WorldWideScience

Sample records for human intoxications due

  1. Cardiogenic shock due to acute tramadol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdreau, Elodie; Iriart, Xavier; Mouton, Jean-Baptiste; Jalal, Zakaria; Thambo, Jean-Benoît

    2015-01-01

    Tramadol is a common analgesic, widely prescribed because of its efficiency and safety. We report the case of a 7-year-old child admitted in cardiac intensive care unit for cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication. Without any past history, the child was admitted at emergency room for generalised convulsion, followed by respiratory distress. Cardiogenic shock was suspected after clinical examination and chest X-ray and confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography showing low left ventricular ejection fraction (1 mg/L) and O-desmethyltramadol (>1.5 mg/L). Hemodynamic support by inotropic drug infusion and diuretics was necessary. Left ventricular function normalised after 2 days of treatment allowing drug infusion weaning. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging performed 3 days after admission confirmed normal left ventricular ejection fraction and volumes without evidence of late gadolinium enhancement. Cardiogenic shock due to tramadol intoxication is rare but exists. Negative inotropic effect of high doses of tramadol has been suspected. Quick recovery is possible.

  2. Severe methemoglobinemia due to food intoxication in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murone, Anne-Joëlle Bosset; Stucki, Pascal; Roback, Mark G; Gehri, Mario

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this case report is to illustrate food intoxication in infants as a consequence of fennel ingestion. Four cases of methemoglobinemia (MetHb) are presented here. Each patient ate homemade fennel purée a few hours prior to arriving to the emergency department with cyanosis unresponsive to oxygen, in the absence of suspected cyanotic heart disease. All 4 patients received treatment with methylene blue and fully recovered. Our cases emphasize that improper handling and storing of vegetables can lead to life-threatening MetHb.

  3. Death due to acute tetrachloroethylene intoxication in a chronic abuser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadasi, Alberto; Mastroluca, Lavinia; Marasciuolo, Laura; Caligara, Marina; Sironi, Luca; Gentile, Guendalina; Zoja, Riccardo

    2015-05-01

    Volatile substances are used widespread, especially among young people, as a cheap and easily accessible drug. Tetrachloroethylene is one of the solvents exerting effects on the central nervous system with experiences of disinhibition and euphoria. The case presented is that of a 27-year-old female, found dead by her father at home with cotton swabs dipped in the nostrils. She was already known for this type of abuse and previously admitted twice to the hospital for nonfatal acute poisonings. The swabs were still soaked in tetrachloroethylene. Toxicological and histological investigations demonstrated the presence of an overlap between chronic intake of the substance (with high concentrations in sites of accumulation, e.g., the adipose tissue, and contemporary tissue damage, as histologically highlighted) and acute intoxication as final cause of death, with a concentration of 158 mg/L in cardiac blood and 4915 mg/kg in the adipose tissue. No other drugs or medicines were detected in body fluids or tissues, and to our knowledge, this is the highest concentration ever detected in forensic cases. This peculiar case confirms the toxicity of this substance and focuses on the importance of complete histological and toxicological investigations in the distinction between chronic abuse and acute intoxication.

  4. Intoxication due to Papaver rhoeas (Corn Poppy: Five Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Kemal Günaydın

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we aimed to present five Papaver rhoeas intoxication cases, which is very rare in the literature. Case 1. A 35-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with the complaints of nausea, restlessness, and dyspnea developing 3 hours after eating Papaver rhoeas. On physical examination, her general condition was moderate; she was conscious and the vital findings were normal. The pupils were myotic. She was transferred to the toxicology intensive care unit as she experienced a generalized tonic clonic seizure lasting for three minutes. Case 2. A 41-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance as she had contractions in her arms and legs, unconsciousness, and foam coming from her mouth two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On physical examination, she was confused, the pupils were myotic, and she was tachycardic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Case 3. A 38-year-old female patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of nausea and vomiting two hours after ingestion of Papaver rhoeas. Her physical examination and tests were normal. Case 4. A 34-year-old male patient was admitted to our emergency room with complaints of numbness and loss of power in his arms and legs one hour after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. He was hospitalized at the toxicology intensive care unit for follow-up and treatment. Dyspnea and bradycardia developed on the follow-up. The oxygen saturation without oxygen support was 90%. ECG revealed sinus bradycardia. The cardiac enzymes did not increase. Case 5. A 42-year-old female patient was brought to our emergency room by 112 ambulance with contractions in her arms and legs and unconsciousness two hours after Papaver rhoeas ingestion. On her physical examination, she was confused and the pupils were myotic. Arterial blood gases analysis revealed lactic acidosis. Conclusion. All patients were followed up for a few days and

  5. Assisted suicide by fentanyl intoxication due to excessive transdermal application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juebner, Martin; Fietzke, Mathias; Beike, Justus; Rothschild, Markus A; Bender, Katja

    2014-11-01

    Herein, we report a case of an assisted suicide committed by application of 34 matrix-based fentanyl-containing transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) with different release rates. The TTS were supplied by the husband but administered by the deceased herself. Besides routine systematic toxicological analysis (STA), the concentrations of fentanyl and norfentanyl were determined in the blood (femoral and heart), urine, stomach content, brain, lung tissue, musculus iliopsoas, liver, kidney, bile and in some of the used TTS by LC-MS/MS. Blood levels of fentanyl were 60.6 μg/L in femoral blood and 94.1 μg/L in heart blood. These concentrations are in good concordance with levels described in cases with accidental or lethal suicidal fentanyl patch application. The organ distribution indicates an influence of post-mortem redistribution. The levels of residual fentanyl in the TTS were also determined. STA furthermore revealed supratherapeutic levels of bromazepam. Thus, the cause of death was a combination of fentanyl and bromazepam intoxication. However, considering the determined levels of fentanyl and norfentanyl in the entire set of specimens and the high toxicity in comparison to bromazepam, fentanyl was the leading toxic noxa.

  6. High mortality due to accidental salinomycin intoxication in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafihelan Javad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In February 2012, 100% mortality was reported in a herd with 79 local sheep that were kept around of Abhar, Northwest of Iran. The ration for adult sheep was daily mixed (40 kg straw, 25 kg wheat and 2 kg Vit-C premix and accidentally 1 500 g of salinomycin (Salinomycin 12% Premix; Aras Bazar Laboratories, Iran had been added to the ration (22388 mg/kg = 22388 ppm and overnight was fed to herd. At the morning, 78 sheep were founded dead and one of them showed convulsive seizures. Postmortem examination revealed pulmonary congestion and edema, hemorrhages in abomasum, large pale kidney and white streak lines in myocardium. Main histopathologic lesions were extensive subepicardial and intercardiomyofibers hemorrhages, extensive cardiomyolysis and myocarditis in heart, severe hyperemia and extensive acute tubular necrosis (ATN in kidneys and focal necrosis and retention of bile cholangitis in the liver. In this study, on the basis of the history, observation of the ionophore remnant in the ration, clinical signs, gross and histopathological findings, acute salinomycin intoxication is definitely diagnosed.

  7. Clinical features and management of intoxication due to hallucinogenic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikin, J B; Krantz, A J; Zell-Kanter, M; Barkin, R L; Hryhorczuk, D O

    1989-01-01

    Hallucinogenic drugs are unique in that they produce the desired hallucinogenic effects at what are considered non-toxic doses. The hallucinogenic drugs can be categorised into 4 basic groups: indole alkaloid derivatives, piperidine derivatives, phenylethylamines and the cannabinols. The drugs reviewed include lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), phencyclidine (PCP), cocaine, amphetamines, opiates, marijuana, psilocybin, mescaline, and 'designer drugs.' Particularly noteworthy is that each hallucinogen produces characteristic behavioural effects which are related to its serotonergic, dopaminergic or adrenergic activity. Cocaine produces simple hallucinations, PCP can produce complex hallucinations analogous to a paranoid psychosis, while LSD produces a combination of hallucinations, pseudohallucinations and illusions. Dose relationships with changes in the quality of the hallucinatory experience have been described with amphetamines and, to some extent, LSD. Flashbacks have been described with LSD and alcohol. Management of the intoxicated patient is dependent on the specific behavioural manifestation elicited by the drug. The principles involve differentiating the patient's symptoms from organic (medical or toxicological) and psychiatric aetiologies and identifying the symptom complex associated with the particular drug. Panic reactions may require treatment with a benzodiazepine or haloperidol. Patients with LSD psychosis may require an antipsychotic. Patients exhibiting prolonged drug-induced psychosis may require a variety of treatments including ECT, lithium and l-5-hydroxytryptophan.

  8. Surfactant therapy restores gas exchange in lung injury due to paraquat intoxication in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. So; E. de Buijzer; D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); U. Kaisers; P.J.J. van Genderen (Perry); B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractParaquat is a weed killer which causes often fatal lung damage in humans and other animals. There is evidence that the pulmonary surfactant system is involved in the pathophysiology of respiratory failure after paraquat intoxication and, therefore, the possi

  9. Ricinus communis Intoxications in Human and Veterinary Medicine—A Summary of Real Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schaer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  10. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  11. Generalized chorea due to delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Feng Sung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorder due to delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide (CO intoxication is uncommon. Generalized chorea, presenting as an initial symptom of delayed encephalopathy, is extremely rare. We describe a 60-year-old woman, who had completely recovered from acute CO poisoning, developed mental and behavioral changes, urinary incontinence and generalized chorea 2 weeks thereafter. T2-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive hyperintensity of the bilateral periventricular and subcortical white matter and the globus pallidus. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT with technetium-99 ethylene cysteine dimer showed inhomogeneous perfusion in the cerebral cortex, with decreased uptake in bilateral frontal regions. Delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication was diagnosed, and the symptoms gradually improved after hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT. This case report demonstrates that generalized chorea may be one of the initial presenting symptoms of delayed encephalopathy after acute CO intoxication. We hypothesize that the generalized chorea in our patient may have been caused by the subcortical white matter lesions, which most likely interrupted the basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits and that HBOT may be the treatment of choice for such patients.

  12. Two Fatal Intoxications Due to Tramadol Alone: Autopsy Case Reports and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioia, Sara; Lancia, Massimo; Bacci, Mauro; Suadoni, Fabio

    2017-08-01

    Since tramadol was marketed, it has been widely prescribed as a pain killer because of its relatively safe profile among opioids.Nevertheless, intoxication can occur: overdose can lead to fatal outcomes mostly in association with other drugs, via the potential interaction with serotonergic antidepressant medications, as well as the potential for increased central nervous system (CNS) depression.Fatal outcomes only attributable to tramadol are a rare entity. In this case report, 2 fatal cases are described due to tramadol stand-alone intoxication with peculiar characteristics.In case 1, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis detected tramadol in all specimens (32 μg/mL in the heart blood, 23.9 μg/mL in the femoral blood, 3.3 μg/mL in the bile, and 1.4 μg/mL in the urine). No other CNS depressants were detected by toxicological analysis.In case 2, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analysis detected tramadol in all specimens (7.5 μg/mL in the heart blood, 5.8 μg/mL in the femoral blood, and 18 μg/mL in the urine). No other CNS depressants were detected by toxicological analysis.Review of the literature was performed to clarify the actual knowledge on this topic.

  13. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus

    OpenAIRE

    Weijters, B.J.; Verbunt, R.J.A.M.; Hoogsteen, J.; Visser, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;1...

  14. Lithium Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Lithium has been commonly used for the treatment of several mood disorders particularly bipolar disorder in the last 60 years. Increased intake and decreased excretion of lithium are the main causes for the development of lithium intoxication. The influence of lithium intoxication on body is evaluated as two different groups; reversible or irreversible. Irreversible damage is usually related with the length of time passed as intoxicated. Acute lithium intoxication could occur when an overdose of lithium is received mistakenly or for the purpose of suicide. Patients may sometimes take an overdose of lithium for self-medication resulting in acute intoxication during chronic, while others could develop chronic lithium intoxication during a steady dose treatment due to a problem in excretion of drug. In such situations, it is crucial to be aware of risk factors, to recognize early clinical symptoms and to conduct a proper medical monitoring. In order to justify or exclude the diagnosis, quantitative evaluation of lithium in blood and toxicologic screening is necessary. Following the monitoring schedules strictly and urgent intervention in case of intoxication would definitely reduce mortality and sequela related with lithium intoxication. In this article, the etiology, frequency, definition, clinical features and treatment approaches to the lithium intoxication have been briefly reviewed.

  15. Lead intoxication due to ayurvedic medications as a cause of abdominal pain in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Varun; Midha, Vandana; Mahajan, Ramit; Narang, Vikram; Wander, Praneet; Sood, Ridhi; Sood, Ajit

    2017-02-01

    Though a majority of cases of lead intoxication come from occupational exposures, traditional and folk remedies have also been reported to contain toxic amounts of lead. We present a large series of patients with lead poisoning due to intake of Ayurvedic medicines, all of whom presented with unexplained abdominal pain. This was a retrospective, observational case series from a tertiary care center in India. The charts of patients who underwent blood lead level (BLL) testing as a part of workup for unexplained abdominal pain between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. The patients with lead intoxication (BLLs >25 μg/dl) were identified and demographics, history, possible risk factors, clinical presentation and investigations were reviewed. Treatment details, duration, time to symptomatic recovery, laboratory follow-up and adverse events during therapy were recorded. BLLs were tested in 786 patients with unexplained abdominal pain and high levels were identified in 75 (9.5%) patients, of which a majority (73 patients, 9.3%) had history of Ayurvedic medication intake and only two had occupational exposure. Five randomly chosen Ayurvedic medications were analyzed and lead levels were impermissibly high (14-34,950 ppm) in all of them. Besides pain in abdomen, other presenting complaints were constipation, hypertension, neurological symptoms and acute kidney injury. Anemia and abnormal liver biochemical tests were observed in all the 73 patients. Discontinuing the Ayurvedic medicines and chelation with d-penicillamine led to improvement in symptoms and reduction in BLLs in all patients within 3-4 months. The patients presenting with severe recurrent abdominal pain, anemia and history of use of Ayurvedic medicines should be evaluated for lead toxicity. Early diagnosis in such cases can prevent unnecessary investigations and interventions, and permits early commencement of the treatment.

  16. Intoxications due to ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone: organ distribution of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and gamma-butyrolactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Daniel; Rothschild, Markus A; Kröner, Lars

    2008-12-01

    In Europe, the misuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and its analogues has increased within the recent years. Here, 2 fatalities and 1 nonfatal intoxication resulting from ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone (GBL), a precursor of GHB, are presented. GHB was quantified involving the conversion to GBL by application of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method. Besides quantitation of GHB equivalents ("total GBL"), all specimens of case 1 were analyzed for the metabolic precursor GBL itself (absolute GBL). The cause of death in each case was attributed to GHB intoxication; the manner of death was suicide in the first case and accidental in the second one. Another yet nonfatal GHB intoxication was reported by an emergency department concerning a 36-year-old woman who was hospitalized due to her comatose state and loss of adverse effects reflexes. Here nail polish remover pads were used as source for GBL.

  17. Salade malade: malignant ventricular arrhythmias due to an accidental intoxication with Aconitum napellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijters, B J; Verbunt, R J A M; Hoogsteen, J; Visser, R F

    2008-01-01

    Intoxication with Aconitum napellus is rare in our regions. Aconite alkaloids can cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because the margin of safety is low between the analgesic and toxic dose, intoxication is not rare when Aconite is used in herbal medicine. We present a case in which a 39-year-old male was accidentally intoxicated with Aconite. Even though no antidote or adequate therapy is available he was successfully resuscitated. (Neth Heart J 2008;16:96-9.).

  18. Tetrodotoxin--distribution and accumulation in aquatic organisms, and cases of human intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2008-05-28

    Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX). In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  19. Benzylpenicillin, acetylcysteine and silibinin as antidotes in human hepatocytes intoxicated with alpha-amanitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalan, Jan; Ostrowska, Alina; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Podhorska-Okołów, Marzena; Patrzałek, Dariusz; Szelag, Adam; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    Fatalities due to mushroom poisonings are increasing worldwide, with high mortality rate resulting from ingestion of amanitin-producing species. Intoxications caused by amanitin-containing mushrooms represent an unresolved problem in clinical toxicology since no specific and fully efficient antidote is available. The objective of this study was a comparative evaluation of benzylpenicillin (BPCN), acetylcysteine (ACC) and silibinin (SIL) as an antidotes in human hepatocytes intoxicated with alpha-amanitin (alpha-AMA). All experiments were performed on cultured human hepatocytes. Cytotoxicity evaluation of cultured cells using MTT assay and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was performed at 12, 24 and 48h of exposure to alpha-AMA and/or antidotes. The significant decline of cell viability and significant increase of LDH activity were observed in all experimental hepatocyte cultures after 12, 24 and 36h exposure to alpha-AMA at concentration 2microM. Exposure of the cells to alpha-AMA resulted also in significant reduction of cell spreading and attachment. However, addition of tested antidotes to experimental cultures significantly stimulated cell proliferation and attachment. In cell cultures exposed simultaneously to alpha-AMA and tested antidotes cytotoxic parameters (MTT and LDH) were not significantly different from control incidences. The cytoprotective effect of all antidotes was not dose-related, which reflects a high efficacy of all these substances. Administration of studied antidotes was not associated with any adverse effects in hepatocytes. The administration of ACC, BPCN or SIL to human hepatocyte cultures showed a similar strong protective effect against cell damage in alpha-AMA toxicity.

  20. Marijuana intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  1. Cardiomyopathy in ostriches (Struthio camelus) due to avocado (Persea americana var. guatemalensis) intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, W P; Naudé, T W; Van Rensburg, I B; Botha, C J; Pienaar, A C

    1994-09-01

    Nine out of 120 ostriches died from congestive heart failure within 96 h of ingesting avocado leaves and immature fruit in an avocado orchard containing Hass and Fuerte cultivars. Foliage and immature fruit from both cultivars dosed to ostriches (n = 4) and domestic hens (n = 8) resulted in severe cardiomyopathy in all the ostriches. In the hens, which had received a lower dose, milder lesions occurred. Macroscopically the intoxication in ostriches resulted in a severe anasarca of the neck and ventral body. The cardiomyopathy was characterised by degeneration and necrosis of myocytes, a marked infiltration of heterophils and in one case, early fibroplasia.

  2. A case of intoxication due to a highly cytotoxic Bacillus cereus strain isolated from cooked chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Ana C; Minnaard, Jessica; Pérez, Pablo F; Alippi, Adriana M

    2015-04-01

    Outbreaks of Bacillus cereus infection/intoxication are not commonly reported because symptoms are often mild, and the disease is self-limiting. However, hypervirulent strains increase health risks. We report a case, which occurred in Argentina, of severe food poisoning illness on a healthy adult woman associated to B. cereus strain MVL2011. The studied strain was highly cytotoxic, showed high ability to detach Caco-2 cells and was positive for the hblA, hblB, and hblC genes of the hbl complex, bceT, entS and ces. As it is considered that B. cereus emetic cluster evolved from a panmictic population of diarrheal strains, B. cereus MVL2011 could constitute an intermediate strain between diarrheal and emetic strains.

  3. An outbreak of food borne illness due to methomyl pesticide intoxication in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Hyo-Wook; Jeong, Mi-Hye; Park, Jung Soo; Choi, Hwan-Won; Kim, So-Young; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2013-11-01

    On February 21, 2013, 6 elderly people collapsed abruptly after eating bean sprout bibimbab (boiled rice mixed with bean sprouts and seasoned with soybean sauce) at a countryside restaurant in the Chungbuk Province, Korea. Minutes after eating the meal, all of the patients lapsed into a state of stupor. Respiratory arrest developed in 2 patients; and one of two patients died of cardiac arrest. The autopsy identified methomyl and methanol in the deceased patient's gastric contents and in the remaining soybeanbean sauce seasoning. Five of the 6 patients ingested one spoonful of the soybeanbean sauce seasoning and survived, while one patient who died of cardiac arrest, ingested approximately two spoons. Symptoms of toxicity presented quickly in the subjects and progressed rapidly, including chest tightness, an unusual sensation in the pit of the stomach, dizziness, ataxia, and finally, collapse. Three patients who drank ethanol with the meal experienced only mild toxic symptoms. Our analysis of the clinical observations in these cases suggests that ingestion of methomyl pesticide and the additive toxicity of methanol may have been responsible for the intoxication.

  4. Tetrodotoxin – Distribution and Accumulation in Aquatic Organisms, and Cases of Human Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Arakawa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pufferfish of the family Tetraodontidae possess a potent neurotoxin, tetrodotoxin (TTX. In marine pufferfish species, toxicity is generally high in the liver and ovary, whereas in brackish water and freshwater species, toxicity is higher in the skin. In 1964, the toxin of the California newt was identified as TTX as well, and since then TTX has been detected in a variety of other organisms. TTX is produced primarily by marine bacteria, and pufferfish accumulate TTX via the food chain that begins with these bacteria. Consequently, pufferfish become non-toxic when they are fed TTX-free diets in an environment in which the invasion of TTX-bearing organisms is completely shut off. Although some researchers claim that the TTX of amphibians is endogenous, we believe that it also has an exogenous origin, i.e., from organisms consumed as food. TTX-bearing animals are equipped with a high tolerance to TTX, and thus retain or accumulate TTX possibly as a biologic defense substance. There have been many cases of human intoxication due to the ingestion of TTX-bearing pufferfish, mainly in Japan, China, and Taiwan, and several victims have died. Several cases of TTX intoxication due to the ingestion of small gastropods, including some lethal cases, were recently reported in China and Taiwan, revealing a serious public health issue.

  5. Acute enteral manganese intoxication with hepatic failure due to ingestion of a joint supplement overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Angela; Epstein, Steven E; Gindiciosi, Blaz; Cartoceti, Andrew; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-09-01

    Manganese is a ubiquitous, essential trace element and a common ingredient of joint supplement tablets. Little information is known about the inherent toxic potential if ingested at higher doses. A 5-year-old female spayed Pug dog presented for evaluation of vomiting and ataxia after accidental ingestion of approximately 100 joint supplement tablets. The dog developed acute hepatic failure and was euthanized 6 days after presentation due to progression of the disease. Necropsy showed severe acute hepatic necrosis. Liver and kidney samples were submitted for toxicology analysis, results of which showed severely elevated manganese concentrations in the liver and kidneys.

  6. Fatal Intoxications Due to Administration of Isosorbide Tablets Contaminated with Pyrimethamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Shafi, Humera; Mahmood, Zahid; Sarwar, Mohammad; Usman, Hafiz Faisal; Tahir, Mohammad Ashraf; Ashiq, Muhammad Zar

    2016-09-01

    In January 2012, 664 cases of pyrimethamine toxicity and 151 deaths were reported among cardiac patients that had recently received free medicines from pharmacy of Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore, Pakistan. These patients, ages ranged from 58 to 75 years, were prescribed simvastatin, clopidogrel, aspirin soluble, isosorbide mononitrate, and amlodipine. On examination of medications being given to them, it was found that a particular batch of isosorbide mononitrate tablets was contaminated with 50 mg pyrimethamine. Cardiac patients were taking isosorbide contaminated with pyrimethamine twice daily (100 mg pyrimethamine/day), whereas therapeutic dose of pyrimethamine for malaria is 25 mg/week. Postmortem urine, cardiac blood, and femoral blood specimens of three deceased males were submitted to author's laboratory for analysis. Postmortem toxicological analysis revealed that pyrimethamine concentration fell within the range of 1-10 μg/mL by liquid chromatography. Clinical, autopsy, histopathological, and toxicological findings strongly suggested toxicity due to pyrimethamine accumulation that resulted in deaths of these cardiac patients.

  7. Kerusakan Hati Akibat Keracunan Alkohol Berulang pada Tikus Wistar (LIVER DAMAGE DUE TO ALCOHOL INTOXICATION REPEAT IN WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Suaniti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study was to determine the liver damage from alcohol intoxication in Wistar rats.The design used in this study was a randomized true experimental post test only control group design. Thestudy used 15 rats divided into 3 treatment groups each of which consists of 5 rats. The first group wasgiven distill water. The second group was given 5% alcohol, and the third group was given 20% alcohol. Ratswere treated with alcohol daily for six weeks. Biochemical markers were detected the levels of aldehydedehydrogenase (ALDH in serum and histological changes in liver tissue. ALDH is a biochemical markerof a sensitive and specific ethanol after chronic alcohol administration. Blood sample was collected at 6and 24 hours after the last peroral administration of repeated alcohol treatment, and serum levels ofALDH was tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results showed that the levels ofALDH in the blood of alcohol treated Wistar rats significantly higher as compared to those of control rats.ALDH levels increased by 83.11% after administration of 5% alcohol and 112.05% after administration of20% taken after 6 hours of alcohol for 6 weeks. On samples taken after 24 hours, ALDH levels by 95.11%after administration of 5% alcohol and 86.79% after administration of 20% alcohol. Oral treatment with20% alcohol chronically was led to changes in the microscopic structure (necrosis of liver tissue in Wistarrats. Liver tissue damage occured due to repeated use of alcohol is accompanied by increasing serum levelsof ALDH in Wistar rats.

  8. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  9. Animal models that best reproduce the clinical manifestations of human intoxication with organophosphorus compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Edna F R; Aracava, Yasco; DeTolla, Louis J; Beecham, E Jeffrey; Basinger, G William; Wakayama, Edgar J; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2014-08-01

    The translational capacity of data generated in preclinical toxicological studies is contingent upon several factors, including the appropriateness of the animal model. The primary objectives of this article are: 1) to analyze the natural history of acute and delayed signs and symptoms that develop following an acute exposure of humans to organophosphorus (OP) compounds, with an emphasis on nerve agents; 2) to identify animal models of the clinical manifestations of human exposure to OPs; and 3) to review the mechanisms that contribute to the immediate and delayed OP neurotoxicity. As discussed in this study, clinical manifestations of an acute exposure of humans to OP compounds can be faithfully reproduced in rodents and nonhuman primates. These manifestations include an acute cholinergic crisis in addition to signs of neurotoxicity that develop long after the OP exposure, particularly chronic neurologic deficits consisting of anxiety-related behavior and cognitive deficits, structural brain damage, and increased slow electroencephalographic frequencies. Because guinea pigs and nonhuman primates, like humans, have low levels of circulating carboxylesterases-the enzymes that metabolize and inactivate OP compounds-they stand out as appropriate animal models for studies of OP intoxication. These are critical points for the development of safe and effective therapeutic interventions against OP poisoning because approval of such therapies by the Food and Drug Administration is likely to rely on the Animal Efficacy Rule, which allows exclusive use of animal data as evidence of the effectiveness of a drug against pathologic conditions that cannot be ethically or feasibly tested in humans.

  10. Near-fatal persistent anion- and osmolal-gap acidosis due to massive gamma-butyrolactone/ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heytens, Luc; Neels, Hugo; Van Regenmortel, Niels; van den Brink, Wim; Henckes, Manu; Schouwers, Sofie; Dockx, Greet; Crunelle, Cleo L

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of an ethanol and massive gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) intoxication, the precursor of the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in life-threatening metabolic acidosis (pH 6.5) with a highly increased anion- and osmolal gap. Rapid analysis using gas chromatography revealed a GHB plasma concentration of 4400 mg/L, far above the upper limit concentration of 1000 mg/L found in adult fatalities attributed to GBL. Full recovery was established following supportive treatment including haemodialysis. This is the first report of a combined ethanol/GBL intoxication as a cause of high serum anion- and osmolal-gap metabolic acidosis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. [Intoxication due to pesticides in the central northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil - 2002 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Pedro Dias Mangolini; Bellini, Marcella

    2013-11-01

    This research is based on epidemiological records of toxicological occurrences in individual records of investigation into pesticide poisoning at the Maringá Intoxication Control Center at the Regional University Hospital of Maringá. The intoxications in patients poisoned from 2002 to 2011, in towns that comprise the Central Northern Paraná Geographic Mesoregion where Maringá is located, were taken into consideration in this study. As a result, it was established that approximately 67.12% of those poisoned were males, the age groups most affected are 20-29 years old and 30-39 years old. Suicide attempts appear as the main motivation for hospitalization (possibly disguising the chronic intoxication), and mainly insecticides and herbicides are involved in the poisonings, with 62.60% and 26%, respectively. Lastly, the urgent need for public health policies in to reduce this statistic immediately is self-evident, as these poisonings are the ones recorded, as those resulting from food poisoning are not being computed.

  12. Identification of a human monoclonal antibody to replace equine diphtheria antitoxin for treatment of diphtheria intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Leila M; Booth, Brian J; Rowley, Kirk J; Leav, Brett A; Cheslock, Peter S; Garrity, Kerry A; Sloan, Susan E; Thomas, William; Babcock, Gregory J; Wang, Yang

    2013-11-01

    Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) has been the cornerstone of the treatment of Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection for more than 100 years. Although the global incidence of diphtheria has declined steadily over the last quarter of the 20th century, the disease remains endemic in many parts of the world, and significant outbreaks still occur. DAT is an equine polyclonal antibody that is not commercially available in the United States and is in short supply globally. A safer, more readily available alternative to DAT would be desirable. In the current study, we obtained human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) directly from antibody-secreting cells in the circulation of immunized human volunteers. We isolated a panel of diverse hMAbs that recognized diphtheria toxoid, as well as a variety of recombinant protein fragments of diphtheria toxin. Forty-five unique hMAbs were tested for neutralization of diphtheria toxin in in vitro cytotoxicity assays with a 50% effective concentration of 0.65 ng/ml for the lead candidate hMAb, 315C4. In addition, 25 μg of 315C4 completely protected guinea pigs from intoxication in an in vivo lethality model, yielding an estimated relative potency of 64 IU/mg. In comparison, 1.6 IU of DAT was necessary for full protection from morbidity and mortality in this model. We further established that our lead candidate hMAb binds to the receptor-binding domain of diphtheria toxin and physically blocks the toxin from binding to the putative receptor, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor. The discovery of a specific and potent human neutralizing antibody against diphtheria toxin holds promise as a potential therapeutic.

  13. Opioid intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... easily result in intoxication. The provider prescribes a sleep medicine (sedative) in addition to the opioid. The provider ... an opioid with certain other drugs, such as sleep medicines or alcohol Taking the opioid in ways not ...

  14. Comparison of Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with food intoxication with isolates from human nasal carriers and human infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattinger, L; Stephan, R; Layer, F; Johler, S

    2012-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus represents an organism of striking versatility. While asymptomatic nasal colonization is widespread, it can also cause serious infections, toxinoses and life-threatening illnesses in humans and animals. Staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP), one of the most prevalent causes of foodborne intoxication worldwide, results from oral intake of staphylococcal enterotoxins leading to violent vomiting, diarrhea and cramps shortly upon ingestion. The aim of the present study was to compare isolates associated with SFP to isolates collected from cases of human nasal colonization and clinical infections in order to investigate the role of S. aureus colonizing and infecting humans as a possible source of SFP. Spa typing and DNA microarray profiling were used to characterize a total of 120 isolates, comprising 50 isolates collected from the anterior nares of healthy donors, 50 isolates obtained from cases of clinical infections in humans and 20 isolates related to outbreaks of staphylococcal food poisoning. Several common spa types were found among isolates of all three sources (t015, t018, t056, t084). DNA microarray results showed highly similar virulence gene profiles for isolates from all tested sources. These results suggest contamination of foodstuff with S. aureus colonizing and infecting food handlers to represent a source of SFP.

  15. [Nonconvulsive status epilepticus due to Fentanyl intoxication in hemodialysed patients: two case reports and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Daniela; Pozzi, Annalisa; Laudi, Claudio; Rimoldi, Laura; Sogni, Elisabetta; Farfaglia, Piera; Figliola, Carmela; Jovane, Carlo; Zarcone, Davide; Caretta, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The management of the pain therapy (ischemic pain, neoplastic pain) in hemodialysis patients has become a frequent challenge in the last years. These patients often require the prescription of major analgesic drugs such as Opioids like Fentanyl, in order to control the pain. It is necessary to pay attention to the correct dosage and to the half life of these drugs, that results prolonged in the chronic renal insufficiency. The main side effect of opioids is respiratory depression which is well known, however, up to date, there is a lack of reports about other less frequent side effects, such as epilepsy or status epilepticus, in the literature. We report two cases of chronic hemodialysed patients who developed a generalized nonconvulsive status epilepticus secondary to Fentanyl intoxication administered for the pain therapy. These cases required a synergic team management with involvement of the nephrologist, the neurologist and the intensivist. The generalized non convulsive status epilepticus could be an important and serious side effect of Fentanyl in hemodialysis patients and it is therefore necessary a close monitoring of the pain therapy in these subjects.

  16. Influence of commonly used clinical antidotes on antioxidant systems in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with alpha-amanitin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalan, Jan; Piotrowska, Aleksandra; Gomułkiewicz, Agnieszka; Sozański, Tomasz; Szeląg, Adam; Dziegięl, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    α-Amanitin (α-AMA) is the main toxin of Amanita phalloides and its subspecies (A. virosa and A. verna). The primary mechanism of α-AMA toxicity is associated with protein synthesis blocking in hepatocytes. Additionally, α-AMA exhibits prooxidant properties that may contribute to its severe hepatotoxicity. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of α-AMA on lipid peroxidation and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in human hepatocyte culture. The effects of benzylpenicillin (BPCN), N-acetyl-L-cysteine (ACC), and silibinin (SIL) on SOD and CAT activities and on lipid peroxidation in human hepatocyte culture intoxicated with α-AMA were also examined. In human hepatocyte culture, 48-hour exposure to α-AMA at a 2-μM concentration caused an increase in SOD activity, a reduction of CAT activity, and a significant increase in lipid peroxidation. Changes in SOD and CAT activity caused by α-AMA could probably enhance lipid peroxidation by increased generation of hydrogen peroxide combined with reduced detoxification of that oxygen radical. The addition of antidotes (ACC or SIL) to the culture medium provided more effective protection against lipid peroxidation in human hepatocytes intoxicated with α-AMA than the addition of BPCN, possessing no antioxidant properties.

  17. Study II: mechanoreceptive sensation is of increased importance for human postural control under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modig, F; Patel, M; Magnusson, M; Fransson, P A

    2012-03-01

    Standing postural stability relies on input from visual, vestibular, proprioceptive and mechanoreceptive sensors. When the information from any of these sensors is unavailable or disrupted, the central nervous system maintains postural stability by relying more on the contribution from the reliable sensors, termed sensory re-weighting. Alcohol intoxication is known to affect the integrity of the vestibular and visual systems. The aim was to assess how mechanoreceptive sensory information contributed to postural stability at 0.00% (i.e. sober), 0.06% and 0.10% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in 25 healthy subjects (mean age 25.1 years). The subjects were assessed with eyes closed and eyes open under quiet standing and while standing was perturbed by repeated, random-length, vibratory stimulation of the calf muscles. Plantar cutaneous mechanoreceptive sensation was assessed for both receptor types: slowly adapting (tactile sensitivity) and rapidly adapting (vibration perception). The correlation between recorded torque variance and the sensation from both mechanoreceptor types was calculated. The recorded stability during alcohol intoxication was significantly influenced by both the tactile sensation and vibration perception of the subjects. Moreover, the study revealed a fluctuating association between the subjects' vibration perception and torque variance during balance perturbations, which was significantly influenced by the level of alcohol intoxication, vision and adaptation. Hence, one's ability to handle balance perturbations under the influence of alcohol is strongly dependent on accurate mechanoreceptive sensation and efficient sensory re-weighting.

  18. Life threatening central nervous system manifestations and hypothermia due to maneb intoxication in a child : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Tollenaer, S M; Buysse, Cmp; van den Anker, J N; Touw, D J; de Hoog, M

    2006-01-01

    Maneb, manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate, is a fungicide pesticide used in the agriculture and bulb flower culture sector. Toxicological effects for humans have been reported in literature and are diverse. They vary from allergic reactions (dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchitis), central n

  19. Life threatening central nervous system manifestations and hypothermia due to maneb intoxication in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Tollenaer, S M; Buysse, Cmp; van den Anker, J N; Touw, D J; de Hoog, M

    2006-12-01

    Maneb, manganese ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate, is a fungicide pesticide used in the agriculture and bulb flower culture sector. Toxicological effects for humans have been reported in literature and are diverse. They vary from allergic reactions (dermatitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchitis), central nervous system effects (muscarinic, nicotinic, central and extrapyramidal) and renal toxicity (acute renal failure).A 7-year old girl was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit because of status epilepticus. Physical examination showed respiratory insufficiency, convulsions, and severe hypothermia (32.5 degrees C). The patient was intubated and her convulsions were successfully treated with benzodiazepines. Except for a combined metabolic and respiratory acidosis and hyperglycemia, diagnostic investigations on admission (full blood count, electrolytes, liver and renal functions, cerebrospinal fluid investigation, toxicology screening of blood and urine for barbiturates and benzodiazepines, blood culture, herpes PCR, and a CT scan of the brain) were normal. Within 24 hours, there was a complete recovery of all neurological signs. Within 72 hours, the patient was discharged from the hospital. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric investigation of her blood showed amounts of maneb, which can explain all symptoms and signs. However, effects of this magnitude on the central nervous system have not previously been reported in humans.

  20. Effects of protein-deficient nutrition during rat pregnancy and development on developmental hindlimb crossing due to methylmercury intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Bai, Chengjiang [Montreal Univ., Quebec (Canada). Dept. de Medecine du Travail et Hygiene du Milieu

    2000-07-01

    Pregnant rats were fed either a control (20% protein) or low (3.5%) protein diet during gestation and lactation. The pups were separated from their mothers on postnatal day 21, and were given the same dient as their corresponding mothers. The groups of pups from each diet group were treated on either postnatal day 21 or postnatal day 60 with 7.5 mg methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) per kg b.w. once daily by gavage for 10 consecutive days, and the development of ataxia (hind-limb corossing) was monitored. The offspring from mothers on the protein-deficient diet were found to be more sensitive to MeHg-induced ataxia than those on the protein-sufficient diet. The former accumulated more mercury in different brain regions than the latter. The rates of protein synthesis in different brain regions of the offspring fed the protein-deficient diet were significantly reduced compared with the rates in those fed the protein-sufficient diet. However, MeHg treatment did not significantly modify the rates of such protein synthesis further in protein-deficient rats. Thus, a significantly much higher inhibition of the intrinsic rates of protein synthesis in different brain regions due to severe protein deficiency, as observed in this study, may be partly responsible for the increased susceptibility of developing rats fed a protein-deficient diet to MeHg-induced ataxia, or hindlimb crossing, although other factor(s) might also be involved. (orig.)

  1. Calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux and ethanol intoxication: studies of human red blood cells and rodent brain synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H A; Harris, R A

    1983-04-08

    Effects of ethanol on calcium-dependent potassium efflux were investigated in red blood cells (RBC) from humans and brain synaptosomes from rats and mice. 86 Rb was used as a tracer for potassium. Synaptosomes and RBC were lysed and resealed with 86 Rb and calcium-EGTA buffers to regulate intracellular levels of ionized calcium. In vitro addition of ethanol (100 mM) stimulated the calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux of synaptosomes. This stimulation was blocked by apamin, an inhibitor of the calcium-dependent potassium current of nerve cells. In addition, intracerebroventricular injection of apamin inhibited ethanol-induced narcosis in mice, providing behavioral evidence for the importance of calcium-stimulated potassium efflux in alcohol intoxication. In vitro addition of ethanol, propanol or butanol increased calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux of human RBC at low concentrations of free calcium, but did not change the calcium-independent efflux of 86 Rb. These results suggest that the calcium-dependent 86 Rb efflux of nerve endings may have an important role in the pharmacological and toxicological effects of ethanol.

  2. Baclofen Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Baclofen is a β-(ρ-chlorophenyl derivative of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and is usually prescribed for spasticity of spinal cord origin, intractable hiccup, trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and tardive dyskinesia. The usual recommended daily dose ranges from 40-80 mg, and the total dose should not exceed 80 mg per day. A 41 year old woman using baclofen for migraine therapy intended suicide after a bitter headache attack by taking 37 tablets, 10 mg in each. On arrival to emergency room, she was conscious and co-operable, but somnolent, her pupils were normoisocoric and light reflex was intact bilaterally. On her follow up, respiratory insufficiency and unconsciousness was observed so she was entubated orotracheally and transferred to intensive care unit (ICU for advanced tests and therapy. No pathology was determined on cranial CT. On ICU follow up, she was unconscious and mechanically ventilated, her Glasgow Coma Scale was 3/15 (E1M1VE and pupils were mid-dilated with no light reflex. Since she was again conscious, oriented and co-operable on 19th hour of arrival to ICU and 20th hour of arrival to emergency room, spontaneous breathing trials was started. Extubation was carried out on her 31th hour of arrival to ICU and 32th hour of arrival to emergency room. In conclusion; since baclofen overdose may cause deep coma, it should also be included in differential diagnosis. According to our opinion, performing diagnostic toxicological tests is not always possible that’s why history and physical examination is fundamental in case of baclofen intoxication and we can get good results by giving frequent neurological examination, supportive and extracorporeal therapy in such a case.

  3. Water intoxication in adult cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Naoya; Ofuji, Sosuke; Abe, Sakae; Tanaka, Ai; Uematsu, Masami; Ogata, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Water intoxication is a common disorder in calves and is usually characterized by transient hemoglobinuria. In contrast, the condition is very rare in adult cattle, with few reports on naturally occurring cases. In the present report, four female Japanese Black cattle, aged 16-25 months, showed neurological signs when they drank water following a water outage. Hemoglobinuria was not grossly observed, while severe hyponatremia was revealed by laboratory tests. Autopsy indicated cerebral edema with accumulation of serous fluid in expanded Virchow-Robin spaces. These results indicate the possibility of water intoxication associated with cerebral edema due to severe dilutional hyponatremia in adult cattle.

  4. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  5. Semicarbazone EGA Inhibits Uptake of Diphtheria Toxin into Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Schnell

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Diphtheria toxin is a single-chain protein toxin that invades human cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. In acidic endosomes, its translocation domain inserts into endosomal membranes and facilitates the transport of the catalytic domain (DTA from endosomal lumen into the host cell cytosol. Here, DTA ADP-ribosylates elongation factor 2 inhibits protein synthesis and leads to cell death. The compound 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenylsemicarbazone (EGA has been previously shown to protect cells from various bacterial protein toxins which deliver their enzymatic subunits from acidic endosomes to the cytosol, including Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin and the binary clostridial actin ADP-ribosylating toxins C2, iota and Clostridium difficile binary toxin (CDT. Here, we demonstrate that EGA also protects human cells from diphtheria toxin by inhibiting the pH-dependent translocation of DTA across cell membranes. The results suggest that EGA might serve for treatment and/or prevention of the severe disease diphtheria.

  6. Behavioral assessment of NIH Swiss mice acutely intoxicated with tetramethylenedisulfotetramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Brenna M; Silverman, Jill L; Bruun, Donald A; Puhger, Kyle R; McCoy, Mark R; Hammock, Bruce D; Crawley, Jacqueline N; Lein, Pamela J

    2015-01-01

    of long-term behavioral deficits in TETS-intoxicated mice on these six assays suggests that the neurobehavioral consequences of TETS exposure described in human survivors of acute TETS intoxication are likely due to sustained seizure activity, rather than a direct effect of the chemical itself. Future research efforts are directed toward developing an animal model that better recapitulates the SE and seizure duration reported in humans acutely intoxicated with TETS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates reversibility of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in gray matter after delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Kondziella, Daniel; Danielsen, Else Rubæk

    2014-01-01

    with cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed a dramatically decrease in N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratios and elevated lactate levels in the gray matter. Subsequently, our patient received six additional sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy with only minimal recovery. At six...... in mid-occipital gray matter and partial reversal in white matter. CONCLUSIONS: The present case indicates that cerebral proton magnetic spectroscopy provides valuable information on brain metabolism in patients presenting with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The full...... reversal of N-acetylaspartate to total creatine ratios in gray matter has, to our knowledge, never been described before and shows that severe, initial measurements may not predict poor long-term patient outcome....

  8. Causality investigations in deer (Capreolus capreolus L. , 1758) to verify chronic fluoride intoxication due to nuisances. Kausalanalytische Untersuchungen zum Nachweis immissionsbedingter chronischer Fluoridintoxikation beim Reh (Capreolus capreolus L. , 1758)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierdorf, U.

    1988-02-06

    An anomaly found in the permanent teeth of deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) was investigated as to its generation and distribution. The examined lower jaws stemmed from different regions of the federal Laender North-Rhine Westphalia and Baden-Wuerttemberg. The diagnosis made on the basis of the pathomorphological findings attributed the tooth deformities to dental fluorosis, in other words, the animals suffered chronic fluoride intoxication during tooth development. Analyses of the fluoride content of lower-jaw bones, tooth enamel and dentine from afflicted deer and non-afflicted animals confirmed this assumption. Radiological investigations as to the crown development of permanent molar teeth of deer permitted to formulate a hypothesis regarding the varying degree of deformation sustained by the teeth in the event of dental fluorosis. Both the fetus and fawn are assumed to be largely protected from intoxication even in a severely contaminated environment because of several protective mechanisms being effective during the early post-natal phase. The excessive wear of the teeth presumably leads to older animals mincing their feed inadequately and having, accordingly, a lower life expectancy. The conclusion drawn was that the animals sustained fluorosis due to their being exposed to nuisances from industrial activities. The thesis discusses the suitability of deer and other ruminants living in the wild as biological indicators.

  9. Fatal intoxication due to ackee (Blighia sapida) in Suriname and French Guyana. GC-MS detection and quantification of hypoglycin-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Carlier, Jérémie; Berscht, Marc; Mazoyer, Cédric; Bevalot, Fabien; Guitton, Jérôme; Fanton, Laurent

    2011-03-20

    Between 1998 and 2001 the deaths of 16 Surinamese children were recorded along the Maroni River, which forms the border between Suriname and French Guyana. After a metabolic origin was eliminated, ethnobotanical research in the field led to a hypothesis of intoxication through the ingestion of ackee. Ackee (Blighia sapida) is a large green leafy tree of West African origin. Its unripe fruit contains large quantities of two toxic molecules: hypoglycin-A and hypoglycin-B, the former being the more toxic. We have developed a GC-MS procedure allowing us to demonstrate the presence of hypoglycin-A in the gastric fluid of one of the deceased children, and to compare the content of hypoglycin-A in fruit collected on the road to Paramaribo in Suriname (5.1mg/g) with samples from Burkina Faso (8.1mg/g) and Jamaica (9.2mg/g). Field research showed the misuse of this little-known plant by Maroon witch doctors. The Bushinengue witch doctors were informed about the dangers of ackee, and no new cases have been reported to date.

  10. A case of acute intoxication due to combined use of fentanyl and 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Vera; Blanckaert, Peter; Van Parys, Geert; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Cordonnier, Jan

    2016-09-01

    A 30-year old man was found dead in his home after inhaling fumes of a powder burned on aluminum foil. Blood and urine were taken by the medical examiner during the external body examination and submitted to the laboratory for a comprehensive systematic toxicological analysis. A toxic fentanyl level of 10.9μg/L was measured in the subclavian blood. Police investigation revealed that the man searched the internet for information on new psychotropic substances, among others including U-47700. A powder found in the victims' home was transferred to the laboratory for analysis, in which trace amounts of fentanyl (0.0035%, m/m) and U-47700 (0.0012%, m/m) were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. U-47700 is an opioid analgesic drug, considered to have a potency of approximately 7.5 times that of morphine. A target analysis on U-47700 was performed using liquid-liquid extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry operating in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The method validation was based on the Scientific Working Group of Forensic Toxicology document 'Standard Practices of Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology'. In blood and urine the U-47700 concentration was 13.8 and 71.0μg/L, respectively. To the author's knowledge, this is the first case report of a fatal intoxication involving U-47700 abused as a new psychotropic substance.

  11. [Acute intoxication with isopropanol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, D; Faber, T; Auwärter, V; Heringhaus, C

    2009-02-01

    Isopropanol is an ingredient of commonly used industrial and household agents. Intoxication can occur unintentionally, in suicide attempts or by alcohol abusers when used as a substitute for ethanol. Symptoms involve the gastrointestinal tract, the central nervous system, and the cardiovascular system at higher doses. Mortality is especially high in patients with deep coma and marked hypotension. This report describes a case of life-threatening isopropanol intoxication of a prison inmate successfully treated by haemodialysis.

  12. 过度补充维生素D致中毒并高钙血症%Vitamin D intoxication and hypercalcemia due to excessive vitamin D supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新萍; 张萍; 李晓玉

    2016-01-01

    A 71-year-old female patient had an increase in volume of night urine for 2-3 months and her blood calcium level was 3.11 mmol/L by lab tests.It was known by inquiring medical history that the patient took calcium carbonate D3 (containing element calcium 300 mg/pill,1 pill/d),alfacalcidol (0.5 g/d,increased to 0.75 g/d for 1.5 years),and 2 kinds of health products (variety of vitamins,containing vitamin D3 1000 U and element calcium 500 mg in each tablet,1 tablet/d;" Joint King",containing vitamin D3 2000 U in each dose,2 doses/d).In addition,the patient also received losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide (containing losartan potassium 50 mg and hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg) 1 tablet once daily.Her 25-(OH) D level was > 280 g/L.Vitamin D intoxication and hypercalcemia was considered.All drugs and health products were stopped,the patient was adviced to drink more water and increase salt intake,and nifedipine was given for her hypertension.Four days later,the patient's serum calcium was stable at 2.33-2.41 mmol/L.%1例71岁女性患者出现夜尿增多(2~3次/晚)2~3个月,门诊查血钙3.11 mmol/L.追问病史,患者因骨质疏松症及骨性关节炎近2~3年规律服用碳酸钙D3(含元素钙300 mg/片,1片/d)、阿法骨化醇(0.5 g/d,1.5年前增加为0.75 g/d)及两种保健品(多种维生素,每片含维生素D31000U、元素钙500 mg,1片/d;关节王,每个剂量含维生素D32000U,2个剂量/d).另外,患者因高血压长期服用氯沙坦钾氢氯噻嗪(每片含氯沙坦钾50 mg和氢氯噻嗪12.5 mg)、1次/d.入院后查25-(OH)D >280 μg/L,故考虑患者为维生素D中毒及高钙血症.停用钙片、保健品及氯沙坦钾氯噻嗪,多饮水并增加食盐摄入,给予硝苯地平,并予以水化.4d后查血钙水平稳定在2.33~ 2.41 mmol/L.

  13. Quantification by HPLC-MS/MS of atropine in human serum and clinical presentation of six mild-to-moderate intoxicated atropine-adulterated-cocaine users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, PAMM; Go, HS; Wessels, AMA; Uges, DRA

    2006-01-01

    An unexpectedly high number of initially suspected cocaine-intoxicated patients was presented to a general hospital in Lelystad, The Netherlands. Based on the unusual toxidram rate of not fitting cocaine intoxication, the suspicion of co-presence of an anticholinergic agent was raised. A newly devel

  14. Auranofin Inhibits the Enzyme Activity of Pasteurella multocida Toxin PMT in Human Cells and Protects Cells from Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Stefan; Brink, Thorsten; Orth, Joachim H. C.; Aktories, Klaus; Barth, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The AB-type protein toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) contains a functionally important disulfide bond within its catalytic domain, which must be cleaved in the host cell cytosol to render the catalytic domain of PMT into its active conformation. Here, we found that the reductive potential of the cytosol of target cells, and more specifically, the activity of the thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is crucial for this process. This was demonstrated by the strong inhibitory effect of the pharmacological TrxR inhibitor auranofin, which inhibited the intoxication of target cells with PMT, as determined by analyzing the PMT-catalyzed deamidation of GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins) in the cytosol of cells. The amount of endogenous substrate levels modified by PMT in cells pretreated with auranofin was reduced compared to cells treated with PMT alone. Auranofin had no inhibitory effect on the activity of the catalytic domain of constitutively active PMT in vitro, demonstrating that auranofin did not directly inhibit PMT activity, but interferes with the mode of action of PMT in cells. In conclusion, the results show that TrxR is crucial for the mode of action of PMT in mammalian cells, and that the drug auranofin can serve as an efficient inhibitor, which might be a starting point for novel therapeutic options against toxin-associated diseases. PMID:28098782

  15. WILD HONEY INTOXICATION: CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munire Babayigit

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild honey intoxication (WHI is a rare disease that results from consuming honey produced by Rhododendron polen feeded bees. WHI develops due to grayanotoxin (GT that it contains. WHI might present with mild symptoms of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and neurological systems or might also present in a life threatining form with AV block and cardiovascular collaps. In this report we aimed to present clinical presentation and treatment of a case of WHI. [J Contemp Med 2013; 3(3.000: 197-199

  16. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of t

  17. Lipid Therapy for Intoxications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robben, Joris Henricus; Dijkman, Marieke Annet

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses the use of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) in the treatment of intoxications with lipophilic agents in veterinary medicine. Despite growing scientific evidence that ILE has merit in the treatment of certain poisonings, there is still uncertainty on the optimal composition of t

  18. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  19. A Rare Cause of Metabolic Acidosis: Fatal Transdermal Methanol Intoxication in an Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahbudak Bal, Zumrut; Can, Fulya Kamit; Anil, Ayse Berna; Bal, Alkan; Anil, Murat; Gokalp, Gamze; Yavascan, Onder; Aksu, Nejat

    2016-08-01

    Oral methanol intoxication is common, but dermal intoxication is rare. We report a previously healthy 19-month-old female infant admitted to the emergency department (ED) with vomiting and tonic-clonic seizure. On physical examination, she was comatose and presented signs of decompensated shock with Kussmaul breathing. Her left thigh was edematous, with purple coloration. Methanol intoxication was suspected due to high anion gap metabolic acidosis (pH, 6.89; HCO3, acidosis. This case report demonstrates that fatal transdermal methanol intoxication can occur in children, and it is the second report in the English literature of transdermal methanol intoxication in an infant.

  20. [Intoxication of botulinum toxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudzicka, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Botulinum toxin is an egzotoxin produced by Gram positive bacteria Clostridium botulinum. It is among the most potent toxins known. The 3 main clinical presentations of botulism are as follows: foodborne botulism, infant botulism and wound botulism. The main symptom of intoxication is flat muscles paralysis. The treatment is supportive care and administration of antitoxin. In prevention the correct preparing of canned food is most important. Botulinum toxin is accepted as a biological weapon.

  1. Potency of a human monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin relative to equine diphtheria anti-toxin in a guinea pig intoxication model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Heidi L; Cheslock, Peter; Leney, Mark; Barton, Bruce; Molrine, Deborah C

    2016-08-17

    Prompt administration of anti-toxin reduces mortality following Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. Current treatment relies upon equine diphtheria anti-toxin (DAT), with a 10% risk of serum sickness and rarely anaphylaxis. The global DAT supply is extremely limited; most manufacturers have ceased production. S315 is a neutralizing human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to diphtheria toxin that may provide a safe and effective alternative to equine DAT and address critical supply issues. To guide dose selection for IND-enabling pharmacology and toxicology studies, we dose-ranged S315 and DAT in a guinea pig model of diphtheria intoxication based on the NIH Minimum Requirements potency assay. Animals received a single injection of antibody premixed with toxin, were monitored for 30 days, and assigned a numeric score for clinical signs of disease. Animals receiving ≥ 27.5 µg of S315 or ≥ 1.75 IU of DAT survived whereas animals receiving ≤ 22.5 µg of S315 or ≤ 1.25 IU of DAT died, yielding a potency estimate of 17 µg S315/IU DAT (95% CI 16-21) for an endpoint of survival. Because some surviving animals exhibited transient limb weakness, likely a systemic sign of toxicity, DAT and S315 doses required to prevent hind limb paralysis were also determined, yielding a relative potency of 48 µg/IU (95% CI 38-59) for this alternate endpoint. To support advancement of S315 into clinical trials, potency estimates will be used to evaluate the efficacy of S315 versus DAT in an animal model with antibody administration after toxin exposure, more closely modeling anti-toxin therapy in humans.

