping in 42 % and complex in 17 %. Signal changes occurred in 50 %. None of the clefts fulfilled the criteria for a sublabral sulcus at MRa and arthroscopy. None of the clefts found in our subjects under the age of 17 years met the MRa and arthroscopy criteria for a sublabral sulcus, which supports the theory that such clefts represent labral tears. (orig.)

  9. BMP-2 regulates the formation of oral sulcus in mouse tongue by altering the balance between TIMP-1 and MMP-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Tadayoshi; Suga, Takeo; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Morito, Mitsuhiko; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G H; Nakamura, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether BMP-2 regulates the oral sulcus formation of mouse embryonic tongue by modifying the expression of TIMP and MMP. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 180% increase in the depth of oral sulcus cavity (P sulcus into the mesenchymal tissues consisting of tongue floor, whereas the recombinant BMP-2 suppressed the process in the organ culture system of mouse embryonic tongue. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 60% decrease in the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA (P sulcus in the BMP-2 siRNA treated mandibles. The recombinant BMP-2 induced a 220% increases in the expression of TIMP-1 mRNA and the area of the immunostaining for TIMP-1 around the oral sulcus was larger in the mandibles treated with the recombinant BMP-2 than the vehicle. The BMP-2 siRNA induced a 60% increase in the expression of MMP-13 protein and a marked increase in the staining intensity for MMP-13 was observed in the epithelial region of the BMP-2 siRNA treated mandibles. The recombinant BMP-2 induced a 70% decrease in the expression of MMP-13 mRNA and the decrease was mainly observed in the tissues around oral sulcus. The expressions of BMP-2, TIMP-1, and MMP-13 were verified in the tissues around in vivo developing oral sulcus at E11, 12, and 13 by immunohistochemistry. These results suggest that BMP-2 regulates the formation of oral sulcus by altering the balance between TIMP-1 and MMP-13.

  10. Morphologic Study of Superior Temporal Sulcus-Amygdaloid Body and Lateral Fissure-Amygdaloid Body Surgical Approach by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging Volume Rendering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuan; Ren, Bichen; Chang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Jinnan; Li, Youqiong; Duan, Haobo; Cheng, Kailiang; Wang, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    In this research, 83 patients were measured by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering technique. The authors acquired the curve length of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure on the cerebral hemisphere, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the center of amygdaloid body separately, the vertical diameter, the transversal diameter, and the anteroposterior diameter of the amygdaloid body and the 2 approach angles between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the center of amygdaloid body and the shortest segment from lateral fissure to the center of the amygdaloid body. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the 2 points of the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure, which are closest to the center of amygdaloid body, aimed at finding out the best entrance points of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus and the lateral fissure to the amygdaloid body and reducing the damage to the nerve fibers or blood vessels during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 1/4 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point and the point at the front side 1/3 of the lateral fissure. There is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  11. Functional integration of the posterior superior temporal sulcus correlates with facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Song, Yiying; Zhen, Zonglei; Liu, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Face perception is essential for daily and social activities. Neuroimaging studies have revealed a distributed face network (FN) consisting of multiple regions that exhibit preferential responses to invariant or changeable facial information. However, our understanding about how these regions work collaboratively to facilitate facial information processing is limited. Here, we focused on changeable facial information processing, and investigated how the functional integration of the FN is related to the performance of facial expression recognition. To do so, we first defined the FN as voxels that responded more strongly to faces than objects, and then used a voxel-based global brain connectivity method based on resting-state fMRI to characterize the within-network connectivity (WNC) of each voxel in the FN. By relating the WNC and performance in the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test across participants, we found that individuals with stronger WNC in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) were better at recognizing facial expressions. Further, the resting-state functional connectivity (FC) between the rpSTS and right occipital face area (rOFA), early visual cortex (EVC), and bilateral STS were positively correlated with the ability of facial expression recognition, and the FCs of EVC-pSTS and OFA-pSTS contributed independently to facial expression recognition. In short, our study highlights the behavioral significance of intrinsic functional integration of the FN in facial expression processing, and provides evidence for the hub-like role of the rpSTS for facial expression recognition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1930-1940, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Perceived communicative intent in gesture and language modulates the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redcay, Elizabeth; Velnoskey, Kayla R; Rowe, Meredith L

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral evidence and theory suggest gesture and language processing may be part of a shared cognitive system for communication. While much research demonstrates both gesture and language recruit regions along perisylvian cortex, relatively less work has tested functional segregation within these regions on an individual level. Additionally, while most work has focused on a shared semantic network, less has examined shared regions for processing communicative intent. To address these questions, functional and structural MRI data were collected from 24 adult participants while viewing videos of an experimenter producing communicative, Participant-Directed Gestures (PDG) (e.g., "Hello, come here"), noncommunicative Self-adaptor Gestures (SG) (e.g., smoothing hair), and three written text conditions: (1) Participant-Directed Sentences (PDS), matched in content to PDG, (2) Third-person Sentences (3PS), describing a character's actions from a third-person perspective, and (3) meaningless sentences, Jabberwocky (JW). Surface-based conjunction and individual functional region of interest analyses identified shared neural activation between gesture (PDGvsSG) and language processing using two different language contrasts. Conjunction analyses of gesture (PDGvsSG) and Third-person Sentences versus Jabberwocky revealed overlap within left anterior and posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). Conjunction analyses of gesture and Participant-Directed Sentences to Third-person Sentences revealed regions sensitive to communicative intent, including the left middle and posterior STS and left inferior frontal gyrus. Further, parametric modulation using participants' ratings of stimuli revealed sensitivity of left posterior STS to individual perceptions of communicative intent in gesture. These data highlight an important role of the STS in processing participant-directed communicative intent through gesture and language. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3444-3461, 2016. © 2016 Wiley

  13. Pure word deafness with auditory object agnosia after bilateral lesion of the superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschalk, Alexander; Uppenkamp, Stefan; Riedel, Bernhard; Bartsch, Andreas; Brandt, Tobias; Vogt-Schaden, Marlies

    2015-12-01

    Based on results from functional imaging, cortex along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) has been suggested to subserve phoneme and pre-lexical speech perception. For vowel classification, both superior temporal plane (STP) and STS areas have been suggested relevant. Lesion of bilateral STS may conversely be expected to cause pure word deafness and possibly also impaired vowel classification. Here we studied a patient with bilateral STS lesions caused by ischemic strokes and relatively intact medial STPs to characterize the behavioral consequences of STS loss. The patient showed severe deficits in auditory speech perception, whereas his speech production was fluent and communication by written speech was grossly intact. Auditory-evoked fields in the STP were within normal limits on both sides, suggesting that major parts of the auditory cortex were functionally intact. Further studies showed that the patient had normal hearing thresholds and only mild disability in tests for telencephalic hearing disorder. Prominent deficits were discovered in an auditory-object classification task, where the patient performed four standard deviations below the control group. In marked contrast, performance in a vowel-classification task was intact. Auditory evoked fields showed enhanced responses for vowels compared to matched non-vowels within normal limits. Our results are consistent with the notion that cortex along STS is important for auditory speech perception, although it does not appear to be entirely speech specific. Formant analysis and single vowel classification, however, appear to be already implemented in auditory cortex on the STP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Activity changes in the left superior temporal sulcus reflect the effects of childcare training on young female students' perceptions of infants' negative facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ayahito; Niwano, Katsuko; Tanabe, Motoko; Sato, Yosuke; Fujii, Toshikatsu

    2017-09-12

    In many developed countries, the number of infants who experience non-parent childcare is increasing, and the role of preschool teachers is becoming more important. However, little attention has been paid to the effects of childcare training on students who are studying to become preschool teachers. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether and how childcare training affects brain responses to infants' facial expressions among young females studying to become preschool teachers. Twenty-seven subjects who attended a childcare training session (i.e., the experimental group) and 28 subjects who did not attend the training (i.e., the control group) participated in this study. The participants went through fMRI scanning twice: before and after the childcare training session. They were presented with happy, neutral, and sad infant faces one by one during fMRI scanning. The present neuroimaging results revealed that the activity patterns of the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) for sad faces were modulated by the interaction between the time point of the data collection and group differences. The present results are the first to highlight the effects of childcare training on the human brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Retrodiaphragmatic portion of the lung: how deep is the posterior costophrenic sulcus on posteroanterior chest radiography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, J.K. [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, M.I. [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ami@catholic.ac.kr; Kim, H.L.; Park, S.H. [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, E. [Department of Preventive Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Aim: To determine the depth of the posterior costophrenic sulcus (CPS) on posteroanterior (PA) chest radiography in relation to the diaphragmatic dome and lateral CPS. Materials and methods: Five hundred and forty consecutive PA chest radiographs that were performed for general health screenings were retrospectively reviewed. Among them 282 radiographs were selected that met the following criteria: visualization of the inferior boundary of the posterior CPS behind the right hemidiaphragm; and no abnormal findings that affected the shape and level of the diaphragm. The selected chest radiographs were from 155 men and 127 women with a mean age of 40.7 {+-} 8.4 years. On 282 PA chest radiographs, the distances between the right diaphragmatic dome and posterior CPS (total diaphragmatic height), the diaphragmatic dome and lateral CPS (diaphragmatic dome height), and the lateral and posterior CPS (posterior CPS depth) were measured. In addition levels of the right lateral and posterior CPS were scored in relation to levels of the thoracic and lumbar spines. The relationships between the posterior CPS depth and demographic and physical data and other radiographic measurements were analysed. Results: The mean right posterior CPS depth was 29.2 {+-} 15.6 mm. The average level of the posterior CPS in relation to the spine was 13.5 {+-} 0.6, i.e., the level of lower half of the L1 vertebral body. The posterior CPS depth had a tendency to be deeper in those participants who were taller (r = 0.17, p < 0.01), had a higher body mass index (BMI; r = 0.25, p < 0.01), longer total diaphragmatic height (r = 0.55, p < 0.01), and shorter diaphragmatic dome height (r = -0.18, p < 0.01). Conclusion: As the posterior CPS is deeper than the lateral CPS by approximately 3 cm, and reaches, on average, to L1, the standard chest PA radiograph must include >3 cm below the level of lateral CPS, or should include the L1 spine.

  16. Pathologic comparison of asymmetric or sulcus fixation of 3-piece intraocular lenses with square versus round anterior optic edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Andrew; Werner, Liliana; Strenk, Susan; Strenk, Lawrence; Leishman, Lisa; Bodnar, Zachary; Kirk, Kevin R; Michelson, Jennifer; Mamalis, Nick

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the pathologic findings of 3-piece intraocular lenses (IOLs) with asymmetric or sulcus fixation in pseudophakic cadaver eyes, comparing IOLs with square or round edges on the anterior optic surface. Comparative case series with pathology. A total of 661 pseudophakic cadaver eyes, obtained from eye banks within the United States, implanted with different IOLs. Anterior segment scanning of whole eyes with a high-frequency ultrasound system or high-resolution anterior segment magnetic resonance imaging followed by gross examination. Selected eyes were processed for complete histopathologic analysis. Findings from imaging, gross, and histopathologic evaluation that could be related to out-of-the-bag fixation of the lenses. Of 661 pseudophakic cadaver eyes obtained, 13 had 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic IOLs with anterior and posterior square optic edges, and 14 had 3-piece lenses with anterior round edges (13 silicone lenses and 1 hydrophobic acrylic lens) without symmetric in-the-bag fixation. These 27 selected eyes were processed for complete histopathologic analysis. Gross findings in both groups were composed of IOL decentration and tilt, pigmentary dispersion within the anterior segment and on the IOL surface, and iris transillumination defects. Histopathology of the 14 eyes with 3-piece IOLs with round anterior optic edges showed mild focal disruption of the iris pigmented layer and loop protrusion/erosion in the ciliary sulcus. Additional changes observed in the 13 eyes with square anterior optic edge IOLs included iris changes, such as vacuolization, disruption and loss of the pigmented epithelial layers, iris thinning and atrophy, synechiae, and pigmentary dispersion within the trabecular meshwork. One eye also exhibited initial signs of optic nerve disc cupping. In this series, pathologic findings were more severe in eyes implanted with 3-piece IOLs with square anterior optic edges, suggesting that IOLs with round anterior edges are more suitable for

  17. [Radical resection following to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for eighty-five year-old patient with superior sulcus tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Inoue, Takashi; Araki, Osamu; Karube, Yoko; Hayama, Makio; Tamura, Motohiko; Oyaizu, Takeshi; Chida, Masayuki

    2011-06-01

    An 85-year-old male with superior sulcus tumor was referred to our hospital complaining right brachial pain and omalgia. Chest computed tomography showed right apical lung tumor involving the 1st rib, and bronchoscopy established a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, cT3NOM0. After concurrent chemoradiotherapy [cisplatin (CDDP) + 60 Gy], functional examination indicated him to be tolerable to lobectomy, and he underwent right upper lobectomy + chest wall resection (1st-3rd ribs) + lymph-node dissection. Pathological examination revealed that the effect of chemoradiotherapy was Ef. 3. The postoperative course was uneventful. He is free from recurrence for 7 years after the surgery.

  18. Vitrectomy and translocation of the anterior chamber intraocular lens to the sulcus: a closed microsurgical technique for the UGH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, William; Rossini, Paolo; Forlini, Cesare

    2008-01-01

    This interventional case report presents an anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC-IOL) translocation technique to manage a case of uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema (UGH) syndrome associated with posterior dislocation of nuclear fragments and vitreitis as a consequence of capsule rupture during cataract surgery. Pars plana vitrectomy followed by an AC-IOL translocation from the anterior chamber to the sulcus without additional surgical corneal incision was performed. At 12 months' follow-up, the original AC-IOL was in stable position in the posterior chamber, with binocular refractive balance and no further astigmatism and resolution of the UGH syndrome.

  19. Prefrontal and parietal cortex in human episodic memory: an interference study by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Simone; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Zito, Giancarlo; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Cappa, Stefano F; Miniussi, Carlo; Babiloni, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M

    2006-02-01

    Neuroimaging findings, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) interference, point to an engagement of prefrontal cortex (PFC) in learning and memory. Whether parietal cortex (PC) activity is causally linked to successful episodic encoding and retrieval is still uncertain. We compared the effects of event-related active or sham rTMS (a rapid-rate train coincident to the very first phases of memoranda presentation) to the left or right intraparietal sulcus, during a standardized episodic memory task of visual scenes, with those obtained in a fully matched sample of subjects who received rTMS on left or right dorsolateral PFC during the same task. In these subjects, specific hemispheric effects of rTMS included interference with encoding after left stimulation and disruption of retrieval after right stimulation. The interference of PC-rTMS on encoding/retrieval performance was negligible, lacking specificity even when higher intensities of stimulation were applied. However, right PC-rTMS of the same intensity lengthened reaction times in the context of a purely attentive visuospatial task. These results suggest that the activity of intraparietal sulci shown in several functional magnetic resonance studies on memory, unlike that of the dorsolateral PFC, is not causally engaged to a useful degree in memory encoding and retrieval of visual scenes. The parietal activations accompanying the memorization processes could reflect the engagement of a widespread brain attentional network, in which interference on a single 'node' is insufficient for an overt disruption of memory performance.

  20. Neural activations at the junction of the inferior frontal sulcus and the inferior precentral sulcus: interindividual variability, reliability, and association with sulcal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derrfuss, J.; Brass, M.; Cramon, D.Y. von; Lohmann, G.; Amunts, K.

    2009-01-01

    The sulcal morphology of the human frontal lobe is highly variable. Although the structural images usually acquired in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies provide information about this interindividual variability, this information is only rarely used to relate structure and function. Here

  1. DOES THE INFERIOR FRONTAL SULCUS PLAY A FUNCTIONAL ROLE IN DECEPTION? A NEURONAVIGATED THETA-BURST TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eVerschuere

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. By definition, lying involves withholding the truth. Response inhibition may therefore be the cognitive function at the heart of deception. Neuroimaging research has shown that the same brain region that is activated during response inhibition tasks, namely the inferior frontal region, is also activated during deception paradigms. This led to the hypothesis that the inferior frontal region is the neural substrate critically involved in withholding the truth. Objective. We critically examine the functional necessity of the inferior frontal region in withholding the truth during deception. Method. We experimentally manipulated the neural activity level in right inferior frontal sulcus (IFS by means of neuronavigated continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS. Individual structural magnetic resonance brain images (MRI were used to allow precise stimulation in each participant. Twenty-six participants answered autobiographical questions truthfully or deceptively before and after sham and real cTBS. Results. Deception was reliably associated with more errors, longer and more variable response times than truth telling. Despite the potential role of IFS in deception as suggested by neuroimaging data, the cTBS-induced disruption of right IFS did not affect response times or error rates, when compared to sham stimulation. Conclusions. The present findings do not support the hypothesis that the right inferior frontal sulcus is critically involved in deception.

  2. Laparoscopic determination on the incidences and types of Rouviere's sulcus in Chinese%腹腔镜下国人肝脏Rouviere沟的出现率及分型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩宇; 蔡华杰; 叶百亮; 阮小蛟; 胡炳仁; 尤和谊; 郑晓风; 蒋飞照

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and record the incidences and types of Rouviere's sulcus in Chinese to come up with a classification of Rouviere's sulcus.Methods This prospective study was conducted on 812 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our department from March 2010 to September 2012.The incidences and types of Rouviere's sulcus were documented.Results The open type of Rouviere's sulcus was visualized in 638 patients(78.6%),the partially fused type in 145 patients,and the totally fused type in 29 patients.Conclusions Rouviere's sulcus is an important surface landmark of the hilar pedicle and it could be identified in the great majority of patients.We for the first time in the world,proposed a classification of the Rouviere's sulcus which may contribute to a better understanding of hepatobiliary anatomy.%目的 观察、记录腹腔镜下肝脏Rouviere沟的出现率及其形态,探讨Rouviere沟的分型.方法 本组病例来自2010年3月至2012年9月我科连续实施的腹腔镜胆囊切除术812例患者,术中记录Rouviere沟的出现及其形态.结果 本组812例患者中,开放型Rouviere沟638例(78.6%)、部分融合型145例(17.8%)、完全融合型29例(3.6%).结论 Rouviere沟是重要的肝脏表面解剖标志,出现于绝大多数人中.我们在国际上首次提出Rouviere沟的精细分型,该分型有助于精准肝脏外科的应用拓展.

  3. What causes an icy fault to slip? Investigating strike-slip failure conditions on Ganymede at Dardanus and Tiamat Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Burkhard, L. M.; Collins, G. C.; Seifert, F.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ganymede exhibits two geologically distinct terrains known as dark and light (grooved) terrain. The mechanism for a transition from dark to light terrain remains unclear; however, inferences of strike-slip faulting and distributed shear zones suggest that strike-slip tectonism may be important to the structural development of Ganymede's surface and in this transition. Here we investigate the role of tidal stresses on Ganymede in the formation and evolution of strike-slip structures in both dark and grooved terrains. Using numerical code SatStress, we calculate both diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) tidal stresses at Ganymede's surface. Specifically, we investigate the role of fault friction and orbital eccentricity in the development of ~45 km of right-lateral offset at Dardanus Sulcus and a possible case of Sulcus. We compute Coulomb failure conditions for these target fractures and consider tidal stress scenarios for both present eccentricity (0.0013) and possible past high (~0.05) eccentricity of Ganymede. We find that while diurnal stresses are not large enough to support strike-slip failure at present or past eccentricities, models that include both diurnal and NSR stress readily generate shear and normal stress magnitudes that could give rise to shear failure. Results for a past high eccentricity assuming a low coefficient of friction (μf = 0.2) suggest shear failure is possible down to depths of 1-2 km along both Dardanus and Tiamat. For a high coefficient of friction (μf = 0.6), failure is limited to about 1 km depth at Dardanus and Tiamat, although confined to small episodic slip windows for the latter. Moreover, our models predict a right-lateral sense of slip, in agreement with inferred offset observed at both regions. Based on these results, we infer that past shear failure on Ganymede is possible when NSR is a driving stress mechanism. We complement this study with a detailed morphological mapping of strike-slip morphologies (en echelon

  4. Sequential activation of human oculomotor centers during planning of visually-guided eye movements: a combined fMRI-MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Sestieri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We used magneto-encephalography (MEG to measure visually evoked activity in healthy volunteers performing saccadic eye movements to visual targets. The neuromagnetic activity was analyzed from regions of cortical activation identifi ed in separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies. The latency of visual responses signifi cantly increased from the Middle Temporal region (MT+ to the Intraparietal Sulcus (IPS to the Frontal Eye Field (FEF, and their amplitude was greater in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual target. Trial-to-trial variability of oculomotor reaction times correlated with visual response latency across cortical areas. These results support a feedforward recruitment of oculomotor cortical centers by visual information, and a model in which behavioral variability depends on variability at different neural stages of processing.

  5. Changes in the Ratio of the Sulcus Acusticus Area to the Sagitta Area of Pomatoschistus-Minutus and P-Lozanoi (Pisces, Gobiidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, R.V.; Hamerlynck, O.; Vincx, M.; Mees, J.; Hostens, K.; Gijselinck, W.

    1995-01-01

    The Pomatoschistus minutus (Pallas) and P. lozanoi (de Buen) stock of the ebb-tidal delta of the former Grevelingen estuary was sampled monthly from September 1992 to October 1993. Sagittae were extracted and the areas of the sagitta and sulcus acusticus were measured with a digitizer. The frequency

  6. Mentalizing and the Role of the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus in Sharing Others' Embarrassment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulus, Frieder Michel; Müller-Pinzler, Laura; Jansen, Andreas; Gazzola, V.; Krach, Sören

    2015-01-01

    The experience of embarrassment provides a highly salient cue for the human moral apparatus. Interestingly, people also experience embarrassment on behalf of others' inappropriate conditions. The perceiver's embarrassment often lacks an equivalent expression of embarrassment in the social counterpar

  7. 大脑额上沟的三维重建与可视化%Three-dimensional reconstruction and visualization of cerebral superior frontal sulcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周牧野; 王震寰; 沈龙山; 李成; 陈刘成; 向春锋

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To establish a three-dimensional(3D) visualization model of cerebral superior frontal sulcus in a healthy adult people using MR image for exploring the anatomical characteristics of the superior frontal sulcus and application in brain stereotactic surgery. Methods:The brain slice MR scanning in one healthy adult female was harvested,the data of which was inputted to 3D-Doctor software. The 3D visualization model was reconstructed,and marked with different colors by the manual partition method. Results:The 3D visualization schema graph of cerebral superior frontal sulcus was constructed, which showed successfully the three-dimensional shape of cerebral superior frontal sulcus, lateral ventricle, brain surface and their structural relationships with surrounding brain. Conclusions:The 3D visualization model of cerebral superior frontal sulcus has an important value in the identification of the anatomical structure of superior frontal sulcus and design of stereotactic surgery.%目的::建立健康成人活体MR图像的大脑额上沟三维可视化模型,为探究额上沟的解剖结构特点及脑立体定向手术应用。方法:选取1名健康成年女性颅脑薄层MR扫描数据,将数据导入3D-Doctor软件,利用手动分割方法建立三维可视化模型并用不同颜色进行标记。结果:构建了大脑额上沟的三维可视化模式图,模式图成功显示了大脑额上沟、侧脑室及脑表面的立体形态以及与周围脑组织的结构关系。结论:大脑额上沟的三维可视化模型对额上沟解剖结构的识别、脑立体定向手术设计有重要价值。

  8. Comparison of vestibular sulcus depth in vestibuloplasty using standard Clark's technique with and without amnion as graft material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkerimath, Basavaraj C; Dandagi, Satyajit; Gudi, Santosh S; Jayapalan, Deeptha

    2012-01-01

    A number of materials are used as grafts in vestibuloplasty like mucosal and skin grafts with several advantages and disadvantages. To circumvent the disadvantages of these grafts, biological membranes such as amnion membranes are often recommended. The objective of this study was to clinically assess the vestibular sulcus depth in vestibuloplasty using Clark's technique with and without amnion as graft material. Twenty edentulous patients underwent mandibular labial vestibuloplasty using Clark's technique. Amnion was used as graft material in 10 patients (group I) and no grafts used in remaining 10 patients (group II). The vestibular depth was evaluated at time intervals of 1 week, 2 weeks, 1 month and 3 months, postoperatively. Mean postoperative vestibular depth after 3 months in group I and II were 10.0 ± 3.13 mm and 7.8±0.63 mm, respectively. Mean of 2.2 ± 2.50 mm increase in depth was achieved after 3 months in Group I. Amnion graft is a viable and reliable option that promotes early healing and maintains postoperative vestibular depth.

  9. Clinical Diagnosis and Knife Treatment of Atlas Sulcus Ring Syndrome%寰椎沟环综合征的临床诊断与针刀治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈关富; 罗杰; 孙祝娟

    2011-01-01

    Adas sulcus ring syndrome is a series of symptoms induced by vertebrobasilar insufficiency, mainly manifesting dizziness. This article introduced atlas sulcus ring syndrome, including anatomical features, the basis of the incidence, etiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, and a new type of diagnosis based on standards, and also introduced the knife treatment guided by biomechanical balance principles.%寰椎沟环综合征是以眩晕为主的椎动脉供血不足所致的一系列症状.本文重点论述了寰椎沟环综合征的解剖学特点、发病机制、临床表现,提出了新的分型标准及诊断依据,并介绍了以生物力学平衡原理为指导的针刀治疗方法.

  10. Visual Field Map Clusters in High-Order Visual Processing: Organization of V3A/V3B and a New Cloverleaf Cluster in the Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Brian; Brewer, Alyssa A

    2017-01-01

    The cortical hierarchy of the human visual system has been shown to be organized around retinal spatial coordinates throughout much of low- and mid-level visual processing. These regions contain visual field maps (VFMs) that each follows the organization of the retina, with neighboring aspects of the visual field processed in neighboring cortical locations. On a larger, macrostructural scale, groups of such sensory cortical field maps (CFMs) in both the visual and auditory systems are organized into roughly circular cloverleaf clusters. CFMs within clusters tend to share properties such as receptive field distribution, cortical magnification, and processing specialization. Here we use fMRI and population receptive field (pRF) modeling to investigate the extent of VFM and cluster organization with an examination of higher-level visual processing in temporal cortex and compare these measurements to mid-level visual processing in dorsal occipital cortex. In human temporal cortex, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) has been implicated in various neuroimaging studies as subserving higher-order vision, including face processing, biological motion perception, and multimodal audiovisual integration. In human dorsal occipital cortex, the transverse occipital sulcus (TOS) contains the V3A/B cluster, which comprises two VFMs subserving mid-level motion perception and visuospatial attention. For the first time, we present the organization of VFMs in pSTS in a cloverleaf cluster. This pSTS cluster contains four VFMs bilaterally: pSTS-1:4. We characterize these pSTS VFMs as relatively small at ∼125 mm(2) with relatively large pRF sizes of ∼2-8° of visual angle across the central 10° of the visual field. V3A and V3B are ∼230 mm(2) in surface area, with pRF sizes here similarly ∼1-8° of visual angle across the same region. In addition, cortical magnification measurements show that a larger extent of the pSTS VFM surface areas are devoted to the peripheral

  11. 人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术的临床观察%Clinical observation of ciliary sulcus fixation of intraocular lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丁瑞

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of ciliary sulcus fixation of intraocular lens (IOL).Methods 15 cases ( 15 eyes) underwent sulcus fixation of posterior chamber IOL.The visual acuities,intraoperative and postoperative complications were observed.Results Postoperative corrected visual acuities:6 eyesat ≥0.5,8 eyesat0.2 ~0.4,1 eye at0.1.Conclusion Sulcus fixation of IOLis a reliable technique to treat complicated surgeries.%目的 探讨人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术的临床效果.方法 后房型人工晶状体(IOL)睫状沟缝线固定术15例(15眼),观察临床效果及术中、术后,近期、远期并发症.结果 术后矫正视力≥0.5者6眼,0.2 ~0.4者8眼,0.1者1眼.结论 人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术为特殊情况下的人工晶状体植入提供了一个可靠的固定方法.

  12. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction and Visualization of Cerebral Parietooccipital Sulcus%大脑顶枕沟的三维重建与可视化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刘成; 王震寰; 张俊祥

    2011-01-01

    目的 为基于立体定向技术的神经外科手术、介入治疗大脑顶枕区病变及解剖学教学等提供三维可视化模型.方法 在微型计算机上,6例正常成人颅脑横断连续薄层MRI数据,导入3D-Doctor软件包中,人工分割顶枕沟、侧脑室、大脑半球,分别以不同颜色标识;用面绘制方法重建顶枕沟、侧脑室及大脑半球三维可视化模型.结果 成功重建大脑顶枕沟在整脑中的三维可视化模型,再现了顶枕沟的在活体脑中的形态及位置.结论 应用计算机软件重建顶枕沟的三维立体形态,再现其在活体状态下的形态特征,为基于立体定向技术的神经外科手术、介入治疗大脑顶枕区病变及解剖学教学等提供形态学依据.%Objective To provide three-dimensional visualization model of parietooccipital sulcus( PS) for stereotactic neurosur-gical operation, interventional radiology and anatomical teaching of the PS area. Methods Six normal adult brain image of MRI was studied by applying 3D-Doctor on a microcomputer, segmented parietooccipital sulcus, ventriculi lateralis, the telencephalon with different color,reconstructing those three-dimensional visualization models with method of surface reconstruction. Results The three-dimensional visualization model of the pareitooccipital sulcus in the whole brain and the shape and location of the pare-itooccipital sulcus in the vivo brain were successfully constructed. Conclusion Three dimensional visualization of the pareitooccipital sulcus in vivo brain can display its three-dimensional and adjacent relationship structure,it would provide morphological reference for stereotactic neurosurgical operation, interventional radiology and anatomical teaching of the PS area.

  13. Resolving Enceladus thermal emission at the 10s of meters scale along Baghdad Sulcus using Cassini CIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorius, Nicolas; Howett, Carly; Spencer, John; Albright, Shane; Jennings, Don; Hurford, Terry; Romani, Paul; Segura, Marcia; Verbiscer, Anne

    2015-11-01

    On 14th April 2012 Cassini executed one of its closest flyby to the South Pole of Enceladus with the primary goal to study the moon’s gravity. During this flyby the Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) was orientated such that its three focal planes were dragged across Baghdad sulcus. The instrument was specifically configured to record interferograms with 52 seconds duration. CIRS focal plane 1 (17 to 1000 µm) single circular detector provided a spatial resolution of about 300 meters. CIRS focal plane 3 and 4 (9 to 17 µm and 7 to 9 µm) are 2 1x10 detectors arrays. Both arrays were used in pair mode leading to 5 elements per focal plane and a resolution of about 43 meters across track.The ground-track speed was so fast during this observation that this was enough time to observe the entire South Polar Region in a single integration. The thermal sources were passed over so rapidly that it is not possible to reconstruct a spectrum from the resulting interferogram, instead features were created in the interferogram whenever the scene temperature changed. The signature of these features was also altered by bit trimming and band-pass filter convolution. To enable interpretation of the interferograms we developed an innovative new approach that included the development of new instrument models, modification of the flight software and multiple in flight validation experiments. Our preliminary results show temperature variability of the tiger stripes at 10s meters scale along track, providing a constraint on the distribution and temperature profile of Enceladus’ endogenic sources.A similar methodology will be used for the penultimate targeted Enceladus flyby in Oct 28th 2015 and we aim to also present our preliminary analysis of the results from this encounter

  14. Responses in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus show a feature-based response to facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tessa R; Andrews, Timothy J; Hymers, Mark; Al-Mosaiwi, Mohammed; Marsden, Samuel P; Strachan, James W A; Trakulpipat, Chayanit; Wang, Liang; Wu, Tian; Young, Andrew W

    2015-08-01

    The face-selective region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) plays an important role in analysing facial expressions. However, it is less clear how facial expressions are represented in this region. In this study, we used the face composite effect to explore whether the pSTS contains a holistic or feature-based representation of facial expression. Aligned and misaligned composite images were created from the top and bottom halves of faces posing different expressions. In Experiment 1, participants performed a behavioural matching task in which they judged whether the top half of two images was the same or different. The ability to discriminate the top half of the face was affected by changes in the bottom half of the face when the images were aligned, but not when they were misaligned. This shows a holistic behavioural response to expression. In Experiment 2, we used fMR-adaptation to ask whether the pSTS has a corresponding holistic neural representation of expression. Aligned or misaligned images were presented in blocks that involved repeating the same image or in which the top or bottom half of the images changed. Increased neural responses were found in the right pSTS regardless of whether the change occurred in the top or bottom of the image, showing that changes in expression were detected across all parts of the face. However, in contrast to the behavioural data, the pattern did not differ between aligned and misaligned stimuli. This suggests that the pSTS does not encode facial expressions holistically. In contrast to the pSTS, a holistic pattern of response to facial expression was found in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Together, these results suggest that pSTS reflects an early stage in the processing of facial expression in which facial features are represented independently.

  15. 人工晶体睫状沟缝合固定术临床观察%Clinical observation of intraocular lens ciliary sulcus suture fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙英虹; 史要武

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical application of intraocular lens ciliary sulcus suture fixation.Methods Posterior chamber intraocular lens ciliary sulcus suture fixation was applied for 15 patients with traumatic lens subluxation, posterior capsule injury, posterior capsule injury after senile cataract ultrasonic emulsification, and non-lens after vitrectomy. Their clinical effects were observed.Results Follow-up for 6 months showed postoperative visual acuity in 15 cases were all better than best corrected visual acuity before operation.Conclusion Implement of intraocular lens ciliary sulcus suture fixation is a safe and effective method for non-lens capsule, lens posterior capsular rupture, or wide acantholysis of lens suspensory ligament.%目的 探讨人工晶状体睫状沟缝合固定术的临床应用.方法 对15例外伤性晶体半脱位,后囊破损,老年性白内障超声乳化后囊破损,玻璃体切割术后无晶体眼患者施行后房型人工晶体(IOL)缝线固定术,观察临床效果.结果 随诊6个月,15例患者术后视力均高于术前最佳矫正视力.结论 对无晶体囊膜及晶体后囊膜破裂或晶体悬韧带大范围松解施行人工晶状体睫状沟固定术是一种安全有效的方法.

  16. Influence of orthodontics on periodontal flora in oral cavity and gingival sulcus%正畸对口腔龈沟内牙周菌群的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 吴艳; 伍建容; 肖会能

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate influence of orthodontics on periodontal flora in oral cavity and gingival sulcus. Methods There were 62 permanent dentition patients receiving fixed orthodontic treatment as study subjects. Comparison was made on bacteria change in gingival sulcus and detection rate of oral cavity bacteria before and after 6 month of orthodontics. Results ①Gingival sulcus periodontal flora:After 6 month of orthodontics, these patients had much lower coccus level than that before orthodontics. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). They had much higher spirochete and clostridium bacteria levels than those before orthodontics, and the difference had statistical singficance (P<0.05).②Oral bacteria:After 6 month of orthodontics, they had obviously higher detection rate of porphyromonas gingivalis than that before orthodontics. The difference had statistical significance (P<0.05). Conclusion Spirochete, clostridium bacteria, and porphyromonas gingivalis had obvious increase in oral cavity and gingival sulcus after orthodontics. Clinical attention is essential for guarantee periodontal health.%目的:探讨正畸对口腔龈沟内牙周菌群的影响。方法固定矫治的62例恒牙列患者作为研究对象,对其正畸前及正畸6个月后龈沟内的细菌变化、口腔细菌的检出率进行对比。结果①牙龈沟内牙周菌群:本组患者正畸6个月后球菌水平显著低于正畸前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);螺旋体及梭状菌水平显著高于正畸前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。②口腔菌群:本组患者正畸6个月后,卟啉单胞菌的检出率显著高于正畸前,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论正畸后口腔龈沟内螺旋体、梭状菌及卟啉单胞菌可见明显升高,临床应给予足够的重视,以此保障正畸健康的牙周。

  17. Development of stable peri-implant soft tissue and mentolabial sulcus depth with an implant-retained soft tissue conformer after osteocutaneous flap reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhima, Matilda; Rieck, Kevin L; Arce, Kevin; Salinas, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Excessive soft tissue bulk, movement, chronic inflammation, and hypertrophy in periimplant areas pose challenges for long-term management of peri-implant soft tissues surrounding osteocutaneous flap reconstructions. A case history report is presented on the predictable establishment of stable peri-implant soft tissue and improved mentolabial sulcus depth in a patient treated for high-grade osteosarcoma of the mandible. Following surgical resection, reconstruction with osteocutaneous fibula free flap, and endosseous implant placement, a combined surgical and prosthetic approach was used through a lip switch vestibuloplasty and an implant-retained soft tissue conformer.

  18. Voice processing in monkey and human brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K

    2008-09-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that the anterior superior temporal sulcus has an important role in the processing of information about human voices, especially the identification of talkers from their voice. A new study using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with macaques provides strong evidence that anterior auditory fields, part of the auditory 'what' pathway, preferentially respond to changes in the identity of conspecifics, rather than specific vocalizations from the same individual.

  19. Effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamthulla, S A K Uroof; Priya, P Vani; Hussain, S M D Javeed; Nasyam, Fazil Arshad; Akifuddin, Syed; Srinivas, Velpula Sasidhar

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the supraomohyoid neck dissection in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus. This was a prospective study of five patients with squamous cell carcinoma of gingivobuccal mucosa of oral cavity with clinically N0 neck, conducted over a period of 2 years from July 2007 to Oct 2009 in the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Narayana Dental College and Hospital. The study was conducted in patients irrespective of age, sex, size, thickness, and type of differentiation of the lesion. All patients have clinically non-palpable lymphnodes (N0 neck), while patients with palpable lymphnodes, patients with previous surgery, and patients with previous radiotherapy were excluded from the study. Level I was the commonest site of neck metastasis in our study. Among the five patients, two (40%) patients (case 2 and 3) had occult cervical metastasis (level IB nodes are histopathologically positive nodes) and the remaining three patients (60%) had no occult cervical metastasis. The recurrence rate was 20% for patients who received postoperative radiotherapy. There was no morbidity and postoperative dysfunction and the mortality rate was only 20% in our study. Supraomohyoid neck dissection is the therapeutic procedure in clinically N0 neck patients with squamous cell carcinoma of buccal mucosa and gingivobuccal sulcus of mandible. Supraomohyoid neck dissection, when indicated, contributes to the concept of less-invasive surgery and offers functional and aesthetic advantages without compromising the clearance with minimal morbidity.

  20. Microsurgical management of meningiomas in central sulcus region%中央沟区脑膜瘤的显微外科治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 姚长义; 王运杰; 郭宗泽; 欧绍武; 邢德广

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the microsurgical outcome of meningiomas in central sulcus region.Methods A retrospective analysis of the clinical data and surgical results was performed in 42 meningiomas in central sulcus region.Results Of the 42 meningiomas in central sulcus region,total resection and sub-total resection were achieved in 36 and 6 cases,respectively.No death occurred postoperatively.Temporary motor or sensory disturbances occurred in 8 patients,all of which recovered within 2 weeks.All patients were followed up for about 3 to 60 months.10 cases out of 12 recovered from decreased muscle strength in limbs (or hemiparesis).One maintained his status and the other one suffered from deterioration.For the 10 patients with epilepsy preoperatively,systemic anti-epileptic therapy was administered and all of them were seizure free postoperatively.Of the 6 cases with tumor subtotally resected,2 cases suffered from tumor recurrence,one of which undertook second operation and the other one took radiotherapy.4 patients were lost during the follow up period.Conclusions Although meningiomas in central sulcus have close relationship with vessels of central sulcus,the superior sagittal snius and the central cortex,satisfactory clinical outcome can be achieved with perfect microsurgery skills.%目的 探讨中央沟区脑膜瘤显微外科手术的治疗效果.方法 对42例行显微外科手术治疗的中央沟区脑膜瘤患者的临床资料及手术效果进行分析总结.结果 36例全切(Simpon Ⅰ,Ⅱ级),6例次全切(SimponⅢ,Ⅳ级),无手术死亡病例.术后新发暂时性肢体肌力或感觉障碍8例,均于术后2周内恢复.随访3~60个月,术前已有肢体肌力障碍的12例中有10例于术后6个月内恢复正常,1例无变化,1例加重;术前有癫痫的10例患者,行系统抗癫痫治疗,术后均无癫痫发作;次全切病例中,2例有肿瘤再长,1例行二次手术,1例选择放疗.失访4例.结论 中央沟区脑膜瘤与中央沟静

  1. Técnica do retalho pediculado para correção do sulco vocal The pediculated flap technique to sulcus vocalis repairing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Grellet

    Full Text Available Introdução: técnica do retalho pediculado de mucosa para reparar o sulco vocal permite o aparecimento da onda mucosa nessa região. A presença do sulco vocal traz como conseqüência rouquidão, soprosidade e aspereza. Outros sintomas podem estar presentes como fadiga ao falar, queimação ou ardor. Objetivo: provocar o aparecimento de onda mucosa com técnica cirúrgica. Forma de estudo: clínico retrospectivo. Material e método: Foram operados 3 pacientes para auxiliar no deslocamento do epitélio escamoso estratificado e da camada superficial da prega vocal aderidos ao ligamento vocal injetamos pequena quantidade de dexametasona. Obtemos o retalho pediculado descolando retalho de mucosa da prega vocal. Resultados: No pós-operatório, a videoestroboscopia mostra uniformidade do revestimento da cobertura da prega vocal na região do sulco vocal. Nos pacientes operados observamos a presença da onda mucosa nessa região e a coaptação das pregas vocais é satisfatória, no caso de sulco unilateral. A análise subjetiva e objetiva da voz apresenta resultados normais a partir de um ano da cirurgia. Os sintomas, esforço e fadiga ao falar, ardor e queimação, desapareceram nesse período. Para sulco bilateral operamos inicialmente o sulco de uma prega vocal com melhora dos índices acústicos utilizados, embora não atingisse valores normais em todos os parâmetros avaliados no curto período de evolução (30 dias de pós-operatório após realizarmos a correção cirúrgica do sulco da outra prega vocal. Conclusão: A técnica microfonocirúrgica de retalho pediculado de mucosa para correção do sulco vocal mostrou resultados amplamente favoráveis para reabilitação da voz nos três pacientes apresentados.Introduction: the pedicullate flap technique to repair sulcus vocalis allows the appearing of the mucous wave in this region. Sulcus vocalis cause hoarseness, breathing and roughness. Other symptoms can happen during the speech like

  2. Morphological observation on sulcus for spinal nerve and impaction of anterior branch%脊神经沟与颈神经前支嵌压关系的神经形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英平; 郭瑞芳; 刘跃会; 张松岩; 孔祥玉; 吴玉林

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To observe the morphological changes of sulcus for spinal nerve and spinal nerve in the sulcus and to explore the relationship between sulcus for spinal nerve and impaction of spinal nerve. METHODS:Sixty adult corpuses(28 males and 32 females) with 120 cervical vertebrae were used.The width,depth of the sulcus and transverse diameter of anterior branch of spinal nerve in sulcus were observed and the ratio of transverse diameter of anterior branch of spinal nerve to the width of external os of sulcus was calculated. CONCLUSION:Morphosis of sulcus for spinal nerve is closely related to impaction of spinal nerve in sulcus,lower cervical segment nerves(C5,C6) have a higher probability to be affected than upper cervical segment nerves(C3,C4).%目的:观察脊神经沟及其沟内段脊神经形态学变化,探讨脊神经沟与沟内段脊神经受嵌压的关系. 方法:取 60具成尸(男 28,女 32) 120侧颈椎,对脊神经沟外口宽度、深度及其沟内段脊神经前支横径进行观察,并统计脊神经前支横径与脊神经沟外口宽度之比. 结果:①脊神经沟外口宽度、深度自 C3至 C6均逐渐增大,其平均值分别为 (4.5±1.2)mm和 (4.3±1.2)mm;② 3到 7颈神经前支横径逐渐增大,平均值为 (2.9±1.0)mm;③颈神经前支横径与脊神经沟外口宽度之比, C5最小( 1:1.54), C4次之( 1:1.67), C3最大( 1:1.75). 结论:脊神经沟与沟内段脊神经受累关系密切,下颈段 (C5,C6)颈神经受累几率可能大于上颈段( C3,C4).