  2. Methamphetamine intoxication in a dog: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Zengyang; Zhang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine abuse has undergone a dramatic worldwide increase, and represents a significant and global issue for public health. Incidents of methamphetamine intoxication and death in humans are relatively commonplace. Because of its increasing illicit availability, together with legitimate use in human medicine, accidental or intentional exposure to methamphetamine in dogs is becoming a more likely scenario. Case presentation A 3-year-old, 3.7 kg intact female Miniature Poodle ...

  3. Severe childhood amitriptyline intoxication and plasmapheresis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacı, Mehmet; Özçetin, Mustafa; Dilsiz, Günter; Güçlü-Songür, Yaşar Gözde

    2013-01-01

    Tricyclic antidepressant intoxication is one of the most frequently encountered and life-threatening causes of intoxication among referrals to emergency departments due to drug intoxication. There is no known antidote against any of the tricyclic antidepressants. The American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) recommends plasmapheresis to support primary treatment in this type of drug poisoning, which does not respond to certain and traditional treatments. We present a 15-year-old girl who ingested amitriptyline with suicidal intent. On admission, she was in a comatose state (Glasgow Coma Scale score: 5), with no spontaneous respiration and presence of pathological reflexes. Due to the intake history of lethal doses and the severe clinical picture, plasmapheresis was performed. She was discharged on her fifth day of hospitalization.Due to the high plasma protein binding property of amitriptyline, plasma exchange therapy should be considered in cases of severe amitriptyline intoxication as a life-saving therapeutic modality.

  4. Obstrucción aguda de la vía respiratoria superior y rabdomiolisis luego de intoxicación por tintura para el cabello Acute upper respiratory obstruction and rhabdomiolysis due to intoxication with a hair dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arroyave

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Las intoxicaciones por tinturas para el cabello son infrecuentes en Antioquia; sin embargo, su toxicidad es potencialmente letal cuando ingresan al organismo por vía oral al producir un compromiso multiorgánico que puede llevar a la muerte del paciente. Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 2 años que ingirió una dosis de 125 mg/kg de parafenilendiamina, asociada a ácido bórico y perborato de sodio, compuestos que hacen parte de una presentación comercial de una tintura para el cabello; la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina tuvo como consecuencia principal la obstrucción de la vía aérea por angioedema que requirió intubación endotraqueal, soporte ventilatorio y administración de esteroides y antihistamínicos; secundario al compromiso aéreo la paciente presentó edema agudo de pulmón y posteriormente un cuadro neumónico que requirió tratamiento con antibióticos. Adicionalmente presentó rabdomiolisis severa que se trató con líquidos endovenosos para que no se comprometiera la función renal. Luego de una terapia durante 10 días en el hospital, la niña fue dada de alta con resolución completa del cuadro tóxico. Se revisan los posibles mecanismos fisiopatológicos, las manifestaciones clínicas y el tratamiento de la intoxicación por parafenilendiamina, dado que este fue el compuesto tóxico clínicamente importante en el contexto de este caso. There have been few cases reported of intoxication by hair dyes in Antioquia; however, their toxicity may be potentially lethal when their components enter the organism by oral route inducing a multiorganic compromise that may lead to death. We report the case of a two year old girl who ingested 125mg/kg of paraphenylenediamine, with boric acid and sodium perborate; these compounds are part of the commercial presentation of a hair dye; the child suffered airway obstruction because of angioedema that required intubation, ventila tory support, steroids and antihistaminics; due to

  5. Acute Theophylline Intoxication: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Baykal Tutal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is an efficient bronchodilatator, which is used in the treatment of the disease such like Chronic Obstructive Pulmoner Disease (COPD neonatal apnea, bradycardial syndrome. Blood levels of theophylline above 15 ug/ml have risk of intoxication. Acute and chronic intoxication can be seen. Nausea, vomitin, agitation, palpitation and metabolic abnormalities such as, hyperglisemia, hypokalemia, impairment in acid base equilibrium and leukocytosis can be seen in acute theophylline intoxication. Acute theophylline intoxications can result life threatening situations such as convulsions, ventricular arrhythmias and death. Theophylline intoxications are often iatrogenic. In this case, the clinical course of a patient with COPD who took theophylline with the intention of suicide attempt is to mentioned and discussion of diagnosis, treatment and clinical course of acute theophylline intoxication was to aimed.

  6. Toxicology of microcystins with reference to cases of human intoxications and epidemiological investigations of exposures to cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirčev, Zorica; Drobac, Damjana; Tokodi, Nada; Mijović, Biljana; Codd, Geoffrey A; Meriluoto, Jussi

    2017-02-01

    Blooms of cyanobacteria have been documented throughout history, all over the world. Mass populations of these organisms typically present hazards to human health and are known for the production of a wide range of highly toxic metabolites-cyanotoxins, of which among the most common and most investigated are the microcystins. The toxicity of the family of microcystin congeners to animal and cell models has received much attention; however, less is known about their negative effects on human health, whether via acute or chronic exposure. Useful information may be acquired through epidemiological studies since they can contribute to knowledge of the relationships between cyanotoxins and human health in environmental settings. The aim of this review is to compile and evaluate the available published reports and epidemiological investigations of human health incidents associated with exposure to mass populations of cyanobacteria from throughout the world and to identify the occurrence and likely role of microcystins in these events. After an initial screening of 134 publications, 42 publications (25 on the chronic and 17 on the acute effects of cyanotoxins) describing 33 cases of poisonings by cyanobacterial toxins in 11 countries were reviewed. The countries were Australia, China, Sri Lanka, Namibia, Serbia, Sweden, UK, Portugal, Brazil, USA, and Canada. At least 36 publications link cyanobacteria/cyanotoxins including microcystins to adverse human health effects. The studies were published between 1960 and 2016. Although the scattered epidemiological evidence does not provide a definitive conclusion, it can serve as additional information for the medical assessment of the role of microcystins in cancer development and other human health problems. This paper discusses the major cases of cyanotoxin poisonings as well as the strengths, weaknesses, and importance of the performed epidemiological research. This study also proposes some recommendations for future

  7. Platelet aggregation associated with ethanol intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, S.; Walenga, J.; Fareed, J.; Schumacher, H. (Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (USA))

    1989-02-09

    Alcohol is known to produce profound effects on blood; during chronic intoxication, prolongation of bleeding time has been reported. Utilizing human platelet rich plasma, we have studied the effect of alcohol on epinephrine, arachidonic acid and ADP induced aggregation. Control responses were obtained with saline from which the relative inhibition by alcohol was calculated. These studies were carried out at a concentration of 1.25-5.0 mg/ml which represents 0.125-0.5% alcohol blood levels. From 25 normal male and female volunteers, without prior hemostatic defects or drug ingestion, a dose-dependent inhibition by alcohol of all three agonist induced aggregations was noted. Alcohol itself did not produce any aggregation response. These studies demonstrate that alcohol at levels which are reached during intoxication is capable of impairing platelet function. The implication of this finding on the bleeding complications in healthy intoxicated patients may be significant during traumatic events, and individuals taking antiplatelet drugs may present a more serious hemostatic deficit during alcohol intoxication.

  8. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF DRUG INTOXICATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cheraghali M. Taymori

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Unintentional drug intoxication is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young children. In order to study the epidemiological pattern of childhood drug poisoning in Golestan province, all cases diagnosed with poisoning from 1997 to 2002 in the only pediatric hospital in province were recruited. During this period 563 cases of poisoned children were hospitalized in Taleqani hospital, of these 305 cases were due to drug poisoning. Opium was responsible for more than half of the poisoning cases, and 91% of deaths, among drug intoxicated children. Metoclopramide, benzodiazepines, tricyclic antidepressants and anticonvulsants were among the other frequent causes of poisoning. Neurological symptoms were the most prominent symptoms of poisoning and more than 80% of cases showed some neurological symptoms. Mortality rate among the cases was 3.6% and of total of 11 deaths, 10 were poisoned with opium. About 61% of cases were hospitalized between 24-48 hrs. Most of the poisoning cases in young children were unintentional and in many cases, their parents played a critical role in their intoxication. This role specially is crucial in infants and children under one year of age. Parents in Golestan province use opium widely for symptomatic treatment of routine illnesses in their young children and overdose of opium may cause severe intoxication and even death of the child.

  9. Unpacking intoxication, racialising disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mel Y

    2015-06-01

    This article examines concepts whose strictly medical applications have only partly informed their widespread use and suggests that demonstrably shared logics motivate our thinking across domains in the interest of a politically just engagement. It considers exchanges between the culturally complex concepts of 'toxicity' and 'intoxication', assessing the racialised conditions of their animation in several geopolitically--and quite radically--distinct scenarios. First, the article sets the framework through considering the racial implications of impairment and disability language of 'non-toxic' finance capital in the contemporary US financial crisis. Shifting material foci from 'illiquid financial bodies' to opiates while insisting that neither is 'more' metaphorically toxic than the other, the article turns to address the role of opium and temporality in the interanimations of race and disability in two sites of 19th-century British empire: Langdon Down's clinic for idiocy, and China's retort on opium to Queen Victoria. The article concludes with a provocation that suggests yet another crossing of borders, that between researcher and researched: 'intoxicated method' is a hypothetical mode of approach that refuses idealised research positions by 'critically disabling' the idealised cognitive and conceptual lens of analysis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Infections and Intoxications from the Ocean: Risks of the Shore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemence, Mark A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal regions provide a diverse range of foods and serve as recreation and leisure areas for large numbers of people in many parts of the world. However, they also serve as environments associated with numerous hazards. The number of cases of fish- and shellfish-related food poisonings in the United States has increased in recent years, accounting for over 600,000 illnesses, with 3,000 hospitalizations and 94 deaths annually. Human diseases due to pathogenic Vibrio species can result from both ingestion of contaminated shellfish and exposure of open wounds to contaminated seawater. A variety of infections may result from human interactions with marine life, including sharks, barracudas, and moray eels. This chapter covers some of the risks of the shore, including fish and shellfish intoxications, infections related to Vibrio species, and infections resulting from marine trauma.

  11. Global hotspots of water scarcity impacts due to human interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.; Ward, P.; Satoh, Y.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Masaki, Y.; Doll, P. M.; Ostberg, S.; Oki, T.; Gosling, S.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many global river basins, due to both local increases in water demand and human interventions affecting stream flow. In a novel multi-model multi-forcing assessment over the period 1971-2010, we examine how several human interventions have affected water scarcity, namely land use change, reservoir operations, and upstream water withdrawals. We show that these human interventions have caused increased water scarcity for 16% of the global population, and decreased water scarcity for 13%, and have contributed to distinct patterns of water scarcity hotspots. We also show that a combination of human interventions and changes in local water demands have led to an increase in the duration of extreme water scarcity events in 30% of the global land area, inhabited by 49% of the global population. Upstream human interventions are the main dominant driver (in 86% of the cases) of negative impacts on downstream fresh water resources and water scarcity. Therefore, adaptation measures should be embedded in integrated river basin management plans, addressing upstream effects on downstream water scarcity.This study is the first in its kind to evaluate how human interventions affected water scarcity conditions as well as the exposure to and persistence of water scarcity events, using an ensemble of five global water impact models (H08, LPJmL, MATSIRO, PCR-GLOBWB, WaterGAP) driven by three global state-of-the art observations-based historical climate data-sets (PGFv2, GSWP3, WFD/WFDEI) and a set of socio-economic proxies (GDP, population density, livestock density, land use and land cover) to model historical demands. A novelty of this research is the use of the HYDE 3.1 - MIRCA dataset for simulating the time-varying effects of changes in irrigation and/or cropland patterns. With the incorporation of a spatially and temporally explicit indicator to describe minimum environmental flow requirements, i.e. the amount of water that ecosystems need

  12. Precocious puberty due to human chorionic gonadotropin secreting germinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane J Nascimento

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to report a rare case of precocious puberty (PP due to a human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG-producing germinoma located in the suprasellar region. A 10-year-old male patient presented with sexual precocity, headache, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and papilledema. Significant acceleration of bone age in relation to chronological age, high serum total testosterone levels, and hypopituitarism (unresponsiveness to stimulation test were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain showed a large suprasellar tumor and triventricular dilatation. High hCG levels were found in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Hormone replacement therapy and transcranial surgery associated with radiotherapy were performed, with complete regression of sexual characteristics and normal laboratory tests post-operatively. Clinical and laboratory findings, in addition to MRI scans, led to the diagnosis of an hCG-producing tumor and PP, which represents a rare report in the literature.

  13. Interstitial Pulmonary Edema Following Bromocarbamide Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, H.; Hagedorn, M.; Bōttcher, D.; Neuhof, H.; Mittermayer, Ch.

    1974-01-01

    Bromocarbamides are sleep-inducing drugs which can lead, in man, to intoxication and death due to respiratory failure. To prove whether hemodynamic factors or the changed endothelial permeability induce pulmonary edema, animal experiments were performed. The fine structural changes in pulmonary edema in rabbits were observed at 60, 90 and 120 minutes after oral administration. The major findings were a) large blebs between capillary endothelium and alveolar epithelium and b) interstitial edema of the vessel wall. The bleb contents were much less electron dense than the blood contents in the capillary. Colloidal carbon did not enter the bleb or the edematous interstitial tissue. Exogenous peroxidase uptake in pinocytotie vesicles increased in pathologic cases. The hemodynamic measurements in animal receiving artificial respiration which maintained the blood pO2 at a steady state showed similar blebs in the pulmonary vessels, indicating that anoxia is not the major cause of the vascular lesion. Moreover, pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance could be held in the normal range in artificially respirated animals under bromocarbamide intoxication. Thus, hemodynamic factors are not likely to play a pathogenetic role in bringing about pulmonary edema. The chief, early factor is the increased endothelial permeability due to increased cytoplasmic transport. From this a practical suggestion for treating patients with bromocarbamide intoxication is derived: the usual fluid replacement in shock patients should be handled with great care to avoid fluid overload of the lung. ImagesFig 1Fig 2Fig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6 PMID:4835993

  14. Chelation in Metal Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J.S. Flora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.

  15. [Intoxications specific to the Aquitaine region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédry, R; Gromb, S

    2009-07-01

    Some intoxications are more specifically linked to the Aquitaine region than to other regions of France, due to environmental circumstances (fauna, flora, climate) or traditional activities (gastronomy). Three types of intoxications are particular in this area. Pine processionary caterpillar envenomations (Thaumetopoea pityocampa), a Southern Europe pinewood parasite, are frequently encountered in the Landes' forest. They are responsible of ocular and/or skin lesions with urticaria or contact dermatitis, seldom associated with immediate IgE hypersensitivity. According to the south Atlantic coastal region geology and the marine streams, venomous marine animals are mainly located in Charente-Maritime for jellyfish, in Gironde and in Landes for weeverfish and in Atlantic Pyrenees for sea anemone. Usually not dangerous, first-aid workers treat most cases of these envenomations. Some endemic mushrooms (Tricholoma auratum) which grow on the dunes of the Atlantic coastal region, are usually considered as very good comestibles, but were recently responsible for serious intoxications: T.auratum was responsible of several cases of rhabdomyolysis, without neurological involvement, nor renal or hepatic lesion. Three deaths were notified. Animal studies confirmed the responsibility of the mushrooms.

  16. Unintentional Cannabis Intoxication in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, Isabelle; Mouvier, Sébastien; Labadie, Magali; Manin, Cécile; Michard-Lenoir, Anne-Pascale; Eyer, Didier; Dufour, Damien

    2017-09-01

    In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014). A retrospective, national, multicenter, observational study of a pediatric cohort. All children aged cannabis intoxication (compatible symptoms and positive toxicological screening results) during the reference period were included. Twenty-four PEDs participated in our study; 235 children were included, and 71% of the patients were 18 months old or younger. Annual admissions increased by a factor of 13. Hashish resin was the main form ingested (72%). During the study period, the evolution was characterized by a national increase in intoxications, younger intoxicated children (1.28 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.7 years, P = .005), and more comas (n = 38) (P = .05, odds ratio 3.5 [1.02-11.8]). Compared with other intoxications, other PED admissions, and the same age population, cannabis-related admissions were greater. There was a potential link between the increased incidence of comas and increased THC concentration in resin seized in France over the period. Children are collateral victims of changing trends in cannabis use and a prevailing THC concentration. Intoxicated children are more frequent, are younger, and have intoxications that are more severe. This raises a real issue of public health. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Retrospective Evaluation of Intoxication Cases Presented to Sivas Numune Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadigar Yılmaz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and demographic features and prognosis of all patients admitted to the emergency department and followed in intensive care unit due to poisoning. Methods: We resrospectively evaluated the patients over 14 years of age, who attended to the emergency department and was followed in our intensive care unit due to poisoning, were evaluated according to their demographic characteristics, anamnesis and prognosis. Results: Of 1894 patients, who were admitted to the emergency department, 1034 were female (54.8%. The mean age was 32.76±14.88 years. 36.4% of these patients were suicide attempters. Three hundred twenty-eight patients (17.3% were admitted to the intensive care unit. Two hundred thirty-four (17.3% were females and the mean age was 27.98±13.87 years. Of those patients, 263 (80.2% were treated for drug intoxications, 33 (10.1% for carbonmonoxide (CO intoxications, 18 (5.5% for food intoxications, 4 (1.2% for insecticide poisoning, 4 (1.2% for bee sting, 3 (0.9% for rat poison intoxications, 1 (0,3% for alcohol intoxication, and 1 (0.3% was treated for snakebite. 80.5% of them were suicide attempters. The most frequently taken drugs were antidepressants (25.8%. Conclusion: Intoxication cases admitted to the emergency department and intensive care unit were mostly young women, and drug overdose was the most common attempted method of suicide. The most frequent used drugs were antidepressants. In this study, we determined the patient profile of intoxication in Sivas province. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2013; 51: 178-82

  18. Cobalt, chromium and molybdenum ions kinetics in the human body: data gained from a total hip replacement with massive third body wear of the head and neuropathy by cobalt intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, U E; Apostoli, P; Congiu, T; Catalani, S; Marchese, M; Zarattini, G

    2011-09-01

    A patient with a total hip replacement developed optic, acoustic and peripheral neuropathy from metal ions intoxication, due to the wear products released from the prosthesis. Subsequently the kinetics of the metal ions was studied. Massive wear and acute intoxication allowed a study of the metal ions kinetics and of EDTA treatment. Plasma and other organic fluids were saturated by each of the metal ions released from the exposed surface according to the solubility of each ion; a larger fraction of Co ions was bound within red cells, while the plasmatic fraction appeared more movable. In a patient with a prosthesis subjected to wear, the ions released are from the prosthetic and from the debris surface (spread in the body). The latter is a function of the number and size of particles. Revision of the prosthesis from the point of view of the metal ions kinetics corresponded to a reduction of the releasing surface because of debris washed out by irrigation and tissue excision; however, the metal particles spread by lymphatic circulation continued to release ions even though the source of wear had been removed. Early diagnosis of high metal wear can be ascertained with mass spectrometry and after revision high levels of metal ions can only be reduced with repeated chelating treatment. It is preferable not to revise fractured ceramic components with a polyethylene-metal articulation.

  19. Experimental study on therapy of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation in acute soman intoxication in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-qing; MU Shi-jie; ZHANG Xiao-di; CHEN Rui; XIA Ai-jun; LIANG Xin; HAI Chun-xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapy effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation(UBIO) on blood AChe activity and lung injury due to acute soman intoxication in rabbits. Methods :Forty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group and UBIO therapy group. Blood AChe activity and artery blood gas were analyzed 2 h after intoxication. ACP and AKP activities in BALF were determined respectively. Results:Blood AChe activity in intoxication group was lower than that in normal control group (P<0. 05). BALF ACP and AKP activities in intoxication group were higher than that in normal control group. Blood AChe activities in UBIO therapy group increased and were higher than that in intoxication and routine therapy groups. Compared with intoxication group, BALF ACP and AKP activities were decreased (P<0.05) in UBIO therapy group,while artery blood pH, PaO2 and SaO2 increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: UBIO therapy can elevate blood AChe activity and alleviate lung injury induced by soman intoxication. So it may be a new way to treat acute soman intoxication.

  20. Abnormalities in human pluripotent cells due to reprogramming mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Morey, Robert; O'Neil, Ryan C; He, Yupeng; Daughtry, Brittany; Schultz, Matthew D; Hariharan, Manoj; Nery, Joseph R; Castanon, Rosa; Sabatini, Karen; Thiagarajan, Rathi D; Tachibana, Masahito; Kang, Eunju; Tippner-Hedges, Rebecca; Ahmed, Riffat; Gutierrez, Nuria Marti; Van Dyken, Crystal; Polat, Alim; Sugawara, Atsushi; Sparman, Michelle; Gokhale, Sumita; Amato, Paula; Wolf, Don P; Ecker, Joseph R; Laurent, Louise C; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2014-07-10

    Human pluripotent stem cells hold potential for regenerative medicine, but available cell types have significant limitations. Although embryonic stem cells (ES cells) from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF ES cells) represent the 'gold standard', they are allogeneic to patients. Autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) are prone to epigenetic and transcriptional aberrations. To determine whether such abnormalities are intrinsic to somatic cell reprogramming or secondary to the reprogramming method, genetically matched sets of human IVF ES cells, iPS cells and nuclear transfer ES cells (NT ES cells) derived by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) were subjected to genome-wide analyses. Both NT ES cells and iPS cells derived from the same somatic cells contained comparable numbers of de novo copy number variations. In contrast, DNA methylation and transcriptome profiles of NT ES cells corresponded closely to those of IVF ES cells, whereas iPS cells differed and retained residual DNA methylation patterns typical of parental somatic cells. Thus, human somatic cells can be faithfully reprogrammed to pluripotency by SCNT and are therefore ideal for cell replacement therapies.

  1. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  2. [Nosocomial infections due to human coronaviruses in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagneur, A; Legrand, M C; Picard, B; Baron, R; Talbot, P J; de Parscau, L; Sizun, J

    2002-01-01

    Human coronaviruses, with two known serogroups named 229-E and OC-43, are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The large RNA is surrounded by a nucleoprotein (protein N). The envelop contains 2 or 3 glycoproteins: spike protein (or protein S), matrix protein (or protein M) and a hemagglutinin (or protein HE). Their pathogen role remains unclear because their isolation is difficult. Reliable and rapid methods as immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction allow new researches on epidemiology. Human coronaviruses can survive for as long as 6 days in suspension and 3 hours after drying on surfaces, suggesting that they could be a source of hospital-acquired infections. Two prospective studies conducted in a neonatal and paediatric intensive care unit demonstrated a significant association of coronavirus-positive nasopharyngal samples with respiratory illness in hospitalised preterm neonates. Positive samples from staff suggested either a patient-to-staff or a staff-to-patient transmission. No cross-infection were observed from community-acquired respiratory-syncitial virus or influenza-infected children to neonates. Universal precautions with hand washing and surface desinfection could be proposed to prevent coronavirus transmission.

  3. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  4. [Intentional paracetamol intoxication in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschops, L.L.; Bisschops, W.A.; Vroegop, M.P.; Rossum, L.K. van; Kramers, C.

    2011-01-01

    As paracetamol is widely used and easily available acetaminophen auto-intoxication is frequently seen. In the majority of patients no complications will occur, but in a small group it may lead to liver damage and death. Children are less susceptible to complications than adults. Cornerstone of treat

  5. Computation of particle detachment from floors due to human walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhadidi, Basman; Khalifa, Ezzat

    2005-11-01

    A computational model for detachment of fine particles due to the unsteady flow under a foot is developed. As the foot approaches the floor, fluid volume is displaced laterally as a wall jet from the perimeter of the contact area at high velocity and acceleration. Unsteady aerodynamic forces on particles attached to the floor are considered. Results show that the jet velocity is ˜40 m/s for a foot idealized as a 15 cm circular disk approaching the floor at 1 m/s with a final gap of 0.8 mm. This velocity is sufficient to detach small particles (1˜μm). The flow accelerates at ˜400 m/s^2 which affects the detachment of larger sized particles (˜100 μm). As the disk is brought to rest, the unsteady jet expands outwards, advecting a vortex ring closely attached to it. At the disk edge, a counter rotating vortex is generated by the sudden deceleration of the disk. Both vortices can play a role in entrainment of the suspended particles in the flowfield. Numerical studies also show that the maximum jet velocity is ˜20 m/s for a simplified foot immediately after heel contact in the stance phase of the gait.

  6. Current status of rodenticide intoxication in Brazil: a preliminary survey from 2009 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Papini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical control of rodents with anticoagulant products, especially derivatives of the coumarin chemical group, is legally authorised in Brazil. These products provide effective control and are safe for humans. However, the use of illegal 'rodenticides' has increased in many Brazilian cities recently, accompanied by increased numbers of suicides, homicides, and intoxications. The National Toxicology Information System (Sinitox registers the number of rodenticide intoxications, including suicides, but does not differentiate between the legal and illegal rodenticides. Intoxications by rodenticides outnumber those by illicit drugs and pesticides. A survey of data from 2005-2011 revealed an average of about 3,800 intoxications per year, about 60% of which were suicides. Many of these intoxications probably involved illegal rodenticides, some with unknown chemical compositions, which confound the data on rodenticide intoxication. This evaluation of Sinitox data highlighted the need to ensure the proper use of the term 'rodenticide' when registering intoxication cases. Intoxication by-products that are not rodenticides, but are erroneously used for this purpose, should be classified separately to improve the quality of information.

  7. Neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Emelyanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the present-day Russian and foreign literature on neuromuscular disorders in chronic alcohol intoxication. The most common manifestations of alcohol disease include alcoholic polyneuropathy (PNP and alcohol-induced skeletal muscle injury. The clinical polymorphism of alcoholic PNP is discussed. The paper considers a chronic sensory automatic form due to the direct toxic effects of ethanol and its metabolites during long-term alcohol intoxication, as well as acute/subacute sensorimotor neuropathy, the basis for the pathogenesis of which is B group vitamins, predominantly thiamine, deficiency that develops in the presence of drinking bouts concurrent with malnutrition and/or alcohol-related gastrointestinal tract diseases. In addition to nonuse of alcohol and a properly balanced diet, antioxidant therapy with alphalipoic acid and neurotropic B group vitamins is considered to be pathogenetic therapy for neuropathy. The most common and least studied clinicalform of alcohol-induced musculoskeletal injury is chronic alcoholic myopathy (AM, the diagnostic standard for which is morphometricand immunohistochemical examination of a muscle biopsy specimen. The morphological base for this form of myopathy is predominantly type 2 muscle fiber atrophy caused by impaired protein synthesis and a decreased regenerative potential of muscle fiber. The efficacy of antioxidants and leucine-containing amino acid mixtures in the treatment of chronic AM is discussed.

  8. A fatal intoxication by chloroprene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickert, Annette; Hartung, Benno; Kardel, Bernd; Teloh, Johanna; Daldrup, Thomas

    2012-02-10

    Objective Chloroprene, 2-chloro-1,3 butadiene, is a volatile synthetic liquid. The chloroprene monomer is extremely reactive and is used for the production of latexes and synthetic rubber such as Neoprene. Up to now an acute lethal human exposure has been described only once in the literature [19]. The intoxication is associated with nervous system depression, pulmonary edema, narcosis, and respiratory arrest. Case report A 29-year-old chemistry company worker was found unconscious in an empty vessel (depth: 3m) used for chloroprene. The man was dressed in shoes, trousers, a helmet and a respiratory mask. The upper part of the body was unclothed. In spite of reanimation, the man died three hours later in a hospital. All analyses were performed by headspace gas chromatography (HS/GC/FID). In addition, brain, muscle and myocardial muscle were analysed by headspace GC-MS. Results and discussion Autopsy findings: The cause of death could not be determined as the macromorphological findings were unspecific. Toxicology findings The calibration curve of chloroprene in serum shows linearity from 1.0 to 200 μg/ml (r(2)=0.9999) using benzene as internal standard. The LOD is 0.28 μg/ml, the LLOQ is 0.99 μg/ml. Tissues and body fluids were stored at -20 °C till the analysis. Chloroprene was quantified after addition of benzene as the internal standard. It was found in nearly all tissues and body fluids except in the urine and lung. The highest concentrations were detected in the kidney, liver, myocardial muscle and especially in the brain. Furthermore, hexanal was found in all samples except in the urine. The amount of hexanal in some specimens is high, especially in the lung, bile, gastric content and myocardial muscle. Conclusion We assume that a significant amount of chloroprene was not only inhaled but also absorbed through the skin because the man wore a respiratory mask. Presumably the accident would not have happened if the works safety protocols had been followed

  9. Intoxicated eyewitnesses: Better than their reputation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compo, Nadja Schreiber; Evans, Jacqueline R; Carol, Rolando N; Villalba, Daniella; Ham, Lindsay S; Garcia, Tracy; Rose, Stefan

    2012-04-01

    According to law enforcement, many witnesses are intoxicated either at the time of the crime, the interview, or both (Evans et al., Public Policy Law 15(3):194-221, 2009). However, no study to date has examined whether intoxicated witnesses' recall is different from sober witnesses' and whether they are more vulnerable to misinformation using an ecologically valid experimental design. Intoxicated, placebo, and sober witnesses observed a live, staged theft, overheard subsequent misinformation about the theft, and took part in an investigative interview. Participants generally believed they witnessed a real crime and experienced a real interview. Intoxicated witnesses were not different from placebo or sober witnesses in the number of accurate details, inaccurate details, or "don't know" answers reported. All the participants demonstrated a misinformation effect, but there were no differences between intoxication levels: Intoxicated participants were not more susceptible to misinformation than sober or placebo participants. Results are discussed in the light of their theoretical and applied relevance.

  10. Subcutaneous human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria Repens: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish S Permi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic filariasis due to Dirofilaria repens (D. repens is prevalent in several regions of the world. In view of recent rise of human D. repens infections in Europe, Africa and Asia, it is considered an emerging zoonosis in these continents. Most of the documented cases of human dirofilariasis recorded in India had ocular infections, but very few subcutaneous dirofilariasis have been reported. We hereby report two cases of subcutaneous human dirofilariasis due to D.repens with varied clinical presentations.

  11. Levosimendan as Treatment Option in Severe Verapamil Intoxication: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam Osthoff

    2010-01-01

    Levosimendan, an inotropic agent, that enhances myofilament response to calcium, increases myocardial contraction and could therefore be beneficial in verapamil intoxication. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old patient with clinically severe verapamil poisoning who presented with shock, bradycardia, and sopor. Standard therapy including high-dose inotropes failed to ameliorate the signs of intoxication. But additional therapy with levosimendan led to rapid improvement. Based on this observation, the literature is reviewed focusing on utilization of levosimendan in the treatment of calcium channel blocker overdose. We suggest to consider levosimendan as additional treatment option in patients with cardiovascular shock due to verapamil intoxication that are refractory to standard management.

  12. Heart Rate Variability in Children with Tricyclic Antidepressant Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ener Cagri Dinleyici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV in children requiring intensive care unit stays due to TCA poisoning between March 2009 and July 2010. In the time-domain nonspectral evaluation, the SDNN (P<0.001, SDNNi (P<0.05, RMSDD (P<0.01, and pNN50 (P<0.01 were found to be significantly lower in the TCA intoxication group. The spectral analysis of the data recorded during the first 5 minutes after intensive care unit admission showed that the values of the nLF (P<0.05 and the LF/HF ratio (P=0.001 were significantly higher in the TCA intoxication group, while the nHF (P=0.001 values were significantly lower. The frequency-domain spectral analysis of the data recorded during the last 5 minutes showed a lower nHF (P=0.001 in the TCA intoxication group than in the controls, and the LF/HF ratio was significantly higher (P<0.05 in the intoxication group. The LF/HF ratio was higher in the seven children with seizures (P<0.001. These findings provided us with a starting point for the value of HRV analysis in determining the risk of arrhythmia and convulsion in TCA poisoning patients. HRV can be used as a noninvasive testing method in determining the treatment and prognosis of TCA poisoning patients.

  13. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and cocaine intoxication in a Danish child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Knegt, Victoria Elizabeth; Breindahl, Torben; Harboe, Kirstine Moll

    2016-01-01

    GHB intoxication must be considered in children with coma and a suspicion of drug intoxication. Furthermore, mixed intoxication with several substances and the possibility of unpredictable symptom profiles should be anticipated to ensure optimal symptomatic treatment of patients....

  14. Levosimendan as treatment option in severe verapamil intoxication: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osthoff, Mirjam; Bernsmeier, Christine; Marsch, Stephan C; Hunziker, Patrick R

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular shock due to verapamil intoxication is often refractory to standard resuscitation methods. Recommended therapy includes prevention of further absorption of the drug, inotropic therapy, calcium gluconate, and hyperinsulinemia/euglycemia therapy. Often further measures are needed such as ventricular pacing or mechanical circulatory support. Still, mortality remains high. Levosimendan, an inotropic agent, that enhances myofilament response to calcium, increases myocardial contraction and could therefore be beneficial in verapamil intoxication. Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old patient with clinically severe verapamil poisoning who presented with shock, bradycardia, and sopor. Standard therapy including high-dose inotropes failed to ameliorate the signs of intoxication. But additional therapy with levosimendan led to rapid improvement. Based on this observation, the literature is reviewed focusing on utilization of levosimendan in the treatment of calcium channel blocker overdose. We suggest to consider levosimendan as additional treatment option in patients with cardiovascular shock due to verapamil intoxication that are refractory to standard management.

  15. Intoxicação por exposição à rapadura em três municípios do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil: uma investigação de epidemiologia de campo Intoxication due to exposure to contaminated molasses ("rapadura" in three municipalities of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Norte: a field epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marques Mota

    2011-09-01

    molasses: five cases consumed the product (including a case of death and three cases had physical exposure. The clinical symptoms were compatible with intoxication/poisoning by organophosphates. Other presented symptoms might be related to SO2 presence, such as hoarseness, watery eyes, eye pain and corneal ulceration. One of the patients who ingested contaminated mollasses presented abnormal erythrocyte acetyl cholinesterase. Exogenous poisoning occurred in two cases: one had an accident with the product and another had occupational poisoning by methamidophos and Sulfite (SO2 contaminated molasses. The quantity of methamidophos found in the molasses ingested by two cases was 3,000 times higher than the acceptable Daily Amount of this substance for humans. Public health measures should be adopted in order to reduce exogenous poisoning incidence, to minimize related problems and to prevent outbreaks caused by contamination with chemical substances, such as those investigated in this study.

  16. NUTRITIONAL THERAPY IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE CORROSIVE INTOXICATION IN ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibishev, Andon; Markoski, Velo; Smokovski, Ivica; Shikole, Emilija; Stevcevska, Aleksandra

    2016-02-01

    Acute intoxications with corrosive substances can cause severe chemical injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract, most often located in the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach and duodenum. If a patient survives the acute phase of intoxication, regenerative response may result in esophageal and/or gastric stenosis, and increased risk of esophageal and gastric cancer. Such intoxication may be fatal due to perforation or tracheal necrosis. Enteral nutrition is a nutritional method when nutritional substances are administered through specially designed tubing placed through the nose or percutaneously, directly into the GIT. The aim of this study is to describe the methods of artificial nutrition in patients with acute corrosive intoxications and the importance of nutritional support in the treatment of these intoxications. Nutrition in the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is one of the most important therapeutic processes that largely contribute to faster recovery of the post-corrosive injuries of upper GIT, stabilization of biologic, immunologic and metabolic parameters, and reduction of length of stay in hospital Aim of the treatment of acute corrosive intoxications is to prevent perforation and progressive fibrosis, and esophageal and gastric stenosis. There are different and often conflicting positions, on the conservative treatment of acute corrosive intoxications in adults. Such treatment mainly consists of anti-secretory treatment, antibiotics and intensive hyper-alimentation, aiming to prevent late post-corrosive intoxications. It is considered that nutritional support plays a major role in maintenance of metabolic processes and prevention of severe metabolic complications that could additionally aggravate the condition and impair the treatment.

  17. Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of human health hazard due to metal uptake via fish consumption from ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... It is well known that fishes can accumulate variety of toxic chemicals including persistent ...

  18. Intoxication in cattle from Cestrum diurnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, R; Figueredo, J M; Mendoza, E

    1999-02-01

    Twenty-six Holstein calves with clinical and pathological effects suggesting a toxic plant intoxication were studied. A view of the plants in the region and blood examination (hemogram, albumin, total protein, calcium and phosphorus) and determination of bone calcium were done. Five calves were slaughtered and pathological examinations were performed. Observed metabolic, pathological and clinical alterations were compatible with intoxication from Cestrum diurnum.

  19. Drug Intoxicated Irregular Fighters: Complications, Dangers, and Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    norms offer that chance. Outside agencies, NGOs and the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Refugees ( UNHCR ) should begin to put such...has argued, the desire to seek intoxication may be a “fourth drive” in human beings after hunger, thirst, and sex .2 Such a drive appears to have an...regional stability. For example, carnival activities in Yugoslavia sent waves of refugees throughout Europe and eventually led to a Western military

  20. [Intoxication with Monkshood (Aconitum napellus)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuinema, Rinske M; Uijlings, Ruben; Dijkman, Marieke A; van den Broek, Marcel P H; de Lange, Dylan W

    2009-01-01

    Three patients presented with an intoxication caused by Aconitum napellus, commonly known as Aconite, Monkshood or Wolfsbane. The first patient, a woman aged 24, was resuscitated after accidental ingestion of plant material 'from nature'. She experienced severe ventricular tachyarrhythmias. After discharge she returned with identical symptoms, which were now interpreted as intentional intoxication in a suicide attempt. She was referred to the Psychiatry department. The second patient was a 2-year-old boy who had cutaneous exposure to Aconite. Except for some red spots around his mouth there were no other symptoms. The third patient was a 34-year-old woman who ate Monkshood, which she mistook for parsley. Alarmed by the bitter taste she contacted the hospital. She was treated with stomach lavage which removed most of the ingested plant material, and with activated charcoal. She had no symptoms during observation in the hospital. Aconite alkaloids are known to cause ventricular arrhythmia by a prolonged activation of sodium channels. Because there is no antidote, treatment is largely supportive but serious arrhythmias and respiratory arrest need to be anticipated.

  1. Preanesthetic care. Intoxication and trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T D; Lee, J F

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the above discussion, a number of useful guidelines appear for the anesthetic management of alcohol and drug abusers. 1. Because of the decreased ability of intoxicated patients to withstand hemorrhage, blood replacement therapy should probably be instituted earlier than in the nonintoxicated patient. 2. Because the chronic alcoholic may actually be iso-osmotically overhydrated, fluid therapy must be planned with care. 3. Because of the tendency to hypoglycemia, glucose should be added to the fluid management regimen. 4. Because of the enzyme induction effect of chronic ETOH ingestion, anesthetic agents that are in part metabolized (methoxyflurane, halothane, fluroxene) are perhaps best avoided. Increased ability to metabolize anesthetic agents appears to be associated with toxicity. 5. Because ETOH is a CNS depressant and has been shown to have amnesia-inducing properties, supplementation of nitrous oxide-relaxant technique with narcotics or other depressant drugs should be reduced, if not eliminated. 6. Because acutely intoxicated individuals are more prone to hypothermia, their core temperature should be monitored intraoperatively. All intravenous fluids should be warmed and a warming blanket should be employed, if necessary, to maintain body temperature. 7. Because of the sympathomimetic effect of many of the drugs, pulse and blood pressure can be misleading in the assessment of blood loss.

  2. [Thyroid function tests in acute drug intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, F Y; Chen, C S

    1992-03-01

    It is well known that thyroid function tests may be changed in non-thyroidal illnesses. To understand the influence of acute drug intoxication on thyroid function tests, 31 drug intoxicated patients without previous thyroid disorders and systemic diseases were included in our study. T3, T4, TSH, and resin T3 uptake were checked as soon as they arrived at our emergency service and were compared to that of 58 healthy volunteers. Within 31 patients, 14 were intoxicated by organophosphorous compounds, 6 by sedatives and hypnotics, 3 by strong acid, 2 by paraquet, 2 by rodenticides (warfarin), 2 by lysol and the other 2 were intoxicated by acetaminophen. The mean T3 and TSH levels were significantly lower in the drug intoxicated group. Among the 31 patients, 14 (45.2%) had a low T3, 2 (6.5%) had a low T3 and T4, and 6 (19.3%) had an elevated T4. All of the patients with an elevated T4 were intoxicated by organophosphates. If we divided the 31 patients into 2 subgroups: organophosphate intoxicated group and non-organophosphate intoxicated group, T4 and FT4I were significantly higher in the former group. Thyroid function tests became normal after treatment in 27 patients, discharged in good general condition. T3 and T4 became extremely low in 4 patients before they expired. The present study confirms that acute drug intoxication, like other non-thyroidal illnesses, affects thyroid function tests. Acute organophosphate intoxication may cause transient hyperthyroxinemia.

  3. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication.

  4. [Anticholinergic syndrome after intoxication by lupine seeds (Tourmos)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Adnan; Atallah, David; Zoghbi, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Yellow lupine seeds (Tourmos) are frequently used as snack in Lebanon but their potential toxicity is extremely rare (five published cases) and often undiagnosed. Two patients presented with anticholinergic syndrome (mydriasis, mouth dryness, palpitations, general malaise) after ingestion of 200-500 g of bitter lupine seeds (not soaked enough in water). No other cause of intoxication was found, and symptoms disappeared spontaneously in 24-36h. Yellow lupine seeds need a long preparation (boiling then soaking with several changes of water) to debitter before consumption. The spontaneous bitter taste is mainly due to the presence of a toxic substance with anticholinergic properties, lupanine. An insufficient preparation or a preference for bitter lupin can result in intoxication.

  5. Case report of acute vitamin D intoxication in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vitamin D intoxication represents a rare and potentially serious pathological condition caused by the excess of calcium and phosphorus. We are presenting an infant with vitamin D intoxication due to excessive daily administration, as well as therapeutic procedures that prevented its adverse effects. Case Outline. A 1.5-month-old female infant, born at term, exclusively breastfed and without any complaints and abnormalities of physical findings, was observed due to the data that during the preceding month, by her mother’s mistake, she had received about 200,000 IU of vitamin D3. Laboratory analyses showed a high serum level of 25(OHD (>400 nmol/L and calcium (2.72 mmol/L, lowered PTH (6.6 pg/ml and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio (1.6, while other findings, including urotract ultrasonography image, were within normal limits. Treatment based on the discontinuation of vitamin D administration, infant’s forced water intake, as well as the application of 2-month prednisolone and 4-month phenobarbitone and furosemide, resulted in complete normalization of the laboratory indicators of vitamin D overdose, as well as the prevention of its adverse effects. Conclusion. By timely recognition and adequate treatment, including triple therapy with prednisolone, phenobarbitone and furosemide, adverse effects of acute vitamin D intoxication can be prevented.

  6. Prophylaxis Against Nerve Agent Intoxications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Patocka

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The acute toxicity of organophosphates is usually attributed to their irreversible inhibitionof an enzyme acetylcholinesterase that hydrolyses the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Theresultant increase in concentration of acetylcholine at the cholinergic synapses of the peripheraland central nervous system, and neuromuscular junction is manifested by over-stimulation ofthe cholinergic neurotransmission. Current antidotal regimens for organophosphate poisoningconsisting of a post-exposure therapy with anticholinergics such as atropine, acetylcholinesterasereactivators (oximes, benzodiazepines have some limitations. Therefore, effective prophylaxisbefore intoxication is of a special interest. Four fundamental prophylactic methods are: (iprotection of acetylcholinesterase against irreversible inhibition by organophosphates usingdifferent reversible inhibitors, (ii protection against neurotoxic effect of organophosphates usingbenzodiazepines, memantine, NMDA receptor blockers, (iii administration of cholinesterasepreparations of different sources (sometimes commercially available at present acting asbioscavengers, and (iv gene therapy being a new treatment modality under intensive researchusing enzymes hydrolysing/splitting organophosphates with the aim to eliminate toxic agentbefore it is transported to the target organs.

  7. Influence of dioxin intoxication on the human system and possibilities of limiting its negative effects on the environment and living organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ireneusz Całkosiński

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. Despite the restrictive legal regulations related to the reduction of dioxins emission, their concentration in the environment is still too high. Mainly, this is related to the illegal utilisation of electronic equipment and combustion of wastes, and also to intensified activity and maintenance of ships, especially in developing countries. The most important remaining source in Europe is the metal industry. Studies on the mechanism of impact of dioxins are still being carried out. This review points at new possibilities for limiting the molecular mechanisms of dioxins activity, inter alia, through the application of high doses of tocopherol and acetylsalicylic acid while treating dioxins intoxication. [b]Brief description of the state of knowledge. [/b]Apart from the knowledge of dioxins affinity to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, the multi-stage radical-form actions and the pro-inflammatory mechanism associated with cyclooxygenase-II enzyme (COX-2 are under intense investigation at the moment. Due to the high affinity of dioxins to animals adipose tissue and their ability to accumulate in it, they can enter the food chain. Furthermore, high dioxin doses can cause poisoning manifested as advanced clinical symptoms, whereas in smaller doses, when cumulated, can cause metabolic changes which are often difficult to associate with their presence. Recently, some serious food contaminations by dioxins have been demonstrated. Sea fish and products from contaminated aqueducts still constitute potential sources of dioxins pollution. [b]Conclusion.[/b] According to recent studies, dioxins are present in different concentrations in the environment and cause specific and long-time effects. These effects could be limited by the use of tocopherol and acetylsalicylic acid.

  8. Human infections due to Salmonella Blockley, a rare serotype in South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonose Thandubuhle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections due to nontyphoidal Salmonella have increased worldwide over the last couple of decades. Salmonella enterica serotype Blockley (Salmonella Blockley infections is associated with chickens and is a rarely isolated serotype in human infections in most countries. Case presentation We report a case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2011. Three African males (aged 4, 14 and 16 presented to a clinic with diarrhoea, stomach cramps and headache. They started experiencing signs of illness a day after they consumed a common meal, consisting of meat, rice and potatoes. Stool specimens from the patients cultured Salmonella Blockley. The strains showed an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Conclusion This is the first recorded case of human infections due to Salmonella Blockley in South Africa.

  9. Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Hepatocytes Improve the Mouse Liver after Acute Acetaminophen Intoxication by Preventing Progress of Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Stock

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow (hMSC have the potential to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro and continue to maintain important hepatocyte functions in vivo after transplantation into host mouse livers. Here, hMSC were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells in vitro (hMSC-HC and transplanted into livers of immunodeficient Pfp/Rag2−/− mice treated with a sublethal dose of acetaminophen (APAP to induce acute liver injury. APAP induced a time- and dose-dependent damage of perivenous areas of the liver lobule. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST increased to similar levels irrespective of hMSC-HC transplantation. Yet, hMSC-HC resided in the damaged perivenous areas of the liver lobules short-term preventing apoptosis and thus progress of organ destruction. Disturbance of metabolic protein expression was lower in the livers receiving hMSC-HC. Seven weeks after APAP treatment, hepatic injury had completely recovered in groups both with and without hMSC-HC. Clusters of transplanted cells appeared predominantly in the periportal portion of the liver lobule and secreted human albumin featuring a prominent quality of differentiated hepatocytes. Thus, hMSC-HC attenuated the inflammatory response and supported liver regeneration after acute injury induced by acetaminophen. They hence may serve as a novel source of hepatocyte-like cells suitable for cell therapy of acute liver diseases.

  10. Análise das internações hospitalares de crianças menores de um ano relacionadas a intoxicações e efeitos adversos de medicamentos no Brasil Analysis of hospitalizations of children under one year of age due to drug intoxication and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marise de Araújo Lessa

    2008-12-01

    may cause, is the leading factor accounting for human intoxications registered in Brazil. Children are the greatest victims of self-medication, administration errors, inappropriate medical prescription, lack of appropriate studies on the safe use of medicine in this age group, besides being susceptible to accidental ingestion driven by the curiosity natural to their age. The present study aims to identify the main therapeutic classes involved in drug intoxications or adverse events related to the hospitalization of children under one year of age, registered by the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System in the years 2003-2005. A total of 1,063 hospitalizations were analyzed, 151 of them involving children aged less than one month old and 912 children aged 1-11 months. Sedative-hypnotics accounted for 15.2% of hospitalizations related to drug intoxication and adverse effects in children less than one month old, and for 21.2% of such events in children aged 1-11 months. Antibiotics accounted for 12.6% and 18.9% of hospitalizations in the same age groups, respectively. Analgesics/antipyretics had a smaller share, with 7.3% of hospitalizations in the group under 1 month and 6.7% in the group aged 1-11 months. A great number of cases were observed on zero day old children, leading us to consider possible intoxications through the placenta or nursing. Therefore, this study points toward the importance of good antenatal care, as well as the necessary extra attention when prescribing drugs to both mothers and infants.

  11. Treatments for Pulmonary Ricin Intoxication: Current Aspects and Future Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a plant-derived toxin originating from the seeds of Ricinus communis (castor beans, is one of the most lethal toxins known, particularly if inhaled. Ricin is considered a potential biological threat agent due to its high availability and ease of production. The clinical manifestation of pulmonary ricin intoxication in animal models is closely related to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, which involves pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine upregulation, massive neutrophil infiltration and severe edema. Currently, the only post-exposure measure that is effective against pulmonary ricinosis at clinically relevant time-points following intoxication in pre-clinical studies is passive immunization with anti-ricin neutralizing antibodies. The efficacy of this antitoxin treatment depends on antibody affinity and the time of treatment initiation within a limited therapeutic time window. Small-molecule compounds that interfere directly with the toxin or inhibit its intracellular trafficking may also be beneficial against ricinosis. Another approach relies on the co-administration of antitoxin antibodies with immunomodulatory drugs, thereby neutralizing the toxin while attenuating lung injury. Immunomodulators and other pharmacological-based treatment options should be tailored according to the particular pathogenesis pathways of pulmonary ricinosis. This review focuses on the current treatment options for pulmonary ricin intoxication using anti-ricin antibodies, disease-modifying countermeasures, anti-ricin small molecules and their various combinations.

  12. New Drugs for Pretreatment of Organophosphonate Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-20

    COPY A D L£> SRI PROJECT PYU-4681 NEW DRUGS FOR PRETREATMENT OF ORGANOPHOSPHONATE INTOXICATION FINAL REPORT AD-B145 250 Daniel W. Parish, Allen...BB WORK UNIT ACCESSION NO. 099 11. TITLE (indud* Security Oaofficattofl) New Drugs for Pretreatment of Organophosphonate Intoxication...undertaken for the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (MRDC) under Contract DAMD17-88-C-8001, " New Drugs for Pretreatment of

  13. Vitamin D Intoxication with Hypercalcemia Due to Overuse of Supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MohammadBagher Oghazian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe a patient with hypercalcemia associated with the injection of high doses vitamin D as supplement for a period of six months. A 76-year-old woman had been taking an intramuscular injection of vitamin D 300,000 IU every ten days for six months. She was hospitalized with symptoms of hypercalcemia: chronic constipation, unstable gait, a chronic generalized musculoskeletal pain and increased fatigue. On admission her 25 (OH vitamin D and Calcium levels were 559 nmol/L and 13.85 mg/dL respectively, and Parathyroid Hormone (PTH level was 7.1 pg/mL. Immediately she received diuresis therapy with saline and furosemide in conjunction with calcitonin and pamidronate. At discharge her serum calcium level was 11.5 mg/dL. To lower endogenous overproduction of calcitriol, prednisolone 20 mg/day for 10 days was administered at discharge time.

  14. [Acute intoxication in adults - what you should know].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Th

    2014-01-01

    Ingestion of household products and plants are the leading cause for calls to the poison control centres as far as children are involved. Severe intoxication in children has become infrequent due to childproofed package and blister packs for drugs. Chemical accidents in adults give rise to hospital admission in only 5 %. Suicidal selfpoisonings are still a challenge for paramedics, emergency and hospital doctors. Natural toxins as amatoxins, cholchicine and snakebites can lead to severe intoxication. Sedatives, antidepressants and analgesics are the drugs which are often used for suicidal intent due to their availability. Quetiapine and paracetamol are the drugs which are ingested for attempted suicide/ suicide mostly. The treatment of poisoning centers on the severity which can be judged by the poison severity score, the Reed classification or the GCS.Most intoxicated patients can be treated symptomatically or by intensive care measurements. Antidotal treatment however is needed for some specific poisonings.Exact sample drawing is essential for diagnostic and forensic purposes. There is no evidence based proof for the effectiveness of primary detoxification from the gastrointestinal tract like forced emesis, gastric lavage or the use of cathartics. Early after the ingestion of a harmful substance the administration of activated charcoal seems advisable. Hemodialysis can remove water soluble substances with a small volume of distribution. Multiple charcoal administration may exhibit some influence on secondary detoxification. Provision of evidence of the efficacy for newer antidotes like hydroxocobalamin in smoke inhalation, fomepizol for toxic alcohols and silibinin for amanita poisoning are emerging. Two recently recommended therapeutic principles have still to demonstrate their ability: Firstly the treatment of patients with calcium receptor antagonistic and beta-receptor antagonistic agents poisoning by high dose of insulin plus glucose, secondly the

  15. Histamine, histamine intoxication and intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacova-Hanuskova, E; Buday, T; Gavliakova, S; Plevkova, J

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of histamine in the body leads to miscellaneous symptoms mediated by its bond to corresponding receptors (H1-H4). Increased concentration of histamine in blood can occur in healthy individuals after ingestion of foods with high contents of histamine, leading to histamine intoxication. In individuals with histamine intolerance (HIT) ingestion of food with normal contents of histamine causes histamine-mediated symptoms. HIT is a pathological process, in which the enzymatic activity of histamine-degrading enzymes is decreased or inhibited and they are insufficient to inactivate histamine from food and to prevent its passage to blood-stream. Diagnosis of HIT is difficult. Multi-faced, non-specific clinical symptoms provoked by certain kinds of foods, beverages and drugs are often attributed to different diseases, such as allergy and food intolerance, mastocytosis, psychosomatic diseases, anorexia nervosa or adverse drug reactions. Correct diagnosis of HIT followed by therapy based on histamine-free diet and supplementation of diamine oxidase can improve patient's quality of life.

  16. Profound Hypoglycemia with Ecstasy Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perliveh Carrera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy is a synthetic drug that is commonly abused for its stimulant and euphoric effects. Adverse MDMA effects include hyperthermia, psychomotor agitation, hemodynamic compromise, renal failure, hyponatremia, and coma. However, endogenous hyperinsulinemia with severe persistent hypoglycemia has not been reported with MDMA use. Case Report. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman who remained severely hypoglycemic requiring continuous intravenous infusion of high-dose dextrose solutions for more than 24 hours after MDMA intoxication. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels confirmed marked endogenous hyperinsulinemia as the cause of the severe hypoglycemia. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Immediate and frequent monitoring of blood glucose should be instituted in patients presenting with MDMA ingestion particularly if found to be initially hypoglycemic. Early recognition can help prevent the deleterious effects of untreated hypoglycemia that can add to the morbidity from MDMA use. Clinicians need to be aware of this side effect of MDMA so they can carefully monitor and treat it, especially in patients presenting with altered mental status.

  17. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  18. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy of encephalopathy tarda induced by CO intoxication%一氧化碳中毒迟发脑病的高压氧治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨金华; 王金春

    2003-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Encephalopathy tarda of CO intoxication is the result of incomplete therapy or in- timely treatment of acut intermedium or severe CO intoxication leading to a series of nerve system injury.Due to long period of course,serious condition and unlcrear mechanism,therapy is difficult and poor effect.

  19. Intoxicação por agrotóxicos no Distrito Federal, Brasil, de 2004 a 2007 - análise da notificação ao Centro de Informação e Assistência Toxicológica Intoxication due to pesticides in the Federal District of Brazil between 2004 and 2007 -analysis of notification to the Toxicological Information and Assistance Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Rebelo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A exposição humana a substâncias tóxicas, incluindo agrotóxicos, pode levar a danos irreversíveis no organismo e até ao óbito, sendo considera um grave problema de saúde pública. Este é um estudo retrospectivo, que utilizou dados reportados ao Centro de Informação e Assistência Toxicológica do Distrito Federal, Brasil (Ciat-DF referentes a intoxicações por agrotóxicos ocorridas no DF de 2004 a 2007. Nesse período, 709 intoxicações foram notificadas e avaliadas neste estudo. A maioria dos indivíduos envolvidos nas intoxicações foi do sexo masculino (51,2%, intoxicados no domicílio (91%, em área urbana (86,3% e por via oral (84%. Crianças de 1 a 4 anos e adultos de 20 a 39 anos estiveram envolvidos em 30 e 36% das intoxicações, respectivamente. As intoxicações acidentais corresponderam a 47,1% dos casos, seguidas pelas tentativas de suicídio (44,2%. O raticida ilegal chumbinho, conhecido por conter, principalmente, o inseticida carbamato aldicarbe, esteve envolvido em 35,1% dos casos, principalmente em tentativas de suicídio. Dezoito das intoxicações registradas evoluíram a óbito, 15 por suicídio e 3 por acidente individual. Quando comparado com outras fontes de dados, este estudo detectou uma alta taxa de subnotificação das intoxicações por agrotóxicos reportadas ao Ciat-DF no período do estudo.Exposure to toxic substances, including pesticides, can cause irreversible damage to humans, including death, and is therefore considered a serious public health problem worldwide. This is a retrospective study using data gathered by the Toxicological Information and Assistance Center of Brazil's Federal District (Ciat-DF between 2004 and 2007. During this period, 709 intoxications with pesticide occurred in the DF and were analyzed in this study. Fifty-one percent of the intoxicated individuals were men; the events occurred mostly in the home (91%, in the urban area (86.3% and by ingestion (84%. Children from 1

  20. Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    AFRL-RH-FS-TR-2016-0001 Thermal Injury in Human Subjects Due to 94-GHz Radio Frequency Radiation Exposures James E. Parker General...them. This report was cleared for public release by the 88th ABW Public Affairs Office and is available to the general public, including foreign ...This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical information exchange , and its

  1. Evaluation of Suicide and Intoxication Cases Admitted to our Newly Opened Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Muhammedoğlu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the suicide and intoxication cases between April 2011 and April 2013. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed hospital records of patients who were admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxication. The age, sex, intoxication causes, laboratory analyses, treatment refusal rates, and the prognosis were evaluated. Results: A total of 308 patients (105 males, 203 females were admitted to the intensive care unit. The mean age of the patients was 27.45±10.26 years (males: 28.70±9.86 years, females: 26.80±10.43 years. There were only 4 patients over 65 years of age. 275 patients had drug intoxication (antidepressant drug, pain killer, antibiotic, etc. and 33 patients had other causes of intoxication. When analyzing the prognosis; a total of 234 patients were discharged after initial treatment and 57 patients were discharged due to treatment refusal. 15 patients were referred for inpatient psychiatric treatment, 1 patient to the Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatment Center (AMATEM and 1 patient was referred to İstanbul University Medical Faculty due to acute hepatic failure. Conclusion: The patients admitted to our intensive care unit due to suicide and intoxications were mainly females (65.9% and individuals of young age (median age: 27.45 years. Female patients had used antidepressants for suicide attempts and males had used antiflu-acetaminophen combinations. No mortality was observed. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52:153-7

  2. Effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.F. Andrade

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the effects of experimental amitraz intoxication in cats. Sixteen cats were randomly divided equally into two groups: amitraz group - animals received 1.5% amitraz at 1mg/kg IV; and the control group - animals without amitraz. Physiological parameters from blood, cardiorespiratory system, and sedation indicators were quantified over time up to 360 minutes. Blood profile, urea, creatinine, alananine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not affected by amitraz. Sedation, loss of reflexes, hypothermia, bradycardia, bradyarrhythmia, hypotension, bradypnea, mydriasis, besides transitory hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and decrease of cortisol levels were observed in cats experimentally exposed to amitraz. The alpha2-adrenergic effects induced by amitraz intoxication in cats are very similar to the same effects reported in others species, contributing with more information about this type of intoxication to veterinary toxicology.

  3. Electrocardiogram of rabbits experimentally intoxicated with carbaryl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossakowski, S

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on 24 rabbits intoxicated intragastrically with carbaryl in single doses of 500, 750, 1000 and 1250 mg/kg. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were performed in 3 limb leads before and 1, 2, 4, 6h and 1, 2, 4, 6, 14d after intoxication and in a final stage of lethal intoxications--in a continuous manner. It has been found that, depending on the intensification of disease, ECG changes were characterized by the decreased heart rate with stimulations coming from the left ventricle, premature supraventricular stimulations, increased T wave amplitude and its reversion. These changes, except two lethal cases (1250 mg/kg), were compensated but the compensatory heart abilities decreased with increasing carbaryl doses.

  4. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication.

  5. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These me

  6. Chronic lead intoxication; Chronische Bleiintoxikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieseler, B.; Leng, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene; Lenz, S.; Schultz, C. [Klinikum Remscheid GmbH, Remscheid (Germany); Wilhelm, M. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin

    1999-02-01

    The case of a female 68 years old patient is described. Here, a chronic lead intoxication was diagnosed after a two year old medical history with increasing attacks of colic-like abdominal pain often described as life-threatening. After repeated hospitalizations and intensive search for the cause of the symptoms, porphyria and anemia was found to be a sign of a chronic lead poisoning. The blood lead concentrations were always about a level of 600 {mu}g/L. The source of exposure could not be found by now. Neither home inspection nor environmental investigations have shown a recent source of lead intake by the patient. However, a possible occupational source of lead exposure at a blast furnace was established by anamnesis for 1952 to 1962. Thus, osteoporosis induced lead mobilisation was suspected. Noticeable are the results of the six abdominal survey radiographies taken during hospitalization within one year; three radiographies were taken following clinical admission and three before discharge of the patient. In comparison, the course shows a chronic relapsing alimentary supply from metallic particles of unknown genesis. The patient was treated with the sodium salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propansulfonic acid (DMPS, Dimaval{sup TM}). She was free of complain afterwards. Following therapy, the blood lead concentrations fell under a level of 400 {mu}m/L, but after several weeks the lead level raised up to the original level of 600 {mu}g/L. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird eine 68jaehrige Patientin vorgestellt, bei der nach fast zweijaehriger Krankengeschichte, die gekennzeichnet war durch rezidivierende, teils als lebensbedrohlich geschilderte Bauchkoliken, eine chronische Bleiintoxikation diagnostiziert wurde. Erst nach wiederholten stationaeren Krankenhausaufenthalten mit intensiver Suche nach der Krankheitsursache wurden das Krankheitsbild und die Laborwerte durch Zusatzuntersuchungen ergaenzt, so dass sich in der festgestellten Porphyrie und Anaemie die Diagnose der

  7. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huici Omar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. Methods To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. Results This study documented a frequent use of the most toxic pesticides among farmers who have had almost no instructions in how to use pesticides and protect themselves against the dangers of intoxication, reflected in the hazardous practices used when handling pesticides. Symptoms of intoxications were common in connection with spraying operations. The risk of experiencing symptoms and the serum cholinesterase activity were influenced by whether or not organophosphates were used and the number of times sprayed. The experience of symptoms was moreover influenced by the hygienic and personal protective measures taken during spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. Conclusion The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia, and a coordinated action by authorities, society and international bodies is needed to limit the number of intoxications and the environmental pollution.

  8. Glasgow coma scale score in the prognosis of acute carbamate insecticide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Chun, Byeong Jo; Lee, Byung Kook

    2012-11-01

    Carbamate is a widely used insecticide, and fatality due to carbamate insecticide intoxication has been reported. However, no studies have addressed the factors associated with outcome of patients poisoned by carbamate insecticide. The present study sought to identify the independent factors that could help predict the development of medical complications as a result of carbamate intoxication. Fifty two patients presenting with acute carbamate insecticide ingestion at Chonnam National University Hospital were enrolled in this retrospective observational case series. The morbidities that needed intensive treatment such as hypotension, respiratory failure, and death were regarded as complications. To identify the associated factors to these complications, objective variables that are easily assessed at presentation, such as age, initial Glasgow coma scale (GSC) and corrected QT (QTc) prolongation, were analyzed by univariate and multivariate stepwise logistic regression analyses. Of the 52 patients, 35 (67.3%) had medical complications within 24 hours after carbamate insecticide intoxication and seven (13.5%) died. Respiratory failure was the most common medical complication. The significant factors determined by univariate analysis were initial GCS, elevated lactate, and QTc prolongation. However, initial GCS (≤13) was the only independent factor determined by multivariate analysis that was associated with serious complications requiring intensive medical treatment. Carbamate insecticide intoxication is not a mild disease, as previously thought, having a mortality rate of 13.8% and a morbidity rate of 67.3%. Initial GCS ≤ 13 can be used as a significant factor to identify carbamate insecticide-intoxicated patients who will experience complications.

  9. Data Mining of Historical Human Data to Assess the Risk of Injury due to Dynamic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jesica; Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, N.; Gernhardt, Michael

    2014-01-01

    deflection was determined from motion capture video of the impact test. HIC- 15 and BRIC were calculated from head acceleration responses. Given the number of human subjects for each test condition a confidence interval of injury probability will be obtained. RESULTS: Results will be discussed in terms of injury-risk probability estimates based on the human data set evaluated. Also, gaps in the data set will be identified. These gaps could be one of two types. One is areas where additional THOR testing would increase the comparable human data set, thereby improving confidence in the injury probability rate. The other is where additional human testing would assist in obtaining information on other acceleration levels or directions. DISCUSSION: The historical human data showed validity of the THOR ATD for supplemental testing. The historical human data are limited in scope, however. Further data are needed to characterize the effects of sex, age, anthropometry, and deconditioning due to spaceflight on risk of injury

  10. Recurrent Breast Abscesses due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii, a Human Pathogen Uncommon in Caucasian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Le Flèche-Matéos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii (Ck was first described in 1998 from human sputum. Contrary to what is observed in ethnic groups such as Maori, Ck is rarely isolated from breast abscesses and granulomatous mastitis in Caucasian women. Case Presentation. We herein report a case of recurrent breast abscesses in a 46-year-old Caucasian woman. Conclusion. In the case of recurrent breast abscesses, even in Caucasian women, the possible involvement of Ck should be investigated. The current lack of such investigations, probably due to the difficulty to detect Ck, may cause the underestimation of such an aetiology.

  11. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita B. Gagini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals.

  12. Human infections due to Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, an emerging zoonosis of canine origin: report of 24 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, R; Priyantha, M A R; Rubin, J E; Church, D

    2016-08-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius has been recently identified as a novel species within the genus Staphylococcus, and is commonly associated with infections in dogs. Currently, there are few reports of human infections due to this bacterium. To use a population-based approach to describe the characteristics of human S. pseudintermedius infections in a large Canadian healthcare region. All adult cases aged ≥18 years identified at a large regional laboratory from April 1, 2013 to April 1, 2015 who had at least one positive culture for S. pseudintermedius were retrospectively reviewed. A combination of phenotypic methods, mass spectrometry (i.e., MALDI-TOF), and cpn60 sequencing were used to identify S. pseudintermedius. Chart review was conducted, and cases were analysed descriptively. Twenty-seven isolates of S. pseudintermedius from 24 human cases were included for analysis. 58.3% were male with median age of 61 years (IQR 55-70.5). Most patients [22 (92.1%)] had confirmed contact with dogs at time of infection. S. pseudintermedius was isolated in 18 cases (75.0%) of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI), and 2 invasive cases (8.3%) including a prosthetic joint and bloodstream infection. The other 4 patients were considered to be colonized (skin - 3; lung - 1). Methicillin resistance was identified in 3 cases with 6 total isolates (22.2%); multi-drug resistance was also demonstrated commonly. S. pseudintermedius is most commonly associated with SSTIs in humans. Transmission probably occurs from a pet dog. Species-level identification of S. pseudintermedius is important due to the high prevalence of antibiotic resistance, particularly to methicillin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute toluene intoxication--clinical presentation, management and prognosis: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara-Lemarroy, Carlos Rodrigo; Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, René; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; González-González, José Gerardo

    2015-08-18

    Toluene is one of the most widely abused inhaled drugs due to its acute neurologic effects including euphoria and subsequent depression. However, dangerous metabolic abnormalities are associated to acute toluene intoxication. It has been previously reported that rhabdomyolysis and acute hepatorenal injury could be hallmarks of the condition, and could constitute risk factors for poor outcomes. The objective was to describe the clinical presentation, to characterize the renal and liver abnormalities, the management and prognosis associated to acute toluene intoxication. We prospectively assessed 20 patients that were admitted to a single center's emergency department from September 2012 to June 2014 with clinical and metabolic alterations due to acute toluene intoxication. The main clinical presentation consisted of weakness associated to severe hypokalemia and acidosis. Renal glomerular injury (proteinuria) is ubiquitous. Biliary tract injury (alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase elevations) disproportional to hepatocellular injury is common. Rhabdomyolysis occurred in 80% of patients, probably due to hypokalemia and hypophosphatemia. There were three deaths, all female, and all associated with altered mental status, severe acidosis, hypokalemia and acute oliguric renal failure. The cause of death was in all cases due to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. The hallmarks of acute toluene intoxication are hypokalemic paralysis and metabolic acidosis. Liver injury and rhabdomyolysis are common. On admission, altered mental status, renal failure, severe acidemia and female gender (not significant in our study, but present in all three deaths) could be associated with a poor outcome, and patients with these characteristics should be considered to be treated in an intensive care unit.

  14. Hepatic expression of detoxification enzymes is decreased in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Chai

    Full Text Available Levels of bile acid metabolic enzymes and membrane transporters have been reported to change in cholestasis. These alterations (e.g. CYP7A1 repression and MRP4 induction are thought to be adaptive responses that attenuate cholestatic liver injury. However, the molecular mechanisms of these adaptive responses in human obstructive cholestasis due to gallstone biliary obstruction remain unclear.We collected liver samples from cholestatic patients with biliary obstruction due to gallstones and from control patients without liver disease (n = 22 per group. The expression levels of bile acid synthetic and detoxification enzymes, membrane transporters, and the related nuclear receptors and transcriptional factors were measured.The levels of bile acid synthetic enzymes, CYP7B1 and CYP8B1, and the detoxification enzyme CYP2B6 were increased in cholestatic livers by 2.4-fold, 2.8-fold, and 1.9-fold, respectively (p<0.05. Conversely, the expression levels of liver detoxification enzymes, UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1-4, and GSTM1-4, were reduced by approximately 50% (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. The levels of membrane transporters, OSTβ and OCT1, were increased 10.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively, (p<0.05, whereas those of OSTα, ABCG2 and ABCG8 were all decreased by approximately 40%, (p<0.05 in human cholestatic livers. Hepatic nuclear receptors, VDR, HNF4α, RXRα and RARα, were induced (approximately 2.0-fold, (p<0.05 whereas FXR levels were markedly reduced to 44% of control, (p<0.05 in human obstructive cholestasis. There was a significantly positive correlation between the reduction in FXR mRNA and UGT2B4/7, SULT2A1, GSTA1, ABCG2/8 mRNA levels in livers of obstructive cholestatic patients (p<0.05.The levels of hepatic detoxification enzymes were significantly decreased in human obstructive cholestasis, and these decreases were positively associated with a marked reduction of FXR levels. These findings are consistent with impaired

  15. A patient with clove oil intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dyrbye, B.A.; Dubois, L.; Vink, R.; Horn, J.

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the case of a 67-year-old man who was brought to the emergency room because of inability to speak and confusion. His medical history revealed hypertension and alcohol abuse. His neurological symptoms and laboratory abnormalities are caused by intoxication with clove oil combine

  16. Acute intoxication with guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogoman, H; Steinberg, M; Jenkins, A J

    1999-06-01

    Mixed drug reactions are frequently encountered in emergency department overdose cases and also in fatal intoxications. Assessment of the relative contribution of each drug in producing adverse effects is often compounded by lack of case history and the paucity of cases reported in the literature. This report describes a fatal intoxication with three common over-the-counter medications: guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine. A 48-year-old woman was found dead in the attic bedroom of her residence. Specimens obtained at autopsy for toxicologic analysis included heart blood, urine, bile, gastric contents, vitreous humor, and cerebrospinal fluid. The over-the-counter drugs were identified and quantitated by acid/neutral or basic liquid-liquid extraction followed by gas chromatographic analysis with nitrogen phosphorus detection. Concentrations of guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine detected in the heart blood were 27.4, 8.8, and 0.2 mg/L, respectively. The cause of death was determined to be acute intoxication by the combined effects of guaifenesin, diphenhydramine, and chlorpheniramine, and the manner of death was determined to be suicide. To our knowledge, the blood guaifenesin concentration in this case is the highest reported concentration to date associated with an acute intoxication.

  17. Characterization of a Mouse Model of Oral Potassium Cyanide Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, Patrick J; Kobs, Christina L; Gibbs, Seth T; Hong, Peter; Matthews, Claire M; Patton, Kristen M; Sabourin, Carol L; Wakayama, Edgar J

    2016-09-01

    Potassium cyanide (KCN) is an inhibitor of cytochrome C oxidase causing rapid death due to hypoxia. A well-characterized model of oral KCN intoxication is needed to test new therapeutics under the Food and Drug Administration Animal Rule. Clinical signs, plasma pH and lactate concentrations, biomarkers, histopathology, and cyanide and thiocyanate toxicokinetics were used to characterize the pathology of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice. The acute oral LD50s were determined to be 11.8, 11.0, 10.9, and 9.9 mg/kg in water for adult male, adult female, juvenile male, and juvenile female mice, respectively. The time to death was rapid and dose dependent; juvenile mice had a shorter mean time to death. Juvenile mice displayed a more rapid onset and higher incidence of seizures. The time to observance of respiratory signs and prostration was rapid, but mice surviving beyond 2 hours generally recovered fully within 8 hours. At doses up to the LD50, there were no gross necropsy or microscopic findings clearly attributed to administration of KCN in juvenile or adult CD-1 mice from 24 hours to 28 days post-KCN challenge. Toxicokinetic analysis indicated rapid uptake, metabolism, and clearance of plasma cyanide. Potassium cyanide caused a rapid, dose-related decrease in blood pH and increase in serum lactate concentration. An increase in fatty acid-binding protein 3 was observed at 11.5 mg/kg KCN in adult but not in juvenile mice. These studies provide a characterization of KCN intoxication in adult and juvenile mice that can be used to screen or conduct preclinical efficacy studies of potential countermeasures.

  18. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Lindsay J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Methods Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007 of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80 with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0. Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS, outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments. Statistical analysis: p 80; stratified chi square. Results Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987 of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 ± 17.9, ISS of 18.0 ± 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67 or complications (p = 0.38. There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06. The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (≥ 5 days, ventilator days (≥ 8 days, and hospital LOS (> 14 days when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p Conclusions The data suggests that intoxicated drivers may have better outcomes and a trend towards reduced mortality. They appeared to be less likely to have prolonged hospital LOS, ICU LOS, and ventilator days. We also observed that intoxicated drivers were more likely to be self-pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely

  19. Human health risk assessment due to global warming--a case study of the Gulf countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Tahir; Chaudhary, Junaid Rafi

    2008-12-01

    Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC) due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25 degrees E to 61.875 degrees E and latitude 9.278 degrees N to 27.833 degrees N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary assessment indicates

  20. Fatal alcohol intoxication in women: A forensic autopsy study from Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straka Lubomir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plenty of information related to alcoholism can be found in the literature, however, the studies have mostly dealt with the predominance of male alcoholism and data related to addiction in women are desperately scarce and difficult to find. Basic demographic data focusing on the impact of acute alcohol intoxication on the circumstances of death and social behaviour in the alcohol addicted female population are needed especially in the prevention of alcohol related mortality. Methods A retrospective forensic autopsy study of all accidental deaths due to alcohol intoxication over a 12-year period was performed in order to evaluate the locations, circumstances, mechanisms and causes of death. Results A sample of 171 cases of intoxicated women who died due to blood alcohol concentration (BAC equal to or higher than 2 g/kg was selected. Among them 36.26% (62/171 of women died due to acute alcohol intoxication (AAI. We noted an increase in the number of deaths in women due to AAI from 2 in 1994 up to 5 in 2005 (an elevation of 150% between the years 1994-2005. The age structure of deaths in women due to BAC and AAI followed the Gaussian distribution with a dominant group of women aged 41-50 years (45.16% and 35.09% respectively. The most frequent place of death (98% among women intoxicated by alcohol was their own home. The study suggests a close connection between AAI and violence against women. Conclusions The increasing number of cases of death of women suffering from AAI has drawn attention to the serious problem of alcoholism in women in the Slovak Republic during the process of integration into "western" lifestyle and culture.

  1. Investigation of dental pulp stem cells isolated from discarded human teeth extracted due to aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-Hua; Chen, Bo; Zhu, Qing-Lin; Kong, Hui; Li, Qi-Hong; Gao, Li-Na; Xiao, Min; Chen, Fa-Ming; Yu, Qing

    2014-11-01

    Recently, human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) isolated from inflamed dental pulp tissue have been demonstrated to retain some of their pluripotency and regenerative potential. However, the effects of periodontal inflammation due to periodontitis and its progression on the properties of DPSCs within periodontally compromised teeth remain unknown. In this study, DPSCs were isolated from discarded human teeth that were extracted due to aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and divided into three experimental groups (Groups A, B and C) based on the degree of inflammation-induced bone resorption approaching the apex of the tooth root before tooth extraction. DPSCs derived from impacted or non-functional third molars of matched patients were used as a control. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like characteristics, including colony-forming ability, proliferation, cell cycle, cell surface antigens, multi-lineage differentiation capability and in vivo tissue regeneration potential, were all evaluated in a patient-matched comparison. It was found that STRO-1- and CD146-positive DPSCs can be isolated from human teeth, even in very severe cases of AgP. Periodontal inflammation and its progression had an obvious impact on the characteristics of DPSCs isolated from periodontally affected teeth. Although all the isolated DPSCs in Groups A, B and C showed decreased colony-forming ability and proliferation rate (P biomaterials were transplanted directly into an ectopic transplantation model. However, when cell-seeded scaffolds were placed in the root fragments of human teeth, all the cells formed significant dentin- and pulp-like tissues. The ability of DPSCs to generate dental tissues decreased when the cells were isolated from periodontally compromised teeth (P < 0.05). Again, increased periodontal destruction was not necessarily followed by a decrease in the amount of dentin- and pulp-like tissue formed. These findings provide preliminary evidence that periodontally compromised teeth might

  2. OCCURRENCE OF INTOXICATION BY TOXIC PLANTS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Junior Getter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The toxic plants are those that by means of contact or ingestion, provoke damage to human and animal health, same times causing death. This study has as purpose, to realize an analysis of the accidents occurs with toxicant plants in Brazil. Many control centers, are working to diminish the cases, that Just during the 1991 to 2000, registered a total of 14774 cases of intoxication and poisoning (I/P in the country. The result show that male is most committed, the age who most show the cases of poisoning is between 01-09 years old, this age prevailed on all country regions. The urban areas is where most occurs often. In the biggest part of the registers the intoxication was accidentally when children’s are playing game with the plants. On this period the number of death were of about 48 cases, a surprise was that the northeast region show almost 50% of the cases. Although wait of the control Center and the scientific community to realize a educative, looking for the sensibilization of the society.

  3. Inherited human sex reversal due to impaired nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of SRY defines a male transcriptional threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A

    2013-09-17

    Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.

  4. An experimental investigation of composite floor vibration due to human activities. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser G. Mohamed Fahmy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite steel floor decks are used in a large variety of constructions with long spans, such as administration and commercial buildings, hotels and bridges. Due to decreased floor mass and longer span lengths, floor vibrations have become an area of concern. Floor decks with low frequencies may be in resonance with the vibrations due to human activities and the resulting acceleration may exceed human comfort levels. The design of slender floor structures, with steel or composite cross sections, is often limited by the serviceability criteria such as deflection limits and vibration behavior, rather than the strength criteria. Control of deflections under AISC specifications requirement is not enough to satisfy the serviceability requirements of the floor systems for vibration. In addition, vibration analysis procedures introduced by AISC design Guide No. 11 are based on regularly-shaped structures and simple boundary conditions. In this paper, a case study for full scale testing of a composite floor system proposed for a tower at Kuwait state that was tested prior to construction. The heel-drop and walking tests are performed on floor systems with and without raised floor respectively. Since heel-drop and walking test results would vary in light of person performance, both tests are carried out three or four times to reduce uncertainty. The fundamental frequencies and damping ratio of the floor system are measured. Comparison of the experimental results with results based on the AISC hand calculations shows that there is no significant difference; therefore the results based on AISC are generally acceptable.

  5. Computational dosimetry for grounded and ungrounded human models due to contact current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwok Hung; Hattori, Junya; Laakso, Ilkka; Hirata, Akimasa; Taki, Masao

    2013-08-01

    This study presents the computational dosimetry of contact currents for grounded and ungrounded human models. The uncertainty of the quasi-static (QS) approximation of the in situ electric field induced in a grounded/ungrounded human body due to the contact current is first estimated. Different scenarios of cylindrical and anatomical human body models are considered, and the results are compared with the full-wave analysis. In the QS analysis, the induced field in the grounded cylindrical model is calculated by the QS finite-difference time-domain (QS-FDTD) method, and compared with the analytical solution. Because no analytical solution is available for the grounded/ungrounded anatomical human body model, the results of the QS-FDTD method are then compared with those of the conventional FDTD method. The upper frequency limit for the QS approximation in the contact current dosimetry is found to be 3 MHz, with a relative local error of less than 10%. The error increases above this frequency, which can be attributed to the neglect of the displacement current. The QS or conventional FDTD method is used for the dosimetry of induced electric field and/or specific absorption rate (SAR) for a contact current injected into the index finger of a human body model in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 100 MHz. The in situ electric fields or SAR are compared with the basic restrictions in the international guidelines/standards. The maximum electric field or the 99th percentile value of the electric fields appear not only in the fat and muscle tissues of the finger, but also around the wrist, forearm, and the upper arm. Some discrepancies are observed between the basic restrictions for the electric field and SAR and the reference levels for the contact current, especially in the extremities. These discrepancies are shown by an equation that relates the current density, tissue conductivity, and induced electric field in the finger with a cross-sectional area of 1 cm2.

  6. Critical time delay of the pineal melatonin rhythm in humans due to weak electromagnetic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-08-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) can increase free radicals, activate the stress response and alter enzyme reactions. Intracellular signalling is mediated by free radicals and enzyme kinetics is affected by radical pair recombination rates. The magnetic field component of an external EMF can delay the "recombination rate" of free radical pairs. Magnetic fields thus increase radical life-times in biological systems. Although measured in nanoseconds, this extra time increases the potential to do more damage. Melatonin regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle or circadian rhythm. The World Health Organization (WHO) has confirmed that prolonged alterations in sleep patterns suppress the body's ability to make melatonin. Considerable cancer rates have been attributed to the reduction of melatonin production as a result of jet lag and night shift work. In this study, changes in circadian rhythm and melatonin concentration are observed due to the external perturbation of chemical reaction rates. We further analyze the pineal melatonin rhythm and investigate the critical time delay or maturation time of radical pair recombination rates, exploring the impact of the mRNA degradation rate on the critical time delay. The results show that significant melatonin interruption and changes to the circadian rhythm occur due to the perturbation of chemical reaction rates, as also reported in previous studies. The results also show the influence of the mRNA degradation rate on the circadian rhythm's critical time delay or maturation time. The results support the hypothesis that exposure to weak EMFs via melatonin disruption can adversely affect human health.

  7. Pineal melatonin level disruption in humans due to electromagnetic fields and ICNIRP limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N

    2013-05-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies electromagnetic fields (EMFs) as 'possibly carcinogenic' to humans that might transform normal cells into cancer cells. Owing to high utilisation of electricity in day-to-day life, exposure to power-frequency (50 or 60 Hz) EMFs is unavoidable. Melatonin is a natural hormone produced by pineal gland activity in the brain that regulates the body's sleep-wake cycle. How man-made EMFs may influence the pineal gland is still unsolved. The pineal gland is likely to sense EMFs as light but, as a consequence, may decrease the melatonin production. In this study, more than one hundred experimental data of human and animal studies of changes in melatonin levels due to power-frequency electric and magnetic fields exposure were analysed. Then, the results of this study were compared with the International Committee of Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit and also with the existing experimental results in the literature for the biological effect of magnetic fields, in order to quantify the effects. The results show that this comparison does not seem to be consistent despite the fact that it offers an advantage of drawing attention to the importance of the exposure limits to weak EMFs. In addition to those inconsistent results, the following were also observedfrom this work: (i) the ICNIRP recommendations are meant for the well-known acute effects, because effects of the exposure duration cannot be considered and (ii) the significance of not replicating the existing experimental studies is another limitation in the power-frequency EMFs. Regardless of these issues, the above observation agrees with our earlier study in which it was confirmed that it is not a reliable method to characterise biological effects by observing only the ratio of AC magnetic field strength to frequency. This is because exposure duration does not include the ICNIRP limit. Furthermore, the results show the significance of

  8. Clinically and electrophysiologically diagnosed botulinum intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotan, Dilcan; Aygul, Recep; Ceylan, Mustafa; Yilikoglu, Yalcin

    2013-01-03

    In this case report, clinical and electrophysiological findings of 43-year-old female patient who developed Clostridium botulinum intoxication after consumption of home-made canned food are presented. Following the sudden onset of severe nausea and vomiting, diplopia, blurred vision, bilateral ptosis, weakness, speech and swallowing difficulties have developed and the patient declared that she has just tasted the canned beans after she had rinsed them several times. The case, where serological tests cannot be performed, was diagnosed clinically and treated with antitoxin immediately. During follow-up, consecutive nerve stimulation was performed and significant incremental response was observed. There was an improvement in symptoms within 2 weeks, and in 5 or 6 weeks the symptoms had disappeared completely. Electrodiagnostic studies revealed that the findings turned to normal. The case showed that immediate antitoxin treatment is life-saving even the diagnosis of botulinum intoxication is based on clinical findings.

  9. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  10. Spirituality, intoxication and addiction: six forms of relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Robin

    2013-09-01

    The paper considers six connections between spirituality and intoxication or addiction. They are: intoxication as a means of communication with a spiritual world; intoxication as destroying spirituality; shared use and intoxication as creating and validating community; spirituality and religion as a means of collective sobering-up; spirituality in individual sobering up; and abstinence as a spiritual practice, a witness, or a badge of membership in a spiritual community. Intoxication can either enhance or impede spirituality, both at individual and collective levels. Spirituality is often important in sobering up, both individually and collectively, and abstinence is a part of spiritual or religious practice in some traditions. But a full account must acknowledge the diversity in the interactions of spirituality and intoxication or addiction.

  11. INTOXICATION AND CRIMINAL LIABILITY IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    ZGAGA SABINA

    2014-01-01

    The principle of actio libera in causa or the effect of a perpetrator's voluntary intoxication on the existence of a criminal act is controversial in international criminal law. The present legislation, as contained in the Rome Statute, is a compromise between different legal systems. It allows the exclusion of a criminal act based on the fact that the perpetrator was involuntarily intoxicated and he or she cannot be ascribed guilt for the act of intoxication and the criminal act. In the Rome...

  12. Morphine protects against methylmercury intoxication: a role for opioid receptors in oxidative stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Costa-Malaquias

    Full Text Available Mercury is an extremely dangerous environmental contaminant responsible for episodes of human intoxication throughout the world. Methylmercury, the most toxic compound of this metal, mainly targets the central nervous system, accumulating preferentially in cells of glial origin and causing oxidative stress. Despite studies demonstrating the current exposure of human populations, the consequences of mercury intoxication and concomitant use of drugs targeting the central nervous system (especially drugs used in long-term treatments, such as analgesics are completely unknown. Morphine is a major option for pain management; its global consumption more than quadrupled in the last decade. Controversially, morphine has been proposed to function in oxidative stress independent of the activation of the opioid receptors. In this work, a therapeutic concentration of morphine partially protected the cellular viability of cells from a C6 glioma cell line exposed to methylmercury. Morphine treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and totally prevented increases in nitrite levels in those cells. A mechanistic study revealed no alteration in sulfhydryl groups or direct scavenging at this opioid concentration. Interestingly, the opioid antagonist naloxone completely eliminated the protective effect of morphine against methylmercury intoxication, pointing to opioid receptors as the major contributor to this action. Taken together, the experiments in the current study provide the first demonstration that a therapeutic concentration of morphine is able to reduce methylmercury-induced oxidative damage and cell death by activating the opioid receptors. Thus, these receptors may be a promising pharmacological target for modulating the deleterious effects of mercury intoxication. Although additional studies are necessary, our results support the clinical safety of using this opioid in methylmercury-intoxicated patients, suggesting that normal analgesic doses could

  13. Characteristics of the vibratory reflex in humans with reduced suprasegmental influence due to spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, A M; Dimitrijevic, M R; Bacia, T; McKay, W B

    1993-01-01

    The tonic stretch reflex elicited by vibration of a muscle or tendon provides a means of studying segmental reflex activity in humans with impaired volitional motor activity due to spinal cord injury (SCI). Vibration applied to the achilles or patellar tendon in a group of 51 SCI subjects elicited motor unit activity different from that found in 12 healthy subjects. Four distinct features of motor unit responses to vibration of a single tendon (achilles or patellar) could be seen in the SCI subjects: (i) a rapid onset, tonic response, frequently beginning with a single burst analogous to a tendon jerk, in 72% of vibrated sites; (ii) repetitive, phasic bursts of activity or vibratory-induced clonus in 23% of the tonic responses; (iii) spread of activity to muscles distant from the vibration in 44% of the tonic responses; and vibratory-induced withdrawal reflexes (VWR) which occurred after vibration of 37% of the sites. Overall, 81% of stimulated sites responded to vibration in SCI subjects. In contrast, only 54% of vibrated sites responded in control subjects, always with a gradual onset tonic response, never accompanied by a VWR. The VWR in SCI subjects was typically of much larger amplitude than the tonic responses and involved a mean of 5 muscles (41% bilaterally). Features of these responses provide an insight into underlying neurocontrol mechanisms which may provide guidance in the selection of appropriate intervention or management strategies.

  14. Acute liver failure due to Human Herpesvirus 6 in an infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Tronconi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus, drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6 genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases’ review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus’s genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  15. [Acute liver failure due to human herpesvirus 6 in an infant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronconi, G M; Mariani, B; Pajno, R; Fomasi, M; Cococcioni, L; Biffi, V; Bove, M; Corsin, P; Garbetta, G; Barera, G

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 4-months infant with fever in the absence of other specific symptoms that has rapidly and unexpectedly developed acute liver failure (ALF) with coagulopathy and complicated with bone marrow failure without encephalopathy. The main viral infection agents (hepatitis virus A, B, C, Citomegalovirus, Ebstain Barr virus, Parvovirus B19, Adenovirus), drug-induced hepatotoxicity and metabolic disorders associated to ALF were excluded. Quantitative determination of Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV6) genome was positive with a significant number of copies for mL. A favorable evolution of the clinical symptoms and a progressive hematochemical resolution were obtained. Plasma and Vitamin K were administrated as a support therapy for treating coagulopathy. The present case report and the cases' review from the literature, evidence the importance of always including screening for HHV6 infection in the diagnostic approach to acute onset of liver failure. HHV6 is a common virus in the pediatric population with a greater number of cases of fulminant viral non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis in immunocompetent patients due to this virus: these forms have often a high mortality rate and maybe necessitate liver transplantation; for this reason correct etiological agent identification is mandatory for the prognosis and it has to be based on the quantitative search of the virus's genome. Pathogenesis of liver-induced damage associated to HHV6 remains unclear; however in vitro studies demonstrate the potential hepatotoxicity effects of this virus.

  16. Malignancies and infection due to the human immunodeficiency virus. Are these emerging diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia Ortega, M E

    2017-09-02

    Since the start of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, tumour disease among patients has been significant. The collection of malignancies can be divided primarily into 2 groups: those associated with HIV (all of which are related to viral diseases) and those not associated with HIV (only some of which are associated with viral diseases). The origin of these malignancies is multifactorial, and the main causes that have led to an increase in tumour disease are immunosuppression, coinfection with oncogenic viruses and life prolongation secondary to the use of antiretroviral therapy. Establishing the general characteristics of the undiagnosed AIDS tumours is difficult, mainly because they are a highly heterogeneous group formed by malignancies of a diverse nature. The treatments do not differ from those used in the general population, although the management can be more difficult due to the late diagnosis, drug interactions and associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  17. Quantifying Biodiversity Losses Due to Human Consumption: A Global-Scale Footprint Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilting, Harry C; Schipper, Aafke M; Bakkenes, Michel; Meijer, Johan R; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2017-03-21

    It is increasingly recognized that human consumption leads to considerable losses of biodiversity. This study is the first to systematically quantify these losses in relation to land use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production and consumption of (inter)nationally traded goods and services by presenting consumption-based biodiversity losses, in short biodiversity footprint, for 45 countries and world regions globally. Our results showed that (i) the biodiversity loss per citizen shows large variations among countries, with higher values when per-capita income increases; (ii) the share of biodiversity losses due to GHG emissions in the biodiversity footprint increases with income; (iii) food consumption is the most important driver of biodiversity loss in most of the countries and regions, with a global average of 40%; (iv) more than 50% of the biodiversity loss associated with consumption in developed economies occurs outside their territorial boundaries; and (v) the biodiversity footprint per dollar consumed is lower for wealthier countries. The insights provided by our analysis might support policymakers in developing adequate responses to avert further losses of biodiversity when population and incomes increase. Both the mitigation of GHG emissions and land use related reduction options in production and consumption should be considered in strategies to protect global biodiversity.

  18. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...... prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads...

  19. Refractory cardiopulmonary failure after glyphosate surfactant intoxication: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chia-Chu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glyphosate is an herbicide considered to be of low toxicity to humans because its effects are specific to plants. However, fatal reactions to glyphosate have been reported after the ingestion of large amounts. Pulmonary edema, shock, and arrhythmia were the reported causes of mortality. Case presentation We present the case of a 57-year-old woman who was admitted to the emergency department unconsciousness after ingestion of glyphosate surfactant in a suicide attempt. Metabolic acidosis, refractory respiratory failure, and shock developed during hospitalization. Despite aggressive supportive care, the patient died in the hospital. Conclusion The toxicokinetics of glyphosate surfactant is complicated. Respiratory failure, metabolic acidosis, tachycardia, elevated creatinine, and hyperkalemia are poor prognostic factors if presented. Physicians should consider using hemodialysis early to improve the outcome of patients with glyphosate surfactant intoxication.

  20. Adverse effects and intoxications related to medicinal/harmful plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja VONČINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants around us have beneficial effects on our body and can be used as food. People are more and more interested in the medicinal plants. Many of them began gathering and preparing plants for the relief of symptoms of diseases or as a food dietary. Due to the lack of knowledge of plants, mistaking plants that contain toxins for medical plants may happen and cause adverse effects or even poisoning. The Poison Control Centre in Ljubljana keeps records of patients who have been admitted to the department because of adverse effects from the ingestion of certain plants. We analysed 64 cases, which were registered by the Poison Control Centre between January 2000 and December 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine which plants cause the most intoxications in Slovenia.

  1. Death rate due to horseshoe crab poisoning:summarization on Thai reports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Horseshoe crab can be poisonous and intoxication due to intake of horseshoe crab is possible. Horseshoe crab intoxication can be seen in many countries with seacoasts including Thailand. Here, the authors summarized the death rate due to horseshoe crab poisoning in Thailand.

  2. [A case of minoxidil intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Takei, Tetsuhiro; Ito, Toshitaka; Sakamoto, Kazunari; Nara, Takeshi; Yagi, Keiichi

    2014-09-01

    A 26-year-old man was found unable to move after oral consumption of 120 mL of RiUP X5® (containing 5 g/100 mL minoxidil) as a suicidal attempt. The patient complaining of frequent vomiting and weakness was transferred to our hospital. Findings on arrival: GCS E4V5M6; respiratory rate 24/ min; blood pressure 83/43 mmHg; pulse 152/min, regular; SpO₂97% (oxygen by mask: 6 L/min); thus, the patient was in shock. The systolic blood pressure and the pulse rate improved to about 90 mmHg and to about 130/min, respectively, in response to rapid intravenous infusion of 2,000 mL of lactated Ringer's solution. His circulatory condition tended to improve with parenteral fluid infusion alone. Forty hours after admission, however, heart failure developed due to excessive I.V. fluid infusion and abnormal body fluid distribution associated with delayed vascular smooth muscle relaxation; therefore, mechanical ventilation was initiated. Simultaneously, intravenous noradrenaline infusion was started because of a fall of the blood pressure. Subsequently, as the patient's respiratory and circulatory conditions gradually improved, he was weaned from mechanical ventilation, and the noradrenaline infusion was discontinued at 108 hours after admission. The patient made favorable progress and was discharged home on the 9th hospital day. Minoxidil exerts adverse effects mainly on the cardiovascular system. Since minoxidil is an over-the-counter drug readily available to the public, and emergency physicians should be aware of its severe toxicity.

  3. Hydro-ecological degradation due to human impacts in the Twin Streams Watershed, Auckland, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-rodriguez, A.

    2012-12-01

    wide range of impacts due to human actions which will exacerbated by future development as the population in the watershed is forecast to increase by at least 65% and the likely impacts of global warming. The rural watershed generates sediment which smothers the streams and harbor, while the urban watershed is the source of point and diffuse contamination with heavy metals which damage ecosystems. Evidence of impacts is given by the extent of flooding, reduced ecological flows and sampling results showing that more than 50% of the sites do not comply with environmental guidelines for: water clarity, turbidity, suspended solids, nitrogen, phosphorus, copper, zinc, conductivity, Dieldrin, DDT, Dissolved Oxygen, E.Coli, macroinvertebrates ,etc. , with water quality deteriorating progressively downstream where there is greater urbanization. But perhaps the most stunning evidence of the impacts was established by comparing aerial photographs of the 1940s and 2006 and seeing the build-up of sediments in the estuaries, the change in vegetation cover and discolored water. It is highly likely that the tipping point was reached before urbanization started but there is no doubt that urban development has accelerated the impacts, which has been corroborated by studies in other watersheds in Auckland.

  4. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D). Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided int...

  5. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in
    the presence of H2O2, peroxidase catalyses the formation of bacteriocidic compounds such as hypothiocyanate.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity
    of oral peroxidase (OPO. A total of 37 volunteers participated in the study. This cohort consisted of 17 male
    alcohol-dependent smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS group, alcohol + smoking (mean
    age: 42 years; range: 26–55 (100–700 g/day of alcohol; 10–20 cigarettes/day and 20 control male social drinkers
    (CNS group, control non-smokers with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking (mean age: 42 years; range:
    30–53. Salivary peroxidase activity was measured by the colorimetric method. The differences between groups
    were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. There was significantly higher activity of OPO (p = 0.00001
    and significantly lower salivary flow (SF (p = 0.007 in alcohol-dependent smokers after chronic alcohol intoxication
    compared to the control group. OPO activity significantly correlated with the number of days of alcohol
    intoxication, but not with smoking. Gingival index (GI was significantly higher in smoking alcohol-dependent
    persons than in the control group, and correlated with OPO activity. The sensitivity of the OPO test was 70% in
    smoking alcoholics, while specificity was 95%. The increased activity of OPO suggests chronic oxidative stress is
    more likely due to ethanol action than to smoking. Smoking alcohol-dependent persons have a worse periodontal
    status than controls. OPO activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse may help in the diagnosis of alcoholism.Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in
    the presence of H2O2, peroxidase

  6. Energy Dissipation from Vibrating Floor Slabs due to Human-Structure Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M.W. Brownjohn

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight pre-cast flooring systems using post-tensioning to increase strength but not stiffness are increasingly popular, and vibration serviceability problems tend to govern design of such floors where human occupants are increasingly concerned with vibrations. At the same time as inducing response, stationary human observers can also participate in the response as mitigating influence and it is clear that a human behaves as a highly effective damper, even when seated.

  7. A Review of Human Health and Ecological Risks due to CO2 Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepple, R. P.; Benson, S. M.

    2001-05-01

    Nyos in Cameroon, Mammoth Mountain in California, Dieng Volcanic Complex in Java, Indonesia, and industrial accidents with CO2 fire suppression systems teach that slow leakage rates and effective dilution must be proven to ensure human and environmental safety. Monitoring CO2 levels in occupational settings is done with reliable IR sensors. Remote sensing of low levels of CO2 over long distances cannot be done easily yet, although LIDAR, an airborne laser technique under development, may have good potential. The environmental impacts of elevated CO2 levels on vegetation are being investigated now in free-air CO2 enrichment studies. In general, persistent elevated CO2 levels cause a change in species composition, favoring C3 plants over C4 or CAM. The ecological effects of catastrophic releases are severe but depend upon (a) release rate and amount, (b) surface topography and rate of atmospheric mixing (c) exposure concentrations and duration, (d) the respiratory mechanism of the form of life under discussion, (e) its tolerance for oxygen deprivation, and (f) its ability to maintain homeostatic pH levels. Suppression of root respiration due to elevated soil-gas CO2 concentrations and acidifiction of the root zone are known mechanisms of tree-kill. Soil-gas CO2 in the tree-kill areas at Mammoth Mountain exceeded 20-30% at 15 cm depth. Surface masses of concentrated CO2 probably smother the canopy through oxygen deprivation, but the precise mechanism is not known. Lake Nyos and Mammoth Mountain reveal that catastrophic releases can result in complete dead zones.

  8. Acute intoxications: differences in management between six Dutch hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, C.; Vroegop, M.; Schouren, L.; Hoedemaekers, A.; Schouten, J.A.; Moret-Hartman, M.; Kramers, C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acute intoxications are frequently seen in Dutch hospitals. Based on single-centre studies and the fact that there are no clear guidelines, we hypothesised that hospital admission of acute intoxications may vary. Furthermore, decontamination treatment of poisonings may differ between hospit

  9. Acute intoxications: differences in management between six Dutch hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, C.; Vroegop, M.; Schouren, L.; Hoedemaekers, A.; Schouten, J.A.; Moret-Hartman, M.; Kramers, C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acute intoxications are frequently seen in Dutch hospitals. Based on single-centre studies and the fact that there are no clear guidelines, we hypothesised that hospital admission of acute intoxications may vary. Furthermore, decontamination treatment of poisonings may differ between

  10. Neuronal Death Following Soman Intoxication: Necrosis or Apoptosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    progression of apoptotic cell death in the rat piriform cortex after soman intoxication. At various time intervals after seizure onset, animals were...We investigated the temporal progression of apoptotic cell death in the rat piriform cortex after soman intoxication. At various time intervals...and neuronal loss after acute soman exposure included the piriform cortex, hippocampus, septum, entorhinal cortex, dentate gyrus, amygdala, and

  11. A Methanol Intoxication Outbreak From Recreational Ingestion of Fracking Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collister, David; Duff, Graham; Palatnick, Wesley; Komenda, Paul; Tangri, Navdeep; Hingwala, Jay

    2017-01-19

    Single-patient methanol intoxications are a common clinical presentation, but outbreaks are rare and usually occur in settings in which there is limited access to ethanol and methanol is consumed as a substitute. In this case report, we describe an outbreak of methanol intoxications that was challenging from a public health perspective and discuss strategies for managing such an outbreak.

  12. Efficacy of prophylaxis and treatment against soman intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Jongsma, M.J.; Vanwersch, R.A.P.

    2004-01-01

    The efficacy against lethality and post-intoxication incapacitation after 2x LD50 soman of different subacute pretreatment scenarios of 12 days was tested with or without post-intoxication therapy in guinea pigs. These pretreatment regimes were 1) the currently used pretreatment with pyridostigmine

  13. Efficacy of pretreatment and treatment against soman intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Jongsma, M.J.; Vanwersch, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    The efficacy against lethality and post-intoxication incapacitation after 2x LD50 soman of different subacute pretreatment scenarios of 12 days was tested with or without post-intoxication therapy in guinea pigs. These pretreatment regimes were 1) the currently used pyridostigmine (PYR, 0.04 mg/kg/h

  14. Acute intoxications: differences in management between six Dutch hospitals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duineveld, C.; Vroegop, M.; Schouren, L.; Hoedemaekers, A.; Schouten, J.A.; Moret-Hartman, M.; Kramers, C.

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Acute intoxications are frequently seen in Dutch hospitals. Based on single-centre studies and the fact that there are no clear guidelines, we hypothesised that hospital admission of acute intoxications may vary. Furthermore, decontamination treatment of poisonings may differ between hospit

  15. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to different flow regimes due to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Turberg, Pascal; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower production and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define eco-sustainable flows is to quantify the effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem adaptation. We present 2-years controlled experiments to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. In 2012 one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy for small run-of-river hydropower plants, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. In 2013 we confirmed and completed some of 2012 results, by reproducing typical hydropeaking effects due to dam management and focusing on daily water table variations and offsets. For both the seasons, after an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses revealed a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, in agreement with field observations of Pasquale et al. (2012). In particular, an initial strong difference in terms of stress and growth performances was then followed by a later

  16. Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with paraquat intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ha Nee; Bae, Eun Jin; Hwang, Kyungo; Kang, Yeojin; Yun, Seongeun; Cho, Hyun Seop; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of a 66-year-old patient with paraquat intoxication resulting in the requirement for hemoperfusion, hemodialysis, and plasma exchange. His initial serum paraquat level was 0.24 µg/mL (0.0-0.1 µg/mL). Activated charcoal (50 g) was administered orally, and high-dose N-acetylcysteine (150 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. In addition, immediate 4 h hemoperfusion was also performed for three consecutive days after admission. Hemodialysis was started on the 4th day after admission because of uremia. On the 9th day after admission, laboratory findings demonstrated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS): microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), thrombocytopenia, elevated reticulocyte count, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Plasma exchange was performed three times consecutively. Anemia and thrombocytopenia were improved, and LDH was normalized after plasma exchange. Urine output increased to 2240 mL/day on the 18th day after admission, and hemodialysis was discontinued. He is currently being observed at our follow-up clinic without renal impairment or pulmonary dysfunction for 1.5 years since discharge. We should suspect paraquat-associated HUS when thrombocytopenia and anemia are maintained for a long time after paraquat intoxication.

  17. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Nandy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles, Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi′s sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis.

  18. "Wired," yet intoxicated: modeling binge caffeine and alcohol co-consumption in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M; Companion, Michel; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-08-01

    The combination of highly caffeinated "energy drinks" with alcohol (ethanol [EtOH]) has become popular among young adults and intoxication via such beverages has been associated with an elevated risk for harmful behaviors. However, there are discrepancies in the human literature regarding the effect of caffeine on alcohol intoxication, perhaps due to confounding factors such as personality type, expectancy, and history of exposure. Animal models of co-exposure are resistant to such issues; however, the consequences of voluntary co-consumption have been largely ignored in the animal literature. The primary goal of this work was to characterize a mouse model of binge caffeine and EtOH co-consumption employing the limited access "Drinking-in-the-Dark" (DID) paradigm. Caffeine was added to a 20% alcohol solution via DID. Alcohol/caffeine intake, locomotor behavior, ataxia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive function were evaluated as a consequence of co-consumption in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Caffeine did not substantially alter binge alcohol intake or resultant blood EtOH concentrations (BECs), nor did it alter alcohol's anxiolytic effects on the elevated plus maze or cognitive-interfering effects in a novel object-recognition task. However, no evidence of alcohol-induced sedation was observed in co-consumption groups that instead demonstrated a highly stimulated state similar to that of caffeine alone. The addition of caffeine was also found to mitigate alcohol-induced ataxia. Taken together, our mouse model indicates that binge co-consumption of caffeine and alcohol produces a stimulated, less ataxic and anxious, as well as cognitively altered state; a state that could be of great public health concern. These results appear to resemble the colloquially identified "wide awake drunk" state that individuals seek via consumption of such beverages. This self-administration model therefore offers the capacity for translationally valid explorations of the

  19. ‘Wired’, yet intoxicated: Modeling binge caffeine and alcohol co-consumption in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Companion, Michel; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of highly caffeinated ‘energy drinks’ with alcohol (ethanol) has become popular among young adults and intoxication via such beverages has been associated with an elevated risk for harmful behaviors. However, there are discrepancies in the human literature regarding the effect of caffeine on alcohol intoxication, perhaps due to confounding factors such as personality type, expectancy, and history of exposure. Animal models of co-exposure are resistant to such issues, however, the consequences of voluntary co-consumption have been largely ignored in the animal literature. The primary goal of this work was to characterize a mouse model of binge caffeine and ethanol co-consumption employing the limited-access ‘Drinking-in-the-Dark’ paradigm (DID). Methods Caffeine was added to a 20% alcohol solution via DID. Alcohol/caffeine intake, locomotor behavior, ataxia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive function were evaluated as a consequence of co-consumption in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Results Caffeine did not substantially alter binge alcohol intake or resultant BECs, nor did it alter alcohol’s anxiolytic effects on the elevated plus maze or cognitive interfering effects in a novel object recognition task. However, no evidence of alcohol-induced sedation was observed in co-consumption groups that instead demonstrated a highly stimulated state similar to that of caffeine alone. The addition of caffeine was also found to mitigate alcohol-induced ataxia. Conclusions Taken together, our mouse model indicates that binge co-consumption of caffeine and alcohol produces a stimulated, less ataxic and anxious, as well as cognitively altered state; a state that could be of great public health concern. These results appear to resemble the colloquially-identified ‘wide awake drunk’ state that individuals seek via consumption of such beverages. This self-administration model therefore offers the capacity for translationally-valid explorations

  20. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kępka, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Płudowski, Paweł; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szulc, Agata; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-05-31

    Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell. The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period. The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6 ± 8.9) and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men) aged 22-60 years (39.8 ± 9.4). The patients' alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6 ± 7.5). Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9 ± 151.5). Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0), 30th (T30) and 49th (T49) day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC) and total (TC) carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student's t-test was used. At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05) in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01) as well as AC (p < 0.001) were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001)was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05), whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05). Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine after chronic alcohol intoxication is caused by the uptake of blood

  1. Biochemical and biomolecular aspects of oxidative stress due to acute and severe hypoxia in human muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Sessego, R; Velluti, C; Salvi, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress was investigated in severe and acute hypoxia and in reperfusion applied to human muscle tissues. The biochemical and biomolecular relationship between the response of the respiratory-chain enzymic complexes and the metabolism of specific hypoxia stress proteins (HSP) suggest an adaptive mechanism which antagonizes the oxidative damage due to acute and severe tissue hypoxia.