  3. Shear failure of icy satellites: Present-day implications along Enceladus's Tiger Stripes and indications of past strike-slip faulting on Ganymede's Dardanus Sulcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, M. E.; Smith-Konter, B. R.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    The icy fractured surfaces of both Enceladus and Ganymede offer many candidate faults for studying both past and potentially present tectonic activity. Recent studies have suggested that Enceladus's "tiger stripe" fractures may be associated with tectonic strike-slip (shear) motions as a result of Coulomb failure, but low coefficients of friction were primarily considered in past stress models. Recent work suggests that friction is highly sensitive to the state of seismic fault slip; low friction (μf = 0.1-0.2) may be applicable in initial slip events and high friction (μf = 0.3-0.6) may be more appropriate for subsequent sliding velocities. On Ganymede, strike-slip tectonics is common, notably where a prominent fault offsets Dardanus Sulcus. We investigate the role of fault friction and orbital eccentricity in the development of Enceladus's tiger stripes and Ganymede's Dardanus Sulcus. We consider both tidal diurnal and non-synchronous rotation (NSR) stresses, as applicable, and compute Coulomb failure conditions for these target fractures. For the Enceladus tiger stripes, previous shear failure models showed that low coefficients of friction (μf = 0.1-0.2) and shallow fracture depths (2-4 km) provide a very active diurnal shear failure scenario. Our new simulations suggest that shear failure is also possible for friction coefficients as high as uf = 0.6 at depths of 2 km, but the lateral extent of failure is suppressed in comparison. For Ganymede's Dardanus Sulcus, we consider tidal stress scenarios for both present (0.0013) and possible past high (~0.05) eccentricity. We find that NSR shear stress resolved along the Dardanus fault is sufficient to induce failure to ~1.4 km depths for μf ~0.3. For past high eccentricity, diurnal stress would have modulated NSR stress by ~100 kPa through Ganymede's tidal cycle, which could have also induced shear heating and tidal walking mechanisms. Together, these tidally driven failure models for Enceladus and Ganymede are

  4. Transplantation with autologous fat granules to cure vocal cord sulcus%自体脂肪颗粒移植治疗声带沟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江允; 张智风; 贺星华; 孟艳临; 冯淑仙; 周世华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To discuss the effects of transplantation with autologous fat granules to cure vocal cord sulcus. Methods In this study we treated 32 cases of vocal cord sulcus with improved autologous fat grafting technique. Each case was treated 1-2 times and the interval period was 3-6 months. The result was based on comparing the size of fissure glottis, the surface area of the sick vocal cord and patients self evaluation. Results Long time follow up showed that fat graft can be alive in the recipient site for long time after 1-2 times autologous fat injection. More than 78.13% patients were satisfactory with the curative effect while less than 9.38% patients were unsatisfactory. Conclusions Autologous fat grafting technique is an effective and safe treatment for vocal cord sulcus.%目的 探讨自体脂肪颗粒移植治疗声带沟的疗效.方法 对32例声带沟患者采用改良的自体脂肪颗粒移植技术进行治疗.自体脂肪颗粒注射移植1~2次,中间间隔3~6个月.通过术前、术后声门裂隙及患侧声带表面积,以及患者自我感觉等随访,评价其治疗效果.结果 最长4.5年,平均2.5年的随访发现在1~2次自体脂肪注射后,脂肪可以在受区长期存活.78.13%以上的患者对疗效满意,小于9.38%的患者对疗效不满意.结论 自体脂肪移植技术用于声带沟是一项安全而有效的治疗方法.

  5. 颅眶孔和眶外侧沟的应用解剖学研究%Appliedanatomy of the cranio-orbital foramen andthe lateralorbital sulcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞昊; 张毅; 金国华; 杨洪滨

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide anatomic data of the cranio-orbital foramen and the lateral orbital sulcus for the skull base surgery. Methods One hundred dry adult skulls (200 sides) and 30 cadaveric heads (60 sides) were observed and measured, for exploring anatomic features and variations of the cranio-orbital foramen and its adjacent structures. Results Incidence of the cranio-orbital foramen was 65.5% (131 sides). The cranio-orbital foramen located on the greater wing of the sphenoid bone, or on the frontal bone, at or near the spheno-frontal suture. Usually, 1-3 foramens could be observed. Incidence of the lateral orbital sulcus was 24% (48 sides). No artery was observed to pass through the sulcus of cadaveric heads. The course of the orbital branch of the middle meningeal artery could be divided into 3 types. For type I , the orbital branch of the middle meningeal artery entered the orbit through the cranio-orbital foramen and anastomosed with the lacrimal artery. For type II, the paired orbital branches of the middle meningeal artery entered the orbit through the superior orbital fissure and the cranio-orbital foramen and anastomosed with the lacrimal artery. For type III, the orbital branch of the middle meningeal artery entered the orbit through the superior orbital fissure and anastomosed with the lacrimal artery. Conclusions The cranio-orbital foramen, the lateral orbital sulcus, and their adjacent structures are complex and variable, which need to be taken notice during the surgical procedure in this area.%目的 为颅底外科提供颅眶孔和眶外侧沟的解剖学资料.方法 取100例(200侧)成人干颅骨和30例(60侧)成人尸头标本,观察和测量颅眶孔及其邻近结构,在形态学上对其进行分类,观察其变异情况.结果 颅眶孔的出现率为65.5%( 131侧),颅眶孔位于蝶骨的大翼,额骨或是位于或接近于蝶额缝.颅眶孔可为1~3个.眶外侧沟的出现率为24%(48侧).在湿标本中,颅眶孔内未见动

  6. Increased likelihood of bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus and urethra of uncircumcised men in a diverse group of HIV infected and uninfected patients in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Schneider

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological mechanism of circumcision as potentiating HIV prevention is poorly understood. Foreskin microbiota has been postulated as having a potential role; however, little is known about the relationship between bacterial pathogens and circumcision in adults. Materials and Methods: We sampled the coronal sulcus of a diverse group of circumcised and uncircumcised men (n=315 from a government chest hospital and fertility clinic in Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Genital examination was conducted on three groups of men: Group 1 - HIV infected; Group 2 - TB infected; Group 3 - control. Aerobic and anaerobic specimens were cultured according to standard clinical protocols, and results were analyzed following multivariate logistic regression models. Results: Three hundred fifteen study participants - 47.6% of Group 1, 36.5% of Group 2, and 15.9% of Group 3 - were enrolled in the study and included in all analyses. Overall 37.1% of the participants were circumcised without variation across groups (P=0.29. Smegma was observed in 18.7% of the participants with no cases observed in Group 3 (P<0.001. Gram-negative pathogens were more prevalent among study participants in Group 1 (22.7% and Group 2 (30.4% as compared with those in Group 3 (6.0% (P=0.003. In multivariate regression analysis, controlling for group, age, and presence of smegma, uncircumcised men were more likely to be colonized with gram positives [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 1.9; P<0.05], gram negatives (AOR 2.4; P<0.05, or any pathogen (AOR 2.8; P<0.005. Conclusions: Uncircumcised men in this population in South India are more likely to harbor bacterial pathogens in the coronal sulcus than do their circumcised counterparts. Future studies should examine the relationship between foreskin microbiota and HIV transmission.

  7. Application of Nasolabial sulcus flap in facial soft tissue defect’s repair%鼻唇沟皮瓣在面部软组织缺损修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明亮; 潘实; 董贤平; 殷佳鹏; 樊树强; 廖立新

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨鼻唇沟皮瓣在颜面部软组织缺损修复中的应用。方法:应用鼻唇沟瓣修复因肿瘤、外伤等原因所致颜面部软组织缺损25例,缺损部位包括鼻部、唇部、颊部等。结果:25例患者手术全部成功,皮瓣均成活,效果满意。结论:鼻唇沟皮瓣用于鼻及口腔颌面部缺损或畸形的修复不失为一个实用而有效的方法。%Objective:To investigate the Application of Nasolabial sulcus flap in facial soft tissue defect’s repair. Methods:25 patients with facial soft tissue defects caused by tumor or trauma were repaired by nasolabial sulcus flaps. All defects were located in the nasal,oral or maxillofacial areas. Results:All the nasolabial sulcus flaps of 25 patients had survived. All patients were satisfied with the postoperative appearance and function. Conclusions:These data confirmed that using a nasolabial sulcus flap was a simple, effective method for repair of defects in the nose,Oral and maxillofacial region.

  8. Clinical Research on Application of Nasolabial Sulcus Flap for Repairing Oral and Maxillofacial Soft Tissue Defect%应用鼻唇沟瓣修复口腔颌面部软组织缺损的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周航宇

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨鼻唇沟瓣修复口腔颌面部缺损的方法和疗效。方法分析应用鼻唇沟修复口腔颌面部缺损患者的临床及随访资料,均选用鼻唇沟皮瓣同期修复缺损。结果所有鼻唇沟皮瓣全部存活。随访6月~3年,皮瓣存活,外形良好。结论鼻唇沟瓣是修复口腔颌面部缺损的有效方法之一,存活率高,术后面部外形佳。%Objective To explore the effect of nasolabial sulcus flap in repairing the oral and maxillofacial defect.MethodsAnalysed the clinical and follow-up data the patients who underwent nasolabial sulcus lfap for repairing oral and maxillofacial defects.Results All the nasolabial sulcus flap survived. Followed up for 6 months to 3 years, flap was survival and kept in good shape.Conclusion Nasolabial sulcus flap is one of the effective methods of repairing oral and maxillofacial defects, it has high survival rate and postoperative facial appearance.

  9. 腹腔镜胆囊切除术中Rouviere沟解剖定位及其应用价值研究%Role of Rouviere's sulcus as anatomic landmark in laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡华杰; 叶百亮; 韩宇; 暨玲; 屠金夫; 郑晓风; 蒋飞照

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the role of Rouviere's sulcus as extrabiliary reference point in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods The clinical data of 584 patients performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy from March 2010 to April 2011 in the Department of Endoscopic Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College were analyzed. Frequency and type of Rouviere's sulcus were documented and Rouviere's sulcus was used to guide the commencement of dissection in hepatobiliary triangle in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results A total of 584 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in the study. Open type of Rouviere's sulcus was visualized in 346 patients and fused type of Rouviere's sulcus was visualized in 102 patients. Hence in a total of 448 (76.7%) patients had Rouviere's sulcus. There was no bile duct injury or mortality. Three patients were converted to open operation (0.5%) and all patients recovered well. Conclusion Rouviere's sulcus is an important extrabiliary landmark and identifiable in majority of patients. Its identification before commencement of Calot' s triangle dissection may help in preventing the bile duct injury in laparoscopic cholecystectomy and should be applied widely.%目的 探讨Rouviere沟作为肝外胆管参照点在腹腔镜胆囊切除术中的作用.方法 自2010年3月至2011年4月温州医学院附属第一医院腔镜外科连续实施腹腔镜胆囊切除术584例,术中记录Rouviere沟的出现率及分型,并采用以Rouviere沟为导向的胆囊三角区解剖方法.结果 584例中,开放型Rouviere沟346例,融合型Rouviere沟102例,共448例(76.7%)存在Rouviere沟.全组未发生胆管损伤及手术死亡,3例(0.5%)中转开腹,所有病例恢复良好.结论 Rouviere沟是重要的肝外胆管解剖标志,出现于大多数人中.以Rouviere沟为导向的胆囊三角区解剖方法可以预防腹腔镜胆囊切除术中胆管损伤,值得推广应用.

  10. The treatment of upper eyelid sulcus using the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene implanted in orbit%眼眶内充填膨体聚四氟乙烯在上睑凹陷治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周栩; 韦敏; 俞哲元; 吴捷能

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of the treatment of upper eyelid sulcus using the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene implanted in orbit.Methods From July 2009 to April 2011,a total of 16 patients with upper eyelid sulcus were treated for recreating youthful periorbital appearance.To correct this kind of clinical characteristic,expanded polytetrafluoroethylene with different size were used as the orbital implant to restore the orbital contents and reinforce the bony support.upper eyelid sulcus was reversed effectively.Results With average 2.5 year follow up,upper eyelid sulcus of 16 cases was reversed effectively.No postoperative complication related to globe or affected normal physical function was found.Conclusions The technique of orbital implantation with Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene is beneficial for the treatment of the upper eyelid sulcus.%目的 探讨眼眶内充填膨体聚四氟乙烯治疗上睑凹陷的可行性及效果.方法 2009年7月至2011年4月,对16例因眼部老化引起的上睑凹陷患者,采用眼眶内充填不同体积的膨体聚四氟乙烯材料,增加眼眶内容物的体积,同时加强眶壁对眶内容物的支撑作用.结果 术后平均随访2.5年,16例患者眼部上睑凹陷症状得到有效改善,眼部功能无异常.结论 应用眼眶内充填膨体聚四氟乙烯技术可以有效修复上睑凹陷.

  11. Viewed actions are mapped in retinotopic coordinates in the human visual pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Yuval; Pertzov, Yoni; Zohary, Ehud

    2011-10-21

    Viewed object-oriented actions elicit widespread fMRI activation in the dorsal and ventral visual pathways. This activation is typically stronger in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual field in which action is seen. However, since in previous studies participants kept fixation at the same screen position throughout the scan, it was impossible to infer if the viewed actions are represented in retina-based coordinates or in a more elaborated coordinate system. Here, participants changed their gaze between experimental conditions, such that some conditions shared the same retinotopic coordinates (but differed in their screen position), while other pairs of conditions shared the opposite trait. The degree of similarity between the patterns of activation elicited by the various conditions was assessed using multivoxel pattern analysis methods. Regions of interest, showing robust overall activation, included the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the occipitotemporal cortex. In these areas, the correlation between activation patterns for conditions sharing the same retinotopic coordinates was significantly higher than that of those having different retinotopic coordinates. In contrast, the correlations between activation patterns for conditions with the same spatiotopic coordinates were not significantly greater than for non-spatiotopic conditions. These results suggest that viewed object-oriented actions are likely to be maintained in retinotopic-framed coordinates.

  12. Clinic misdiagnosis and imaging analysis of superior sulcus tumors of pulmonary%肺上沟瘤的临床误诊分析及影像诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长彬; 李敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析肺上沟瘤的误诊原因及影像学表现,提高临床医生对本病的认识。方法回顾性分析19例经病理证实的肺上沟瘤患者的临床表现、影像学表现及误诊情况。结果19例肺上沟瘤患者中,病史2.6~9.7个月不等,19例中17例有肩背部疼痛,15例有颈部疼痛,14例有前臂疼痛,11例有手放射性疼痛,6例患者出现霍纳综合征;疼痛程度(VAS法)4~7分不等。19例中16例曾误诊,其中误诊为肩周炎9例,颈椎病4例,颈肩综合症3例。有5例常规X线胸片检查未见明显异常,摄前弓位片显示肺尖软组织密度影。C T均显示一侧肺尖部软组织密度增高影,其中有17例患者肿瘤累及到肋骨,15例患者累及到T 1或T 2椎体,11例患者锁骨下动脉受累,13例患者锁骨下静脉受累,10例患者肿瘤同时累及到T1和第一肋骨,7例患者锁骨下动脉及锁骨下静脉同时受累。结论肩背部疼痛是肺上沟瘤最常见的首发症状,肺上沟瘤容易误诊,发现时多为中晚期,前弓位X线胸片及多层螺旋CT (应用多平面重建技术)对肺上沟瘤的诊断有很大的价值,对临床诊断及治疗具有重要意义。%Objective To analyze misdiagnosis reason and imaging characteristics of superior sulcus tumors of pulmonary so as to improve the diagnostic accuracy .Methods The clinical symptoms ,imaging findings and misdiagnosis reasons of 19 cases of superior sulcus tumors of pulmonary were investigated retrospectively .Results In the 19 patients with superi‐or sulcus tumors of pulmonary ,medical history were about 2 .6~9 .7 months .The earliest clinical symptoms included pain in shoulder and back (n=17 cases) ,neck pain (n=15 cases) ,upper extremity pain (n=14 cases) ,hand radiated pain (n=11 cases) ,and Horner’ syndrome (n=6 cases) .According to VAS method ,the pain degrees were 4~7 scores .16 out of the 19 cases were misdiagnosed :9 patients

  13. 侧副沟形态学及分叉点的立体定位研究%The morphology and stereotaxy of bifurcation of the cerebral collateral sulcus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄子迅; 卢磊; 沈龙山; 石祖强; 王震寰

    2016-01-01

    目的::探讨大脑侧副沟在MRI横断面及冠状面图像上的形态学规律。方法:在eFilm2.1工作站中,选取40名正常成人志愿者头颅连续MRI横断位及冠状位扫描数据,运用结构连续追踪法和3D-Cursor技术,对连续MRI横断面及冠状面图像上的侧副沟进行识别、观测,统计其形态学特征。结果:侧副沟分为三部分,即鼻嗅沟、中段侧副沟及枕部侧副沟;侧副沟在MRI冠状面图像上随着层面向后移而沟上移;枕部侧副沟在72.5%情况下出现分支,分为内、外侧支;侧副沟在冠状面映射长度=横断面层数×2 mm,其在横断面映射长度=冠状面层数×2 mm。结论:大脑侧副沟MRI横断面及冠状面图像上的形态学研究可为侧副沟及相邻脑区病变的识别和定位提供解剖学资料。%Objective:To explore the morphology of cerebral collateral sulcus(COS) on the MRI cross section and coronal plane image of brain. Methods:In the eFilm2. 1 workstation,the continuously cross section and coronal plane MRI scanning data of 40 health adult volunteer brain were selected. The morphological characteristics of COS on the continuously cross section and coronal plane MRI were identified,observed and analyzed using the structure continuous tracking method and 3D-Cursor technology. Results:The collateral sulcus could be divided into the sulcus olfactorius nasi,middle collateral sulcus and occipital collateral sulcus. With the stratification plane rearward shift,the collateral sulcus on the coronal plane image moved upper. The 72. 5% of occipital collateral sulcus was divided into the medial and lateral branches. The mapping length of collateral sulcus on the coronal plane and cross section plane equaled to the number of plies of cross section times 2 mm and number of plies of coronal plane times 2 mm, respectively. Conclusions:The morphological pattern of COS in the MRI cross and coronal-sectional images can provide the anatomical

  14. Tonotopic organization of human auditory association cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, S; Williamson, S J; Karron, D

    1994-11-07

    Neuromagnetic studies of responses in human auditory association cortex for tone burst stimuli provide evidence for a tonotopic organization. The magnetic source image for the 100 ms component evoked by the onset of a tone is qualitatively similar to that of primary cortex, with responses lying deeper beneath the scalp for progressively higher tone frequencies. However, the tonotopic sequence of association cortex in three subjects is found largely within the superior temporal sulcus, although in the right hemisphere of one subject some sources may be closer to the inferior temporal sulcus. The locus of responses for individual subjects suggests a progression across the cortical surface that is approximately proportional to the logarithm of the tone frequency, as observed previously for primary cortex, with the span of 10 mm for each decade in frequency being comparable for the two areas.

  15. Cross-sectional study of the association between a deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus-like appearance and wide-open eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunsuke Nakakura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus (DUES is a common complication of prostaglandin F2α analog treatment, which causes cosmetic problems. However, identifying this condition using photographs is difficult due to such problems as the camera flash effects, blepharoptosis or wide-open eyes. PURPOSE: We investigated the association between a DUES-like appearance and wide-open eyes regarding the presence of wide-open eyes as a cause for overestimating the incidence of DUES. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: One eye and the forehead in 100 subjects (31 younger subjects, 30 older subjects and 39 patients with blepharoptosis were evaluated in the present study. Digital photographs of the subjects with natural open and wide-open eyes were taken with a flash. Five signs (a puffy eyelid, the presence/absence of the upper eyelid sulcus (UES, wrinkles on the forehead with natural open eyes and an increase in the number of wrinkles on the forehead and a DUES-like appearance with wide-open eyes were judged to be negative or positive by three independent observers. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictor(s of a DUES-like appearance with wide-open eyes. RESULTS: Fourteen subjects (four young, three old and seven subjects with blepharoptosis were judged to have a DUES-like appearance with wide-open eyes (14%. The only predictive factor was the presence of UES in the patients with natural open eyes (odds ratio = 17.244, 95% confidence interval: 3.447-86.270, P<0.001. Among the 12 UES-positive subjects, six (50% exhibited a DUES-like appearance with wide-open eyes. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of wide-open eyes can thus cause a DUES-like appearance. Blepharoptosis itself is not a predictive factor; however, care should be taken not to overestimate the incidence of DUES, especially in patients with UES with natural open eyes, as a DUES-like appearance can be caused by wide-open eyes, even in

  16. The Impact of Single Session Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Posterior Superior Temporal Sulcus on Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsing-Chang Ni

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, a patterned repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, was applied over the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS or dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC to explore its impact in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Among 25 adults with ASD, 19 (mean age: 20.8 years completed the randomized, sham-controlled, crossover trial. Every participant received iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC, bilateral pSTS and inion (as a sham control stimulation in a randomized order with a 1-week interval. Neuropsychological functions were assessed using the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Behavioral outcomes were measured using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS and the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS. In comparison to that in the sham stimulation, the reaction time in the CCPT significantly decreased following single DLPFC session (p = 0.04, effect size = 0.71 while there were no significant differences in the CCPT and WCST following single pSTS session. Besides, the results in behavioral outcomes were inconsistent and had discrepancy between reports of parents and patients. In conclusion, a single session of iTBS over the bilateral DLPFC may alter the neuropsychological function in adults with ASD. The impacts of multiple-sessions iTBS over the DLPFC or pSTS deserve further investigations.

  17. 扣带沟缘支立体定位数据集的构建及意义%Construction of the stereotactic anatomy data set of the marginal ramus in cingulate sulcus and its significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋东莉; 李成; 赵学影; 陈刘成; 王震寰

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To obtain the stereotactic anatomy data set of the marginal ramus in cingulate sulcus. Methods:The most medial end of marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus was set as a starting point in Descartes coordinate system,the each point at interval of 3 mm was identified,the X and Y coordinate values of which was recorded. The multiplication of the number of plane distancing from zero plane and plane distance was set as the Z value. Results:The three-dimensional anatomy data set of the marginal ramus in cingulate sulcus was constructed in the three-dimensional coordinates. Conclusions:The positional relationship between marginal ramus of the cingulate sulcus and Descartes three-dimensional coordinate is stable.%目的::求得扣带沟缘支在笛卡尔三维坐标系中的立体定位数据集。方法:在笛卡尔坐标系中以扣带沟缘支的最内侧端点为起点,向外X值每隔3 mm取点,读取、记录各取样点的X、Y坐标值,Z值为所在层面距离零层面的数目与层距(3 mm)的乘积。结果:构建出扣带沟缘支在三维坐标系中的立体定位数据集。结论:扣带沟缘支与笛卡尔三维坐标系有相对稳定的位置关系。

  18. Cytokine level changes in gingival sulcus lfuid of patients with osteoporosis and periodontitis%骨质疏松牙周炎患者龈沟液中细胞因子水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高冲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate cytokine level changes in gingival sulcus fluid of patients with osteoporosis and periodontitis.Methods choose 68 cases patients with with osteoporosis and periodontitis in our hospital from january 2014 to june 2015 as observation group, 50 healthy volunteers as control group, compared two groups with sulcus bleeding index(SBI), periodontal probe depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), inflammatory factors level in gingival sulcus fluid.Results indexes of CAL, PD and SBI in observation group were significantly higher than control group (P0.05).Conclusion inflammatory index in gingival sulcus fluid of patients with osteoporosis and periodontitis significantly increased, and periodontal base treatment can effectively reduce inflammatory cytokines level and relieve inflammation.%目的:对骨质疏松牙周炎患者龈沟液中细胞因子水平的变化情况进行探讨。方法以我院2014年1月至2015年6月收治的68例骨质疏松牙周炎患者作为观察组,以50例健康志愿者作为对照组,对比两研究对象的龈沟出血指数(SBI)、牙周探针深度(PD)、临床附着水平(CAL)、龈沟液中的炎症因子水平。结果观察组CAL、PD及SBI指标明显高于对照组(P0.05)。结论骨质疏松牙周炎患者的龈沟液中的炎性指标显著升高,可牙周基础治疗可有效降低炎性细胞因子水平,缓解炎症。

  19. Comparative study of the stridulatorium sulcus, buccula and rostrum of nymphs of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al and Triatoma williami Galvao et al (Hemiptera: Redivide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria B.A.; Jurberg, Jose; Galvao, Cleber; Barbosa, Helene S. [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Biologia Estrutural. Lab. Nacional e Internacional de Referencia em Taxonomia de Triatomineos

    2010-01-15

    Ultrastructural analysis of the ventral region of the head - rostrum, buccula and stridulatorium sulcus - of 1st, 3rd and 5th instars of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al, and Triatoma williami Galvao et al, are described in here. Morphological differences in the analyzed structures for all three Triatoma species studied were detected under scanning electron microscopy, allowing their grouping by their morphological similarities. Species-specific differences at each nymphal development stage were analyzed as well. (author)

  20. Perceptual fusion and stimulus coincidence in the cross-modal integration of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M; D'Esposito, Mark

    2005-06-22

    Human speech perception is profoundly influenced by vision. Watching a speaker's mouth movements significantly improves comprehension, both for normal listeners in noisy environments and especially for the hearing impaired. A number of brain regions have been implicated in audiovisual speech tasks, but little evidence distinguishes them functionally. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we differentiate neural systems that evaluate cross-modal coincidence of the physical stimuli from those that mediate perceptual binding. Regions consistently involved in perceptual fusion per se included Heschl's gyrus, superior temporal sulcus, middle intraparietal sulcus, and inferior frontal gyrus. Successful fusion elicited activity biased toward the left hemisphere, although failed cross-modal binding recruited regions in both hemispheres. A broad network of other areas, including the superior colliculus, anterior insula, and anterior intraparietal sulcus, were more involved with evaluating the spatiotemporal correspondence of speech stimuli, regardless of a subject's perception. All of these showed greater activity to temporally offset stimuli than to audiovisually synchronous stimuli. Our results demonstrate how elements of the cross-modal speech integration network differ in their sensitivity to physical reality versus perceptual experience.

  1. Surgery for epilepsy secondary to lesions within or near central sulcus%中央沟区病变继发癫痫的显微手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道奎; 宋仁兴; 王寿先; 闰红梅; 王增武; 王喆

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the surgical treatment of epilepsy secondary to lesions within or near central sulcus.Methods 35 patients with epilepsy secondary to lesions within or near central sulcus were reviewed retrospectively.The epileptogenic focus was located by EEG,dipole,electrocortieogram.The central salcus was Iocated by MRI.cortical somatosensory evoked potential and cortical electric stimulation.The lesions were resected along the cerebral sulcus by microsurgery.The cortical thermocoagulation of functional areas was used for residual epileptic waves.Result The patients were follow-aped from one year to three years.The follow-up results showed Engel Class I in 31 cases,Engel Class 11 in 4 cages.There was no one with Engel ClassⅢand IV.The neurological functions of patients were improved in 23 cases,unchanged in 7 cases,worsen in 10 cases at 3 month after surgery.There was no died patient.Conclusions Accuratelocalization of the epileptogenic focus and cerebral sulcus,mierosurgery under cortex and cortical thermocoagulation for residual epileptic waves could control the seizure effectively and avoid severe neurological impairments for patients with lesions located within or near central sulcus.%目的 探讨中央沟区病变继发癫痫的显微手术治疗.方法 总结35例首发症状为癫痫的中央沟区病变,应用长程脑电图、偶极子、皮层电极定位致病灶;MRI结合术中皮质体感诱发电位、皮质刺激术定位脑功能区,显微镜下脑沟人路,保护脑功能区,病变切除后功能区残余癫痫波应用脑皮层热灼.结果 术后随访1-3年,疗效达到Engel I级31例、Ⅱ级4例、没有Ⅲ、Ⅳ级患者.术后3个月肢体功能障碍较术前改善23例,不变7例,加重5例,无手术死亡.结论 准确定位致痫灶和功能区,脑沟入路皮质下切除病变,配合功能区残余癫痫波皮层热灼,能保护肢体功能、控制癫痫的发作.

  2. Application of a nasolabial sulcus flap in repairing defects of the nose and lip.%鼻唇沟皮瓣在鼻唇缺损修复中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿; 廖天安; 蒋封运; 邓伟; 刘海英

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨评价鼻唇沟瓣修复鼻唇缺损的临床效果.方法 对18例患者应用鼻唇沟瓣修复其鼻唇部组织缺损.包括鼻尖、鼻翼、鼻背、上下唇等,沿鼻唇沟行走方向设计皮瓣,最大缺损范围约3.0cm×4.0cm.结果 18例皮瓣全部成活,所有患者对术后外形、颜色、触痛觉、温度觉满意,供区瘢痕隐蔽无畸形且皮瓣颜色和受区无明显差异.结论 鼻唇沟皮瓣是鼻唇缺损修复的理想方法,就近取材,操作简单.%Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of using nasolabial sulcus flap to repair nose and lip defect. Methods Anasolabial sulcus flap was used to repahr defects of the nose and lip in 18 cases, including of defects of the nose tip, nasal ala, nasal clorsum, upper or lower lip and so on. The flap was designed along the direction of the nasolabial sulcus. The largest defective area was 3.0 cm×4.0 cm. Results All the nasolabial sulcus flaps survived in all 18 cases. All patients were satisfied with the postoperative natural appearance and color, tactile sensation, algasthesia and thermesthesia. The scar in donor site was concealed and no abnormality was formed and its color was suitable for the nose there was not new malformation be left operation in the face. Conclusion The nasolabial sulcus flap is an ideal method for repairing the nose skin defects, with the convenient and simple advantages because of choosing vicinal materials instead of distant materials.

  3. 义眼台植入术后残存上睑沟凹陷的处理%The correction of the deep superior sulcus after the orbital implantation of hydroxyapatite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯志嘉; 李冬梅; 郝磊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the treatment of the deep superior sulcus after the orbital implantation of hydroxyapatite (HA). Design Retrospective case series. Participants 55 patients (55 eyes) with deep superior sulcus after the HA implantation. Methods The participants received dermis fat transplantation, hemisphere HA implantation or orbital fracture rehabilitation by HA compound material, respectively. The choose of the surgical method was based on the degree of the superior sulcus and the pathogenesis. Main Outcome Measures The degree of the superior sulcus and the appearance before and after surgery were evaluated. Results The situation of deep superior sulcus in all 6 cases who received dermis fat graft was improved after the surgery within 3 months. Gradual absorption of the dermis fat beneath the skin was observed after 3 months. Finally, 1 patient remained mild but improved superior sulcus, while the other 5 patients obtained relatively acceptable correction. The results of the 10 patients who received hemisphere HA implantation and the 37 patients who received orbital fracture rehabilitation were satisfying. The other 2 patients received orbital fracture rehabilhation combined with dermis fat transplantation, and the results were satisfying. Conclusions The condition of deep superior suleus after the orbital implantation of HA may achieve satisfying results by choosing proper surgical methods depending on the degree of the superior sulcus and the pathogenesis.%目的 针对义眼台眶内植入术后上睑沟凹陷的不同原因研究处理方法,评估治疗效果.设计回顾性病例系列.研究对象自2005年12月至2011年6月羟基磷灰石义眼台植入术后残存上睑沟凹陷的患者55例(55眼),平均年龄(32.3±8.9)岁.方法 术前测量评估上睑沟凹陷程度及病因,分别采取上睑自体真皮脂肪移植、羟基磷灰石半球眶内充填、眶壁骨折整复羟基磷灰石骨块或复合人工骨板充填进行治疗.观察术后

  4. 三维模型分析法评价不同排龈时间下的龈沟宽度%Three-dimensional model analysis of the gingival sulcus width from different retraction time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张津京; 刘玉华; 吕培军; 赵一姣

    2011-01-01

    Objective :To explore the effect of gingival retraction time on the gingival sulcus width in different gingival areas, using three-dimensional ( 3D) model analysis. Methods: Forty-six premolars from 10 volunteers were included, gingival retraction cords were applied on the buccal sulcus for three times, and the retraction time was 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively. The least interval between two retraction procedures was 2 weeks. Impressions and stone models were made before and after gingival retraction. 3D data of the models were acquired by a 3D line laser scanner. Models were superimposed and tooth coordinate was set up with special software. Sulcus widths from different retraction time and different gingival areas were measured and compared. Results: Sulcus widths between retraction of 5 and 10 minutes were significantly different at midbuccal and transitional line angle ( TLA) gingival areas. At TLA areas, sulcus widths between retraction of 10 and 15 minutes were also statistically different, but the difference was not significant when compared with that of 5 and 10 minutes. Sulcus widths at midbuccal areas were significantly greater than that at TLA areas for all three retraction time. Conclusion: Before making impressions, gingival retraction time of single-cord mechanical technique should be at least 10 minutes. For different gingival areas, the enlargement of gingival sulcus from gingival retraction and the optimal retraction time were different. 3D model analysis could be used as a new objective method to evaluate gingival retraction effect from different retraction time.%目的:利用三维数字化模型分析法,研究排龈时间对牙龈不同部位龈沟宽度的影响.方法:选取10名志愿者的46颗前磨牙,对其颊侧龈沟共进行3次排龈,时间分别为5、10、15 min,两次排龈至少间隔2周,制取排龈前、后的印模并灌制石膏模型.用三维线激光扫描仪获取模型三维数据,通过专业软件进行模型重

  5. Reorganisation of the right occipito-parietal stream for auditory spatial processing in early blind humans. A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, O; Davare, M; Olivier, E; De Volder, A G

    2009-05-01

    It is well known that, following an early visual deprivation, the neural network involved in processing auditory spatial information undergoes a profound reorganization. In particular, several studies have demonstrated an extensive activation of occipital brain areas, usually regarded as essentially "visual", when early blind subjects (EB) performed a task that requires spatial processing of sounds. However, little is known about the possible consequences of the activation of occipitals area on the function of the large cortical network known, in sighted subjects, to be involved in the processing of auditory spatial information. To address this issue, we used event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to induce virtual lesions of either the right intra-parietal sulcus (rIPS) or the right dorsal extrastriate occipital cortex (rOC) at different delays in EB subjects performing a sound lateralization task. Surprisingly, TMS applied over rIPS, a region critically involved in the spatial processing of sound in sighted subjects, had no influence on the task performance in EB. In contrast, TMS applied over rOC 50 ms after sound onset, disrupted the spatial processing of sounds originating from the contralateral hemifield. The present study shed new lights on the reorganisation of the cortical network dedicated to the spatial processing of sounds in EB by showing an early contribution of rOC and a lesser involvement of rIPS.

  6. Practice patterns of cataract surgeons at academic medical centers for the management of inadequate capsule support for intracapsular or sulcus intraocular lens placement during cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Rebecca; Scott, Ingrid U; Tucker, Steven H; Chinchilli, Vernon M; Papachristou, George C

    2016-02-01

    To determine practice patterns with regard to intraocular lens (IOL) placement during cataract surgery when there is inadequate capsule support for intracapsular or sulcus IOL placement. Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, Hershey, Pennsylvania, USA. Cross-sectional study of anonymous survey results. An online survey was e-mailed to the coordinators of all Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited ophthalmology residency programs with a request to forward to all faculty who perform cataract surgery. Sixty-seven (57.2%) of 117 confirmed survey recipients participated. Thirty-six (62.1%) said they felt comfortable placing scleral-fixated posterior chamber IOLs (PC IOLs) independently. Faced with inadequate capsule support, 58.6% would place a primary anterior chamber IOL (AC IOL), 29.3% would place a primary scleral-fixated PC IOL, and 5.3% would leave the patient aphakic for secondary scleral-fixated PC IOL placement. Surgeons not comfortable placing scleral-fixated PC IOLs were most likely to choose primary AC IOLs (77.3%). Surgeons comfortable placing scleral-fixated PC IOLs were more evenly divided between primary AC IOLs (47.2%) and scleral-fixated PC IOLs (41.7%). Among surgeons who favored primary scleral-fixated PC IOLs, 63.7% cited a decreased risk for long-term complications as their reason for IOL choice; 50.0% of surgeons who favored primary AC IOLs cited avoidance of a second surgery. In general, primary AC IOL placement was preferred in the setting of inadequate capsule support, although less so among surgeons who were comfortable placing scleral-fixated PC IOLs. Lack of comfort with scleral-fixated PC IOL placement suggests a potential unmet training need in residency and fellowship programs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 64层螺旋CT对寰椎椎动脉沟环综合征的诊断价值%The diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral CT on atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路明; 陈穹; 汪茂文; 王钢; 陈小昕; 虞鲲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨64层螺旋CT对寰椎椎动脉沟环综合征的诊断价值.方法 收集因常规颈椎正侧位X线检查发现的寰椎椎动脉沟环患者48例,进行64层螺旋CT容积扫描后,进行容积重建和多平面重建,多方位显示寰椎结构形态及寰枢关节间隙,并探讨其与临床症状之间的关系.结果 48例寰椎椎动脉沟环患者中,右侧完整环型24例,孔径(6.59±0.50)mm,左侧完整环型36例,孔径(6.19±0.49)mm,右侧不完整环型24例,左侧不完整环型12例.30例诊断为寰椎椎动脉沟环综合征,均有寰枢关节不稳及不同程度头颈转动性眩晕症状.结论 64层螺旋CT能清晰显示寰椎后弓桥的解剖结构和测量寰椎椎动脉沟环的孔径,结合对枕颈失稳的判断,对寰椎椎动脉沟环综合征具有重要的诊断价值.%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of 64-slice spiral CT on atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring syndrome.Methods The 48 atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring patients who were found by conventional anterior posterior and lateral X-ray film were collected.The 64-slice spiral CT volume scan and following volume restitution(V R)and multiplanar reconstruction(MPR)were underwent,and multi-directional structural morphology was displayed.Their relationship with clinical features were analyzed.Results Among 48 cases of atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring,24 cases were shown with right complete bridge[pore size(6.59±0.50)mm],36 cases with left complete bridge[pore size(6.19±0.49)mm],24 cases with right incomplete bridge and 12 cases with left incomplete bridge.Thirty cases were diagnosed as atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring syndrome,and all had the atlantoaxial joint asymmetry and vertigo of different degree when head and neck rotated.Conclusions The 64-slice spiral CT can clearly display the anatomical features of posterior bridge of atlas and measure the pore size of atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring,and it has important diagnostic value for atlas

  8. Value of Dual-source CT Angiography in the Diagnosis of Vertebral Artery Sulcus Ring%双源 CTA 在椎动脉沟环中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫如意; 张朝利; 刘军华; 费军

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the value of dual-source CT angiography (DSCTA ) in the diagnosis of vertebral artery sulcus ring .[Methods]Clinical data of 62 patients with vertebral artery sulcus ring diagnosed by DSCTA were col-lected .The types of whole-ring-type vertebral artery sulcus ring were analyzed .The diameter of vertebral artery was measured .[Results] The types of 62 patients with vertebral artery included Ⅳ type in 38 patients(61 .3% ) in which 25 patients were bilateral whole-ring type and 13 patients were unilateral whole-ring type(8 patients with right side and 4 pa-tients with left side) ,Ⅲ type in 6 patients (9 .7% ) which were bone breaking in curve bone bridge arch with both beak-like sides ,typeⅠandⅡ in 18 patients(29 .0% ) in which 3 patients were type I anterior semi-ring and 15 patients were typeⅡ posterior semi-ring .The upper and lower diameters of whole-ring type vertebral artery sulcus ring were 3 .1~8 .2 (4 .8 ± 0 .3)mm and anteroposterior diameters were 4 .2~9 .1(7 .10 .3)mm .The diameter of vertebral artery in atlas ver-tebral artery sulcus ring was 1 .8~5 .9(3 .7 ± 0 .8)mm .Local stenosis of vertebral artery was found in 15 patients ,and the stenosis rate was 10% ~30% .[Conclusion]DSCTA can accurately display the shape of atlas vertebral artery sulcus ring and stenosis caused by vertebral artery entrapment .%【目的】探讨双源CT血管成像(CTA)在椎动脉沟环中的诊断价值。【方法】收集头颈部双源CTA检查中发现椎动脉沟环的患者62例的临床资料,分析椎动脉沟环分型并测量椎动脉直径。【结果】62例椎动脉沟环的分型:Ⅳ型38例,占61.3%,其中25例为双侧全环型,13例为单侧全环型(右侧8例、左侧4例);Ⅲ型6例,占9.7%,为弧形骨桥弓顶部骨质中断,两端呈鸟嘴状;Ⅰ型及Ⅱ型18例,占29.0%,其中Ⅰ型(前半环)3例、Ⅱ型(后半环)15例。测量全环型椎动脉沟环上下径3.1

  9. Absent activation in medial prefrontal cortex and temporoparietal junction but not superior temporal sulcus during the perception of biological motion in schizophrenia: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashimoto N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Naoki Hashimoto,1,2 Atsuhito Toyomaki,1 Masahiro Hirai,3 Tamaki Miyamoto,1 Hisashi Narita,1 Ryo Okubo,1 Ichiro Kusumi1 1Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan; 2Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Center for Development of Advanced Medical Technology, Jichi Medical University, Yakushiji, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan Background: Patients with schizophrenia show disturbances in both visual perception and social cognition. Perception of biological motion (BM is a higher-level visual process, and is known to be associated with social cognition. BM induces activation in the “social brain network”, including the superior temporal sulcus (STS. Although deficits in the detection of BM and atypical activation in the STS have been reported in patients with schizophrenia, it remains unclear whether other nodes of the “social brain network” are also atypical in patients with schizophrenia.Purpose: We aimed to explore whether brain regions other than STS were involved during BM perception in patients with schizophrenia, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI.Methods and patients: Seventeen patients with schizophrenia, and 17 age- and sex- matched healthy controls, underwent fMRI scanning during a one-back visual task, containing three experimental conditions: (1 BM, (2 scrambled motion (SM, and (3 static condition. We used one-sample t-tests to examine neural responses selective to BM versus SM within each group, and two-sample t-tests to directly compare neural patterns to BM versus SM in schizophrenics versus controls.Results: We found significant activation in the STS region when BM was contrasted with SM in both groups, with no significant difference between groups. On the contrary, significant activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ was found only in the

  10. Analysis of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy for superior sulcus lung tumor%术前同期放化疗治疗肺上沟瘤的疗效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To compare the clinical effect and toxicities of preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CT/RT)with radiotherapy (RT) alone in patients with superior sulcus lung tumor. Methods: Fifty-six patients with superior sulcus lung tumor were divided randomly into two groups: twenty-six patients received concurrent chemoradiotherapy, the other thirty patients received only radiotherapy. For both groups, the same radiation technic was given with the convention fraction. The total dose was 45 Gy/25 Fr/5 Wk. For the CT/RT group, the patients were also given with concurrent chemotherapy (navelbine 15-18 mg/m2 on the 1st and 8th day, cisplatin 60 mg/m2 on the 1 st day). Results: The rate of complete resection in the CT/RT group was significantly higher than that in the RT group (92.3% vs 80%, P < 0.05). The complete pathological response rate and 2-year survival rate in the CT/RT group were significantly higher than those in the RT group (P < 0.01, P < 0.01). The incidences of grades Ⅲ-Ⅳ radiation esophagitis and leukopenia in the CT/RT group were significantly higher than those in the RT group (23.1% and 23.1% vs 6.7% and 0, P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusion: Preoperative concurrent chemoradiotherapy has the potential of improving the survival rate of superior sulcus lung tumors. Though this treatment regimen also increases the acute toxic effect, all patients can tolerate it. It is expected to be a new "standard treatment" for this malignant tumor.