  2. Intravenous lipid emulsion and dexmedetomidine for treatment of feline permethrin intoxication: a report from 4 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ceccherini

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of feline permethrin intoxication are described. The cause of intoxication is the application of canine permethrin spot-on product (Advantix®, Bayer by the owners. Principal clinical guidelines recommends the use of anticonvulsant drugs to treat seizures or neurological symptoms after initial stabilization and dermal decontamination. The use of lipid emulsion had an increasing interest in the last decade for treatment of toxicosis caused by lipophilic drugs as reported in human and in veterinary medical practices. All cats presented in this study, were treated with intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE at variable dosages, and dexmedetomidine was also administered by intravenous way. No adverse reaction such as thrombophlebitis, overload circulation or others was noticed during and after administration of ILE. Dexmedetomidine was proved to be helpful in tranquillizing the cats. All cats were discharged in good condition faster than other cases treated without their use.

  3. Occupational pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Morant, Rafael Cervantes; Aguilar, Guido Condarco

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pesticide use and its consequences are of concern in Bolivia due to an intensive and increasing use. METHODS: To assess the magnitude and reasons for occupational pesticide intoxication, a cross-sectional study with interviews and blood-tests was performed among 201 volunteer farmers...... from 48 villages in the temperate and subtropical valleys in the eastern part of the Andes Mountains in Bolivia. Of these 171 male farmers using pesticides in their agricultural production were used in the statistical analysis, including linear- and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: This study...... spraying operations while this had no influence on the serum cholinesterase level. CONCLUSION: The study showed that occupational pesticide intoxications were common among farmers and did depend on multiple factors. Pesticide use is probably one of the largest toxicological problems in Bolivia...

  4. Drugs of abuse: management of intoxication and antidotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Ivan D; McCann, David J

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug intoxications are an increasing public health problem for which, in most cases, no antidotes are clinically available. The diagnosis and treatment of these intoxications requires a trained clinician with experience in recognizing the specific signs and symptoms of intoxications to individual drugs as well as polydrug intoxications, which are more the rule than the exception. To make the diagnosis, the clinical observation and a urine toxicology test are often enough. Evaluating the blood levels of drugs is frequently not practical because the tests can be expensive and results may be delayed and unavailable to guide the establishment of a treatment plan. Other laboratory tests may be useful depending on the drug or drugs ingested and the presence of other medical complications. The treatment should be provided in a quiet, safe and reassuring environment. Vital signs should be closely monitored. Changes in blood pressure, respiratory frequency and temperature should be promptly treated, particularly respiratory depression (in cases of opiate intoxication) or hyperthermia (in cases of cocaine or amphetamine intoxication). Intravenous fluids should be administered as soon as possible. Other psychiatric and medical complication should receive appropriate symptomatic treatment. Research on immunotherapies, including vaccines, monoclonal and catalytic antibodies, seems to be a promising approach that may yield specific antidotes for drugs of abuse, helping to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications.

  5. Methylbromide intoxication: a clinical case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeman, Wim

    2009-01-01

    The port of Rotterdam, The Netherlands, is the world's largest container port. In 2006, one of these containers caused a chemical incident. Methylbromide is used in some countries as a pesticide for the fumigation of maritime containers. Because of an insufficiently performed detoxification, this insecticide intoxicated several employees and some of the ambulance crew and Mobile Medical Team (MMT). The victims displayed symptoms of sore throat, irritated eyes, and hypersalivation. One of the victims suffered from multiple epileptic seizures. Two victims were admitted to the intensive care unit for respiratory support. Three other employees showed milder symptoms and received supportive care but were not admitted to the hospital. This complicated case shows that the safety of the ambulance crew and MMT must be guaranteed. It also demonstrates that healthcare providers cannot always oversee the accident scene and that there are some pitfalls that are almost impossible to prevent.

  6. Intravenous pyridoxine in acute ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardel, S; Phair, I; O'Dwyer, F; Henry, J A

    1994-05-01

    Intravenous pyridoxine was evaluated as an agent for the reversal of ethanol-induced central nervous depression in a randomised double blind controlled study of 108 patients presenting with a clinical diagnosis of acute ethanol intoxication to two accident and emergency departments. Level of consciousness, measured by a modified Glasgow coma scale, showed no significant change after a single 1 g dose of intravenous pyridoxine when compared to controls given saline. The mean fall in blood alcohol concentration after one hour was 33 mg dl-1 (7.2 mmol l-1) in both groups suggesting that pyridoxine has no antidotal action and no short term effect on the rate of metabolism of ethanol.

  7. Acute cattle intoxication from Nerium oleander pods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Blanco, B; Fontenele-Neto, J D; Silva, D M; Reis, P F C C; Nóbrega, J E

    2006-01-01

    Seven outbreaks of acute intoxication from oleander (Nerium oleander) in cattle were reported in Northeast of Brazil. A total of 92 cattle were poisoned by oleander in 7 different herds; 57 animals died (67% of affected cattle). All cases reported here occurred during dry season. Two of the outbreaks resulted from offering oleander triturated and mixed with fodder. In the other cases, accidental ingestion of residual parts of oleander derived from pruning or cutting plants on grazing land were responsible. Clinical signs were diverse; the most common were locomotion disturbances, diarrhoea, depression and sudden death. Postmortem findings varied from no significant lesions to widespread haemorrhage. The presence of oleander leaves in the rumen was noted in all cases. The lack of information about the toxicity of oleanders was the main cause for the accident, which prompt us to stimulate wide divulgation of the common toxic plants.

  8. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with ra

  9. CargoVibes: human response to vibration due to freight rail traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waddington, D.; Woodcock, J.; Smith, M.G.; Janssen, S.A.; Persson Waye, K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an overview of the research concerning human response to vibration conducted in the EU FP7 CargoVibes project. The European Union-funded project CargoVibes involved 10 partners from 8 nations and ran from April 2011 to April 2014. The project was concerned with

  10. Severe respiratory failure due to co-infection with human metapneumovirus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Seki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old male patient was admitted with respiratory failure, although chest X-rays revealed only mild bronchiolitis. Streptococcus pneumoniae, which usually presents as massive lobular pneumonia, was isolated from sputum, however, pan-pathogen screening using a next-generation sequencer also detected human metapneumovirus genome fragments.

  11. A Review on Level of Specific Absorption Rate Due to High Power Transmission Lines: Analysis toward Human Position Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazali Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main contribution of this project is the development of a homogeneous model of a man to presents the specific absorption rate (SAR due to high power transmission line. As a low frequency application under high power transmission line of 50 Hz in electrical engineering, to studies the influence of human’s posture on specific absorption rate. This project designs two types of human body which one design uses most cylinder block and another design use brick block where both blocks have a different value of mesh cells. For each design has four types of posture are standing, sitting, arms up and arms out by using Computer Simulation Technology (CST Studio Software. This analysis does toward for four types of the human position postures because each posture has different value of specific absorption rate (SAR based on the size of the mesh cells of the design. Based on two designs of the human body, the lowest of the mesh cells value will reduce time to simulate SAR. For each posture has different value of SAR for each part of the human body because the whole human body has different types of tissues. Therefore, the CST studio software uses extremely to simulate the SAR value toward human position posture due to high power transmission line.

  12. Fatal intoxication by 5F-ADB and diphenidine: Detection, quantification, and investigation of their main metabolic pathways in humans by LC/MS/MS and LC/Q-TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusano, Maiko; Zaitsu, Kei; Taki, Kentaro; Hisatsune, Kazuaki; Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Moriyasu, Takako; Asano, Tomomi; Hayashi, Yumi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akira

    2017-05-21

    Despite the implementation of a new blanket scheduling system in 2013, new psychoactive substance (NPS) abuse remains a serious social concern in Japan. We present a fatal intoxication case involving 5F-ADB (methyl 2-[1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido]-3,3-dimethylbutanoate) and diphenidine. Postmortem blood screening by liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/Q-TOFMS) in the information-dependent acquisition mode only detected diphenidine. Further urinary screening using an in-house database containing NPS and metabolites detected not only diphenidine but also possible 5F-ADB metabolites; subsequent targeted screening by LC/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) allowed for the detection of a very low level of unchanged 5F-ADB in postmortem heart blood. Quantification by standard addition resulted in the postmortem blood concentrations being 0.19 ± 0.04 ng/mL for 5F-ADB and 12 ± 2.6 ng/mL for diphenidine. Investigation of the urinary metabolites revealed pathways involving ester hydrolysis (M1) and oxidative defluorination (M2), and further oxidation to the carboxylic acid (M3) for 5F-ADB. Mono- and di-hydroxylated diphenidine metabolites were also found. The present case demonstrates the importance of urinary metabolite screening for drugs with low blood concentration. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) fluorinated at the terminal N-alkyl position are known to show higher cannabinoid receptor affinity relative to their non-fluorinated analogues; 5F-ADB is no exception with high CB1 receptor activity and much greater potency than Δ(9) -THC and other earlier SCs, thus we suspect its acute toxicity to be high compared to other structurally related SC analogues. The low blood concentration of 5F-ADB may be attributed to enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic degradation, and further investigation into these possibilities is underway. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Konarzewska, Beata; Ładny, Jerzy Robert; Kowzan, Urszula; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-07-04

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A), and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C) with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index (GI) and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A), compared to the control group (C). Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower biosynthesis or

  14. Decrease in salivary lactoferrin output in chronically intoxicated alcohol-dependent patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoleon Waszkiewicz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Salivary lactoferrin is a glycoprotein involved in the elimination of pathogens and the prevention of massive overgrowth of microorganisms that affect oral and general health. A high concentration of lactoferrin in saliva is often considered to be a marker of damage to the salivary glands, gingivitis, or leakage through inflamed or damaged oral mucosa, infiltrated particularly by neutrophils. We conducted a study to determine the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on salivary lactoferrin concentration and output. The study included 30 volunteers consisting of ten non-smoking male patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (group A, and 20 control nonsmoking male social drinkers (group C with no history of alcohol abuse. Resting whole saliva was collected 24 to 48 hours after a chronic alcohol intoxication period. Lactoferrin was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. For all participants, the DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth, gingival index (GI and papilla bleeding index (PBI were assessed. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann–Whitney U test. We noticed significantly decreased salivary flow (SF in alcohol dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (A, compared to the control group (C. Although there was no significant difference in salivary lactoferrin concentration between the alcohol dependent group A and the control group C, we found significantly decreased lactoferrin output in group A compared to group C. We found a significant correlation between the amount of daily alcohol use and a decrease in lactoferrin output. There was a significant increase in GI and a tendency of PBI to increase in group A compared to group C. We demonstrated that chronic alcohol intoxication decreases SF and lactoferrin output. The decreased lactoferrin output in persons chronically intoxicated by alcohol may be the result of lactoferrin exhaustion during drinking (due to its alcohol-related lower

  15. Prevention of Infection Due to Pneumocystis spp. in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Immunocompromised Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Martin; Fishman, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    Pneumocystis infection in humans was originally described in 1942. The organism was initially thought to be a protozoan, but more recent data suggest that it is more closely related to the fungi. Patients with cellular immune deficiencies are at risk for the development of symptomatic Pneumocystis infection. Populations at risk also include patients with hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, solid-organ recipients, and patients receiving i...

  16. Honey reduces blood alcohol concentration but not affects the level of serum MDA and GSH-Px activity in intoxicated male mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peiying; Chen, Bing; Chen, Conghai; Xu, Jingyang; Shen, Zhenhuang; Miao, Xiaoqing; Yao, Hong

    2015-07-14

    For a long time, honey was purportedly helpful to prevent drunkenness and relieve hangover symptoms. However, few of the assertions have experienced scientific assessment. The present study examined the effects of honey on intoxicated male mice. Low or high doses of lychee flower honey (2.19 or 4.39 g/kg body weight, respectively) were single orally administrated 30 min before the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by recording the locomotor activity by autonomic activity instrument and observing the climbing ability after alcohol. On the other hand, 2.19 g/kg honey was single orally administrated 5 min after the ethanol intoxication of mice, followed by determining the ethanol concentration in mice blood. In addition, subacute alcoholism mice models were developed and after the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey s.i.d for successive three days, the level of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity were detected in the models. Both of the two doses of honey increased the autonomic activity of alcoholized mice. Furthermore, the treatment of 2.19 g/kg honey could decrease significantly the blood ethanol concentration in intoxicated mice. The anti-intoxication activity of honey could be due to the effect of the fructose contained in the honey. Meanwhile, honey could not affect the serum MDA level and GSH-Px activity in alcoholism mice models. Honey indeed possesses anti-intoxication activity.

  17. New methods for dete rmining the relative load due to physical effort of the human body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Szubert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relative physical load (% VO2max is the quotient of oxygen uptake (Vo2 during physical effort and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max by the human body. For this purpose the stress test must be performed. The relative load shows a high correlation with minute ventilation, cardiac output, heart rate, stroke volume, increased concentrations of catecholamines in the blood, inner temperature, weight, height and human body surface area. The relative load is a criterion for the maximum workloads admissible for healthy and sick workers. Besides, the classification of effort can be more precise when based on the relative load than on the energy output. Material and Methods: Based on our own and international empirical evidence and the laws of heat transfer and fluid mechanics, a model of temperature control system has been developed, involving the elements of human cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Using this model, we have been able to develop our own methods of determining the relative load, applying only the body core temperature (TW or heart rate within one minute (HR, body mass (m, height (H, and body surface area (AD instead of VO2max. Results: The values of the relative physical load (% VO2max obtained by using our own methods do not differ significantly from those obtained by other methods and by other researchers. Conclusions: The developed methods for determining the relative physical load (% VO2max do not require the exercise test to be performed, therefore, they may be considered (after verification in an experimental study a feasible alternative to current methods. Med Pr 2014;65(2:189–195

  18. No evidence for clonal selection due to lentiviral integration sites in human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Thomas; Cantilena, Amy; Métais, Jean-Yves; Xu, Xiuli; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Borate, Bhavesh; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica E; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Thomson, James A; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2010-04-01

    Derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells requires the expression of defined transcription factors (among Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog, and Lin28) in the targeted cells. Lentiviral or standard retroviral gene transfer remains the most robust and commonly used approach. Low reprogramming frequency overall, and the higher efficiency of derivation utilizing integrating vectors compared to more recent nonviral approaches, suggests that gene activation or disruption via proviral integration sites (IS) may play a role in obtaining the pluripotent phenotype. We provide for the first time an extensive analysis of the lentiviral integration profile in human iPS cells. We identified a total of 78 independent IS in eight recently established iPS cell lines derived from either human fetal fibroblasts or newborn foreskin fibroblasts after lentiviral gene transfer of Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, and Lin28. The number of IS ranged from 5 to 15 IS per individual iPS clone, and 75 IS could be assigned to a unique chromosomal location. The different iPS clones had no IS in common. Expression analysis as well as extensive bioinformatic analysis did not reveal functional concordance of the lentiviral targeted genes between the different clones. Interestingly, in six of the eight iPS clones, some of the IS were found in pairs, integrated into the same chromosomal location within six base pairs of each other or in very close proximity. Our study supports recent reports that efficient reprogramming of human somatic cells is not dependent on insertional activation or deactivation of specific genes or gene classes.

  19. [Pseudo-tumoral human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma gambiense. Clinical and tomodensitometry study (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, M; Bleibel, J M; Regnier, A; Mashaly, R; Le Bigot, P; Danis, M; Buge, A

    The authors report an observation of african trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma Gambiense, clinical signs included massive and progressive hemiplegia, papillary edema and vascular shift from median line at arteriography. These pseudo tumoral clinical features are unusual in this disease. Asymetrical heterogenous hypodensities of the centrum semioval are dominant in the initial CT scanner aspect. The confrontation of CT scanner images to the clinical and evolutive data suggests the presence of associated cerebral edema and demyelination. With treatment, hypodensities were regressing while images of subcortical atrophy appeared. Lastly, in spite of severe general signs and the importance of neurological deficit, arsenical treatment associated with high doses of corticotherapy lead to a rapid improvement.

  20. Contact-independent cell death of human microglial cells due to pathogenic Naegleria fowleri trophozoites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Daesik; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-12-01

    Free-living Naegleria fowleri leads to a fatal infection known as primary amebic meningoencephalitis in humans. Previously, the target cell death could be induced by phagocytic activity of N. fowleri as a contact-dependent mechanism. However, in this study we investigated the target cell death under a non-contact system using a tissue-culture insert. The human microglial cells, U87MG cells, co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites for 30 min in a non-contact system showed morphological changes such as the cell membrane destruction and a reduction in the number. By fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis, U87MG cells co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system showed a significant increase of apoptotic cells (16%) in comparison with that of the control or N. fowleri lysate. When U87MG cells were co-cultured with N. fowleri trophozoites in a non-contact system for 30 min, 2 hr, and 4 hr, the cytotoxicity of amebae against target cells was 40.5, 44.2, and 45.6%, respectively. By contrast, the cytotoxicity of non-pathogenic N. gruberi trophozoites was 10.2, 12.4, and 13.2%, respectively. These results suggest that the molecules released from N. fowleri in a contact-independent manner as well as phagocytosis in a contact-dependent manner may induce the host cell death.

  1. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier.

  2. ACUTE METHANOL INTOXICATIONS – A CHALLENGE FOR CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methanol (CH3OH is a monohydric alcohol, vastly used both in housekeeping and industry. Although the acute methanol intoxications are rare, they may include life-threatening symptoms, substantial lethality and negative consequences such as neurological disorders and vision damage. Aim of the work is to conduct a retrospective study on the acute methanol intoxications within Varna region for a 10-year period (2006-2015. Material/Methods: This study covers 39 patients of the Clinic for Intensive Treatment of Acute Intoxications and Toxicoallergies at Naval Hospital – Varna, all of which had their diagnosis confirmed, including gas chromatography methods. Results: Methanol intoxication prevalence showed male/female ratio close to 2.9:1. The major part of the cases concerned economically active population, the age group of 25-60 being the most affected. In all instances an oral methanol intake has been involved. Death occurred in 14 cases (35.9%

  3. [Protective effects of metaprot and ethomerzol in carbophos intoxications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'eva, V V; Zarubina, I V; Shabanov, P D

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of protective action of thiobenzimidazole derivatives metaprot and ethomerzol (25 and 50 mg/kg) have been studied on a model of carbophos intoxication (256.0 +/- 8.7 mg/kg) in rats. Both compounds recovered the resistance to physical loads in forced swimming test, normalized the activity of aspartate and alanine transaminases, and reduced bilirubin, creatinine, and urea nitrogen levels in the blood serum. The intoxication was accompanied with increasing concentration of malonic dialdehyde and decreasing level of recovered glutation in the blood, as well as with the signs of endogenic intoxication. Metaprot and ethomerzol diminished disorders of both the lipid peroxidation and endogenic intoxication processes. Thus, the antihypoxic, antioxidant, actoprotective, energotropic, and reparative effects of metaprot and ethomerzol have been proved. Ethomerzol was more effective than metaprot in these tests.

  4. Intralipid emulsion treatment as an antidote in lipophilic drug intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren Cevik, Sebnem; Tasyurek, Tanju; Guneysel, Ozlem

    2014-09-01

    Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) is a lifesaving treatment of lipophilic drug intoxications. Not only does ILE have demonstrable efficacy as an antidote to local anesthetic toxicity, it is also effective in lipophilic drug intoxications. Our case series involved 10 patients with ingestion of different types of lipophilic drugs. Intravenous lipid emulsion treatment improved Glasgow Coma Scale or blood pressure and pulse rate or both according to the drug type. Complications were observed in 2 patients (minimal change pancreatitis and probable ILE treatment-related fat infiltration in lungs). In our case series, ILE was used for different lipophilic drug intoxications to improve cardiovascular and neurologic symptoms. According to the results, it was found that ILE treatment is a lifesaving agent in lipophilic drug intoxications and it can be used in unconscious patients who have cardiac and/or neurologic symptoms but no history of a specific drug ingestion.

  5. Putative calcium-binding domains of the Caenorhabditis elegans BK channel are dispensable for intoxication and ethanol activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S J; Scott, L L; Ordemann, G; Philpo, A; Cohn, J; Pierce-Shimomura, J T

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol modulates the highly conserved, voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel, which contributes to alcohol-mediated behaviors in species from worms to humans. Previous studies have shown that the calcium-sensitive domains, RCK1 and the Ca(2+) bowl, are required for ethanol activation of the mammalian BK channel in vitro. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, ethanol activates the BK channel in vivo, and deletion of the worm BK channel, SLO-1, confers strong resistance to intoxication. To determine if the conserved RCK1 and calcium bowl domains were also critical for intoxication and basal BK channel-dependent behaviors in C. elegans, we generated transgenic worms that express mutated SLO-1 channels predicted to have the RCK1, Ca(2+) bowl or both domains rendered insensitive to calcium. As expected, mutating these domains inhibited basal function of SLO-1 in vivo as neck and body curvature of these mutants mimicked that of the BK null mutant. Unexpectedly, however, mutating these domains singly or together in SLO-1 had no effect on intoxication in C. elegans. Consistent with these behavioral results, we found that ethanol activated the SLO-1 channel in vitro with or without these domains. By contrast, in agreement with previous in vitro findings, C. elegans harboring a human BK channel with mutated calcium-sensing domains displayed resistance to intoxication. Thus, for the worm SLO-1 channel, the putative calcium-sensitive domains are critical for basal in vivo function but unnecessary for in vivo ethanol action.

  6. Multimodel estimates of premature human mortality due to intercontinental transport of air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Silva, R.; West, J. J.; Sudo, K.; Lund, M. T.; Emmons, L. K.; Takemura, T.; Bian, H.

    2015-12-01

    Numerous modeling studies indicate that emissions from one continent influence air quality over others. Reducing air pollutant emissions from one continent can therefore benefit air quality and health on multiple continents. Here, we estimate the impacts of the intercontinental transport of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on premature human mortality by using an ensemble of global chemical transport models coordinated by the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP). We use simulations of 20% reductions of all anthropogenic emissions from 13 regions (North America, Central America, South America, Europe, Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, Former Soviet Union, Middle East, East Asia, South Asia, South East Asia, Central Asia, and Australia) to calculate their impact on premature mortality within each region and elsewhere in the world. To better understand the impact of potential control strategies, we also analyze premature mortality for global 20% perturbations from five sectors individually: power and industry, ground transport, forest and savannah fires, residential, and others (shipping, aviation, and agriculture). Following previous studies, premature human mortality resulting from each perturbation scenario is calculated using a health impact function based on a log-linear model for O3 and an integrated exposure response model for PM2.5 to estimate relative risk. The spatial distribution of the exposed population (adults aged 25 and over) is obtained from the LandScan 2011 Global Population Dataset. Baseline mortality rates for chronic respiratory disease, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer are estimated from the GBD 2010 country-level mortality dataset for the exposed population. Model results are regridded from each model's original grid to a common 0.5°x0.5° grid used to estimate mortality. We perform uncertainty analysis and evaluate the sensitivity

  7. Inhibiting oral intoxication of botulinum neurotoxin A complex by carbohydrate receptor mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwangkook; Lam, Kwok-Ho; Kruel, Anna-Magdalena; Mahrhold, Stefan; Perry, Kay; Cheng, Luisa W; Rummel, Andreas; Jin, Rongsheng

    2015-12-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism manifested by flaccid paralysis that could be fatal to humans and animals. Oral ingestion of the toxin with contaminated food is one of the most common routes for botulism. BoNT assembles with several auxiliary proteins to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and is subsequently transported through the intestinal epithelium into the general circulation. Several hemagglutinin proteins form a multi-protein complex (HA complex) that recognizes host glycans on the intestinal epithelial cell surface to facilitate BoNT absorption. Blocking carbohydrate binding to the HA complex could significantly inhibit the oral toxicity of BoNT. Here, we identify lactulose, a galactose-containing non-digestible sugar commonly used to treat constipation, as a prototype inhibitor against oral BoNT/A intoxication. As revealed by a crystal structure, lactulose binds to the HA complex at the same site where the host galactose-containing carbohydrate receptors bind. In vitro assays using intestinal Caco-2 cells demonstrated that lactulose inhibits HA from compromising the integrity of the epithelial cell monolayers and blocks the internalization of HA. Furthermore, co-administration of lactulose significantly protected mice against BoNT/A oral intoxication in vivo. Taken together, these data encourage the development of carbohydrate receptor mimics as a therapeutic intervention to prevent BoNT oral intoxication.

  8. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the output of salivary immunoglobulin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Konarzewska, Beata; Minarowska, Alina; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Wilamowska, Dorota; Waszkiel, Danuta; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the output of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) was studied in 37 volunteers: 17 male smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS) and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS). The DMFT index (decayed, missing, or filled teeth), gingival index and papilla bleeding index (PBI) were assessed. Concentration of IgA in saliva was determined by ELISA. Salivary flow (SF) and IgA output were significantly decreased in AS compared to CNS. There were no significant correlations between the amount of alcohol/cigarettes as well as the duration of alcohol intoxication/smoking, and SF or IgA output, nor between IgA level and SF. Gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in CNS, and was inversely correlated with IgA salivary level. The worsened periodontal state in smoking alcohol-dependent persons may result from diminished IgA protection of the oral tissues due to its decreased output.

  9. A fatal intoxication related to MDPV and pentedrone combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liveri, Katerina; Constantinou, Maria A; Afxentiou, Maria; Kanari, Popi

    2016-08-01

    This is a case report of a fatal intoxication in Cyprus related to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) intake combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances. A 42- year old man with a history of serious psychiatric illness was found unresponsive in his bed. Seized materials were also found close to his body. The forensic autopsy reported myocardial infarction due to multidrug intoxication. Toxicology screening in blood and urine was applied. Biological specimens were analysed by enzyme immunoassay procedure and GC/MS. MDPV, pentedrone and etizolam detected and quantitated in blood and urine. Other drugs quantitated in blood were also olanzapine, mirtazapine, and ephedrine. This was the first fatal case reported in Cyprus associated with new psychoactive substances. Additionally, this was the first case reported to Early Warning System of the European Monitoring Center of Drugs and Drug Abuse (EMCDDA), related to multidrug intoxication, attributed to the consumption of cathinones, designer benzodiazepines, and other drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency/microwave exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2003-01-01

    electromagnetic pulses similar to those after a nuclear explosion. In all studies (except one that used a qualitative job-exposure-matrix) either the duration of occupational work as an approximation to actual exposure was determined or a simple yes/no differentiation was used based on a definition of high......We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million...... person years). As exposures were defined: dielectric heaters in a plastic manufacturing plant, working with radio devices (professional and amateur), production of wireless communication technologies, radar devices of the Canadian police, radar units used by the military as well as artificially produced...

  11. Electronic tracking of human resource skills and knowledge, just in time training, manageable due diligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolodziej, M.A. [Quick Test International Inc., (Canada). Canadian Technology Human Resource Board; Baker, O. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    KeySpan Energy Canada is in the process of obtaining recognition of various occupational profiles including pipeline operators, inspectors, and field and plant operators from various certifying organizations. The process of allowing individuals to obtain certification is recognized by Canadian Technology Human Resources Board as a step towards national standards for technologists and technicians. Proven competency is a must for workers in todays oil industry in response to increasingly stringent government safety regulations, environmental concerns and high public scrutiny. Quick Test international Inc. has developed a management tool in collaboration with end users at KeySpan Energy Canada. It is an electronic, Internet based competency tool for tracking personal competencies and maintaining continued competency. Response to the tool has been favourable. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Emerging infections due to filamentous fungi in humans and animals: only the tip of the iceberg?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debourgogne, Anne; Dorin, Joséphine; Machouart, Marie

    2016-06-01

    Over the last few decades, the number of patients susceptible to invasive filamentous fungal infections has steadily increased, especially in populations suffering from hematological diseases. The pathogens responsible for such mycoses are now quite well characterized, such as Aspergillus spp. - the most commonly isolated mold -, Mucorales, Fusarium spp., Scedosporium spp. or melanized fungi. An increase in the incidence of this category of 'emerging' fungi has been recently highlighted, evoking a shift in fungal ecology. Starting from these medical findings, taking a step back and adopt a wider perspective offers possible explanations of this phenomenon on an even larger scale than previously reported. In this review, we illustrate the link between emerging fungi in medicine and changes in ecology or human behaviours, and we encourage integrative approaches to apprehend the adverse effects of progress and develop preventive measures in vast domains, such as agriculture or medicine. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Prevention of infection due to Pneumocystis spp. in human immunodeficiency virus-negative immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Martin; Fishman, Jay A

    2004-10-01

    Pneumocystis infection in humans was originally described in 1942. The organism was initially thought to be a protozoan, but more recent data suggest that it is more closely related to the fungi. Patients with cellular immune deficiencies are at risk for the development of symptomatic Pneumocystis infection. Populations at risk also include patients with hematologic and nonhematologic malignancies, hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, solid-organ recipients, and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapies for connective tissue disorders and vasculitides. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is the agent of choice for prophylaxis against Pneumocystis unless a clear contraindication is identified. Other options include pentamidine, dapsone, dapsone-pyrimethamine, and atovaquone. The risk for PCP varies based on individual immune defects, regional differences, and immunosuppressive regimens. Prophylactic strategies must be linked to an ongoing assessment of the patient's risk for disease.

  14. Kalilo river pollution due to limited land settlement and human behavior along the Kalilo riverbanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Suprihatin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Kalilo River is one of the sights that is always visible to the people who come cross to Banyuwangi. However, there are many trash and animal (human defecation in the Kalilo river that may impair the beautiful scenery of the river. This study was aimed to measure whether or not the physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters of the river water meets the criteria of Class II Water Quality Standard. River water samples were collected from upstream, midstream and downstream of the Kalilo river for suspended solid, sulfate, total phosphate, BOD, COD, DO, anionic detergent, total coliforms. Results of water analysis showed that the suspended solid, sulfate, total phosphate, BOD, COD, DO, anionic detergent, total coliform contents exceeded standard limit of the of Class II Water Quality Standard. Such conditions affect physical, environmental and economic development of the district. A Communal Waste Treatment Plant, Anaerobic Baffle Reactor (ABR, is recommended to overcome the problems.

  15. Physical geography and the study of human vulnerability due to natural and other hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical geography in Slovenia has achieved a significant level of knowledge on natural and other hazards, after studying these phenomena since 1950s. These extremely complex features are clearly showing the interconnections between the nature and man and the increasing vulnerability of modern societies. The article is based on geographical approach to hazards, which does not consider them as casual events, but as constituent parts of the environment, including very different ways of human adaptation. The rapid development of science and technology have even increased our vulnerability and direct exposure to hazards, what is considered as new challenge to physical geographers in looking for new approaches to increase the possibilities of sustainable 'co-existence' with natural and other hazards.

  16. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens in Ukraine, an emergent zoonosis: epidemiological report of 1465 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sałamatin, Rusłan V; Pavlikovska, Tamara M; Sagach, Olga S; Nikolayenko, Svitlana M; Kornyushin, Vadim V; Kharchenko, Vitaliy O; Masny, Aleksander; Cielecka, Danuta; Konieczna-Sałamatin, Joanna; Conn, David Bruce; Golab, Elzbieta

    2013-12-01

    The filarial nematode Dirofilaria repens is currently considered to be one of the most extensively spreading human and animal parasites in Europe. In Ukraine, reporting cases of dirofilariasis has been mandatory since 1975, and the disease was included in the national surveillance system for notifiable diseases. Up until December 31st 2012, a total of 1533 cases have been registered, with 1465 cases occurring within the previous 16 years. Most of the cases of dirofilariasis were registered in 6 regions: Kyiv, and the Donetsk, Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk, Kherson and Chernihiv oblasts. In the years 1997-2002 the highest incidence rate was noted in the Kherson oblast in the south of the country (9.79 per 100 000 people), and the lowest in western Ukraine (0.07-1.68 per 100 000 people). D. repens infections were registered in all oblasts. Parasitic lesions were most often located in the head, the subconjunctival tissue and around the eyes. D. repens lesions were also found in the limbs, torso, male sexual organs, and female mammary glands. Dirofilariasis was diagnosed in persons aged from 11 months to 90 years old, most often among people between 21-40 years of age. Most patients had only one parasitic skin lesion; the majority of isolated nematodes were female. The results of our analysis point to a constant increase in D. repens dirofilariasis incidence in humans in Ukraine. Despite educational efforts, infections have become more frequent and the territory in which the disease occurs has enlarged to encompass the whole of Ukraine. Nevertheless, the Ukrainian sanitary-epidemiological services managed to achieve some measure of success, e.g. by creating a registration system for D. repens infections and establishing proper diagnostics for the disease.

  17. [Sudden unilateral sensorineural hearing loss after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska-Piechowiak, Teresa; Miarzyńska, Maria; Perlik-Gattner, Irena

    2004-01-01

    A case of unilateral sensorineural hearing loss of the left ear after carbon monoxide intoxication was presented. The diagnosis was based upon an interview, medical examinations and audiometric investigations. Results of diagnostic evaluations, clinical presentation and treatment were discussed. Hearing improvement was obtained after 6 days of treatment and normal hearing returned after 14 days. Patients who suffer from CO intoxication are at risk of hearing impairment, therefore, there is a need for audiometric follow up in these patients.

  18. Seizure disorders and anemia associated with chronic borax intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A S; Prichard, J S; Freedman, M H

    1973-03-17

    During the course of investigation of two infants with seizure disorders it was discovered that both had been given large amounts of a preparation of borax and honey which resulted in chronic borate intoxication. In one child a profound anemia developed as well. The symptoms of chronic borate intoxication are different from those of the acute poisoning with which we are more familiar. The borax and honey preparations are highly dangerous and should no longer be manufactured or distributed for sale.

  19. The effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska, Anna; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Szulc, Agata; Kępka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Wojewódzka-Żelezniakowicz, Marzena; Konarzewska, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Supronowicz, Zbigniew Bronisław; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-10-08

    Peroxidase is the most important antioxidant enzyme in saliva. Through peroxidation of thiocyanate in the presence of H₂O₂, peroxidase catalyses the formation of bacteriocidic compounds such as hypothiocyanate.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the activity of oral peroxidase (OPO). A total of 37 volunteers participated in the study. This cohort consisted of 17 male alcohol-dependent smoking patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS group, alcohol + smoking) (mean age: 42 years; range: 26-55) (100-700 g/day of alcohol; 10-20 cigarettes/day) and 20 control male social drinkers(CNS group, control non-smokers) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking (mean age: 42 years; range:30-53). Salivary peroxidase activity was measured by the colorimetric method. The differences between groups were evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test. There was significantly higher activity of OPO (p = 0.00001)and significantly lower salivary flow (SF) (p = 0.007) in alcohol-dependent smokers after chronic alcohol intoxication compared to the control group. OPO activity significantly correlated with the number of days of alcohol intoxication, but not with smoking. Gingival index (GI) was significantly higher in smoking alcohol-dependent persons than in the control group, and correlated with OPO activity. The sensitivity of the OPO test was 70% in smoking alcoholics, while specificity was 95%. The increased activity of OPO suggests chronic oxidative stress is more likely due to ethanol action than to smoking. Smoking alcohol-dependent persons have a worse periodontal status than controls. OPO activity as a marker of chronic alcohol abuse may help in the diagnosis of alcoholism.

  20. Chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Sergio Ulhoa; Walter, Gerhard Franz

    2017-08-31

    Arsenic and its compounds are well-established, potent, environmentally widespread and persistent toxicants with metabolic, genotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, epigenetic and carcinogenic effects. Arsenic occurs naturally in the Earth's crust, but anthropogenic arsenic emissions have surmounted the emissions from important natural sources such as volcanism. Inorganic arsenicals exhibit acute and chronic toxicities in virtually all cell types and tissues, and hence arsenic intoxication affects multiple systems. Whereas acute arsenic intoxication is rare and relatively easy to diagnose, chronic arsenic intoxication (CAsI) is common but goes often misdiagnosed. Based on a review of the literature as well as our own clinical experience, we propose a chronic arsenic intoxication diagnostic score (CAsIDS). A distinctive feature of CAsIDS is the use of bone arsenic load as an essential criterion for the individual risk assessment of chronic arsenic intoxication, combined with a systemic clinical assessment. We present clinical examples where CAsIDS is applied for the diagnosis of CAsI, review the main topics of the toxicity of arsenic in different cell and organ systems and discuss the therapy and prevention of disease caused or aggravated by chronic arsenic intoxication. CAsIDS can help physicians establish the diagnosis of CAsI and associated conditions. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  2. Human Auditory Communication Disturbances Due To Road Traffic Noise Pollution in Calabar City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Obisung

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Study on auditory communication disturbances due to road transportation noise in Calabar Urban City, Nigeria was carried out. Both subjective (psycho-social and objective (acoustical measurements were made for a period of twelve months. Questionnaire/interview schedules containing pertinent questions were administered randomly to 500 respondents of age 15 year and above, who were also with a good level of literacy skills (reading writing and leaving in houses sited along or parallel to busy road, with heavy traffic volume for at least three (3 years. The questionnaires provided the psycho-social responses of respondents used in this study, their reactions to road traffic noise effect on communication activities (listening to radio, listening and watching television, verbal communication between individuals, speech communication and telephone/GSM communication. Acoustical measurements were made at the facades of respondents' houses facing the road using precision digital sound level meter, Bruel and Kjaer (B & K type 732 following ISO standards 1996. The meter read the road traffic noise levels at measurement sites (facades of respondents' houses. From the results obtained in this study residents of Calabar City suffer serious communication interferences as a result of excessive road traffic noise levels. The noise indices used for this study were LAeq and Ldn. Noise levels obtained were over 93 dB(A (daytime and 60 dB(A, (nighttime for LAeq and 80 dB(A for Ldn. These far exceeded the recommended theoretical values of 45-55 and 70 dB(A, for LAeqand Ldn respectively. A-weighted sound pressure level (SPLS range between 87.0 and 100.0 dB(A. In this study it was also observed that over 98% of the respondents reported their television watching/radio listening disturbed, 99% recorded telephone/GSM disturbed, and 98% reported face-to-face verbal conversation disturbed, and 98% reported speech communication disturbed. The background noise levels (BNLs of

  3. Involuntary human hand movements due to FM radio waves in a moving van.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, P; Savinainen, A; Hänninen, Osmo; Myllylä, R

    2011-06-01

    Finland TRACT Involuntary movements of hands in a moving van on a public road were studied to clarify the possible role of frequency modulated radio waves on driving. The signals were measured in a direct 2 km test segment of an international road during repeated drives to both directions. Test subjects (n=4) had an ability to sense radio frequency field intensity variations of the environment. They were sitting in a minivan with arm movement detectors in their hands. A potentiometer was used to register the hand movements to a computer which simultaneously collected data on the amplitude of the RF signal of the local FM tower 30 km distance at a frequency of about 100 MHz. Involuntary hand movements of the test subjects correlated with electromagnetic field, i.e. FM radio wave intensity measured. They reacted also on the place of a geomagnetic anomaly crossing the road, which was found on the basis of these recordings and confirmed by the public geological maps of the area.In conclusion, RF irradiation seems to affect the human hand reflexes of sensitive persons in a moving van along a normal public road which may have significance in traffic safety.

  4. Parotid enlargement due to adenovirus infection in patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irma Seixas Duarte

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors report a case of adenovirus- induced enlargement of the parotid gland involving a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Physical examination revealed good general condition, no fever and bilateral enlargement of the parotid region, which was of increased consistency and slightly tender to palpation. Histological examination of the parotid gland demonstrated a slight periductal lymphomononuclear inflammatory infiltrate with the presence of focal points of necrosis. Tests to determine the presence of fungi and alcohol-acid resistent bacilli were negative. Immunohistochemistry for cytomegalovirus, heipes simplex, HIV p24 antigen and adenovirus showed positivity only for adenovirus in the epithelial nuclei of numerous gland ducts. Tins is the third case of this type reported in the literature, indicating the importance of including adenovirus in the differential diagnosis of this condition.Os autores relatam um caso de aumento da glândula parótida ocasionado por adenovirus, em paciente infectado pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. Ao exame físico, este se apresentava em bom estado geral, afebril e com aumento bilateral de parõtidas, de consistência aumentada e discretamente dolorosas ã palpação. O exame histológico da parótida demonstrou discreto infiltrado inflamatório linfomononuclear periductal com presença de focos de necrose, as pesquisas para fungos e bacilos ãlcool ãcido resistentes foram negativas. A técnica de imuno-histoquímica para citomegalovírus, beipes simples, antígeno p24 do HIVe adenovirus, somente evidenciou posítividade para o último. Este é o terceiro caso descrito na literatura, destacando a importância de incluir o adenovíms, no diagnóstico diferencial, deste acometimento.

  5. Diagnostic and therapeutic approach for acute paraquat intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Hyo-wook; Hong, Jung-Rak; Jang, Si-Hyong; Hong, Sae-Yong

    2014-11-01

    Paraquat (PQ) has known negative human health effects, but continues to be commonly used worldwide as a herbicide. Our clinical data shows that the main prognostic factor is the time required to achieve a negative urine dithionite test. Patient survival is a 100% when the area affected by ground glass opacity is <20% of the total lung volume on high-resolution computed tomography imaging 7 days post-PQ ingestion. The incidence of acute kidney injury is approximately 50%. The average serum creatinine level reaches its peak around 5 days post-ingestion, and usually normalizes within 3 weeks. We obtain two connecting lines from the highest PQ level for the survivors and the lowest PQ level among the non-survivors at a given time. Patients with a PQ level between these two lines are considered treatable. The following treatment modalities are recommended to preserve kidney function: 1) extracorporeal elimination, 2) intravenous antioxidant administration, 3) diuresis with a fluid, and 4) cytotoxic drugs. In conclusion, this review provides a general overview on the diagnostic procedure and treatment modality of acute PQ intoxication, while focusing on our clinical experience.

  6. Fatal mephedrone intoxication--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Tokarczyk, Bogdan; Stanaszek, Roman; Slopianka, Markus

    2013-01-01

    A death caused by a new designer drug, 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), is reported. Eight small plastic bags containing white powder were found in the jacket of a young dead male. Spot tests conducted by the police officer indicated the presence of 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B) in the powders. Laboratory routine screening analyses of blood and vitreous humor did not reveal any positive results; therefore, 2C-B was excluded. Analysis of powders was conducted using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The purity of mephedrone found in all powder samples was in the range of 80.4-87.3%. In connection with these findings, blood and vitreous humor samples were analyzed for mephedrone. Analyses were conducted using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mephedrone was found in blood and vitreous humor at the concentrations of 5.5 and 7.1 µg/mL, respectively, revealing that this was a fatal mephedrone intoxication.

  7. Progression of Mortality due to Diseases of the Circulatory System and Human Development Index in Rio de Janeiro Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Gabriel Porto; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Silva, Nelson Albuquerque de Souza e; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background Diseases of the circulatory system (DCS) are the major cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. Objective To correlate the compensated and adjusted mortality rates due to DCS in the Rio de Janeiro State municipalities between 1979 and 2010 with the Human Development Index (HDI) from 1970 onwards. Methods Population and death data were obtained in DATASUS/MS database. Mortality rates due to ischemic heart diseases (IHD), cerebrovascular diseases (CBVD) and DCS adjusted by using the direct method and compensated for ill-defined causes. The HDI data were obtained at the Brazilian Institute of Applied Research in Economics. The mortality rates and HDI values were correlated by estimating Pearson linear coefficients. The correlation coefficients between the mortality rates of census years 1991, 2000 and 2010 and HDI data of census years 1970, 1980 and 1991 were calculated with discrepancy of two demographic censuses. The linear regression coefficients were estimated with disease as the dependent variable and HDI as the independent variable. Results In recent decades, there was a reduction in mortality due to DCS in all Rio de Janeiro State municipalities, mainly because of the decline in mortality due to CBVD, which was preceded by an elevation in HDI. There was a strong correlation between the socioeconomic indicator and mortality rates. Conclusion The HDI progression showed a strong correlation with the decline in mortality due to DCS, signaling to the relevance of improvements in life conditions. PMID:27849263

  8. Quantification of Hydrological Responses Due to Climate Change and Human Activities over Various Time Scales in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological responses are being impacted by both climate change and human activities. In particular, climate change and regional human activities have accelerated significantly during the last three decades in South Korea. The variation in runoff due to the two types of factors should be quantitatively investigated to aid effective water resources’ planning and management. In water resources’ planning, analysis using various time scales is useful where rainfall is unevenly distributed. However, few studies analyzed the impacts of these two factors over different time scales. In this study, hydrologic model-based approach and hydrologic sensitivity were used to separate the relative impacts of these two factors at monthly, seasonal and annual time scales in the Soyang Dam upper basin and the Seom River basin in South Korea. After trend analysis using the Mann–Kendall nonparametric test to identify the causes of gradual change, three techniques, such as the double mass curve method, Pettitt’s test and the BCP (Bayesian change point analysis, were used to detect change points caused by abrupt changes in the collected observed runoff. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT models calibrated from the natural periods were used to calculate the impacts of human activities. Additionally, six Budyko-based methods were used to verify the results obtained from the hydrological-based approach. The results show that impacts of climate change have been stronger than those of human activities in the Soyang Dam upper basin, while the impacts of human activities have been stronger than those of climate change in the Seom River basin. Additionally, the quantitative characteristics of relative impacts due to these two factors were identified at the monthly, seasonal and annual time scales. Finally, we suggest that the procedure used in this study can be used as a reference for regional water resources’ planning and management.

  9. Human health risk due to consumption of vegetables contaminated with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sardar [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen (China). Inst. of Urban Environment; Peshawar Univ. (Pakistan). Dept. of Environmental Science; Cao, Qing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Research Center for Eco-Environemntal Sciences

    2012-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are persistent, toxic, and carcinogenic contaminants present in soil ecosystem globally. These pollutants are gradually accumulating in wastewater-irrigated soils and lead to the contamination of vegetables. Food chain contamination with PAH is considered as one of the major pathways for human exposure. This study was aimed to investigate the concentrations of PAH in soils and vegetables collected from wastewater-irrigated fields from metropolitan areas of Beijing, China. Origin of PAH, daily intake, and health risks of PAH through consumption of contaminated vegetables were studied. Soil samples were collected from the upper horizon (0-20 cm) of both wastewater-irrigated and reference sites and sieved (<2 mm mesh) and then followed by freeze-drying at -50 C and 123 {+-} 2 Pa. Standing vegetables were also collected from the same sites used for soil sampling and divided into roots and shoots, thoroughly washed with deionized water, and freeze-dried. PAH were extracted using the Soxhlet method with 200 mL DCM for 24 h, and the extracts were cleaned with silica adsorption chromatography prepared with silica gel, alumina, and capped with anhydrous sodium. The final concentrated extracts (soil and vegetable) were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Agilent 6890). Bioaccumulation factors, daily intake of PAH, and carcinogenicity of PAH were calculated by different statistical equations. Results indicate that the soils and grown vegetables were contaminated with all possible carcinogenic PAH (declared by USEPA 2002) except indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene. The highest concentration (242.9 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) was found for benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), while lowest (79.12 {mu}g kg{sup -1}) for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). The emission sources of PAH were both pyrogenic and petrogenic in nature. However, the total concentrations of PAH were lower than the permissible limits set by different countries like Canada, Denmark and Germany

  10. In Vitro Drug Transfer Due to Drug Retention in Human Epidermis Pretreated with Application of Marketed Estradiol Transdermal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Yellela S R; Pavurala, Naresh; Yang, Yang; Manda, Prashanth; Katragadda, Usha; Yang, Yongsheng; Shah, Rakhi; Fang, Guodong; Khan, Mansoor A

    2016-12-27

    Study objective was to assess skin-to-skin drug transfer potential that may occur due to drug retention in human epidermis (DRE) pretreated with application of estradiol transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) and other estradiol transdermal dosage forms (gels and sprays). TDDS (products-A, B, and C) with varying formulation design and composition, and other estradiol transdermal products (gel and spray) were applied to heat separated human epidermis (HSE) and subjected to in vitro drug permeation study. Amounts of DRE were quantified after 24 h. The DRE with product-B was significantly (P  0.05) amounts of DRE. A separate in vitro permeation study was carried out to determine amounts of drug transferred from drug-retaining epidermis to untreated HSE. The amounts of drug transferred, due to DRE after 8 h, with product-C were significantly (P drug transfer due to the DRE after labeled period of using estradiol TDDS, though the clinical relevance of these findings is yet to be determined.

  11. Perfil clínico y demográfico de pacientes atendidos en los servicios de urgencias, por intoxicación aguda con sustancias psicoactivas. Bogotá D.C, julio 2010junio 2011 Clinical and demographic profile of patients nursed in urgency services due to acute intoxication with psychoactive substances in Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Mabel Cárdenas L

    2012-12-01

    general. It has been estimated that it contributes towards the rapid propagation of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis. Society thus cannot afford to ignore such threat and must address such abuse. Objective. Determining the clinical and demographic profile of patients suffering acute psychoactive substance poisoning who were attended by emergency services in Bogotá, 20102011. Methods. This was a descriptive, retrospective study which emerged from reviewing 1,073 records kept by the Colombian Public Health Surveillance System (Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia en Salud Pública related to cases of people suffering from psychoactive substance poisoning who had been attended by emergency services in Bogotá, 20102011. The corresponding clinical histories were reviewed to establish the patients' clinical profile. Simple and stratified frequency were calculated, using 95% confidence intervals (95%CI, for sociodemographic variables, type of psychoactive substance and clinical manifestation. Results. Males aged 2534 years old consulted most (73%, intoxication for criminal purposes predominating (58% having been drugged to reduce resistance to assault. Benzodiazepines were implicated in 83% of the cases; 80% of clinical manifestations were neurological. Conclusion. Exposure with criminal intent predominated in this work's results; it would seem to be a phenomenon which has not been documented in the scientific literature reviewed here. Benzodiazepine exposure (the substance implicated in poisoning cases was similar to that obtained by Uribe et al., (2005 and that found in other substancerelated disorder studies.

  12. Colloquium paper: human adaptations to diet, subsistence, and ecoregion are due to subtle shifts in allele frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Angela M; Witonsky, David B; Ehler, Edvard; Alkorta-Aranburu, Gorka; Beall, Cynthia; Gebremedhin, Amha; Sukernik, Rem; Utermann, Gerd; Pritchard, Jonathan; Coop, Graham; Di Rienzo, Anna

    2010-05-11

    Human populations use a variety of subsistence strategies to exploit an exceptionally broad range of ecoregions and dietary components. These aspects of human environments have changed dramatically during human evolution, giving rise to new selective pressures. To understand the genetic basis of human adaptations, we combine population genetics data with ecological information to detect variants that increased in frequency in response to new selective pressures. Our approach detects SNPs that show concordant differences in allele frequencies across populations with respect to specific aspects of the environment. Genic and especially nonsynonymous SNPs are overrepresented among those most strongly correlated with environmental variables. This provides genome-wide evidence for selection due to changes in ecoregion, diet, and subsistence. We find particularly strong signals associated with polar ecoregions, with foraging, and with a diet rich in roots and tubers. Interestingly, several of the strongest signals overlap with those implicated in energy metabolism phenotypes from genome-wide association studies, including SNPs influencing glucose levels and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. Furthermore, several pathways, including those of starch and sucrose metabolism, are enriched for strong signals of adaptations to a diet rich in roots and tubers, whereas signals associated with polar ecoregions are overrepresented in genes associated with energy metabolism pathways.

  13. First report of a human case of polycystic echinococcosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from neotropical area of Peru, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somocurcio, José R; Sánchez, Elizabeth L; Náquira, César; Schilder, José; Rojas, Francisco; Chacón, Pedro; Yabar, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    We report a human case of polycystic hidatidosis due to Echinococcus vogeli from Contamana (Department of Loreto) village located in the central jungle of Peru. The patient is a 44 year-old lady, teacher, who carried a painless liver mass since a year ago. She was submitted to abdominal surgery and the liver mass was removed and showed multiple cysts containing colorless liquid as is showed in the polycystic hidatidosis. The morphology and measure of the hooks obtained from the liquid contained in the cysts are from Echinococcus vogeli. It is the first report of this parasitism in Perú.

  14. Acute post-infectious cerebellar ataxia due to co-infection of human herpesvirus-6 and adenovirus mimicking myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naselli, Aldo; Pala, Giovanna; Cresta, Federico; Finetti, Martina; Biancheri, Roberta; Renna, Salvatore

    2014-11-26

    Acute cerebellar ataxia (ACA) is a relatively common neurological disease in children. Most common types of ACA are acute post-infectious (APCA) and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Less common but important causes include opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) and acute cerebellitis. Cerebellar neoplasms and acute hydrocephalus are additional causes of paediatric ataxia. APCA is the most common cause of ACA in children, comprising about 30-50% of total cases. This is a report about an immunocompetent 4-yrs-old male affected by APCA, due to co-infection by human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) and adenovirus, with symptoms mimicking myositis.

  15. [Intoxication syndrome concomitant with recurrent streptococcal tonsillitis and its correction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelkina, V F; Laseeva, M G

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study selected features of intoxication in the patients presenting with recurrent tonsillitis (RT) and managed by means of the combination of basal therapy with reamberine, a preparation showing the detoxication activity. A total of 70 patients with moderately severe recurrent streptococcal tonsillitis induced by infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococci were available for the examination. Characteristics of endogenous intoxication were explored. The study has demonstrated that recurrent tonsillitis is associated with the development of the pronounced symptoms of endogenous intoxication (EI) as suggested by the enhanced leukocytic index of intoxication (LII) and the elevated levels of medium molecular weight molecules (MWM) with the simultaneous impairment of detoxication properties of albumin. Collectively, these changes are indicative of incompleteness of the pathological process that may be regarded as an unfavourable prognostic factor and suggests the risk of development of tonsillogenic pathology, its relapses, and chronization of the process. Taken together, these findings indicate the necessity of developing novel approaches to the treatment of recurrent tonsillitis with special reference to the use of pharmaceutical products possessed of detoxication activity. Reamberine introduced in the combined treatment of RT was shown to decrease the severity of intoxication as confirmed by normalization of LII and MWM levels as well as the improvement of detoxication properties of albumin. It is concluded that therapeutic efficacy of reamberine opens up wide prospects for its clinical applications.

  16. Predictors of Poor Prognosis in Aluminum Phosphide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhredin Taghaddosi Nejad

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aluminum phosphide as a fumigant is extensively used for wheat preservation from rodents and bugs especially in silos worldwide. There is increasing number of acute intoxication with this potentially lethal compound because of its easy availability. We have tried to locate predictors of poor prognosis in patients with aluminum phosphide intoxication in order to find patients who need more strict medical cares. Methods: All cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication that had been referred to our hospital during April 2008 to March 2010 were studied by their medical dossiers. Pertinent data including vital signs, demographic features, clinical and lab findings, and incidence of any complication were collected and analyzed by the relevant statistical methods. Results: Sixty seven cases of aluminum phosphide intoxication were included in the study. 44.8% of them were male. 97% of cases were suicidal. Mean amount of ingestion was 1.23+/- 0.71 tablets. Mortality rate was 41.8%. ECG abnormality and need for mechanical ventilation had negative relation with outcome. Conclusion: Correlation between some findings and complications with outcome in aluminum phosphide intoxication can be used as guidance for risk assessment and treatment planning in the patients.

  17. Accidental and experimental Closantel intoxication in Uruguayan sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Rivero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An outbreak of Closantel intoxication in sheep in Uruguay is described. The outbreak occurred in a group of 1300 weaning lambs treated orally with a 10% solution of Closantel. One hundred forty eight lambs showed clinical signs of intoxication and 14 died. The clinical signs included mydriasis, nystagmus, and negative pupillary reflex, bilateral blindness, bump into objects, and lateral movement of the head. No macroscopic lesions were observed. The histological lesions of the retina were cytoplasmic vacuolization in ganglion cells and in cells of the inner and outer nuclear layers with different degrees of atrophy. Vacuolization and axonal degeneration were observed in the optic nerve, with multifocal areas of fibrosis and infiltration by lymphocytes and Gitter cells. To reproduce the intoxication, four sheep were given two, four and 10 times the therapeutic dose of Closantel (0.1g/kg of BW. Only the animals receiving 10 times the recommended dose showed clinical signs. The histological examination of the lesions in experimental sheep showed similar results to those described in the accidental outbreak, except for the absence of optic nerve fibrosis and inflammation, characterizing an acute phase. Axonal myelin sheaths loss, fibroblasts and collagen fibers were observed in the ultrastructural study of the optic nerve of accidental intoxicated animals. The optic nerve of experimentally intoxicated animals had vacuoles that separated the myelin sheaths of axons. To prevent outbreaks it is suggested to weigh the animals before Closantel administration to avoid errors in dose calculation.