  11. Comparison of the occurrence rates of cervical nerve entrapment at cervical intervertebral foramen and spinal nervous sulcus%颈神经在椎间孔与脊神经沟处受嵌压的出现率比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英平; 郭瑞芳; 温海青

    2005-01-01

    背景:椎间盘髓核向侧后方脱出以及神经根管内的软组织炎性肿胀可直接或间接压迫神经根,但颈神经在椎间孔及脊神经沟处的嵌压因素与严重性待进一步研究.目的:探讨颈神经在椎间孔及脊神经沟处受嵌压的出现率与颈椎病严重程度关系.设计:单一样本研究.单位:承德医学院解剖教研室、附属医院老年病科、教务处.对象:实验选用承德医学院解剖教研室提供的经甲醛固定成尸60具,男28,女32;共120侧.方法:取60具成尸,测量颈椎间孔及其脊神经根的外径以及对脊神经沟外口宽度及其沟内段脊神经前支横径,数据进行统计学处理.主要观察指标:颈神经前支横径/脊神经沟宽度和颈神经根外径/椎间孔大小的均值,比值≥1的出现率.结果:颈神经根与椎间孔之比值明显大于脊神经与脊神经沟之比值(t=2.66,P<0.01);颈神经在椎间孔处受压的出现率(24.6%)明显高于脊神经沟处(6.3%),二者比较差异有非常显著性意义(x2=6.95,P<0.01).结论:颈神经在颈椎间孔和脊神经沟处均可受累,颈神经在椎间孔处受累的严重性明显大于在脊神经沟处.临床诊治颈椎病在充分考虑椎间孔处神经受累的同时,也不可忽视颈椎脊神经沟处神经受累的可能性.%BACKGROUND: Nerve root could be directly or indirectly entrapped due to lateral backward prolapse of nucleus pulposus of intervertebral disc, as well as parenchymal inflammatory tumefaction of the soft tissues in nerve root tube. But the factors and their severity related to cervical nerve entrapment at cervical intervertebral foramen and spinal nervous sulcus still need further studies.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between the occurrence rate of cervical nerve entrapment at cervical intervertebral foramen and spinal nervous sulcus and the severity of cervical syndrome.DESIGN: A single sample study.SETTING: Department of Anatomy, Department of

  12. 自膨胀水凝胶植入治疗上眶区凹陷的长期效果%Long-term effects of injectable hydrogel pellet for superior sulcus deformity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高畅; 齐艳华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the long-term efficacy of injectable hydrogel pellets in treating superior sulcus deformity.Methods Seven cases with superior sulcus deformity received orbital volume augmentation by injectable hydrogel pellets.Preoperative and postoperative photographs and Hertel measurements were examined for the efficacy of volume replacement.Results The overall cosmetic results in superior sulcus deformity and enophthalmos were good in the early stage postoperatively.However,the superior sulcus deformity became obvious with time.Conclusion The final volume of hydrogel pellets in the enophthalmos socket is affected by many factors.The atrophy of orbital fat tissues and inflammation at the operation area are associated with surgery.The further decreased fluid from the surrounding already fluid-deprived region due to the "stealing" action of the hydroxyapatite sphere in the orbit was another factor.%目的 观察柱状自膨胀水凝胶治疗上眶区凹陷的长期效果.方法 7例上眶区凹陷患者植入柱状自膨胀水凝胶进行容积扩张.术前术后进行拍照及眼球突出度测量来评估容积扩张的效果.结果 术后早期上眶区凹陷及眼窝凹陷的改善状况都很好,但是随着时间的延长,上眶区凹陷又变得很明显.结论 柱状自膨胀水凝胶在无眼球眼眶中的最终膨胀体积受多种因素的影响.如脂肪组织的萎缩,手术所带来的手术区域的炎症,以及羟基磷灰石的存在吸取本就不是很多的液体导致周围液体的进一步减少.

  13. Neural Mechanisms of Recognizing Camouflaged Objects: A Human fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-30

    network contains 29 distinct brain regions, spread over all four lobes of the cerebral hemisphere (with substantial inter-hemispheric asymmetry), along...human face). Another cluster in near the occipito- parietal junction, and includes the following regions: posterior intrapietal sulcus (IPSp...other in the medial aspect of the frontal lobe , are active when the subjects correctly decide that the scene in question does NOT contain a camouflaged

  14. 高度近视眼角膜水平径与睫状沟直径的相关性研究%Correlation between white-to-white diameter and ciliary sulcus diameter of high myopia eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高健; 廖荣丰

    2013-01-01

    差会随着前房加深逐渐增加.睫状沟垂直方向的距离大于水平方向.%Objective To investigate the ciliary sulcus diameters in horizontal and vertical axes and to analyze the correlation between white-to-white diameter and horizontal ciliary sulcus diameter for high myopia eyes at different anterior chamber depths.Methods IOL-Master was used to measure white-to-white diameters and anterior chamber depths of 108 high myopia eyes and verified by digital caliper.Based on the depth of central anterior chamber not including corneal thickness,the testing eyes were divided into three groups:shallow AC group(3.0 mm<ACD≤3.2 mm),medium AC group(3.2 mm<ACD≤3.4 mm),and deep AC group(ACD>3.4 mm).Furthermore,the horizontal and vertical ciliary sulcus diameters were checked by full-scale 50-Hz ultrasound biomicroscopy.The data of three AC groups were analyzed separately.The paired sample t-test was used to compare:white-to-white diameters and horizontal sulcus diameters,horizontal and vertical suclus diameters.The correlations between white-to-white diameters and horizontal sulcus diameters were assessed using linear regression analysis.The difference in the three groups of white-to-white diameters and ciliary sulcus diameters were compared by Student Newman Keuls test.Results The mean diameters and standard deviations of WTW diameters and horizontal ciliary sulcus diameters in the shallow AC group was,respectively,(11.46±0.38)and(11.57±0.32)mm(t=-2.849,P=0.007).Linear regression analysis found a statistically significant correlation between whiteto-white diameters and horizontal sulcus diameters with a coefficient of determinant of 0.797(P =0.000).The mean vertical suclus diameters was(12.27±0.48)mm.The difference between horizontal and vertical suclus diameters was statistically significant(t=-15.522,P=0.000).The mean diameters and standard deviations of WTW diameters and horizontal ciliary sulcus diameters in the medium AC group was

  15. A radiological anatomy study of the olfactory sulcus and adjacent structures in Chinese%中国人的嗅沟及其邻近结构的影像解剖研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚艺文; 翟立杰; 张青; 于胜波; 隋鸿锦

    2007-01-01

    目的 对于复杂颅前窝的理解对于鼻内镜手术至关重要,在CT三维重建的图像中对嗅沟及邻近结构数据进行测量,应用动态的解剖学的观测有利于医师做出术前精细的手术计划以避免对前颅底的损伤.方法 100例成年人的鼻窦图像在EBW2.0工作站上应用多平面重建技术进行重建,在嗅沟最前端的冠状面对两侧筛板深度及其邻近结构的数据进行测量,邻近结构包括嗅沟的侧板的高度,筛板与同侧眶纸样板的距离,中鼻甲的高度,眼眶的高度,筛板与鼻底的高度.结果 嗅沟被划分为有别于KEROS分型的3型:平台型(60%),斜坡型(17%)和混合型(23%).其中平台型嗅沟的侧板的高度为右侧(5.03±0.17)mm,左侧(5.39±0.19)mm;混合型其高度为右侧(2.79±0.49)mm,左侧(4.72±0.49)mm,两型对比左右两侧数据有显著性差异;筛板与同侧眶纸样板的水平距离和筛板与鼻底的垂直距离在平台型和混合型嗅沟之间有显著性差异.该数据在男女性别方面也存在差异.结论 不同类型的嗅沟存在不同的特点,在进行鼻内镜手术时需谨慎.%OBJECTIVE An understanding of the complex anatomy of the anterior skull base is crucial for the surgeon doing endoscopic surgery. The anatomic data of the olfactory sulcus and adjacent structures in Chinese patients were defined using 3-dimensional reconstruction images. The surgeon is encouraged to develop a detailed pre-operative surgical plan by utilizing these dynamic anatomical observations to avoid intracranial injury. METHODS The paranasal sinus CT scanning images of 100 adults were reconstructed for observation using EBW2.0 software and multiplanar reformation. All data obtained were in the coronal plane from the anterior point of the olfactory sulcus. The cribriform plate depth as compared to the ethmoid roof and adjacent structures, was measured bilaterally. Data obtained on adjacent structures include the vertical height of the

  16. 白内障手术中l期人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术的体会%Experience of intraocular lens implantation sutured in ciliary sulcus at l phase in cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕宏伟; 赵莉辉; 曾忠玲

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨白内障复明术中l期人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定手术的技巧,并发症和发生原因及处理方法。  方法:回顾36例37眼l期行人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术手术方法,并对手术效果及并发症予以分析。  结果:术后随访3~24lo,最佳矫正视力≥0.8者4眼(11%),0.4~0.8者19眼(51%),0.1~0.3者14眼(38%)。主要并发症为角膜轻水肿内皮混浊10眼(27%),玻璃体出血3眼(8%),所有患者无严重并发症。  结论:l期人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术是白内障常规手术方法的补充,安全、有效,可显著提高视力,减少并发症的发生。%AlM:To investigate the surgical skills, the causes and the treatment of the complications of intraocular lens implantation sutured in ciliary sulcus at l phase in cataract surgery. METHODS:Thirty-six cases ( 37 eyes ) that couldn’t implant intraocular lens normally were treated with intraocular lens sutured in ciliary sulcus. The surgical effect and complications were analyzed. RESULTS:Patients were followed up for 3-24mo. The postoperative best corrected visual acuity( BCVA) was ≥0. 8 in 4 eyes(11%), 0. 4-0. 8 in 19 eyes (51%), 0. 1-0. 3 in 14 eyes ( 38%) . There were 10 eyes ( 27%) with corneal endothelium edema, 3 eyes ( 8%) with vitreous hemorrhage, and all the symptoms disappeared after dealing. There were no serious complications and sequelae in all the patients CONCLUSlON:lntraocular lens implantation sutured in ciliary sulcus at l phase in cataract surgery is a complement of the conventional surgery method for cataract with safety and effectiveness. lt can increase the vision significantly and reduce the complications.

  17. The management of YAG combined with the ciliary sulcus suture fixing for lens dislocation into the vitreous cavity%YAG激光联合缝线固定术处理人工晶状体坠入玻璃体腔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭吉林; 苟甫伟; 龚力力; 唐建; 王心莲; 张鹏辉

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨YAG激光联合缝线固定术治疗人工晶状体坠入玻璃体腔的术后效果.方法 充分散瞳后用YAG激光切开残存的囊膜,让患者俯卧位使人工晶状体脱入前房,然后用改良的人工晶状体缝线固定术将该人工晶状体固定于睫状沟.结果 12例中有11例的人工晶状体成功固定于睫状沟,这11例术后1周均达到和超过术前最佳矫正视力. 1例用该法没能使人工晶状体脱入前房,而建议行玻切手术.结论 用YAG联合后房型人工晶状体缝线固定术处理人工晶状体坠入玻璃体腔,是一种操作简单、创伤小、固定可靠、效果良好的手术方式,大部分患者不需再行玻切术,也不需将人工晶状体从眼球内取出.%Objective To explore a simple and reliable surgical treatment for intraocular lens (IOL) falling into the vitreous cavity and to evaluate its postoperative results. Methods Firstly, the pupil fully dilated and the remnants of capsular incised by YAG, then, to enable patients to prone position to make IOL off into the anterior chamber, and finally, the IOL fixed in the ciliary sulcus by using an improved suture fixation method. Results Eleven of the 12 cases had been successful with the lens fixed in the ciliary sulcus and the patients had regained as good as pre-operation best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) or better than it within a week, while 1 case was not successful to fix and was advised to receive vitrectomy. Conclusions YAG combined with the ciliary sulcus suture fixing is a simple, less traumatic, reliable, satisfying surgical method for those IOL dislocation into the vitreous cavity.

  18. 血友病男性患者与健康男性龈沟出血指数的比较%Comparison of sulcus bleeding index between male patients with hemophil-ia and healthy men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄劲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the difference of sulcus bleeding index between male patients with hemophilia and healthy men,analyze the correlationshiip between hemorrhage and oral hygiene. Methods 120 male patients with hemophilia admitted into our hospital from May 2011 to March 2014 were selected as observation objects (hemophilia group),were divided into group of age less than 35 years old (n=67) and group of age more than 35 years old (n=53).30 healthy men for check-up at the same period were selected as control group.Sulcus bleeding index was examined and dental plaque and calculus index in hemophilia group was observed. Results The sulcus bleeding index in hemophilia group was 1.78±1.32,higher than 1.61±1.00 in the control group,the difference was significant (P35岁组(53例),以同期入院接受全口牙龈沟出血指数检查的30例健康男性体检者为对照组。对两组均进行全口牙龈沟出血指数检测,并观察血友病组菌斑指数、牙石指数。结果血友病男性患者齿龈沟出血指数为1.78±1.32,高于对照组的1.61±1.00,差异有统计学意义(P35岁患者组的齿龈沟出血指数,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。血友病患者的菌斑指数、牙石指数与齿龈沟出血指数呈正相关。结论血友病患者出血严重程度与年龄有关,注意口腔卫生能减少牙龈出血。

  19. Developmental dyscalculia is related to visuo-spatial memory and inhibition impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szucs, Denes; Devine, Amy; Soltesz, Fruzsina; Nobes, Alison; Gabriel, Florence

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is thought to be a specific impairment of mathematics ability. Currently dominant cognitive neuroscience theories of developmental dyscalculia suggest that it originates from the impairment of the magnitude representation of the human brain, residing in the intraparietal sulcus, or from impaired connections between number symbols and the magnitude representation. However, behavioral research offers several alternative theories for developmental dyscalculia and neuro-imaging also suggests that impairments in developmental dyscalculia may be linked to disruptions of other functions of the intraparietal sulcus than the magnitude representation. Strikingly, the magnitude representation theory has never been explicitly contrasted with a range of alternatives in a systematic fashion. Here we have filled this gap by directly contrasting five alternative theories (magnitude representation, working memory, inhibition, attention and spatial processing) of developmental dyscalculia in 9-10-year-old primary school children. Participants were selected from a pool of 1004 children and took part in 16 tests and nine experiments. The dominant features of developmental dyscalculia are visuo-spatial working memory, visuo-spatial short-term memory and inhibitory function (interference suppression) impairment. We hypothesize that inhibition impairment is related to the disruption of central executive memory function. Potential problems of visuo-spatial processing and attentional function in developmental dyscalculia probably depend on short-term memory/working memory and inhibition impairments. The magnitude representation theory of developmental dyscalculia was not supported.

  20. Local morphology predicts functional organization of experienced value signals in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yansong; Sescousse, Guillaume; Amiez, Céline; Dreher, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-28

    Experienced value representations within the human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are thought to be organized through an antero-posterior gradient corresponding to secondary versus primary rewards. Whether this gradient depends upon specific morphological features within this region, which displays considerable intersubject variability, remains unknown. To test the existence of such relationships, we performed a subject-by-subject analysis of fMRI data taking into account the local morphology of each individual. We tested 38 subjects engaged in a simple incentive delay task manipulating both monetary and visual erotic rewards, focusing on reward outcome (experienced value signal). The results showed reliable and dissociable primary (erotic) and secondary (monetary) experienced value signals at specific OFC sulci locations. More specifically, experienced value signal induced by monetary reward outcome was systematically located in the rostral portion of the medial orbital sulcus. Experienced value signal related to erotic reward outcome was located more posteriorly, that is, at the intersection between the caudal portion of the medial orbital sulcus and transverse orbital sulcus. Thus, the localizations of distinct experienced value signals can be predicted from the organization of the human orbitofrontal sulci. This study provides insights into the anatomo-functional parcellation of the anteroposterior OFC gradient observed for secondary versus primary rewards because there is a direct relationship between value signals at the time of reward outcome and unique OFC sulci locations.

  1. Sulcus fixated foldable intraocular lens implanted by injector in aphakia after vitrectomy%玻璃体切除术后无晶状体眼悬吊式折叠人工晶状体推注植入术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁晓春

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effect of sulcus fixated foldable intraocular lens implanted by injector in aphakia after vitrectomy.Methods 31 eyes of 31 cases of aphakia after vitrectomy were treated by sulcus fixated foldable intraocular lens implanted by injector.The surgery was performed under stable irrigation and the incision was made at upper limbus.The suspensory suture was placed at 2 o' clock and 8 o' clock.Then the foldable intraocular lens implanted by injector was sutured and localized at ciliary sulcus.Results The surgery was successfully performed in 30 cases and failed in 1 case due to small amount sub choroidal expulsive hemorrhage.Of these 30 cases,the intraocular lens was centered and the intraocular pressure was normal.The surgical complications included retinal detachment in 1 cases at 2 weeks postoperatively which were treated by vitrectomy,and intraocular lens dislocation in 1 case at 6 months postoperatively which was reset by operation.The visual acuities of 31 cases achieved expected visual acuity.Conclusion Sulcus fixated foldable intraocular lens implanted by injector in aphakia eye after vitrectomy has small incision,which minimizes surgery induced astigmatism,and avoid the risk of intraoperative hypotension.%目的 探讨玻璃体切除术后无晶状体眼悬吊式折叠人工晶状体推注器植入术的效果.方法 31例(31眼)建立灌注后,做上方角巩膜隧道切口,8点、2点位予置悬吊线并引出切口外.折叠式人工晶状体装入推注器后推至晶状体袢稍露出,8点位悬吊线打结于晶状体袢.推注器进入前房后植入人工晶状体.末端晶体袢露出隧道切口外,2点位悬吊线打结于另一袢并送入前房,再调整到后房正位后固定悬吊线.结果 30例手术顺利.术后人工晶状体正位.眼压正常,术中1例发生脉络膜下少量出血.术后6个月1例发生人工晶状体脱位再次手术正位,1例术后2周发生视网膜脱离,

  2. 超声生物显微镜协助人工晶状体单襻睫状沟缝线固定术%Single haptic suture fixation of intraocular lens at ciliary sulcus aided by ultrasound biomicroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚长海; 王庆瑛

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of single haptic suture fixation of intraocular lens at ciliary sulcus aided with ultrasound biomicroscopy. Methods Eighteen eyes of eighteen patients were enrolled in this study. They had undergone single haptic suture fixation of intraocular lens at ciliary sulcus. Eleven eyes of eleven patients whose operation plans were designed under the pre-UBM examinations formed group A, while seven eyes of seven patients who received routine haptic suture fixation operation formed group B. After the operation, all the patients took UBM examination, and the data of position of needle insertion and intraocular lens were recorded. Results Position of stitch insertion in group A located in (0. 76 ± 0. 11)mm posterior to corneal limbus, while it was 1. 0 mm in group B. In group A, there were 6 cases(54. 55%) in which haptics of intraocular lens were precisely implanted at ciliary sulcus. While in group B, there was only one eye(14. 29%). In group A, the intraocular lens tilt was (0. 4635 ± 0. 1655) mm, and the intraocular lens decentration was (0.3543 ±0.3246)mm. In group B, they were (0.6913 ± 0. 2069) mm and (0. 8351 ± 0. 6286) mm respectively. Conclusion Single haptic suture fixation of intraocular lens at ciliary sulcus aided by ultrasound biomicroscopy, can reduce the occurance of postoperative intraocular lens tilt and decentration.%目的:评价超声生物显微镜( UBM)协助下人工晶状体单襻睫状沟缝线固定的手术方法和临床疗效。方法人工晶体单襻睫状沟缝线固定术18例(18眼)。其中,术前行UBM检查并依此设计手术方式者11例,设为A组;术前未行UBM检查,按常规手术方式植入者7例,设为B组。术后行UBM检查并记录术中进针位置及人工晶状体位置相关数据进行统计学比较。结果 A组的进针位置位于角膜缘后(0.76±0.11)mm;B组进针位置位于角膜缘后1.0 mm,A组中能确切植入睫状沟者6例(54.55%),而B组中仅1

  3. 改良鼻翼沟成形及鼻尖缩小术矫治鼻尖肥大%Correction of nasorostral hypertrophy using modified sulcus alaris plasty and nasal tip reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    勾庆芬; 付冰川

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore an effective method to correcting nasorostral hypertrophy. Methods Seventy-two cases with nasorostral hypertrophy were divided randomly into Group A and B ( each 36 cases) . Of 36 patients in Group A, 30 were performed correction using the modified sulcus alaris plasty and nasal tip reduction through U-shaped incision outside nose ; the other 6 were corrected only with the modified sulcus alaris plasty through the medial margin incision of bilateral nasal ala. Of 36 patients in Group B, 27 were corrected by nasal tip reduction and augmentation thinoplasty with L-shaped silica gel prosthesis through U-shaped incision outside nose; 9 0nly received the augmentation thinoplasty with L-shaped silica gel prosthesis through the medial margin incision of unilateral nostril. Results Follow-up was performed for 6 ~ 24 months, the satisfactory rate was 88. 89% ( 32/36) in Group A and 69. 44% (25/36) in Group B, respectively. The difference between two groups was significant by chi-square test. P < 0. 05. In Group A, 1 case was with partial necrosis of nasal wing, 2 cases with slight deviation of nasal columella and and 1 case with deficient depth of alar sulcus. Conclusion It is an effective and instant method for nasorostral hypertrophy with the modified sulcus alaris plasty. The result is reliable, permanent and traceless.%目的 探索一种矫治鼻尖圆钝肥大的有效方法.方法 将72例鼻尖圆钝肥大患者分为两组.A组36例,其中30例通过鼻外U形切口,行改良鼻翼沟成形术及鼻尖缩小术,6例自两侧鼻翼内侧缘切口,行改良鼻翼沟成形术;B组36例,其中27例采用鼻外U形切口,行鼻尖缩小术+L形硅胶假体隆鼻术,9例采用单侧鼻孔内侧缘切口,行L形硅胶假体隆鼻术.结果 术后随访患者6~24个月.满意率:A组为88.89%(32/36),B组为69.44%(25/36).经x2检验,A组满意率大于B组,差异有统计学意义邋(P<0.05).A组中1例出现鼻翼皮肤坏死,2

  4. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Golijeh eGolarai; Dara eGhahremani; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; John D E Gabrieli

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearr...

  5. Nueva variante de abordaje al surco ciliar en la fijación transescleral de lentes de cámara posterior New variant of approach to the ciliary sulcus in the transcleral fixation of posterior chamber lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Vila Dópico

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Se expone una variante de abordaje al surco ciliar para la fijación del lente intraocular de cámara posterior, que está a nuestro alcance, en pacientes en que no existe soporte capsular o este es insuficiente. Se describe la técnica. Se realizó en 17 pacientes de los que se obtuvo mejoría visual en todos los casos (20/50-20/20 con un seguimiento promedio de 12 meses. Esta variante tiene la ventaja de evitar el paso de la aguja por el surco ciliar a ciegas, pues se utiliza el abordaje a través de la esclera y con ello evitamos dañar estructuras oculares aledañas evitando el riesgo de complicaciones por lo que se logra la recuperación anatómica y funcional en todos los casos.A variant to approach the ciliary sulcus for fixating the posterior chamber intraocular lens, which is within our reach, in patients with insufficient or no capsular support, is explained. The technique is described here and it was applied to 17 patients. Visual improvement was obtained in all cases (20/50-20/20 with an average follow-up of 12 months. This variant allows to prevent the blind passage of the needle through the ciliary sulcus, since it is approached via the sclera, avoiding to damage adjoining ocular structures and to have complications, and making possible the anatomic and functional recovery of all patients.

  6. Contribution of the posterior parietal cortex in reaching, grasping, and using objects and tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eVingerhoets

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest a differential contribution of posterior parietal regions during the different components of a transitive gesture. Reaching requires the integration of object location and body position coordinates and reaching tasks elicit bilateral activation in different foci along the intraparietal sulcus. Grasping requires a visuomotor match between the object’s shape and the hand’s posture. Lesion studies and neuroimaging confirm the importance of the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus for human grasping. Reaching and grasping reveal bilateral activation that is generally more prominent on the side contralateral to the hand used or the hemifield stimulated. Purposeful behavior with objects and tools can be assessed in a variety of ways, including actual use, pantomimed use, and pure imagery of manipulation. All tasks have been shown to elicit robust activation over the left parietal cortex in neuroimaging, but lesion studies have not always confirmed these findings. Compared to pantomimed or imagined gestures, actual object and tool use typically produces activation over the left primary somatosensory region. Neuroimaging studies on pantomiming or imagery of tool use in healthy volunteers revealed neural responses in possibly separate foci in the left supramarginal gyrus. In sum, the parietal contribution of reaching and grasping of objects seems to depend on a bilateral network of intraparietal foci that appear organized along gradients of sensory and effector preferences. Dorsal and medial parietal cortex appears to contribute to the online monitoring/adjusting of the ongoing prehensile action, whereas the functional use of objects and tools seems to involve the inferior lateral parietal cortex. This functional input reveals a clear left lateralized activation pattern that may be tuned to the integration of acquired knowledge in the planning and guidance of the transitive movement.

  7. Contribution of the posterior parietal cortex in reaching, grasping, and using objects and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest a differential contribution of posterior parietal regions during the different components of a transitive gesture. Reaching requires the integration of object location and body position coordinates and reaching tasks elicit bilateral activation in different foci along the intraparietal sulcus. Grasping requires a visuomotor match between the object's shape and the hand's posture. Lesion studies and neuroimaging confirm the importance of the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus for human grasping. Reaching and grasping reveal bilateral activation that is generally more prominent on the side contralateral to the hand used or the hemifield stimulated. Purposeful behavior with objects and tools can be assessed in a variety of ways, including actual use, pantomimed use, and pure imagery of manipulation. All tasks have been shown to elicit robust activation over the left parietal cortex in neuroimaging, but lesion studies have not always confirmed these findings. Compared to pantomimed or imagined gestures, actual object and tool use typically produces activation over the left primary somatosensory region. Neuroimaging studies on pantomiming or imagery of tool use in healthy volunteers revealed neural responses in possibly separate foci in the left supramarginal gyrus. In sum, the parietal contribution of reaching and grasping of objects seems to depend on a bilateral network of intraparietal foci that appear organized along gradients of sensory and effector preferences. Dorsal and medial parietal cortex appears to contribute to the online monitoring/adjusting of the ongoing prehensile action, whereas the functional use of objects and tools seems to involve the inferior lateral parietal cortex. This functional input reveals a clear left lateralized activation pattern that may be tuned to the integration of acquired knowledge in the planning and guidance of the transitive movement.

  8. Category-Selectivity in Human Visual Cortex Follows Cortical Topology: A Grouped icEEG Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies suggest that category-selective regions in higher-order visual cortex are topologically organized around specific anatomical landmarks: the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS in the ventral temporal cortex (VTC and lateral occipital sulcus (LOS in the lateral occipital cortex (LOC. To derive precise structure-function maps from direct neural signals, we collected intracranial EEG (icEEG recordings in a large human cohort (n = 26 undergoing implantation of subdural electrodes. A surface-based approach to grouped icEEG analysis was used to overcome challenges from sparse electrode coverage within subjects and variable cortical anatomy across subjects. The topology of category-selectivity in bilateral VTC and LOC was assessed for five classes of visual stimuli-faces, animate non-face (animals/body-parts, places, tools, and words-using correlational and linear mixed effects analyses. In the LOC, selectivity for living (faces and animate non-face and non-living (places and tools classes was arranged in a ventral-to-dorsal axis along the LOS. In the VTC, selectivity for living and non-living stimuli was arranged in a latero-medial axis along the MFS. Written word-selectivity was reliably localized to the intersection of the left MFS and the occipito-temporal sulcus. These findings provide direct electrophysiological evidence for topological information structuring of functional representations within higher-order visual cortex.

  9. There is more into 'doing' than 'knowing': The function of the right inferior frontal sulcus is specific for implementing versus memorising verbal instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demanet, J.; Liefooghe, B.; Hartstra, E.; Wenke, D.; Houwer, J. de; Brass, M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we examine the mechanism underlying the human ability to implement newly instructed stimulus-response mappings for their future application. We introduce a novel procedure in which we can investigate the processes underlying such implementation while controlling for more general

  10. 人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定联合瞳孔成形术%Ciliary sulcus suture fixation of intraocular lens combined with coreoplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖博文; 曹维; 李俊岭

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定联合Siepser滑结缝线法瞳孔成形术处理复杂的眼前段外伤的临床效果.方法 回顾性分析复杂的眼前段外伤35例(35眼),行人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定联合Siepser滑结法虹膜缝合及前部玻璃体切除术.随访3月,评估手术效果.结果 35眼术后视力均有不同程度提高,术后3月平均裸眼视力从术前的(0.04 ±0.02)提高到(0.39±0.18)(t=-11.4,P<0.01);术后3月平均瞳孔直径从术前的(6.23±2.01) mm缩小至(3.35±0.71) mm(=7.99,P<0.01);术后2眼眼压出现一过性升高,经降眼压治疗后恢复正常;所有术眼随访过程中均未出现虹膜前、后粘连或瞳孔膜闭等改变,术后35眼瞳孔均呈圆形或类圆形;无一例出现单眼复视症状;术后角膜内皮细胞数目均无明显下降;畏光和眩光等症状明显减轻或消失.结论 人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定联合瞳孔成形术在复杂的眼前段外伤处理中是一种安全有效的手术方法.%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of ciliary sulcus suture fixation of intraocular lens combined with Siepser slipknot suture coreoplasty for complex anterior segment trauma.Methods Thirty five eyes of 35 cases with complex anterior segment trauma,treated with ciliary sulcus suture fixation of intraocular lens combined with Siepser slipknot suture coreoplasty and anterior vitrectomy were analyzed.The follow-up time was 3 months.The surgical effects were analysed.Results Postoperatively,visual acuity was improved in all 35 eyes.After 3 months of operation,the average visual acuity was improved from preoperative (0.04 ±0.02) to postoperative (0.39 ± 0.18) (t =-11.4,P <0.01) and the average pupil diameter was reduced from preoperative (6.23 ± 2.01)mm to postoperative (3.35 ± 0.71) mm (t =7.99,P < 0.01).Two eyes had higher intraocular pressure which recovered soon after pressurelowering treatment.During the follow-up period,anterior or

  11. 小切口三片式折叠人工晶状体睫状沟悬吊术疗效观察%Small-incision transscleral sulcus fixation of posterior chamber intraocular three pieces of types lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白华; 黄耀辉; 何涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study and assessment the effectiveness and feasibility of small-incision transscleral sulcus fixation with posterior chamber intraocular three pieces of types lens.Methods Forty-three patients ( 43 eyes ) with zonule abnormity or posterior capsule rupture were performed intraocular lens implantation through corneal incision, and pre-fixed with polypropylene suture followed by three pieces of type lens foldable intraocular fixed in sulcus by injector.Results The uncorrected visual acuity of all operated eyes were improved.After 1 week, there were 12 eyes in 1.0, 16 eyes in 0.6 ~ 0.8,15 eyes in 0.4 ~ 0.6, and there were 16 eyes in 1.0, 18 eyes in 0.6 ~ 0.8, 9 eyes in 0.4 ~ 0.6 after 3 months.The mean astigmatism was 1.15D ± 0.75D ( 1 week ) and 0.75D ± 0.35D ( 3 months ) respectively, with the eye pressure was ( 16 ± 3 )mmHg( 1 week ) and ( 18 ± 8 )mmHg( 3 months ), and no statistical significant compared with pre-operation( P > 0.05 ).Besides, there were no significant severely complications intra-and post-operation.Conclusion It demonstrated that the smallincision transscleral sulcus fixation with posterior chamber intraocular three pieces of types lens had less complications, small astigmatism, which proved the potential to be widely applied.%目的 探讨小切口植入三片式折叠人工晶状体,并悬吊于睫状沟的有效性和实用性.方法 选择因晶状体后囊破裂或悬韧带断裂不能正常植入后房型人工晶状体的患者43例(43只眼),利用推注器系统,通过透明角膜小切口,把襻预扎了聚丙烯缝线的三片式折叠人工晶状体植入后房,由缝线固定于睫状沟.结果 所有患者术后裸眼视力均提高,术后1周12只眼1.0,16只眼0.6~0.8,15只眼0.4~0.6;术后3个月16只眼1.0,18只眼0.6~0.8,9只眼0.4~0.6.术后1周及3个月平均散光分别为1.15D+0.75D和0.75D±0.35D,眼压分别为(16±3)mmHg和(18±8)mmHg,与术前比较均无统计学意义(P>0.05),术中

  12. Functional Asymmetries Revealed in Visually Guided Saccades: An fMRI Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, L.; Zago, L.; Vigneau, M.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Mellet, E.; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. [Centre for Imaging, Neurosciences and Applications to Pathologies, UMR6232 CNRS CEA (France); Mazoyer, B. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Caen (France); Andersson, F. [Institut Federatif de Recherche 135, Imagerie fonctionnelle, Tours (France); Mazoyer, B. [Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Because eye movements are a fundamental tool for spatial exploration, we hypothesized that the neural bases of these movements in humans should be under right cerebral dominance, as already described for spatial attention. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging in 27 right-handed participants who alternated central fixation with either large or small visually guided saccades (VGS), equally performed in both directions. Hemispheric functional asymmetry was analyzed to identify whether brain regions showing VGS activation elicited hemispheric asymmetries. Hemispheric anatomical asymmetry was also estimated to assess its influence on the VGS functional lateralization. Right asymmetrical activations of a saccadic/attentional system were observed in the lateral frontal eye fields (FEF), the anterior part of the intra-parietal sulcus (aIPS), the posterior third of the superior temporal sulcus (STS), the occipito-temporal junction (MT/V5 area), the middle occipital gyrus, and medially along the calcarine fissure (V1). The present rightward functional asymmetries were not related to differences in gray matter (GM) density/sulci positions between right and left hemispheres in the pre-central, intra-parietal, superior temporal, and extrastriate regions. Only V1 asymmetries were explained for almost 20% of the variance by a difference in the position of the right and left calcarine fissures. Left asymmetrical activations of a saccadic motor system were observed in the medial FEF and in the motor strip eye field along the Rolando sulcus. They were not explained by GM asymmetries. We suggest that the leftward saccadic motor asymmetry is part of a general dominance of the left motor cortex in right-handers, which must include an effect of sighting dominance. Our results demonstrate that, although bilateral by nature, the brain network involved in the execution of VGSs, irrespective of their direction, presented specific right and left asymmetries that were not related to

  13. 经改良的颈胸前入路治疗肺上沟瘤%Treatment of superior sulcus tumors using the improved antero-cervical parasternal approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕英义; 张文峰; 孟龙; 王磊; 李时捷; 刘振波

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨经改良的颈胸前入路治疗肺上沟瘤的临床经验.方法 回顾性分析2005年7月至2010年5月收治的3例肺上沟瘤患者的临床资料,3例患者均经改良的颈胸前入路切口,将第1~3肋骨全部切除,切除1/5椎体1例,第1胸椎横突切除1例,第1、2胸椎横突切除1例,胸1神经根及星状神经节切除1例.结果 3例患者术后均恢复顺利,除1例患者术后出现继发性Horner综合征外,无严重并发症发生.3例患者于术后换药时,均见有轻度反常呼吸,但无呼吸困难,耐受良好,继续胸壁加压包扎14d后等待纵隔固定,反常呼吸消失.术后病理诊断:鳞癌2例,腺鳞癌1例,均未见纵隔淋巴结转移,肿瘤切缘阴性.分期:T3NoM02例,T4N0M01例.3例患者术后均行4个周期化疗(NP方案),未行放疗.3例患者术后分别随访53、37、13个月,均存活,肿瘤无局部复发,患者生活质量良好.结论 经改良的颈胸前人路能完整切除肺上沟瘤,对侵及胸廓入口处的结构处理方便、安全,是值得推广的手术方法.%Objective To investigate the experience of resection of superior sulcus tumors using the improved antero-cervical parastemal approach.Methods The clinical data of 3 patients with superior sulcus tumor from July 2005 to May 2010 were analyzed retrospectively.Three patients with superior sulcus tumor underwent en bloc resection using the improved antero-cervical parastemal approach.The 1st to 3rd rib were excised,1 case with 1/5 centrum vertebra excision,1 case with the 1st transverse process of thoracic vertebra excision,1 case with the 1 st and 2nd transverse process of thoracic vertebra excision,1 case with T1 nerve root and sellate ganglion excision.Results All the patients recovered well after operation.There was no serious complication except for 1 case with secondary Horner syndrome.The mild paradoxicalbreathing was found in 3 cases postoperative dressing change,but they had no dyspnea and tolerance well

  14. Effects of smoking on gingival sulcus of pathogenic microorganisms in postoperative patients with chronic periodontitis%吸烟对慢性牙周炎患者术后龈沟内致病微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泽慧; 姜涵; 徐隽; 李刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of smoking on gingival sulcus of pathogenic microorganisms in postoperative patients with chronic periodontitis. Methods According to the smoking status, 60 cases in our hospital from January 2012 to December 2012 with chronic periodontitis were divided into smoking group (n=30) and non- smoking group (n=30).Both groups were treated with modified Widman flap surgery. The following items were set on before operation and 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation, respectively. ①The microorganisms on gingival sulcus such as Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (Aa),Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg),Forsyth Tanner Rand (Tf), Prevotella intermedia (Pi),Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn) and Prevotella nigrescens (Pn) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). ②The clinical indicators of plaque index (PLI),sulcus bleeding index (SBI),probing pocket depth (PPD) were detected.The variations of microbial and clinical index on gingival sulcus were observe and recorded. Results The numerical of PLI, SBI, PPD of two groups were reduced compared before and after operation.The numerical of PLI,SBI,PPD of two groups were reduced significantly in 4 weeks,and the differences were statistically significant ( <0.01).PLI,SBI,PPD of two groups were increased comparison of 8 and 12 weeks after operation with 4 weeks after operation. In the treatment of 4,8 and 12 weeks after operation, the degree of changes in PLI, SBI and PPD were compared between smoking group and non - smoking,the differences (especially two weeks after operation) were statistically significant ( <0.05).Pg,Tf and Pi were the pathogen and they had higher detection rate compared to Aa,Fn and Pn.The site detection rates of Aa,Pg,Tf,Pi,Fn and Pn in 4 weeks after treatment were significantly lower than that before treatment, and the differences were statistically significant ( <0.05).The site detection rates of Pg,Tf and Pi in 8 and 12 weeks after treatment were significantly lower than that

  15. 全景超声生物显微镜对人眼睫状沟距离及前房直径的测量%Correlation between anterior chamber angle diameter and ciliary sulcus distance measured by Suowei panoramic 50-MHz digital ultrasound blomicroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德姣; 王宁利; 牟大鹏

    2011-01-01

    背景 睫状沟距离的直接测量对人工晶状体(I0L)植入术中IOL尺寸的选择具有重要意义.全景超声生物显微镜(UBM)的问世使在活体眼直接进行睫状沟距离的测量成为可能.目的 探讨人眼前房直径和睫状沟距离之间的相关性及其在不同前房深度人群中的差别.方法 将疑似青光眼患者30例30只右眼作为浅前房组,而具有高度近视(-7 ~-18 D)的30例30只右眼作为深前房组.应用全景超声生物显微镜(UBM)进行图像采集,每眼获取焦点位于虹膜平面的眼球水平方向3:00 ~9:00处的全景截面图像共3张.由同一测量者对每一幅图像的前房直径和睫状沟距离进行测量.取3幅图像测量值的均值为最终测量结果,用独立样本t检验和线性回归方程分析评估前房直径与睫状沟距离测量值的关系.结果 浅前房组的30眼中,全景UBM测得的前房直径为(11.49±0.75)mm,睫状沟距离为(10.97±0.86)mm,二者间的平均差值为(-5.14±0.55)mm,差异有统计学意义(t=-5.092,P=0.000),线性回归分析显示二者之间呈线性相关(R2=0.593,P=0.000),Pearson相关系数为0.767.深前房组的30眼中,全景UBM测得的前房直径均值为(12.69±0.67)mm;睫状沟距离为(12.31±0.61)mm,二者之间平均差值为(-0.38±0.17)mm,差异有统计学意义(t=-5.531,P=0.000);线性回归分析显示二者之间具有显著相关性(R2=0.699,P=0.000),Pearson相关系数为0.836.结论 全景UBM测得的睫状沟距离和前房直径呈明显正相关,深前房眼的相关性大于浅前房眼,该结果对于IOL植入术中IOL尺寸的选择具有重要意义.%Background Measurement of ciliary sulcus distance is important for phakic intraocular lens implantation.Suowei panoramic 50-MHz digital ultrasound biomicroscopy makes it possible for the direct measurement of ciliary sulcus distance.Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between anterior chamber(AC)angle diameter and

  16. Cytoarchitecture and probability maps of the human medial orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssen, Anton; Zilles, Karl; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Gerboga, Fatma; Eickhoff, Simon B; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Previous architectonical studies of human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) provided divergent maps regarding number, location, and extent of areas. To solve this controversy, an observer-independent cytoarchitectonical mapping of medial OFC (mOFC) was performed. Borders of cortical areas were detected in histological sections of ten human post-mortem brains using a quantitative, statistically testable method, and their stereotaxic localization and intersubject variability were determined. Three areas were identified: granular Fo1 mainly on the rostral Gyrus rectus and medial of the olfactory sulcus; granular to dysgranular Fo2, mainly on the posterior part of the ventromedial Gyrus rectus and the medial and lateral banks of the olfactory sulcus; granular Fo3 between the olfactory and medial or intermediate orbital sulci. Fo3 was bordered medially by Fo1 and Fo2 and laterally by the lateral OFC (lOFC). A cluster analysis of the cytoarchitectonical features of Fo1-Fo3, subgenual cingulate areas, BA12, lateral and medial areas of the frontopolar cortex, lOFC and areas of Broca's region demonstrated the cytoarchitectonical similarity between the mOFC areas in contrast to all other frontal areas. Probabilistic maps of mOFC areas show a considerable intersubject variability in extent and position in stereotaxic space, and provide spatial templates for anatomical localization of in vivo neuroimaging data via the JuBrain atlas and the Anatomy Toolbox.

  17. Neural correlates of successful and unsuccessful syntactic processing in primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Wilson

    2015-04-01

    Our findings suggest that some of the regions modulated by a syntactic processing task reflect task-related functions such as working memory, attention, and executive function, specifically the anterior insula bilaterally, the supplementary motor cortex bilaterally, and left dorsal premotor cortex. In contrast, other regions were modulated only in individuals with relatively intact syntactic processing, namely the left inferior frontal junction, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and left intraparietal sulcus, suggesting that these regions are important for syntactic processing.

  18. Comparison of sulcus bleeding index between hemophilia patients and healthy males%血友病男性患者与健康男性牙龈出血指数的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张京华; 李魁星; 李春; 孙丽丽; 何涛; 杨文东

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较血友病男性患者和健康男性龈沟出血指数的差异.方法 选择北京市北京协和医院血液科血友病门诊的100例男性血友病患者和北京某城区的100例健康男性进行全口牙龈沟出血指数检查.并检查100例血友病患者的茵斑指数和牙石指数.结果 血友病患者龈沟出血指数(1.79±1.27)显著高于健康男性组(1.65±1.14)(P<0.05).35岁及以上年龄组血友病患者(1.80±1.28)及健康男性龈淘出血指数(1.71±1.22)均显著高于35岁以下组(1.76±1.08,1.61±1.08)(P<0.05).血友病患者茵斑指数和牙石指数与龈沟出血指数中度相关.结论 血友病患者牙龈出血情况严重;牙龈出血与口腔卫生状况相关.%Objective To compare the differences of sulcus bleeding index between hemophilia patients and healthy males.Methods Data were derived from the survey of 100 hemophilia patients from Hematology Department of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and 100 healthy males from one district in Beijing.Sulcus bleeding index ( SBI) between them was evaluated for full mouth.Plaque index ( PLI) and calculus index ( CI) were evaluated for 100 hemophilia patients too.Results SBI of hemophilia patients ( 1.79 ± 1.27) was higher than that of the healthy males ( 1.65 ± 1.14) ( P < 0.05).SBI of hemophilia patients (1.80 ± 1.28) and healthy males ( 1.71 ± 1.22) above 35 years old were higher than those of the subjects (1.76 ± 1.08, 1.61 ±1.08) under 35 years old ( P <0.05).PLI and CI are moderately interrelated with SBI for hemophilia patients.Conclrrsion Cingival bleeding is rather severe in hemophilia patients, and it is interrelated with dental health situation.

  19. 玻璃体切除术后无晶状体眼前房灌注下人工晶状体悬吊术%Intraocular lens ciliary sulcus suspension in aphakic vitrectomized eyes under anterior chamber perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 梁军; 张伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察25 G前房灌注下经3.0 mm切口二期睫状沟悬吊折叠型人工晶状体(IOL)治疗晶状体玻璃体切除术后无晶状体眼的临床效果。方法回顾性非对照病例分析。我院2012年1月至2013年12月因严重玻璃体视网膜病变曾行晶状体玻璃体切除术的无晶状体眼31例(31眼),术前裸眼视力为数指~0.12,最佳矫正视力0.15~0.8。玻璃体术后>6个月。二期于25 G前房灌注下经3 mm角膜缘切口植入IOL缝线固定于睫状沟。术后随访3~6个月,观察视力、眼压、角膜内皮细胞计数、IOL位置和并发症发生情况。统计学方法为配对t检验。结果术后3~6个月,裸眼视力为0.1~0.8,较术前提高(P0.01)。术后3个月角膜内皮细胞计数平均(1789±321)个/ mm2,与术前的(1837±289)个/mm2比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.01)。29眼(93.55)IOL位置居中,另2眼(6.45%)中1眼轻度偏中心,1眼轻度倾斜。1眼术后轻度玻璃体积血。结论在微创25 G前房灌注下,经3.0 mm切口二期睫状沟悬吊折叠型IOL治疗晶玻切术后无晶状体眼,创伤小、眼压维持稳定。%Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of suture fixation to ciliary sulcus of a foldable intraocular lens ( IOL ) with the 25 G anterior chamber perfusion in eyes that had pars plana vitrectomy combined with lensectomy. Methods This is a retrospective non-comparative study. The medical data of 31 eyes of 31 patients who had vitrectomy combined with lensectomy surgery for severe vitreoretin opathy from Jan, 2012 to Dec, 2013 were reviewed. The underlying vitreoretinal diseases were complicated ocular trauma ( n = 16 ) , proliferative vitreoretinopathy ( n = 8 ) , proliferative diabetic retinopathy (n= 4), and lens dislocation in vitreous cavity (n=3). The uncorrected visual acuity (VA) of the 31 eyes was from LogMar 6. 64 to LogMar 3. 06 and the best corrected visual acuity ( BCVA) was from LogMar 2. 74 to LogMar 0. 097. In addition, the preoperative

  20. Dopamine Modulates the Neural Representation of Subjective Value of Food in Hungry Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddeen, Hisham; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Henning, Elana; Schultz, Wolfram; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; Fletcher, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Although there is a rich literature on the role of dopamine in value learning, much less is known about its role in using established value estimations to shape decision-making. Here we investigated the effect of dopaminergic modulation on value-based decision-making for food items in fasted healthy human participants. The Becker-deGroot-Marschak auction, which assesses subjective value, was examined in conjunction with pharmacological fMRI using a dopaminergic agonist and an antagonist. We found that dopamine enhanced the neural response to value in the inferior parietal gyrus/intraparietal sulcus, and that this effect predominated toward the end of the valuation process when an action was needed to record the value. Our results suggest that dopamine is involved in acting upon the decision, providing additional insight to the mechanisms underlying impaired decision-making in healthy individuals and clinical populations with reduced dopamine levels. PMID:25505337

  1. Sharpened cortical tuning and enhanced cortico-cortical communication contribute to the long-term neural mechanisms of visual motion perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nihong; Bi, Taiyong; Zhou, Tiangang; Li, Sheng; Liu, Zili; Fang, Fang

    2015-07-15

    Much has been debated about whether the neural plasticity mediating perceptual learning takes place at the sensory or decision-making stage in the brain. To investigate this, we trained human subjects in a visual motion direction discrimination task. Behavioral performance and BOLD signals were measured before, immediately after, and two weeks after training. Parallel to subjects' long-lasting behavioral improvement, the neural selectivity in V3A and the effective connectivity from V3A to IPS (intraparietal sulcus, a motion decision-making area) exhibited a persistent increase for the trained direction. Moreover, the improvement was well explained by a linear combination of the selectivity and connectivity increases. These findings suggest that the long-term neural mechanisms of motion perceptual learning are implemented by sharpening cortical tuning to trained stimuli at the sensory processing stage, as well as by optimizing the connections between sensory and decision-making areas in the brain.

  2. Reinforcement learning in multidimensional environments relies on attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niv, Yael; Daniel, Reka; Geana, Andra; Gershman, Samuel J; Leong, Yuan Chang; Radulescu, Angela; Wilson, Robert C

    2015-05-27

    In recent years, ideas from the computational field of reinforcement learning have revolutionized the study of learning in the brain, famously providing new, precise theories of how dopamine affects learning in the basal ganglia. However, reinforcement learning algorithms are notorious for not scaling well to multidimensional environments, as is required for real-world learning. We hypothesized that the brain naturally reduces the dimensionality of real-world problems to only those dimensions that are relevant to predicting reward, and conducted an experiment to assess by what algorithms and with what neural mechanisms this "representation learning" process is realized in humans. Our results suggest that a bilateral attentional control network comprising the intraparietal sulcus, precuneus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is involved in selecting what dimensions are relevant to the task at hand, effectively updating the task representation through trial and error. In this way, cortical attention mechanisms interact with learning in the basal ganglia to solve the "curse of dimensionality" in reinforcement learning.

  3. The regression analysis and building of the stereotactic data set of the internal surface of cerebral parietooccipital sulcus%大脑顶枕沟内表面立体定位数据集的构建及其回归平面分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈刘成; 王震寰; 李成; 沈龙山; 张俊祥

    2012-01-01

    目的:构建顶枕沟在基于连合间径定位体系中的立体定位数据集及其内表面平面回归方程.方法:30名正常成人颅脑横断层MRI数据经格式转化导入Photoshop CS软件包,经过图像的严格配准,以顶枕沟的最内侧点为起始点,向外取X绝对值为3 mm倍数点为取样点,测量、记录该点坐标的X、Y值,X、Y值从Photoshop信息面板栏上显示、读取,Z值等于所在层面与双连合层面间相间隔的层面数和层间距的乘积,所有取样点坐标值组成顶枕沟在三维坐标系中的立体定位数据集.取样点坐标数据集导入SPSS 16.0软件,求解其空间拟合平面方程.结果:构建了顶枕沟内表面在三维坐标系中的立体定位数据集,在矢状面上Z对Y的直线回归方程为:Z=-0.774Y-26.975(右侧),Z =-0.760Y-28.599(左侧).结论:在三维空间内构建的顶枕沟立体定位数据集及其内表面直线回归方程,能为基于立体定向技术的神经外科、介入放射治疗等提供三维立体定位解剖学基础.%Objective:To build a stereotactic data set and internal surface regression equation of cerebral parietooccipital sulcus. Methods:The cross-sectional MRI data of 30 normal adult were imported into Photoshop by form transition. Through the strict registration of the image,the coordinate system of the software coincide with the system based on AC-PC line were made. The X and Y values of sample points with per 3 mm of the X-axis which began from the most inside point of the parietooccipital sulcus and along the parietooccipital sulcus line were measured and recorded and the multiplication of the thickness and number of the layer acted as Z values. All data of sample points of the parietooccipital sulcus were collected and analyzed by SPSS 16. 0 software, and plane equation was solved. Results;The three-dimensional stereotactic data set and internal surface regression equation of the pareitooccipital sulcus were constructed. In sagittal

  4. Rouviere 沟定位在腹腔镜胆囊切除术中的应用--附750例报告%Role of Rouviere′s sulcus as anatomical landmark in laparoscopic cholecystectomy:a report of 750 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守军; 王跃; 王庆文; 李洪旭; 宋金智; 侯俊丞; 唐雪梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨以Rouviere 沟作为胆囊管解剖定位标志,以指导腹腔镜胆囊切除术。方法同一初学腹腔镜胆囊切除术手术者自2012年10月至2014年3月于川北医学院附属三台医院连续实施腹腔镜胆囊切除术750例,术中记录Rouviere 沟的出现率,并采用Rouviere 沟为胆囊管解剖定位标志。结果750例中,705例有 Rouviere 沟。全组未发生手术死亡,胆管损伤1例(0.13%),其术中未见 Rouviere 沟。前300例使用三孔法35例,中转30例(10%);后450例使用三孔法387例,中转15例(3.3%)。结论 Rouviere 沟是重要的胆囊管解剖定位标志,以Rouviere 沟为胆囊管解剖定位标志可以帮助胆囊三角解剖,对于初学腹腔镜胆囊切除术者预防术中胆管损伤有重要临床意义,值得推广应用。%Objective To explore the role of Rouviere′s sulcus as the anatomical landmark for the cystic duct in laparoscopic cholecystecto-my.Methods The clinical data of 750 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy operated by one beginner from October 2012 to March 2014 in the Affiliated Santai Hospital of North Sichuan Medical College were analyzed.The frequency of appearance of Rouviere′s sul-cus was recorded during operation,and the Rouviere′s sulcus was used as the anatomical landmark for the cystic duct in laparoscopic chole-cystectomy.Results Of the 750 patients,705 had Rouviere′s sulcus.There was no mortality during operation.Bile duct injury occurred in one case (0.13%),whose Rouviere′s sulcus was not seen during operation.Among the first 300 cases,the three-hole method was used in 35 cases,and 30 cases (10%)were converted to open surgery.Among the succeeding 450 cases,the three-hole method was used in 387 cases,and 15 cases (3.3%)were converted to open surgery.Conclusion Rouviere′s sulcus is an important anatomical landmark for the cystic duct.Its identification before Calot′s triangle dissection may

  5. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  6. The Role of Right and Left Parietal Lobes in the Conceptual Processing of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Lee, Hwee Ling; Freeman, Elliot D.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention,…

  7. Rotated alphanumeric characters do not automatically activate frontoparietal areas subserving mental rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Michael M; Wolbers, Thomas; Peller, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have identified a set of areas in the intraparietal sulcus and dorsal precentral cortex which show a linear increase in activity with the angle of rotation across a variety of mental rotation tasks. This linear increase in activity with angular disparity suggests t...

  8. ULTRASOUND-GUIDED SUBACROMIAL BURSA AND TUBERCLE SULCUS INJECTION TECHNIQUE FOR SHOULDER PAIN%超声介入肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术在肩周炎治疗效果的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯力; 郑虎山; 蒋劲; 李卓伦; 李加平

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe therapeutic effects of ultrasound-guided subacromial bursa and tubercle sulcus injection technique for shoulder pain. Methods: 80 patients with shoulder pain were randomly divided into two groups (ultrasound group and control group, with 40 cases each). The ultrasound group was treated by ultrasound-guided subacromial bursa and tubercle sulcus injection, the control by blind anatomical injection on the shoulder. Results: There was significant difference on shoulder function scores (P 0.05), but significant improvement in utrasound group versus control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Comparing with the traditional blind anatomical injection ultrasound-guided subacromial bursa and tubercle sulcus injection technique is a more accurate and effective technique for shoulder pain.%目的:观察超声介入肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术对肩周炎的治疗效果.方法:80例肩周炎患者随机均分两组,治疗组在超声介入下行肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术,对照组根据解剖定位进行注射.结果:肩关节功能评分组内治疗前后比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).两组治疗前比较无显著性差异(P>0.05),治疗后治疗组比对照组显著改善(P<0.05).结论:超声介入肩峰下滑囊联合结节间沟注射术治疗肩周炎的疗效优于传统解剖定位注射.

  9. 小切口人工晶状体睫状沟悬吊术在玻璃体切割术后无晶状体囊膜眼应用%Application of intraocular lens implantation with suture fixation at ciliary sulcus in aphakia after vitrectomy through small incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩非; 吴燕; 段烈英; 刘恒; 罗涛; 蒋炜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of intraocular lens implantation with suture fixation at ciliary sulcus in aphakia after vitrectomy through small incision.Methods Intraocular lens implantation with suture fixation at ciliary sulcus was performed in 25 patients of aphakia and without capsule after vitrectomy.All the cases were followed up 1-6 months postoperatively.Results The visual acuity of all operated eyes was better than or equal to that of pre-operative eyes.No severe complication was found.Conclusions Intraocular lens implantation with suture fixation at ciliary sulcus through small incision is an effective method to aphakia after vitrectomy.%目的 探讨小切口人工晶状体睫状沟悬吊术在玻璃体切割术后无晶状体囊膜眼中的应用情况.方法 在球后 、表面麻醉下给25例(25只眼)玻璃体切割术后无晶状体且无囊膜眼行角膜缘小切口人工晶状体睫状沟悬吊术.术后随访1~6月.结果 25只眼术后视力均达到或超过术前矫正视力,无严重并发症.结论 小切口人工晶状体睫状沟悬吊术治疗玻璃体切割术后无晶状体囊膜眼的效果确切.

  10. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Newman-Norlund, Sarah E; de Ruiter, Jan Peter; Hagoort, Peter; Levinson, Stephen C; Toni, Ivan

    2009-01-01

    Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the "mirror neurons system"). However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender) and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver) relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus). The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  11. Brain mechanisms underlying human communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs L Noordzij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Human communication has been described as involving the coding-decoding of a conventional symbol system, which could be supported by parts of the human motor system (i.e. the “mirror neurons system”. However, this view does not explain how these conventions could develop in the first place. Here we target the neglected but crucial issue of how people organize their non-verbal behavior to communicate a given intention without pre-established conventions. We have measured behavioral and brain responses in pairs of subjects during communicative exchanges occurring in a real, interactive, on-line social context. In two fMRI studies, we found robust evidence that planning new communicative actions (by a sender and recognizing the communicative intention of the same actions (by a receiver relied on spatially overlapping portions of their brains (the right posterior superior temporal sulcus. The response of this region was lateralized to the right hemisphere, modulated by the ambiguity in meaning of the communicative acts, but not by their sensorimotor complexity. These results indicate that the sender of a communicative signal uses his own intention recognition system to make a prediction of the intention recognition performed by the receiver. This finding supports the notion that our communicative abilities are distinct from both sensorimotor processes and language abilities.

  12. Co-localisation of K(ir)4.1 and AQP4 in rat and human cochleae reveals a gap in water channel expression at the transduction sites of endocochlear K(+) recycling routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhard, Andreas; Gleiser, Corinna; Rask-Andersen, Helge; Arnold, Heinz; Liu, Wei; Mack, Andreas; Müller, Marcus; Löwenheim, Hubert; Hirt, Bernhard

    2012-10-01

    Sensory transduction in the cochlea depends on perilymphatic-endolymphatic potassium (K(+)) recycling. It has been suggested that the epithelial supporting cells (SCs) of the cochlear duct may form the intracellular K(+) recycling pathway. Thus, they must be endowed with molecular mechanisms that facilitate K(+) uptake and release, along with concomitant osmotically driven water movements. As yet, no molecules have been described that would allow for volume-equilibrated transepithelial K(+) fluxes across the SCs. This study describes the subcellular co-localisation of the K(ir)4.1 K(+) channel (K(ir)4.1) and the aquaporin-4 water channel (AQP4) in SCs, on the basis of immunohistochemical double-labelling experiments in rat and human cochleae. The results of this study reveal the expression of K(ir)4.1 in the basal or basolateral membranes of the SCs in the sensory domain of the organ of Corti that are adjacent to hair cells and in the non-sensory domains of the inner and outer sulci that abut large extracellular fluid spaces. The SCs of the inner sulcus (interdental cells, inner sulcus cells) and the outer sulcus (Hensen's cells, outer sulcus cells) display the co-localisation of K(ir)4.1 and AQP4 expression. However, the SCs in the sensory domain of the organ of Corti reveal a gap in the expression of AQP4. The outer pillar cell is devoid of both K(ir)4.1 and AQP4. The subcellular co-localisation of K(ir)4.1 and AQP4 in the SCs of the cochlea described in this study resembles that of the astroglia of the central nervous system and the glial Mueller cells in the retina.

  13. A functional and structural investigation of the human fronto-basal volitional saccade network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiaan F W Neggers

    Full Text Available Almost all cortical areas are connected to the subcortical basal ganglia (BG through parallel recurrent inhibitory and excitatory loops, exerting volitional control over automatic behavior. As this model is largely based on non-human primate research, we used high resolution functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate the functional and structural organization of the human (prefrontal cortico-basal network controlling eye movements. Participants performed saccades in darkness, pro- and antisaccades and observed stimuli during fixation. We observed several bilateral functional subdivisions along the precentral sulcus around the human frontal eye fields (FEF: a medial and lateral zone activating for saccades in darkness, a more fronto-medial zone preferentially active for ipsilateral antisaccades, and a large anterior strip along the precentral sulcus activating for visual stimulus presentation during fixation. The supplementary eye fields (SEF were identified along the medial wall containing all aforementioned functions. In the striatum, the BG area receiving almost all cortical input, all saccade related activation was observed in the putamen, previously considered a skeletomotor striatal subdivision. Activation elicited by the cue instructing pro or antisaccade trials was clearest in the medial FEF and right putamen. DTI fiber tracking revealed that the subdivisions of the human FEF complex are mainly connected to the putamen, in agreement with the fMRI findings. The present findings demonstrate that the human FEF has functional subdivisions somewhat comparable to non-human primates. However, the connections to and activation in the human striatum preferentially involve the putamen, not the caudate nucleus as is reported for monkeys. This could imply that fronto-striatal projections for the oculomotor system are fundamentally different between humans and monkeys. Alternatively, there could be a bias in published reports of

  14. Sox10 expressing cells in the lateral wall of the aged mouse and human cochlea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinping Hao

    Full Text Available Age-related hearing loss (presbycusis is a common human disorder, affecting one in three Americans aged 60 and over. Previous studies have shown that presbyacusis is associated with a loss of non-sensory cells in the cochlear lateral wall. Sox10 is a transcription factor crucial to the development and maintenance of neural crest-derived cells including some non-sensory cell types in the cochlea. Mutations of the Sox10 gene are known to cause various combinations of hearing loss and pigmentation defects in humans. This study investigated the potential relationship between Sox10 gene expression and pathological changes in the cochlear lateral wall of aged CBA/CaJ mice and human temporal bones from older donors. Cochlear tissues prepared from young adult (1-3 month-old and aged (2-2.5 year-old mice, and human temporal bone donors were examined using quantitative immunohistochemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. Cells expressing Sox10 were present in the stria vascularis, outer sulcus and spiral prominence in mouse and human cochleas. The Sox10(+ cell types included marginal and intermediate cells and outer sulcus cells, including those that border the scala media and those extending into root processes (root cells in the spiral ligament. Quantitative analysis of immunostaining revealed a significant decrease in the number of Sox10(+ marginal cells and outer sulcus cells in aged mice. Electron microscopic evaluation revealed degenerative alterations in the surviving Sox10(+ cells in aged mice. Strial marginal cells in human cochleas from donors aged 87 and older showed only weak immunostaining for Sox10. Decreases in Sox10 expression levels and a loss of Sox10(+ cells in both mouse and human aged ears suggests an important role of Sox10 in the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of the lateral wall. A loss of Sox10(+ cells may also be associated with a decline in the repair capabilities of non-sensory cells in the

  15. Differential roles of the frontal and parietal cortices in the control of saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Julia; Tark, Kyeong-Jin; Reuter, Benedikt; Kathmann, Norbert; Curtis, Clayton E

    2013-10-01

    Although externally as well as internally-guided eye movements allow us to flexibly explore the visual environment, their differential neural mechanisms remain elusive. A better understanding of these neural mechanisms will help us to understand the control of action and to elucidate the nature of cognitive deficits in certain psychiatric populations (e.g., schizophrenia) that show increased latencies in volitional but not visually-guided saccades. Both the superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) are implicated in the control of eye movements. However, it remains unknown what differential contributions the two areas make to the programming of visually-guided and internally-guided saccades. In this study we tested the hypotheses that sPCS and IPS distinctly encode internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades. We scanned subjects with fMRI while they generated visually-guided and internally-guided delayed saccades. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis to test whether patterns of cue related, preparatory and saccade related activation could be used to predict the direction of the planned eye movement. Results indicate that patterns in the human sPCS predicted internally-guided saccades but not visually-guided saccades in all trial periods and patterns in the IPS predicted internally-guided saccades and visually-guided saccades equally well. The results support the hypothesis that the human sPCS and IPS make distinct contributions to the control of volitional eye movements.

  16. 声带沟患者最小声门面积与嗓音声学指标的特征及相关性研究%The Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice of the Sulcus Vocalis Patients with Minimum Glottal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓雨; 彭鑫; 杜建群; 李丽; 林鹏; 张圣池; 杨宝琦; 王桂萍; 吕倩

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨声带沟患者发声时最小声门面积(minimum glottal area ,MGA)和嗓音声学指标的特征及相关性。方法选择60例正常人(正常组,男女各30例)和病理型声带沟患者62例(患者组,男33例,女29例)进行频闪喉镜检查,应用配套KIPS软件计算患者发/i:/音时的MGA ;采用Dr .Speech声学分析软件测试其基频(F0)、基频微扰(jitter)、振幅微扰(shimmer)、标准化噪声能量(normalized noise energy ,NNE)、谐噪比(harmony to noise ratio ,HNR)、信噪比(signal noise ratio ,SNR)、最长声时(maximum phonation time ,M PT ),并分别与发声时的MGA进行相关性分析。结果发/i:/音时,男性患者组 MGA (434.74±112.83像素)明显大于男性正常组(298.25±93.63像素)(P<0.05);女性患者组MGA(484.75±143.91像素)明显大于女性正常组(293.43±93.73像素)( P<0.05);男性及女性患者发声时M G A分别与基频( r=0.972,P<0.05;r=0.928,P<0.05)、基频微扰( r=0.978,P<0.05;r=0.910,P<0.05)、振幅微扰( r=0.973,P<0.05;r=0.921,P<0.05)、标准化噪声能量( r=0.883,P<0.05;r=0.960,P<0.05)呈正相关关系,与信噪比( r=-0.947,P<0.05;r=-0.957,P<0.05)、谐噪比( r=-0.959,P<0.05;r=-0.944,P<0.05)、最长声时( r=-0.891,P<0.05;r=-0.936,P<0.05)呈负相关关系。结论病理型声带沟患者发/i:/音时声门面积较正常人增大,其MGA值越大嗓音的SNR、HNR及MPT值越小,而F0、jitter、shimmer、NNE则随MGA值增大而增大。%Objective To investigate the voicing acoustic characteristics of sulcus vocalis patients with mini-mum glottal area(MGA) .Methods 60 normal subjects (30 male ,30 female) ,and 62 subjects with sulcus vocalis (33 male and

  17. Application of rhinoplasty and nasal tip plasty implanted by the dermis fat piece of gluteal sulcus combined with prosthesis%臀沟真皮脂肪片在假体隆鼻术和鼻尖成形术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童晋文; 周绍龙; 邱竣; 罗盛康

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨联合应用硅胶假体和臀沟真皮脂肪片进行隆鼻和鼻尖成形的方法和临床效果.方法 取一侧臀沟真皮脂肪片,将其与假体鼻尖缝合,放置于鼻背深筋膜或皮下,增加鼻背和鼻尖组织的高度.自2008年1月至2011年10月,共对21例求美者施行隆鼻术及鼻尖成形术.结果 本组21例求美者,术后随访2~3年,鼻部整形的效果佳,形态自然美观.无严重并发症,术后切口恢复快.结论 将臀沟真皮脂肪片应用于鼻部整形,能改善鼻背和鼻尖的形态,可有效避免硅胶假体直接作用于鼻尖皮肤而引起的并发症.%Objective To explore ihe approach and clinical effect oi rhinoplasly and nasal lip plasly im-planled by ihe dermis fal piece of gluleal sulcus combined wilh proslhesis. Methods A laleral lealher fal film oi ihe gluleal sulcus was harvested, ihen sulured wilh ihe proslhesis lip, and placed in ihe nasal dorsum deep fascia and subculaneous, in order lo increase ihe heighl of dorsum and nose lip. From January 2008 lo Oclober 2011, lolally 21 palienls were performed ihe operalion mentioned above. Results Afler 2 lo 3 years follow-up, all 21 cases received satisfactory results of nature nose shape and short recovery lime without serious postoperative complications. Conclusion Application of leather fal film of the gluleal sulcus in rhinoplasty can improve the nasal dorsum and the nasal lip shape, which can also prevent complications of the silicone proslhesis directly effect on the nasal lip skin.

  18. Comparison of effects of secondary in-the-bag and sulcus intraocular lens implantation in pediatric aphakia after congenital cataract operation%Ⅱ期囊袋内和睫状沟人工晶状体植入矫正儿童先天性白内障术后无晶状体眼的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝雪宁; 喻芳; 邢潇英; 赵云娥; 宫贤惠; 李瑾

    2013-01-01

    入和睫状沟植入在术后视力和并发症方面无明显差异.%Objective To compare the results of secondary in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with secondary sulcus IOL implantation in the eyes which received cataract extraction during early infancy.Methods A case control study.We selected 60 eyes of 44 patients with pediatric aphakia that meet the inclusion criterion in Affiliated Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical College from September 2005 to August,2011.Thirty eyes received in-the-bag secondary IOL implantation and were compared with 30 eyes that received secondary sulcus IOL implantation.Data were collected for the ages at cataract extraction and at secondary IOL implantation,the preoperative axial length,the length of follow-up,postoperative complications,postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and refraction.When sufficient capsular opening was possible or capsular support deemed adequate,an IOL was placed within the capsular bag,otherwise the IOL was implanted in the sulcus.The x2 test or Fisher exact test was used to compare complications between the in-the-bag and sulcus groups.The independent-samples t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare demographic,preoperative and postoperative refractive relevant data between the in-the-bag and sulcus groups.Results The median of 1-week-postoperative spherical equivalent clustered 1.00 D (range,-2.13 to 3.38 D) for in-the-bag group and 0.69 D (range,-2.25 to 2.38 D) for the sulcus group (Z =-1.01,P =0.31).The median of 1-year-postoperative spherical equivalent clustered 0.00 D (range,-3.50 to 3.00 D) for in-the-bag and-0.50 D (range,-3.25 to 2.50 D) for the sulcus (Z =-0.53,P =0.60).The last follow-up BCVA was available in 23 of 30 eyes in the in-the-bag group and 22 of 30 eyes in the sulcus group.The median of visual outcome clustered around 0.20 D (range,0.05 to 0.70 D) for in-the-bag and 0.20 D (range,0.05 to 0.60 D) for the sulcus (Z =-1.06,P =0.29).The rate of nystagmus

  19. Optical intrinsic signal imaging and neuromonitoring mapping for surgery of glioma near the central sulcus%电生理监测及光学成像定位显微手术切除中央沟区脑胶质瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋宇钢; 周倩; 张明铭

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨中央沟区手术中应用电生理监测及光学成像技术定位脑运动及感觉功能区的方法及意义.方法 5例中央沟区脑胶质瘤患者术中首先利用电生理监测技术定位中央沟及中央前回运动功能区,然后通过光学成像定位中央后回感觉功能区.根据术中的定位,选择显微手术对肿瘤切除,最后进行功能情况评估.结果 临床应用5例,均成功定位中央沟及相应的感觉、运动功能区.术后24 h内复查MRI显示均达到肿瘤全切除.术后随访3~12个月,5例患者的感觉、运动功能基本恢复正常.结论 联合使用术中电生理监测技术及光学成像技术定位患者的躯体运动和感觉功能区是显微手术切除中央沟区脑胶质瘤的一种安全与有效的方法.%Objective To study the methods and significance of motor and sensory areas mapping by optical intrinsic signal imaging (IOSI) and neuromonitoring (IOM) during the operation on the lesions near the central sulcus. Methods Intraoperative neuromonitoring were firstly used to map the central sulcus and motor cortex in 5 patients with glioma undergoing surgery. Then, intrinsic optical signals imaging were used to locate the postcentral gyrus. According to the results of mapping, microsurgical operation was chosen for the resection of glioma and postoperative functional results were evaluated. Results All the patients acquired accurate location of central sulcus, motor cortex and somatosensory cortex. The enhanced MRI performed within 24 hours postsurgery showed total resection in 5 cases. The motor and somatosensory function of 5 patients returned to normal after 3-12 months. Conclusion Intraoperative location of the somatosensory area and motor area by optical intrinsic signal imaging and neuromonitoring is a reliable and safe method.

  20. Application of Neuronavigation and Electrophysiological Monitoring in the Resection of Lesions near the Central Sulcus%神经导航和电生理监测在中央沟附近病变切除术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈汉民; 王文鑫; 廖圣芳

    2014-01-01

    Objective]To explore the application of neuronavigation and electrophysiological monitoring in the resection of lesions near the central sulcus .[Methods]A total of 14 patients with lesions near the central sulcus in our hospital underwent microsurgical procedures assisted with neuronavigation and electrophysiological monito‐ring .Clinical efficacy was observed .[Results]In the group ,9 patients underwent total resection and 5 patients un‐derwent partial resection .After operation ,contralateral limb muscle strength impairment occurred in 2 patients af‐ter operation ,and hemiplegia occurred in 1 patient ,and limb muscle strength impairment was aggravated in 2 pa‐tients .The 3 patients with limb movement disorder got better about one month after operation .[Conclusion]The combination of intraoperative neuronavigation and electrophysiological monitoring is of great clinical practical value in the resection of lesions near the central sulcus .%目的 探讨神经导航和电生理监测在中央沟附近病变切除术中的应用。方法 本院收治的14例中央沟附近病变患者,在神经导航和电生理监测下行显微手术切除病变,观察其临床疗效。结果 本组中病变全切除9例,大部分切除5例。术后出现对侧肢体肌力减退2例,偏瘫1例,术前肢体肌力减退加重2例,3例肢体运动障碍者术后1个月左右好转。结论 联合应用神经导航和电生理监测技术在中央沟附近病变切除术中具有较大的临床实用价值。

  1. Intentional signals during saccadic and reaching delays in the human posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Pelle, Gina; Patria, Fabiana; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    In the monkey posterior parietal cortex (PPC), there is clear evidence of anatomically segregated neuronal populations specialized for planning saccades and arm-reaching movements. However, functional neuroimaging studies in humans have yielded controversial results. Here we show that the human PPC contains distinct subregions responsive to salient visual cues, some of which combine spatial and action-related signals into 'intentional' signals. Participants underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing delayed saccades and long-range arm reaches instructed by visual cues. We focused on activity in the time period following the cue and preceding the actual movement. The use of individual cortical surface reconstructions with detailed sulcal labeling allowed the definition of six responsive regions with distinctive anatomical locations in the PPC. Each region exhibited a distinctive combination of transient and sustained signals during the delay, modulated by either the cue spatial location (contralateral vs. ipsilateral), the instructed action (saccades vs. reaching) or both. Importantly, a lateral and a medial dorsal parietal region showed sustained responses during the delay preferentially for contralateral saccadic and reaching trials, respectively. In the lateral region, preference for saccades was evident only as a more sustained response during saccadic vs. reaching delays, whereas the medial region also showed a higher transient response to cues signaling reaching vs. saccadic actions. These response profiles closely match the behavior of neurons in the macaque lateral and medial intraparietal area, respectively, and suggest that these corresponding human regions are encoding spatially directed action plans or 'intentions'.

  2. INCIDENCE OF SILICONE RUBBER IMPRESSION MATERIAL FOUND IN THE GINGIVAL SULCUS AFTER IMPRESSION PROCEDURE FOR FIXED PARTIAL DENTURES OF MAXILLARY ANTERIOR TEETH%上前牙固定修复中硅橡胶印模材料龈沟残留的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周鹏; 石连水; 曾永发; 张林

    2013-01-01

    目的分析评估用硅橡胶二次印模法制取上前牙印模中的龈沟残留材料情况,为临床安全使用硅橡胶印模材料提供指导。方法对135颗拟行固定修复的上前基牙使用硅橡胶二次印模法制取印模后,观察并记录印模基牙龈沟翼缺损数,并依次用以下两种方法检查口内基牙龈沟中硅橡胶印模材料残留情况:A:采用肉眼直视下观察基牙龈沟,B:在5倍放大镜下继续用刮治器探寻基牙龈沟;分别记录材料残留数量与位置。结果135颗上前牙印模在肉眼直视下见24颗印模翼缘缺损,口内直视观察发现9颗基牙龈沟硅橡胶残留,继续放大镜下用刮治器探查,又发现13例龈沟深部残留。结论硅橡胶印模龈沟残留现象比较常见且容易被忽略,应引起临床医师的的高度重视,印模后应常规使用刮治器械探查龈沟内是否有印模材料的残留现象。%Objective: To evaluate the incidence rate of silicone rubber impression material remaining in the gingival crevice after removal of the set impression. Methods: A total of 135 anterior abutment teeth were prepared for complete coverage restorations. Curette were used to find the remaining pieces of impression material with a forehead type magnifying glass. Results:An inspection of the impression after removal, revealed defect in the sulcus region of 24 teeth. Subsequent visual inspection of the sulcus revealed 9 and a further exploration of the sulcus with curette revealed 13. Conclusion:For being relatively easy to ignore silicone rubber impression of gingival sulcus residual phenomenon after impression procedures, it should cause clinicians more attention to it. It would be prudent to consider a routine curettage of abutment sulci after impression-making.

  3. Value of Diagnosis the Dysplasis of Fetal Cerebral Sulcus and Gyrus Abnormality by Two-dimensional Combined with Three-dimensional Ultrasonography%二维联合三维超声诊断胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常的临床应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓康; 吕国荣; 凌乐文

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of two-dimensional combined with three-dimensional ultrasound (2D&3D-US) on diagnosing the dysplasia of the fetal cerebral sulcus and gyrus . Methods 2D-US was performed to record the growth of cerebral sulcus and gyrus of 66 fetuses ,who were suspicious central nervous system dysplastic . Then 3D-US were performed for volume scan in three orthogonal planes mode display and storage ,offline diagnostics ,and comparing the diagnosis and follow-up results . Results Compared to the follow-up or autopsy ,36 fetuses proved to be 2cerebral sulcus and gyrus dysplasia or combine with it . Of them ,10 fetuses were agyric ,26 fetuses were hypoplasia ,and the rest 30 fetuses were normal . The diagnose accordance rate of 2D&3D and 2D-US were 92 .42% (61/66)and 75 .76%(50/66) ,respectively . There was statistically significant difference between them (χ2 =6 .68 ,P<0 .01) . Conclusions 2D&3D-US could promote the accurate diagnosis in dysplasia of fetal cerebral sulcus and gyrus ,w hich has an important clinical value .%目的:探讨二维联合三维超声诊断胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常的应用价值。方法对疑有中枢神经系统畸形的66胎胎儿,行二维超声检测记录脑沟脑回发育情况,后行三维超声容积扫描,以三正交多平面模式显示并储存,下线诊断,并将诊断结果与随访结果进行比较。结果经随访或尸检证实36胎胎儿存在或合并有脑沟回发育异常(10胎脑沟回未发育,26胎脑沟回发育迟缓);30胎正常。二维联合三维超声诊断符合率为92.42%(61/66),单纯二维超声诊断符合率为75.76%(50/66),两者有显著差异(χ2=6.68,P<0.01)。结论二维联合三维超声可提高胎儿脑沟脑回发育异常诊断的准确性,具有重要的临床应用价值。

  4. Application of MRI volume rendering in surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle%MRI容量重建技术在颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路选择中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芃; 刘彩霞; 贾林沛; 刘浩源; 苏略; 孙维; 李幼琼

    2014-01-01

    目的:通过测量经颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术入路的相关数据,初步定位大脑背外侧面颞上沟进入侧脑室最短距离的点,寻找经颞上沟进入侧脑室颞角的最佳手术入路点。方法:选取120例成年人脑部 MRI扫描标本,利用容量重建技术构建大脑三维立体模型,测得颞上沟的长度 S1。沿垂直于颞叶长轴的方向以1.0 mm间距切割得到多个冠状切面,依次测量颞上沟到侧脑室颞角的距离并确定最短距离S2,同时测量颞上沟的深度S3,测量大脑颞上沟表面相对应的最短距离点到颞上沟前端起始部的距离 S4,计算 S4与 S1的比值 M,同时测量最短距离与正中矢状位方向之间的夹角α。所有样本进行双侧测量,对比两侧的测量结果。结果:120例国人的 S1左侧为(159.56±17.55)mm,右侧为(164.35±15.07)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S2左侧为(8.18±0.96)mm,右侧为(7.81±0.90)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S3左侧为(12.19±1.43)mm,右侧为(11.57±1.33)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);S4左侧为(100.88±16.09)mm,右侧为(104.15±14.49)mm,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);M左侧为(0.63±0.07),右侧为(0.63±0.06),左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);α左侧为(55.80±3.64)°,右侧为(56.46±4.17)°,左右两侧比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论:颞上沟前端3/5处可能为理想的手术入路点,由该点进入侧脑室颞角距离最短,提示实施颞上沟-侧脑室颞角手术时该入路可减少对脑组织损伤。%Objective To acquire some related data of surgical approach through brain superior temporal sulcus to temporal horn of lateral ventricle by MRI volume rendering, and to orientate the point of superior temporal sulcus on the lateral

  5. Cognitive Control Network Contributions to Memory-Guided Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Maya L; Stern, Chantal E; Michalka, Samantha W; Devaney, Kathryn J; Somers, David C

    2016-05-01

    Visual attentional capacity is severely limited, but humans excel in familiar visual contexts, in part because long-term memories guide efficient deployment of attention. To investigate the neural substrates that support memory-guided visual attention, we performed a set of functional MRI experiments that contrast long-term, memory-guided visuospatial attention with stimulus-guided visuospatial attention in a change detection task. Whereas the dorsal attention network was activated for both forms of attention, the cognitive control network(CCN) was preferentially activated during memory-guided attention. Three posterior nodes in the CCN, posterior precuneus, posterior callosal sulcus/mid-cingulate, and lateral intraparietal sulcus exhibited the greatest specificity for memory-guided attention. These 3 regions exhibit functional connectivity at rest, and we propose that they form a subnetwork within the broader CCN. Based on the task activation patterns, we conclude that the nodes of this subnetwork are preferentially recruited for long-term memory guidance of visuospatial attention.