  18. Alcohol consumption and escalatory aggression in intoxicated and sober dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, K E

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that alcohol ingestion facilitates escalatory processes in aggressive interactions. The present study examined interaction patterns in intoxicated, sober and mixed dyads. Thirty pairs of men college students were randomly assigned to these conditions. Subjects who received alcohol received .964 g of absolute alcohol per kg of body weight. At the beginning of each trial in a reaction-time competition, each member of the dyad selected the shock level that he wanted his opponent to receive if the opponent was slower on the trial. Further, each member was informed by feedback lights of the shock level that his opponent had selected for him. The results indicated that the intoxicated dyads selected higher shock levels than did the sober dyads. Mixed dyads tended to select lower shock levels than intoxicated dyads but higher shock levels than sober dyads. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, intoxicated dyads escalated in aggression over the first block of six trials, whereas neither sober nor mixed dyads evidenced such an escalation. One interpretation of these findings is that the cognitive disruption caused by the alcohol interfered with the subjects' ability to evaluate the consequences of their behavior and to interpret the behavior of their opponents. A second interpretation is that, because of the expectancy effects associated with alcohol consumption, intoxicated dyads did not feel constrained to a nonaggressive stance. Finally, the value of the dyadic-interaction paradigm in the study of alcohol-related violence was discussed.

  19. Accidental acute alcohol intoxication in infants: review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minera, Gabriella; Robinson, Evan

    2014-11-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication in children younger than 18 months old is both rarely documented and rarely fatal. Previous case reports suggest hypoglycemia and faster than normal rates of alcohol elimination found in children with acute alcohol intoxication compared with adults, but data are lacking. A 2-month-old infant presented with a decreased mental status after accidental ingestion of alcohol. He was diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication, with a blood alcohol level of 330 mg/dL and was hyperglycemic (167 mg/dL). Alcohol elimination rate was calculated to be 21.6 mg/dL/h, similar to that in adults. To our knowledge, this case is the second youngest documented patient with accidental alcohol intoxication via ingestion in the United States. We present a rare case report of acute alcohol intoxication in an infant and a review of the literature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although rare in the literature, poison control data suggests that alcohol poisoning in very young children is not rare. Emergency physicians should be prepared for the management of infants with alcohol poisoning. This case report and review brings attention to this subject and briefly discusses ethanol metabolism in infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orquin, Jacob L; Jeppesen, Heine B; Scholderer, Joachim; Haugtvedt, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological prediction that alcohol intoxication narrows attention to the more salient features in the visual environment. Study 2 used a voluntary exposure manipulation in which ads were embedded in a magazine. The experiment revealed that alcohol intoxication reduces voluntary attention to ads and leads to a significant reduction in memory for the viewed ads. In popular terms consuming one or two beers reduces brand recall from 40 to 36% while being heavily intoxicated further reduces brand recall to 17%.

  1. Skin discolouration with acute onset parkinsonism secondary to systemic zirconium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hwa J; Yoon, Su J; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Young H; Jung, Jin M; Park, Moon-Ho; Rhyu, Im J; Kwon, Do-Young

    2014-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with suspected parkinsonism and discolouration of the skin especially on sun-exposed areas. Thorough investigation revealed systemic zirconium intoxication due to intake of metallic colloids as a home remedy as a cause of the skin colour change. There may be an association between skin discolouration and her parkinsonism. This is unique in that various clinical manifestations developed following systemic ingestion of zirconium and this should serve as a warning on the risk of taking illicit dietary supplements.

  2. [Antenatal closure of ductus arteriosus following maternal intoxication by niflumic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouissou, A; Glorieux, I; Dulac, Y; Marcoux, M O; Casper, C

    2006-01-01

    Antenatal closure of the ductus arteriosus is an uncommon event that has been considered as a risk factor for development of congestive heart failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. We report here on a case of antenatal ductus arteriosus closure due to niflumic acid maternal intoxication at 32 weeks of gestation. Fetal extraction was performed few days later because of echographic signs of congestive heart failure. The child survived after 3 days of severe persistent pulmonary hypertension. This case emphasizes the potential risk of niflumic acid during pregnancy and the need of antenatal echographic monitoring for optimal management.

  3. Intoxicación por alcoholes Alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roldán

    2003-01-01

    protect the patient from secondary complications. Methanol, or alcohol fuel, is used as a solvent, and can also be found as an adulterant of alcoholic drinks. Poisoning by oral means is the most frequent. Oxidized in the liver through dehydrogenase enzyme alcohol, toxicity is due to its metabolites, formaldehyde and formic acid. The clinical picture basically consists of cephalea, nausea, vomiting, hypotension and depression of the central nervous system. The optic nerve is especially sensitive, with total and irreversible blindness as a possible result. Ethylenglicol is used as a solvent and as an antifreeze; toxicity is due to an accumulation of its metabolites. The clinical picture includes symptoms that are held in common with methylalcohol intoxication. Kidney failure due to tubular necrosis and the deposit of oxalate crystals can occur.

  4. The Essential Toxin: Impact of Zinc on Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Plum

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to several other metal ions with similar chemical properties, zinc is relatively harmless. Only exposure to high doses has toxic effects, making acute zinc intoxication a rare event. In addition to acute intoxication, long-term, high-dose zinc supplementation interferes with the uptake of copper. Hence, many of its toxic effects are in fact due to copper deficiency. While systemic homeostasis and efficient regulatory mechanisms on the cellular level generally prevent the uptake of cytotoxic doses of exogenous zinc, endogenous zinc plays a significant role in cytotoxic events in single cells. Here, zinc influences apoptosis by acting on several molecular regulators of programmed cell death, including caspases and proteins from the Bcl and Bax families. One organ where zinc is prominently involved in cell death is the brain, and cytotoxicity in consequence of ischemia or trauma involves the accumulation of free zinc. Rather than being a toxic metal ion, zinc is an essential trace element. Whereas intoxication by excessive exposure is rare, zinc deficiency is widespread and has a detrimental impact on growth, neuronal development, and immunity, and in severe cases its consequences are lethal. Zinc deficiency caused by malnutrition and foods with low bioavailability, aging, certain diseases, or deregulated homeostasis is a far more common risk to human health than intoxication.

  5. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-03-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable except for elevated amylase/lipase levels (134/222 U/L), which were even higher 7 days later and remained elevated for 2 weeks. Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse pancreatic swelling. The patient improved with conservative care and was discharged to home 19 days after admission. This is the first reported case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication. We recommend early aggressive management in the emergency department and close monitoring in the intensive care unit to detect and treat potentially fatal deterioration after chlorfenapyr intoxication.

  6. Methyltin intoxication in six men; toxicologic and clinical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, C.; Reinecke, H.J.; Besser, R.

    1984-04-01

    Neurologic and psychiatric symptoms such as headache, tinnitus, defective hearing, changing desorientation and aggressiveness are initial symptoms of methyltin chloride intoxication. Some patients also developed epileptic equivalents, such as dreamy attacks and central ventilation transaminases. Laboratory findings included low levels of serum potassium, leucocytosis and elevated transaminases. The excretion rate of tin in the urine correlated with the severity of the intoxication. There was no measurable effect of plasma separation or d-penicillamine therapy on tin excretion in the urine or on the clinical picture. The long-term prognosis of severely intoxicated persons is poor. To prevent such events workers need to be warned of the risk and dangers of working with organo-metallic compounds. The effectiveness of protective clothes and gas masks should be checked. In exposed workers regular testing is advised of tin concentrations in the urine.

  7. Surprising hair analysis results following acute carbofuran intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Zouaoui, K; Moesch, C; François, B; Lachâtre, G

    2011-10-10

    We present two non fatal cases of intoxication with carbofuran (CBF) documented by hair analysis. Carbofuran and 3-hydroxycarbofuran (OHCBF, its main metabolite) hair concentrations were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The obtained results were surprising if we consider several hair analyses previously published and based on a theory of the presence of xenobiotic in the only segment that comprised its intake. Among the two intoxication cases, we noticed the presence of CBF and OHCBF in hair segments corresponding to 45 days before, and more than 100 days after, the day of intoxication. Additionally, repeated hair samplings and subsequent analysis revealed a decrease of the carbofuran's concentration during the hair life.

  8. [Extended hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute carbamazepine intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Azorín, S; Peces, C; Selgas, R

    2010-01-01

    Carbamazepine is used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed in neuralgic pain syndromes, and certain affective disorders. Carbamazepine intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, arrhythmia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively high molecular weight, elevated volume of distribution and intense protein-binding render it difficult to extracorporeal removal, but published experience with hemoperfusion or hemodialysis present variable results. We describe a case report involving carbamazepine intoxication who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of carbamazepine was reduced with rapid lowering of carbamazepine levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, extended charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious carbamazepine intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  9. [Hemoperfusion in the treatment of acute valproic acid intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Fernández, E J; Sánchez, R J; Peces, C; Montero, A; Selgas, R

    2007-01-01

    Valproic acid is increasingly used in the treatment of epilepsy, and also prescribed for bipolar affective disorders, schizoaffective disorders, schizophrenia and migraine prophylaxis. Valproic acid intoxication with suicide attempt is a relatively common clinical problem that can result in coma, respiratory depression, pancytopenia, hemodynamic instability and death. The drug's relatively low molecular weight, small volume of distribution and saturable protein-binding render it potentially amenable to exracorporeal removal (hemodialysis, hemoperfusion or hemofiltration ), but published experience is scarce. We describe a case report involving valproic acid intoxication with ingestion of ethanol, who was successfully treated with charcoal hemoperfusion. With this treatment the half-life of valproic acid was reduced with rapid lowering of valproic acid levels and clinical improvement. Based on our experience in this patient and a review of previously reported cases, charcoal hemoperfusion should be considered for serious valproic acid intoxication because free as well as bound drug fractions are eliminated via this technique.

  10. Attention to advertising and memory for brands under alcohol intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Jeppesen, Heine B.; Scholderer, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to discover new possibilities for advertising in uncluttered environments marketers have recently begun using ambient advertising in, for instance, bars and pubs. However, advertising in such licensed premises have to deal with the fact that many consumers are under the influence...... of alcohol while viewing the ad. This paper examines the effect of alcohol intoxication on attention to and memory for advertisements in two experiments. Study 1 used a forced exposure manipulation and revealed increased attention to logos under alcohol intoxication consistent with the psychopharmacological...

  11. A Two Dimensional Infinite Element Model to Study Temperature Distribution in Human Dermal Regions due to Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. R. pardasani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two dimensional infinite element model has been developed to study thermal effect in human dermal regions due to tumors. This model incorporates the effect of blood mass flow rate, metabolic heat generation and thermal conductivity of the tissues.The dermal region is divided into three natural layers, namely, epidermis, dermis and subdermal tissues. A uniformly perfused tumor is assumed to be present in the dermis. The domain is assumed to be finite along the depth and infinite along the breadth. The whole dermis region involving tumor is modelled with the help of triangular finite elements to incorporate the geometry of the region. These elements are surrounded by infinite domain elements along the breadth. Appropriate boundary conditions has been incorporated. A computer program has been developed to obtain the numerical results.

  12. Isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujit Gharai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of isolated homonymous hemianopsia due to presumptive cerebral tubercular abscess as the initial manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 30-year-old man presented to our outpatient department with sudden loss of visibility in his left visual field. He had no other systemic symptoms. Perimetry showed left-sided incongruous homonymous hemianopsia denser above the horizontal meridian. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed irregular well-marginated lobulated lesions right temporo-occipital cerebral hemisphere and left high fronto-parietal cerebral hemisphere suggestive of brain tubercular abscess. Serological tests for HIV were reactive, and the patient was started only on anti-tubercular drugs with the presumptive diagnosis of cerebral tubercular abscess. Therapeutic response confirmed the diagnosis. Atypical ophthalmic manifestations may be the initial presenting feature in patients with HIV infection. This highlights the need for increased index of suspicion for HIV infection in young patients with atypical ophthalmic manifestations.

  13. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Luis; Raya, Ana; Lopez, Guillermo; Aguilera-Tejero, Escolástico

    2016-01-01

    To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose) vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta) were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28), and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL), hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL), increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL) and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL). Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets. PMID:27243456

  14. Digoxin intoxication: An old enemy in modern era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bahadir Kirilmaz; Serkan Saygi; Hasan Gungor; Ugur Onsel Turk; Emin Alio(g)lu; Serdar Akyuz; Fatih Asgun; Istemihan Tengiz; Ertugrul Ercan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although development of new treatment modalities limited digoxin usage, digoxin intoxication is still an important issuewhich could be easily overlooked. In this report, we analyzed a case series definitively diagnosed as digoxin intoxication in the modern era.Methods We analyzed 71 patients hospitalized with digoxin intoxication confirmed by history, complaints, clinical and electrocardiograph(ECG) findings, and serum digoxin levels > 2.0 ng/mL, during a five year period. The demographic and clinical data, indications for digoxinuse, digoxin dosage, concurrent medications, laboratory data, hospital monitoring, and ECG findings were obtained from all patients.Results Thirty-eight of 71 patients (53.5%) had symptoms of heart failure during admission or later. Sixty-four percent of patients wereolder than 75 years. The percentage of females was 67%. Atrial fibrillation, hypertension and gastrointestinal complaints were more frequentin the females (64% in females, 30% in males, P = 0.007; 81% in female, 52% in males, P = 0.01; 50% in female, 17.3% in males, P = 0.008,respectively). The mortality rate during the hospital course was 7%. Conclusions This report demonstrated the reduced mortality rates inpatients with digoxin intoxication over the study period. Gastrointestinal complaints are the most common symptoms in this population.

  15. Zinc protects renal function during cadmium intoxication in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquillet, G; Barbier, O; Cougnon, M; Tauc, M; Namorado, M C; Martin, D; Reyes, J L; Poujeol, P

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effect in the rat of chronic CdCl2 intoxication (500 microg Cd2+/kg, daily i.p. injection for 5 days) on renal function and the changes in tight junction proteins claudin-2, claudin-3, and claudin-5 present in rat kidney. We also studied the effect of coadministration of ZnCl2 (500 microg Zn2+/kg) during chronic CdCl2 intoxication. Our results indicate that 1) most of the filtered Cd2+ is reabsorbed within the kidney; 2) chronic Cd2+ intoxication can induce a change in renal handling of ions without altering glomerular filtration rate; 3) a delayed nephropathy, showing Fanconi-like features, appears more than 5 days after the end of CdCl2 exposure; 4) epithelial integrity is altered by chronic Cd2+ intoxication affecting the expression and localization of claudin tight junction proteins; and 5) cotreatment with Zn2+ protects against the renal toxic effects of Cd2+, preventing altered claudin expression and inhibiting apoptosis. In conclusion, these results show that Cd2+ toxicity and cellular toxic mechanisms are complex, probably affecting both membrane transporters and tight junction proteins. Finally, Zn2+ supplementation may provide a basis for future treatments.

  16. Mass-media publicity campaign on driving while intoxicated.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P.

    1986-01-01

    Mass media publicity campaigns against driving while intoxicated have been conducted in the netherlands for a number of years. A new, more aggressive approach was introduced in 1984 with the slogan "alcohol ..... all too easily a crime". Goals of this campaign were (1) internationalization of the le

  17. Long-term neurotoxic effects of dimethylamine borane intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chi-Hung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Lin, Kun-Ju; Kuo, Hung-Chou; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Huang, Chin-Chang

    2012-08-15

    To investigate the long-term neurotoxic effects in a patient with acute dimethylamine borane (DMAB) intoxication. A 38-year-old man, working in a semiconductor factory, with acute DMAB intoxication presented with confusion, and drowsiness, followed by cognitive impairments and motor-predominant axonal polyneuropathy. We performed serial neurobehavioral assessments and functional neuroimaging studies, including brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and brain positron emission tomography (PET) scan to monitor the long-term central nervous system (CNS) effects of DMAB intoxication. Neurobehavioral tests revealed a persistent impairment in episodic memory of visual retention semantic category retrieval and working memory of digit span (backward). Brain (99m)Tc-TRODAT SPECT scan showed a lower radioactivity uptake in the left striatum and F-18 FDG PET scan revealed a relatively decreased cerebral metabolism at the anterior cingulate gyrus and both frontal regions. Follow-up neurobehavioral tests showed that the cognitive improvements were mainly documented in intelligence, attention function, conceptual shift, perceptual motor speed, verbal learning and working memory but were limited in visual memory and executive functions. Patients with acute DMAB intoxication may have a long-lasting CNS toxicity on the cognitive dysfunction, parkinsonism, and an impaired metabolic activity of the brain. Clinical improvements may sustain during the long-term follow-up period. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic Vitamin D Intoxication in Captive Iberian Lynx (Lynx pardinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Lopez

    Full Text Available To document the biochemical and pathologic features of vitamin D intoxication in lynx and to characterize mineral metabolism in healthy lynx, blood samples were obtained from 40 captive lynx that had been receiving excessive (approximately 30 times the recommended dose vitamin D3 in the diet, and from 29 healthy free ranging lynx. Tissue samples (kidney, stomach, lung, heart and aorta were collected from 13 captive lynx that died as a result of renal disease and from 3 controls. Vitamin D intoxication resulted in renal failure in most lynx (n = 28, and widespread extraskeletal calcification was most severe in the kidneys and less prominent in cardiovascular tissues. Blood minerals and calciotropic hormones in healthy lynx were similar to values reported in domestic cats except for calcitriol which was higher in healthy lynx. Changes in mineral metabolism after vitamin D intoxication included hypercalcemia (12.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL, hyperphosphatemia (6.3 ± 0.4 mg/dL, increased plasma calcidiol (381.5 ± 28.2 ng/mL and decreased plasma parathyroid hormone (1.2 ± 0.7 pg/mL. Hypercalcemia and, particularly, hyperphosphatemia were of lower magnitude that what has been previously reported in the course of vitamin D intoxication in other species. However, extraskeletal calcifications were severe. The data suggest that lynx are sensitive to excessive vitamin D and extreme care should be taken when supplementing this vitamin in captive lynx diets.

  19. Sudden onset unexplained encephalopathy in infants: think of cannabis intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavi, Eran; Rekhtman, David; Berkun, Yackov; Wexler, Isaiah

    2016-03-01

    The use of cannabis as both a therapeutic agent and recreational drug is common, and its availability is increasing as a result of legalization in many countries. Among older children, the manifestations of cannabis intoxication are numerous and include both neurological and systemic manifestations that are frequently non-specific. There have been only a few reports detailing cannabis intoxication in infants and toddlers. We describe three infants who presented to the emergency department with encephalopathic signs without prominent systemic manifestations. During the initial interview of caregivers, no history of exposure to neurotoxic agents was obtained. All three patients were subsequently diagnosed with cannabis intoxication based on urine toxic screens for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The infants recovered with supportive care that included fluids and monitoring. The non-specific symptomatology of cannabis intoxication in infants together with the wide differential for unexplained acute onset encephalopathy may delay diagnosis and lead to inappropriate procedures and interventions such as antimicrobial treatments and imaging studies. Healthcare personnel of emergency rooms, urgent care centers, and general clinics should be aware of the potential risk of cannabis ingestion in young infants. A thorough medical history and toxic screen are warranted in all infants with unexplained decreased sensorium.

  20. Effect of Momordica charantia (bitter melon on serum glucose level and various protein parameters in acetaminophen intoxicated rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwal Zahra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Liver function tests, including total plasma proteins, albumin, bilirubin and glucose were analyzed to find out the hepatocurative and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica charantia. Method: The study was divided into two categories. In first category, the livers of rabbits were intoxicated with acetaminophen, and then Momordica fruit extract was given to observe its hepatocurative effects. Results: The results indicated significant changes in concentrations of the parameters in acetaminophen-challenged rabbits. In the second category, treatment was started by giving Momordica fruit extract dose orally for 10 days and 15 days to two groups of rabbits, respectively. Then, livers of rabbits were damaged with acetaminophen and hepatoprotective effects of Momordica were observed. Conclusion: The results showed that the animals treated with Momordica fruit extract experienced less liver damage due to acetaminophen intoxication, indicating that Momordica has hepatoprotective properties. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(1.000: 7-12

  1. Efficacy of chelation therapy to remove aluminium intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgenzi, Alessandro; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Bamonti, Fabrizia; Vietti, Daniele; Ferrero, Maria Elena

    2015-11-01

    There is a distinct correlation between aluminium (Al) intoxication and neurodegenerative diseases (ND). We demonstrated how patients affected by ND showing Al intoxication benefit from short-term treatment with calcium disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) (chelation therapy). Such therapy further improved through daily treatment with the antioxidant Cellfood. In the present study we examined the efficacy of long-term treatment, using both EDTA and Cellfood. Slow intravenous treatment with the chelating agent EDTA (2 g/10 mL diluted in 500 mL physiological saline administered in 2 h) (chelation test) removed Al, which was detected (using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) in urine samples collected from patients over 12 h. Patients that revealed Al intoxication (expressed in μg per g creatinine) underwent EDTA chelation therapy once a week for ten weeks, then once every two weeks for a further six or twelve months. At the end of treatment (a total of 22 or 34 chelation therapies, respectively), associated with daily assumption of Cellfood, Al levels in the urine samples were analysed. In addition, the following blood parameters were determined: homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate, as well as the oxidative status e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), oxidized LDL (oxLDL), and glutathione. Our results showed that Al intoxication reduced significantly following EDTA and Cellfood treatment, and clinical symptoms improved. After treatment, ROS, oxLDL, and homocysteine decreased significantly, whereas vitamin B12, folate and TAC improved significantly. In conclusion, our data show the efficacy of chelation therapy associated with Cellfood in subjects affected by Al intoxication who have developed ND.

  2. Antibody protection against botulinum neurotoxin intoxication in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Luisa W; Stanker, Larry H; Henderson, Thomas D; Lou, Jianlong; Marks, James D

    2009-10-01

    Adulteration of food or feed with any of the seven serotypes of botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a potential bioterrorism concern. Currently, there is strong interest in the development of detection reagents, vaccines, therapeutics, and other countermeasures. A sensitive immunoassay for detecting BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A), based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) F1-2 and F1-40, has been developed and used in complex matrices. The epitope for F1-2 has been mapped to the heavy chain of BoNT/A, and the epitope of F1-40 has been mapped to the light chain. The ability of these MAbs to provide therapeutic protection against BoNT/A intoxication in mouse intravenous and oral intoxication models was tested. High dosages of individual MAbs protected mice well both pre- and postexposure to BoNT/A holotoxin. A combination therapy consisting of antibodies against both the light and heavy chains of the toxin, however, significantly increased protection, even at a lower MAb dosage. An in vitro peptide assay for measuring toxin activity showed that pretreatment of toxin with these MAbs did not block catalytic activity but instead blocked toxin entry into primary and cultured neuronal cells. The timing of antibody rescue in the mouse intoxication models revealed windows of opportunity for antibody therapeutic treatment that correlated well with the biologic half-life of the toxin in the serum. Knowledge of BoNT intoxication and antibody clearance in these mouse models and understanding of the pharmacokinetics of BoNT are invaluable for future development of antibodies and therapeutics against intoxication by BoNT.

  3. Electroretinogram and Histopathologic Changes of the Retina after Methanol Intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie-min; ZHU Guang-you; ZHAO Zi-qin; XIA Wen-tao

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the functional and structural alterations of the retina in SD rat model after methanol intoxication,35 rats were divided randomly into five groups administrated with saline,3-day high dose,7-day high dose,3-day low dose and 7-day low dose methanol separately.The retinal function of each group was assessed by flash electroretinogram (F-ERG) 3 and 7 days after methanol poisoning.The microstructure and ultrastructure of the retina were observed at the same time.The high-dose methanol intoxication induced irreversible retinal functional and structural damages 3 days after poisoning,which included prolonged latency and reduced amplitude of the Max-reaction of F-ERG.These injuries were aggravated 7 days after poisoning.Meanwhile,the latency and amplitude of the Cone-reaction of F-ERG were also affected 3 days after poisoning,but there were no further worsening tendency 7 days after poisoning.The retinal histological analysis showed cellular edema,heteromorphy and disarrangement,tissular loosen of the inner nuclear layer and photoreceptors layer.The mitochondrial damage began at the photoreceptors layer and developed further into the inner nuclear layer.The low-dose methanol intoxication only caused transient damage of the retina.Our results showed that the function and structure of the photoreceptor and inner nuclear layer were the primary target of methanol intoxication and that the rod cells were more sensitive to methanol intoxication than the cone cells.The mitochondrial damage developed from outer layer to inner layer of the retina.

  4. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2016-01-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  5. Human thermal perception related to Föhn winds due to Saharan dust outbreaks in Crete Island, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, P. T.; Bleta, A. G.; Matsangouras, I. T.

    2017-05-01

    Crete Island is located in the southmost border of East Mediterranean basin, facing exacerbating atmospheric conditions (mainly concentrations of particulates) due to Saharan dust outbreaks. It is worth to note that these episodes are more frequent during spring and autumn, when mild biometeorological conditions become intolerable due to the synergy of the so called Föhn winds. Cretan mountains, especially Psiloritis Mt. (summit at 2456 m), are orientated perpendicularly to the southwest air mass flow, generating the Föhn winds. Propagating from the leeward of the mountains, these dry, hot winds have an effect on prevailing biometeorological conditions. While descending to the lowlands on the leeward side of the range, the wind becomes strong, gusty, and desiccating. This wind often lasts less than an hour to several days, with gradual weakening after the first or the second day. Sometimes, it stops very abruptly. In this work, the authors examined and analyzed the abrupt changes of human thermal perception within specific case studies during which Föhn winds appeared in Heraklion city at the leeward of Psiloritis Mt, associated with extreme Saharan dust episodes, observed within the period 2006-2010. In order to verify the development of Föhn winds, Meteorological Terminal Aviation Routine Weather Reports (METARs, meteorological observations every half hour), were acquired from the Heraklion meteorological station installed by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS). The biometeorological conditions analyzed are based on human thermal bioclimatic indices such as the Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). METAR recordings of meteorological variables, such as air temperature, vapor pressure, wind speed, and cloudiness, were used as input variables in modeling the aforementioned thermal indices, so that to interpret the grade of the thermo-physiological stress. The PET and UTCI analysis was

  6. ASSESSMENT OF THE DEGREE OF INTOXICATION AND THE FORECAST LEVEL OF THE INTEGRAL INDEX OF INTOXICATION UNDER CERTAIN INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Marzhokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purpose of this research was to study indicators syndrome of endogenous intoxication in patients with erysipelas and herpes infection that can be used to predict relapse in these diseases.Based on the goal were examined in 54 patients with primary, erythematous form of erysipelas of different localization and 42 patients with the localized form of herpes infection in the dynamics of these diseases.Determined the level of substances of low and medium molecular weight (HV and SMM, and oligopeptides, as well as the Integral index of intoxication by the method of M. I. Malakhov (1994 and Lowry (1991. To assess the value of the Integral index of intoxication in the prediction of relapses were calculated odds ratio.Revealed the dependence of studied parameters of disease and completeness of recovery.Level measurement HV and SMM and oligopeptides allows us to calculate the Integral index of intoxication, which can be used as a prognostic criterion of recurrence as erysipelas, and herpes infection.

  7. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M; West, J Jason

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration-response function for ozone and an integrated exposure-response model for PM2.5. We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally-675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year-and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution-related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA, Adelman Z, Fry MM, West JJ. 2016. The impact of individual

  8. The Impact of Individual Anthropogenic Emissions Sectors on the Global Burden of Human Mortality due to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel A.; Adelman, Zachariah; Fry, Meridith M.; West, J. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) can cause adverse health effects, including premature mortality due to cardiopulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Recent studies quantify global air pollution mortality but not the contribution of different emissions sectors, or they focus on a specific sector. Objectives: We estimated the global mortality burden of anthropogenic ozone and PM2.5, and the impact of five emissions sectors, using a global chemical transport model at a finer horizontal resolution (0.67° × 0.5°) than previous studies. Methods: We performed simulations for 2005 using the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4), zeroing out all anthropogenic emissions and emissions from specific sectors (All Transportation, Land Transportation, Energy, Industry, and Residential and Commercial). We estimated premature mortality using a log-linear concentration–response function for ozone and an integrated exposure–response model for PM2.5. Results: We estimated 2.23 (95% CI: 1.04, 3.33) million deaths/year related to anthropogenic PM2.5, with the highest mortality in East Asia (48%). The Residential and Commercial sector had the greatest impact globally—675 (95% CI: 428, 899) thousand deaths/year—and in most regions. Land Transportation dominated in North America (32% of total anthropogenic PM2.5 mortality), and it had nearly the same impact (24%) as Residential and Commercial (27%) in Europe. Anthropogenic ozone was associated with 493 (95% CI: 122, 989) thousand deaths/year, with the Land Transportation sector having the greatest impact globally (16%). Conclusions: The contributions of emissions sectors to ambient air pollution–related mortality differ among regions, suggesting region-specific air pollution control strategies. Global sector-specific actions targeting Land Transportation (ozone) and Residential and Commercial (PM2.5) sectors would particularly benefit human health. Citation: Silva RA

  9. Impact of increased economic burden due to human echinococcosis in an underdeveloped rural community of the People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Rong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ningxia is located in western People's Republic of China, which is hyperendemic for human cystic echinococcosis (CE throughout the entire area with alveolar echinococcosis (AE hyperendemic in the south. This is in part due to its underdeveloped economy. Despite the recent rapid growth in P.R. China's economy, medical expenditure for hospitalization of echinococcosis cases has become one of the major poverty generators in rural Ningxia, resulting in a significant social problem. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We reviewed the 2000 inpatient records with liver CE in surgical departments of hospitals from north, central and south Ningxia for the period 1996-2002. We carried out an analysis of health care expenditure of inpatient treatment in public hospitals, and examined the financial inequalities relating to human echinococcosis and the variation in per capita income between various socioeconomic groups with different levels of gross domestic product for different years. Hospital charges for Yinchuan, NHAR's capital city in the north, increased approximately 35-fold more than the annual income of rural farmers with the result that they preferred to seek health care in local county hospitals, despite higher quality and more efficient treatment and diagnosis available in the city. Household income levels thus strongly influenced the choice of health care provider and the additional expense impeded access of poor people to better quality treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Information on socioeconomic problems arising from echinococcosis, which adds considerably to the burden on patient families and communities, needs to be collected as a prerequisite for developing policies to tackle the disease in rural Ningxia.

  10. Ergot alkaloid intoxication in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne): an emerging animal health concern in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, Mary J; Fogarty, Ursula; Sheridan, Michael K; Ensley, Steve M; Schrunk, Dwayne E; More, Simon J

    2014-01-01

    Four primary mycotoxicosis have been reported in livestock caused by fungal infections of grasses or cereals by members of the Clavicipitaceae family. Ergotism (generally associated with grasses, rye, triticale and other grains) and fescue toxicosis (associated with tall fescue grass, Festuca arundinacea) are both caused by ergot alkaloids, and referred to as 'ergot alkaloid intoxication'. Ryegrass staggers (associated with perennial ryegrass Lolium perenne) is due to intoxication with an indole-diperpene, Lolitrem B, and metabolites. Fescue-associated oedema, recently described in Australia, may be associated with a pyrrolizidine alkaloid, N-acetyl norloline. Ergotism, caused by the fungus Claviceps purpurea, is visible and infects the outside of the plant seed. Fescue toxicosis and ryegrass staggers are caused by Neotyphodium coenophalium and N. lolii, respectively. Fescue-associated oedema has been associated with tall fescue varieties infected with a specific strain of N. coenophialum (AR542, Max P or Max Q). The name Neotyphodium refers to asexual derivatives of Epichloë spp., which have collectively been termed the epichloë fungi. These fungi exist symbiotically within the grass and are invisible to the naked eye. The primary toxicological effect of ergot alkaloid involves vasoconstriction and/or hypoprolactinaemia. Ingestion of ergot alkaloid by livestock can cause a range of effects, including poor weight gain, reduced fertility, hyperthermia, convulsions, gangrene of the extremities, and death. To date there are no published reports, either internationally or nationally, reporting ergot alkaloid intoxication specifically associated with perennial ryegrass endophytes. However, unpublished reports from the Irish Equine Centre have identified a potential emerging problem of ergot alkaloid intoxication with respect to equines and bovines, on primarily perennial ryegrass-based diets. Ergovaline has been isolated in varying concentrations in the herbage of a

  11. A challenge of veterinary public health in the European Union: human trichinellosis due to horse meat consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touratier L.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Human trichinellosis in the European Union due to insufficiently cooked horse meat consumption has been reported in France and in Italy during the past 25 years. It occurred in several outbreaks totalling more than 3,000 patients during this period, with a low mortality and a high morbidity. Causative Trichinella species or phenotypes were determined by the International Reference Laboratory for Trichinellosis in Rome, Italy. They were: Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. murelli. As the culinary habits and customs of populations cannot be changed by regulations, measures of protection of public health essentially depend on food inspection. Comprehensive studies having been conducted in the pathophysiology of Trichinella infection in horses; it was demonstrated that the localisation of larvae are quite different in horses and in pork. It resulted an instruction from the French Veterinary Service recommending that :- the sampling of muscles in horses carcasses has to be done at first in the tongue (apex, then in the diaphragm (pillars;- at least 50 g have to be sampled in each site;- examination for larvae has to be done with the digestion method.Such recommendations might be extended to other EU member countries then to the OIE Zoo-Sanitary Code.

  12. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, June H; Whitehead, Zandri; Van Wilpe, Erna

    2016-11-09

    Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2-3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  13. Paraquat intoxication and associated pathological findings in three dogs in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June H. Williams

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Paraquat is a bipyridylium non-selective contact herbicide commonly used worldwide. When ingestion occurs by humans and animals either accidentally, intentionally or maliciously, paraquat selectively accumulates in the lungs resulting in the production of oxygen-free radicals, causing membrane damage and cell death. Intoxicated subjects typically show progressive and fatal pulmonary haemorrhage, collapse and oedema. In individuals surviving the acute phase, pulmonary fibrosis develops. Gastrointestinal-, renal- and central nervous system clinical signs may also occur. Owing to the lack of effective treatment and absence of an antidote, the prognosis is poor. The clinical presentation, clinicopathological findings and treatment are briefly described of three dogs from one South African household, intoxicated with paraquat. Macroscopic and microscopic lesions in one dog that was necropsied, as well as pulmonary ultrastructure are detailed and illustrated for academic reference. All dogs presented with tachypnoea and dyspnoea 2–3 days after accidental paraquat ingestion. Treatment was aimed at reducing gastrointestinal absorption, enhancing elimination by diuresis and avoiding further oxidative damage by administration of antioxidants. All dogs, however, became progressively hypoxic despite treatment and were euthanised. Paraquat toxicity should be a differential diagnosis in dogs with unexplained progressive respiratory and gastrointestinal signs and renal failure. The local veterinary profession should be aware of accidental or intentional paraquat toxicity of animals. Existing literature, variations possible in canine clinical signs, measured parameters, lesions, as well as possible treatments, promising experimental antidotes and management options are discussed.

  14. Identification of host cell factors required for intoxication through use of modified cholera toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Carla P; Carette, Jan E; Varadarajan, Malini; Antos, John; Popp, Maximilian W; Spooner, Eric; Brummelkamp, Thijn R; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2011-11-28

    We describe a novel labeling strategy to site-specifically attach fluorophores, biotin, and proteins to the C terminus of the A1 subunit (CTA1) of cholera toxin (CTx) in an otherwise correctly assembled and active CTx complex. Using a biotinylated N-linked glycosylation reporter peptide attached to CTA1, we provide direct evidence that ~12% of the internalized CTA1 pool reaches the ER. We also explored the sortase labeling method to attach the catalytic subunit of diphtheria toxin as a toxic warhead to CTA1, thus converting CTx into a cytolethal toxin. This new toxin conjugate enabled us to conduct a genetic screen in human cells, which identified ST3GAL5, SLC35A2, B3GALT4, UGCG, and ELF4 as genes essential for CTx intoxication. The first four encode proteins involved in the synthesis of gangliosides, which are known receptors for CTx. Identification and isolation of the ST3GAL5 and SLC35A2 mutant clonal cells uncover a previously unappreciated differential contribution of gangliosides to intoxication by CTx.

  15. CD44 Promotes intoxication by the clostridial iota-family toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darran J Wigelsworth

    Full Text Available Various pathogenic clostridia produce binary protein toxins associated with enteric diseases of humans and animals. Separate binding/translocation (B components bind to a protein receptor on the cell surface, assemble with enzymatic (A component(s, and mediate endocytosis of the toxin complex. Ultimately there is translocation of A component(s from acidified endosomes into the cytosol, leading to destruction of the actin cytoskeleton. Our results revealed that CD44, a multifunctional surface protein of mammalian cells, facilitates intoxication by the iota family of clostridial binary toxins. Specific antibody against CD44 inhibited cytotoxicity of the prototypical Clostridium perfringens iota toxin. Versus CD44(+ melanoma cells, those lacking CD44 bound less toxin and were dose-dependently resistant to C. perfringens iota, as well as Clostridium difficile and Clostridium spiroforme iota-like, toxins. Purified CD44 specifically interacted in vitro with iota and iota-like, but not related Clostridium botulinum C2, toxins. Furthermore, CD44 knockout mice were resistant to iota toxin lethality. Collective data reveal an important role for CD44 during intoxication by a family of clostridial binary toxins.

  16. Frequency of Acute Hepatitis Following Acute Paraphenylene Diamine Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Rizwan; Shafiq, Sadaf; Imran, Ali; Masroor Ali, Qazi; Khan, Raheel; Tariq, Hassan; Ishtiaq, Daniyal

    2017-04-21

    Paraphenylene diamine (PPD) ingestion is manifesting as one of the more common ways of committing suicide in Southern Punjab, Pakistan, especially Bahawalpur. PPD is an ingredient of a compound commonly known "Kala Pathar" which means "Black Stone" in Urdu. It is readily available in the market at low cost and is used to dye hair and fur. Its intoxication inhibits cellular oxidation and affects the muscles causing rhabdomyolysis. This leads to myoglobinuria followed by renal failure and edema of face and throat resulting in respiratory difficulty. Very little is known about the impact of PPD intoxication on liver tissue. The purpose of the study was to find out the frequency of acute hepatitis following PPD intoxication. We reviewed the medical records of 109 patients with PPD intoxication admitted to Medical Unit-2, Bahawalpur Victoria Hospital from January 1, 2015, to June 30, 2015, in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. We noted the frequency of acute hepatitis and other complications, and we recorded the demographic features, clinical features, and outcomes of these patients. Our study included 32 men (29%) and 77 women (71%). The mean age was 22 ± 3.4 years, and most patients were young women aged 15 to 24 years. Suicidal ingestion was the leading cause of admission for 101 patients (93%). The most common clinical presentation was cervicofacial edema (95%), throat pain (88%), dysphonia (95%), cola-colored urine (100%), and oliguria (95%). Rhabdomyolysis (86%), acute hepatitis (51%), and acute renal failure (63%) were the most common clinical conditions following poisoning. Overall mortality was noted in 39 patients (36%) while all other patients achieved complete clinical recovery (64%). In patients with mortality, 20 of 39 (51%) developed acute hepatitis. Most patients (95%) in our study underwent tracheostomy. The frequency of acute hepatitis in PPD intoxication is high in this population, especially in young women. Measures need to be instituted

  17. New evidence for old lore--urinary bladder distension on post-mortem computed tomography is related to intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Carolina; Franckenberg, Sabine; Schwendener, Nicole; Oestreich, Andrea; Kraemer, Thomas; Thali, Michael J; Hatch, Gary M; Ruder, Thomas D

    2013-02-10

    Distension of the urinary bladder is reported to be a sign of intoxication at autopsy. The purpose of this study was to compare radiologically calculated urinary bladder volume (UBV) to autopsy measurements of UBV, and to investigate the relationship between intoxication and calculated UBV. Autopsy reports, toxicology reports and post-mortem CTs of 332 adult human cadavers were retrospectively analyzed, 259 cases were included in the final population. Spearman's rho test was used to compare calculated UBV to autopsy measurements. Significance levels for UBV in relation to toxicology results were investigated with the Mann-Whitney test. Spearman's rho test was also used to correlate the widest left-right bladder diameter on axial images to calculated UBV. Both calculated UBV and axial diameters were subjected to receiver operating characteristics curve analysis. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for individual cutoff values. There is a strong correlation and high consistency (r=0.92, p330 ml indicate positive toxicology results with a sensitivity/specificity of 40%/87% and 25%/97% respectively. Axial urinary bladder diameter of 8.5 cm and >10 cm indicate positive toxicology results with a sensitivity/specificity of 36%/85% and 16%/95% respectively. Radiologically calculated UBV accurately represents the autoptically measured UBV. The occurrence of urinary bladder distension on post-mortem imaging should raise suspicion of intoxication. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender differences in natural language factors of subjective intoxication in college students: an experimental vignette study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Ash; Schlauch, Robert C; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2013-12-01

    Examining the natural language college students use to describe various levels of intoxication can provide important insight into subjective perceptions of college alcohol use. Previous research (Levitt et al., Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2009; 33: 448) has shown that intoxication terms reflect moderate and heavy levels of intoxication and that self-use of these terms differs by gender among college students. However, it is still unknown whether these terms similarly apply to other individuals and, if so, whether similar gender differences exist. To address these issues, the current study examined the application of intoxication terms to characters in experimentally manipulated vignettes of naturalistic drinking situations within a sample of university undergraduates (n = 145). Findings supported and extended previous research by showing that other-directed applications of intoxication terms are similar to self-directed applications and depend on the gender of both the target and the user. Specifically, moderate intoxication terms were applied to and from women more than men, even when the character was heavily intoxicated, whereas heavy intoxication terms were applied to and from men more than women. The findings suggest that gender differences in the application of intoxication terms are other-directed as well as self-directed and that intoxication language can inform gender-specific prevention and intervention efforts targeting problematic alcohol use among college students. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  20. Acidic pH retards the fibrillization of human islet amyloid polypeptide due to electrostatic repulsion of histidines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Xu, Weixin; Mu, Yuguang; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-08-01

    The human Islet Amyloid Polypeptide (hIAPP) is the major constituent of amyloid deposits in pancreatic islets of type-II diabetes. IAPP is secreted together with insulin from the acidic secretory granules at a low pH of approximately 5.5 to the extracellular environment at a neutral pH. The increased accumulation of extracellular hIAPP in diabetes indicates that changes in pH may promote amyloid formation. To gain insights and underlying mechanisms of the pH effect on hIAPP fibrillogenesis, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent model were performed to study the structural properties of five hIAPP protofibrillar oligomers, under acidic and neutral pH, respectively. In consistent with experimental findings, simulation results show that acidic pH is not conducive to the structural stability of these oligomers. This provides a direct evidence for a recent experiment [L. Khemtemourian, E. Domenech, J. P. F. Doux, M. C. Koorengevel, and J. A. Killian, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 15598 (2011)], 10.1021/ja205007j, which suggests that acidic pH inhibits the fibril formation of hIAPP. In addition, a complementary coarse-grained simulation shows the repulsive electrostatic interactions among charged His18 residues slow down the dimerization process of hIAPP by twofold. Besides, our all-atom simulations reveal acidic pH mainly affects the local structure around residue His18 by destroying the surrounding hydrogen-bonding network, due to the repulsive interactions between protonated interchain His18 residues at acidic pH. It is also disclosed that the local interactions nearby His18 operating between adjacent β-strands trigger the structural transition, which gives hints to the experimental findings that the rate of hIAPP fibril formation and the morphologies of the fibrillar structures are strongly pH-dependent.

  1. Effect of Biometric Characteristics on the Change of Biomechanical Properties of the Human Cornea due to Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefei Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the impact of biometric characteristics on changes of biomechanical properties of the human cornea due to standard cataract surgery using biomechanical analysis. Patients and Methods. This prospective consecutive cross-sectional study comprised 54 eyes with cataract in stages I or II that underwent phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. CH, CRF, IOPg, and IOPcc intraocular pressure were measured by biomechanical analysis preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively. Changes (Δ were calculated as preoperative value versus postoperative value. Biometrical data were extracted from TMS-5 (CSI and SAI, IOLMaster (AL, and EM-3000 (CCT and ECC preoperatively. Results. The average values of the changes were ΔCH=-0.45±1.27 mmHg, ΔCRF=-0.88±1.1 mmHg, ΔIOPg=-1.58±3.15 mmHg, and ΔIOPcc=-1.45±3.93 mmHg. The higher the CSI the smaller the decrease in CH (r=0.302, P=0.028. The higher the CCT the larger the decrease in CRF (r=-0.371, P=0.013. The higher the AL the smaller the decrease in IOPg (r=0.417, P=0.005. The higher the AL, SAI, and EEC the smaller the decrease in IOPcc (r=0.351, P=0.001; r=-0.478, P<0.001; r=0.339, P=0.013. Conclusions. Corneal biomechanical properties were affected by comprehensive factors after cataract surgery, including corneal endothelium properties, biometry, and geometrical characteristics.

  2. Combined intoxication with methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Eiji; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Takashi; Hagiwara, Hiroko; Fujisaki, Mihisa; Miyatake, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Kenji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2007-01-30

    Although preclinical studies suggest that methylone (2-methylamino-1-[3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl]propan-1-one) and 5-MeO-MIPT (5-methoxy-N-methyl,N-isopropyl tryptamine) may have psychostimulant properties, the scientific reports about the clinical effects of these agents are scant. We describe a 27-year-old male patient with substance intoxication after a single ingestion of the mixture of methylone and 5-MeO-MIPT. Though he bought the drug as pure methylone powder via an internet order, our chemical analyses indicated that the drug was composed of about 60% methylone (120 mg) and 38% 5-MeO-MIPT (76 mg). This case report suggests that clinicians should be alert to the possibility of the emergence of methylone or 5-MeO-MIPT intoxication, and substance-related mental disorder may be complicated by combined use of other psychoactive drugs.

  3. Unintentional baclofen intoxication in the management of alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmuth, Philipp; Blanc, Anne-Laure; Tagan, Damien

    2015-09-22

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in using baclofen for the management of alcohol use disorder. This off-label indication usually involves high doses of the medication. We report a case of severe baclofen overdose in a 66-year-old man. The patient was found severely agitated, and he presented with delirium and auditory hallucinations. At hospital admission, his daily dose was 180 mg baclofen. He was admitted to the intensive care unit for sedation and supportive care. When sedation was withdrawn, the patient presented with a normal neurological status. In this clinical context, baclofen intoxication was suspected. This was confirmed by measuring blood baclofen levels. This intoxication was probably mediated by a combination of risk factors including a high daily dose of baclofen and acute renal failure, conducive to drug accumulation.

  4. A SURVEY ON LEAD INTOXICATION IN LEAD MINERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Meshgi

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey on lead intoxication in lead mine workers was carried out among Khanehsorme, lead miners in NajafAabad and also in Ab-bagh lead miners in Shahreza, both located in district of Esfahan, Iran. The studies were carried out on 62 miners out of 82 employees in Khanehsorme, 25 miners out of 27 employees in Ab-bagh lead miners and 47 rural inhabitants in the surroundings of mines were selected as the Control group. Clinical examinations were done. Age and sex group, working hours, type of work, and duration of service and previous occupation of workers were questioned. The determination of lead in urine was done according to Truhaut et Boudene's method and the content of blood Hemoglobin was performed according to Sali method. Results obtained in lead miners in comparison with the control group showed the absorption of lead and consequently lead intoxication was observed some extent.

  5. [Evaluation of the endogenous intoxication syndrome in food toxic infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzhokhova, M Iu; Zhelikhazheva, Zh M

    2009-01-01

    To study the endogenous intoxication syndrome in patients with food toxic infections is essential in revealing the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this disease. For this, the authors measured the level of low and average molecular weight, as well as their protein component--oligopeptides in plasma, red blood cells, and urine in the course of the disease. There were increased levels of the study parameters, which depended on the stage and degree of a pathological process. The determination of the level of low and average molecular weight and oligopeptides in plasma, red blood cells, and urine may serve as a marker of the intoxication syndrome; the level of the study parameters may be used as additional criteria for the severity of the process, the prediction of disease development and comorbidity, and as a criterion for recovery completeness.

  6. Hair analysis to document non-fatal pesticide intoxication cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulaurent, S; Gaulier, J M; Baudel, J L; Fardet, L; Maury, E; Lachâtre, G

    2008-03-21

    We reported two non-fatal cases of intoxication with pesticides namely alachlor and carbofuran. Hair stand samples were collected from two men approximately 1 year after alachlor intoxication for case 1, and 14 days after the last exposure for case 2. Hair analysis was performed using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In case 1, alachlor was detected in the 5 analysed hair segments (concentrations between 12 and 136 pg/mg) and its metabolites were not detected. In case 2, carbofuran and its main metabolite (3-hydroxycarbofuran) were detected in the hair strand (global analysis) at the concentrations of 207 and 164 pg/mg, respectively. However, additional data are required in order to interpret such results.

  7. A case of survival after chlorfenapyr intoxication with acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Jae Eun; Joo, Young Seon; You, Je Sung; Chung, Sung Phil; Lee, Hahn Shick

    2015-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr is a moderately hazardous insecticide. There have been previous reports of chlorfenapyr intoxication, but none have reported patient survival or an association with pancreatitis. A 61-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with vomiting after ingesting 10 mL chlorfenapyr in a suicide attempt 1 hour before. The patient was treated with gastric lavage and activated charcoal, then transferred to the intensive care unit. Initial laboratory data were unremarkable excep...

  8. Alcohol Intoxication Impact on Outcome from Traumatic Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    prior to initiating the fixed-pressure hemorrhage to allow for maximal NOS inhibition ( Salter and others 1995). To confirm NOS inhibition by L...hypothalamic slices. Brain Res Bull. 43:121-125. Lobo IA, Harris RA. 2008. GABAA receptors and alcohol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 90: 90–4...Rev Physiol 49:413-35. Pories SE, Gamelli RL, Vacek P, Goodwin G, Shinozaki T, Harris F. 1992. Intoxication and injury. J Trauma. 32:60-64. Probst R

  9. Vitamin A intoxication from reef fish liver consumption in Bermuda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewailly, E; Rouja, P; Schultz, E; Julien, P; Tucker, T

    2011-09-01

    We report three historical cases of severe vitamin A intoxication in anglers who had consumed reef fish liver caught in Bermuda. The subsequent analyses of 35 fish livers from seven different fish species revealed that very high concentrations of vitamin A exist in tropical fish liver, even in noncarnivorous fish species. Large variations in concentrations were observed between specimens and between species. The angling population and (especially) pregnant women should be advised of this potential health threat.

  10. The "Madness" of Friedrich Hölderlin: an iatrogenic intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowski, R

    2017-06-01

    The German poet Hölderlin, assumed to have suffered from schizophrenia, in fact has been the victim of a combined calomel and cantharidine intoxication administered by his physician Autenrieth. This new theory explains much better his behavioural changes and also his neurological and other concomitant symptoms; it can be tested by analysing a very few of his hairs for the presence of these compounds.

  11. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Kępka; Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Sylwia Chojnowska; Paweł Płudowski; Emilia Konarzewska; Agata Szulc; Jerzy Robert Ładny; Krzysztof Zwierz; Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44...

  12. Acute pancreatitis and acute renal failure complicating doxylamine succinate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yang Deok; Lee, Soo Teik

    2002-06-01

    Doxylamine succinate is an antihistaminic drugwith additional hypnotic, anticholinergic and local anesthetic effects first described in 1948. In Korea and many other countries, it is a common-over-the counter medication frequently involved in overdoses. Clinical symtomatology of doxylamine succinate overdose includes somnolence, coma, seizures, mydriasis, tachycardia, psychosis, and rhabdomyolysis. A serious complication may be rhabdomyolysis with subsequent impairment of renal function and acute renal failure. We report a case of acute renal failure and acute pancreatitis complicating a doxylamine succinate intoxication.

  13. Optic atrophy and cerebral infarcts caused by methanol intoxication: MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, H.H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen, C.Y. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chen, F.H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Lee, C.C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Chou, T.Y. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China); Zimmerman, R.A. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1997-03-01

    We present the MRI findings of cerebral and optic pathway damage in the acute and subacute stages of methanol intoxication. In the acute stage, CT and MRI showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrosis of the corpus striatum and infarcts in the anterior and middle cerebral arterial territories. MRI in the subacute stage demonstrated atrophy of the optic chiasm and prechiasmatic optic nerves in addition to the cerebral infarcts. The patient survived, with total blindness. (orig.)

  14. Use of haloperidol in PCP-intoxicated individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeal, James J; Cone, David C; Sinha, Vinnita; Tomassoni, Anthony J

    2012-11-01

    Emergency medical workers often experience violence while performing their job functions. Phencyclidine (PCP)-intoxicated patients are often violent and difficult to control physically. A chemical restraint is frequently needed to assist in protecting both patients and staff from agitated persons. This study evaluated haloperidol as a chemical restraint in PCP-intoxicated patients. This is a retrospective case series of all PCP-positive patients who received haloperidol for behavioral control from April 2008 to April 2011 at a single large (944 bed), urban, tertiary-care hospital. All patients receiving haloperidol and having a toxicology screen positive for PCP were identified using an electronic medical record. Identified cases were then manually reviewed by investigators for adverse events. Subjects included 59 adult patients who were acutely agitated requiring chemical restraint or sedation with haloperidol, and who tested positive for PCP. There were 20 females and 39 males, ranging in age from 19 to 54 years. Patients received haloperidol via the PO, IM, or IV routes in doses ranging from 1 to 10 mg. There were two adverse events (mild hypoxia and mild hypotension) found during chart review; neither were serious nor required change in patient disposition. In this study, haloperidol does not seem to cause harm when used in the management of PCP-intoxicated patients. Caution must always be exercised in the use of chemical restraint; further prospective study is warranted.

  15. Peganum harmala L. Intoxication in a Pregnant Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adnane Berdai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peganum harmala L. is a plant widely distributed in the Mediterranean region. It is commonly used in traditional medicine in Morocco as sedative and abortifacient but exposes users to the risk of overdose and poisoning. The pharmacologically active compounds of this plant include a number of β-carboline and quinazoline alkaloids responsible of its pharmacological and toxicological effects. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman, 22 weeks pregnant, intoxicated with the seeds of Peganum harmala L. On admission, she had disturbance of consciousness, uterine contraction, and oliguria. Laboratory tests revealed renal failure and liver injury, and she benefited then from hemodialysis. During hospitalization, she was intubated after deterioration of consciousness and presented a spontaneous expulsion of the fetus. After extubation, she kept unusual sequelae: cerebellar ataxia and peripheral polyneuropathy. Physicians in regions using Peganum harmala L. as traditional medicine must be able to detect symptoms of its toxicity, in order to establish early gastrointestinal decontamination. The prognosis of this intoxication is variable; most cases can be managed successfully; but in high doses of intoxication, evolution can be fatal.