  6. M pathway and areas 44 and 45 are involved in stereoscopic recognition based on binocular disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negawa, Tsuneo; Mizuno, Shinji; Hahashi, Tomoya; Kuwata, Hiromi; Tomida, Mihoko; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Era, Seiichi; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2002-04-01

    We characterized the visual pathways involved in the stereoscopic recognition of the random dot stereogram based on the binocular disparity employing a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The V2, V3, V4, V5, intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior temporal sulcus (STS) were significantly activated during the binocular stereopsis, but the inferotemporal gyrus (ITG) was not activated. Thus a human M pathway may be part of a network involved in the stereoscopic processing based on the binocular disparity. It is intriguing that areas 44 (Broca's area) and 45 in the left hemisphere were also active during the binocular stereopsis. However, it was reported that these regions were inactive during the monocular stereopsis. To separate the specific responses directly caused by the stereoscopic recognition process from the nonspecific ones caused by the memory load or the intention, we designed a novel frequency labeled tasks (FLT) sequence. The functional MRI using the FLT indicated that the activation of areas 44 and 45 is correlated with the stereoscopic recognition based on the binocular disparity but not with the intention artifacts, suggesting that areas 44 and 45 play an essential role in the binocular disparity.

  7. Frontoparietal representations of task context support the flexible control of goal-directed cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waskom, Michael L; Kumaran, Dharshan; Gordon, Alan M; Rissman, Jesse; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-08-06

    Cognitive control allows stimulus-response processing to be aligned with internal goals and is thus central to intelligent, purposeful behavior. Control is thought to depend in part on the active representation of task information in prefrontal cortex (PFC), which provides a source of contextual bias on perception, decision making, and action. In the present study, we investigated the organization, influences, and consequences of context representation as human subjects performed a cued sorting task that required them to flexibly judge the relationship between pairs of multivalent stimuli. Using a connectivity-based parcellation of PFC and multivariate decoding analyses, we determined that context is specifically and transiently represented in a region spanning the inferior frontal sulcus during context-dependent decision making. We also found strong evidence that decision context is represented within the intraparietal sulcus, an area previously shown to be functionally networked with the inferior frontal sulcus at rest and during task performance. Rule-guided allocation of attention to different stimulus dimensions produced discriminable patterns of activation in visual cortex, providing a signature of top-down bias over perception. Furthermore, demands on cognitive control arising from the task structure modulated context representation, which was found to be strongest after a shift in task rules. When context representation in frontoparietal areas increased in strength, as measured by the discriminability of high-dimensional activation patterns, the bias on attended stimulus features was enhanced. These results provide novel evidence that illuminates the mechanisms by which humans flexibly guide behavior in complex environments. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3410743-13$15.00/0.

  8. Cytoarchitecture of mouse and rat cingulate cortex with human homologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Brent A; Paxinos, George

    2014-01-01

    A gulf exists between cingulate area designations in human neurocytology and those used in rodent brain atlases with a major underpinning of the former being midcingulate cortex (MCC). The present study used images extracted from the Franklin and Paxinos mouse atlas and Paxinos and Watson rat atlas to demonstrate areas comprising MCC and modifications of anterior cingulate (ACC) and retrosplenial cortices. The laminar architecture not available in the atlases is also provided for each cingulate area. Both mouse and rat have a MCC with neurons in all layers that are larger than in ACC and layer Va has particularly prominent neurons and reduced neuron densities. An undifferentiated ACC area 33 lies along the rostral callosal sulcus in rat but not in mouse and area 32 has dorsal and ventral subdivisions with the former having particularly large pyramidal neurons in layer Vb. Both mouse and rat have anterior and posterior divisions of retrosplenial areas 29c and 30, although their cytology is different in rat and mouse. Maps of the rodent cingulate cortices provide for direct comparisons with each region in the human including MCC and it is significant that rodents do not have a posterior cingulate region composed of areas 23 and 31 like the human. It is concluded that rodents and primates, including humans, possess a MCC and this homology along with those in ACC and retrosplenial cortices permit scientists inspired by human considerations to test hypotheses on rodent models of human diseases.

  9. Social-network complexity in humans is associated with the neural response to social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziura, Sarah L; Thompson, James C

    2014-11-01

    Humans have evolved to thrive in large and complex social groups, and it is likely that this increase in group complexity has come with a greater need to decode and respond to complex and uncertain communicatory signals. In this functional MRI study, we examined whether complexity of social networks in humans is related to the functioning of brain regions key to the perception of basic, nonverbal social stimuli. Greater activation to biological than to scrambled motion in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right amygdala were positively correlated with the diversity of social-network roles. In the pSTS, in particular, this association was not due to a relationship between network diversity and network size. These findings suggest that increased functioning of brain regions involved in decoding social signals might facilitate the detection and decoding of subtle signals encountered in varied social settings.

  10. Clinical observation of foldable intraocular lenses in ciliary sulcus suture fixation with Ultrasound biomicroscope-guided%超声生物显微镜引导下折叠人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王胜男; 吕勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of foldable intraocular lenses in ciliary sulcus suture fixation with ultrasound biomicroscope-guided,for clinical application.Methods This study was performed on 37 eyes in 34 patients who needed a foldable intraocular lens in ciliary sulcus suture fixation surgery.A total of 19 eyes in 18 patients had a ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) examination to ensure the ciliary sulcus localization before the surgery (Group Ⅰ).A total of 18 eyes in 16 patients didn't have a UBM examination (Group Ⅱ).After the surgery,the visual acuity,contrast sensitivity,UBM were checked up in both groups.The results were analyzed by SPSS17.0 statistical software.Results The mean suture position in group Ⅰ was significantly less than that of the group Ⅱ (P <0.001,t-test).The UBM examination showed that the IOL decentration,the optic tilt and the rate of haptics located in the sulcus were statistically significant between the 2 groups.The uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) 3 months after operation had statistical significance between the 2 groups.But the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the contrast sensitivity function in 3cpd,6cpd,12cpd and 18cpd spatial frequencies 3 months after operation had no significant difference between the 2 groups.Conclusions The use of UBM can help the surgeon identify the ciliary sulcus more precisely,and reduce the tilt and decentration of the IOL,which is conducive to upgrade the operated effect.%目的 通过对比性临床观察,评价超声生物显微镜(UBM)引导下定位睫状沟,行折叠人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术的手术效果,为临床应用提供依据.方法 临床病例对照研究.对2010年4月至2012年1月在郑州大学第一附属医院眼科将34例(37只眼)需行人工晶状体睫状沟缝线固定术的患者按术前应用UBM检查和未用UBM检查分为两组:1组18例19只眼,术前行UBM检查,定位睫状沟在巩膜表面投影位置,

  11. How do we think machines think? An fMRI study of alleged competition with an artificial intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry eChaminade

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Humans are particularly skilled in mentalizing, the inference of other agents’ hidden mental states. Here we question whether activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing is specific to the processing of mental states or can be generalized to the inference of non-mental states by investigating brain responses during the interaction with an artificial agent. Participants were scanned using fMRI during interactive rock-paper-scissors games while believing the opponent was a fellow human (Intentional agent, a humanoid robot endowed with an algorithm developed to win the game (Artificial agent, or a laptop playing randomly (Random agent. Subjective reports indicated that participants perceived differences between the three opponents. No brain area responded specifically to interaction with the robot, suggesting the absence of reproducible stance when interacting with an artificial agent. We probed response to the artificial agent in clusters activated during the interaction with the intentional agent. A highly significant increase from robot to human in all clusters, including the precuneus involved in working memory, the posterior intraparietal suclus, in the control of attention and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in executive functions, supports the intrinsically engaging nature of social interactions. Mentalizing regions, the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, responded to the human only, supporting that humans do not adopt an intentional stance when interacting with an artificial agent. In contrast, left premotor cortex and anterior intraparietal sulcus involved in motor resonance were activated when interacting with the intentional and artificial agent, suggesting that participants also simulated the embodied humanoid robot’s actions in the game. Results support the specificity of mentalizing areas for interactions with intentional agents, while motor resonance generalizes to interactions with

  12. Visual peripersonal space centred on the face in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Làdavas, E; Zeloni, G; Farnè, A

    1998-12-01

    A convergent series of studies in monkeys and man suggests that the computation of visual space is performed in several brain regions for different behavioural purposes. Among these multiple spatial areas, the ventral intraparietal cortex, the putamen and the ventral aspect of the premotor cortex (area 6) contain a system for representing visual space near the face (peripersonal space). In these cerebral areas some neurons are bimodal: they have tactile receptive fields on the face, and they can also be driven by visual stimuli located near the tactile field. The spatial correspondence between the visual and tactile receptive fields provides a map of near visual space coded in body-part-centred co-ordinates. In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the existence of a visual peripersonal space centred on the face in humans. In patients with right hemispheric lesions, visual stimuli delivered in the space near the ipsilesional side of the face extinguished tactile stimuli on the contralesional side (cross-modal visuotactile extinction) to the same extent as did an ipsilesional tactile stimulation (unimodal tactile extinction). Furthermore, a visual stimulus presented in the proximity of the contralesional side of the face improved the detection of a left tactile stimulus: i.e. under bilateral tactile presentation patients were more accurate to report the presence of a left tactile stimulus when a simultaneous visual stimulus was presented near the left side of the face. However, when visual stimuli were delivered far from the face, visuotactile extinction and visuotactile facilitation effects were dramatically reduced. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis of a representation of visual peripersonal space coded in bodypart-centred co-ordinates, and they provide a striking demonstration of the modularity of human visual space.

  13. The correlation of OPG/RANKL expression level of gingival crevicular fluid to sulcus bleeding index in patients with chronic periodontitis%龈沟液 OPG/RANKL 表达与慢性牙周炎患者龈沟出血指数的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕旭君

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析慢性牙周炎患者龈沟液护骨素( osteoprotegerin,OPG)和核因子κB受体活化因子配体( receptor ac-tivator of nuclear factor-KB ligand,RANKL)表达与其龈沟出血指数的关系。方法以吸潮纸尖法,取37例慢性牙周炎患者(观察组)和同期入院体检的31例健康志愿者(对照组)的龈沟液。采用免疫荧光试验分析OPG和RANKL的表达强度;并以简单线性回归法测试OPG/RANKL表达与龈沟出血指数的相关性。结果与对照组比较,观察组患者OPG和OPG/RANKL表达强度明显偏低,RANKL表达强度明显偏高,且各指标的组间差异均有统计学意义( P<0.001)。经线性回归分析,观察组患者的 OPG/RANKL 的表达情况与其出血指数呈显著负相关( y =-3.7755x+3.6212,R2=0.6651,P<0.05)。结论 OPG/RANKL/RANK系统参与了慢性牙周炎的发生和发展,可作为衡量其炎症性出血程度的客观指标。%Objective To examine the relationship between the level of osteoprotegerin ( OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-KB ligand ( RANKL) expression and sulcus bleeding index.Method The gingival crevicular fluid of 37 patients with chronic periodontitis ( chosen as the experimental group ) and 31 healthy volunteers were abstracted with moisture absorption paper point method.Their OPG and RANKL expression level were detected with immunofluorescence test and the correlation of OPG/RANKL expression and sulcus bleeding index were analyzed with simple linear regression. Findings Compared with the control group, the OPG and OPG/RANKL expression level were lower significantly and the RANKL expression level were higher significantly (P<0.001).Negative correlation was found between the OPG/RANKL expression level and sulcus bleeding index (y=-3.7755x +3.6212,R2 =0.6651,P<0.05).Conclusion OPG/RANKL/RANK system is involved in the occurrence and development of chronic periodontitis

  14. 经额上沟入路神经内镜手术治疗高血压脑出血疗效分析%Curative effect analysis of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of ;hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶亮; 陈治标; 张华平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the surgical technique and the curative effects of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Methods The clinical data of 63 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-one of them were treated by neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus(neuroendoscopic surgery group), and 32 of them were treated by mini- invasive drainage (conventional therapy group). All of them were followed up for 6 months, and were assessed by the activity of daily living (ADL) scale. Results After treatment, all patients reviewed CT. The clear rate of hematoma in neuroendoscopic surgery group was 86.0%, in conventional therapy group was 23.3%, and there was significant difference (P<0.05). There were one death case in neuroendoscopic surgery group and 2 death cases in conventional therapy group. The survival patients were followed up for 6 months .The rate of better prognosis in neuroendoscopic surgery group was 83.3%(25/30), in conventional therapy group was 53.3%(16/30), and there was significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions The surgical technique of neuroendoscopic surgery via superior frontal sulcus in the treatment of hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage is safe and effective.%目的:探讨经额上沟入路神经内镜辅助脑内血肿清除术治疗高血压脑出血的手术策略及治疗效果。方法63例高血压脑出血患者,31例行经额上沟入路神经内镜辅助脑内血肿清除术(内镜辅助组),32例行常规微创穿刺引流术(常规治疗组)。术后随访6个月,应用日常生活量表(ADL)进行评定并比较。结果术后复查头颅CT,内镜辅助组血肿清除率为86.0%。常规治疗组血肿清除率为23.3%,两组血肿清除率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。内镜辅助组死亡1例,常规治疗组死亡2例。存活患者术后随访6个月,内镜

  15. 颈神经在颈椎间孔及脊神经沟处受嵌压的解剖学因素%Anatomical factors of wedge pressure on cervical nerves in cervical intervertebral foramen of cervical nerve and sulcus of spinal nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英平; 郭瑞芳

    2005-01-01

    nerve root.OBJECTIVE: To probe into the anatomical factors of cervical spondylosis of nerve root type with occurrence rate of involved cervical nerve in cervical intervertebral foramen and sulcus of spinal nerve.DESIGN: Single sample observation was designed.SETTING: Department of Anatomy of Chengde Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 120 sides of 60 adult corpses were employed with formaldehyde fixation (28 cases of male and 32 cases of female).METHODS: Sixty adult corpses were measured with the vernier of 0.02 mm spinal nerve and the transverse diameter of anterior branch (A-diameter) of superoinferior diameter (S - I diameter) of cervical intervertebral foramen and its spinal nerve root. The ratios were calculated between A-diameter cervical nerve and E-diameter of the corresponding sulcus of spinal nerve and between A - P diameter and S - I diameter of spinal nerve root and those of corresponding intervertebral foramen respectively. The rates of occurrence were concluded for those cervical nerves whose A-diameter larger than or equal to E-diameter of sulcus of spinal nerves and for those spinal nerve roots whose rations larger than or equal to those of corresponding intervertebral foramens.cervical nerve in C3-6 larger than or equal to E-diameter of sulcus of spinal nerve roots in C3-6 larger than or equal to those of corresponding intervertebral foramens.RESULTS: Totally 120 sides of 60 corpses were measured (56 cases of male wedge pressure in intervertebral foramen of cervical nerve root for both male and female, of which, that of female was remarkably superior to the male was 6. 3% for wedge pressure of anterior branch of cervical spinal nerve in sulcus in spinal nerve for both male and female, of which, that of male was remarkably superior to the female(8.9%, 3.9%, χ2 = 6.65, P < 0. 01 ).CONCLUSION: The involvement of cervical nerve is related not only to the stenosis of bone canal but also to the injury of peripheral soft tissues. By the ratios between E

  16. How do we think machines think? An fMRI study of alleged competition with an artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Nazarian, Bruno; Lutcher, Ewald; Cheng, Gordon; Deruelle, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Mentalizing is defined as the inference of mental states of fellow humans, and is a particularly important skill for social interactions. Here we assessed whether activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing is specific to the processing of mental states or can be generalized to the inference of non-mental states by comparing brain responses during the interaction with an intentional and an artificial agent. Participants were scanned using fMRI during interactive rock-paper-scissors games while believing their opponent was a fellow human (Intentional agent, Int), a humanoid robot endowed with an artificial intelligence (Artificial agent, Art), or a computer playing randomly (Random agent, Rnd). Participants' subjective reports indicated that they adopted different stances against the three agents. The contrast of brain activity during interaction with the artificial and the random agents didn't yield any cluster at the threshold used, suggesting the absence of a reproducible stance when interacting with an artificial intelligence. We probed response to the artificial agent in regions of interest corresponding to clusters found in the contrast between the intentional and the random agents. In the precuneus involved in working memory, the posterior intraparietal suclus, in the control of attention and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in executive functions, brain activity for Art was larger than for Rnd but lower than for Int, supporting the intrinsically engaging nature of social interactions. A similar pattern in the left premotor cortex and anterior intraparietal sulcus involved in motor resonance suggested that participants simulated human, and to a lesser extend humanoid robot actions, when playing the game. Finally, mentalizing regions, the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, responded to the human only, supporting the specificity of mentalizing areas for interactions with intentional agents. PMID:22586381

  17. How do we think machines think? An fMRI study of alleged competition with an artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaminade, Thierry; Rosset, Delphine; Da Fonseca, David; Nazarian, Bruno; Lutcher, Ewald; Cheng, Gordon; Deruelle, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Mentalizing is defined as the inference of mental states of fellow humans, and is a particularly important skill for social interactions. Here we assessed whether activity in brain areas involved in mentalizing is specific to the processing of mental states or can be generalized to the inference of non-mental states by comparing brain responses during the interaction with an intentional and an artificial agent. Participants were scanned using fMRI during interactive rock-paper-scissors games while believing their opponent was a fellow human (Intentional agent, Int), a humanoid robot endowed with an artificial intelligence (Artificial agent, Art), or a computer playing randomly (Random agent, Rnd). Participants' subjective reports indicated that they adopted different stances against the three agents. The contrast of brain activity during interaction with the artificial and the random agents didn't yield any cluster at the threshold used, suggesting the absence of a reproducible stance when interacting with an artificial intelligence. We probed response to the artificial agent in regions of interest corresponding to clusters found in the contrast between the intentional and the random agents. In the precuneus involved in working memory, the posterior intraparietal suclus, in the control of attention and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, in executive functions, brain activity for Art was larger than for Rnd but lower than for Int, supporting the intrinsically engaging nature of social interactions. A similar pattern in the left premotor cortex and anterior intraparietal sulcus involved in motor resonance suggested that participants simulated human, and to a lesser extend humanoid robot actions, when playing the game. Finally, mentalizing regions, the medial prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction, responded to the human only, supporting the specificity of mentalizing areas for interactions with intentional agents.

  18. Distinct cerebral pathways for object identity and number in human infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Izard

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available All humans, regardless of their culture and education, possess an intuitive understanding of number. Behavioural evidence suggests that numerical competence may be present early on in infancy. Here, we present brain-imaging evidence for distinct cerebral coding of number and object identity in 3-mo-old infants. We compared the visual event-related potentials evoked by unforeseen changes either in the identity of objects forming a set, or in the cardinal of this set. In adults and 4-y-old children, number sense relies on a dorsal system of bilateral intraparietal areas, different from the ventral occipitotemporal system sensitive to object identity. Scalp voltage topographies and cortical source modelling revealed a similar distinction in 3-mo-olds, with changes in object identity activating ventral temporal areas, whereas changes in number involved an additional right parietoprefrontal network. These results underscore the developmental continuity of number sense by pointing to early functional biases in brain organization that may channel subsequent learning to restricted brain areas.

  19. Brain regions involved in human movement perception: a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbras, Marie-Hélène; Beaton, Susan; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-02-01

    Face, hands, and body movements are powerful signals essential for social interactions. In the last 2 decades, a large number of brain imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of the perception of these signals. Formal synthesis is crucially needed, however, to extract the key circuits involved in human motion perception across the variety of paradigms and stimuli that have been used. Here, we used the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis approach with random effect analysis. We performed meta-analyses on three classes of biological motion: movement of the whole body, hands, and face. Additional analyses of studies of static faces or body stimuli and sub-analyses grouping experiments as a function of their control stimuli or task employed allowed us to identify main effects of movements and forms perception, as well as effects of task demand. In addition to specific features, all conditions showed convergence in occipito-temporal and fronto-parietal regions, but with different peak location and extent. The conjunction of the three ALE maps revealed convergence in all categories in a region of the right posterior superior temporal sulcus as well as in a bilateral region at the junction between middle temporal and lateral occipital gyri. Activation in these regions was not a function of attentional demand and was significant also when controlling for non-specific motion perception. This quantitative synthesis points towards a special role for posterior superior temporal sulcus for integrating human movement percept, and supports a specific representation for body parts in middle temporal, fusiform, precentral, and parietal areas.

  20. Viewing the motion of human body parts activates different regions of premotor, temporal, and parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Kylie J; Thompson, James C; Syngeniotis, Ari; Abbott, David F; Puce, Aina

    2004-05-01

    Activation of premotor and temporoparietal cortex occurs when we observe others movements, particularly relating to objects. Viewing the motion of different body parts without the context of an object has not been systematically evaluated. During a 3T fMRI study, 12 healthy subjects viewed human face, hand, and leg motion, which was not directed at or did not involve an object. Activation was identified relative to static images of the same human face, hand, and leg in both individual subject and group average data. Four clear activation foci emerged: (1) right MT/V5 activated to all forms of viewed motion; (2) right STS activated to face and leg motion; (3) ventral premotor cortex activated to face, hand, and leg motion in the right hemisphere and to leg motion in the left hemisphere; and (4) anterior intraparietal cortex (aIP) was active bilaterally to viewing hand motion and in the right hemisphere leg motion. In addition, in the group data, a somatotopic activation pattern for viewing face, hand, and leg motion occurred in right ventral premotor cortex. Activation patterns in STS and aIP were more complex--typically activation foci to viewing two types of human motion showed some overlap. Activation in individual subjects was similar; however, activation to hand motion also occurred in the STS with a variable location across subjects--explaining the lack of a clear activation focus in the group data. The data indicate that there are selective responses to viewing motion of different body parts in the human brain that are independent of object or tool use.

  1. Executive attention networks show altered relationship with default mode network in PD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Boord

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention dysfunction is a common but often undiagnosed cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease that significantly reduces quality of life. We sought to increase understanding of the mechanisms underlying attention dysfunction using functional neuroimaging. Functional MRI was acquired at two repeated sessions in the resting state and during the Attention Network Test, for 25 non-demented subjects with Parkinson's disease and 21 healthy controls. Behavioral and MRI contrasts were calculated for alerting, orienting, and executive control components of attention. Brain regions showing group differences in attention processing were used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis of a separate resting state run. Parkinson's disease subjects showed more activation during increased executive challenge in four regions of the dorsal attention and frontoparietal networks, namely right frontal eye field, left and right intraparietal sulcus, and precuneus. In three regions we saw reduced resting state connectivity to the default mode network. Further, whereas higher task activation in the right intraparietal sulcus correlated with reduced resting state connectivity between right intraparietal sulcus and the precuneus in healthy controls, this relationship was absent in Parkinson's disease subjects. Our results suggest that a weakened interaction between the default mode and task positive networks might alter the way in which the executive response is processed in PD.

  2. Visual and somatic sensory feedback of brain activity for intuitive surgical robot manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Yuya; Kobayashi, Yo; Kawamura, Kazuya; Nakashima, Yasutaka; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to evaluate the hand-eye coordination of the master-slave surgical robot by measuring the activation of the intraparietal sulcus in users brain activity during controlling virtual manipulation. The objective is to examine the changes in activity of the intraparietal sulcus when the user's visual or somatic feedback is passed through or intercepted. The hypothesis is that the intraparietal sulcus activates significantly when both the visual and somatic sense pass feedback, but deactivates when either visual or somatic is intercepted. The brain activity of three subjects was measured by the functional near-infrared spectroscopic-topography brain imaging while they used a hand controller to move a virtual arm of a surgical simulator. The experiment was performed several times with three conditions: (i) the user controlled the virtual arm naturally under both visual and somatic feedback passed, (ii) the user moved with closed eyes under only somatic feedback passed, (iii) the user only gazed at the screen under only visual feedback passed. Brain activity showed significantly better control of the virtual arm naturally (pmoving with closed eyes or only gazing among all participants. In conclusion, the brain can activate according to visual and somatic sensory feedback agreement.

  3. [A neuropsychological and functional brain imaging study of visuo-imitative apraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peigneux, P; Van Der Linden, M; Andres-Benito, P; Sadzot, B; Franck, G; Salmon, E

    2000-05-01

    41 healthy subjects (SPM96) demonstrated a statistically significant hypometabolism in the left intraparietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule, and in the right dorsal prestriate cortex. These results, together with a review of the other studies of visuo-imitative apraxia, suggest that the left intraparietal sulcus may be associated with access or integration of information from the output praxicon. The left superior parietal and the right dorsal prestriate deficits functionally impaired a bilateral dorsal network implied in the mental transformations of the body, thus suggesting that these mental transformations are underlined by knowledge of the human body, which may subsequently explain the deficit for the reproduction of meaningless and meaningful configurations.

  4. 人工晶体单襻睫状沟单针双线缝线固定的临床观察%Observation on the effect of intraocular lens implantation in single-haptic ciliary sulcus with one needle and double suture fixation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭荣强; 张蕾; 丁琼; 郑春昌; 周家承

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察人工晶体单襻睫状沟单针双线缝线固定植入手术的安全性和有效性.方法 对白内障后囊不完整的患者26例(26眼)采用单襻睫状沟单针双线缝线固定法植入后房型人工晶体.术中做以角巩为缘基底的3 mm×3 mm板层巩膜瓣,使用带两根聚丙烯缝线的长针先作巩膜瓣下缝针用作固定着力点,出针后再从巩膜垂直进针经前房在角膜光学区外3 mm出针,剪去长针从白内障切口把聚丙烯缝线夹出,把两根聚丙烯缝线分别结扎人工晶体同一襻,两线结相距3 mm,把人工晶体另一襻植入残存后囊上,结扎襻置入虹膜后,同时拉紧巩膜外缝线,调整人工晶体位置使其居中,将巩膜外两根缝线互相结扎,缩瞳,清除干净前房的玻璃体,透明质酸钠,观察术后视力,人工晶体位置,并发症及用药情况.术后随访1~6个月.结果 26例(26眼)中术后1周裸眼视力≥0.5者19例(19眼),占73.08%,术后1周裸眼视力0.1~0.4者7例(7眼),占26.92%.人工晶体位置正常24例(24眼),人工晶体位置偏位2例(2眼).结论 人工晶体单襻睫状沟单针双线缝线固定植入手术操作简便,并发症少,安全,效果良好.%Objective To study the safety and efficacy of intraocular lens implantation in single-haptic ciliary sulcus with one needle and double suture fixation.Methods For 26 patients (26 eyes),the intraocular lens were implanted into single-haptic ciliary sulcus with one needle and double suture fixation.In the operation,the scleral flap was made under corneoscleral limbus( size of 3 mm × 3 mm)and the sutured needle under scleral flap with two polypropylene long suture was as fixation point,then the needle was to be inserted vertically from sclera and with drawn the needle 3 mm from the optical zones of cornea;extracted the polypropylene suture via cataract incision after cutting off long suture and ligated the suture at the same haptics of intraocular lens,the other haptics of

  5. Human hippocampal processing of environmental novelty during spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Raphael; Horner, Aidan J; Bandettini, Peter A; Doeller, Christian F; Burgess, Neil

    2014-07-01

    The detection and processing of novel information encountered as we explore our environment is crucial for learning and adaptive behavior. The human hippocampus has been strongly implicated in laboratory tests of novelty detection and episodic memory, but has been less well studied during more ethological tasks such as spatial navigation, typically used in animals. We examined fMRI BOLD activity as a function of environmental and object novelty as humans performed an object-location virtual navigation task. We found greater BOLD response to novel relative to familiar environments in the hippocampus and adjacent parahippocampal gyrus. Object novelty was associated with increased activity in the posterior parahippocampal/fusiform gyrus and anterior hippocampus extending into the amygdala and superior temporal sulcus. Importantly, whilst mid-posterior hippocampus was more sensitive to environmental novelty than object novelty, the anterior hippocampus responded similarly to both forms of novelty. Amygdala activity showed an increase for novel objects that decreased linearly over the learning phase. By investigating how participants learn and use different forms of information during spatial navigation, we found that medial temporal lobe (MTL) activity reflects both the novelty of the environment and of the objects located within it. This novelty processing is likely supported by distinct, but partially overlapping, sets of regions within the MTL.

  6. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  7. Dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Kujala, Jan; Carlson, Synnöve; Hari, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    We read conspecifics' social cues effortlessly, but little is known about our abilities to understand social gestures of other species. To investigate the neural underpinnings of such skills, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the brain activity of experts and non-experts of dog behavior while they observed humans or dogs either interacting with, or facing away from a conspecific. The posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) of both subject groups dissociated humans facing toward each other from humans facing away, and in dog experts, a distinction also occurred for dogs facing toward vs. away in a bilateral area extending from the pSTS to the inferior temporo-occipital cortex: the dissociation of dog behavior was significantly stronger in expert than control group. Furthermore, the control group had stronger pSTS responses to humans than dogs facing toward a conspecific, whereas in dog experts, the responses were of similar magnitude. These findings suggest that dog experts' brains distinguish socially relevant body postures similarly in dogs and humans.

  8. Processing of Egomotion-Consistent Optic Flow in the Rhesus Macaque Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottereau, Benoit R; Smith, Andrew T; Rima, Samy; Fize, Denis; Héjja-Brichard, Yseult; Renaud, Luc; Lejards, Camille; Vayssière, Nathalie; Trotter, Yves; Durand, Jean-Baptiste

    2017-01-01

    The cortical network that processes visual cues to self-motion was characterized with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 3 awake behaving macaques. The experimental protocol was similar to previous human studies in which the responses to a single large optic flow patch were contrasted with responses to an array of 9 similar flow patches. This distinguishes cortical regions where neurons respond to flow in their receptive fields regardless of surrounding motion from those that are sensitive to whether the overall image arises from self-motion. In all 3 animals, significant selectivity for egomotion-consistent flow was found in several areas previously associated with optic flow processing, and notably dorsal middle superior temporal area, ventral intra-parietal area, and VPS. It was also seen in areas 7a (Opt), STPm, FEFsem, FEFsac and in a region of the cingulate sulcus that may be homologous with human area CSv. Selectivity for egomotion-compatible flow was never total but was particularly strong in VPS and putative macaque CSv. Direct comparison of results with the equivalent human studies reveals several commonalities but also some differences.

  9. Viewing another person's body as a target object: a behavioural and PET study of pointing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Trinkler, Iris; Remy, Philippe; Thirioux, Bérangère; McIntyre, Joseph; Berthoz, Alain; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2012-07-01

    Humans usually point at objects to communicate with other persons, although they generally avoid pointing at the other's body. Moreover, patients with heterotopagnosia after left parietal damage cannot point at another person's body parts, although they can point at objects and at their own body parts and although they can grasp the others' body parts. Strikingly, their performance gradually improves for figurative human body targets. Altogether, this suggests that the body of another real person holds a specific status in communicative pointing. Here, we test in healthy individuals whether performance for communicative pointing is influenced by the communicative capacity of the target. In Experiment 1, pointing at another real person's body parts was compared to pointing at objects, and in Experiment 2, the person was replaced by a manikin. While reaction times for pointing at objects were shorter compared to pointing at other person's body parts, they were similar for objects and manikin body parts. By adapting Experiment 1 to PET-scan imaging (Experiment 3), we showed that, compared to pointing at objects, the brain network for pointing at other person's body parts involves the left posterior intraparietal sulcus, lesion of which could cause heterotopagnosia. Taken together, our results indicate that the specificity of pointing at another person's body goes beyond the visuo-spatial features of the human body and might rather rely on its communicative capacity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A functional neuroimaging study of motivation and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephan F; Welsh, Robert C; Wager, Tor D; Phan, K Luan; Fitzgerald, Kate D; Gehring, William J

    2004-03-01

    Executive functions, such as working memory, must intersect with functions that determine value for the organism. Functional imaging work in humans and single-unit recordings in non-human primates provide evidence that PFC might integrate motivational context with working memory. With functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we addressed the question of motivation and working memory, using a trial-related design in an object-working memory task. The design permitted the analysis of BOLD signal at separate stages, corresponding to encoding, maintenance, and retrieval. Subjects were motivated by a financial incentive during the task, such that they could gain a high or a low reward. The two different levels of reward also entailed greater or lesser risk of losing money for incorrect responses. In the high, relative to the low, reward condition, subjects shifted response bias, and showed a trend to greater sensitivity. We found main effects in fMRI BOLD signal for reward, which overlapped with BOLD effects for maintenance of information, in the right superior frontal sulcus and bilateral intraparietal sulcus. We also found an interaction between reward and retrieval from working memory in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Main effects of load and reward occurred in adjacent regions of the ventrolateral PFC during retrieval. The data demonstrate that when subjects perform a simple working memory task, financial incentives motivate performance and interact with some of the same neural networks that process various stages of working memory. Areas of overlap and interaction may integrate information about value, or they may represent a general effect of motivation increasing neural effort.

  11. Sulcus formation in a compressed elastic half space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggins, John; Mahadevan, L.

    2012-02-01

    When a block of rubber, biological tissue or other soft material is subject to substantial compression, its surfaces undergo a folding instability. Rather than having a smooth profile, these folds contain cusps and hence have been called creases or sulcii rather than wrinkles. The stability of a compressed surface was first investigated by Biot (1965), assuming the strains associated with the instability were small. However, the compression threshold predicted with this approach is substantially too high. I will introduce a family of analytic area preserving maps that contain cusps (and hence points of infinite strain) that save energy before the linear stability threshold even at vanishing amplitude. This establishes that there is a region before the linear stability threshold is reached where the system is unstable to infinitesimal perturbations, but that this instability is quintessentially non-linear and cannot be found with linear strain elasticity.

  12. Human See, Human Do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A human demonstrator showed human children and captive chimpanzees how to drag food or toys closer using a rakelike tool. One side of the rake was less efficient than the other for dragging. Chimps tried to reproduce results rather than methods while children imitated and used the more efficient rake side. Concludes that imitation leads to…

  13. More Human than Human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David

    2017-07-01

    Within the literature surrounding nonhuman animals on the one hand and cognitively disabled humans on the other, there is much discussion of where beings that do not satisfy the criteria for personhood fit in our moral deliberations. In the future, we may face a different but related problem: that we might create (or cause the creation of) beings that not only satisfy but exceed these criteria. The question becomes whether these are minimal criteria, or hierarchical, such that those who fulfill them to greater degree should be afforded greater consideration. This article questions the validity and necessity of drawing divisions among beings that satisfy the minimum requirements for personhood; considering how future beings-intelligent androids, synthezoids, even alternate-substrate sentiences-might fit alongside the "baseline" human. I ask whether these alternate beings ought to be considered different to us, and why this may or may not matter in terms of a notion of "human community." The film Blade Runner, concerned in large part with humanity and its key synthezoid antagonist Roy Batty, forms a framing touchstone for my discussion. Batty is stronger, faster, more resilient, and more intelligent than Homo sapiens. His exploits, far beyond the capability of normal humans, are contrasted with his frailty and transient lifespan, his aesthetic appreciation of the sights he has seen, and his burgeoning empathy. Not for nothing does his creator within the mythos term him "more human than human."

  14. On the evolution of calculation abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ardila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in mans evolution as well as in childs development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmanns syndrome. Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly disclosed in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diverse of number tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies.

  15. Absence of visual experience modifies the neural basis of numerical thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjlia, Shipra; Lane, Connor; Feigenson, Lisa; Bedny, Marina

    2016-10-04

    In humans, the ability to reason about mathematical quantities depends on a frontoparietal network that includes the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). How do nature and nurture give rise to the neurobiology of numerical cognition? We asked how visual experience shapes the neural basis of numerical thinking by studying numerical cognition in congenitally blind individuals. Blind (n = 17) and blindfolded sighted (n = 19) participants solved math equations that varied in difficulty (e.g., 27 - 12 = x vs. 7 - 2 = x), and performed a control sentence comprehension task while undergoing fMRI. Whole-cortex analyses revealed that in both blind and sighted participants, the IPS and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices were more active during the math task than the language task, and activity in the IPS increased parametrically with equation difficulty. Thus, the classic frontoparietal number network is preserved in the total absence of visual experience. However, surprisingly, blind but not sighted individuals additionally recruited a subset of early visual areas during symbolic math calculation. The functional profile of these "visual" regions was identical to that of the IPS in blind but not sighted individuals. Furthermore, in blindness, number-responsive visual cortices exhibited increased functional connectivity with prefrontal and IPS regions that process numbers. We conclude that the frontoparietal number network develops independently of visual experience. In blindness, this number network colonizes parts of deafferented visual cortex. These results suggest that human cortex is highly functionally flexible early in life, and point to frontoparietal input as a mechanism of cross-modal plasticity in blindness.

  16. The extraction of depth structure from shading and texture in the macaque brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Nelissen

    Full Text Available We used contrast-agent enhanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in the alert monkey to map the cortical regions involved in the extraction of 3D shape from the monocular static cues, texture and shading. As in the parallel human imaging study, we contrasted the 3D condition to several 2D control conditions. The extraction of 3D shape from texture (3D SfT involves both ventral and parietal regions, in addition to early visual areas. Strongest activation was observed in CIP, with decreasing strength towards the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS. In the ventral stream 3D SfT sensitivity was observed in a ventral portion of TEO. The extraction of 3D shape from shading (3D SfS involved predominantly ventral regions, such as V4 and a dorsal potion of TEO. These results are similar to those obtained earlier in human subjects and indicate that the extraction of 3D shape from texture is performed in both ventral and dorsal regions for both species, as are the motion and disparity cues, whereas shading is mainly processed in the ventral stream.

  17. Multiple neural representations of elementary logical connectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggio, Giosuè; Cherubini, Paolo; Pischedda, Doris; Blumenthal, Anna; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2016-07-15

    A defining trait of human cognition is the capacity to form compounds out of simple thoughts. This ability relies on the logical connectives AND, OR and IF. Simple propositions, e.g., 'There is a fork' and 'There is a knife', can be combined in alternative ways using logical connectives: e.g., 'There is a fork AND there is a knife', 'There is a fork OR there is a knife', 'IF there is a fork, there is a knife'. How does the brain represent compounds based on different logical connectives, and how are compounds evaluated in relation to new facts? In the present study, participants had to maintain and evaluate conjunctive (AND), disjunctive (OR) or conditional (IF) compounds while undergoing functional MRI. Our results suggest that, during maintenance, the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG, BA44, or Broca's area) represents the surface form of compounds. During evaluation, the left pIFG switches to processing the full logical meaning of compounds, and two additional areas are recruited: the left anterior inferior frontal gyrus (aIFG, BA47) and the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS, BA40). The aIFG shows a pattern of activation similar to pIFG, and compatible with processing the full logical meaning of compounds, whereas activations in IPS differ with alternative interpretations of conditionals: logical vs conjunctive. These results uncover the functions of a basic cortical network underlying human compositional thought, and provide a shared neural foundation for the cognitive science of language and reasoning.

  18. On the evolution of calculation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Some numerical knowledge, such as the immediate recognition of small quantities, is observed in animals. The development of arithmetical abilities found in man's evolution as well as in child's development represents a long process following different stages. Arithmetical abilities are relatively recent in human history and are clearly related with counting, i.e., saying aloud a series of number words that correspond to a collection of objects. Counting probably began with finger sequencing, and that may explain the 10-base found in most numerical systems. From a neuropsychological perspective, there is a strong relationship between numerical knowledge and finger recognition, and both are impaired in cases of left posterior parietal damage (angular or Gerstmann's syndrome). Writing numbers appeared earlier in human history than written language. Positional digit value is clearly evident in Babylonians, and around 1,000 BC the zero was introduced. Contemporary neuroimaging techniques, specifically fMRI, have demonstrated that the left parietal lobe, particularly the intraparietal sulcus, is systematically activated during a diversity of tasks; other areas, particularly the frontal lobe, are also involved in processing numerical information and solving arithmetical problems. It can be conjectured that numerical abilities continue evolving due to advances in mathematical knowledge and the introduction of new technologies.

  19. Dissociable identity- and modality-specific neural representations as revealed by cross-modal nonspatial inhibition of return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yukai; Yue, Zhenzhu; Liu, Yupin; Mo, Lei; Chen, Qi

    2014-08-01

    There are ongoing debates on whether object concepts are coded as supramodal identity-based or modality-specific representations in the human brain. In this fMRI study, we adopted a cross-modal "prime-neutral cue-target" semantic priming paradigm, in which the prime-target relationship was manipulated along both the identity and the modality dimensions. The prime and the target could refer to either the same or different semantic identities, and could be delivered via either the same or different sensory modalities. By calculating the main effects and interactions of this 2 (identity cue validity: "Identity_Cued" vs. "Identity_Uncued") × 2 (modality cue validity: "Modality_Cued" vs. "Modality_Uncued") factorial design, we aimed at dissociating three neural networks involved in creating novel identity-specific representations independent of sensory modality, in creating modality-specific representations independent of semantic identity, and in evaluating changes of an object along both the identity and the modality dimensions, respectively. Our results suggested that bilateral lateral occipital cortex was involved in creating a new supramodal semantic representation irrespective of the input modality, left dorsal premotor cortex, and left intraparietal sulcus were involved in creating a new modality-specific representation irrespective of its semantic identity, and bilateral superior temporal sulcus was involved in creating a representation when the identity and modality properties were both cued or both uncued. In addition, right inferior frontal gyrus showed enhanced neural activity only when both the identity and the modality of the target were new, indicating its functional role in novelty detection.

  20. Three-dimensional probabilistic maps of the occipital sulci of the human brain in standardized stereotaxic space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaria, G; Robbins, S; Petrides, M

    2008-01-02

    Developments in functional neuroimaging in normal human subjects, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), have permitted the mapping of several visual areas of the human brain and have already provided provisional identification of some of the visual areas that were first described in nonhuman primates. However, the lack of a detailed description of the sulcal patterns of the human occipital lobe makes it difficult to establish clear relationships between sulcal landmarks and identified visual areas with functional neuroimaging. In the present study we used magnetic resonance images to investigate the morphological variation of the human occipital sulci in both the left and right hemispheres of 40 normal adult human brains. We identified 11 occipital sulci, the parieto-occipital fissure and the temporo-occipital incisure, and their corresponding gray matter voxels were marked in the magnetic resonance volumes which had been transformed into the Montreal Neurological Institute standard proportional stereotaxic space. Probability maps were then constructed for each occipital sulcus. These probability maps provide a quantitative measure of the variability of the occipital sulci in standard stereotaxic space and are a useful tool to identify the location of voxels of other magnetic resonance imaging images transformed in the same stereotaxic space.

  1. Dissimilar processing of emotional facial expressions in human and monkey temporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Nelissen, Koen; Van den Stock, Jan; De Winter, François-Laurent; Pauwels, Karl; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2013-02-01

    Emotional facial expressions play an important role in social communication across primates. Despite major progress made in our understanding of categorical information processing such as for objects and faces, little is known, however, about how the primate brain evolved to process emotional cues. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the processing of emotional facial expressions between monkeys and humans. We used a 2×2×2 factorial design with species (human and monkey), expression (fear and chewing) and configuration (intact versus scrambled) as factors. At the whole brain level, neural responses to conspecific emotional expressions were anatomically confined to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in humans. Within the human STS, we found functional subdivisions with a face-selective right posterior STS area that also responded to emotional expressions of other species and a more anterior area in the right middle STS that responded specifically to human emotions. Hence, we argue that the latter region does not show a mere emotion-dependent modulation of activity but is primarily driven by human emotional facial expressions. Conversely, in monkeys, emotional responses appeared in earlier visual cortex and outside face-selective regions in inferior temporal cortex that responded also to multiple visual categories. Within monkey IT, we also found areas that were more responsive to conspecific than to non-conspecific emotional expressions but these responses were not as specific as in human middle STS. Overall, our results indicate that human STS may have developed unique properties to deal with social cues such as emotional expressions.

  2. Human Development, Human Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, David

    One of the truly remarkable events in human evolution is the unprecedented increase in the size of the brain of "Homo" over a brief span of 2 million years. It would appear that some significant selective pressure or opportunity presented itself to this branch of the hominid line and caused a rapid increase in the brain, introducing a…

  3. The Poggendorff illusion driven by real and illusory contour: Behavioral and neural mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi

    2016-05-01

    The Poggendorff illusion refers to the phenomenon that the human brain misperceives a diagonal line as being apparently misaligned once the diagonal line is interrupted by two parallel edges, and the size of illusion is negatively correlated with the angle of interception of the oblique, i.e. the sharper the oblique angle, the larger the illusion. This optical illusion can be produced by both real and illusory contour. In this fMRI study, by parametrically varying the oblique angle, we investigated the shared and specific neural mechanisms underlying the Poggendorff illusion induced by real and illusory contour. At the behavioral level, not only the real but also the illusory contours were capable of inducing significant Poggendorff illusion. The size of illusion induced by the real contour, however, was larger than that induced by the illusory contour. At the neural level, real and illusory contours commonly activated more dorsal visual areas, and the real contours specifically activated more ventral visual areas. More importantly, examinations on the parametric modulation effects of the size of illusion revealed the specific neural mechanisms underlying the Poggendorff illusion induced by the real and the illusory contours, respectively. Left precentral gyrus and right middle occipital cortex were specifically involved in the Poggendorff illusion induced by the real contour. On the other hand, bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and right lateral occipital complex (LOC) were specifically involved in the Poggendorff illusion induced by the illusory contour. Functional implications of the above findings were further discussed.

  4. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: space, time, and number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Träff, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS) pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain) in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1) children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2) a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3) a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  5. Development of magnitude processing in children with developmental dyscalculia: Space, time and number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenny eSkagerlund

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a learning disorder associated with impairments in a preverbal non-symbolic approximate number system (ANS pertaining to areas in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS. The current study sought to enhance our understanding of the developmental trajectory of the ANS and symbolic number processing skills, thereby getting insight into whether a deficit in the ANS precedes or is preceded by impaired symbolic and exact number processing. Recent work has also suggested that humans are endowed with a shared magnitude system (beyond the number domain in the brain. We therefore investigated whether children with DD demonstrated a general magnitude deficit, stemming from the proposed magnitude system, rather than a specific one limited to numerical quantity. Fourth graders with DD were compared to age-matched controls and a group of ability-matched second graders, on a range of magnitude processing tasks pertaining to space, time, and number. Children with DD displayed difficulties across all magnitude dimensions compared to age-matched peers and showed impaired ANS acuity compared to the younger, ability-matched control group, while exhibiting intact symbolic number processing. We conclude that (1 children with DD suffer from a general magnitude-processing deficit, (2 a shared magnitude system likely exists, and (3 a symbolic number-processing deficit in DD tends to be preceded by an ANS deficit.

  6. The neural basis of mark making: a functional MRI study of drawing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Yuan

    Full Text Available Compared to most other forms of visually-guided motor activity, drawing is unique in that it "leaves a trail behind" in the form of the emanating image. We took advantage of an MRI-compatible drawing tablet in order to examine both the motor production and perceptual emanation of images. Subjects participated in a series of mark making tasks in which they were cued to draw geometric patterns on the tablet's surface. The critical comparison was between when visual feedback was displayed (image generation versus when it was not (no image generation. This contrast revealed an occipito-parietal stream involved in motion-based perception of the emerging image, including areas V5/MT+, LO, V3A, and the posterior part of the intraparietal sulcus. Interestingly, when subjects passively viewed animations of visual patterns emerging on the projected surface, all of the sensorimotor network involved in drawing was strongly activated, with the exception of the primary motor cortex. These results argue that the origin of the human capacity to draw and write involves not only motor skills for tool use but also motor-sensory links between drawing movements and the visual images that emanate from them in real time.

  7. Architectonic mapping of somatosensory areas involved in skilled forelimb movements and tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Andrei; Nascimento-Silva, Márcio L; Keher, Natalia B; Bittencourt-Navarrete, Ruben Ernesto; Gattass, Ricardo; Franca, João G

    2016-05-01

    Cebus monkeys stand out from other New World monkeys by their ability to perform fine hand movements, and by their spontaneous use of tools in the wild. Those behaviors rely on the integration of somatosensory information, which occurs in different areas of the parietal cortex. Although a few studies have examined and parceled the somatosensory areas of the cebus monkey, mainly using electrophysiological criteria, very little is known about its anatomical organization. In this study we used SMI-32 immunohistochemistry, myelin, and Nissl stains to characterize the architecture of the parietal cortical areas of cebus monkeys. Seven cortical areas were identified between the precentral gyrus and the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Except for areas 3a and 3b, distinction between different somatosensory areas was more evident in myelin-stained sections and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry than in Nissl stain, especially for area 2 and subdivisions of area 5. Our results show that cebus monkeys have a relatively complex somatosensory cortex, similar to that of macaques and humans. This suggests that, during primate evolution, the emergence of new somatosensory areas underpinned complex manual behaviors in most Old World simians and in the New World cebus monkey. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1399-1423, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Neural Correlates of Auditory Figure-Ground Segregation Based on Temporal Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barascud, Nicolas; Picard, Samuel; Payne, Christopher; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Chait, Maria

    2016-01-01

    To make sense of natural acoustic environments, listeners must parse complex mixtures of sounds that vary in frequency, space, and time. Emerging work suggests that, in addition to the well-studied spectral cues for segregation, sensitivity to temporal coherence—the coincidence of sound elements in and across time—is also critical for the perceptual organization of acoustic scenes. Here, we examine pre-attentive, stimulus-driven neural processes underlying auditory figure-ground segregation using stimuli that capture the challenges of listening in complex scenes where segregation cannot be achieved based on spectral cues alone. Signals (“stochastic figure-ground”: SFG) comprised a sequence of brief broadband chords containing random pure tone components that vary from 1 chord to another. Occasional tone repetitions across chords are perceived as “figures” popping out of a stochastic “ground.” Magnetoencephalography (MEG) measurement in naïve, distracted, human subjects revealed robust evoked responses, commencing from about 150 ms after figure onset that reflect the emergence of the “figure” from the randomly varying “ground.” Neural sources underlying this bottom-up driven figure-ground segregation were localized to planum temporale, and the intraparietal sulcus, demonstrating that this area, outside the “classic” auditory system, is also involved in the early stages of auditory scene analysis.” PMID:27325682

  9. Fractal image perception provides novel insights into hierarchical cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M J; Fischmeister, F P; Puig-Waldmüller, E; Oh, J; Geissler, A; Robinson, S; Fitch, W T; Beisteiner, R

    2014-08-01

    Hierarchical structures play a central role in many aspects of human cognition, prominently including both language and music. In this study we addressed hierarchy in the visual domain, using a novel paradigm based on fractal images. Fractals are self-similar patterns generated by repeating the same simple rule at multiple hierarchical levels. Our hypothesis was that the brain uses different resources for processing hierarchies depending on whether it applies a "fractal" or a "non-fractal" cognitive strategy. We analyzed the neural circuits activated by these complex hierarchical patterns in an event-related fMRI study of 40 healthy subjects. Brain activation was compared across three different tasks: a similarity task, and two hierarchical tasks in which subjects were asked to recognize the repetition of a rule operating transformations either within an existing hierarchical level, or generating new hierarchical levels. Similar hierarchical images were generated by both rules and target images were identical. We found that when processing visual hierarchies, engagement in both hierarchical tasks activated the visual dorsal stream (occipito-parietal cortex, intraparietal sulcus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). In addition, the level-generating task specifically activated circuits related to the integration of spatial and categorical information, and with the integration of items in contexts (posterior cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and medial, ventral and anterior regions of temporal cortex). These findings provide interesting new clues about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of new hierarchical levels as required for fractals.

  10. Music Making as a Tool for Promoting Brain Plasticity across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Catherine Y.; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2010-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying the brain effects of acquiring specialized sensorimotor skills. For example, musicians learn and repeatedly practice the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation) while receiving continuous multisensory feedback. This association learning can strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) while activating multimodal integration regions (e.g., around the intraparietal sulcus). We argue that training of this neural network may produce cross-modal effects on other behavioral or cognitive operations that draw on this network. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. These enhancements suggest the potential for music making as an interactive treatment or intervention for neurological and developmental disorders, as well as those associated with normal aging. PMID:20889966

  11. Dissociable neural substrates for agentic versus conceptual representations of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Lindsey J; Macrae, C Neil; Cloutier, Jasmin; Metcalfe, Janet; Mitchell, Jason P

    2010-10-01

    Although humans generally experience a coherent sense of selfhood, we can nevertheless articulate different aspects of self. Recent research has demonstrated that one such aspect of self--conceptual knowledge of one's own personality traits--is subserved by ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC). Here, we examined whether an alternative aspect of "self"--being an agent who acts to achieve one's own goals--relies on cognitive processes that overlap with or diverge from conceptual operationalizations of selfhood. While undergoing fMRI, participants completed tasks of both conceptual self-reference, in which they judged their own or another person's personality traits, and agentic self-reference, in which they freely chose an object or watched passively as one was chosen. The agentic task failed to modulate vMPFC, despite producing the same memory enhancement frequently observed during conceptual self-referential processing (the "self-reference" effect). Instead, agentic self-reference was associated with activation of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), a region previously implicated in planning and executing actions. Experiment 2 further demonstrated that IPS activity correlated with later memory performance for the agentic, but not conceptual, task. These results support views of the "self" as a collection of distinct mental operations distributed throughout the brain, rather than a unitary cognitive system.

  12. Neural representations of magnitude for natural and rational numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolf, Melissa; Chiang, Jeffrey N; Bassok, Miriam; Holyoak, Keith J; Monti, Martin M

    2016-11-01

    Humans have developed multiple symbolic representations for numbers, including natural numbers (positive integers) as well as rational numbers (both fractions and decimals). Despite a considerable body of behavioral and neuroimaging research, it is currently unknown whether different notations map onto a single, fully abstract, magnitude code, or whether separate representations exist for specific number types (e.g., natural versus rational) or number representations (e.g., base-10 versus fractions). We address this question by comparing brain metabolic response during a magnitude comparison task involving (on different trials) integers, decimals, and fractions. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the strength and pattern of activation for fractions differed systematically, within the intraparietal sulcus, from that of both decimals and integers, while the latter two number representations appeared virtually indistinguishable. These results demonstrate that the two major notations formats for rational numbers, fractions and decimals, evoke distinct neural representations of magnitude, with decimals representations being more closely linked to those of integers than to those of magnitude-equivalent fractions. Our findings thus suggest that number representation (base-10 versus fractions) is an important organizational principle for the neural substrate underlying mathematical cognition.

  13. Reconfiguration of parietal circuits with cognitive tutoring in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Dietsje; Supekar, Kaustubh; Richardson, Jennifer; Tenison, Caitlin; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Fuchs, Lynn; Menon, Vinod

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive development is shaped by brain plasticity during childhood, yet little is known about changes in large-scale functional circuits associated with learning in academically relevant cognitive domains such as mathematics. Here, we investigate plasticity of intrinsic brain circuits associated with one-on-one math tutoring and its relation to individual differences in children's learning. We focused on functional circuits associated with the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and angular gyrus (AG), cytoarchitectonically distinct subdivisions of the human parietal cortex with different roles in numerical cognition. Tutoring improved performance and strengthened IPS connectivity with the lateral prefrontal cortex, ventral temporal-occipital cortex, and hippocampus. Crucially, increased IPS connectivity was associated with individual performance gains, highlighting the behavioral significance of plasticity in IPS circuits. Tutoring-related changes in IPS connectivity were distinct from those of the adjacent AG, which did not predict performance gains. Our findings provide new insights into plasticity of functional brain circuits associated with the development of specialized cognitive skills in children.

  14. Neural substrates of reliability-weighted visual-tactile multisensory integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Beauchamp

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available As sensory systems deteriorate in aging or disease, the brain must relearn the appropriate weights to assign each modality during multisensory integration. Using blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI of human subjects, we tested a model for the neural mechanisms of sensory weighting, termed “weighted connections”. This model holds that the connection weights between early and late areas vary depending on the reliability of the modality, independent of the level of early sensory cortex activity. When subjects detected viewed and felt touches to the hand, a network of brain areas was active, including visual areas in lateral occipital cortex, somatosensory areas in inferior parietal lobe, and multisensory areas in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS. In agreement with the weighted connection model, the connection weight measured with structural equation modeling between somatosensory cortex and IPS increased for somatosensory-reliable stimuli, and the connection weight between visual cortex and IPS increased for visual-reliable stimuli. This double dissociation of connection strengths was similar to the pattern of behavioral responses during incongruent multisensory stimulation, suggesting that weighted connections may be a neural mechanism for behavioral reliability weighting.for behavioral reliability weighting.

  15. Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Anstis, Stuart; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-01-09

    Grouping local elements into a holistic percept, also known as spatial binding, is crucial for meaningful perception. Previous studies have shown that neurons in early visual areas V1 and V2 can signal complex grouping-related information, such as illusory contours or object-border ownerships. However, relatively little is known about higher-level processes contributing to these signals and mediating global Gestalt perception. We used a novel bistable motion illusion that induced alternating and mutually exclusive vivid conscious experiences of either dynamic illusory contours forming a global Gestalt or moving ungrouped local elements while the visual stimulation remained the same. fMRI in healthy human volunteers revealed that activity fluctuations in two sites of the parietal cortex, the superior parietal lobe and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), correlated specifically with the perception of the grouped illusory Gestalt as opposed to perception of ungrouped local elements. We then disturbed activity at these two sites in the same participants using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS over aIPS led to a selective shortening of the duration of the global Gestalt percept, with no effect on that of local elements. The results suggest that aIPS activity is directly involved in the process of spatial binding during effortless viewing in the healthy brain. Conscious perception of global Gestalt is therefore associated with aIPS function, similar to attention and perceptual selection.

  16. Scanning Electron Microscopic Examination of the Extracellular Matrix in the Decellularized Mouse and Human Cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Peter A; Aldaya, Robair; Brown, Alec; Johnson, Shane; Stromback, Tyler; Cureoglu, Sebahattin; Rask-Andersen, Helge

    2016-06-01

    Decellularized tissues have been used to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) in a number of different tissues and species. Santi and Johnson JARO 14:3-15 (2013) first described the decellularized inner ear in the mouse, rat, and human using scanning thin-sheet laser imaging microscopy (sTSLIM). The purpose of the present investigation is to examine decellularized cochleas in the mouse and human at higher resolution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fresh cochleas were harvested and decellularized using detergent extraction methods. Following decellularization, the ECM of the bone, basilar membrane, spiral limbus, and ligament remained, and all of the cells were removed from the cochlea. A number of similarities and differences in the ECM of the mouse and human were observed. A novel, spirally directed structure was present on the basilar membrane and is located at the border between Hensen and Boettcher cells. These septa-like structures formed a single row in the mouse and multiple rows in the human. The basal lamina of the stria vascularis capillaries was present and appeared thicker in the human compared with the mouse. In the mouse, numerous openings beneath the spiral prominence that previously housed the root processes of the external sulcus cells were observed but in the human there was only a single row of openings. These and other anatomical differences in the ECM between the mouse and human may reflect functional differences and/or be due to aging; however, decellularized cochleas provide a new way to examine the cochlear ECM and reveal new observations.

  17. Neural representations of faces and body parts in macaque and human cortex: a comparative FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsk, Mark A; Arcaro, Michael; Weiner, Kevin S; Kalkus, Jan F; Inati, Souheil J; Gross, Charles G; Kastner, Sabine

    2009-05-01

    Single-cell studies in the macaque have reported selective neural responses evoked by visual presentations of faces and bodies. Consistent with these findings, functional magnetic resonance imaging studies in humans and monkeys indicate that regions in temporal cortex respond preferentially to faces and bodies. However, it is not clear how these areas correspond across the two species. Here, we directly compared category-selective areas in macaques and humans using virtually identical techniques. In the macaque, several face- and body part-selective areas were found located along the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and middle temporal gyrus (MTG). In the human, similar to previous studies, face-selective areas were found in ventral occipital and temporal cortex and an additional face-selective area was found in the anterior temporal cortex. Face-selective areas were also found in lateral temporal cortex, including the previously reported posterior STS area. Body part-selective areas were identified in the human fusiform gyrus and lateral occipitotemporal cortex. In a first experiment, both monkey and human subjects were presented with pictures of faces, body parts, foods, scenes, and man-made objects, to examine the response profiles of each category-selective area to the five stimulus types. In a second experiment, face processing was examined by presenting upright and inverted faces. By comparing the responses and spatial relationships of the areas, we propose potential correspondences across species. Adjacent and overlapping areas in the macaque anterior STS/MTG responded strongly to both faces and body parts, similar to areas in the human fusiform gyrus and posterior STS. Furthermore, face-selective areas on the ventral bank of the STS/MTG discriminated both upright and inverted faces from objects, similar to areas in the human ventral temporal cortex. Overall, our findings demonstrate commonalities and differences in the wide-scale brain organization between

  18. Cortical gyrification and sulcal spans in early stage Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is characterized by an insidious onset of progressive cerebral atrophy and cognitive decline. Previous research suggests that cortical folding and sulcal width are associated with cognitive function in elderly individuals, and the aim of the present study was to investigate these morphological measures in patients with AD. The sample contained 161 participants, comprising 80 normal controls, 57 patients with very mild AD, and 24 patients with mild AD. From 3D T1-weighted brain scans, automated methods were used to calculate an index of global cortex gyrification and the width of five individual sulci: superior frontal, intra-parietal, superior temporal, central, and Sylvian fissure. We found that global cortex gyrification decreased with increasing severity of AD, and that the width of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus was greater in patients with mild AD than in controls. We also found that cognitive functioning, as assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, decreased as global cortex gyrification decreased. MMSE scores also decreased in association with a widening of all individual sulci investigated other than the intra-parietal sulcus. The results suggest that abnormalities of global cortex gyrification and regional sulcal span are characteristic of patients with even very mild AD, and could thus facilitate the early diagnosis of this condition.

  19. Periodontal pocket as a potential reservoir of high risk human papilloma virus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Mundoor Dayakar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Human papilloma viruses (HPVs are small DNA viruses that have been identified in periodontal pocket as well as gingival sulcus. High risk HPVs are also associated with a subset of head and neck carcinomas. HPV detection in periodontium has previously involved DNA detection. This study attempts to: (a Detect the presence or absence of high risk HPV in marginal periodontiun by identifying E6/E7 messenger RNA (mRNA in cells from samples obtained by periodontal pocket scraping. (b Detect the percentage of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cells of pocket scrapings, which is responsible for producing oncoproteins E6 and E7. Materials and Methods: Pocket scrapings from the periodontal pockets of eight subjects with generalized chronic periodontitis were taken the detection of presence or absence of E6, E7 mRNA was performed using in situ hybridization and flow cytometry. Results: HPV E6/E7 mRNA was detected in four of the eight samples. Conclusion: Presence of high risk human papillomaviruses in periodontal pockets patients of diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, not suffering from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in the present day could link periodontitis to HPV related squamous cell carcinoma. Prevalence studies are needed detecting the presence of HPV in marginal periodontium as well as prospective studies of HPV positive periodontitis patients are required to explore this possible link.

  20. Wide-field retinotopy defines human cortical visual area v6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzalis, Sabrina; Galletti, Claudio; Huang, Ruey-Song; Patria, Fabiana; Committeri, Giorgia; Galati, Gaspare; Fattori, Patrizia; Sereno, Martin I

    2006-07-26

    The retinotopic organization of a newly identified visual area near the midline in the dorsalmost part of the human parieto-occipital sulcus was mapped using high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging, cortical surface-based analysis, and wide-field retinotopic stimulation. This area was found in all 34 subjects that were mapped. It represents the contralateral visual hemifield in both hemispheres of all subjects, with upper fields located anterior and medial to areas V2/V3, and lower fields medial and slightly anterior to areas V3/V3A. It contains a representation of the center of gaze distinct from V3A, a large representation of the visual periphery, and a mirror-image representation of the visual field. Based on similarity in position, visuotopic organization, and relationship with the neighboring extrastriate visual areas, we suggest it might be the human homolog of macaque area V6, and perhaps of area M (medial) or DM (dorsomedial) of New World primates.

  1. The primary motor and premotor areas of the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Paus, Tomás

    2006-04-01

    Brodmann's cytoarchitectonic map of the human cortex designates area 4 as cortex in the anterior bank of the precentral sulcus and area 6 as cortex encompassing the precentral gyrus and the posterior portion of the superior frontal gyrus on both the lateral and medial surfaces of the brain. More than 70 years ago, Fulton proposed a functional distinction between these two areas, coining the terms primary motor area for cortex in Brodmann area 4 and premotor area for cortex in Brodmann area 6. The parcellation of the cortical motor system has subsequently become more complex. Several nonprimary motor areas have been identified in the brain of the macaque monkey, and associations between anatomy and function in the human brain are being tested continuously using brain mapping techniques. In the present review, the authors discuss the unique properties of the primary motor area (M1), the dorsal portion of the premotor cortex (PMd), and the ventral portion of the premotor cortex (PMv). They end this review by discussing how the premotor areas influence M1.

  2. Human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2006-01-01

    Human rights reflect a determined effort to protect the dignity of each and every human being against abuse of power. This endeavour is as old as human history. What is relatively new is the international venture for the protection of human dignity through internationally accepted legal standards an

  3. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, Des

    2009-01-01

    Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each has emerged within the United Nations world; each relies implicitly on a conceptualisation of human need; each has specific strengths. Yet mutual communication, understanding and co-operation are deficient, espec...

  4. Human Technology and Human Affects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fausing, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Human Technology and Human Affects  This year Samsung introduced a mobile phone with "Soul". It was made with a human touch and included itself a magical touch. Which function does technology and affects get in everyday aesthetics like this, its images and interactions included this presentation ...... often mentioned post-human condition....

  5. Dissociable neural responses to hands and non-hand body parts in human left extrastriate visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracci, Stefania; Ietswaart, Magdalena; Peelen, Marius V; Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana

    2010-06-01

    Accumulating evidence points to a map of visual regions encoding specific categories of objects. For example, a region in the human extrastriate visual cortex, the extrastriate body area (EBA), has been implicated in the visual processing of bodies and body parts. Although in the monkey, neurons selective for hands have been reported, in humans it is unclear whether areas selective for individual body parts such as the hand exist. Here, we conducted two functional MRI experiments to test for hand-preferring responses in the human extrastriate visual cortex. We found evidence for a hand-preferring region in left lateral occipitotemporal cortex in all 14 participants. This region, located in the lateral occipital sulcus, partially overlapped with left EBA, but could be functionally and anatomically dissociated from it. In experiment 2, we further investigated the functional profile of hand- and body-preferring regions by measuring responses to hands, fingers, feet, assorted body parts (arms, legs, torsos), and non-biological handlike stimuli such as robotic hands. The hand-preferring region responded most strongly to hands, followed by robotic hands, fingers, and feet, whereas its response to assorted body parts did not significantly differ from baseline. By contrast, EBA responded most strongly to body parts, followed by hands and feet, and did not significantly respond to robotic hands or fingers. Together, these results provide evidence for a representation of the hand in extrastriate visual cortex that is distinct from the representation of other body parts.

  6. The human papillomavirus infection in men study: human papillomavirus prevalence and type distribution among men residing in Brazil, Mexico, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa L; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary R; Abrahamsen, Martha; Jolles, Emily; Nielson, Carrie M; Baggio, Maria Luisa; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Male sexual behavior influences the rates of cervical dysplasia and invasive cervical cancer, as well as male human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease. Unfortunately, little is known regarding male HPV type distribution by age and across countries. In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum of 1,160 men from Brazil, Mexico, and the United States, overall HPV prevalence was 65.2%, with 12.0% oncogenic types only, 20.7% nononcogenic types only, 17.8% both oncogenic and nononcogenic, and 14.7% unclassified infections. Multiple HPV types were detected in 25.7% of study participants. HPV prevalence was higher in Brazil (72.3%) than in the United States (61.3%) and Mexico (61.9%). HPV16 (6.5%), HPV51 (5.3%), and HPV59 (5.3%) were the most commonly detected oncogenic infections, and HPV84 (7.7%), HPV62 (7.3%), and HPV6 (6.6%) were the most commonly detected nononcogenic infections. Overall HPV prevalence was not associated with age. However, significant associations with age were observed when specific categories of HPV, nononcogenic, and unclassified HPV infections were considered. Studies of HPV type distribution among a broad age range of men from multiple countries is needed to fill the information gap internationally with respect to our knowledge of HPV infection in men.

  7. Gyri of the human parietal lobe: Volumes, spatial extents, automatic labelling, and probabilistic atlases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Heather M; Heckemann, Rolf A; Studholme, Colin; Hammers, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Accurately describing the anatomy of individual brains enables interlaboratory communication of functional and developmental studies and is crucial for possible surgical interventions. The human parietal lobe participates in multimodal sensory integration including language processing and also contains the primary somatosensory area. We describe detailed protocols to subdivide the parietal lobe, analyze morphological and volumetric characteristics, and create probabilistic atlases in MNI152 stereotaxic space. The parietal lobe was manually delineated on 3D T1 MR images of 30 healthy subjects and divided into four regions: supramarginal gyrus (SMG), angular gyrus (AG), superior parietal lobe (supPL) and postcentral gyrus (postCG). There was the expected correlation of male gender with larger brain and intracranial volume. We examined a wide range of anatomical features of the gyri and the sulci separating them. At least a rudimentary primary intermediate sulcus of Jensen (PISJ) separating SMG and AG was identified in nearly all (59/60) hemispheres. Presence of additional gyri in SMG and AG was related to sulcal features and volumetric characteristics. The parietal lobe was slightly (2%) larger on the left, driven by leftward asymmetries of the postCG and SMG. Intersubject variability was highest for SMG and AG, and lowest for postCG. Overall the morphological characteristics tended to be symmetrical, and volumes also tended to covary between hemispheres. This may reflect developmental as well as maturation factors. To assess the accuracy with which the labels can be used to segment newly acquired (unlabelled) T1-weighted brain images, we applied multi-atlas label propagation software (MAPER) in a leave-one-out experiment and compared the resulting automatic labels with the manually prepared ones. The results showed strong agreement (mean Jaccard index 0.69, corresponding to a mean Dice index of 0.82, average mean volume error of 0.6%). Stereotaxic probabilistic

  8. Human microbiomics

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendhran, J.; P. Gunasekaran

    2010-01-01

    The sequencing of the human genome has driven the study of human biology in a significant way and enabled the genome-wide study to elucidate the molecular basis of complex human diseases. Recently, the role of microbiota on human physiology and health has received much attention. The influence of gut microbiome (the collective genomes of the gut microbiota) in obesity has been demonstrated, which may pave the way for new prophylactic and therapeutic strategies such as bacteriotherapy. The sig...

  9. Human Smuggling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel - Rozenblit, Dina; Zaitch, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Human smuggling is based on a consensus between smuggler, smuggled, and his/her family (which usually guarantees or effectuates payment). However, unauthorized immigrants are violating immigration laws and human smugglers are profiting from enabling illegal immigration. Both human smuggling and its

  10. Inorganic chemistry of defensive peroxidases in the human oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, M T

    2008-10-01

    The innate host response system is comprised of various mechanisms for orchestrating host response to microbial infection of the oral cavity. The heterogeneity of the oral cavity and the associated microenvironments that are produced give rise to different chemistries that affect the innate defense system. One focus of this review is on how these spatial differences influence the two major defensive peroxidases of the oral cavity, salivary peroxidase (SPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). With hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) as an oxidant, the defensive peroxidases use inorganic ions to produce antimicrobials that are generally more effective than H(2)O(2) itself. The concentrations of the inorganic substrates are different in saliva vs. gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). Thus, in the supragingival regime, SPO and MPO work in unison for the exclusive production of hypothiocyanite (OSCN(-), a reactive inorganic species), which constantly bathes nascent plaques. In contrast, MPO is introduced to the GCF during inflammatory response, and in that environment it is capable of producing hypochlorite (OCl(-)), a chemically more powerful oxidant that is implicated in host tissue damage. A second focus of this review is on inter-person variation that may contribute to different peroxidase function. Many of these differences are attributed to dietary or smoking practices that alter the concentrations of relevant inorganic species in the oral cavity (e.g.: fluoride, F(-); cyanide, CN(-); cyanate, OCN(-); thiocyanate, SCN(-); and nitrate, NO(3)(-)). Because of the complexity of the host and microflora biology and the associated chemistry, it is difficult to establish the significance of the human peroxidase systems during the pathogenesis of oral diseases. The problem is particularly complex with respect to the gingival sulcus and periodontal pockets (where the very different defensive stratagems of GCF and saliva co-mingle). Despite this complexity, intriguing in vitro and in vivo

  11. Neuroscience of Human Social Interactions and Adult Attachment Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal eVrticka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved vs. unresolved attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual’s attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum and cortical (insula, cingulate limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective mentalization mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive mentalization processes, subserving theory of mind, cognitive control, and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network (in medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus, and temporo-parietal junction, among others. Such research does not only help better understand the neural underpinnings of human social behavior, but also provides important insights on psychopathological conditions where attachment dysregulations is likely to play an important (causal role.

  12. Neuroscience of human social interactions and adult attachment style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrtička, Pascal; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Since its first description four decades ago, attachment theory (AT) has become one of the principal developmental psychological frameworks for describing the role of individual differences in the establishment and maintenance of social bonds between people. Yet, still little is known about the neurobiological underpinnings of attachment orientations and their well-established impact on a range of social and affective behaviors. In the present review, we summarize data from recent studies using cognitive and imaging approaches to characterize attachment styles and their effect on emotion and social cognition. We propose a functional neuroanatomical framework to integrate the key brain mechanisms involved in the perception and regulation of social emotional information, and their modulation by individual differences in terms of secure versus insecure (more specifically avoidant, anxious, or resolved versus unresolved) attachment traits. This framework describes how each individual's attachment style (built through interactions between personal relationship history and predispositions) may influence the encoding of approach versus aversion tendencies (safety versus threat) in social encounters, implicating the activation of a network of subcortical (amygdala, hippocampus, striatum) and cortical (insula, cingulate) limbic areas. These basic and automatic affective evaluation mechanisms are in turn modulated by more elaborate and voluntary cognitive control processes, subserving mental state attribution and emotion regulation capacities, implicating a distinct network in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), among others. Recent neuroimaging data suggest that affective evaluation is decreased in avoidantly but increased in anxiously attached individuals. In turn, although data on cognitive control is still scarce, it points toward a possible enhancement of mental state representations associated with

  13. Hierarchical organization of speech perception in human auditory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eHumphries

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Human speech consists of a variety of articulated sounds that vary dynamically in spectral composition. We investigated the neural activity associated with the perception of two types of speech segments: (a the period of rapid spectral transition occurring at the beginning of a stop-consonant vowel (CV syllable and (b the subsequent spectral steady-state period occurring during the vowel segment of the syllable. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was recorded while subjects listened to series of synthesized CV syllables and non-phonemic control sounds. Adaptation to specific sound features was measured by varying either the transition or steady-state periods of the synthesized sounds. Two spatially distinct brain areas in the superior temporal cortex were found that were sensitive to either the type of adaptation or the type of stimulus. In a relatively large section of the bilateral dorsal superior temporal gyrus (STG, activity varied as a function of adaptation type regardless of whether the stimuli were phonemic or non-phonemic. Immediately adjacent to this region in a more limited area of the ventral STG, increased activity was observed for phonemic trials compared to non-phonemic trials, however, no adaptation effects were found. In addition, a third area in the bilateral medial superior temporal plane showed increased activity to non-phonemic compared to phonemic sounds. The results suggest a multi-stage hierarchical stream for speech sound processing extending ventrolaterally from the superior temporal plane to the superior temporal sulcus. At successive stages in this hierarchy, neurons code for increasingly more complex spectrotemporal features. At the same time, these representations become more abstracted from the original acoustic form of the sound.

  14. Human Rights/Human Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Cynthia

    1978-01-01

    The faculty of Holy Names High School developed an interdisciplinary human rights program with school-wide activities focusing on three selected themes: the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in conjunction with Human Rights Week; Food; and Women. This article outlines major program activities. (SJL)

  15. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face- selective regions of the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golijeh eGolarai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG, superior temporal sulcus (STS, and the fusiform face area (FFA. It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting representation of the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA.

  16. Exploring associations between gaze patterns and putative human mirror neuron system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hugh Donaldson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The human mirror neuron system (MNS is hypothesised to be crucial to social cognition. Given that key MNS-input regions such as the superior temporal sulcus are involved in biological motion processing, and mirror neuron activity in monkeys has been shown to vary with visual attention, aberrant MNS function may be partly attributable to atypical visual input. To examine the relationship between gaze pattern and interpersonal motor resonance (IMR; an index of putative MNS activity, healthy right-handed participants aged 18-40 (n = 26 viewed videos of transitive grasping actions or static hands, whilst the left primary motor cortex received transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs recorded in contralateral hand muscles were used to determine IMR. Participants also underwent eyetracking analysis to assess gaze patterns whilst viewing the same videos. No relationship was observed between predictive gaze (PG and IMR. However, IMR was positively associated with fixation counts in areas of biological motion in the videos, and negatively associated with object areas. These findings are discussed with reference to visual influences on the MNS, and the possibility that MNS atypicalities might be influenced by visual processes such as aberrant gaze pattern.

  17. Magneto encephalography (MEG: perspectives of speech areas functional mapping in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butorina A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in clinical practice and academic research is how to localize speech zones in the human brain. Two speech areas (Broca and Wernicke areas that are responsible for language production and for understanding of written and spoken language have been known since the past century. Their location and even hemispheric lateralization have a substantial inter-individual variability, especially in neurosurgery patients. Wada test is one of the most frequently used invasive methodology for speech hemispheric lateralization in neurosurgery patients. However, besides relatively high-risk of Wada test for patient's health, it has its own limitation, e. g. low reliability of Wada-based evidence of verbal memory brain lateralization. Therefore, there is an urgent need for non-invasive, reliable methods of speech zones mapping.The current review summarizes the recent experimental evidence from magnitoencephalographic (MEG research suggesting that speech areas are included in the speech processing within the first 200 ms after the word onset. The electro-magnetic response to deviant word, mismatch negativity wave with latency of 100—200 ms, can be recorded from auditory cortex within the oddball-paradigm. We provide the arguments that basic features of this brain response, such as its automatic, pre-attentive nature, high signal to noise ratio, source localization at superior temporal sulcus, make it a promising vehicle for non-invasive MEG-based speech areas mapping in neurosurgery.

  18. Spectral organization of the human lateral superior temporal gyrus revealed by intracranial recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourski, Kirill V; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Oya, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hiroto; Jones, Robert D; Howard, Matthew A

    2014-02-01

    The place of the posterolateral superior temporal (PLST) gyrus within the hierarchical organization of the human auditory cortex is unknown. Understanding how PLST processes spectral information is imperative for its functional characterization. Pure-tone stimuli were presented to subjects undergoing invasive monitoring for refractory epilepsy. Recordings were made using high-density subdural grid electrodes. Pure tones elicited robust high gamma event-related band power responses along a portion of PLST adjacent to the transverse temporal sulcus (TTS). Responses were frequency selective, though typically broadly tuned. In several subjects, mirror-image response patterns around a low-frequency center were observed, but typically, more complex and distributed patterns were seen. Frequency selectivity was greatest early in the response. Classification analysis using a sparse logistic regression algorithm yielded above-chance accuracy in all subjects. Classifier performance typically peaked at 100-150 ms after stimulus onset, was comparable for the left and right hemisphere cases, and was stable across stimulus intensities. Results demonstrate that representations of spectral information within PLST are temporally dynamic and contain sufficient information for accurate discrimination of tone frequencies. PLST adjacent to the TTS appears to be an early stage in the hierarchy of cortical auditory processing. Pure-tone response patterns may aid auditory field identification.

  19. Spoken word memory traces within the human auditory cortex revealed by repetition priming and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnepain, Pierre; Chételat, Gael; Landeau, Brigitte; Dayan, Jacques; Eustache, Francis; Lebreton, Karine

    2008-05-14

    Previous neuroimaging studies in the visual domain have shown that neurons along the perceptual processing pathway retain the physical properties of written words, faces, and objects. The aim of this study was to reveal the existence of similar neuronal properties within the human auditory cortex. Brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a repetition priming paradigm, with words and pseudowords heard in an acoustically degraded format. Both the amplitude and peak latency of the hemodynamic response (HR) were assessed to determine the nature of the neuronal signature of spoken word priming. A statistically significant stimulus type by repetition interaction was found in various bilateral auditory cortical areas, demonstrating either HR suppression and enhancement for repeated spoken words and pseudowords, respectively, or word-specific repetition suppression without any significant effects for pseudowords. Repetition latency shift only occurred with word-specific repetition suppression in the right middle/posterior superior temporal sulcus. In this region, both repetition suppression and latency shift were related to behavioral priming. Our findings highlight for the first time the existence of long-term spoken word memory traces within the human auditory cortex. The timescale of auditory information integration and the neuronal mechanisms underlying priming both appear to differ according to the level of representations coded by neurons. Repetition may "sharpen" word-nonspecific representations coding short temporal variations, whereas a complex interaction between the activation strength and temporal integration of neuronal activity may occur in neuronal populations coding word-specific representations within longer temporal windows.

  20. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  1. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security - Relationships between four international human discourses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: Human rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and

  2. Cortical afferents of visual area MT in the Cebus monkey: possible homologies between New and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, M G; Soares, J G; Fiorani, M; Gattass, R

    1993-01-01

    Cortical projections to the middle temporal (MT) visual area were studied by injecting the retrogradely transported fluorescent tracer Fast Blue into MT in adult New World monkeys (Cebus apella). Injection sites were selected based on electrophysiological recordings, and covered eccentricities from 2-70 deg, in both the upper and lower visual fields. The position and laminar distribution of labeled cell bodies were correlated with myeloarchitectonic boundaries and displayed in flat reconstructions of the neocortex. Topographically organized projections were found to arise mainly from the primary, second, third, and fourth visual areas (V1, V2, V3, and V4). Coarsely topographic patterns were observed in transitional V4 (V4t), in the parieto-occipital and parieto-occipital medial areas (PO and POm), and in the temporal ventral posterior area (TVP). In addition, widespread or nontopographic label was found in visual areas of the superior temporal sulcus (medial superior temporal, MST, and fundus of superior temporal, FST), annectent gyrus (dorsointermediate area, DI; and dorsomedial area, DM), intraparietal sulcus (lateral intraparietal, LIP; posterior intraparietal, PIP; and ventral intraparietal, VIP), and in the frontal eye field (FEF). Label in PO, POm, and PIP was found only after injections in the representation of the peripheral visual field (> 10 deg), and label in V4 and FST was more extensive after injections in the central representation. The projections from V1 and V2 originated predominantly from neurons in supragranular layers, whereas those from V3, V4t, DM, DI, POm, and FEF consisted of intermixed patches with either supragranular or infragranular predominance. All of the other projections were predominantly infragranular. Invasion of area MST by the injection site led to the labeling of further pathways, including substantial projections from the dorsal prelunate area (DP) and from an ensemble of areas located along the medial wall of the hemisphere

  3. Attentional priorities and access to short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillebert, Celine; Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2012-01-01

    The intraparietal sulcus (IPS) has been implicated in selective attention as well as visual short-term memory (VSTM). To contrast mechanisms of target selection, distracter filtering, and access to VSTM, we combined behavioral testing, computational modeling and functional magnetic resonance......, thereby displaying a significant interaction between the two factors. The interaction between target and distracter set size in IPS could not be accounted for by a simple explanation in terms of number of items accessing VSTM. Instead, it led us to a model where items accessing VSTM receive differential...

  4. Cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino, Y; Kyuhou, S; Matsuzaki, R; Gemba, H

    2001-08-17

    The cerebello-thalamo-posterior parietal cortical projections were investigated electrophysiologically and morphologically in macaque monkeys. In anesthetized monkeys, electrical stimulation of every cerebellar nucleus evoked marked surface-positive, depth-negative (s-P, d-N) cortical field potentials in the superior parietal lobule and the cortical bank of the intraparietal sulcus, but no responses in the inferior parietal lobule. Tract-tracing experiments combining the anterograde method with the retrograde one indicated that the interposed and lateral cerebellar nuclei projected to the posterior parietal cortex mainly through the nucleus ventral lateralis caudalis of the thalamus. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with cognitive functions.