  16. [Acute oral suicidal intoxication with captan--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt; Sein Anand, Jacek; Waldman, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    According to the best of our knowledge the second case of acute intoxication with captan was described. In this paper a 22-year old female was admitted to the Department of Toxicology with a nausea, weakness, numbness of upper limbs and substernal pain. She said that these symptoms began two hours after suicidal ingestion of 5.0 g of captan. At admission the patient was alert. Temperature was 37 degrees C, heart rate 100-120 b/min., BP 100-120/60-70 mm Hg and breathing rate 17/min. WBC were slightly elevated 12.4 x 10(3)/microl as well as the creatine kinase activity 329 U/L. ECG showed inversion of a T segment in V1-V4 leads. ECHO-sound made in 4th and 120th day after the onset of intoxication showed no changes, with EF--70%. Temporary increase of creatine kinase activity as well as the presence of inverted T segment in V1-V4 leads may suggest cardiotoxic effects of captan during acute intoxication.

  17. Cyanide intoxication induced exocytotic epinephrine release in rabbit myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T; Yamazaki, T; Akiyama, T; Sato, T; Shishido, T; Inagaki, M; Tatewaki, T; Yanagiya, Y; Sugimachi, M; Sunagawa, K

    2000-05-12

    Cyanide intoxication, which has been used as a model of energy depletion at cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals, causes non-exocytotic release of norepinephrine (NE). However, the effect of cyanide intoxication on cardiac epinephrine (Epi) release remains unknown. Using cardiac microdialysis in the rabbit, we measured dialysate Epi and NE concentrations as indices of myocardial interstitial Epi and NE levels, respectively. Local administration of sodium cyanide (30 mM) through the dialysis probe increased both Epi and NE levels (from 11.3+/-2.3 to 32.3+/-4.4 pg/ml and from 33.6+/-6.1 to 389.0+/-71.8 pg/ml, respectively, mean+/-S.E., P<0.01). Local desipramine (100 microM) administration suppressed the cyanide induced NE response without affecting the Epi response. In contrast, local omega-conotoxin GVIA (10 microM) administration partially suppressed the cyanide induced NE response and totally abolished the Epi response. In conclusion, cyanide intoxication causes N-type Ca(2+) channel dependent exocytotic Epi release as well as inducing N-type Ca(2+) channel independent non-exocytotic NE release.

  18. Methanol intoxication: pathological changes of central nervous system (17 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu A; Sav, Aydin; Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2010-03-01

    The nervous system has increased susceptibility for methanol intoxication. The aim of this study is to investigate various central nervous system lesions of methanol intoxication in 17 cases autopsied in the mortuary department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Turkey. The reasons of methanol intoxication in the cases was likely the unwitting ingestion of methanol while drinking illegal alcohol. Survival times ranged from several hours to days. In 8 cases (47%), cerebral edema and in 9 cases (53%) at occipital, temporal and parietal cortex, basal ganglia and pons, petechial bleeding was observed. In addition to these findings, hemorrhagic necrosis were observed in thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus in 5 cases (29.4%) and, in cerebral cortex in another 3 cases (17.6%). In 3 of the cases (17.6%) in which cerebral edema was found, herniation findings accompanied to the situation and in 2 cases (11.7%), pons bleeding was observed. Around the basal ganglia, in 2 of the cases with hemorrhagic necrosis, the situation ended with a ventricular compression. In 7 cases (41%), the associated findings of chronic ischemic changes in cortical neurons, lacunae formation, degeneration of granular cell layer of the cerebellum, and reactive gliosis were considered as the results of chronic alcoholism.

  19. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans in the south-west region of Ireland: is there a relationship with infection prevalence in cattle?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, T P

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in humans to the prevalence of M. bovis infection in cattle in south-west Ireland and discuss possible links between them. SETTING: In the south-west region of Ireland, a mixed urban and rural community (pop. 536,000), there is a residuum of human tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the incidence of culture-positive M. bovis disease in humans in south-west Ireland from 1983 to 1994 and of the results of tuberculin testing in cattle from 1978 to 1994 for the same region. RESULTS: One to five cases of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis were recorded per year while the overall prevalence of bovine infection fell gradually during the period of study from 467 tuberculin-positive animals per 100,000 cattle tested in 1983 to 158 per 100,000 in 1994. CONCLUSION: The low incidence plateau of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis together with the decline in prevalence of animal infection in the overall period studied suggest a cut-off in the animal to human chain of infection at two points; the animal source and the ingestion of (now pasteurized) milk. This would suggest that disease in humans is now due to reactivation of previous foci of infection which were acquired when milk pasteurization was not compulsory. Based on this, we would anticipate a further reduction and possible elimination of human tuberculosis due to M. bovis in this region in the next 10-15 years.

  20. Husband/Partner Intoxication and Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Tran, Phu

    2016-09-01

    This study examined husband/partner intoxication and experience with physical, sexual, and emotional intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) using data derived from a nationally representative survey conducted in the Philippines in 2013. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between intoxication and 3 different types of intimate partner violence against women. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine intoxication and severity of violence. In this sample, 28.8% of women reported experiencing any form of intimate partner violence and 92.9% of women reported their partner being intoxicated at least sometimes. Intoxication was significantly associated with all 3 types of intimate partner violence, while the odds of experiencing one form of IPVAW versus no form of IPVAW and 2 forms of IPVAW versus 1 form of IPVAW was greater among women reporting frequency of husband/partner intoxication as often.

  1. Acute Intoxication by Transdermal Opium Application in Infants: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Sedighi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute opium intoxication is one of the most common causes of poisoning in children in Iran. Although most cases are accidental, traditional misuse of opium for symptomatic therapy of various childhood diseases also contributes to high rate of opium intoxication in Iran. Cases: Here, we report two cases of opium intoxication in infants resulted from transdermal application of opium on burned skin. To our knowledge this is the first case report of intoxication from transdermal misuse of opium. Conclusion: Health care providers should be aware about signs and symptoms of opium intoxication in children. Opium intoxication should be suspected in each child with history of a recent burn injury that presented with decreased level of consciousness.

  2. [Dosis sola facit venenum: outcome of intoxications in a Swiss university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muster, C; Exadaktylos, A; Haberkern, M

    2012-03-14

    Poisoning is a frequent disease in an emergency division. During four years we observed patients with poisoning related to there reason of intoxication, the degree of severity, age group and sex, and tried to make conclusions about lethal outcome on behalf of our data. The severity was defined by the «poison severity scale» (PSS). 1515 patients with intoxication in four years were documented. 152 (10%) of them had a severe intoxication or lethal outcome. In women suicide predominated as reason of severe intoxication, whereas in men an abuse of alcool and drugs was mostly seen. A multidisciplinary approach is important for handling intoxicated patients. Our investigation showed a good somatical outcome of patients with severe intoxication. Mortality was 5% (7/152 patients).

  3. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...

  4. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and Pelger-Huët anomaly associated with colchicine intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Malbora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Colchicine is frequently used in the treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF. First symptoms of colchicine intoxication are gastrointestinal disturbances, such as abdominal cramps, diarrhea, pancytopenia and so on. Herein, we report a female FMF patient with pancytopenia and hemophagocytic lymphohitiocytosis (HLH, following colchicine intoxication for committing suicide. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with HLH associated with colchicine intoxication.

  5. [Acute alcohol intoxication among children and adolescents admitted to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice during 2000-2010--preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Halla; Agnieszka, Zachurzok-Buczyńska; Gawlik, Aneta; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The alcohol drinking at the young age is a risk factor of alcohol addiction later in life, and is connected with school problems, binge drinking, tobacco addiction, illegal drug use, violence, crime commitment, and risky sexual behaviors. Alcohol drinking in the last 12 months is declared by 78% Polish children. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of admissions due to alcohol intoxication to the Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Pediatric Center of Silesia and the identification of the risk factors of the acute alcohol intoxication among Polish children and adolescents. Ten-year retrospective study includes investigation of patients medical records from the Department of Pediatrics. Among 8048 patients hospitalized in the Department of Pediatrics between the years 2000-2010, 220 (2.7%) cases of acute alcohol poisoning occurred The detailed data analysis from 139 patients [66 (47.5%) girls, 73 (52,5%) boys] was done. In the years 2006-2010 the number of girls admitted to the department increased in comparison to boys. The largest group of patients was at age between 14 and 16 years [61 (44%) children]. The blood alcohol concentration at the moment of admission to the hospital was 0.1 to 4.0 per thousand. In most cases (92.8%) the alcohol intoxication was intentional. Five percent of them were suicide attempts. In the youngest group of children alcohol abuse was unintentional. 23 (16.5%) of patients initially needed admission to the intensive care unit. In 30 (21.6%) patient the family was incomplete and five times more often father was absent. The alcohol addiction occurs in 18 (13.0%) fathers and 10 (7.2%) mothers of our patients. It is concluded that over the last decade the number of girls admitted due to alcohol abuse increased. Children at school grade between 7-9 are intoxicated most often. One six of intoxicated patents needed hospitalization at intensive care unit.

  6. Increased susceptibility of transgenic mice expressing human PrP to experimental sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy is not due to increased agent titre in sheep brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plinston, Chris; Hart, Patricia; Hunter, Nora; Manson, Jean C; Barron, Rona M

    2014-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy agent. It is hypothesized that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE that has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.

  7. 3-MeO-PCP intoxication in two young men: First in vivo detection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, Elisabetta; Pascali, Jennifer; Palumbo, Diego; Catalani, Valeria; Di Milia, Maria Grazia; Fioravanti, Alessia; Mari, Francesco; Vaiano, Fabio

    2017-05-01

    3-MeO-PCP or 3-methoxyphencyclidine is a derivative of phencyclidine. It acts as a dissociative anesthetic and it has allegedly hallucinogenic and sedative effects. There are almost no documented intoxication cases and references about its pharmacology and toxicity in literature. This study presents two concomitant intoxication cases due to consumption of 3-MeO-PCP and alcohol. A 19 (A) and a 21 years old (B) men were brought to Santa Maria Nuova Hospital in a comatose state (Glasgow score 3). They showed respiratory acidosis, right anisocoria with mydriatic pupils and hypothermia. Toxicological screening was negative. They were intubated for 7-8h. Almost 24h after hospitalization they were still in a delirious and agitated status. The subjects declared a high alcohol consumption and ingestion of unknown pills. Blood and urine were collected upon their arrival to the Emergency Department and sent to our Forensic Toxicology Division. Blood alcohol content was 2.0g/L for subject A and 1,7g/L for subject B. The specimens were analyzed by means of GC-MS, revealing the presence of 3-MeO-PCP. A confirmation and quantification was carried out by means of a new and fully validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for new psychoactive substances (NPS) detection. The analysis was performed adding acetonitrile to the samples, the supernatant was dried and reconstituted with methanol. Mephedrone-D3 was used as internal standard. Acquisition was performed through multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) dynamic mode. The MRM transitions used for quantification of 3-MeO-PCP were: m/z 274→86, 121. 3-MeO-PCP was quantified in all the biological samples at the following concentrations: 350.0 (blood) and 6109.2 (urine) ng/mL for A; 180.1 (blood) and 3003.6 (urine) ng/mL for B. Taking into account the analytical results, we can suppose that the manifested symptoms were due to the consumption of 3-MeO-PCP in synergy with alcohol. Our report is the first

  8. Enhancing Brain Pregnenolone May Protect Cannabis Intoxication but Should Not Be Considered as an Anti-addiction Therapeutic: Hypothesizing Dopaminergic Blockade and Promoting Anti- Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Blum

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many US states now embrace the medical and recreational use of Cannabis. Changes in the laws have heightened interest and encouraged research into both cannabinoid products and the potential harms of Cannabis use, addiction, and intoxication. Some research into those harms will be reviewed here and misgivings about the use of Pregnenolone, to treat cannabis addiction and intoxication explained. Pregnenolone considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones, has recently been shown to protect the brain from Cannabis intoxication. The major active ingredient of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC enhances Pregnenolone synthesis in the brain via stimulation of the type-1 cannabinoid (CB1 receptor. This steroid has been shown to inhibit the activity of the CB1 receptor thereby reducing many of the effects of THC. While this mechanism seems correct, in our opinion, Vallee et al., incorrectly suggest that blocking CB1 receptors could open unforeseen approaches to the treatment of cannabis intoxication and addiction. In this hypothesis, we caution the scientific community that, other CB1 receptor blockers, such as, Rimonabant (SR141718 have been pulled off the market in Europe. In addition, CB1 receptor blockers were rejected by the FDA due to mood changes including suicide ideation. Blocking CB1 receptors would result in reduced neuronal release of Dopamine by disinhibition of GABA signaling. Longterm blockade of cannabinoid receptors could occur with raising Pregnenolone brain levels, may induce a hypodopaminergic state, and lead to aberrant substance and nonsubstance (behavioral addictions.

  9. The Defense of Involuntary Intoxication by Prescribed Medications: An Appellate Case Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Jennifer

    2015-09-01

    The defense of involuntary intoxication has long been an exception to the general notion that intoxication is not a defense to criminal liability. The consumption of medications prescribed by a physician can form the basis of an involuntary-intoxication defense. In this article, I review cases where defendants relied on the use of prescribed medications for an involuntary-intoxication defense. The medications most frequently implicated by defendants are listed by name and by class. From the case law, I provide a summary of the defense and a review of the pitfalls of the defense to serve as practice pointers for forensic evaluators.

  10. Intoxication by the chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus): nervous system and skeletal findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, D F; Streifler, M

    1983-01-01

    Two hundred patients with chronic neurolathyrism were examined 25-35 years after the appearance of signs and symptoms of intoxication of the chickling pea. Their daily food intake, in a German forced labor camp during World War II, consisted of 400 g Lathyrus sativus peas cooked in water plus 200 g bread baked of barley and straw. Apart from the classic signs of neurolathyrism, i.e., a spastic paraparesis, in five cases, the skeletal findings observed were similar to experimental osteolathyrism. There was an absence of ossification centers of the iliac creasts, ischial tuberosities and vertebrae; and bowing with thickening of the femoral shaft also occurred. These bony changes in human lathyrism have not been described before.

  11. Self-induced drug intoxication in baclofen: of the calm hypotonic coma in the status epilepticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thill, Chloé; Di Constanzo, Laurence; Pessey, François; Aries, Philippe; Montelescaut, Étienne; Sapin, Jeanne; Vaillant, Catherine; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Baclofen is an agonist of peripheral and central B gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, whose activation causes a myorelaxation and a powerfull depression of the central nervous system. Moreover, it has an action against addiction, in reducing craving. Commercialized since 1975 in France, to control muscle spasticity due to medullar affection or multiple sclerosis, it receives a temporary recommendation of use in march 2014, as a last-line adjuvant treatment in alcohol withdrawal. Beyond its therapeutic use, baclofen is involved in many self-induced intoxications. We report the case of a patient who develops, after a massive ingestion of baclofen (supposed dose ingested: 1 200 mg), a hypotonic and calm coma, requiring her admission in our intensive care unit, and then a status epilepticus.

  12. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  13. Treatment of Amanita phalloides intoxication by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergis, Dominik; Friedrich-Rust, Mireen; Zeuzem, Stefan; Betz, Cristoph; Sarrazin, Christoph; Bojunga, Joerg

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness and safety of extracorporeal detoxification using the fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus® 4008H, Fresenius Medical Care, Germany) in patients suffering from acute liver failure due to intoxication with Amanita phalloides (AP) toxin. The study population consisted of 20 patients with proven AP intoxication (FPSA treatment group n=9, control group n=11). Urinary amanitin toxin concentration was measured by the Amanitin ELISA Kit (Bühlmann Laboratories, Germany, cut off level 1.5 ng/ml). All patients received standard medical treatment with activated charcoal, i.v. crystalloid fluids, silibinine and N-acetylcysteine. Additionally 9 patients underwent treatment with FPSA until undetectable amanitin levels. Mean urinary amanitin levels were significantly reduced by FPSA with 42.5 +/- 21.9 ng/ml before and 1.2 +/- 0.31 ng/ml after treatment (p=0.04). No hemodynamic, respiratory or hematological complications were observed. None of the patients had to undergo liver transplantation. All patients in the treatment group survived and were discharged fully recovered. One patient in the control group died due to shock and lactic acidosis; one patient remained dialysis dependent. Mean duration of hospital stay was 7.1 days in the treatment group and 11.7 days in the control group (p=0.30). Use of liver support therapy by fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (Prometheus®) offers a safe way for elimination of Amanita toxin with the potential to avoid the need for liver transplantation.

  14. Emergence in China of human disease due to avian influenza A(H10N8)--cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin K W; Tsang, Alan K L; Chan, Jasper F W; Cheng, Vincent C C; Chen, Honglin; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-03-01

    In December 2013, China reported the first human case of avian influenza A(H10N8). A 73-year-old female with chronic diseases who had visited a live poultry market succumbed with community-acquired pneumonia. While human infections with avian influenza viruses are usually associated with subtypes prevalent in poultries, A(H10N8) isolates were mostly found in migratory birds and only recently in poultries. Although not possible to predict whether this single intrusion by A(H10N8) is an accident or the start of another epidemic like the preceding A(H7N9) and A(H5N1), several features suggest that A(H10N8) is a potential threat to humans. Recombinant H10 could attach to human respiratory epithelium, and A(H10N4) virus could cause severe infections in minks and chickens. A(H10N8) viruses contain genetic markers for mammalian adaptation and virulence in the haemagglutinin (A135T, S138A[H3 numbering]), M1(N30D, T215A), NS1(P42S) and PB2(E627K) protein. Studies on this human A(H10N8) isolate will reveal its adaptability to humans. Clinicians should alert the laboratory to test for A(H5,6,7,9,10) viruses in patients with epidemiological exposure in endemic geographical areas especially when human influenza A(H1,3) and B are negative. Vigilant virological and serological surveillance for A(H10N8) in human, poultry and wild bird is important for following the trajectory of this emerging influenza virus.

  15. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett eWagner Mackenzie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation, with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  16. [Anaphylactic shock due to recombinant human insulin: follow-up of a desensitization protocol by basophil activation test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyasu, S; Hougardy, N; Hasdenteufel, F; Jacquenet, S; Weber, E; Moneret-Vautrin, A; Kanny, G

    2011-01-01

    Despite the occurrence of a severe allergic reaction including an anaphylactic shock, a drug may remain essential and impossible to replace. This may be the case of insulin in a diabetic patient. We describe the case of an anaphylactic shock to human insulin in whom a desensitization protocol was successfully achieved. A 50-year-old type 2 diabetic man presented one year after initiation of the insulin therapy an anaphylactic shock following the subcutaneous administration of a human insulin containing protamine (Insulatard®). A desensitization protocol to human insulin was performed and allowed to use two human insulin analogues containing no protamine (asparte and glargine), with a two-year event-free follow-up. Positive skin tests with insulin and protamine, and the presence of insulin specific IgE were evidenced of an IgE-mediated mechanism. Desensitization was monitored by skin tests, Maunsell's test, measurement of specific IgE and IgG4, and the basophil activation test. The decrease of basophil sensitivity to insulin is an early marker for tolerance induction. The effectiveness of the desensitization to human insulin underlines the importance to define the modalities of such desensitization protocol and of the monitoring of the tolerance induction. Copyright © 2010 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin FAYYAZI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Fayyazi A, Khajeh A, Bagheri M, Ahmadi S. Acute Hydrocephaly Following Methadone Intoxication in a Child. Iranian Journal of ChildNeurology 2012;6(1:35-38.Infantile methadone intoxication has been on the rise since the usage of methadone in opioid detoxification programs. We report a 30-month-old child with encephalopathy and acute hydrocephaly following methadone intoxication. References:1. Nazari H. Clinical approach to methadone toxication.Quarterly journal of Addiction 2007;2:18-20.2. Plummer JL, Gourlay GK, Cherry DA, Cousins MJ.Estimation of methadone clearance: application in themanagement of cancer pain. Pain 1988 Jun;33(3:313-22.3. Davies D, DeVlaming D, Haines C. Methadoneanalgesia for children with advanced cancer. PediatrBlood Cancer 2008 Sep;51(3:393-7.4. Riascos R, Kumfa P, Rojas R, Cuellar H, Descartes F.Fatal methadone intoxication in a child. Emerg Radiol2008 Jan;15(1:67-70.5. Binchy JM, Molyneux EM, Manning J. Accidental ingestion of methadone by children in Merseyside.BMJ 1994 May 21;308(6940:1335-6.6. Li L, Levine B, Smialek JE. Fatal methadone poisoningin children: Maryland 1992-1996. Subst Use Misuse2000 Aug;35(9:1141-8.7. Milroy CM, Forrest AR. Methadone deaths: atoxicological analysis. J Clin Pathol 2000 Apr;53(4:277-81.8. Afzali S, Jafari MR. One year study of chest X-raychanges in opiate-poisoned patients in Hamadan. JQom Uni Med Sci 2010; 4(2:3-7.9. Zamani N, Sanaei-Zadeh H, Mostafazadeh B. Hallmarksof opium poisoning in infants and toddlers. Trop Doct2010 Oct; 40(4:220-2.10. Besharat S, Besharat M, Akhavan Masouleh A, JabbariA, Yazdi HR. Opium intoxication in children under 5years old, Golestan- Iran (2006-07. J Gorgan Uni MedSci Spring 2010;12(1:85-9.11. Izadi Mood N, Gheshlaghi F, Sharafi SE. Fatalpoisoning cases admitted to the emergency departmentof poisoning, Noor Hospital, Isfahan. J Legal Med IslRep Iran 2003;9(31:122-26.12. Boushehri B, Yekta Z, Zareei-Kheirabad A, Kabiri SH

  18. Krüppeling erythropoiesis: an unexpected broad spectrum of human red blood cell disorders due to KLF1 variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Andrew; Xu, Xiangmin; Higgs, Douglas R; Patrinos, George P; Arnaud, Lionel; Bieker, James J; Philipsen, Sjaak

    2016-04-14

    Until recently our approach to analyzing human genetic diseases has been to accurately phenotype patients and sequence the genes known to be associated with those phenotypes; for example, in thalassemia, the globin loci are analyzed. Sequencing has become increasingly accessible, and thus a larger panel of genes can be analyzed and whole exome and/or whole genome sequencing can be used when no variants are found in the candidate genes. By using such approaches in patients with unexplained anemias, we have discovered that a broad range of hitherto unrelated human red cell disorders are caused by variants in KLF1, a master regulator of erythropoiesis, which were previously considered to be extremely rare causes of human genetic disease.

  19. Detection of orchitis and sacroiliitis due to brucellosis by 99mTc polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanali, Ayten; Uslu, Hatice; Bayraktar, Rezan; Varoglu, Erhan

    2012-07-01

    Here, we report 1 case of Brucella orchitis detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy and confirmed by testicular ultrasound. A 29-year-old farmer was admitted to our hospital with fever, fatigue, arthralgia, and painful scrotal swelling that had appeared 12 days before admission. Clinically, right sacroiliitis was recorded through the Fabere test Unilateral sacroiliitis and orchitis were detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy. Hypoechoic left testicular lesions and swelling of the concurrent epididymis were seen on a testicular ultrasound examination. Wright agglutination test and blood specimen culture for Brucella species were positive.

  20. Hypothermia and undressing associated with non-fatal bromazepam intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, K; Romain, N; Giroud, C; Brandt, C; Mangin, P

    2001-12-27

    A 42-year-old woman with a history of depression was found unconscious, lying near her car in an early autumn morning. The lower part of her body was undressed and there were multiple purple spots and excoriations on the body suggesting at first a sexual assault. On admission to the intensive care unit, she presented a hypothermia with a central temperature of 28.4 degrees C. The biological samples obtained at the hospital were analysed. Blood concentration of bromazepam was 7.7 mg/l, which is above the highest level reported till now in a case of fatal intoxication.

  1. Cytogenetic investigations on leucocytes of cattle intoxicated with fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.; Deknudt, G.; Decat, G.; Leonard, E.D.

    1977-04-01

    The sources of atmospheric fluoride include the burning of soft coal and the manufacturing of aluminium, steel, lead, copper, nickel, phosphate fertilizers, brick and pottery kilns. Cattle which grazed in the vicinity of a plant manufacturing enamel and which displayed signs of chronic fluoride poisoning such as osteosclerosis and mottled enamel or dental fluorosis were investigated for the presence of structural chromatid and chromosome aberrations. Venous blood was incubated for 48 h, and 100 cells were analyzed for each animal. No statistical difference in the incidence of such anomalies was observed between the controls and the intoxicated animals.

  2. Prophylaxis and Treatment of Cyanide Intoxication. Cyanide - Mechanism of Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-15

    AD-A142 380 PROPHYLAXIS AND TREATMENT OF CYANIDE INTOXICATION I/f CYANIDE - MECHANISM OF PROPHYLAXISU) WASHINGTON STATE UNIV PULLMAN d L WAY 15 APR...invaluable contributions to completion of this work. My thanks to fellow students Linda Baker, for helping write a computer program which provided...8217 COMPILED BY KORIAT, LICHTENSTEIN, AND FISCHHOFF(1980) 25 ’PROGRAM DEVELOPED BY 26 ’JOHN R. TIFFANY AND LINDA S. BAKER 27 30 LI$:’A’:L2$:’A’:L3$:’B’:L4$:’B

  3. EyePhy: Detecting Dependencies in Cyber-Physical System Apps due to Human-in-the-Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirajum Munir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As app based paradigms are becoming popular, millions of apps are developed from many domains including energy, health, security, and entertainment. The US FDA expects that there will be 500 million smart phone users downloading healthcare related apps by 2015. Many of these apps are Cyber-Physical System (CPS apps. In addition to sensing, communication, and computation, they perform interventions to control human physiological parameters, which can cause dependency problems as multiple interventions of multiple apps can increase or decrease each others effects, some of which can be harmful to the user. Such dependency problems occur mainly because each app is unaware about how other apps work and when an app performs an intervention to control its target parameters, it may affect other physiological parameters without even knowing it. We present EyePhy, a system that detects dependencies across interventions by having a closer eye on the physiological parameters of the human in the loop. To do that, EyePhy uses a physiological simulator HumMod that can model the complex interactions of the human physiology using over 7800 variables. EyePhy reduces app developers’ efforts in specifying dependency metadata compared to state of the art solutions and offers personalized dependency analysis for the user. We demonstrate the magnitude of dependencies that arise during multiple interventions in a human body and the significant ability of detecting these dependencies using EyePhy.

  4. Krüppeling erythropoiesis: An unexpected broad spectrum of human red blood cell disorders due to KLF1 variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Perkins (Andrew); X. Xu (Xiangmin); D. Higgs (Doug); G.P. Patrinos (George P.); L. Arnaud (Lionel); J.J. Bieker (James J.); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractUntil recently our approach to analyzing human genetic diseases has been to accurately phenotype patients and sequence the genes known to be associated with those phenotypes; for example, in thalassemia, the globin loci are analyzed. Sequencing has become increasingly accessible, and thu

  5. Iron intoxication in a dog consequent to the ingestion of oxygen absorber sachets in pet treat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutlag, A G; Flint, C T C; Puschner, B

    2012-03-01

    Oxygen absorbers are commonly used in packages of dried or dehydrated foods (e.g., beef jerky, dried fruit) to prolong shelf life and protect food from discoloration and decomposition. They usually contain reduced iron as the active ingredient although this is rarely stated on the external packaging. Although reduced iron typically has minimal oral bioavailability, such products are potential sources of iron poisoning in companion animals and children. We present a case of canine ingestion of an oxygen absorber from a bag of dog treats that resulted in iron intoxication necessitating chelation therapy. A 7-month-old female Jack Russell terrier presented for evaluation of vomiting and melena 8-12 h after ingesting 1-2 oxygen absorber sachets from a package of dog treats. Serum iron concentration and ALT were elevated. The dog was treated with deferoxamine and supportive care. Clinical signs resolved 14 h following treatment, but the ALT remained elevated at the 3-month recheck. The ingestion of reduced iron in humans has been reported to cause mild elevation of serum iron concentration with minimal clinical effects. To our knowledge, no cases of iron intoxication following the ingestion of oxygen absorbers have been reported. The lack of ingredient information on the packaging prompted analysis of contents of oxygen absorber sachets. Results indicate the contents contained 50-70% total iron. This case demonstrates that iron intoxication can occur following the ingestion of such products. Human and veterinary medical personnel need to be aware of this effect and monitor serum iron concentrations as chelation may be necessary.

  6. Bacterial Intoxication Evokes Cellular Senescence with Persistent DNA Damage and Cytokine Signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blazkova, Hana; Krejcikova, Katerina; Moudry, Pavel;

    2009-01-01

    to such intoxication are mechanistically incompletely understood. Here we show that both normal and cancer cells (BJ, IMR-90 and WI-38 fibroblasts, HeLa and U2-OS cell lines) that survive the acute phase of intoxication by Haemophilus ducreyi CDT possess the hallmarks of cellular senescence. This characteristic...

  7. 32 CFR 636.5 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 636.5 Section 636.5 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... INSTALLATIONS) Fort Stewart, Georgia § 636.5 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. For...

  8. 32 CFR 634.12 - Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. 634.12 Section 634.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... § 634.12 Army administrative actions against intoxicated drivers. Army commanders will take...

  9. Evaluation of Available Treatment Guidelines for the Management of Lithium Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilting, Ingeborg; Egberts, Antoine C. G.; Heerdink, Eibert R.; Ververs, Tessa F. T.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Nolen, Willem A.

    Intoxications with lithium carry considerable risk for long-term morbidity and even mortality. Consequently, any patient suspected of lithium intoxication requires immediate and appropriate care. The objectives of this study were to assess the completeness and the applicability of generally

  10. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy may overcome nitric oxide blockage during cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polzik, Peter; Hansen, Marco Bo; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis on hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy during cyanide (CN) intoxication. METHODS: 39 anesthetized female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CN intoxication (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially) with or without previous nitric oxide...

  11. Regulatory Self-Efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglietti, Emanuela; Burk, William J.; Giletta, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) ranging in age of 14 to 20 years (M = 16.1 years of…

  12. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males)

  13. Acute Alcohol Intoxication in Patients with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Characteristics, Recovery and Outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheenen, Myrthe; de Koning, Myrthe; van der Horn, Harm; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the incidence of acute alcohol intoxication (AAI) at the time of sustaining mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), describe the characteristics of this intoxicated subgroup, and evaluate recovery and outcome in comparison to sober mTBI patients. Methods. Multicenter cohort st

  14. Successful treatment of polydipsia, water intoxication, and delusional jealousy in an alcohol dependent patient with clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margetić, Branimir; Aukst-Margetić, Branka; Zarković-Palijan, Tija

    2006-09-30

    The beneficial effect of clozapine on polydipsia and water intoxication in patients with schizophrenia has been demonstrated many times. The authors report a successful clozapine treatment of polydipsia, intermittent water intoxication, and delusional jealousy of an alcoholic. This is a rare case of clozapine treatment of a non-schizophrenic patient affected by polydipsia.

  15. Regulatory Self-efficacy as a Moderator of Peer Socialization Relating to Italian Adolescents' Alcohol Intoxication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaglietti, E.; Burk, W.J.; Giletta, M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated regulatory self-efficacy (RSE) as a predictor of friendship and adolescent alcohol intoxication and as a moderator of peer socialization processes related to alcohol intoxication. The longitudinal sample included 457 Italian adolescents (262 females and 195 males) rang

  16. Cholinesterase-inhibiting and genotoxic effects of acute carbofuran intoxication in man: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeljezic, Davor; Vrdoljak, Ana Lucic; Kopjar, Nevenka; Radic, Bozica; Milkovic Kraus, Sanja

    2008-10-01

    Carbofuran belongs to the group of N-methylcarbamate insecticides used for the control of soil-dwelling and foliar-feeding insects in various crops; its consumption totals approximately 20,000 tonnes per year. Although the neurological effects on human beings have been well documented, little is known on its impact on the genome. A 38-year-old, healthy male worker employed in a carbofuran production facility accidentally inhaled the dust of the active ingredient carbofuran. Thirty minutes later, he experienced weakness, fatigue, perspiration, breathing difficulties, cephalalgia, disorientation, abdominal pain and vomiting. Blood samples were taken to measure cholinesterase activity, and to perform the alkaline comet assay and micronucleus assay combined with pancentromeric probes. Analyses were repeated 72 hr after intoxication and compared with the results obtained from regular monitoring conducted 10 days prior to the accident. Cholinesterase activity showed the highest correlation with the number of apoptotic cells, comet assay tail length, and number of long-tailed nuclei, suggesting that these are the genomic end-points primarily affected by carbofuran intake. Only a weak correlation was detected for the total number of micronuclei, centromere-containing micronuclei and nuclear buds. Since those end-points increased significantly 72 hr after the accident, they could be considered as late biomarkers of the effects of carbofuran intoxication. The results of this report suggest that, in the interests of higher standards in risk assessment and health hazard protection, periodical medical examination of carbamate-exposed populations should include genotoxicity testing in addition to the assessment of cholinesterase activity.

  17. Lead Intoxication Synergies of the Ethanol-Induced Toxic Responses in Neuronal Cells--PC12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Tripathi, V K; Jahan, S; Agrawal, M; Pandey, A; Khanna, V K; Pant, A B

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb)-induced neurodegeneration and its link with widespread neurobehavioral changes are well documented. Experimental evidences suggest that ethanol could enhance the absorption of metals in the body, and alcohol consumption may increase the susceptibility to metal intoxication in the brain. However, the underlying mechanism of ethanol action in affecting metal toxicity in brain cells is poorly understood. Thus, an attempt was made to investigate the modulatory effect of ethanol on Pb intoxication in PC12 cells, a rat pheochromocytoma. Cells were co-exposed to biological safe doses of Pb (10 μM) and ethanol (200 mM), and data were compared to the response of cells which received independent exposure to these chemicals at similar doses. Ethanol (200 mM) exposure significantly aggravated the Pb-induced alterations in the end points associated with oxidative stress and apoptosis. The finding confirms the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential, which subsequently facilitate the translocation of triggering proteins between cytoplasm and mitochondria. We further confirmed the apoptotic changes due to induction of mitochondria-mediated caspase cascade. These cellular changes were found to recover significantly, if the cells are exposed to N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a known antioxidant. Our data suggest that ethanol may potentiate Pb-induced cellular damage in brain cells, but such damaging effects could be recovered by inhibition of ROS generation. These results open up further possibilities for the design of new therapeutics based on antioxidants to prevent neurodegeneration and associated health problems.

  18. Viable Ednra (Y129F) mice feature human mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA) syndrome due to the homologue mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrautzki, Sibylle; Sandholzer, Michael A; Lorenz-Depiereux, Bettina; Brommage, Robert; Przemeck, Gerhard; Vargas Panesso, Ingrid L; Vernaleken, Alexandra; Garrett, Lillian; Baron, Katharina; Yildirim, Ali O; Rozman, Jan; Rathkolb, Birgit; Gau, Christine; Hans, Wolfgang; Hoelter, Sabine M; Marschall, Susan; Stoeger, Claudia; Becker, Lore; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Klingenspor, Martin; Klopstock, Thomas; Lengger, Christoph; Stefanie, Leuchtenberger; Wolf, Eckhard; Strom, Tim M; Wurst, Wolfgang; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě

    2016-12-01

    Animal models resembling human mutations are valuable tools to research the features of complex human craniofacial syndromes. This is the first report on a viable dominant mouse model carrying a non-synonymous sequence variation within the endothelin receptor type A gene (Ednra c.386A>T, p.Tyr129Phe) derived by an ENU mutagenesis program. The identical amino acid substitution was reported recently as disease causing in three individuals with the mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA, OMIM 616367) syndrome. We performed standardized phenotyping of wild-type, heterozygous, and homozygous Ednra (Y129F) mice within the German Mouse Clinic. Mutant mice mimic the craniofacial phenotypes of jaw dysplasia, micrognathia, dysplastic temporomandibular joints, auricular dysmorphism, and missing of the squamosal zygomatic process as described for MFDA-affected individuals. As observed in MFDA-affected individuals, mutant Ednra (Y129F) mice exhibit hearing impairment in line with strong abnormalities of the ossicles and further, reduction of some lung volumetric parameters. In general, heterozygous and homozygous mice demonstrated inter-individual diversity of expression of the craniofacial phenotypes as observed in MFDA patients but without showing any cleft palates, eyelid defects, or alopecia. Mutant Ednra (Y129F) mice represent a valuable viable model for complex human syndromes of the first and second pharyngeal arches and for further studies and analysis of impaired endothelin 1 (EDN1)-endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) signaling. Above all, Ednra (Y129F) mice model the recently published human MFDA syndrome and may be helpful for further disease understanding and development of therapeutic interventions.

  19. Site controlled transgenic mice validating increased expression from human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) promoter due to a naturally occurring SNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Charles I; Fiering, Steven; Gaudet, Justin; Wyatt, Colby A; Brinckerhoff, Constance E

    2009-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) comprise a family of more than 20 members, each with the ability to degrade components of the extracellular matrix. The interstitial collagenases have the unique capacity to degrade the stromal collagens, types I, II and III, the body's most abundant proteins. These collagenases include MMP-1, MMP-8, MMP-13 and MMP-14. MMP-1, with a very broad expression pattern, has major roles in mediating matrix destruction in many diseases. We have described a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MMP-1 promoter that augments transcription. This SNP is the presence or absence of an extra guanine (G) at -1607 bp, which creates the sequence 5'-GGAA-3'(2G allele), and which is an ETS binding site. Compared to the 1G allele (5'-GAA-3'), the 2G SNP is associated with enhanced transcription of MMP-1 and increased enzymatic activity. Although murine systems are often used to model human diseases, mice have only distant homologues of human MMP-1. Therefore, we used a technique for the targeted insertion of a single copy of a gene at the HPRT locus to compare expression of the 1G and 2G alleles. We generated transgenic mice with -4372 bp of the human MMP-1 promoter containing either the 1G or 2G SNP in front of the lac Z (E.coli ss-galactosidase) gene. We measured the relative expression of the transgenes in vitro in embryonic stem (ES) cells and in fibroblasts derived from embryonic mice. Our data show modest constitutive expression of ss-galactosidase mRNA and protein from these alleles, with the 2G allele more transcriptionally active than the 1G allele. We conclude that these mice represent a model for integration of a single copy of the human MMP-1 promoter into the murine genome, and could be used to study MMP-1 gene expression in a murine system.

  20. Changes in anxiety and cognition due to reproductive experience: a review of data from rodent and human mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, Abbe H; Luine, Victoria N

    2010-03-01

    Rodent research suggests that pregnancy, motherhood and attendant offspring care affect changes in neural function and behaviors that are not directly maternal in nature, but involve cognition, affect, and responses to stress. Thus, female rats having had one pregnancy and bout of rearing (primiparous), or multiple pregnancies and bouts of rearing (multiparous), generally show greater resilience to stress, decreased anxiety, and better memory abilities than female rats that have never experienced motherhood (virgin or nulliparous). Moreover, some studies show that these neural changes remain long after the last pregnancy, persisting even into old age. In the current review, we will begin by discussing these behavioral and neural changes in rodents and provide some information concerning their possible mechanisms. Then we will review data from studies examining anxiety and cognition in postpartum human mothers. While this data is less conclusive than that from non-human animals, it appears that reproductive experience may confer some beneficial changes to human mothers in terms of lowering the anxiety/stress response and enhancing certain aspects of memory.

  1. Particle Deposition in Human Lungs due to Varying Cross-Sectional Ellipticity of Left and Right Main Bronchi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Steven; Oakes, Jessica; Shadden, Shawn

    2015-11-01

    Particle deposition in the human lungs can occur with every breathe. Airbourne particles can range from toxic constituents (e.g. tobacco smoke and air pollution) to aerosolized particles designed for drug treatment (e.g. insulin to treat diabetes). The effect of various realistic airway geometries on complex flow structures, and thus particle deposition sites, has yet to be extensively investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this work, we created an image-based geometric airway model of the human lung and performed CFD simulations by employing multi-domain methods. Following the flow simulations, Lagrangian particle tracking was used to study the effect of cross-sectional shape on deposition sites in the conducting airways. From a single human lung model, the cross-sectional ellipticity (the ratio of major and minor diameters) of the left and right main bronchi was varied systematically from 2:1 to 1:1. The influence of the airway ellipticity on the surrounding flow field and particle deposition was determined.

  2. Effects of mixing alcohol with caffeinated beverages on subjective intoxication: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, S.; Verster, J. C.; Alford, C.; Scholey, A.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter\\ud the awareness of (or ‘mask’) intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have\\ud serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous activities while\\ud intoxicated. A literature search was conducted to collect all studies measuring subjective intoxication\\ud after administration of alcohol with energy drinks, or with other caffein...

  3. Human Exposure Risk Assessment Due to Heavy Metals in Groundwater by Pollution Index and Multivariate Statistical Methods: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrimurugan Elumalai

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in surface and groundwater were analysed and their sources were identified using multivariate statistical tools for two towns in South Africa. Human exposure risk through the drinking water pathway was also assessed. Electrical conductivity values showed that groundwater is desirable to permissible for drinking except for six locations. Concentration of aluminium, lead and nickel were above the permissible limit for drinking at all locations. Boron, cadmium, iron and manganese exceeded the limit at few locations. Heavy metal pollution index based on ten heavy metals indicated that 85% of the area had good quality water, but 15% was unsuitable. Human exposure dose through the drinking water pathway indicated no risk due to boron, nickel and zinc, moderate risk due to cadmium and lithium and high risk due to silver, copper, manganese and lead. Hazard quotients were high in all sampling locations for humans of all age groups, indicating that groundwater is unsuitable for drinking purposes. Highly polluted areas were located near the coast, close to industrial operations and at a landfill site representing human-induced pollution. Factor analysis identified the four major pollution sources as: (1 industries; (2 mining and related activities; (3 mixed sources- geogenic and anthropogenic and (4 fertilizer application.

  4. Is pornography consumption associated with condom use and intoxication during hookups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Scott R; Givens, Anneli; Brown, Jacob; Fincham, Frank

    2015-01-01

    In order to examine whether pornography consumption is associated with risky sexual behaviour among emerging adults, we examined two large samples of those who reported hooking up in the past 12 months (combined n =  1216). Pornography use was associated with a higher likelihood of having a penetrative hookup; a higher incidence of intoxication during hookups for men (but a lower incidence of intoxication during hookups for women); increasing levels of intoxication during hookups for men but decreasing levels of intoxication for women; and a higher likelihood of being in the riskiest category of having a penetrative hookup, without a condom, while intoxicated. For each of these outcomes, our point estimates for Study 2 fell within the 95% confidence intervals from Study 1. Controlling for trait self-control, binge drinking frequency, broader problematic patterns of alcohol use, openness to experience, and attitudes toward casual sex did not change the pattern of results. Implications for interventions to reduce sexual risk are discussed.

  5. [Severe hydrogen sulfide intoxication: a pediatric case of survival].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudet, I; Marcoux, M-O; Karsenty, C; Rittié, J-L; Honorat, R; Lelong-Tissier, M-C

    2012-03-01

    We report a paediatric case of survival following severe hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas intoxication. A 13-year-old boy was found submerged to the neck in a manure tank. He was hypothermic, unresponsive with bilateral mydriasis, and had poor oxygen saturation. After intubation, he was transferred to the paediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. He developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring high frequency percussive ventilation. Cardiac evaluation was significant for myocardial infarction and left ventricular function impairment. He completely recovered from the respiratory and cardiac failure. Neurological examinations showed abnormal signals on MRI in the semi-oval center and in the frontal cortex. Follow-up detected partial impairment of axonal fibers of the right external popliteal sciatic nerve. Paediatric cases of survival after H2S intoxication have been rarely reported. Such exposures can evolve to severe ARDS and benefit from high frequency percussive ventilation. Hypothermia and other metabolic abnormalities are now better explained thanks to actual knowledge about endogenous H2S function. Lessons learned from paediatric accidents should result in better information about this threat for farmers and families living in houses with septic tanks, reducing the risk to their own and their children's safety.

  6. AMPA receptor potentiation can prevent ethanol-induced intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas; Messenger, Marcus J; O'Neill, Michael J; Oldershaw, Anna; Gilmour, Gary; Simmons, Rosa M A; Iyengar, Smriti; Libri, Vincenzo; Tricklebank, Mark; Williams, Steve C R

    2008-06-01

    We present a substantial series of behavioral and imaging experiments, which demonstrate, for the first time, that increasing AMPA receptor-mediated neurotransmission via administration of potent and selective biarylsulfonamide AMPA potentiators LY404187 and LY451395 reverses the central effects of an acutely intoxicating dose of ethanol in the rat. Using pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI), we observed that LY404187 attenuated ethanol-induced reductions in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) in the anesthetized rat brain. A similar attenuation was apparent when measuring local cerebral glucose utilization (LCGU) via C14-2-deoxyglucose autoradiography in freely moving conscious rats. Both LY404187 and LY451395 significantly and dose-dependently reversed ethanol-induced deficits in both motor coordination and disruptions in an operant task where animals were trained to press a lever for food reward. Both prophylactic and acute intervention treatment with LY404187 reversed ethanol-induced deficits in motor coordination. Given that LY451395 and related AMPA receptor potentiators/ampakines are tolerated in both healthy volunteers and elderly patients, these data suggest that such compounds may form a potential management strategy for acute alcohol intoxication.

  7. DO SOBER EYEWITNESSES OUTPERFORM ALCOHOL INTOXICATED EYEWITNESSES IN A LINEUP?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fahlke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although alcohol intoxicated eyewitnesses are common, there are only a few studies in the area. The aim of the current study is to investigate how different doses of alcohol affect eyewitness lineup identification performance. The participants (N = 123 were randomly assigned to a 3 [Beverage: control (0.0 g/kg ethanol vs. lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol vs. higher alcohol dose (0.7 g/kg ethanol] X 2 (Lineup: target-present vs. target-absent between-subject design. Participants consumed two glasses of beverage at an even pace for 15 minutes. Five minutes after consumption the participants witnessed a film depicting a staged kidnapping. Seven days later, the participants returned to the laboratory and were asked to identify the culprit in a simultaneous lineup. The result showed that overall, the participants performed better than chance; however, their lineup performance was poor. There were no significant effects of alcohol intoxication with respect to performance, neither in target-present nor target-absent lineups. The study’s results suggest that eyewitnesses who have consumed a lower (0.4 g/kg ethanol or a higher (0.7 g/kg ethanol dose of alcohol perform at the same level as sober eyewitnesses in a lineup. The results are discussed in relation to the alcohol myopia theory and suggestions for future research are made.

  8. Intoxicated workers: findings from a national Australian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidd, Ken; Roche, Ann M; Buisman-Pijlman, Femke

    2011-09-01

    To identify prevalence of alcohol and drug use and intoxication at work. A total of 9,828 Australian workers ≥14 years old. Australia 2007. Work-place alcohol use and drug use, intoxication at work, industry and occupation of employment. Secondary analysis of a large nationally representative survey involving descriptive and weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Differential patterns were identified by drug type, worker characteristics and occupational setting, controlling for demographic variables. Nearly 9% of workers surveyed (8.7%) usually drank alcohol at work and 0.9% usually used drugs at work. Attending work under the influence of alcohol was more prevalent (5.6%) than attending work under the influence of drugs (2.0%), and significantly more likely among young, male, never married workers with no dependent children. Hospitality industry workers were 3.5 times more likely than other workers to drink alcohol and two to three times more likely to use drugs at work or attend work under the influence of alcohol or drugs. Other high-risk industries and occupations included construction, financial services, tradespersons and unskilled workers. More than one in 20 Australian workers admit to having worked under the influence of alcohol and almost one in 50 report attending work under the influence of psychoactive drugs. The rates are higher for some industries, such as the hospitality industry, than others. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. [Minoxidil intoxication, the pharmacological agent of a hair lotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Escoda, S; Patteau, G; Merckx, A; Chéron, G

    2011-12-01

    Accidental intoxications in children are frequent but most of them are without serious consequences. We describe herein the case of a young girl who drank 100 mg of a topical hair lotion with minoxidil. On arrival, she had no symptoms except flush on the face and ears. Four and half hours after ingestion, tachycardia appeared with a pulse above 170 beats per min with hypotension at 76/24 mmHg. The heart rate remained between 170 and 190 beats per min for 12 h and then lowered to between 140 and 160 beats per min. Thirty-six hours after ingestion, the heart beat was at 140 beats per min. Minoxidil is a strong vasodilator used first in the 1970s for severe hypertension. It produces hypotension by direct arteriolar vasodilatation. Only a few cases of minoxidil intoxication have been described in the literature, including only one pediatric case. This young boy had only tachycardia of 160 beats per min for 40 h. Most serious cases have been described in adults. They suffered long-lasting tachycardia, hypotension, and ECG changes. Most patients need a bolus of normal saline fluid and some with hemodynamic problems need vasoactive drugs such as dopamine and/or phenylephrine. All patients need to be under medical supervision for a long time because of the product's very long action. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Intoxications with the monoamine oxidase inhibitor tranylcypromine: an analysis of fatal and non-fatal events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, Maximilian; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Kölle, Markus A; Freudenmann, Roland W

    2013-11-01

    Tranylcypromine (TCP) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor and an effective agent in the treatment of major depression. It features a complex pharmacologic profile and overdoses might induce severe intoxications. To identify typical clinical presentations of TCP-intoxications, range of associated TCP-dosages and possible differences between fatal and non-fatal intoxications a systematic review of all previously published cases of TCP-intoxications was conducted. We detected n=20 reports of TCP-intoxications in the literature (fatalities n=10). Mean age was 36.7 years (median 37); the majority of patients were female (60%). Frequent findings in patients with TCP-intoxications were disturbance of consciousness/cognitive dysfunction (90%), cardio-vascular symptoms (55%), hyperthermia (50%), respiratory distress (45%), delirium (45%), muscular rigidity (30%) and renal failure (20%). Suicidal intent was present in n=18 (90%) patients. First clinical symptoms related to TCP-intoxication developed on average in less than 1 day. The average dosage related to TCP-intoxication was 677 mg. The highest survived TCP-dosage was 4000 mg and the lowest fatal dosage was 170 mg. Patients with fatal intoxications were on average older (40.5 vs. 32.8 years) and developed a more rapid onset of symptoms (0.2 vs. 0.8 days). Death occurred after a mean time of 0.6 days; symptom relief in patients with non-fatal intoxications developed on average after 3.2 days. Considering the large dose spectrum between survived and lethal TCP-dosages individual susceptibility factors might play a role regarding the severity of clinical symptoms independently of the ingested dosage.

  11. Water Scarcity Hotspots Travel Downstream Due to Human Interventions in the 20th and 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Doell, P.; Gosling, S. N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971 - 2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8%(7.4 - 16.5 %) ) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3 % (6.4 -15.8 %). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream. Attribution of water scarcity changes to HI components is complex and varies among the hydrological models. Seasonal variation in impacts and dominant HI components is also substantial. A thorough consideration of the spatially and temporally varying interactions among HI components and of uncertainties is therefore crucial for the success of water scarcity adaptation by HI.

  12. Humans lack iGb3 due to the absence of functional iGb3-synthase: implications for NKT cell development and transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Christiansen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The glycosphingolipid isoglobotrihexosylceramide, or isogloboside 3 (iGb3, is believed to be critical for natural killer T (NKT cell development and self-recognition in mice and humans. Furthermore, iGb3 may represent an important obstacle in xenotransplantation, in which this lipid represents the only other form of the major xenoepitope Galalpha(1,3Gal. The role of iGb3 in NKT cell development is controversial, particularly with one study that suggested that NKT cell development is normal in mice that were rendered deficient for the enzyme iGb3 synthase (iGb3S. We demonstrate that spliced iGb3S mRNA was not detected after extensive analysis of human tissues, and furthermore, the iGb3S gene contains several mutations that render this product nonfunctional. We directly tested the potential functional activity of human iGb3S by expressing chimeric molecules containing the catalytic domain of human iGb3S. These hybrid molecules were unable to synthesize iGb3, due to at least one amino acid substitution. We also demonstrate that purified normal human anti-Gal immunoglobulin G can bind iGb3 lipid and mediate complement lysis of transfected human cells expressing iGb3. Collectively, our data suggest that iGb3S is not expressed in humans, and even if it were expressed, this enzyme would be inactive. Consequently, iGb3 is unlikely to represent a primary natural ligand for NKT cells in humans. Furthermore, the absence of iGb3 in humans implies that it is another source of foreign Galalpha(1,3Gal xenoantigen, with obvious significance in the field of xenotransplantation.

  13. Epidemiological investigation of the first human brucellosis case in Spain due to Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compés Dea, Cecilia; Guimbao Bescós, Joaquín; Alonso Pérez de Ágreda, Juan Pablo; Muñoz Álvaro, Pilar María; Blasco Martínez, José María; Villuendas Usón, María Cruz

    2017-03-01

    No cases of human brucellosis caused by Brucella suis has been reported in Spain. This study involved interviews with the case and his co-workers, inspection of their workplace, checking infection control measures, and typing the Brucella strain isolated in the blood culture. Brucella suis biovar 1 strain 1330 was isolated from a patient who worked in a waste treatment plant. Food borne transmission, contact with animals, and risk jobs were ruled out. An accidental inoculation with a contaminated needle from a research laboratory waste container was identified as the most probable mode of transmission. There should be controls to ensure that waste containers are sealed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Human health and pollution due to solid waste incinetators (SWI: a selection of two recent well conducted studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Gennaro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Incinerators reduce the volume of visible waste, turning it into ashes and smoke which can cause local and global environmental pollution due to particulate matter (PM, dioxins, furans, hydrochloric acid, hydrocarbons, heavy metals, sulfur and nitrogen dioxides. In order to describe cancers and non-neoplastic diseases in populations exposed to incinerator pollution, the scientific literature available since 1987 has been selected on the basis of the best epidemiological evidences. In Italy, women who lived for at least 5 years in areas that were likely to be the most polluted by heavy metals, showed increased risk of death from all causes (relative risk, RR=1.17-1.54. In France, an incidence study found increases in all cancer risks both in males (RR=1.06 who resided in areas where dioxin pollution was estimated to be higher than it was in the referent areas (less dioxin polluted.

  15. Mutism and auditory agnosia due to bilateral insular damage--role of the insula in human communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M; Daquin, G; Milandre, L; Royere, M L; Rey, M; Lanteri, A; Salamon, G; Khalil, R

    1995-03-01

    We report a case of transient mutism and persistent auditory agnosia due to two successive ischemic infarcts mainly involving the insular cortex on both hemispheres. During the 'mutic' period, which lasted about 1 month, the patient did not respond to any auditory stimuli and made no effort to communicate. On follow-up examinations, language competences had re-appeared almost intact, but a massive auditory agnosia for non-verbal sounds was observed. From close inspection of lesion site, as determined with brain resonance imaging, and from a study of auditory evoked potentials, it is concluded that bilateral insular damage was crucial to both expressive and receptive components of the syndrome. The role of the insula in verbal and non-verbal communication is discussed in the light of anatomical descriptions of the pattern of connectivity of the insular cortex.

  16. A (p)ppGpp-null mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi is partially attenuated in humans due to multiple conflicting phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Concerta; Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Li, Wei; Fortney, Kate R; Janowicz, Diane M; Ellinger, Sheila; Zwickl, Beth; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2014-08-01

    (p)ppGpp responds to nutrient limitation through a global change in gene regulation patterns to increase survival. The stringent response has been implicated in the virulence of several pathogenic bacterial species. Haemophilus ducreyi, the causative agent of chancroid, has homologs of both relA and spoT, which primarily synthesize and hydrolyze (p)ppGpp in Escherichia coli. We constructed relA and relA spoT deletion mutants to assess the contribution of (p)ppGpp to H. ducreyi pathogenesis. Both the relA single mutant and the relA spoT double mutant failed to synthesize (p)ppGpp, suggesting that relA is the primary synthetase of (p)ppGpp in H. ducreyi. Compared to the parent strain, the double mutant was partially attenuated for pustule formation in human volunteers. The double mutant had several phenotypes that favored attenuation, including increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. The increased sensitivity to oxidative stress could be complemented in trans. However, the double mutant also exhibited phenotypes that favored virulence. When grown to the mid-log phase, the double mutant was significantly more resistant than its parent to being taken up by human macrophages and exhibited increased transcription of lspB, which is involved in resistance to phagocytosis. Additionally, compared to the parent, the double mutant also exhibited prolonged survival in the stationary phase. In E. coli, overexpression of DksA compensates for the loss of (p)ppGpp; the H. ducreyi double mutant expressed higher transcript levels of dksA than the parent strain. These data suggest that the partial attenuation of the double mutant is likely the net result of multiple conflicting phenotypes.