  5. Human Rights and Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Possenti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be two different versions of human rights in Western tradition: say Rationalistic and Christian; the former adopted in revolutionary France, the latter highly developed in Renaissance Spain. Current relativistic criticisms attempt to deny the universality of human rights alleging that this theory has been created in Western countries or it has no strong justification, and therefore cannot have universal approach; but this objection can be dismissed with an alternative justification of human rights.

  6. Human kapital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Nielsen, Peder Harbjerg

    2007-01-01

    finansiel og human kapital. Den traditionelle rådgivnings snævre synsvinkel kan føre til forkerte investeringsråd. Der skal derfor opfordres til, at de finansielle virksomheder i tilrettelæggelsen af deres rådgivning af private kunder systematisk inddrager den humane kapitals størrelse og karakteristika i...

  7. Human trichuriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Søe, Martin Jensen; Nejsum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human trichuriasis is a neglected tropical disease which affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide and is particularly prevalent among children living in areas where sanitation is poor. This review examines the current knowledge on the taxonomy, genetics and phylogeography of human Trichuris...

  8. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  9. Human evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    , and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become...

  10. Think Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    2013-01-01

    years' campaigns suggests that the theory of communication underlying the campaign has its basis in mechanical action rather than in human communication. The practice of 'Communication design' is investigated in relation to this metaphorical 'machine thinking' model of communication and contrasted...... with the human-centered theory of communication advocated by integrationism....

  11. Teaching humanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David T; Cohen, Jordan J; Bruder, Ann; Packer, Barbara; Sole, Allison

    2008-01-01

    As the "passion that animates authentic professionalism," humanism must be infused into medical education and clinical care as a central feature of medicine's professionalism movement. In this article, we discuss a current definition of humanism in medicine. We will also provide detailed descriptions of educational programs intended to promote humanism at a number of medical schools in the United States (and beyond) and identify the key factors that make these programs effective. Common elements of programs that effectively teach humanism include: (1) opportunities for students to gain perspective in the lives of patients; (2) structured time for reflection on those experiences; and (3) focused mentoring to ensure that these events convert to positive, formative learning experiences. By describing educational experiences that both promote and sustain humanism in doctors, we hope to stimulate the thinking of other medical educators and to disseminate the impact of these innovative educational programs to help the profession meet its obligation to provide the public with humanistic physicians.

  12. Co-registering kinematics and evoked related potentials during visually guided reach-to-grasp movements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa De Sanctis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In non-human primates grasp-related sensorimotor transformations are accomplished in a circuit involving the anterior intraparietal sulcus (area AIP and both the ventral and the dorsal sectors of the premotor cortex (vPMC and dPMC, respectively. Although a human homologue of such a circuit has been identified, the time course of activation of these cortical areas and how such activity relates to specific kinematic events has yet to be investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We combined kinematic and event-related potential techniques to explicitly test how activity within human grasping-related brain areas is modulated in time. Subjects were requested to reach towards and grasp either a small stimulus using a precision grip (i.e., the opposition of index finger and thumb or a large stimulus using a whole hand grasp (i.e., the flexion of all digits around the stimulus. Results revealed a time course of activation starting at the level of parietal regions and continuing at the level of premotor regions. More specifically, we show that activity within these regions was tuned for specific grasps well before movement onset and this early tuning was carried over--as evidenced by kinematic analysis--during the preshaping period of the task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data are discussed in terms of recent findings showing a marked differentiation across different grasps during premovement phases which was carried over into subsequent movement phases. These findings offer a substantial contribution to the current debate about the nature of the sensorimotor transformations underlying grasping. And provide new insights into the detailed movement information contained in the human preparatory activity for specific hand movements.

  13. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Friedrich

    Full Text Available Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  14. Mathematical logic in the human brain: syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Roland; Friederici, Angela D

    2009-05-28

    Theory predicts a close structural relation of formal languages with natural languages. Both share the aspect of an underlying grammar which either generates (hierarchically) structured expressions or allows us to decide whether a sentence is syntactically correct or not. The advantage of rule-based communication is commonly believed to be its efficiency and effectiveness. A particularly important class of formal languages are those underlying the mathematical syntax. Here we provide brain-imaging evidence that the syntactic processing of abstract mathematical formulae, written in a first order language, is, indeed efficient and effective as a rule-based generation and decision process. However, it is remarkable, that the neural network involved, consisting of intraparietal and prefrontal regions, only involves Broca's area in a surprisingly selective way. This seems to imply that despite structural analogies of common and current formal languages, at the neural level, mathematics and natural language are processed differently, in principal.

  15. Human Computation

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    What if people could play computer games and accomplish work without even realizing it? What if billions of people collaborated to solve important problems for humanity or generate training data for computers? My work aims at a general paradigm for doing exactly that: utilizing human processing power to solve computational problems in a distributed manner. In particular, I focus on harnessing human time and energy for addressing problems that computers cannot yet solve. Although computers have advanced dramatically in many respects over the last 50 years, they still do not possess the basic conceptual intelligence or perceptual capabilities...

  16. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary societies, the humanities are under constant pressure and have to justify their existence. In the ongoing debates, Humboldt’s ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’ are often used to justify the unique function of the humanities of ensuring free research and contributing to a vital...... philosophy. Contrary to Humboldt’s idea that the non-practical is the most practical in the long run, philosophical pragmatism recommends to the humanities to situate knowledge in practices and apply knowledge to practices....

  17. Feature-Selective Attentional Modulations in Human Frontoparietal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, Edward F; Sutterer, David W; Serences, John T; Awh, Edward

    2016-08-03

    Control over visual selection has long been framed in terms of a dichotomy between "source" and "site," where top-down feedback signals originating in frontoparietal cortical areas modulate or bias sensory processing in posterior visual areas. This distinction is motivated in part by observations that frontoparietal cortical areas encode task-level variables (e.g., what stimulus is currently relevant or what motor outputs are appropriate), while posterior sensory areas encode continuous or analog feature representations. Here, we present evidence that challenges this distinction. We used fMRI, a roving searchlight analysis, and an inverted encoding model to examine representations of an elementary feature property (orientation) across the entire human cortical sheet while participants attended either the orientation or luminance of a peripheral grating. Orientation-selective representations were present in a multitude of visual, parietal, and prefrontal cortical areas, including portions of the medial occipital cortex, the lateral parietal cortex, and the superior precentral sulcus (thought to contain the human homolog of the macaque frontal eye fields). Additionally, representations in many-but not all-of these regions were stronger when participants were instructed to attend orientation relative to luminance. Collectively, these findings challenge models that posit a strict segregation between sources and sites of attentional control on the basis of representational properties by demonstrating that simple feature values are encoded by cortical regions throughout the visual processing hierarchy, and that representations in many of these areas are modulated by attention. Influential models of visual attention posit a distinction between top-down control and bottom-up sensory processing networks. These models are motivated in part by demonstrations showing that frontoparietal cortical areas associated with top-down control represent abstract or categorical stimulus

  18. Neural substrate of body size: illusory feeling of shrinking of the waist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the size and shape of one's body (body image is a fundamental aspect of how we experience ourselves. We studied the neural correlates underlying perceived changes in the relative size of body parts by using a perceptual illusion in which participants felt that their waist was shrinking. We scanned the brains of the participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that activity in the cortices lining the left postcentral sulcus and the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus reflected the illusion of waist shrinking, and that this activity was correlated with the reported degree of shrinking. These results suggest that the perceived changes in the size and shape of body parts are mediated by hierarchically higher-order somatosensory areas in the parietal cortex. Based on this finding we suggest that relative size of body parts is computed by the integration of more elementary somatic signals from different body segments.

  19. Hierarchical functional connectivity between the core language system and the working memory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuuchi, Michiru; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-10-01

    Language processing inevitably involves working memory (WM) operations, especially for sentences with complex syntactic structures. Evidence has been provided for a neuroanatomical segregation between core syntactic processes and WM, but the dynamic relation between these systems still has to be explored. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we investigated the network dynamics of regions involved in WM operations which support sentence processing during reading, comparing a set of dynamic causal models (DCM) with different assumptions about the underlying connectional architecture. The DCMs incorporated the core language processing regions (pars opercularis and middle temporal gyrus), WM related regions (inferior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus), and visual word form area (fusiform gyrus). The results indicate a processing hierarchy from the visual to WM to core language systems, and moreover, a clear increase of connectivity between WM regions and language regions as the processing load increases for syntactically complex sentences.

  20. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  1. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    . The first section of this chapter outlines the complete cause-effect pathway, from emissions of toxic substances to intake by the population up to damages in terms of human health effects. Section 2 outlines the framework for assessing human toxicity in LCIA. Section 3 discusses the contributing substances......This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... – demonstrates the importance to account for both outdoor and indoor exposure, including consumer products. Analysing the variations in intake fraction (the fraction of the emitted or applied chemical that is taken in by the consumer and the general population), effect factor and characterisation factor across...

  2. Human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanen, van H.A.J.; Kasparek, L.; Novicky, O.; Querner, E.P.; Fendeková, M.; Kupczyk, E.

    2004-01-01

    Human activities can cause drought, which was not previously reported (man-induced hydrological drought). Groundwater abstractions for domestic and industrial use are a well-known example of such an environmental change

  3. Human phantom

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    This human phantom has been received by CERN on loan from the State Committee of the USSR for the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It is used by the Health Physics Group to study personel radiation doses near the accelerators.

  4. Human expunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Robert

    2017-10-01

    Thomas Nagel in `The Absurd' (Nagel 1971) mentions the future expunction of the human species as a `metaphor' for our ability to see our lives from the outside, which he claims is one source of our sense of life's absurdity. I argue that the future expunction (not to be confused with extinction) of everything human - indeed of everything biological in a terran sense - is not a mere metaphor but a physical certainty under the laws of nature. The causal processes by which human expunction will take place are presented in some empirical detail, so that philosophers cannot dismiss it as merely speculative. I also argue that appeals to anthropic principles or to forms of mystical cosmology are of no plausible avail in the face of human expunction under the laws of physics.

  5. Human babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rożej-Bielicka, Wioletta; Stypułkowska-Misiurewicz, Hanna; Gołąb, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging parasitic, anthropo-zoonotic tick-borne disease, seldom diagnosed in humans. Caused by Protozoa, Babesia (also called Piroplasma) intraerytrocytic piriform microorganism. Infection of vertebrates is transmitted by ticks. Out of more than 100 Babesia species/genotypes described so far, only some were diagnosed in infected humans, mostly B. microti, B. divergens and B. venatorum (Babesia sp. EU1). Infection in humans is often asymptomatic or mild but is of a particular risk for asplenic individuals, those with congenital or acquired immunodeficiencies, and elderly. Infections transmitted with blood and blood products raise concerns in hemotherapy. Epidemiological situation of babesiosis varies around the world. In Europe, no increase in the number of cases was reported, but in the USA its prevalence is increasing and extension of endemic areas is observed. The aim of this publication is to describe the problems connected with the current epidemiological situation, diagnosis and treatment of human babesiosis with regard to clinical status of patients.

  6. Human energy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In the midst of big-oil record profits and growing debate on global warming, the Chevron Corporation launched its “Human Energy” public relations campaign. In television commercials and print advertisements, Chevron portrays itself as a compassionate entity striving to solve the planet’s energy crisis. Yet, the first term in this corporate oxymoron misleadingly reframes the significance of the second, suggesting that the corporation has a renewed focus. In depicting Chevron as a green/human o...

  7. Human Echolocation

    OpenAIRE

    Teng, Santani

    2013-01-01

    The use of active natural echolocation as a mobility aid for blind humans has received increased scientific and popular attention in recent years (Engber, 2006; Kreiser, 2006; NPR, 2011), in part due to a focus on several blind individuals who have developed remarkable expertise. However, perhaps surprisingly, the history of empirical human echolocation research is not much younger than the era of echolocation research (cf. Griffin, 1958). Nevertheless, compared to its bat and cetacean count...

  8. Human ehrlichiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Human ehrlichiosis is a newly recognized disease. It is a tick-borne disease caused by several bacterial species of the genhus Erlichia. These are small gram-negative pleomorphic cocci, that are obligatory intracellular bacteria. Tick Ixodes is the principle vector in Europe, and Amblyomma americanum in the United States. Bacterial organisms replicate in a tick, and are transmited from infected cells in a vector to the blood cells of animals or humans. Human ehrlichiosis is a name for a group of diseases caused by different species of Ehrlichia. One of them is the disease named human monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and the other is a human granulocytic ehrlichiosis caused by Anaplasma phagocytophilia. Case report. We reported a 23-year-old patient admitted for the clinical treatment with the symptoms of high febrility (above 40 °C, headache, vomiting, general weakness and exhaustion, but without data on a tick bite. The patient was treated with trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole for a week when Ehrlichia chaffeensis was confirmed by the immunofluoroscence test, and the therapy contimed with doxacyclin. Conclusion. Human ehrlichiosis is also present in our country, so this disease should be considered everyday, especially in infectology practice.

  9. Circumcision and sexual behavior: factors independently associated with human papillomavirus detection among men in the HIM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Anna R; Lazcano, Eduardo; Villa, Luisa Lina; Flores, Roberto; Salmeron, Jorge; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Papenfuss, Mary; Abrahamsen, Martha; Baggio, Maria Luiza; Silva, Roberto; Quiterio, Manuel

    2009-03-15

    There is growing interest in understanding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and related disease among men. To date there have been numerous studies reporting HPV DNA prevalence among men from several different countries, however, few have incorporated multivariable analyses to determine factors independently associated with male HPV detection. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors independently associated with HPV detection in men ages 18-70 years residing in Brazil (n = 343), Mexico (n = 312), and the United States (US) (n = 333). In samples combined from the coronal sulcus, glans penis, shaft, and scrotum, we evaluated factors associated with any, oncogenic, and nononcogenic HPV infections. In multivariable analyses, detection of any HPV infection was significantly associated with reported race of Asian/Pacific Islander, lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. Oncogenic HPV detection was independently associated with lifetime and recent number of sexual partners, and having sex in the past 3 months. NonOncogenic HPV infection was independently associated with lifetime number of sexual partners. Circumcision, assessed by clinical examination, was associated with reduced risk of HPV detection across all categories of HPV evaluated. HPV detection in men in the current study was strongly related to sexual behavior and circumcision status. Interventions such as circumcision may provide a low-cost method to reduce HPV infection.

  10. Individual left-hand and right-hand intra-digit representations in human primary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Meike A; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2015-09-01

    Individual intra-digit somatotopy of all phalanges of the middle and little finger of the right and left hand was studied by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 12 healthy subjects. Phalanges were tactilely stimulated and activation in BA 3b of the human primary somatosensory cortex could be observed for each individual phalanx. Activation peaks were further analysed using the Direction/Order (DiOr) method, which identifies somatotopy, if a significantly high number of subjects exhibit ordered distal-to-proximal phalanx representions along a similar direction. Based on DiOr, ordered and similar-direction-aligned intra-digit maps across subjects were found at the left hand for the little and middle finger and at the right hand for the little finger. In these digits the proximal phalanges were represented more medially along the course of the central sulcus than the distal phalanges. This is contrasted by the intra-digit maps for the middle finger of the right hand, which showed larger inter-subject variations of phalanx alignments without a similar within-digit representation across subjects. As all subjects were right-handed and as the middle finger of the dominant hand probably plays a more individual role in everyday tactile performance than the little finger of the right hand and all left-hand digits, the observed variation might reflect a functional somatotopy based on individual use of that particular digit at the dominant hand.

  11. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G; Eberhardt, Jennifer L; Gabrieli, John D E

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting that these regions represent the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA.

  12. [Human influenza].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Ingo

    2006-10-01

    Human influenza is one of the most common human infectious diseases, contributing to approximately one million deaths every year. In Germany, each year between 5.000 and 20.000 individuals die from severe influenza infections. In several countries, the morbidity and mortality of influenza is greatly underestimated. This is reflected by general low immunization rates. The emergence of avian influenza against the background of the scenario of a human influenza pandemic has revived public interest in the disease. According to the World Health Organisation, it is only the question on the beginning of a new influenza pandemic. The virus type of the new pandemic is still uncertain and it is also unclear, if a pandemic spread of the virus may be prevented by consistent controlling of avian influenza.

  13. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  14. Beyond Humanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capurro, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper a short history of Western humanisms (Socrates, Pico della Mirandola, Descartes, Kant is presented. As far as these humanisms rest on a fixation of the ‘humanum’ they are metaphysical, although they might radically differ from each other. The second part deals with the present debate on trans- and posthumanism in the context of some breath-taking developments in science and technology.Angeletics, a theory of messengers and messages, intends to give an answer to the leading question of this paper, namely: ‘what does it mean to go beyond humanisms?’ The conclusion exposes briefly an ethics of hospitality and care from an angeletic perspective.

  15. Processing of location and pattern changes of natural sounds in the human auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christian F; Bledowski, Christoph; Wibral, Michael; Kaiser, Jochen

    2007-04-15

    Parallel cortical pathways have been proposed for the processing of auditory pattern and spatial information, respectively. We tested this segregation with human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and separate electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings in the same subjects who listened passively to four sequences of repetitive spatial animal vocalizations in an event-related paradigm. Transitions between sequences constituted either a change of auditory pattern, location, or both pattern+location. This procedure allowed us to investigate the cortical correlates of natural auditory "what" and "where" changes independent of differences in the individual stimuli. For pattern changes, we observed significantly increased fMRI responses along the bilateral anterior superior temporal gyrus and superior temporal sulcus, the planum polare, lateral Heschl's gyrus and anterior planum temporale. For location changes, significant increases of fMRI responses were observed in bilateral posterior superior temporal gyrus and planum temporale. An overlap of these two types of changes occurred in the lateral anterior planum temporale and posterior superior temporal gyrus. The analysis of source event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed faster processing of location than pattern changes. Thus, our data suggest that passive processing of auditory spatial and pattern changes is dissociated both temporally and anatomically in the human brain. The predominant role of more anterior aspects of the superior temporal lobe in sound identity processing supports the role of this area as part of the auditory pattern processing stream, while spatial processing of auditory stimuli appears to be mediated by the more posterior parts of the superior temporal lobe.

  16. Dissecting phenotypic traits linked to human resilience to Alzheimer's pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Stein, Thor D; Tai, Hwan-Ching; Dols-Icardo, Oriol; Scotton, Thomas C; Barroeta-Espar, Isabel; Fernandez-Carballo, Leticia; de Munain, Estibaliz Lopez; Perez, Jesus; Marquie, Marta; Serrano-Pozo, Alberto; Frosch, Mathew P; Lowe, Val; Parisi, Joseph E; Petersen, Ronald C; Ikonomovic, Milos D; López, Oscar L; Klunk, William; Hyman, Bradley T; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2013-08-01

    Clinico-pathological correlation studies and positron emission tomography amyloid imaging studies have shown that some individuals can tolerate substantial amounts of Alzheimer's pathology in their brains without experiencing dementia. Few details are known about the neuropathological phenotype of these unique cases that might prove relevant to understanding human resilience to Alzheimer's pathology. We conducted detailed quantitative histopathological and biochemical assessments on brains from non-demented individuals before death whose brains were free of substantial Alzheimer's pathology, non-demented individuals before death but whose post-mortem examination demonstrated significant amounts of Alzheimer's changes ('mismatches'), and demented Alzheimer's cases. Quantification of amyloid-β plaque burden, stereologically-based counts of neurofibrillary tangles, neurons and reactive glia, and morphological analyses of axons were performed in the multimodal association cortex lining the superior temporal sulcus. Levels of synaptic integrity markers, and soluble monomeric and multimeric amyloid-β and tau species were measured. Our results indicate that some individuals can accumulate equivalent loads of amyloid-β plaques and tangles to those found in demented Alzheimer's cases without experiencing dementia. Analyses revealed four main phenotypic differences among these two groups: (i) mismatches had striking preservation of neuron numbers, synaptic markers and axonal geometry compared to demented cases; (ii) demented cases had significantly higher burdens of fibrillar thioflavin-S-positive plaques and of oligomeric amyloid-β deposits reactive to conformer-specific antibody NAB61 than mismatches; (iii) strong and selective accumulation of hyperphosphorylated soluble tau multimers into the synaptic compartment was noted in demented cases compared with controls but not in mismatches; and (iv) the robust glial activation accompanying amyloid-β and tau pathologies in

  17. Self-regulation of amygdala activation using real-time FMRI neurofeedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Zotev

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI with neurofeedback allows investigation of human brain neuroplastic changes that arise as subjects learn to modulate neurophysiological function using real-time feedback regarding their own hemodynamic responses to stimuli. We investigated the feasibility of training healthy humans to self-regulate the hemodynamic activity of the amygdala, which plays major roles in emotional processing. Participants in the experimental group were provided with ongoing information about the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD activity in the left amygdala (LA and were instructed to raise the BOLD rtfMRI signal by contemplating positive autobiographical memories. A control group was assigned the same task but was instead provided with sham feedback from the left horizontal segment of the intraparietal sulcus (HIPS region. In the LA, we found a significant BOLD signal increase due to rtfMRI neurofeedback training in the experimental group versus the control group. This effect persisted during the Transfer run without neurofeedback. For the individual subjects in the experimental group the training effect on the LA BOLD activity correlated inversely with scores on the Difficulty Identifying Feelings subscale of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale. The whole brain data analysis revealed significant differences for Happy Memories versus Rest condition between the experimental and control groups. Functional connectivity analysis of the amygdala network revealed significant widespread correlations in a fronto-temporo-limbic network. Additionally, we identified six regions--right medial frontal polar cortex, bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, left anterior cingulate cortex, and bilateral superior frontal gyrus--where the functional connectivity with the LA increased significantly across the rtfMRI neurofeedback runs and the Transfer run. The findings demonstrate that healthy subjects can learn to regulate their

  18. Sensing, assessing, and augmenting threat detection: behavioral, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation evidence for the critical role of attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja eParasuraman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly identifying the potentially threatening movements of other people and objects—biological motion perception and action understanding—is critical to maintaining security in many civilian and military settings. A key approach to improving threat detection in these environments is to sense when less than ideal conditions exist for the human observer, assess that condition relative to an expected standard, and if necessary use tools to augment human performance. Action perception is typically viewed as a relatively primitive, automatic function immune to top-down effects. However, recent research shows that attention is a top-down factor that has a critical influence on the identification of threat-related targets. In this paper we show that detection of motion-based threats is attention sensitive when surveillance images are obscured by other movements, when they are visually degraded, when other stimuli or tasks compete for attention, or when low-probability threats must be watched for over long periods of time—all features typical of operational security settings. Neuroimaging studies reveal that action understanding recruits a distributed network of brain regions, including the superior temporal cortex, intraparietal cortex, and inferior frontal cortex. Within this network, attention modulates activation of the superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal gyrus. The dorsal frontoparietal network may provide the source of attention-modulation signals to action representation areas. Stimulation of this attention network should therefore enhance threat detection. We show that transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS at 2 mA accelerates perceptual learning of participants performing a challenging threat-detection task. Together, cognitive, neuroimaging, and brain stimulation studies provide converging evidence for the critical role of attention in the detection and understanding of threat-related intentional actions.

  19. AUGMENTATION-RELATED BRAIN PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni eDi Pino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, the anthropomorphism of the tools and the development of neural interfaces require reconsidering the concept of human-tools interaction in the framework of human augmentation. This review analyzes the plastic process that the brain undergoes when it comes into contact with augmenting artificial sensors and effectors and, on the other hand, the changes that the use of external augmenting devices produces in the brain.Hitherto, few studies investigated the neural correlates of augmentation, but clues on it can be borrowed from logically-related paradigms: sensorimotor training, cognitive enhancement, cross-modal plasticity, sensorimotor functional substitution, use and embodiment of tools.Augmentation modifies function and structure of a number of areas, i.e. primary sensory cortices shape their receptive fields to become sensitive to novel inputs. Motor areas adapt the neuroprosthesis representation firing-rate to refine kinematics. As for normal motor outputs, the learning process recruits motor and premotor cortices and the acquisition of proficiency decreases attentional recruitment, focuses the activity on sensorimotor areas and increases the basal ganglia drive on the cortex. Augmentation deeply relies on the frontoparietal network. In particular, premotor cortex is involved in learning the control of an external effector and owns the tool motor representation, while the intraparietal sulcus extracts its visual features. In these areas, multisensory integration neurons enlarge their receptive fields to embody supernumerary limbs. For operating an anthropomorphic neuroprosthesis, the mirror system is required to understand the meaning of the action, the cerebellum for the formation of its internal model and the insula for its interoception. In conclusion, anthropomorphic sensorized devices can provide the critical sensory afferences to evolve the exploitation of tools through their embodiment, reshaping the body representation and the

  20. Human Rights, Human Needs, Human Development, Human Security : Relationships between four international 'human' discourses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman rights, human development and human security form increasingly important, partly interconnected, partly competitive and misunderstood ethical and policy discourses. Each tries to humanize a pre-existing and unavoidable major discourse of everyday life, policy and politics; each

  1. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  2. Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David McKay

    2011-01-01

    The shadowy, criminal nature of human trafficking makes evaluating its nature and scope difficult. The U.S. State Department and anti-trafficking groups estimate that worldwide some 27 million people are caught in a form of forced servitude today. Public awareness of modern-day slavery is gaining momentum thanks to new abolitionist efforts. Among…

  3. Human waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, Md Nurul; Kroeze, Carolien; Strokal, Maryna

    2017-01-01

    Many people practice open defecation in south Asia. As a result, lot of human waste containing nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) enter rivers. Rivers transport these nutrients to coastal waters, resulting in marine pollution. This source of nutrient pollution is, however, ignored in

  4. Nothing Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharram, C. C.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay C. C. Wharram argues that Terence's concept of translation as a form of "contamination" anticipates recent developments in philosophy, ecology, and translation studies. Placing these divergent fields of inquiry into dialogue enables us read Terence's well-known statement "I am a human being--I deem nothing…

  5. Practicing Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    2016-01-01

    and self-reflective democracy. Contemporary humanities have adopted a new orientation towards practices, and it is not clear how this fits with the ideals of ‘Bildung’ and ‘pure science’. A possible theoretical framework for this orientation towards practices could be found in John Dewey’s pragmatic...

  6. 经皮层侧脑室后锁孔入路的显微解剖研究%Microscopic anatomy study of transcortical-posterior lateral ventricular key-hole approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨麟; 严正村; 张恒柱

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe anatomical structures of the atrium of the lateral ventricle under microscope through the transcortical-posterior lateral ventricular keyhole approach and explore the feasibility of this method, so as to provide anatomical evidence for clinical application. Methods Both sides of ten adult cadaveric specimens were studied from September 2009 to May 2011. The transcortical-posterior lateral ventricular keyhole approach was performed into the atrium of the lateral ventricle. Ventricular system was exposed and internal structures were observed under microscope. The distance from the intersection of intraparietal sulcus and postcentral sulcus to cerebral longitudinal fissure, the depth of intraparietal sulcus and the distance from the bottom of intraparietal sulcus to lateral ventricle were measured. Results Several important structures were clearly observed through the transintraparietal-sulcus-posterior lateral ventricular keyhole approach. The floor was formed by the collateral trigone. Medial part of the anterior wall was formed by the crus of the fornix and the lateral part of the anterior wall was formed by the pulvinar of the thalamus. The medial wall was formed by two prominences that were located one above the other, the upper prominence called the bulb of the corpus callosum, and the lower prominence called the calcar avis. The lateral wall was formed by the caudate nucleus wrapping around the pulvinar. The choroid plexus of the the atrium of the lateral ventricle had one obvious prominence, the bulb of the choroid plexus. The choroid plexus extended laterally into the temporal horn of lateral ventricle and extends forward into the body of the lateral ventricles. The choroid plexus didn’t expand to the occipital horn of lateral ventricle. Distance from the intersection of intraparietal sulcus and postcentral sulcus to cerebral longitudinal fissure was (35. 36 ± 1. 06) mm, the depth of intraparietal sulcus was (19. 16 ± 1. 03) mm, and

  7. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  8. Human Rights in the Humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, Geoffrey

    2012-01-01

    Human rights are rapidly entering the academic curriculum, with programs appearing all over the country--including at Duke, Harvard, Northeastern, and Stanford Universities; the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; the Universities of Chicago, of Connecticut, of California at Berkeley, and of Minnesota; and Trinity College. Most of these…

  9. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  10. Human paleoneurology

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The book presents an integrative review of paleoneurology, the study of endocranial morphology in fossil species. The main focus is on showing how computed methods can be used to support advances in evolutionary neuroanatomy, paleoanthropology and archaeology and how they have contributed to creating a completely new perspective in cognitive neuroscience. Moreover, thanks to its multidisciplinary approach, the book addresses students and researchers approaching human paleoneurology from different angles and for different purposes, such as biologists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists

  11. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen præsenterer først nogle generelle problemstillinger omkring Digital Humanities (DH) med det formål at undersøge dem nærmere i relation til konkrete eksempler på forskellige digitaliseringsmåder og ændringer i dokumentproduktion. I en nærmere afgrænsning vælger artiklen den tendens i DH...

  12. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  13. The role of parietal cortex in the formation of colour and motion based concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel William Cheadle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Imaging evidence shows that separate subdivisions of parietal cortex, in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, are engaged when stimuli are grouped according to colour and to motion (Zeki and Stutters 2013. Since grouping is an essential step in the formation of concepts, we wanted to learn whether parietal cortex is also engaged in the formation of concepts according to these two attributes. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and choosing the recognition of concept-based colour or motion stimuli as our paradigm, we found that there was strong concept-related activity in and around the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region whose homologue in the macaque monkey is known to receive direct but segregated anatomical inputs from V4 and V5. Parietal activity related to colour concepts was juxtaposed but did not overlap with activity related to motion concepts, thus emphasizing the continuation of the segregation of colour and motion into the conceptual system. Concurrent retinotopic mapping experiments showed that within the parietal cortex, concept-related activity increases within later stage IPS areas.

  14. Impaired neural networks for approximate calculation in dyscalculic children: a functional MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosch Mengia

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developmental dyscalculia (DD is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of mathematical skills in children with otherwise normal general intelligence. The goal of the present study was to examine cerebral mechanisms underlying DD. Methods Eighteen children with DD aged 11.2 ± 1.3 years and twenty age-matched typically achieving schoolchildren were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during trials testing approximate and exact mathematical calculation, as well as magnitude comparison. Results Children with DD showed greater inter-individual variability and had weaker activation in almost the entire neuronal network for approximate calculation including the intraparietal sulcus, and the middle and inferior frontal gyrus of both hemispheres. In particular, the left intraparietal sulcus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and the right middle frontal gyrus seem to play crucial roles in correct approximate calculation, since brain activation correlated with accuracy rate in these regions. In contrast, no differences between groups could be found for exact calculation and magnitude comparison. In general, fMRI revealed similar parietal and prefrontal activation patterns in DD children compared to controls for all conditions. Conclusion In conclusion, there is evidence for a deficient recruitment of neural resources in children with DD when processing analog magnitudes of numbers.

  15. Magnitude Processing in the Brain: An fMRI Study of Time, Space, and Numerosity as a Shared Cortical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skagerlund, Kenny; Karlsson, Thomas; Träff, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Continuous dimensions, such as time, space, and numerosity, have been suggested to be subserved by common neurocognitive mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies that have investigated either one or two dimensions simultaneously have consistently identified neural correlates in the parietal cortex of the brain. However, studies investigating the degree of neural overlap across several dimensions are inconclusive, and it remains an open question whether a potential overlap can be conceptualized as a neurocognitive magnitude processing system. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the potential neurocognitive overlap across three dimensions. A sample of adults (N = 24) performed three different magnitude processing tasks: a temporal discrimination task, a number discrimination task, and a line length discrimination task. A conjunction analysis revealed several overlapping neural substrates across multiple magnitude dimensions, and we argue that these cortical nodes comprise a distributed magnitude processing system. Key components of this predominantly right-lateralized system include the intraparietal sulcus, insula, premotor cortex/SMA, and inferior frontal gyrus. Together with previous research highlighting intraparietal sulcus, our results suggest that the insula also is a core component of the magnitude processing system. We discuss the functional role of each of these components in the magnitude processing system and suggest that further research of this system may provide insight into the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders where cognitive deficits in magnitude processing are manifest. PMID:27761110

  16. The neural circuits for arithmetic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Han; Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Hui; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-15

    Arithmetic principles are the regularities underlying arithmetic computation. Little is known about how the brain supports the processing of arithmetic principles. The current fMRI study examined neural activation and functional connectivity during the processing of verbalized arithmetic principles, as compared to numerical computation and general language processing. As expected, arithmetic principles elicited stronger activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus than did language processing, and stronger activation in left middle temporal lobe and left orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus than did computation. In contrast, computation elicited greater activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus (extending to posterior superior parietal lobule) than did either arithmetic principles or language processing. Functional connectivity analysis with the psychophysiological interaction approach (PPI) showed that left temporal-parietal (MTG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principle and language than during computation, whereas parietal-occipital connectivities were stronger during computation than during the processing of arithmetic principles and language. Additionally, the left fronto-parietal (orbital IFG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principles than during computation. The results suggest that verbalized arithmetic principles engage a neural network that overlaps but is distinct from the networks for computation and language processing.

  17. The neural correlates of problem states: testing FMRI predictions of a computational model of multitasking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelmer P Borst

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been shown that people can only maintain one problem state, or intermediate mental representation, at a time. When more than one problem state is required, for example in multitasking, performance decreases considerably. This effect has been explained in terms of a problem state bottleneck. METHODOLOGY: In the current study we use the complimentary methodologies of computational cognitive modeling and neuroimaging to investigate the neural correlates of this problem state bottleneck. In particular, an existing computational cognitive model was used to generate a priori fMRI predictions for a multitasking experiment in which the problem state bottleneck plays a major role. Hemodynamic responses were predicted for five brain regions, corresponding to five cognitive resources in the model. Most importantly, we predicted the intraparietal sulcus to show a strong effect of the problem state manipulations. CONCLUSIONS: Some of the predictions were confirmed by a subsequent fMRI experiment, while others were not matched by the data. The experiment supported the hypothesis that the problem state bottleneck is a plausible cause of the interference in the experiment and that it could be located in the intraparietal sulcus.

  18. Shifting brain asymmetry: the link between meditation and structural lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; MacKenzie-Graham, Allan; Toga, Arthur W; Luders, Eileen

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed an increased fractional anisotropy and greater thickness in the anterior parts of the corpus callosum in meditation practitioners compared with control subjects. Altered callosal features may be associated with an altered inter-hemispheric integration and the degree of brain asymmetry may also be shifted in meditation practitioners. Therefore, we investigated differences in gray matter asymmetry as well as correlations between gray matter asymmetry and years of meditation practice in 50 long-term meditators and 50 controls. We detected a decreased rightward asymmetry in the precuneus in meditators compared with controls. In addition, we observed that a stronger leftward asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus was positively associated with the number of meditation practice years. In a further exploratory analysis, we observed that a stronger rightward asymmetry in the pregenual cingulate cortex was negatively associated with the number of practice years. The group difference within the precuneus, as well as the positive correlations with meditation years in the pregenual cingulate cortex, suggests an adaptation of the default mode network in meditators. The positive correlation between meditation practice years and asymmetry near the posterior intraparietal sulcus may suggest that meditation is accompanied by changes in attention processing.

  19. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  20. Human Capital, (Human) Capabilities and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Grange, L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I initiate a debate into the (de)merits of human capital theory and human capability theory and discuss implications of the debate for higher education. Human capital theory holds that economic growth depends on investment in education and that economic growth is the basis for improving the quality of human life. Human capable…

  1. Common and distinct brain regions processing multisensory bodily signals for peripersonal space and body ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivaz, Petr; Blanke, Olaf; Serino, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    We take the feeling that our body belongs to us for granted. However, recent research has shown that it is possible to alter the subjective sensation of body ownership (BO) by manipulating multisensory bodily inputs. Several frontal and parietal regions are known to specifically process multisensory cues presented close to the body, i.e., within the peripersonal space (PPS). It has been proposed that these PPS fronto-parietal regions also underlie BO. However, most previous studies investigated the brain mechanisms of either BO or of PPS processing separately and by using a variety of paradigms. Here, we conducted an extensive meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies to investigate PPS and BO processing in humans in order to: a) assess quantitatively where each one of these functions was individually processed in the brain; b) identify whether and where these processes shared common or engaged distinct brain mechanisms; c) characterize these areas in terms of whole-brain co-activation networks and functions, respectively. We identified (i) a bilateral PPS network including superior parietal, temporo-parietal and ventral premotor regions and (ii) a BO network including posterior parietal cortex (right intraparietal sulcus, IPS; and left IPS and superior parietal lobule, SPL), right ventral premotor cortex, and the left anterior insula. Co-activation maps related to both PPS and BO encompassed largely overlapping fronto-parietal networks, but whereas the PPS network was more frequently associated with sensorimotor tasks, the BO network was rather associated with attention and awareness tasks. Finally, the conjunction analysis showed that (iii) PPS and BO tasks anatomically overlapped only in two clusters located in the left parietal cortex (dorsally at the intersection between the SPL, the IPS and area 2 and ventrally between areas 2 and IPS). Distinct activations were located for PPS at the temporo-parietal junction and for BO in the anterior insula. These

  2. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  3. Human steroidogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Y; Ezcurra, Diego

    2014-01-01

    steroid concentrations cause alterations in endometrial development, affecting oocyte viability in assisted reproductive technology. Furthermore, it has been proposed that elevated progesterone levels have a negative effect on the reproductive outcome of COS. This may arise from an asynchrony between...... reviews current knowledge of the regulation of progesterone in the human ovary during the follicular phase and highlights areas where knowledge remains limited. In this review, we provide in-depth information outlining the regulation and function of gonadotropins in the complicated area of steroidogenesis...

  4. Humanizing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2015-01-01

    The article proposes the urban digital gallery as an opportunity to explore the relationship between ‘human’ and ‘technology,’ through the programming of media architecture. It takes a curatorial perspective when proposing an ontological shift from considering media facades as visual spectacles...... agency and a sense of being by way of dematerializing architecture. This is achieved by way of programming the symbolic to provide new emotional realizations and situations of enlightenment in the public audience. This reflects a greater potential to humanize the digital in media architecture....

  5. Segregation and integration of auditory streams when listening to multi-part music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Ragert

    Full Text Available In our daily lives, auditory stream segregation allows us to differentiate concurrent sound sources and to make sense of the scene we are experiencing. However, a combination of segregation and the concurrent integration of auditory streams is necessary in order to analyze the relationship between streams and thus perceive a coherent auditory scene. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigates the relative role and neural underpinnings of these listening strategies in multi-part musical stimuli. We compare a real human performance of a piano duet and a synthetic stimulus of the same duet in a prioritized integrative attention paradigm that required the simultaneous segregation and integration of auditory streams. In so doing, we manipulate the degree to which the attended part of the duet led either structurally (attend melody vs. attend accompaniment or temporally (asynchronies vs. no asynchronies between parts, and thus the relative contributions of integration and segregation used to make an assessment of the leader-follower relationship. We show that perceptually the relationship between parts is biased towards the conventional structural hierarchy in western music in which the melody generally dominates (leads the accompaniment. Moreover, the assessment varies as a function of both cognitive load, as shown through difficulty ratings and the interaction of the temporal and the structural relationship factors. Neurally, we see that the temporal relationship between parts, as one important cue for stream segregation, revealed distinct neural activity in the planum temporale. By contrast, integration used when listening to both the temporally separated performance stimulus and the temporally fused synthetic stimulus resulted in activation of the intraparietal sulcus. These results support the hypothesis that the planum temporale and IPS are key structures underlying the mechanisms of segregation and integration of

  6. Ordinality and the nature of symbolic numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M; Beilock, Sian L

    2013-10-23

    The view that representations of symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers are closely tied to one another is widespread. However, the link between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers is almost always inferred from cardinal processing tasks. In the current work, we show that considering ordinality instead points to striking differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic numbers. Human behavioral and neural data show that ordinal processing of symbolic numbers (Are three Indo-Arabic numerals in numerical order?) is distinct from symbolic cardinal processing (Which of two numerals represents the greater quantity?) and nonsymbolic number processing (ordinal and cardinal judgments of dot-arrays). Behaviorally, distance-effects were reversed when assessing ordinality in symbolic numbers, but canonical distance-effects were observed for cardinal judgments of symbolic numbers and all nonsymbolic judgments. At the neural level, symbolic number-ordering was the only numerical task that did not show number-specific activity (greater than control) in the intraparietal sulcus. Only activity in left premotor cortex was specifically associated with symbolic number-ordering. For nonsymbolic numbers, activation in cognitive-control areas during ordinal processing and a high degree of overlap between ordinal and cardinal processing networks indicate that nonsymbolic ordinality is assessed via iterative cardinality judgments. This contrasts with a striking lack of neural overlap between ordinal and cardinal judgments anywhere in the brain for symbolic numbers, suggesting that symbolic number processing varies substantially with computational context. Ordinal processing sheds light on key differences between symbolic and nonsymbolic number processing both behaviorally and in the brain. Ordinality may prove important for understanding the power of representing numbers symbolically.

  7. Decoding individual natural scene representations during perception and imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Robert Johnson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We used a multi-voxel classification analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data to determine to what extent item-specific information about complex natural scenes is represented in several category-selective areas of human extrastriate visual cortex during visual perception and visual mental imagery. Participants in the scanner either viewed or were instructed to visualize previously memorized natural scene exemplars, and the neuroimaging data were subsequently subjected to a multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA using a support vector machine (SVM classifier. We found that item-specific information was represented in multiple scene-selective areas: the occipital place area (OPA, parahippocampal place area (PPA, retrosplenial cortex (RSC, and a scene-selective portion of the precuneus/intraparietal sulcus region (PCu/IPS. Furthermore, item-specific information from perceived scenes was re-instantiated during mental imagery of the same scenes. These results support findings from previous decoding analyses for other types of visual information and/or brain areas during imagery or working memory, and extend them to the case of visual scenes (and scene-selective cortex. Taken together, such findings support models suggesting that reflective mental processes are subserved by the re-instantiation of perceptual information in high-level visual cortex. We also examined activity in the fusiform face area (FFA and found that it, too, contained significant item-specific scene information during perception, but not during mental imagery. This suggests that although decodable scene-relevant activity occurs in FFA during perception, FFA activity may not be a necessary (or even relevant component of one’s mental representation of visual scenes.