  17. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ping Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic arsenic (As exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ and target cancer risk (TR established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  18. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seong-Rin; Schoenung, Julie M

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  19. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan’s Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process. PMID:28098817

  20. Human health and ecological toxicity potentials due to heavy metal content in waste electronic devices with flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Seong-Rin [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Schoenung, Julie M., E-mail: jmschoenung@ucdavis.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of California, 2017 Kemper Hall, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Display devices such as cathode-ray tube (CRT) televisions and computer monitors are known to contain toxic substances and have consequently been banned from disposal in landfills in the State of California and elsewhere. New types of flat panel display (FPD) devices, millions of which are now purchased each year, also contain toxic substances, but have not previously been systematically studied and compared to assess the potential impact that could result from their ultimate disposal. In the current work, the focus is on the evaluation of end-of-life toxicity potential from the heavy metal content in select FPD devices with the intent to inform material selection and design-for-environment (DfE) decisions. Specifically, the metals antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc in plasma TVs, LCD (liquid crystal display) TVs, LCD computer monitors and laptop computers are considered. The human health and ecotoxicity potentials are evaluated through a life cycle assessment perspective by combining data on the respective heavy metal contents, the characterization factors in the U.S. EPA Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI), and a pathway and impact model. Principal contributors to the toxicity potentials are lead, arsenic, copper, and mercury. Although the heavy metal content in newer flat panel display devices creates less human health toxicity potential than that in CRTs, for ecological toxicity, the new devices are worse, especially because of the mercury in LCD TVs and the copper in plasma TVs.

  1. Spatial Analysis of Human Health Risk Due to Arsenic Exposure through Drinking Groundwater in Taiwan's Pingtung Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Chien, Yi-Chi; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2017-01-14

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure continues to be a public health problem of major concern worldwide, affecting hundreds of millions of people. A long-term groundwater quality survey has revealed that 20% of the groundwater in southern Taiwan's Pingtung Plain is clearly contaminated with a measured As concentration in excess of the maximum level of 10 µg/L recommended by the World Health Organization. The situation is further complicated by the fact that more than half of the inhabitants in this area continue to use groundwater for drinking. Efforts to assess the health risk associated with the ingestion of As from the contaminated drinking water are required in order to determine the priorities for health risk management. The conventional approach to conducting a human health risk assessment may be insufficient for this purpose, so this study adopts a geostatistical Kriging method to perform a spatial analysis of the health risk associated with ingesting As through drinking groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The health risk is assessed based on the hazard quotient (HQ) and target cancer risk (TR) established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The results show that most areas where the HQ exceeds 1 are in the southwestern part of the study area. In addition, the high-population density townships of Daliao, Linyuan, Donggang, Linbian, Jiadong, and Fangliao presently have exceedingly high TR values that are two orders of magnitude higher than the acceptable standard. Thus, the use of groundwater for drinking in these townships should be strictly avoided. A map that delineates areas with high TR values and high population densities is provided. The findings broaden the scope of the spatial analysis of human health risk and provide a basis for improving the decision-making process.

  2. Fish Product-Borne Histamine Intoxication Outbreak and Survey of Imported Fish and Fish Products in Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovic, Jelena; Babić, Jelena; Jaksic, Sandra; Kartalovic, Brankica; Ljubojevic, Dragana; Cirkovic, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Histamine levels in fish and fish products are regarded as a primary criterion for food safety, considering the effects of histamine on human health. The aim of this research was to describe a case of massive histamine intoxication in Serbian children and to provide relevant information regarding the presence of histamine in imported marine fish and fish products available in the Serbian market. In January 2014, an incident of foodborne illness occurred in 28 children (aged 2 to 5 years) who consumed canned sardines in a kindergarten in Vojvodina province, northern Serbia. The diagnosis was established based on anamnestic data, epidemiological data, and clinical symptoms and confirmed by positive histamine finding in the incriminated sardines. Substantially high histamine levels (>300 mg/kg) were detected in seven of the nine examined units of these canned sardines. In addition, during an official veterinary border control from January 2013 to January 2015, 273 lots in total, including 2,457 fish and fishery product units, were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Even though only nine (3.29%) of all examined lots were declared as unsafe for human consumption, the presented case of histamine intoxication strongly suggests the importance of border inspection and comprehensive control of each imported lot.

  3. 企业并购中的人力资源尽职调查研究%The Study of Enterprise Merger's Human Resources Due Diligence Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚鹏; 吴元民

    2011-01-01

    随着经济全球化的到来,企业间的并购愈加频繁,通过人力资源尽职调查,可以大大提高企业成功并购的概率。本文首先分析了人力资源尽职调查的内涵及主要形式,接着分别从企业文化、人事基础信息、培训与发展、薪酬与福利、员工劳动关系管理等方面分析其主要内容,最后总结出人力资源尽职调查的必要性。%As the advent of economic globalization,more and more mergers and acquisitions occurred among enterprises,It can greatly enhance the probability of business successfully merger through human resource due diligence. Firstly this article analyzes the meaning of human resources due dilligenee and its main methods, and then, analyzes the main content from corporate culture, personnel basic information, training and development, compensation and benefits, employee labor relations management separately. Finally, this article eoncluds the necessity of human resource due diligence.

  4. Treatment of Metformin Intoxication Complicated by Lactic Acidosis and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Prolonged Intermittent Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regolisti, Giuseppe; Antoniotti, Riccardo; Fani, Filippo; Greco, Paolo; Fiaccadori, Enrico

    2017-02-17

    Metformin intoxication with lactic acidosis, a potentially lethal condition, may develop in diabetic patients when the drug dose is inappropriate and/or its clearance is reduced. Diagnosis and therapy may be delayed due to nonspecific symptoms at presentation, with severe anion gap metabolic acidosis and elevated serum creatinine values being the most prominent laboratory findings. Confirmation requires measurement of serum metformin by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, but this technique is available only at specialized institutions and cannot be relied on as a guide to immediate treatment. Thus, based on strong clinical suspicion, renal replacement therapy must be started promptly to achieve efficient drug clearance and correct the metabolic acidosis. However, because metformin accumulates in the intracellular compartment with prolonged treatment, a rebound in serum concentrations due to redistribution is expected at the end of dialysis. We report a case of metformin intoxication, severe lactic acidosis, and acute kidney injury in a diabetic patient with pre-existing chronic kidney disease stage 3, treated effectively with sustained low-efficiency dialysis. We discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options and highlight specific pharmacokinetic issues that should be considered in selecting the appropriate modality of renal replacement therapy.

  5. Systemic and extraintestinal forms of human infection due to non-typhoid salmonellae in Bulgaria, 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseva, G; Petrov, P; Ivanova, K; Kantardjiev, T

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to review the clinical cases diagnosed as systemic or extraintestinal salmonellosis between 2005 and 2010 in Bulgaria, to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the causative salmonellae, and to analyze the pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles of extraintestinal Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Culture, biochemical tests, and serotyping were performed. Resistance to 12 antimicrobial agents was studied with the Bauer-Kirby disk diffusion method. The double-disk synergy method was used for the screening of the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs). PFGE typing and analysis of the dendrogram was performed for the comparative investigation of Salmonella Corvallis isolates. Between 2005 and 2010, 2,227 human non-typhoid Salmonella isolates were investigated at the National Reference Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens, Sofia, Bulgaria. Thirty-three strains (1.48 %) from nine national regions were isolated from patients with systemic and extraintestinal forms of salmonellosis. The serotype distribution was as follows: S. enteritidis (n = 21), S. choleraesuis (diphasic n = 3; monophasic n = 3), S. typhimurium (n = 2), Salmonella Corvallis (n = 2), Salmonella Montevideo (n = 1), and S. javiana (n = 1). Eight patients developed severe forms of infections: sepsis (n = 2), septic shock (n = 1 with fatal outcome), meningitis (n = 3), and acute renal failure (n = 2). Twenty-two percent of isolates were resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin, 17.64 % to tetracycline, 14.28 % to nalidixic acid, and 10 % to chloramphenicol. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. One Salmonella Corvallis isolate recovered from a patient with chronic hemolytic anemia produced an ESBL and its PFGE profile demonstrated less than 96 % similarity to fecal and wound Salmonella Corvallis with susceptible phenotypes. S. enteritidis was the most common cause of systemic and

  6. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  7. Deaths during general anesthesia: technology-related, due to human error, or unavoidable? An ECRI technology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    More than 2,000 healthy Americans die each year during general anesthesia, and at least half of these deaths may be preventable. Anesthetists and equipment manufacturers have made considerable progress in improving anesthesia safety. However, much more needs to be done, especially in "human-factors" areas such as improved training, consistent use of preanesthesia checklists, and anesthetists' willingness to enhance their vigilance by using appropriate monitoring equipment. While defective equipment and supplies are the direct cause of relatively few deaths, inexpensive oxygen analyzers and disconnect alarms could, if available in more ORs, warn anesthetists in time to convert many deaths to near misses. Some anesthetists are using other monitoring technologies that are more costly, but can detect a wider range of problems. The anesthesia community could expand its anesthesia-safety leadership and guidance, by improving technology-related training and by developing practice standards for anesthetists and safety standards for equipment. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals could impose specific safety requirements on hospitals; malpractice insurance carriers could require anesthetists and hospitals to use monitors and alarms during all procedures; and the Food and Drug Administration could actively stimulate and oversee these efforts and perhaps provide seed money for some of them. The necessary equipment costs would likely be offset by long-term savings in malpractice premiums, as anesthesia incidents are the most costly of all types of malpractice claims. Concerted efforts such as these could greatly reduce the number of avoidable anesthesia-related deaths.

  8. Automatic shape recognition of human limbs to avoid errors due to skin marker shifting in motion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatze, Herbert; Baca, Arnold

    1991-12-01

    A new method in human motion analysis is presented for overcoming the problem of the shifting of skin-mounted position markers relative to the skeleton. The present version of the method is based on two-dimensional video processing and involves the recording of subjects wearing special clothing. The clothing is designed in such a way as to permit the unambiguous spatial shape recognition of each of the 17 body segments by means of an edge detection algorithm. The latter and the algorithms for the computation of segment translation and rotation constitute improved versions of previously used algorithms, especially with respect to the execution times of the respective computer program on ordinary PCs. From the recognized shapes, the translation and rotation of each segment relative to its initial configuration is computed by using positional information from the previous frames. For the first frame to be analyzed, a starting algorithm has to be applied. Finally, the configurational coordinates of the body model are calculated from the respective spatial linear and angular positions.

  9. Net loss of CaCO3 from coral reef communities due to human induced seawater acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, A.J.; Kuffner, I.B.; MacKenzie, F.T.; Jokiel, P.L.; Rodgers, K.S.; Tan, A.

    2009-01-01

    Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns regarding its adverse effects on corals and calcifying communities. Here we demonstrate a net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) material as a result of decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3) incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC=CaCO3 production – dissolution) was positive at 3.3 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.04 mmol CaCO3 m−2h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century. Nevertheless, individual corals remained healthy, actively calcified (albeit slower than at present rates), and deposited significant amounts of CaCO3 under the prevailing experimental seawater conditions of elevated pCO2.

  10. Net loss of CaCO3 from coral reef communities due to human induced seawater acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Rodgers

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Acidification of seawater owing to oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO2 originating from human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and land-use changes has raised serious concerns for its adverse effects on corals, coral reefs and carbonate communities in general. Here we demonstrate a transition from net accumulation towards net loss of calcium carbonate (CaCO3 material owing to decreased calcification and increased carbonate dissolution from replicated subtropical coral reef communities (n=3 incubated in continuous-flow mesocosms subject to present and future seawater conditions. The calcifying community was dominated by the coral Montipora capitata. Daily average community calcification or Net Ecosystem Calcification (NEC = CaCO3 production – dissolution was positive at 4.5 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under ambient seawater pCO2 conditions as opposed to negative at −0.1 mmol CaCO3 m−2 h−1 under seawater conditions of double the ambient pCO2. These experimental results provide support for the conclusion that some net calcifying communities could become subject to net dissolution in response to anthropogenic ocean acidification within this century.

  11. Air pollution episodes in Stockholm regional background air due to sources in Europe and their effects on human population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, C. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Inst., Norrkoping (Sweden)], E-mail: camilla.andersson@smhi.se; Joensson, O. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Applied Environmental Science; Forsberg, B. [Umea Univ. (Sweden), Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Johansson, C. [Environmental and Health Administration, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-09-01

    Using air quality measurements, we categorized air pollution according to source sectors in a rural background environment in southern Sweden based on hourly air-mass backward trajectories during 1997-2010. Concentrations of fine (PM{sub 2.5}) and sum of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}), accumulation mode particle number, black carbon and surface ozone were 4.0, 3.9, 4.5, 6.8 and 1.3 times higher, respectively, in air masses from the southeast as compared with those in air masses from the cleanest sector in the northwest, consistent with air-mass transport over areas with relatively high emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors. The highest ultrafine particle numbers were associated with clean air from the northwest. We estimate that almost 7.8% and 0.6% higher premature human mortality is caused by PM{sub 2.5} and ozone exposure, respectively, when air originates from the southeast as compared with that when air originates from the northwest. Reductions of emissions in eastern Europe would reduce the highest air pollution concentrations and associated health risks. However, since air masses from the southwest are more frequent, emissions in the western part of Europe are more important for annual mean premature mortality. (orig.)

  12. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Sydney Correia; Araújo, José Fernandes de; Silveira, Alessandro Rodrigues; Queiroz, Alex André Ferreira; Souto, Maria Júlia Silveira; Almeida, Rodrigo Oliveira; Maciel, Diego Carvalho; Rodrigues, Tânia Maria de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE) between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. seventy patients (average age: 25 ± 19.97) formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total). Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p = 0.0006), nausea (p = 0. 0029) and emesis (p exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  13. The MitCHAP-60 disease is due to entropic destabilization of the human mitochondrial Hsp60 oligomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnas, Avital; Nadler, Michal; Nisemblat, Shahar; Horovitz, Amnon; Mandel, Hanna; Azem, Abdussalam

    2009-10-01

    The 60-kDa heat shock protein (mHsp60) is a vital cellular complex that mediates the folding of many of the mitochondrial proteins. Its function is executed in cooperation with the co-chaperonin, mHsp10, and requires ATP. Recently, the discovery of a new mHsp60-associated neurodegenerative disorder, MitCHAP-60 disease, has been reported. The disease is caused by a point mutation at position 3 (D3G) of the mature mitochondrial Hsp60 protein, which renders it unable to complement the deletion of the homologous bacterial protein in Escherichia coli (Magen, D., Georgopoulos, C., Bross, P., Ang, D., Segev, Y., Goldsher, D., Nemirovski, A., Shahar, E., Ravid, S., Luder, A., Heno, B., Gershoni-Baruch, R., Skorecki, K., and Mandel, H. (2008) Am. J. Hum. Genet. 83, 30-42). The molecular basis of the MitCHAP-60 disease is still unknown. In this study, we present an in vitro structural and functional analysis of the purified wild-type human mHsp60 and the MitCHAP-60 mutant. We show that the D3G mutation leads to destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer and causes its disassembly at low protein concentrations. We also show that the mutant protein has impaired protein folding and ATPase activities. An additional mutant that lacks the first three amino acids (N-del), including Asp-3, is similarly impaired in refolding activity. Surprisingly, however, this mutant exhibits profound stabilization of its oligomeric structure. These results suggest that the D3G mutation leads to entropic destabilization of the mHsp60 oligomer, which severely impairs its chaperone function, thereby causing the disease.

  14. Intoxication of nontarget wildlife with rodenticides in northwestern Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Mark G; Poppenga, Robert H; Bryan, John A; Bain, Matt; Pitman, Jim; Keel, M Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The perception of prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) both as a nuisance species and a keystone species presents a significant challenge to land, livestock, and wildlife managers. Anticoagulant and nonanticoagulant rodenticides are commonly employed to control prairie dog populations throughout their range. Chlorophacinone, and to a lesser extent zinc phosphide, are widely used in northwestern Kansas for controlling black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) populations. Although zinc phosphide poisoning of gallinaceous birds is not uncommon, there are few published accounts of nontarget chlorophacinone poisoning of wildlife. We report three mortality events involving nontarget rodenticide poisoning in several species, including wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), a raccoon (Procyon lotor), and an American badger (Taxidea taxus). This includes the first documentation of chlorophacinone intoxication in wild turkeys and an American badger in the literature. The extent of nontarget poisoning in this area is currently unknown and warrants further investigation.

  15. Zinc phosphide intoxication of wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppenga, Robert H; Ziegler, Andre F; Habecker, Perry L; Singletary, Don L; Walter, Mark K; Miller, Paul G

    2005-01-01

    Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a rodenticide used to control a variety of small mammal species. It is available over-the-counter or as a restricted-use pesticide depending on how it is to be applied. The toxicity of Zn3P2 is dependent on the species exposed, whether the animal is able to vomit or not, and whether it is ingested on a full or empty stomach. Nontarget species can be exposed through inadvertent or intentional product misapplication. In this article we describe four mortality events in which wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were believed to have been intoxicated following the ingestion of baits containing Zn3P2.

  16. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  17. [Aspects of psychotherapy in diabetes mellitus with accompanying alcoholic intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, P I; Novikova, I A; Solov'ev, A G

    2001-01-01

    120 patients with different types of diabetes mellitus were divided into groups by the presence and intensity of accompanying alcoholic intoxication: group 1--no alcohol intake; group 2--rare alcohol intake; group 3--moderate alcohol intake; group 4--alcoholic abuse. Experimental psychological methods were used together with psychotherapeutic approaches: Wiesbaden's questionnaire (WIPPF), Lusher's and MMPI tests. For each group of the patients some recommendations are given for application of the above techniques. Thus in patients from the 1-3 groups it is worthwhile to perform a positive psychotherapy directed to the development of the body/sensation sphere (according to WIPPF), that is a care about physical and mental state (including autotraining and training of communication). In the alcohol abusing patients the main point should be fantasy/future sphere (according to WIPPF) in the ranges of the same positive psychotherapy directed to forming positive world view and correction of the interpersonal relations.

  18. Hydrotelluric fluorotic intoxication in North Yemen. First results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claudon, M.; Viallard, Y.; Elmerich, A.

    The X Ray Department of the French medical mission of Taez receives patients coming from the whole Arab Yemen Republic (country situated in the south of the arab peninsula). Radiology has been a mean of detection and a mean of research of an important centre of osteofluorosis, a disease which had not been studied in this country until then. 47 cases have been collected throughout one year. The hydrotelluric origin of the intoxication has been proved by dosages of the spring waters used for drinking. The main usual clinical and radiological features of the disease are found in that population. The radiological classification proposed by ROHOLM has few clinical correlative interests, but seems available for epidemiological investigation. A first map of the North Yemen for chronic fluorisis has been drawn.

  19. [Chronic thallium intoxication in five German pointers of one litter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassner, G; Tholen, V; Ternes, W

    2000-01-01

    The difficulty of diagnosis and therapy of chronic thallium intoxication is described in five German Pointers with the same skin disease. The detection of thallium in cases of skin lesions like the cutaneous erythema with oedema and crusts or in chronic cases with multifocal alopecia is difficult. The first diagnostic information was gathered in this case from the high thallium level in the urine. The thallium concentration in the hair is subject to great variations, even in physiologic conditions. The trichogramme showed in this case pathognomonic changes like adhesion of the hair follicles. Differential diagnosis for this symmetric alopezia without pruritus are hormonal disturbances or, in puppies, the generalized form of demodicosis. The five affected dogs were treated with Fe III-Hexacyanoferrat. The clinical appearance of the skin improved slowly during a period of 1-2 months.

  20. ApproachtoAcuteIronIntoxication: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ülkü Özgül

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In adults, the main causes of iron poisoning are intake suicide attempts and an overdose of iron during pregnancy. The severity of intoxication depends on the amount of iron. When serum iron level exceeds the iron binding capacity of the body, free radicals occurs, leading to lipid peroxidation and cellular membrane damage. In iron poisoning, especially the liver, heart, kidney, lung, and hematologic systems are affected negatively. Acute iron poisoning can cause serious complications resulting in death. Clinical, laboratory observation and early treatment are important. In this case report, we examined to approach the acute iron poisoning with the occasion of high-dose iron intake for suicide attempt. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9: 107-9ntakeforsuicideattempt. (Journal of theTurkishSocietyIntensiveCare 2011; 9: 107-9

  1. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid......In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... or tetrathiomolybdate may be more suitable alternatives today. In copper-toxicity, a free radical scavenger might be recommended as adjuvant to the chelator therapy...

  2. [Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of infants admitted to hospital due to human parechovirus infections: A prospective study in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Del Valle, Fernando; Calvo, Cristina; Martinez-Rienda, Inés; Cilla, Amaia; Romero, María P; Menasalvas, Ana Isabel; Reis-Iglesias, Leticia; Roda, Diana; Pena, María J; Rabella, Nuria; Portugués de la Red, María Del Mar; Megías, Gregoria; Moreno-Docón, Antonio; Otero, Almudena; Cabrerizo, María

    2017-03-29

    Human parechovirus (HPeV) is one of the recently described picornaviridae viruses that have been associated with fever of unknown origin (FUO), clinical sepsis, gastroenteritis, meningitis, or encephalitis in very young infants. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and clinical features of these viruses. A prospective multicentre 3-year study was conducted in 12 hospitals in Spain. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%), with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae. Out of 850 specimens examined, 47 were positive (5.52%) for HPeV, with HPeV-3 being the most frequent (29 cases). Infections occurred throughout the year, but mainly in May and July, and a biennial distribution was observed. More than half (57%) were neonates, and only 2 children were older than 3 months. Fever was present in all children, with irritability in 45%, rash in 18.6%, and diarrhoea in 14%. The results of biochemical tests were all in normal range. The most common final diagnosis was FUO (61%), followed by clinical sepsis (29%). Up to 29% of infants were admitted to the intensive care unit, but only one patient had sequelae CONCLUSIONS: HPeV circulates in our country, mainly during spring and summer, and affects young infants with a FUO and clinical sepsis. Molecular diagnostic techniques in all hospitals could help in improving the management of patients with these infections. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Clinical response to glycyrrhizinic acid in genital infection due to human papillomavirus and low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelino Hernandez Valencia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Human papilloma virus (HPV can infect any of the mucosal areas of the body and cause cervical cancer. Until recently, no specific treatments were available for this condition; therefore, any damaged tissue had to be removed or destroyed, which may have presented obstetrical repercussions for some women. Recently, new drugs have been developed that have shown to be effective for the cure of HPV infection. Glycyrrhizinic acid (GA has shown fewer side effects and its systemic use makes it possible to reach difficultto- treat lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of GA to eliminate the epithelial lesion and HPV. We carried out a longitudinal, descriptive study that included women of reproductive age who were diagnosed with HPV associated with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL. Subjects began treatment based on GA using two routes of administration - systemic (oral and topical (spray - with assessments every month to determine the clinical changes of the lesions through colposcopy and Papanicolaou (Pap smear. Simple statistics were used along with two-tailed Student’s t-test; P<0.05 was considered statistically significant before and after treatment. There were 70 eligible patients, of whom 62 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Age of subjects was 27.8±9.5 years. At the time of the study, 100% of the patients had HPV infection, 40% were associated with LSIL, and only 16% used a barrier contraceptive (condom method. Resolution was achieved in all patients from 4 weeks of treatment initiation and improvement was achieved in the majority of patients at 12 weeks (74% (P<0.001. However, there was persistence of LSIL in 27.7% of patients and only one patient progressed to cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II. The use of GA proved to be effective in resolving clinical HPV lesions. For cervical lesions with epithelial changes (LSIL, treatment may be required for a longer period as with other drugs used

  4. Peripheral markers of oxidative stress in chronic mercuric chloride intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez L.L.P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the time course changes in peripheral markers of oxidative stress in a chronic HgCl2 intoxication model. Twenty male adult Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously daily for 30 days and divided into two groups of 10 animals each: Hg, which received HgCl2 (0.16 mg kg-1 day-1, and control, receiving the same volume of saline solution. Blood was collected at the first, second and fourth weeks of Hg administration to evaluate lipid peroxidation (LPO, total radical trapping antioxidant potential (TRAP, and superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and catalase (CAT. HgCl2 administration induced a rise (by 26% in LPO compared to control (143 ± 10 cps/mg hemoglobin in the second week and no difference was found at the end of the treatment. At that time, GST and GPx were higher (14 and 24%, respectively in the Hg group, and Cu,Zn-SOD was lower (54% compared to control. At the end of the treatment, Cu,Zn-SOD and CAT were higher (43 and 10%, respectively in the Hg group compared to control (4.6 ± 0.3 U/mg protein; 37 ± 0.9 pmol/mg protein, respectively. TRAP was lower (69% in the first week compared to control (43.8 ± 1.9 mM Trolox. These data provide evidence that HgCl2 administration is accompanied by systemic oxidative damage in the initial phase of the process, which leads to adaptive changes in the antioxidant reserve, thus decreasing the oxidative injury at the end of 30 days of HgCl2 administration. These results suggest that a preventive treatment with antioxidants would help to avoid oxidative damage in subjects with chronic intoxication.

  5. Cestrum diurnum intoxication in normal and hyperparathyroid pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasali, O B; Krook, L; Pond, W G; Wasserman, R H

    1977-04-01

    The effect of ingestion of dried leaves of Cestrum diurnum, a plant shown to contain a 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol-like principle, was tested in normal pigs fed 1.2% calcium and 1.0% phosphorus for 10 weeks from weaning and in hyperparathyroid pigs fed 0.8% calcium and 1.6% phosphorus for the same periods of time. Addition of 3% Cestrum diurnum leaf meal rapidly resulted in decreased feed consumption and weight gain, hypercalcemia and hypophosphatasemia. In normal pigs, plasma calcium rose to 16 mg/100 ml within one week and remained high for the 4 week experimental period. In hyperparathyroid pigs with hypocalcemia, plasma calcium rose to 12.75 mg/100 ml within one week and later approached 15 mg/100 ml. Ingestion of Cestrum diurnum retarded cell differentiation of growth cartilages. Arrested osteocytic osteolysis was observed within one week with osteopetrosis of epiphyses and metaphyses. The negative effect on the resorbing osteocytes then caused osteonecrosis which, in combination with lack of bone formation because of atrophy of osteoblasts, resulted in osteopenia within 4 weeks. Dystrophic calcinosis occurred within 2 weeks and was widespread after 4 weeks in lungs, kidneys, heart and vessels. Atrophy of parathyroid cells was severe after one week. Hyperparathyroid pigs responded with skeletal lesions, dystrophic calcinosis and parathyroid atrophy more rapidly and severely than normal pigs. The biochemical and anatomical changes in Cestrum diurnum ingestion are closely similar to those in vitamin D3 intoxication in pigs. Whereas pigs can tolerate large amounts of vitamin D3 because of feed-back control of 1 alpha-hydroxylation in the kidney, this control point is by-passed in Cestrum diurnum ingestion and intoxication occurs promptly.

  6. Neurocognitive effects of chronic lead intoxication in Andean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counter, S A; Buchanan, L H; Rosas, H D; Ortega, F

    1998-09-18

    Lead (Pb) intoxication in children has been associated with neurodevelopmental disabilities which may result in motor and cognitive impairment. We conducted blood lead (PbB) measurements, neurological examinations and cognitive tests on children living in Ecuadorian villages where Pb is used extensively in the glazing of ceramics. Group I consisted of 55 children with a mean PbB level of 48.0 microg/dl (SD: 26.4, range: 9.2-119.1 microg/dl) who received PbB tests and complete neurological examinations. An appreciable number of the children with elevated PbB levels were normal on specific components of the neurological examination. Among the children who showed neurological deficits, higher PbB levels were associated with abnormal tendon reflexes, finger tapping, visual pursuit, size discrimination, draw-a-person, and math calculation skills. Group II consisted of 41 children with a mean PbB level of 47.4 microg/dl (SD: 22.0, range: 6.6-84.7 microg/dl) who were administered Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) non-verbal reasoning test. Performance on RCPM was abnormal in 22 (53.7%) of 41 children. Children with abnormal RCPM scores had higher PbB levels (t-test: P=0.030). There was a significant inverse correlation between RCPM scores and PbB levels for children ages 9 years and older (r=-0.618, P=0.011). Males had higher mean PbB levels as a function of age than females (t-test: P=0.037), and more males showed neurocognitive deficits. The results demonstrate a range of neurological responses in children with chronically elevated PbB levels from apparent exceptional neuro-physiological tolerance of PbB intoxication, to some fine motor and cognitive deficits.

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Chronic Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durak, A. C.; Coskun, A.; Yikilmaz, A.; Erdogan, F.; Mavili, E.; Guven, M. [Hospital of Erciyes Univ., Kayseri (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: To define the cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of the chronic stage of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in patients with and without neuropsychiatric sequelae. Material and Methods: Eight patients who had neither symptoms nor neurological sequelae and eight patients with neuropsychiatric sequelae were included in the study. Patients aged between 9 to 57 (mean 32.2 years). All patients had been comatose at initial admittance and awoke after normobaric 100% oxygen therapy within 1-7 days. In this study, the patients were being examined with routine cranial MRI between 1 and 10 years (mean 3.4 years) after exposure to CO. Results: The most common finding was bilateral symmetric hyperintensity of the white matter, which was more significant in the centrum semiovale, with relative sparing of the temporal lobes and anterior parts of the frontal lobes on T2-weighted and FLAIR images in all patients. Cerebral cortical atrophy was seen in 10 patients; mild atrophy of cerebellar hemispheres in 8; and vermian atrophy in 11. Corpus callosum was atrophic in one patient. Bilateral globus pallidus lesions were seen in three patients. The lesions were hypointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted and FLAIR images. Conclusion: Patients with severe CO intoxication may develop persistent cerebral changes independently of their neuropsychiatric findings in the chronic stage. They may present with characteristic MRI findings as described here, even if asymptomatic. The history of CO exposure is therefore helpful for recognizing and interpreting the MRI findings of chronic stage CO intoxication.

  8. Identifying Future Drinkers: Behavioral Analysis of Monkeys Initiating Drinking to Intoxication is Predictive of Future Drinking Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erich J; Walter, Nicole A R; Salo, Alex; Rivas Perea, Pablo; Moore, Sharon; Gonzales, Steven; Grant, Kathleen A

    2017-03-01

    The Monkey Alcohol Tissue Research Resource (MATRR) is a repository and analytics platform for detailed data derived from well-documented nonhuman primate (NHP) alcohol self-administration studies. This macaque model has demonstrated categorical drinking norms reflective of human drinking populations, resulting in consumption pattern classifications of very heavy drinking (VHD), heavy drinking (HD), binge drinking (BD), and low drinking (LD) individuals. Here, we expand on previous findings that suggest ethanol drinking patterns during initial drinking to intoxication can reliably predict future drinking category assignment. The classification strategy uses a machine-learning approach to examine an extensive set of daily drinking attributes during 90 sessions of induction across 7 cohorts of 5 to 8 monkeys for a total of 50 animals. A Random Forest classifier is employed to accurately predict categorical drinking after 12 months of self-administration. Predictive outcome accuracy is approximately 78% when classes are aggregated into 2 groups, "LD and BD" and "HD and VHD." A subsequent 2-step classification model distinguishes individual LD and BD categories with 90% accuracy and between HD and VHD categories with 95% accuracy. Average 4-category classification accuracy is 74%, and provides putative distinguishing behavioral characteristics between groupings. We demonstrate that data derived from the induction phase of this ethanol self-administration protocol have significant predictive power for future ethanol consumption patterns. Importantly, numerous predictive factors are longitudinal, measuring the change of drinking patterns through 3 stages of induction. Factors during induction that predict future heavy drinkers include being younger at the time of first intoxication and developing a shorter latency to first ethanol drink. Overall, this analysis identifies predictive characteristics in future very heavy drinkers that optimize intoxication, such as having

  9. Charcoal Hemoperfusion vs. High Efficiency Hemodialysis in Carbamazepine Intoxication: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu KAHVECİ

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazapine is a commonly used antiepileptic agent. Neurological abnormalities which can progress to coma, arrhythmias, respiratory depression and eye abnormalities such as nystagmus are seen in an intoxication setting. There is no specific antidote for the treatment of carbamazepine intoxication and supportive therapy is generally recommended. Carbamazepine is not removed through conventional hemodialysis as it highly bound to proteins. Charcoal hemoperfusion has been reported as the standard effective treatment method. Herein we report a 23-year-old woman with high dose carbamazepine overdose treated with high efficiency hemodialysis and charcoal hemoperfusion. We also discuss a comparison of the methods used for carbamazepine intoxication.

  10. Low levels of human HIP14 are sufficient to rescue neuropathological, behavioural, and enzymatic defects due to loss of murine HIP14 in Hip14-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona B Young

    Full Text Available Huntingtin Interacting Protein 14 (HIP14 is a palmitoyl acyl transferase (PAT that was first identified due to altered interaction with mutant huntingtin, the protein responsible for Huntington Disease (HD. HIP14 palmitoylates a specific set of neuronal substrates critical at the synapse, and downregulation of HIP14 by siRNA in vitro results in increased cell death in neurons. We previously reported that mice lacking murine Hip14 (Hip14-/- share features of HD. In the current study, we have generated human HIP14 BAC transgenic mice and crossed them to the Hip14-/- model in order to confirm that the defects seen in Hip14-/- mice are in fact due to loss of Hip14. In addition, we sought to determine whether human HIP14 can provide functional compensation for loss of murine Hip14. We demonstrate that despite a relative low level of expression, as assessed via Western blot, BAC-derived human HIP14 compensates for deficits in neuropathology, behavior, and PAT enzyme function seen in the Hip14-/- model. Our findings yield important insights into HIP14 function in vivo.

  11. Selenium intoxication with selenite broth resulting in acute renal failure and severe gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamble P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential trace element in human and animal nutrition. It is also widely utilized in industrial processes. Reports of acute selenium toxicity in humans are rare. We report a case of a 23-year-old female who consumed about 100 mL of liquid selenite broth and presented with severe nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hematemesis and acute renal failure (ARF. The serum selenium level was significantly increased. Gastro-duodenoscopy revealed severe corrosive gastritis. Renal biopsy showed features of acute tubular necrosis (ATN, affecting primarily the proximal tubules. The patient was managed with gastric lavage, blood transfusions, infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP and platelet concentrates and hemo-dialysis. The patient was discharged five weeks after admission and her renal functions reco-vered completely by eight weeks after admission. She continues to be on regular follow-up for any possible sequelae of mucosal corrosive damage. This case highlights a case of selenium intoxication from selenite broth resulting in ARF and corrosive gastritis. The recovery was complete.

  12. Human Rights Due Diligence (HRDD and Human Rights Impact Assessment (HRIA Best Practices to Corporate Shared Value (CSV: A Case of British Petroleum Tangguh Project In Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Martha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tangguh Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG Project is a planned natural gas development project located in the remote area of Berau-Bintuni Bay in Papua Province, Indonesia. British Petroleum (BP Tangguh project aims tobe the pioneer in producing natural gas. It can be concluded that BP contributes an innovative approach, bearing in mind to sustainable development, cultural preservation and biodiversity conservation. Therefore, in each of its corporate actions, BP always integrates the value of community, partnership, consultation and corporate responsibility. It is mentioned that through experience and observation, BP as an extractive company, haveestimated the costs of not finding a better mechanism to adjust to social challenges can be higher than the costs of the uncertainties inherent in the trial of new ideas. However, according to international Non-GovernmentalOrganization (NGO, Down to Earth, BP has conducted a series of human rights violations by exploiting natural resources in Papua and restricting Papuans in enjoying their fundamental human rights. If only the BP keeps this Tangguh project in line with its aim to accommodate concerns from the affected surroundings, thus, will surely bring positive changes in BP’s corporate shared value.

  13. Calibration and validation of a physiologically based model for soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaizhen; Seng, Kok-Yong

    2012-09-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model has been developed for low, medium and high levels of soman intoxication in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig and pig. The primary objective of this model was to describe the pharmacokinetics of soman after intravenous, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration in the rat, marmoset, guinea pig, and pig as well as its subsequent pharmacodynamic effects on blood acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels, relating dosimetry to physiological response. The reactions modelled in each physiologically realistic compartment are: (1) partitioning of C(±)P(±) soman from the blood into the tissue; (2) inhibition of AChE and carboxylesterase (CaE) by soman; (3) elimination of soman by enzymatic hydrolysis; (4) de novo synthesis and degradation of AChE and CaE; and (5) aging of AChE-soman and CaE-soman complexes. The model was first calibrated for the rat, then extrapolated for validation in the marmoset, guinea pig and pig. Adequate fits to experimental data on the time course of soman pharmacokinetics and AChE inhibition were achieved in the mammalian models. In conclusion, the present model adequately predicts the dose-response relationship resulting from soman intoxication and can potentially be applied to predict soman pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in other species, including human.

  14. Effect of five acetylcholinesterase reactivators on tabun-intoxicated rats: induction of oxidative stress versus reactivation efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohanka, Miroslav; Karasova, Jana Zdarova; Musilek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Kassa, Jiri

    2009-08-01

    Oxime reactivators HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime, K347 and K628 were investigated as drugs designed for treatment of tabun intoxication. The experiments were performed on rats in order to simulate real conditions. Rats were intoxicated with one LD(50 )of tabun and treated with atropine and mentioned reactivators. Activities of erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE), plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and brain AChE were measured as markers of reactivation efficacy. An estimation of low molecular weight antioxidant levels using cyclic voltammetry was the second examination parameter. The evaluation of cholinesterases activity showed good reactivation potency of blood AChE and plasma BChE by commercially available obidoxime and newly synthesized K347. The potency of oximes to reactivate brain AChE was lower due to the poor blood-brain barrier penetration of used compounds. Commercially available reactivator HI-6 and newly synthesized K628 caused oxidative stress measured by cyclic voltammetry as antioxidant level. The oxidative stress provoked by HI-6 and K628 was found to be significant on probability level P = 0.05. The others reactivators did not affect antioxidant levels.

  15. Antibody/doxycycline combined therapy for pulmonary ricinosis: Attenuation of inflammation improves survival of ricin-intoxicated mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoav Gal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ricin, a highly toxic plant-derived toxin, is considered a potential weapon in biological warfare due to its high availability and ease of preparation. Pulmonary exposure to ricin results in the generation of an acute edematous inflammation followed by respiratory insufficiency and death. Passive immunization with polyclonal anti-ricin antibodies conferred protection against pulmonary ricinosis, however, at clinically-relevant time points for treatment, survival rates were limited. In this study, intranasal instillation of a lethal dose of ricin to mice, served as a lung challenge model for the evaluation and comparison of different therapeutic modalities against pulmonary ricinosis. We show that treatment with doxycycline resulted in a significant reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of oxidative stress and capillary permeability in the lungs of the mice. Moreover, survival rates of mice intoxicated with ricin and treated 24 h later with anti-ricin antibody were significantly improved by co-administration of doxycycline. In contrast, co-administration of the steroid drug dexamethasone with anti-ricin antibodies did not increase survival rates when administered at late hours after intoxication, however dexamethasone did exert a positive effect on survival when applied in conjunction with the doxycycline treatment. These studies strongly suggest that combined therapy, comprised of neutralizing anti-ricin antibodies and an appropriate anti-inflammatory agent, can promote high-level protection against pulmonary ricinosis at clinically-relevant time points post-exposure.

  16. Gene-trap mutagenesis identifies mammalian genes contributing to intoxication by Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Ivie

    Full Text Available The Clostridium perfringens ε-toxin is an extremely potent toxin associated with lethal toxemias in domesticated ruminants and may be toxic to humans. Intoxication results in fluid accumulation in various tissues, most notably in the brain and kidneys. Previous studies suggest that the toxin is a pore-forming toxin, leading to dysregulated ion homeostasis and ultimately cell death. However, mammalian host factors that likely contribute to ε-toxin-induced cytotoxicity are poorly understood. A library of insertional mutant Madin Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells, which are highly susceptible to the lethal affects of ε-toxin, was used to select clones of cells resistant to ε-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. The genes mutated in 9 surviving resistant cell clones were identified. We focused additional experiments on one of the identified genes as a means of validating the experimental approach. Gene expression microarray analysis revealed that one of the identified genes, hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1, KIM-1, TIM1, is more abundantly expressed in human kidney cell lines than it is expressed in human cells known to be resistant to ε-toxin. One human kidney cell line, ACHN, was found to be sensitive to the toxin and expresses a larger isoform of the HAVCR1 protein than the HAVCR1 protein expressed by other, toxin-resistant human kidney cell lines. RNA interference studies in MDCK and in ACHN cells confirmed that HAVCR1 contributes to ε-toxin-induced cytotoxicity. Additionally, ε-toxin was shown to bind to HAVCR1 in vitro. The results of this study indicate that HAVCR1 and the other genes identified through the use of gene-trap mutagenesis and RNA interference strategies represent important targets for investigation of the process by which ε-toxin induces cell death and new targets for potential therapeutic intervention.

  17. Adolescent alcohol intoxication in the dutch hospital departments of pediatrics: A 2-year comparison study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, J.J. van; Lely, N. van der; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Dalen, W.E. van; Pereira, R.R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To monitor the prevalence of, and the circumstances leading to, adolescent alcohol intoxication admissions in Dutch hospital departments of pediatrics. Methods: Data were collected in 2007 and 2008, using the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System, in which pediatricians received questionnaire

  18. Drinking game participation, gender performance and normalization of intoxication among Nigerian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka Dumbili

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: DGs appear to normalize heavy drinking and the culture of intoxication on this campus. Measures to monitor alcohol sales outlets around campuses and interventions that target students' leisure spaces should be developed.

  19. Identify Melatonin as a Novel Therapeutic Reagent in the Treatment of 1-Bromopropane(1-BP) Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Abstract 1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been used as an alternative for fluoride compounds and 1-BP intoxication may involve lung, liver, and central neural system (CNS). Our previous studies showed that 1-BP impaired memory ability by compromising antioxidant cellular defenses. Melatonin is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, and the objective of this study was to explore the therapeutic role of melatonin in the treatment of 1-BP intoxication. Rats were intragastrically treated with 1-BP with or w...

  20. Acute lead intoxication in a female battery worker: Diagnosis and management

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjichristodoulou Christos; Rachiotis George; Dounias George

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a significant occupational and environmental hazard. Battery industry is one of the settings related to lead intoxication. Published information on the use of oral chelating agents for the treatment of anaemia in the context of acute lead intoxication is limited. The patient was a 33 year immigrant female worker in a battery manufacture for 3 months. She complained for malaise that has been developed over the past two weeks. Pallor of skin and conjunctiva was the only sign fo...

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Carbamates as Prophylactic Agents against Organophosphate Intoxication Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chatterjee

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the effects of two well-known carbamates, physostigmine and pyridostigmine against organophosphorous compound and nerve gas toxicity. Physostigmine pretreatment for 30 min enhanced the survival time of rats against DFP intoxication whereas it did not have any effect with sarin poisoning. However, pyridostigmine pretreatment did not produce any significant effect on survival time either against DFP or sarin intoxication. Treatment with atropine along with carbamates further enhanced significantly the survival time against DFP poisoning.

  2. A case of bilateral sudden hearing loss and tinnitus after salicylate intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Min; Jo, Joon-Man; Baek, Moo Jin; Jung, Kyu Hwan

    2013-04-01

    Salicylate, the active ingredient of aspirin can cause sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus when plasma concentrations reach a critical level. The ototoxic mechanisms of salicylate remain unclear but hearing and tinnitus usually recovers a few days after intoxication. There have been few reports of salicylate-induced ototoxicity in Korea, and the majority is caused by a low dose of aspirin. Herein, we report a case of sudden hearing loss and tinnitus after acute salicylate intoxication and review recent updates on salicylate ototoxicity.

  3. The Methods of Committing and Alcohol Intoxication of Suicides in Southwestern Croatia from 1996 to 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Čoklo, Miran; Stemberga, Valter; Cuculić, Dražen; Šoša, Ivan; Jerković, Romana; Bosnar, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is the psychoactive substance most frequently associated with suicidal behavior.We hypothesized that the level of alcohol intoxication and the choice of specific methods of committing suicide are related. Suicides in the Southwestern Croatia in a 10-year period, especially regarding the method of committing and alcohol intoxication, were analyzed. Ten various methods of committing suicide were recorded. The average blood alcohol concentration at the moment of suicide was 0...

  4. [Early Detection of Manganese Intoxication Based on Occupational History and T1-weighted MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Toshio; Yano, Hajime; Kushida, Ryutaro; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2016-02-01

    Manganese regulates many enzymes and is essential for normal cell function. Chronic manganese intoxication has an insidious and progressive course terminating to atypical parkinsonism with little therapeutic efficacy. For subjects with chronic manganese exposure such as welders, manganese intoxication can be detected early based on the presence of hyperintensity in the globus pallidus on T(1)-weighted MRI and abnormally high urinary excretion of manganese with a chelating agent even in cases of normal serum/urine level of manganese.

  5. ENDOGENOUS INTOXICATION IN ANIMALS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS IN CASE OF POLYTRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Pidruchna

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background.  Associated injury is a worldwide social and economic problem. Age related aspects of endogenous intoxication are not studied comprehensively. Annually, from 44 000 to 65 000 citizens die because of traumatic injuries. As a result, this number increased by 32.6% for the last 10 years.     The detoxification system, as a component of the functional systems of the organism, experiences significant changes in case of polytrauma. Objective. The study was aimed to discover pathogenetic peculiarities of the multiple trauma in age aspect in different disease periods and to explore the level of endogenous intoxication in this condition. Methods. The experiments were performed on 72 white male rats aged 3, 6 and 12 months, which underwent simulation of severe skeletal trauma and examination of the contents of middle mass molecules and endogenous intoxication index (markers of endogenous intoxication in 1, 4 and 24 hours after the associated injury. Results. The most significant increase of the middle mass molecules was fixed in 24 hours after modeling of severe skeletal injuries in all groups of animals, especially it was the most pronounced in 12-month-old animals. The erythrocyte intoxication index reached the highest level in 4 hours after the injury, its increase was most significant in sexually mature adult animals. Conclusion. A significant increasing of endogenous intoxication markers in 12-month-old rats, if compared to 3- and 6-month-old animals, can be caused by the decrease in compensatory protection mechanisms.

  6. Pathophysiological Features of Endogenous Intoxication in Pregnant Women with Arterial Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kabanova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the nature and specific features of development of endogenous intoxication in pregnant women with arterial hypertension. Subjects and materials. Humoral extracellular fluid volume regulation, partial renal functions, placental hormonal function, membranous lipid peroxidation activity, antiradical defense, the parameters of central hemodynamics, endogenous intoxication, and a biochemical coagulogram were studied and differential blood count with the leukocytic ratio indices was estimated in 172 pregnant females with arterial hypertension and 54 healthy pregnant ones in the third trimester. The statistical package «Stadia» was applied. Results. Arterial hypertension caused by pregnancy was ascertained to involve pathogenetically different types: low-, normal-, and high-renin ones. In pregnant women with arterial hypertension, the general pathogenetic homeostatic changes were placental hormonal imbalance, activated membranous lipid peroxidation, impaired lymph outflow, sodium and water retention, hepatic and renal failure, and endogenous intoxication. Conclusion. Placental ischemia appearing as placental hormonal imbalance (extrarenal pressor system was accompanied by a compensatory humoral response: arterial hypertension and metabolic disturbances. Changes in medium-weight molecule 280, leukocytic intoxication index, erythrocytic sorption capacity, and Paramecium test, by confirming the presence of endogenous intoxication in pregnant females with arterial hypertension, were caused by a type of arterial hypertension (by the hemodynamic profile and the type of impaired partial renal functions. Key words: pregnancy, arterial hypertension, endogenous intoxication.

  7. Human Health Risk Assessment due to Global Warming – A Case Study of the Gulf Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junaid Rafi Chaudhary

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated global warming is predicted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change (IPCC due to increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The climate changes are anticipated to have a long-term impact on human health, marine and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources and vegetation. Due to rising sea levels, low lying coastal regions will be flooded, farmlands will be threatened and scarcity of fresh water resources will be aggravated. This will in turn cause increased human suffering in different parts of the world. Spread of disease vectors will contribute towards high mortality, along with the heat related deaths. Arid and hot climatic regions will face devastating effects risking survival of the fragile plant species, wild animals, and other desert ecosystems. The paper presents future changes in temperature, precipitation and humidity and their direct and indirect potential impacts on human health in the coastal regions of the Gulf countries including Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, and Bahrain. The analysis is based on the long-term changes in the values of temperature, precipitation and humidity as predicted by the global climatic simulation models under different scenarios of GHG emission levels. Monthly data on temperature, precipitation, and humidity were retrieved from IPCC databases for longitude 41.25°E to 61.875°E and latitude 9.278°N to 27.833°N. Using an average of 1970 to 2000 values as baseline, the changes in the humidity, temperature and precipitation were predicted for the period 2020 to 2050 and 2070 to 2099. Based on epidemiological studies on various diseases associated with the change in temperature, humidity and precipitation in arid and hot regions, empirical models were developed to assess human health risk in the Gulf region to predict elevated levels of diseases and mortality rates under different emission scenarios as developed by the IPCC.The preliminary

  8. Human health risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in plant tissue due to biosolids and manure amendments, and wastewater irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, R S; Sibley, P K

    2015-02-01

    Amending soil with biosolids or livestock manure provides essential nutrients in agriculture. Irrigation with wastewater allows for agriculture in regions where water resources are limited. However, biosolids, manure and wastewater have all been shown to contain pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). Studies have shown that PPCPs can accumulate in the tissues of plants but the risk that accumulated residues may pose to humans via consumption of edible portions is not well documented. This study reviewed the literature for studies that reported residues of PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants grown in biosolids- or manure-amended soils or irrigated with wastewater. These residues were used to determine the estimated daily intake of PPCPs for an adult and toddler. Estimated daily intake values were compared to acceptable daily intakes to determine whether PPCPs in plant tissue pose a hazard to human health. For all three amendment practices, the majority of reported residues resulted in hazard quotients <0.1. Amendment with biosolids or manure resulted in hazard quotients ≥0.1 for carbamazepine, diphenhydramine, salbutamol, triclosan, and sulfamethazine. Irrigation with wastewater resulted in hazard quotients of ≥0.1 for ambrettolid, carbamazepine, diclofenac, flunixin, lamotrigine, metoprolol, naproxen, sildenafil and tonalide. [corrected]. Many of the residues that resulted in hazard quotients ≥0.1 were due to exposing plants to concentrations of PPCPs that would not be considered relevant based on concentrations reported in biosolids and manure or unrealistic methods of exposure, which lead to artificially elevated plant residues. Our assessment indicates that the majority of individual PPCPs in the edible tissue of plants due to biosolids or manure amendment or wastewater irrigation represent a de minimis risk to human health. Assuming additivity, the mixture of PPCPs could potentially present a hazard. Further work needs to be done to assess

  9. Hemorheological changes and hematometric erythrocyte characteristics in rats after sodium nitrite intoxication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Ivan; Gluhcheva, Yordanka; Petrova, Emilia; Antonova, Nadia

    2014-05-01

    Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is a precursor to a variety of organic compounds (pharmaceuticals, dyes and pesticides), but it is best known as a food additive. The aim of the study is to investigate the influence of acute (i.p.) treatment of Wistar rats with NaNO2 (at the dose of 50 mg/kg b.w.) on the blood rheological properties and erythrocyte hematometric indices (Hb, HCT, RBC, MCV, RDW, MCH, MCHC). The significant differences were not found in the whole blood viscosity (WBV) values of the control and NaNO2-treated groups. The changes in the erythrocyte hematometric indices were statistically significant for RDW, MCHC and MCH at the 1st hour, five- and ten days after NaNO2 administration. Interestingly, at the day 5th of the NaNO2 treatment we obtained statistically significant lower values for the RBC count, Hb, HCT, RDW, as well as elevated indices MCV (no statistically significant), MCH, MCHC. The results obtained indicate that hemorheological and hematometric parameters examined should be monitored in cases of acute exposure to nitrites — for the purposes of clinical toxicology. The quantitative values of hematometric indices reported in our experimental model could be suitable for predicting NaNO2 intoxication and methemoglobinemia in animals and humans.

  10. EFFECT OF PHENOL INTOXICATION ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PERCA FLUVIATILIS AND PELOPHYLAX RIDIBUNDUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Ponepal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A significant interest to phenols and their derivatives is connected with the fact that these compounds play an important role in human industrial activity and are widely spread in our environment. In the present paper it was investigated the action of one aquatic pollutant - phenol - under two concentration (25 and 50 mg/l water on some physiological parameters (energy metabolism, respiratory rate, number of erythrocytes and leukocytes, blood glucose level, survival on perch (Perca fluviatilis and marsh frog (Pelophylax ridibundus. The choice of these species is based on the fact that they are widely spread and can be well preserved in laboratory conditions. They are also important in the aquatic ecosystems and last, but not least, they are sensitive to various toxic actions. Phenol produces, after two weeks of immersion, a significant decrease of respiratory rhythm, glycaemia values and the number of erythrocytes. Exposure of perch to phenol action produces oxygen consumption decrease after two weeks of intoxication. In the concentration of 50 mg/l, the phenol produces, after two weeks of immersion, a significant increase of the number of leukocytes.

  11. Images and meanings in the discourse of the press media on a benzene occupational intoxication epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Rangel-S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study analyses the construction of a certain public image, as built by four daily newspapers published in Salvador-Bahia-Brazil, for the different social actors involved in a public debate, during a benzene occupational intoxication epidemic, which affected workers from the Petrochemical Complex of Camaçari-Bahia-Brasil (COPEC, during the years of 1990 and 1991. This study uses references applied by the Symbolic Interactionism perspective, mainly coming from Erving Goffman, one of the most expressive sociologists in this research area, enabling the analysis of discourses contained in the newspapers by using the analytical categories: "voice", "footing" and "face" on 30% of the journalistic material published, during eighteen months. The analysis revealed the building of hesitating, conflicting and docile "faces", which occurred due to the dynamic variations in which the social actors were displayed and how they were put to operate in the text. The texts build up a variety of public images for petrochemical complex workers, for employers of COPEC and for governmental representatives.

  12. LSD Flashbacks - The Appearance of New Visual Imagery Not Experienced During Initial Intoxication: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G Lerner, Arturo; Goodman, Craig; Rudinski, Dmitri; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2014-01-01

    A side effect associated with the use of synthetic hallucinogens such as lysergic acid diethylamide-(LSD) is the partial or total recurrence of perceptual disturbances which previously appeared during intoxication, despite absence of recent use. These are commonly referred to as "flashbacks" or Hallucinogen Persisting Perception Disorder (HPPD). Here we present two cases of patients with a prior history of LSD use who turned to psychiatric consultation following brief episodes of HPPD. Surprisingly, in both cases new visual imagery appeared during episodes of flashbacks which was not experienced during primary LSD use. Both subjects reported the ability to discern between LSD-associated visual disturbances and new visual imagery. This phenomenon did not cause functional impairment and in both cases caused gradual concern due to its persistence. Both patients refused medical treatment and continued psychiatric follow-up. At one year follow-up both patients reported almost complete spontaneous remission. To the best of our knowledge these are the first reported cases of LSD-related benign flashbacks in which new imagery is experienced. Reasons for this reversible and apparently harmless side effect are proposed. Conclusions from case reports should be taken with caution.