  8. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  9. GAMBLING ON VISUAL PERFORMANCE: NEURAL CORRELATES OF METACOGNITIVE CHOICE BETWEEN VISUAL LOTTERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei eWu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A lottery is a list of mutually exclusive outcomes together with their associated probabilities of occurrence. Decision making is often modeled as choices between lotteries and – in typical research on decision under risk – the probabilities are given to the subject explicitly in numerical form. In this study, we examined lottery decision task where the probabilities of receiving various rewards are contingent on the subjects’ own visual performance in a random-dot-motion (RDM discrimination task, a metacognitive or second order judgment. While there is a large literature concerning the RDM task and there is also a large literature on decision under risk, little is known about metacognitive decisions when the source of uncertainty is visual. Using fMRI with humans, we found distinct fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal networks representing subjects’ estimates of his or her performance, reward value, and the expected value (EV of the lotteries. The fronto-striatal network includes the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum, involved in reward processing and value-based decision-making. The fronto-parietal network includes the intraparietal sulcus and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was shown to be involved in the accumulation of sensory evidence during visual decision making and in metacognitive judgments on visual performance. These results demonstrate that – while valuation of performance-based lotteries involves a common fronto-striatal valuation network – an additional network unique to the estimation of task-related performance is recruited for the integration of probability and reward information when probability is inferred from visual performance.

  10. Gambling on visual performance: neural correlates of metacognitive choice between visual lotteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Wei; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Maloney, Laurence T.

    2015-01-01

    A lottery is a list of mutually exclusive outcomes together with their associated probabilities of occurrence. Decision making is often modeled as choices between lotteries and—in typical research on decision under risk—the probabilities are given to the subject explicitly in numerical form. In this study, we examined lottery decision task where the probabilities of receiving various rewards are contingent on the subjects' own visual performance in a random-dot-motion (RDM) discrimination task, a metacognitive or second order judgment. While there is a large literature concerning the RDM task and there is also a large literature on decision under risk, little is known about metacognitive decisions when the source of uncertainty is visual. Using fMRI with humans, we found distinct fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal networks representing subjects' estimates of his or her performance, reward value, and the expected value (EV) of the lotteries. The fronto-striatal network includes the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum, involved in reward processing and value-based decision-making. The fronto-parietal network includes the intraparietal sulcus and the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, which was shown to be involved in the accumulation of sensory evidence during visual decision making and in metacognitive judgments on visual performance. These results demonstrate that—while valuation of performance-based lotteries involves a common fronto-striatal valuation network—an additional network unique to the estimation of task-related performance is recruited for the integration of probability and reward information when probability is inferred from visual performance. PMID:26388724

  11. Functional connectivity in tactile object discrimination: a principal component analysis of an event related fMRI-Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hartmann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tactile object discrimination is an essential human skill that relies on functional connectivity between the neural substrates of motor, somatosensory and supramodal areas. From a theoretical point of view, such distributed networks elude categorical analysis because subtraction methods are univariate. Thus, the aim of this study was to identify the neural networks involved in somatosensory object discrimination using a voxel-based principal component analysis (PCA of event-related functional magnetic resonance images. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seven healthy, right-handed subjects aged between 22 and 44 years were required to discriminate with their dominant hand the length differences between otherwise identical parallelepipeds in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm. Of the 34 principal components retained for analysis according to the 'bootstrapped' Kaiser-Guttman criterion, t-tests applied to the subject-condition expression coefficients showed significant mean differences between the object presentation and inter-stimulus phases in PC 1, 3, 26 and 32. Specifically, PC 1 reflected object exploration or manipulation, PC 3 somatosensory and short-term memory processes. PC 26 evinced the perception that certain parallelepipeds could not be distinguished, while PC 32 emerged in those choices when they could be. Among the cerebral regions evident in the PCs are the left posterior parietal lobe and premotor cortex in PC 1, the left superior parietal lobule (SPL and the right cuneus in PC 3, the medial frontal and orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally in PC 26, and the right intraparietal sulcus, anterior SPL and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in PC 32. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The analysis provides evidence for the concerted action of large-scale cortico-subcortical networks mediating tactile object discrimination. Parallel to activity in nodes processing object-related impulses we found activity in key cerebral regions

  12. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-01-01

    An electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioral VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localized, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localized to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  13. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An electroencephalographic (EEG marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity (CDA, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG to characterise its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioural VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localised, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localised to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  14. Advantages of T2 reversed fast spin-echo image and enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography for the diagnosis of cerebral arteriovenous malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Honmou, Osamu; Minamida, Yoshihiro; Hashi, Kazuo [Sapporo Medical Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-09-01

    Although the anatomical investigation of cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with conventional neuro-imagings considerably supports the preoperative evaluation, it is still hard to dissect the detailed anatomical conformations of AVMs such as location of nidus, identification of feeding arteries or draining veins, and the three-dimensional configuration of nidus in sulci or gyri. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of enhanced three-dimensional surface MR angiography (surface MRA) and T2 reversed image (T2R image) in the diagnosis and surgical planning for cerebral AVMs. The diagnostic accuracy was studied in twelve AVMs: four AVMs closed to motor area, one to Broca area, one to Wernicke area, four in temporal lobe, and two in occipital lobe. Images were obtained with a SIGNA HORIZON LX 1.5T VER 8.2. To construct T2R, the brain is scanned by fast SE method with long TR and was displayed with the reversed gray scale, which seemed similar to T1WI. Surface MRA is a fusion image of MRA and surface image in the workstation. The original data was obtained by enhanced 3D-SPGR method. MRA image was reconstructed with MIP method, and surface image was manipulated with a volume rendering method. T2R images demonstrated seven sulcal AVMs, three gyral AVMs, and two sulco-gyral AVMs; five AVMs located on cortex, four extended to subcortex, and three to paraventricular brain. The images clearly showed six AVMs had hypervascular network such as modja-modja vascular formation. Surface MRA represented nidus adjacent to eloquent area. They were present in central sulcus, precentral sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, inferior frontal sulcus, sylvian fissure, superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal sulcus, superior temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, medial temporal gyrus, premotor area and superior frontal sulcus, precuneus and parieto-occipital sulcus. It was easy to identify the point of feeding arteries going down into the sulcus and the junction-point of nidus

  15. Hemodynamic responses in human multisensory and auditory association cortex to purely visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Simon

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings of a tight coupling between visual and auditory association cortices during multisensory perception in monkeys and humans raise the question whether consistent paired presentation of simple visual and auditory stimuli prompts conditioned responses in unimodal auditory regions or multimodal association cortex once visual stimuli are presented in isolation in a post-conditioning run. To address this issue fifteen healthy participants partook in a "silent" sparse temporal event-related fMRI study. In the first (visual control habituation phase they were presented with briefly red flashing visual stimuli. In the second (auditory control habituation phase they heard brief telephone ringing. In the third (conditioning phase we coincidently presented the visual stimulus (CS paired with the auditory stimulus (UCS. In the fourth phase participants either viewed flashes paired with the auditory stimulus (maintenance, CS- or viewed the visual stimulus in isolation (extinction, CS+ according to a 5:10 partial reinforcement schedule. The participants had no other task than attending to the stimuli and indicating the end of each trial by pressing a button. Results During unpaired visual presentations (preceding and following the paired presentation we observed significant brain responses beyond primary visual cortex in the bilateral posterior auditory association cortex (planum temporale, planum parietale and in the right superior temporal sulcus whereas the primary auditory regions were not involved. By contrast, the activity in auditory core regions was markedly larger when participants were presented with auditory stimuli. Conclusion These results demonstrate involvement of multisensory and auditory association areas in perception of unimodal visual stimulation which may reflect the instantaneous forming of multisensory associations and cannot be attributed to sensation of an auditory event. More importantly, we are able

  16. How the human brain recognizes speech in the context of changing speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kriegstein, Katharina; Smith, David R R; Patterson, Roy D; Kiebel, Stefan J; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2010-01-13

    We understand speech from different speakers with ease, whereas artificial speech recognition systems struggle with this task. It is unclear how the human brain solves this problem. The conventional view is that speech message recognition and speaker identification are two separate functions and that message processing takes place predominantly in the left hemisphere, whereas processing of speaker-specific information is located in the right hemisphere. Here, we distinguish the contribution of specific cortical regions, to speech recognition and speaker information processing, by controlled manipulation of task and resynthesized speaker parameters. Two functional magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence for a dynamic speech-processing network that questions the conventional view. We found that speech recognition regions in left posterior superior temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus (STG/STS) also encode speaker-related vocal tract parameters, which are reflected in the amplitude peaks of the speech spectrum, along with the speech message. Right posterior STG/STS activated specifically more to a speaker-related vocal tract parameter change during a speech recognition task compared with a voice recognition task. Left and right posterior STG/STS were functionally connected. Additionally, we found that speaker-related glottal fold parameters (e.g., pitch), which are not reflected in the amplitude peaks of the speech spectrum, are processed in areas immediately adjacent to primary auditory cortex, i.e., in areas in the auditory hierarchy earlier than STG/STS. Our results point to a network account of speech recognition, in which information about the speech message and the speaker's vocal tract are combined to solve the difficult task of understanding speech from different speakers.

  17. Interaction versus Observation: distinctive modes of social cognition in human brain and behavior? A combined fMRI and eye-tracking study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian eTylen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human cognition has usually been approached on the level of individual minds and brains, but social interaction is a challenging case. Is it best thought of as a self-contained individual cognitive process aiming at an ‘understanding of the other’, or should it rather be approached as an collective, inter-personal process where individual cognitive components interact on a moment-to-moment basis to form coupled dynamics? In a combined fMRI and eye tracking study we directly contrasted these models of social cognition. We found that the perception of situations affording social contingent responsiveness (e.g. someone offering or showing you an object elicited activations in regions of the right posterior temporal sulcus and yielded greater pupil dilation corresponding to a model of coupled dynamics (joint action. In contrast, the social-cognitive perception of someone ‘privately’ manipulating an object elicited activation in medial prefrontal cortex, the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal lobus, regions normally associated with Theory of Mind and with the mirror neuron system. Our findings support a distinction in social cognition between social observation and social interaction, and demonstrate that simple ostensive cues may shift participants’ experience, behavior and brain activity between these modes. The identification of a distinct, interactive mode has implications for research on social cognition, both in everyday life and in clinical conditions.

  18. Right parietal dominance in spatial egocentric discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loayza, F R; Fernández-Seara, M A; Aznárez-Sanado, M; Pastor, M A

    2011-03-15

    Egocentric tactile perception is crucial for skilled hand motor control. In order to better understand the brain functional underpinnings related to this basic sensorial perception, we performed a tactile perception functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with two aims. The first aim consisted of characterizing the neural substrate of two types of egocentric tactile discrimination: the spatial localization (SLD) and simultaneity succession discrimination (SSD) in both hands to define hemispheric dominance for these tasks. The second goal consisted of characterizing the brain activation related to the spatial attentional load, the functional changes and their connectivity patterns induced by the psychometric performance (PP) during SLD. We used fMRI in 25 right-handed volunteers, applying pairs of sinusoidal vibratory stimuli on eight different positions in the palmar surface of both hands. Subjects were required either to identify the stimulus location with respect to an imaginary midline (SLD), to discriminate the simultaneity or succession of a stimuli pair (SSD) or to simply respond to stimulus detection. We found a fronto-parietal network for SLD and frontal network for SSD. During SLD we identified right hemispheric dominance with increased BOLD activation and functional interaction of the right supramarginal gyrus with contralateral intra-parietal sulcus for right and left hand independently. Brain activity correlated to spatial attentional load was found in bilateral structures of intra-parietal sulcus, precuneus extended to superior parietal lobule, pre-supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields and anterior insulae for both hands. We suggest that the right supramarginal gyrus and its interaction with intra-parietal lobule may play a pivotal role in the phenomenon of tactile neglect in right fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Human Toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Selek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Human toxocariasis is an parasitic infection caused by the ingestion of larvae of dog nematode Toxocara canis and less frequently of cat nematode T.cati. Toxocara eggs, shed to environment by infected dogs' and cats' droppings, become infective by embryonation. Humans, particularly children, can be infected by accidentally ingesting embryonated Toxocara eggs. Larvae hatch in the small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate to other parts of body via the bloodstream. It is generally a benign, asymptomatic, and self-limiting disease, although migrating larvae can cause damage to tissues and organs, especially brain involvement can cause severe morbidity. The two main clinical presentations of toxocariasis are visceral larva migrans (VLM (a systemic disease caused by larval migration through major organs and ocular larva migrans (OLM (a disease limited to the eyes and optic nerves. There are also two less-severe syndromes which have recently been described, one mainly in children (covert toxocariasis and the other mainly in adults (common toxocariasis. Diagnosis is usually made by clinical signs/symptoms, epidemiological background of the patient and the use of immunological methods (ELISA or western-blot. On the other hand definitive diagnosis is much more challenging, since it requires the demonstration of larvae via biopsy or autopsy. Most cases of toxocariasis clear up without any treatment. VLM is primarily treated with antihelmintic drugs, such as; albendazole or mebendazole. Treatment of OLM is more difficult and usually consists of measures to prevent progressive damage to the eye like steroids. Laser photocoagulation and cryoretinopexy may also be used to treat severe cases. Since eradicating T.canis infection is difficult due to the complexity of its life cycle, prevention of toxocariasis is always preferred. Toxocara eggs have a strong protective layer which makes the eggs able to survive in the environment for months or

  20. 侧脑室后锁孔入路神经内镜解剖学研究%Neuro-endoscopic Anatomy Study of Posterior Lateral Ventricular Key-hole Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨麟; 严正村; 张恒柱

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the Neuro - endoscopic anatomy of posterior lateral ventricular key -hole approach in order to provide anatomical evidence for clinical surgery. Methods:The modified surgery was performed on 10 adult cadaveric heads under endoscope via posterior lateral ventricular key - hole approach. The microanatomic structures were observed preliminarily and measured simultaneously. Results: Anatomical structure of atrium of lateral ventricle, Temporal horn ( TH ), Occipital hom( OH ) could be clearly revealed under endoscope through posterior lateral ventricular key - hole approach. The distance from the intersection of intraparietal sulcus with postcentral sulcus to cerebral longitudinal fissure was( 35. 4 + 1.1) mm, the depth of intraparietal sulcus was ( 19. 2 ± 1. 0 ) mm and the thickness from the bottom of intraparietal sulcus to cortex of atrium of lateral ventricle was ( 21. 3 ±1.3 ) mm. Conclusions: The key - hole approach of transcortical - posterior lateral ventricular under neuroendoscopy can expose anatomic structure of atrium of lateral ventricle. Neu-roendoscopy has merits of deep lighting, clearness of regional anatomy and distinguishing normal tissue and vessel structure, etc.%目的:观测侧脑室后锁孔入路神经内镜下的解剖结构,为临床手术提供解剖依据.方法:对10例成人头颅模拟内镜下经顶内沟侧脑室后锁孔入路手术,进行内镜下的解剖观察与测量.结果:经顶内沟侧脑室后锁孔入路,内镜下可清晰显露侧脑室三角区,以及部分侧脑室颞角、枕角等.顶内点至大脑纵裂的距离为(35.4±1.1)mm,顶内沟的深度为(19.2±1.0)mm,顶内沟底部至三角区皮质厚度为(21.3±1.3)mm.结论:经顶内沟侧脑室后锁孔入路神经内镜解剖研究,能清晰显露侧脑室三角区的解剖结构,可应用于侧脑室三角区和体后部内的临床手术.

  1. NATO Human View Architecture and Human Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Holly A. H.; Houston, Nancy P.

    2010-01-01

    The NATO Human View is a system architectural viewpoint that focuses on the human as part of a system. Its purpose is to capture the human requirements and to inform on how the human impacts the system design. The viewpoint contains seven static models that include different aspects of the human element, such as roles, tasks, constraints, training and metrics. It also includes a Human Dynamics component to perform simulations of the human system under design. One of the static models, termed Human Networks, focuses on the human-to-human communication patterns that occur as a result of ad hoc or deliberate team formation, especially teams distributed across space and time. Parameters of human teams that effect system performance can be captured in this model. Human centered aspects of networks, such as differences in operational tempo (sense of urgency), priorities (common goal), and team history (knowledge of the other team members), can be incorporated. The information captured in the Human Network static model can then be included in the Human Dynamics component so that the impact of distributed teams is represented in the simulation. As the NATO militaries transform to a more networked force, the Human View architecture is an important tool that can be used to make recommendations on the proper mix of technological innovations and human interactions.

  2. [Human papillomaviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, G

    2003-10-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) infect exclusively the basal cells of the skin and of mucosal epithelia adjacent to the skin such as the mouth, the upper respiratory tract, the lower genital tract and the anal canal. HPV does not lead to a viremia. Basically there are three different types of HPV infection: Clinically visible lesions, subclinical HPV infections and latent HPV infections. Distinct HPV types induce morphologically and prognostically different clinical pictures. The most common HPV associated benign tumor of the skin is the common wart. Infections of the urogenitoanal tract with specific HPV-types are recognised as the most frequent sexually transmitted viral infections. So-called "high-risk" HPV-types (HPV16, 18 and others) are regarded by the world health organisation as important risk-factors for the development of genital cancer (mainly cervical cancer), anal cancer and upper respiratory tract cancer in both genders. Antiviral substances with a specific anti-HPV effect are so far unknown. Conventional therapies of benign skin warts and of mucosal warts are mainly nonspecific. They comprise tissue-destroying therapies such as electrocautery, cryotherapy and laser. In addition cytotoxic substances such as podophyllotoxin and systemic therapy with retinoids are in use. Systemically and topically administered immunotherapies represent a new approach for treatment. Both interferons and particularly the recently developed imiquimod, an interferon-alpha and cytokine-inductor lead to better results and are better tolerated then conventional therapies. HPV-specific vaccines have been developed in the last 5 years and will be used in future for prevention and treatment of benign and malignant HPV-associated tumors of the genitoanal tract in both sexes.

  3. Analysis of lesions in patients with unilateral tactile agnosia using cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hömke, Lars; Amunts, Katrin; Bönig, Lutz; Fretz, Christian; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Zilles, Karl; Weder, Bruno

    2009-05-01

    We propose a novel methodical approach to lesion analyses involving high-resolution MR images in combination with probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. 3D-MR images of the whole brain and the manually segmented lesion mask are spatially normalized to the reference brain of a stereotaxic probabilistic cytoarchitectonic atlas using a multiscale registration algorithm based on an elastic model. The procedure is demonstrated in three patients suffering from aperceptive tactile agnosia of the right hand due to chronic infarction of the left parietal cortex. Patient 1 presents a lesion in areas of the postcentral sulcus, Patient 3 in areas of the superior parietal lobule and adjacent intraparietal sulcus, and Patient 2 lesions in both regions. On the basis of neurobehavioral data, we conjectured degradation of sequential elementary sensory information processing within the postcentral gyrus, impeding texture recognition in Patients 1 and 2, and disturbed kinaesthetic information processing in the posterior parietal lobe, causing degraded shape recognition in the patients 2 and 3. The involvement of Brodmann areas 4a, 4p, 3a, 3b, 1, 2, and areas IP1 and IP2 of the intraparietal sulcus was assessed in terms of the voxel overlap between the spatially transformed lesion masks and the 50%-isocontours of the cytoarchitectonic maps. The disruption of the critical cytoarchitectonic areas and the impaired subfunctions, texture and shape recognition, relate as conjectured above. We conclude that the proposed method represents a promising approach to hypothesis-driven lesion analyses, yielding lesion-function correlates based on a cytoarchitectonic model. Finally, the lesion-function correlates are validated by functional imaging reference data. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Human Development Report 1991: Financing Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    United Nations Development Programme, UNDP

    1991-01-01

    Lack of political commitment rather than financial resources is often the real barrier to human development. This is the main conclusion of Human Development Report 1991 - the second in a series of annual reports on the subject.

  5. [Visual Texture Agnosia in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kyoko

    2015-06-01

    Visual object recognition requires the processing of both geometric and surface properties. Patients with occipital lesions may have visual agnosia, which is impairment in the recognition and identification of visually presented objects primarily through their geometric features. An analogous condition involving the failure to recognize an object by its texture may exist, which can be called visual texture agnosia. Here we present two cases with visual texture agnosia. Case 1 had left homonymous hemianopia and right upper quadrantanopia, along with achromatopsia, prosopagnosia, and texture agnosia, because of damage to his left ventromedial occipitotemporal cortex and right lateral occipito-temporo-parietal cortex due to multiple cerebral embolisms. Although he showed difficulty matching and naming textures of real materials, he could readily name visually presented objects by their contours. Case 2 had right lower quadrantanopia, along with impairment in stereopsis and recognition of texture in 2D images, because of subcortical hemorrhage in the left occipitotemporal region. He failed to recognize shapes based on texture information, whereas shape recognition based on contours was well preserved. Our findings, along with those of three reported cases with texture agnosia, indicate that there are separate channels for processing texture, color, and geometric features, and that the regions around the left collateral sulcus are crucial for texture processing.

  6. The golden triangle of human dignity: human security, human development and human rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The success or failure of processes of democratization cannot be detached from processes of development related to the aspirations of people at the grassroots. Human rights, in a more theoretical terminology, require human development in order to enhance human security.

  7. The influence of sulcus width on simulated electric fields induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Rampersad, S.M.; Lucka, F.; Lanfer, B.; Lew, S.; Aydin, U.; Wolters, C.H.; Stegeman, D.F.; Oostendorp, T.F.

    2013-01-01

    Volume conduction models can help in acquiring knowledge about the distribution of the electric field induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. One aspect of a detailed model is an accurate description of the cortical surface geometry. Since its estimation is difficult, it is important to know h

  8. A Role for the Right Superior Temporal Sulcus in Categorical Perception of Musical Chords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Mike E.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is a mechanism whereby non-identical stimuli that have the same underlying meaning become invariantly represented in the brain. Through behavioral identification and discrimination tasks, CP has been demonstrated to occur broadly across the auditory modality, including in perception of speech (e.g. phonemes) and music…

  9. Modulation of visual responses in the superior temporal sulcus by audio-visual congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Dahl; Nikos K Logothetis; Christoph Kayser

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  10. Modulation of Visual Responses in the Superior Temporal Sulcus by Audio-Visual Congruency

    OpenAIRE

    Dahl, Christoph D.; Nikos K Logothetis; Kayser, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Our ability to identify or recognize visual objects is often enhanced by evidence provided by other sensory modalities. Yet, where and how visual object processing benefits from the information received by the other senses remains unclear. One candidate region is the temporal lobe, which features neural representations of visual objects, and in which previous studies have provided evidence for multisensory influences on neural responses. In the present study we directly tested whether visual ...

  11. Bacterial colonization of the peri-implant sulcus in dentate patients : a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokman, M A; van Winkelhoff, A J; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F K L; Raghoebar, G M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to compare the composition of the periodontal microflora at baseline (T0) with the submucosal microflora at least 1 year after implant placement (T1) in periodontally healthy patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For all 169 consecutive patients that visited ou

  12. Axonal disruption in white matter underlying cortical sulcus tau pathology in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleran, Laurena; Kim, Joong Hee; Gangolli, Mihika; Stein, Thor; Alvarez, Victor; McKee, Ann; Brody, David L

    2017-03-01

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a progressive degenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injury. One of the primary defining neuropathological lesions in CTE, based on the first consensus conference, is the accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in gray matter sulcal depths. Post-mortem CTE studies have also reported myelin loss, axonal injury and white matter degeneration. Currently, the diagnosis of CTE is restricted to post-mortem neuropathological analysis. We hypothesized that high spatial resolution advanced diffusion MRI might be useful for detecting white matter microstructural changes directly adjacent to gray matter tau pathology. To test this hypothesis, formalin-fixed post-mortem tissue blocks from the superior frontal cortex of ten individuals with an established diagnosis of CTE were obtained from the Veterans Affairs-Boston University-Concussion Legacy Foundation brain bank. Advanced diffusion MRI data was acquired using an 11.74 T MRI scanner at Washington University with 250 × 250 × 500 µm(3) spatial resolution. Diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion kurtosis imaging and generalized q-sampling imaging analyses were performed in a blinded fashion. Following MRI acquisition, tissue sections were tested for phosphorylated tau immunoreactivity in gray matter sulcal depths. Axonal disruption in underlying white matter was assessed using two-dimensional Fourier transform analysis of myelin black gold staining. A robust image co-registration method was applied to accurately quantify the relationship between diffusion MRI parameters and histopathology. We found that white matter underlying sulci with high levels of tau pathology had substantially impaired myelin black gold Fourier transform power coherence, indicating axonal microstructural disruption (r = -0.55, p = 0.0015). Using diffusion tensor MRI, we found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was modestly (r = 0.53) but significantly (p = 0.0012) correlated with axonal disruption, where lower FA was associated with greater axonal disruption in white matter directly adjacent to hyperphosphorylated tau positive sulci. In summary, our findings indicate that axonal disruption and tau pathology are closely associated, and high spatial resolution ex vivo diffusion MRI has the potential to detect microstructural alterations observed in CTE tissue. Future studies will be required to determine whether this approach can be applied to living people.

  13. Periosteal fenestration vestibuloplasty procedure for sulcus deepening in a hemimandibulectomy patient following implant therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Jha Kukreja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ablative surgery of the jaws may be necessary when malignant disease or destructive benign disease occurs. Surgical reconstruction needs to include the restoration of masticatory function so that the quality of life after the operation is optimal. When resection includes part of the upper or lower jaw, the aim of reconstruction should encompass not only the restoration of aesthetics, speech and swallowing, but also the recreation of an alveolar ridge suitable for prosthetic rehabilitation of the dental occlusion. In the present case, depth of vestibule was inadequate following implant placement thereby severely compromising prosthetic rehabilitation. Hence vestibuloplasty was done with periosteal fenestration operation, which provided retention and stability of mandibular prosthesis and hence greatly improved his overall quality of life.

  14. Modified Graft–Stent Vestibuloplasty Approach for Rehabilitation of Loss of Sulcus

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji, S. M.; Venkatakrishnan, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Skin graft vestibuloplasty has long been popularized in increasing the depth of the vestibule. An unusual case of vestibuloplasty for correction of vestibule depth due to previous surgery is presented. Conventional methods of graft-stent fixation are traumatic, effortful and carry substantial risk. An altered method for rehabilitation of the present case by using graft-vestibuloplasty is described with underlying physiology of the process.

  15. Periosteal fenestration vestibuloplasty procedure for sulcus deepening in a hemimandibulectomy patient following implant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Bhavna Jha; Gupta, Udayan; Dodwad, Vidya; Kukreja, Pankaj

    2014-07-01

    Ablative surgery of the jaws may be necessary when malignant disease or destructive benign disease occurs. Surgical reconstruction needs to include the restoration of masticatory function so that the quality of life after the operation is optimal. When resection includes part of the upper or lower jaw, the aim of reconstruction should encompass not only the restoration of aesthetics, speech and swallowing, but also the recreation of an alveolar ridge suitable for prosthetic rehabilitation of the dental occlusion. In the present case, depth of vestibule was inadequate following implant placement thereby severely compromising prosthetic rehabilitation. Hence vestibuloplasty was done with periosteal fenestration operation, which provided retention and stability of mandibular prosthesis and hence greatly improved his overall quality of life.

  16. Modified graft-stent vestibuloplasty approach for rehabilitation of loss of sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, S M; Venkatakrishnan, C J

    2010-06-01

    Skin graft vestibuloplasty has long been popularized in increasing the depth of the vestibule. An unusual case of vestibuloplasty for correction of vestibule depth due to previous surgery is presented. Conventional methods of graft-stent fixation are traumatic, effortful and carry substantial risk. An altered method for rehabilitation of the present case by using graft-vestibuloplasty is described with underlying physiology of the process.

  17. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. Chris; Xavier, Patrick G.; Abbott, Robert G.; Brannon, Nathan G.; Bernard, Michael L.; Speed, Ann E.

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  18. Male circumcision is associated with a lower prevalence of human papillomavirus-associated penile lesions among Kenyan men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Danielle M.; Bleeker, Maaike C.G.; Meijer, Chris J.L.M.; Hudgens, Michael G.; Agot, Kawango; Bailey, Robert C.; Ndinya-Achola, J.O.; Hayombe, Juma; Hogewoning, Cornelis J.A.; Moses, Stephen; Snijders, Peter J.F.; Smith, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated penile lesions in men may increase the risk of HPV transmission to their female partners. Risk factor data on HPV-associated penile lesions are needed from regions with a high burden of cervical cancer. Visual inspection of the penis was conducted using a colposcope at the 24-month visit among participants in a randomized controlled trial of male circumcision in Kenya, from May 2006 to October 2007. All photos were read independently by two observers for quality control. Penile exfoliated cells sampled from the glans/coronal sulcus and the shaft were tested for HPV DNA using GP5+/6+ PCR and for HPV16, 18 and 31 viral loads using a real time PCR assay. Of 275 men, 151 were circumcised and 124 uncircumcised. The median age was 22 years. Circumcised men had a lower prevalence of flat penile lesions (0.7%) versus uncircumcised (26.0%); adjusted odds ratio [OR]=0.02; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.003–0.1). Compared to men who were HPV-negative, men who were HPV DNA positive (OR=6.5; 95%CI: 2.4–17.5) or who had high HPV16/18/31 viral load (OR=5.2; 95%CI: 1.1–24.4) had higher odds of flat penile lesions. Among men with flat penile lesions, HPV56 (29.0%) and 16 (25.8%) were the most common types. Flat penile lesions are much more frequent in uncircumcised men, and associated with higher prevalence of HPV and higher viral loads. This study suggests that circumcision reduces the prevalence of HPV-associated flat lesions and may ultimately reduce male to female HPV transmission. PMID:21618520

  19. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with a half-sine wave pulse elicits direction-specific effects in human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Nikolai H

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS commonly uses so-called monophasic pulses where the initial rapidly changing current flow is followed by a critically dampened return current. It has been shown that a monophasic TMS pulse preferentially excites different cortical circuits in the human motor hand area (M1-HAND, if the induced tissue current has a posterior-to-anterior (PA or anterior-to-posterior (AP direction. Here we tested whether similar direction-specific effects could be elicited in M1-HAND using TMS pulses with a half-sine wave configuration. Results In 10 young participants, we applied half-sine pulses to the right M1-HAND which elicited PA or AP currents with respect to the orientation of the central sulcus. Measurements of the motor evoked potential (MEP revealed that PA half-sine stimulation resulted in lower resting motor threshold (RMT than AP stimulation. When stimulus intensity (SI was gradually increased as percentage of maximal stimulator output, the stimulus–response curve (SRC of MEP amplitude showed a leftward shift for PA as opposed to AP half-sine stimulation. Further, MEP latencies were approximately 1 ms shorter for PA relative to AP half-sine stimulation across the entire SI range tested. When adjusting SI to the respective RMT of PA and AP stimulation, the direction-specific differences in MEP latencies persisted, while the gain function of MEP amplitudes was comparable for PA and AP stimulation. Conclusions Using half-sine pulse configuration, single-pulse TMS elicits consistent direction-specific effects in M1-HAND that are similar to TMS with monophasic pulses. The longer MEP latency for AP half-sine stimulation suggests that PA and AP half-sine stimulation preferentially activates different sets of cortical neurons that are involved in the generation of different corticospinal descending volleys.

  20. Special Section: Human Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frydenlund, Knut; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Eleven articles examine human rights in Europe. Topics include unemployment, human rights legislation, role of the Council of Europe in promoting human rights, labor unions, migrant workers, human dignity in industralized societies, and international violence. Journal available from Council of Europe, Directorate of Press and Information, 67006…

  1. Scalability of human models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodarius, C.; Rooij, L. van; Lange, R. de

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to create a scalable human occupant model that allows adaptation of human models with respect to size, weight and several mechanical parameters. Therefore, for the first time two scalable facet human models were developed in MADYMO. First, a scalable human male was

  2. Visualizing Humans by Computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia

    1992-01-01

    Presents an overview of the problems and techniques involved in visualizing humans in a three-dimensional scene. Topics discussed include human shape modeling, including shape creation and deformation; human motion control, including facial animation and interaction with synthetic actors; and human rendering and clothing, including textures and…

  3. The chronoarchitecture of human sexual desire: a high-density electrical mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2008-11-01

    Recent neuroimaging research suggests that human sexual desire (SD) recruits both the limbic system and higher-order cognitive brain areas. Because of the temporal limitation of this technique, the chronoarchitecture of SD remains however unresolved. Here, we investigated the spatio-temporal dynamics of SD by combining a behavioral desire decision task with high-density visual event-related potential (VEP) recordings and brain source estimations. VEPs were recorded from thirteen healthy participants when presented with pictures from two different stimulus categories (i.e., high and low desirability). In agreement with the literature, behavioral results showed that participants were faster to rate non-desired stimuli than desired stimuli (p=0.028). Electrophysiological results extended these behavioral data. Group-averaged VEPs peaked at 90 to 140 ms (P100), at 142 to 220 ms (N200), and at 222 to 360 ms (P300). Desired stimuli (DS) were distinguished from non-desired stimuli (NDS) over the N200 period, notably from 142 to 187 ms. Over this time period, DS processing was characterized by a significant scalp potential field. Although both conditions (DS and NDS) showed the recruitment of the occipito-temporal region (including the extrastriate body area, EBA), LAURA source estimation of the DS scalp potential field revealed a more right-lateralized current source density maximum in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) extending to the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). The recruitment of STS and TPJ for desired stimuli indicates that these brain areas, known to be respectively involved in social cognition, attention, integration of body-related information and self-processing, play a crucial role for the coding of desirability of visual sexual human stimuli within the first 200 ms after stimulus onset. These findings support the hypothesis that complex cognitive processing for desire occurs much faster than previously thought and open new perspectives with

  4. The neural substrate of gesture recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Mirta; Fridman, Esteban A; Amengual, Alejandra; Falasco, German; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Gerscovich, Eliana Roldan; Ulloa, Erlinda R; Leiguarda, Ramon C

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies have linked action recognition with a particular pool of neurons located in the ventral premotor cortex, the posterior parietal cortex and the superior temporal sulcus (the mirror neuron system). However, it is still unclear if transitive and intransitive gestures share the same neural substrates during action-recognition processes. In the present study, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the cortical areas active during recognition of pantomimed transitive actions, intransitive gestures, and meaningless control actions. Perception of all types of gestures engaged the right pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and bilaterally in the posterior superior temporal cortex, the posterior parietal cortex, occipitotemporal regions and visual cortices. Activation of the posterior superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus region was found in both hemispheres during recognition of transitive and intransitive gestures, and in the right hemisphere during the control condition; the middle temporal gyrus showed activation in the left hemisphere when subjects recognized transitive and intransitive gestures; activation of the left inferior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) was mainly observed in the left hemisphere during recognition of the three conditions. The most striking finding was the greater activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during recognition of intransitive actions. Results show that a similar neural substrate, albeit, with a distinct engagement underlies the cognitive processing of transitive and intransitive gestures recognition. These findings suggest that selective disruptions in these circuits may lead to distinct clinical deficits.

  5. Listening to polyphonic music recruits domain-general attention and working memory circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tillmann, Barbara; Bharucha, Jamshed J

    2002-06-01

    Polyphonic music combines multiple auditory streams to create complex auditory scenes, thus providing a tool for investigating the neural mechanisms that orient attention in natural auditory contexts. Across two fMRI experiments, we varied stimuli and task demands in order to identify the cortical areas that are activated during attentive listening to real music. In individual experiments and in a conjunction analysis of the two experiments, we found bilateral blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal increases in temporal (the superior temporal gyrus), parietal (the intraparietal sulcus), and frontal (the precentral sulcus, the inferior frontal sulcus and gyrus, and the frontal operculum) areas during selective and global listening, as compared with passive rest without musical stimulation. Direct comparisons of the listening conditions showed significant differences between attending to single timbres (instruments) and attending across multiple instruments, although the patterns that were observed depended on the relative demands of the tasks being compared. The overall pattern of BOLD signal increases indicated that attentive listening to music recruits neural circuits underlying multiple forms of working memory, attention, semantic processing, target detection, and motor imagery. Thus, attentive listening to music appears to be enabled by areas that serve general functions, rather than by music-specific cortical modules.

  6. The Human/Machine Humanities: A Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollivier Dyens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available What does it mean to be human in the 21st century? The pull of engineering on every aspect of our lives, the impact of machines on how we represent ourselves, the influence of computers on our understanding of free-will, individuality and species, and the effect of microorganisms on our behaviour are so great that one cannot discourse on humanity and humanities without considering their entanglement with technology and with the multiple new dimensions of reality that it opens up. The future of humanities should take into account AI, bacteria, software, viruses (both organic and inorganic, hardware, machine language, parasites, big data, monitors, pixels, swarms systems and the Internet. One cannot think of humanity and humanities as distinct from technology anymore.

  7. From Human Past to Human Future

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2013-01-01

    This paper begins with a refutation of the orthodox model of final Pleistocene human evolution, presenting an alternative, better supported account of this crucial phase. According to this version, the transition from robust to gracile humans during that period is attributable to selective breeding rather than natural selection, rendered possible by the exponential rise of culturally guided volitional choices. The rapid human neotenization coincides with the development of numerous somatic an...

  8. ISS Payload Human Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  9. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    OpenAIRE

    TEMPLETON, Alan R

    2010-01-01

    It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important ...

  10. Preference for human eyes in human infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupierrix, Eve; de Boisferon, Anne Hillairet; Méary, David; Lee, Kang; Quinn, Paul C; Di Giorgio, Elisa; Simion, Francesca; Tomonaga, Masaki; Pascalis, Olivier

    2014-07-01

    Despite evidence supporting an early attraction to human faces, the nature of the face representation in neonates and its development during the first year after birth remain poorly understood. One suggestion is that an early preference for human faces reflects an attraction toward human eyes because human eyes are distinctive compared with other animals. In accord with this proposal, prior empirical studies have demonstrated the importance of the eye region in face processing in adults and infants. However, an attraction for the human eye has never been shown directly in infants. The current study aimed to investigate whether an attraction for human eyes would be present in newborns and older infants. With the use of a preferential looking time paradigm, newborns and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month-olds were simultaneously presented with a pair of nonhuman primate faces (chimpanzees and Barbary macaques) that differed only by the eyes, thereby pairing a face with original nonhuman primate eyes with the same face in which the eyes were replaced by human eyes. Our results revealed that no preference was observed in newborns, but a preference for nonhuman primate faces with human eyes emerged from 3months of age and remained stable thereafter. The findings are discussed in terms of how a preference for human eyes may emerge during the first few months after birth.

  11. Economics of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Elizabeth M; Schauer, Edward J; Galli, Thomas V

    2010-01-01

    Because freedom of choice and economic gain are at the heart of productivity, human trafficking impedes national and international economic growth. Within the next 10 years, crime experts expect human trafficking to surpass drug and arms trafficking in its incidence, cost to human well-being, and profitability to criminals (Schauer and Wheaton, 2006: 164-165). The loss of agency from human trafficking as well as from modern slavery is the result of human vulnerability (Bales, 2000: 15). As people become vulnerable to exploitation and businesses continually seek the lowest-cost labour sources, trafficking human beings generates profit and a market for human trafficking is created. This paper presents an economic model of human trafficking that encompasses all known economic factors that affect human trafficking both across and within national borders. We envision human trafficking as a monopolistically competitive industry in which traffickers act as intermediaries between vulnerable individuals and employers by supplying differentiated products to employers. In the human trafficking market, the consumers are employers of trafficked labour and the products are human beings. Using a rational-choice framework of human trafficking we explain the social situations that shape relocation and working decisions of vulnerable populations leading to human trafficking, the impetus for being a trafficker, and the decisions by employers of trafficked individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide a common ground upon which policymakers and researchers can collaborate to decrease the incidence of trafficking in humans.

  12. Functional imaging of numerical processing in adults and 4-y-old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F Cantlon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans, infants, pre-school children, and non-human animals appear to share a system of approximate numerical processing for non-symbolic stimuli such as arrays of dots or sequences of tones. Behavioral studies of adult humans implicate a link between these non-symbolic numerical abilities and symbolic numerical processing (e.g., similar distance effects in accuracy and reaction-time for arrays of dots and Arabic numerals. However, neuroimaging studies have remained inconclusive on the neural basis of this link. The intraparietal sulcus (IPS is known to respond selectively to symbolic numerical stimuli such as Arabic numerals. Recent studies, however, have arrived at conflicting conclusions regarding the role of the IPS in processing non-symbolic, numerosity arrays in adulthood, and very little is known about the brain basis of numerical processing early in development. Addressing the question of whether there is an early-developing neural basis for abstract numerical processing is essential for understanding the cognitive origins of our uniquely human capacity for math and science. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI at 4-Tesla and an event-related fMRI adaptation paradigm, we found that adults showed a greater IPS response to visual arrays that deviated from standard stimuli in their number of elements, than to stimuli that deviated in local element shape. These results support previous claims that there is a neurophysiological link between non-symbolic and symbolic numerical processing in adulthood. In parallel, we tested 4-y-old children with the same fMRI adaptation paradigm as adults to determine whether the neural locus of non-symbolic numerical activity in adults shows continuity in function over development. We found that the IPS responded to numerical deviants similarly in 4-y-old children and adults. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that the neural locus of adult numerical cognition takes form early in

  13. Human assisted robotic exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, B. T.; Canady, J.; Warnell, G.; Stump, E.; Nothwang, W. D.; Marathe, A. R.

    2016-05-01

    In support of achieving better performance on autonomous mapping and exploration tasks by incorporating human input, we seek here to first characterize humans' ability to recognize locations from limited visual information. Such a characterization is critical to the design of a human-in-the-loop system faced with deciding whether and when human input is useful. In this work, we develop a novel and practical place-recognition task that presents humans with video clips captured by a navigating ground robot. Using this task, we find experimentally that human performance does not seem to depend on factors such as clip length or familiarity with the scene and also that there is significant variability across subjects. Moreover, we find that humans significantly outperform a state-of-the-art computational solution to this problem, suggesting the utility of incorporating human input in autonomous mapping and exploration techniques.

  14. Human Use Index (Future)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the..