  13. Age-dependent time courses of recovery for motor functions following acute toluene intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel-Herter, Susan R; Slaght, Shelby L; McKay, Bruce E

    2014-05-01

    Toluene is a psychoactive chemical found in many household products including adhesives and thinners. Inhalation of these vapors can cause euphoria and impairments in motor control and neurological functioning. Misuse and abuse of toluene is most common in children, which may in part be due to an age-dependent neurobehavioral sensitivity to toluene. Here we assessed the effects of acute binge-like toluene inhalations (15 or 30 min; ∼5,000 ppm) on tasks that examine locomotion, exploration, balance, gait, and neurological functioning for adolescent (1 month), young adult (2-3 months), adult (5-6 months), and older adult (10-12 months) rats. Both motor and neurological functions were impaired following acute toluene inhalation at all ages. However, only the duration to recover from deficits in motor functions differed among age groups, with adolescent and young adult rats requiring notably longer recovery times than older rats. Our results are suggestive of an age-dependent vulnerability to the intoxicating effects of toluene. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Midazolam as an anticonvulsant antidote for organophosphate intoxication--A pharmacotherapeutic appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sandesh D; Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the therapeutic potential of midazolam as an anticonvulsant antidote for organophosphate (OP) intoxication. Benzodiazepines are widely used to treat acute seizures and status epilepticus (SE), a neurologic emergency of persistent seizures that can lead to severe neuronal damage or death. Midazolam is a benzodiazepine hypnotic with a rapid onset and short duration of action. Midazolam is considered the new drug of choice for persistent acute seizures and SE, including those caused by neurotoxic OPs and nerve agents. Midazolam is a positive allosteric modulator of synaptic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors in the brain. It potentiates GABAergic inhibition and thereby controls hyperexcitability and seizures. Midazolam is administered intravenously or intramuscularly to control acute seizures and SE. Due to its favorable pharmacokinetic features, midazolam is being considered as a replacement anticonvulsant for diazepam in the antidote kit for nerve agents. Clinical studies such as the recent Rapid Anticonvulsant Medication Prior to Arrival Trial (RAMPART) trial have confirmed the anticonvulsant efficacy of midazolam in SE in prehospital settings. In experimental models, midazolam is effective when given at the onset of seizures caused by nerve agents. However, benzodiazepines are less effective at terminating seizures when given 30 min or later after OP exposure or seizure onset, likely because of internalization or downregulation of synaptic, but not extrasynaptic, GABAA receptors, which can lead to diminished potency and seizure recurrence. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Children intoxications: what is abuse and what is not abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Magalhães, Teresa

    2013-04-01

    The curiosity and the natural tendency to explore the environment put young children at an increased risk of poisoning over older children and adults. Poisonings are a significant area of concern from 1 year of age and progressively contribute more to overall rates of morbidity and mortality until children reach adulthood. Particularly, the abuse of children by poisoning is also highly common with thousands of fatalities. A practical strategy is presented that aims to alert health, forensic, and law enforcement professionals to this problem and to demystify the preconception that it is a rare form of abuse or neglect. Compounds that are foreign to a living organism (xenobiotics) and those present within body (endobiotics), mainly involved in children intoxications and contextual examples related to exposure are also reviewed. Particular concern is given to concepts in the field of children poisoning. The described history and the clinical and toxicological evaluation are discussed, and harmonized protocols regarding correct procedures for sample collection to forensic toxicological analysis are proposed. Since children are particularly vulnerable to the toxic effects of high doses of xenobiotics and endobiotics, special consideration on the preparation of the environment that surrounds children in order minimize all possible risks will be also considered.

  16. Polyneuropathy induced by n-hexane intoxication in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chin-Chang

    2008-03-01

    n-Hexane and methyl n-butyl ketone share a common metabolite, 2,5-hexanedione, a potent neurotoxin. Neurotoxic effects to both peripheral and central nervous systems may occur after occupational exposure or recreational abuse of n-hexane. Initial clinical manifestations include numbness and tingling sensation in the toes and fingers, followed by progressive weakness and areflexia, particularly in the distal limbs. Chronic low-dose n-hexane exposure, often observed in industrial workers, apparently causes axonal loss with sensory impairment. Subacute high-dose n-hexane exposure, often observed in glue-sniffers, can cause axonal swelling and secondary demyelination with muscle wasting and weakness. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate prominent prolongation of distal latencies, slowing of nerve conduction velocities, and conduction block with temporal dispersion particularly in severely intoxicated patients. Pathological hallmarks include giant axonal swelling with secondary demyelination and relative loss of large myelinated fibers. Giant axons are accumulated by 10 nm neurofilaments. The clinical course tends to be biphasic with "coasting" for 2-3 months, followed by a slow recovery for about 1-2 years after cessation of exposure to n-hexane. Prognosis is usually favorable. Severely affected patients may develop sequelae of muscle wasting, foot drop, and spasticity. Increased awareness of the n-hexane neurotoxicity in industrial workers and glue sniffers as well as use of safe solvents and adequate ventilation systems are important for preventing n-hexane toxicity.

  17. Intoxication delirium following use of synthetic cathinone derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penders, Thomas M; Gestring, Richard E; Vilensky, Dmitry A

    2012-11-01

    In published reports of hallucinatory delirium following use of "bath salts" analytic laboratory testing has demonstrated the synthetic cathinone derivative methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV). MDPV can cause a false-positive screening immunoassay result for phencyclidine (PCP). Patients using MDPV are prone to development of the syndrome of excited delirium (ExD), a condition also described with PCP. This review summarize reports from several series of cases of delirium associated with MDPV emphasizing the features of both intoxication and excited delirium. Literature review and clinical description of a series of patients from Eastern North Carolina. MDPV is likely the responsible agent in production of both toxic and excited delirium syndromes identified with the recreational use of "bath salts" in the United States over the past two years. Patients using MDPV are prone to the development of toxic delirum with some developing ExD. a condition associated with considerable risk for serious medical morbidity. Commonly used interventions directed at extreme agitation and paranoia may exacerbate the pathophysiology of ExD.

  18. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  19. Mad honey intoxication: A systematic review on the 1199 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silici, Sibel; Atayoglu, A Timucin

    2015-12-01

    Mad honey, produced by honeybees from the nectars of Rhododendron genus (R. ponticum and R. luteum) flowers, is widely used in indigenous medicine, especially in the treatment of hypertension and sexual dysfunction. However, the consumption of this honey can result in intoxication soon after. The diagnosis of honey poisoning and a full understanding of its treatment is important for both effective and immediate treatment, and also for the prevention of unnecessary costs. Upon the evaluation of approximately 34 years of case reports between 1981 and 2014, it was found that the cases of poisoning were more frequently reported in males (75.17%) and between the ages 41 to 65. The most common complaints related to honey poisoning were dizziness, nausea, presyncope and the ECG findings were: sinus bradycardia (79.58%), complete atrioventricular block (45.83%), atrioventricular block (30.91%), ST-segment elevation (22.63%), and nodal rhythm (11.27%), As a result of the evaluation of 1199 cases, it was found that no deaths were reported. The patients were most frequently treated with 0.5 mg atropine (37.79%), 1 mg atropine (49.73%), salin (iv fluid) (65.35%), and generally the patients were discharged within 24 h after recovery.

  20. Organophosphate ester flame retardant-induced acute intoxications in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Andreas F; Samsing, Francisca; Rumbeiha, Wilson K

    2010-12-01

    Flame retardants have wide industrial applications and are incorporated into articles found in automobiles and home environments, including seat cushions. These compounds differ widely chemically and in their toxic potential. We report here two cases involving dogs following ingestion of car seat cushions impregnated with organophosphate ester fire retardants. Two case reports are presented. Two adult American Pit Bull dogs were presented at an emergency clinic with acute signs of central nervous system excitation including seizures. The most severely affected dog died 15 min after presentation, while the less affected dog fully recovered following treatment. In the second case, both a German Shepherd and a Rottweiler were found dead in the morning after they were left in a car overnight. A comprehensive toxicological analysis of samples from both cases revealed the presence of significant amounts (>2 ppm) of tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP) in stomach contents. This compound is a known inducer of epileptic seizures. Some other structurally related organophosphate ester compounds were found, and their role in the acute intoxications reported here is not known and remains to be determined. This is the first report linking acute deaths in dogs to the ingestion of car seat cushions found to contain large amounts of TCEP, an organophosphate ester compound. It is highly likely that this compound caused death through its known seizure-inducing activity.

  1. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian R H Rockett

    Full Text Available The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice.To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system.This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008-2010, and derived from NCHS's Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files.Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman's rho = 0.38; p<0.01. Citation of 1 or more specific drugs on the death certificate was positively associated with the relative odds of a state classifying a nonhomicide drug-intoxication death as suicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016-1.110. Region, too, was a

  2. Poisonous mushrooms: a review of the most common intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A D L; Costa Fortes, R; Carvalho Garbi Novaes, M R; Percário, S

    2012-01-01

    Mushrooms have been used as components of human diet and many ancient documents written in oriental countries have already described the medicinal properties of fungal species. Some mushrooms are known because of their nutritional and therapeutical properties and all over the world some species are known because of their toxicity that causes fatal accidents every year mainly due to misidentification. Many different substances belonging to poisonous mushrooms were already identified and are related with different symptoms and signs. Carcinogenicity, alterations in respiratory and cardiac rates, renal failure, rhabidomyolisis and other effects were observed in toxicity studies with various species including edible and therapeutic ones. Proper identification is important to avoid accidents and toxicity studies are necessary to assure the safe use of mushrooms as food and for medicinal purposes.

  3. Post-transfusion purpura in an African-American man due to human platelet antigen-5b alloantibody: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynce Filipa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Post-transfusion purpura is a rare immunohematological disorder characterized by severe thrombocytopenia following transfusion of blood components and induced by an alloantibody against a donor platelet antigen. It occurs primarily in women sensitized by pregnancy and is most commonly caused by anti-human platelet antigen-1a antibodies. Here, we describe what we believe to be the first documented case of an African-American man who developed post-transfusion purpura due to an anti-human platelet antigen-5b alloantibody after receiving multiple blood products. Case presentation A 68-year-old African-American man initially admitted with atrial flutter was started on anticoagulation treatment, which was complicated by severe hematemesis. On days 4 and 5 of hospitalization, he received six units of packed red blood cells, and on days 4, 13 and 14 he received plasma. His platelet count began to drop on day 25 and on day 32 reached a nadir of 7 × 109/L. His platelet count increased after receiving intravenous immune globulin. An antibody with reactivity to human platelet antigen-5b was detected by a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay. Our patient was homozygous for human platelet antigen-5a. Conclusion This case emphasizes the importance of including post-transfusion purpura in the differential diagnosis for both men and women with acute onset of thrombocytopenia following transfusion of blood products. The prompt recognition of this entity is crucial for initiation of the appropriate management.

  4. INVESTIGATION ON THE HYPOGLYCEMIANT EFFECT OF SOME VEGETAL EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTAL INTOXICATIONS AT CD-1 MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Bucă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Using plants in treating some diseases has become a tradition, ‘the nature’s pharmacy’ being an important source of therapy. At present, the medicinal plants properties are being re-assessed due to progress made in chemical, pharmaceutical and clinical research of plants and due to forms obtained from vegetal products, but especially due to the advantages they offer. In the context of more frequent use of natural products with pharmaceutical and therapeutical aims, both at a national and at an international level, our research hints at highlighting and giving details about a series of effects produced by vegetal extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum on certain physiological, biochemical and histopathological processes at CD1 mice. In this study, 2 hydro-alcoholic extracts obtained from 2 species of medicinal plants (Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum, were tested in order to analyse the hypoglycemiant activity. The data accumulated in the specialty literature reveal that the phytotherapeutic use of extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum is based only on the major pharmacologic effect while the intimate action mechanism of the two vegetal products, al cellular and subcellular level, is not known. Starting from these premises, we considered useful the initiation of a comparative study regarding the antidiabetic influence of fluid extracts of Aronia melanocarpa and Silybum marianum upon mice experimentally intoxicated with alloxan monohydrate solution. CDI mice were used as an experimental model in order to induce diabetes: alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneal with concentration of 130 mg/kg body (Ahmed Saber Abu – zaiton, 2013, dissolved in physiological serum, during two weeks, at an interval of 3 days. Both extracts acted positively by lowering blood sugar and by returning to normal body weight in diabetic mice. Aronia extract has a pronounced effect compared to milk thistle extract for both

  5. [Risk of acute hepatic insufficiency in children due to chronic accidental overdose of paracetamol (acetaminophen)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameleers-Snijders, P.; Hogeveen, M.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Kramers, C.; Draaisma, J.M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Two girls aged 4 and 3 years, respectively, experienced acute liver failure due to accidental ingestion of supratherapeutic doses of paracetamol (90 mg/kg/day or more). Recognition of chronic paracetamol intoxication as a cause of acute hepatic failure is often delayed. It is important to consider t

  6. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Efforts over the last Two Decades to Reduce Human Losses due to Natural Hazards, and A Proposal for Future Efforts (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.; Chakos, A.

    2009-12-01

    While there is evidence that efforts over the last 20 years to reduce human and fiscal losses due to natural hazards have been effective, there is also evidence that, despite these efforts, we can expect large and, perhaps, even increasing losses in the future. If this conclusion is correct—and unacceptable—then what should be done differently to reduce these losses? One piece of the answer can be found through analyzing why the efforts to date have not been more effective. Another piece can be found through examining the characteristics of successful social movements. For a social movement is what we are talking about when we advocate changing human behavior in order to reduce risk from natural hazards. We cannot attribute the disappointingly modest success of past risk reduction efforts to inadequate science or engineering: the reduction of natural disaster losses in both the U.S. and Japan over the last century indicates that humans possess the required scientific and engineering expertise to reduce the risk of natural hazards, and reduce it significantly. If the problem is that this expertise is not being applied outside of Japan and the U.S., where the risk is concentrated, then we need to understand why. There are numerous examples, after all, of widespread, rapid adoption of modern technologies (such as the internet), once these technologies were perceived to be beneficial. Yet not only have earthquake engineering advances failed to be adopted where they are needed, even existing building codes are often not followed. To understand this behavioral paradox better, we turn to human psychology. In the last several years, Nicholas Kristof of the New York Times has invoked the work of psychologists, in order to explore how our brains may not have yet evolved to respond properly to certain types of modern risks. Kristof refers, for example, to Professor Daniel Gilbert, who argues that threats that will catch our attention will either be personalized, imminent

  7. Cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone against human breast and cervical cancers are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor {gamma} activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eunjung; Shin, Soyoung; Lee, Jeeyoung; Lee, So Jung; Kim, Jinkyoung; Yoon, Doyoung; Kim, Yangmee [Konkuk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Eunrhan [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    Human peroxisomes proliferate-activated receptor gamma (hPPAR{gamma}) has been implicated in numerous pathologies, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer. Previously, we verified that amentoflavone is an activator of hPPAR{gamma} and probed the molecular basis of its action. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of action of amentoflavone in cancer cells and demonstrated that amentoflavone showed strong cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines. We showed that hPPAR{gamma} expression in MCF-7 and HeLa cells is specifically stimulated by amentoflavone, and suggested that amentoflavone-induced cytotoxic activities are mediated by activation of hPPAR{gamma} in these two cancer cell lines. Moreover, amentoflavone increased PTEN levels in these two cancer cell lines, indicating that the cytotoxic activities of amentoflavone are mediated by increasing of PTEN expression levels due to hPPAR{gamma} activation.

  8. Management of exogenous intoxication by carbamates and organophosphates at an emergency unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney Correia Leão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary Objectives: to evaluate and indicate the procedure to be followed in the health unit, both for diagnosis and the treatment of acute exogenous intoxications by carbamates or organophosphates. Methods: a descriptive study based on retrospective analysis of the clinical history of patients diagnosed with intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates admitted at the emergency unit of the Hospital de Urgências de Sergipe Governador João Alves (HUSE between January and December of 2012. Some criteria were evaluated, such as: intoxicating agent; patient's age and gender; place of event, cause, circumstances and severity of the intoxication; as well as signs and symptoms of the muscarinic, nicotinic and neurological effects. Results: seventy patients (average age: 25±19.97 formed the study's population. It was observed that 77.14% of them suffered carbamate intoxication. However, organophosphate intoxications were more severe, with 68.75% of patients presenting moderate to severe forms. Suicide attempt was the leading cause of poisoning, with 62 cases (88.57% of total. Atropine administration was an effective therapeutic approach for treating signs and symptoms, which included sialorrhea (p=0.0006, nausea (p=0. 0029 and emesis (p lt0.0001. The use of activated charcoal was shown effective, both in combating the signs and symptoms presented by both patient groups (p <0.0001. Conclusion: it is concluded that the use of atropine and activated charcoal is highly effective to treat the signs and symptoms developed by patients presenting acute exogenous intoxication by carbamates or organophosphates.

  9. State and local law enforcement agency efforts to prevent sales to obviously intoxicated patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Kathleen M; Toomey, Traci L; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Erickson, Darin J

    2014-04-01

    Alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons are illegal and may lead to public health issues such as traffic crashes and violence. Over the past several decades, considerable effort has been made to reduce alcohol sales to underage persons but less attention has been given to the issue of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons. Studies have found a high likelihood of sales to obviously intoxicated patrons (i.e., overservice), but little is known about efforts by enforcement agencies to reduce these sales. We conducted a survey of statewide alcohol enforcement agencies and local law enforcement agencies across the US to assess their strategies for enforcing laws prohibiting alcohol sales to intoxicated patrons at licensed alcohol establishments. We randomly sampled 1,631 local agencies (1,082 participated), and surveyed all 49 statewide agencies that conduct alcohol enforcement. Sales to obviously intoxicated patrons were reported to be somewhat or very common in their jurisdiction by 55 % of local agencies and 90 % of state agencies. Twenty percent of local and 60 % of state agencies reported conducting enforcement efforts to reduce sales to obviously intoxicated patrons in the past year. Among these agencies, fewer than half used specific enforcement strategies on at least a monthly basis to prevent overservice of alcohol. Among local agencies, enforcement efforts were more common among agencies that had a full-time officer specifically assigned to carry out alcohol enforcement efforts. Enforcement of laws prohibiting alcohol sales to obviously intoxicated patrons is an underutilized strategy to reduce alcohol-related problems, especially among local law enforcement agencies.

  10. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria due to a mutation in GATA1: the first trans-acting mutation causative for a human porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John D; Steensma, David P; Pulsipher, Michael A; Spangrude, Gerald J; Kushner, James P

    2007-03-15

    Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP), an autosomal recessive disorder, is due to mutations of uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS). Deficiency of UROS results in excess uroporphyrin I, which causes photosensitization. We evaluated a 3-year-old boy with CEP. A hypochromic, microcytic anemia was present from birth, and platelet counts averaged 70 x 10(9)/L (70,000/microL). Erythrocyte UROS activity was 21% of controls. Red cell morphology and globin chain labeling studies were compatible with beta-thalassemia. Hb electrophoresis revealed 36.3% A, 2.4% A(2), 59.5% F, and 1.8% of an unidentified peak. No UROS or alpha- and beta-globin mutations were found in the child or the parents. The molecular basis of the phenotype proved to be a mutation of GATA1, an X-linked transcription factor common to globin genes and heme biosynthetic enzymes in erythrocytes. A mutation at codon 216 in the child and on one allele of his mother changed arginine to tryptophan (R216W). This is the first report of a human porphyria due to a mutation in a trans-acting factor and the first association of CEP with thalassemia and thrombocytopenia. The Hb F level of 59.5% suggests a role for GATA-1 in globin switching. A bone marrow allograft corrected both the porphyria and the thalassemia.

  11. Variable Classification of Drug-Intoxication Suicides across US States: A Partial Artifact of Forensics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Hobbs, Gerald R; Wu, Dan; Jia, Haomiao; Nolte, Kurt B; Smith, Gordon S; Putnam, Sandra L; Caine, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    The 21st-century epidemic of pharmaceutical and other drug-intoxication deaths in the United States (US) has likely precipitated an increase in misclassified, undercounted suicides. Drug-intoxication suicides are highly prone to be misclassified as accident or undetermined. Misclassification adversely impacts suicide and other injury mortality surveillance, etiologic understanding, prevention, and hence clinical and public health policy formation and practice. To evaluate whether observed variation in the relative magnitude of drug-intoxication suicides across US states is a partial artifact of the scope and quality of toxicological testing and type of medicolegal death investigation system. This was a national, state-based, ecological study of 111,583 drug-intoxication fatalities, whose manner of death was suicide, accident, or undetermined. The proportion of (nonhomicide) drug-intoxication deaths classified by medical examiners and coroners as suicide was analyzed relative to the proportion of death certificates citing one or more specific drugs and two types of state death investigation systems. Our model incorporated five sociodemographic covariates. Data covered the period 2008-2010, and derived from NCHS's Multiple Cause-of-Death public use files. Across states, the proportion of drug-intoxication suicides ranged from 0.058 in Louisiana to 0.286 in South Dakota and the rate from 1 per 100,000 population in North Dakota to 4 in New Mexico. There was a low correlation between combined accident and undetermined drug-intoxication death rates and corresponding suicide rates (Spearman's rho = 0.38; psuicide rather than accident or undetermined, adjusting for region and type of state death investigation system (odds ratio, 1.062; 95% CI,1.016-1.110). Region, too, was a significant predictor. Relative to the South, a 10% increase in drug citation was associated with 43% (95% CI,11%-83%), 41% (95% CI,7%-85%), and 33% (95% CI,1%-76%) higher odds of a suicide

  12. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y

    1989-05-01

    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  13. Exogenous drug intoxication among young people of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Inês Klinger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: the wide variety of drugs available in the market, brought important changes in the aspect of drug use, however, there are also problems related to these products, among these, exogenous intoxication, considered a world wide problem in the health sector, especially among women. The aim of the study was to analyze the data reported by exogenous drug intoxication among young adults of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: it is an ecological descriptive study of cases of exogenous drug intoxication of individuals between 20-39 years of age, from Rio Grande do Sul, reported in the years 2011-2015, at Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. Results: 1,278 notifications of exogenous intoxication caused by drugs were found. Of these, 76.29% of the cases were female, 85.21% were white, 25.98% had incomplete primary education and 85.52% lived in urban areas. Of the reported cases, it highlights the 1,038 cases of attempted suicide (81.22%, followed by 68 cases of self-medication (5.32%. Conclusions: the exogenous drug intoxication among young adults in Rio Grande do Sul is serious and worrying, indicating the importance of educational measures of prevention and health promotion in this population.

  14. Effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication and hangover on cognitive flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nicole; Gussek, Philipp; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2016-10-27

    The effects of high-dose ethanol intoxication on cognitive flexibility processes are not well understood, and processes related to hangover after intoxication have remained even more elusive. Similarly, it is unknown in how far the complexity of cognitive flexibility processes is affected by intoxication and hangover effects. We performed a neurophysiological study applying high density electroencephalography (EEG) recording to analyze event-related potentials (ERPs) and perform source localization in a task switching paradigm which varied the complexity of task switching by means of memory demands. The results show that high-dose ethanol intoxication only affects task switching (i.e. cognitive flexibility processes) when memory processes are required to control task switching mechanisms, suggesting that even high doses of ethanol compromise cognitive processes when they are highly demanding. The EEG and source localization data show that these effects unfold by modulating response selection processes in the anterior cingulate cortex. Perceptual and attentional selection processes as well as working memory processes were only unspecifically modulated. In all subprocesses examined, there were no differences between the sober and hangover states, thus suggesting a fast recovery of cognitive flexibility after high-dose ethanol intoxication. We assume that the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) system accounts for the observed effects, while they can hardly be explained by the dopaminergic system. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Capacities of Follow-up of the Severity of Acute Barbiturate Intoxications and their Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Vorobyeva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-eight patients with moderate, severe, and fatal (n = 12 acute intoxication with barbiturates, as evidenced by the measurements of their blood concentrations were examined. Cardiointervalography was made during follow-up ECG in all the patients in order to determine the tension index (TI, a cumulative measure of the tone of the autonomic nervous system. Comparison of clinical, laboratory, and cardiointervalographic data showed that sympathicotonia (TI, 90—160 conventional units was predominant in moderate intoxication with barbiturates (their concentration was 16.14±3.2 ^g/ml, there was hypersympathicotonia (TI, more than 160 conventional units in severe intoxication (the concentration of barbiturates, 30.56±7.6 ^g/ml; the increased tone of the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system — vagotonia (TI, less than 30 conventional units in fatal intoxication (the concentration of barbiturates, 37.3±6.6 ^g/ml. Moreover, TI decreased with the age of patients and increased with combined intoxication with barbiturates and alcohol (its blood concentration was more than 1 g/l.

  16. Formation of dichloroacetylene from trichloroethylene in the presence of alkaline material--possible cause of intoxication after abundant use of chloroethylene-containing solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, H; Wolff, T; Höfler, M; Lahaniatis, E

    1984-12-01

    Inhabitants of a private home suffered from symptoms possibly due to dichloroacetylene intoxication. Subsequent anamnesis revealed that abundant amounts of trichloroethylene had been used to remove a wax coating from a concrete-lined stone floor. This prompted us to examine whether dichloroacetylene could have been formed. Incubation of two commercial samples of trichloroethylene with aqueous alkaline solutions between pH 11 and 13, with mortar and tile filling material resulted in the formation of dichloroacetylene. This finding suggests formation of dichloroacetylene, when trichloroethylene comes into contact with moderately alkaline material, such as moist concrete.

  17. EFFECTS OF THE LITHIUM – CONTAINING SORBENT ON TERMS OF BEHAVIORAL REACTIONS UNDER CHRONIC ALCOHOL INTOXICATION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotlyarova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium preparations are widely used for stabilize mood in case of bipolar affective disorder. Currently neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects of lithium are of interest as in case of acute brain injury, also in chronic neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia, alcoholism, Alzheimer disease, etc. [1–5]. In clinical practice use of lithium preparations is limited due to difficult adjustment of drug dosage, necessity of monitoring its concentration in blood, side effects development as a result of accumulation of lithium in a body. For the purpose of improvement of pharmacologic properties lithium is combined with other agents (for example modifying sorbent thus it can produce longer-term and more harmless (less side reactions effect in the long view. Lithium immobilization on sorption basis will allow to use sorbent as detoxicant and carrying agent of drugs to body. The purpose of the work is studying the effect of the lithium – containing sorbent on terms of behavioral reactions under chronic alcohol intoxication model.Materials and methods. During the work we used nonlinear mice – males, which weight 25–30 g (180 animals. Chronic alcohol intoxication was precipitated via 40% proof spirit injections (oral supplementation in quantity of 3 g/kg during 2 weeks, additionally mice drunk 5% proof spirit from drinking bowl. Each experimental group consisted of 10 animals. Study drugs were inserted inside while ethanol injecting. Control animals were inserted 0,9% salin solution. Emotional state of animals was assessed through forced swim test, short – term memory assessment was performed through conditioned passive avoidance reflex. Effect of chronic alcohol intoxication on the parameters of conditioned reflex activity was measured every 7 days.Results. It was found that the investigated lithium-containing sorbent increases: the number of mice are trained passive avoidance reflex, remembering percent of electric shock

  18. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a chromosome 14 from somatic cells with t(13;14) trisomy 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, S E; Blouin, J L; Maher, J; Avramopoulos, D; Thomas, G; Talbot, C C

    1993-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for particular chromosomes is increasingly recognized as a cause of abnormal phenotypes in humans. We recently studied a 9-year-old female with a de novo Robertsonian translocation t(13;14), short stature, mild developmental delay, scoliosis, hyperextensible joints, hydrocephalus that resolved spontaneously during the first year of life, and hypercholesterolemia. To determine the parental origin of chromosomes 13 and 14 in the proband, we have studied the genotypes of DNA polymorphic markers due to (GT)n repeats in the patient and her parents' blood DNA. The genotypes of markers D14S43, D14S45, D14S49, and D14S54 indicated maternal UPD for chromosome 14. There was isodisomy for proximal markers and heterodisomy for distal markers, suggesting a recombination event on maternal chromosomes 14. In addition, DNA analysis first revealed--and subsequent cytogenetic analysis confirmed--that there was mosaic trisomy 14 in 5% of blood lymphocytes. There was normal (biparental) inheritance for chromosome 13, and there was no evidence of false paternity in genotypes of 11 highly polymorphic markers on human chromosome 21. Two cases of maternal UPD for chromosome 14 have previously been reported, one with a familial rob t(13;14) and the other with a t(14;14). There are several similarities among these patients, and a "maternal UPD chromosome 14 syndrome" is emerging; however, the contribution of the mosaic trisomy 14 to the phenotype cannot be evaluated. The study of de novo Robertsonian translocations of the type reported here should reveal both the extent of UPD in these events and the contribution of particular chromosomes involved in certain phenotypes.

  19. Maternal uniparental disomy for human chromosome 14, due to loss of a chromosome 14 from somatic cells with t(13; 14) trisomy 14

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonarakis, S.E.; Blouin, J.L.; Maher, J.; Avramopoulos, D.; Thomas, G.; Talbot, C.C. Jr. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Uniparental disomy (UPD) for particular chromosomes is increasingly recognized as a cause of abnormal phenotypes in humans. The authors recently studied a 9-year-old female with a de novo Robertsonian translocation t(13;14), short stature, mild developmental delay, scoliosis, hyperextensible joints, hydrocephalus that resolved spontaneously during the first year of life, and hyperchloesterolemia. To determine the parental origin of chromosomes 13 and 14 in the proband, they have studied the genotypes of DNA polymorphic markers due to (GT)n repeats in the patient and her parents' blood DNA. The genotypes of markers D14S43, D14S45, D14S49, and D14S54 indicated maternal UPD for chromosome 14. There was isodisomy for proximal markers and heterodisomy for distal markers, suggesting a recombination event on maternal chromosomes 14. In addition, DNA analysis first revealed -- and subsequent cytogenetic analysis confirmed -- that there was mosaic trisomy 14 in 5% of blood lymphocytes. There was normal (biparental) inheritance for chromosome 13, and there was no evidence of false paternity in genotypes of 11 highly polymorphic markers on human chromosome 21. Two cases of maternal UPD for chromosome 14 have previously been reported, one with a familial rob t(13;14) and the other with a t(14;14). There are several similarities among these patients, and a [open quotes]maternal UPD chromosome 14 syndrome[close quotes] is emerging; however, the contribution of the mosaic trisomy 14 to the phenotype cannot be evaluated. The study of de novo Robertsonian translocations of the type reported here should reveal both the extent of UPD in these events and the contribution of particular chromosomes involved in certain phenotypes. 33 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  1. Benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmingsen, R.; Braestrup, C.; Nielsen, M.; Barry, D.I. (Dept. of Psychiatry, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, St. Hans Mental Hospital, Roskilde, and Ferrosan Research Laboratory, Soeborg, Denmark)

    1982-01-01

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on /sup 3/H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for /sup 3/H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence.

  2. Acute atropine intoxication with psychiatric symptoms by herbal infusion of Pulmonaria officinalis (Lungwort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Baca-García

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Lungwort infusion is a preparation extracted from Pulmonaria officinalis which is occasionally used as a folk remedy for the common cold. The current report aims to describe acute atropine intoxications with delirium caused by Lungwort infusion in several members of the same family. Methods: Description of three case reports. Search of literature through Medline. Results: Three generations of a same family presented acute and moderately severe atropine intoxications after drinking an infusion prepared with Pulmonaria officinalis. Conclusions: Despite the lack of scientific evidence for its clinical use, medicinal plants continue being widely used. In spite of severe adverse effects reported, the general thought is that herbal remedies are harmless. To our knowledge, this is the first report of acute atropine intoxications with psychiatric symptoms secondary to Pulmonaria officinalis in several members of a family. We suspect that the lungwort infusion may have been contaminated with some other substance with atropinic properties.

  3. Ecstasy intoxication as an unusual cause of epileptic seizures in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Steven; Lemmens, Francis; Eerdekens, Kim; Penders, Joris; Poesen, Koen; Desmet, Koen; Vermeersch, Pieter

    2013-11-01

    In light of the widespread use of ecstasy, it is surprising that only few cases of intoxicated young children have been reported. Patients almost invariably present with convulsions accompanied by sympathetic signs and symptoms such as hyperthermia. Two new cases of toddlers intoxicated with ecstasy are described. The first patient, a 19-month-old boy, presented with convulsions but no sympathetic signs. The pediatrician's suspicion was raised because of the absence of a postictal state. The second patient, a 20-month-old girl, had a more typical presentation with convulsions and hyperthermia. Her story illustrates the fact that immunoassays for toxicological screening can easily miss traces of additional illicit drugs present in the urine such as cocaine. The presence of other illicit drugs provides clues to the child's risky environment and should lead to further investigation. Finally, we review the available literature on ecstasy intoxication to summarize the key presenting manifestations.

  4. Life-threatening intoxication with methylene bis(thiocyanate: clinical picture and pitfalls. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schnuelle Peter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylene bis(thiocyanate (MBT is a microbiocidal agent mainly used in industrial water cooling systems and paper mills as an inhibitor of algae, fungi, and bacteria. Case presentation We describe the first case of severe intoxication following inhalation of powder in an industrial worker. Profound cyanosis and respiratory failure caused by severe methemoglobinemia developed within several minutes. Despite immediate admission to the intensive care unit, where mechanical ventilation and hemodialysis for toxin elimination were initiated, multi-organ failure involving liver, kidneys, and lungs developed. While liver failure was leading, the patient was successfully treated with the MARS (molecular adsorbent recirculating system procedure. Conclusion Intoxication with MBT is a potentially life-threatening intoxication causing severe methemoglobinemia and multi-organ failure. Extracorporeal liver albumin dialysis (MARS appears to be an effective treatment to allow recovery of hepatic function.

  5. Two cases of near-fatal gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) ingestion and intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, R; Hofhuizen, C M

    2012-01-01

    We present two cases of GBL intoxication. Patient A is a 45-year old man who lost consciousness after drinking a clear unknown liquid. He was brought to the Emergency Departement (ED) after he was intubated. His partner notified the liquid could be GBL, a prodrug for GHB. He regained consciousness 16 hours later in the intensive care unit (ICU) where he could be successfully extubated. Patient B is a 25-year old man who was found unconscious at home with next to him an empty bottle of GBL. He was intubated in the intensive care unit. He could be extubated after 12 hours. GBL intoxication is becoming a more frequent problem and overdosage of GBL can rapidly occur because of its rapid onset and high potency when compared to GHB. We discuss the clinical course and complications after GBL ingestion and intoxication.

  6. Intoxication after Extreme Oral Overdose of Quetiapine to Attempt Suicide: Pharmacological Concerns of Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Müller

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic approved for the treatment of patients with psychotic disorders. Since approvement several case reports about intoxication with quetiapine were linked mainly with tachycardia, QTc-prolongation, somnolence, and hyperglycemia. Here, we present the first case report of an intoxication with an extreme overdose of quetiapine (36 g, ingested by a 32-year-old female (62 kg bodyweight to attempt suicide. Symptoms associated with intoxication were coma without arterial hypotension, persistent tachycardia, hyperglycemia, and transient hypothyreoidism. QTc-interval was moderately extended. Management consisted of intubation for airway protection, gastric lavage, the use of activated charcoal, i.v. saline, and observation for 17 hours on an intensive care unit. Despite the extremely high dose of quetiapine, the patient recovered completely without residual symptoms.

  7. Age of onset of first alcohol intoxication and subsequent alcohol use among urban American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kimberly L; McDonald, James N; Oetting, Eugene R; Walker, Patricia Silk; Walker, R Dale; Beauvais, Fred

    2011-03-01

    The objective was to assess the effect of early onset intoxication on subsequent alcohol involvement among urban American Indian youth. The data come from the American Indian Research (AIR) project, a panel study of urban Indian youth residing in King County, Washington. Data were collected annually from the adolescent and his/her primary caregiver from the 1988-89 school year to the 1996-97 school year, providing a total of nine waves of data. Early intoxication (by age 14) was related to delinquency, family history of alcohol abuse or dependence, poverty, broken family structure, less family cohesiveness, and more family conflict. The effects of these characteristics were, therefore, partialed out in testing effects of early intoxication on later alcohol involvement. Two-part latent growth models of alcohol use and alcohol problems were specified. Effects of early onset intoxication on these trajectories, as well as lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence by the transition to young adulthood, were examined. Findings indicate that adolescents who experienced their first intoxication early (by age 14), used alcohol more heavily from the ages of 16 to 18, experienced more problems related to the alcohol's use from the ages of 16 to 18, and were more likely to have a diagnosed alcohol disorder by the final wave of data collection. Congruent with similar studies in the general population, early intoxication appears to be associated with a deleterious course of alcohol involvement during adolescence and into the transition to young adulthood among urban American Indian youth. Implications for prevention are discussed.

  8. Patient characteristics and patterns of intoxication: one-time and repeated use of emergency ambulance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, Barbara M; Minder, Christoph E; Rosset, Nina; Schaetti, Gabriela; Battegay, Edouard; Mueller, Stefan; Zimmerli, Lukas

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of ambulance services that resulted from alcohol and drug intoxication over a period of 1 year in a metropolitan area, with an emphasis on characteristic differences between patients with one-time versus repeated use. All ambulance-service report forms filed in 2010 were systematically screened for utilizations in which alcohol intoxication or intoxication resulting from consumption of illicit or legal drugs other than alcohol was the chief complaint (N = 2,341 patients; 65% male). Repeat users differed from persons with one-time use in their characteristics and patterns of intoxication. On average, patients with repeated ambulance use were almost 8 years older and had a different pattern of ambulance use over the course of the week with no clear peak on any specific day. The mean number of ambulance services in patients with repeated use was 2.8 (SD = 1.517) in the 1-year study period. Repeat users were less likely to be injured than patients with one-time ambulance-service use and more often showed aggression or uncooperative behavior toward paramedics. All cases of death associated with intoxication involved patients with one-time ambulance use. The ambulance-service users' generally slight impairment of consciousness and the high proportion of intoxicated patients without any injuries raise the question of how many of these patients could be adequately cared for in a sobering center. Sobering centers might relieve hospital emergency departments of patients not requiring acute emergency care and, in addition, could provide intervention services to prevent relapses.

  9. Effects of mixing alcohol with caffeinated beverages on subjective intoxication : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Sarah; Verster, Joris C; Alford, Chris; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter the awareness of (or 'mask') intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous activitie

  10. Effects of mixing alcohol with caffeinated beverages on subjective intoxication : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Sarah; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702; Alford, Chris; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that mixing alcohol with energy drinks or other caffeinated beverages may alter the awareness of (or 'mask') intoxication. The proposed reduction in subjective intoxication may have serious consequences by increasing the likelihood of engaging in potentially dangerous

  11. [Therapeutic effect of the latest extracorporal elimination procedure (Prometheus treatment) in acute liver failure caused by intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Agnes; Rikker, Csaba; Tóvárosi, Szilveszter; Kárteszi, Mihály

    2007-10-21

    Despite intensive therapy the mortality of acute liver failure without organ transplantation is 60-90%. Because of organ shortage in liver transplantation, a significant number of patients dies while being on the waiting list. In order to diminish the mortality, various trials were introduced to remove the albumin-bound and water-soluble toxins in liver failure with the aim to support the spontaneous regeneration of the liver and maintaining the patients alive until liver transplantation. Prometheus treatment is a relatively new technique combining Fractionated Plasma Separation and Adsorption (FPSA) with a high-flux dialysis. During the procedure the patient's own separated albumin-rich plasma passes through special adsorbents making possible the elimination of albumin-bound toxins, while hemodialysis gets rid of water-soluble toxins. The authors' intention was to demonstrate the efficiency of Prometheus treatment in acute liver failure caused by intoxication. Prometheus treatment was indicated in three patients who suffered from severe intoxication with paracetamol, potassium permanganate and Amanita phalloides, which resulted in a hepatic failure incurable with conservative therapy. Ten treatments were performed in the three female patients. No serious complication was observed. Due to the treatment the albumin-bound (indirect bilirubin p = 0.048; bile acid p = 0.001) and water-soluble (direct bilirubin p = 0.002; creatinine p = 0.007) toxins were significantly decreased. The level of ammonia, urea nitrogen, fibrinogen and antithrombin III did not change significantly. All the three patients were cured without liver transplantation. Prometheus treatment removes efficiently the accumulating toxins in acute liver failure. It is a safe elimination technique. In cases untreatable with conservative therapy it makes possible maintaining the patients alive until the liver regenerates spontaneously, or liver transplantation is feasible.

  12. Acetylsalicylic acid as a potential pediatric health hazard: legislative aspects concerning accidental intoxications in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mund, Menen E; Gyo, Christoph; Brüggmann, Dörthe; Quarcoo, David; Groneberg, David A

    2016-01-01

    Acetylsalicylic acid is a frequently used medication worldwide. It is not used in pediatrics due its association with Reye syndrome. However, in case of pediatric intoxication, children are more fragile to salicylate poisoning because of their reduced ability of buffer the acid stress. Intoxication leads to a decoupling of oxidative phosphorylation and subsequently to a loss in mitochondrial function. Symptoms of poisoning are diverse; eventually they can lead to the death of the patient. Governmental websites of various EU countries were searched for legal information on acetylsalicylic acid availability in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. Various EU countries permit prescription-free sales of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. In Sweden acetylsalicylic acid 500 mg may be sold in a maximum package size of 20 tablets or effervescent tablets in a non-pharmacy. In the UK a maximum of 16 tablets of acetylsalicylic acid 325 mg is allowed to sell in non-pharmacies. In Ireland acetylsalicylic acid is classified as S2 medication. Subsequently, acetylsalicylic acid is allowed to be sold prescription-free in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores. In the Netherlands acetylsalicylic acid may only be sold in drug stores or pharmacies. A maximum of 24 tablets of 500 mg is allowed to purchase in a drug store. Several countries in the European Union are permitted to offer acetylsalicylic acid prescription-free in pharmacies and non-pharmacy stores without legal guidance on the storage position within the store. Further research is needed to investigate whether acetylsalicylic acid is located directly accessible to young children within the stores in EU countries which permit prescription-free sales of acetylsalicylic acid.

  13. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafa Siouda

    2015-12-01

    supplemented rats. Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.

  14. [Myocardial damage and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia in a dog after Albuterol intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, J; Jenni, S; Fischer, N; Bienz, H; Glaus, T

    2012-07-01

    Intoxication with the beta2-agonist Albuterol may lead to immediate signs of beta-adrenergic stimulation like excitation, tachypnea and tachycardia. Furthermore, it typically causes severe hypokalemia, which then leads to muscle weakness and which predisposes to ventricular arrhythmias. We describe a dog where albuterol intoxication caused runs of fast paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia that persisted after normalization of the hypokalemia. Based on a markedly elevated serum troponin I level acute myocardial damage was identified as cause of the tachyarrhythmia. Repeated Troponin I measurements and Holter-ECGs were the means to document complete cure.

  15. Fatal cytisine intoxication and analysis of biological samples with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musshoff, F; Madea, B

    2009-04-15

    We report about a fatal cytisine intoxication in a 20-year-old man who, according to his mother, had drunken tea prepared from plant material of Laburnum anagyroides with the toxic pyridine-like alkaloid as ingredient, which exhibits pharmacological effects similar to nicotine. Using a liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) procedure cytisine was quantified in post-mortem specimens. By exclusion of other causes of death an intoxication was determined as the cause of death with respiratory failure as the pathophysiological mechanism.

  16. An intravenous organophosphate poisoning with intermediate syndrome: An unusual way of intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badhe Ashok

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphate (OP poisoning is very common form of poisoning in Indian population because of its availability and easy access. Intoxication occurs following the absorption of OP agents through gastrointestinal tract, skin and respiratory tract and rarely by intramuscular or intravenous route. The clinical features depend on the amount of the poison consumed, it′s concentration, the route of administration and the time of instituting therapy. We are reporting a case of an intravenous monochrotophos poisoning, an unusual way of intoxication, which was managed in our ICU.

  17. Spatial response surface modelling in the presence of data paucity for the evaluation of potential human health risk due to the contamination of potable water resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shen; McGree, James; Hayes, John F; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2016-10-01

    Potential human health risk from waterborne diseases arising from unsatisfactory performance of on-site wastewater treatment systems is driven by landscape factors such as topography, soil characteristics, depth to water table, drainage characteristics and the presence of surface water bodies. These factors are present as random variables which are spatially distributed across a region. A methodological framework is presented that can be applied to model and evaluate the influence of various factors on waterborne disease potential. This framework is informed by spatial data and expert knowledge. For prediction at unsampled sites, interpolation methods were used to derive a spatially smoothed surface of disease potential which takes into account the uncertainty due to spatial variation at any pre-determined level of significance. This surface was constructed by accounting for the influence of multiple variables which appear to contribute to disease potential. The framework developed in this work strengthens the understanding of the characteristics of disease potential and provides predictions of this potential across a region. The study outcomes presented constitutes an innovative approach to environmental monitoring and management in the face of data paucity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A Case of Neonatal Neutropenia Due to Anti-Fc Gamma Receptor IIIb Isoantibodies Treated with Recombinant Human Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Tomicic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alloimmunization to granulocyte-specific antigens can occur during pregnancy. Maternal antibodies of IgG class can cross the placenta to result in alloimmune neonatal neutropenia. Antibodies to human neutrophil antigens anti-HNA-1a, HNA-1b, and HNA-2a have been most commonly reported to cause alloimmune neonatal neutropenia. Isoantibodies to Fc gamma RIIIb (CD16 if mother is a HNA-null phenotype are rarely involved in neonatal neutropenia. We report on a case of severe neutropenia (440 neutrophils/μL due to anti-Fc gamma RIIIb (CD16 isoimmunization. On day 14 severe omphalitis developed, which was treated for 7 days by an antibiotic (ceftriaxone in a dose of 80 mg/kg/d according to umbilical swab finding. Omphalitis persisted for 10 days in spite of antibiotic therapy and only resolved upon the introduction of rhG-CSF therapy. Therapy with rh-GCSF proved efficient and led to neutrophil count increase to 1970/μL and cure of omphalitis. However, therapeutic effect on granulocyte count was of transient nature, as granulocyte count fell to 760 n/μL on day 4 of therapy discontinuation. Neutropenia persisted for 2 months. The newborn was discharged from the hospital on day 26 with normal clinical status with clinical and laboratory control examinations at 2-week intervals. No additional infections were observed during the course of neutropenia.

  19. Brain marker protein changes after short- and long-term ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, L; Jørgensen, Ole Steen; Hemmingsen, R

    1987-01-01

    for D3, possibly indicating degradation of mature synapses; increased concentration of proteins D2 and MM during withdrawal, the D2 changes possibly indicating formation of new synapses; increased concentration of D1 protein and MM during long-term intoxication. We suggest that the changes in brain......The brain marker proteins, D1, D2, and D3, localised to neuronal membranes, and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic marker proteins (MM and CM), were studied during 1-6 days (short term) intragastrically-induced severe ethanol intoxication and during 1 month (long-term) ethanol intoxication established...... by a liquid diet regimen. The concentrations of the same brain proteins were also measured during withdrawal from the ethanol intoxication periods. Three categories of effect were encountered: decreased concentration of brain marker proteins during severe short-term intoxication the effect being most marked...

  20. Nigella Sativa and Oriental Spices with Protective Role in Iron Intoxication: in vivo Experiments on Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Homeostasis of hematological parameters is essential for assuring a general health status for any living organism. Iron is one of the essential mineral, involved in many vital processes – mainly in blood cells production, but in the same way it can become toxic in very high concentration. Hemoglobin and red blood cells are directed related with the iron ion, due to the high quantity (70% of total iron from organism being part of the blood (hemoglobin and muscle (myoglobin cells. Ferrous ion is part of hemoglobin structure, and red blood cells. But, the administration of high doses of iron can negatively affect the general health status, because the iron alters the enzymatic system in the vital organs. The aim of our experimental study was to verify the hypothesis that in rabbit’s organism, after intraperitoneal administration of 15g Fe2+/body weight as ferrous-gluconate hydro solution, a special diet based on a complex, fresh, organic vegetables (roots and leaves protects the organism by iron intoxication and help the hematological homeostasis. The research experiment was conducted during 43 days in summer time, on German Lop Eared breed young rabbits, which were protected with a diet that consisted of administration of Nigella sativa, some oriental spices (Allium ampeloprasum, Allium tuberosum, Coriandrum sativum, Eruca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Trigonella foenum-graecum and other vegetables (Trifolium, Petroselinum crispum, Dacus carrota subsp.sativus and Cucumis sativus. At the final of experiment we collected blood samples for hematological test and we evaluated the erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and red cell distribution width. The results were analytical evaluated and only for hemoglobin we obtained significant increase value in experimental rabbits compared to control group of rabbits.

  1. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan)

    2007-08-21

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg{sup -1} is 0.25 {sup 0}C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 {sup 0}C was 4.5 W kg{sup -1} in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the

  2. The impact of past and future climate change on global human mortality due to ozone and PM2.5 outdoor air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R.; West, J.; Anenberg, S.; Lamarque, J.; Shindell, D. T.; Bergmann, D. J.; Berntsen, T.; Cameron-Smith, P. J.; Collins, B.; Ghan, S. J.; Josse, B.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, V.; Plummer, D.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Szopa, S.; Zeng, G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change can adversely affect air quality, through changes in meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and emissions. Future changes in air pollutant emissions will also profoundly influence air quality. These changes in air quality can affect human health, as exposure to ground-level ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been associated with premature human mortality. Here we will quantify the global mortality impacts of past and future climate change, considering the effects of climate change on air quality isolated from emission changes. The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) has simulated the past and future surface concentrations of ozone and PM2.5 from each of several GCMs, for emissions from 1850 ("preindustrial") to 2000 ("present-day"), and for the IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios to 2100. We will use ozone and PM2.5 concentrations from simulations from five or more global models of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry, for a base year (present-day), pre-industrial conditions, and future scenarios, considering changes in climate and emissions. We will assess the mortality impacts of past climate change by using one simulation ensemble with present emissions and climate and one with present emissions but 1850 climate. We will similarly quantify the potential impacts of future climate change under the four RCP scenarios in 2030, 2050 and 2100. All model outputs will be regridded to the same resolution to estimate multi-model medians and range in each grid cell. Resulting premature deaths will be calculated using these medians along with epidemiologically-derived concentration-response functions, and present-day or future projections of population and baseline mortality rates, considering aging and transitioning disease rates over time. The spatial distributions of current and future global premature mortalities due to ozone and PM2.5 outdoor air pollution will be presented separately

  3. FDTD analysis of human body-core temperature elevation due to RF far-field energy prescribed in the ICNIRP guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Akimasa; Asano, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2007-08-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific absorption rate and temperature elevation in an anatomically-based model named NORMAN for exposure to radio-frequency far fields in the ICNIRP guidelines (1998 Health Phys. 74 494-522). The finite-difference time-domain method is used for analyzing the electromagnetic absorption and temperature elevation in NORMAN. In order to consider the variability of human thermoregulation, parameters for sweating are derived and incorporated into a conventional sweating formula. First, we investigated the effect of blood temperature variation modeling on body-core temperature. The computational results show that the modeling of blood temperature variation was the dominant factor influencing the body-core temperature. This is because the temperature in the inner tissues is elevated via the circulation of blood whose temperature was elevated due to EM absorption. Even at different frequencies, the body-core temperature elevation at an identical whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR) was almost the same, suggesting the effectiveness of the whole-body average SAR as a measure in the ICNIRP guidelines. Next, we discussed the effect of sweating on the temperature elevation and thermal time constant of blood. The variability of temperature elevation caused by the sweating rate was found to be 30%. The blood temperature elevation at the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0.4 W kg-1 is 0.25 °C even for a low sweating rate. The thermal time constant of blood temperature elevation was 23 min and 52 min for a man with a lower and a higher sweating rate, respectively, which is longer than the average time of the SAR in the ICNIRP guidelines. Thus, the whole-body average SAR required for blood temperature elevation of 1 °C was 4.5 W kg-1 in the model of a human with the lower sweating coefficients for 60 min exposure. From a comparison of this value with the basic restriction in the ICNIRP guidelines of 0

  4. Suppression of Human T Cell Proliferation Mediated by the Cathepsin B Inhibitor, z-FA-FMK Is Due to Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Rajah

    Full Text Available The cathepsin B inhibitor, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-fluoromethyl ketone (z-FA-FMK readily inhibits anti-CD3-induced human T cell proliferation, whereas the analogue benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-diazomethyl ketone (z-FA-DMK had no effect. In contrast, benzyloxycarbonyl-phenylalanine-alanine-chloromethyl ketone (z-FA-CMK was toxic. The inhibition of T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK requires not only the FMK moiety, but also the benzyloxycarbonyl group at the N-terminal, suggesting some degree of specificity in z-FA-FMK-induced inhibition of primary T cell proliferation. We showed that z-FA-FMK treatment leads to a decrease in intracellular glutathione (GSH with a concomitant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in activated T cells. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced T cell proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK was abolished by the presence of low molecular weight thiols such as GSH, N-acetylcysteine (NAC and L-cysteine, whereas D-cysteine which cannot be metabolised to GSH has no effect. The inhibition of anti-CD3-induced up-regulation of CD25 and CD69 expression mediated by z-FA-FMK was also attenuated in the presence of exogenous GSH. Similar to cell proliferation, GSH, NAC and L-cysteine but not D-cysteine, completely restored the processing of caspase-8 and caspase-3 to their respective subunits in z-FA-FMK-treated activated T cells. Our collective results demonstrated that the inhibition of T cell activation and proliferation mediated by z-FA-FMK is due to oxidative stress via the depletion of GSH.

  5. Beneficial effects of TCP on soman intoxication in guinea pigs : seizures, brain damage and learning behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, D.M.G. de; Bierman, E.P.B.; Bruijnzeel, P.L.B.; Carpentier, P.; Kulig, B.M.; Lallement, G.; Melchers, B.P.C.; Philippens, I.H.C.H.M.; Huygevoort, A.H.B.M. van

    2001-01-01

    Poisoning with the potent nerve agent soman produces a cascade of central nervous system (CNS) effects characterized by severe convulsions and eventually death. In animals that survive a soman intoxication, lesions in the amygdala, piriform cortex, hippocampus and thalamus can be observed. In order

  6. Heavy Ethanol Intoxication Increases Proinflammatory Cytokines and Aggravates Hemorrhagic Shock-Induced Organ Damage in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-Ming Hu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock (HS following acute alcohol intoxication can increase proinflammatory cytokine production and induce marked immunosuppression. We investigated the effects of ethanol on physiopathology and cytokine levels following HS in acutely alcohol-intoxicated rats. Rats received an intravenous injection of 5 g/kg ethanol over 3 h followed by HS induced by withdrawal of 40% of total blood volume from a femoral arterial catheter over 30 min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were monitored continuously for 48 h after the start of blood withdrawal. Biochemical parameters, including hemoglobin, ethanol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine (Cre, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK, were measured at 30 min before induction of HS and 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h after HS. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were measured at 1 and 12 h after HS. The liver, kidneys, and lungs were removed for pathology at 48 h later. HS significantly increased HR, blood GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels and decreased hemoglobin and MAP in rats. Acute ethanol intoxication further increased serum levels of GOT, GPT, BUN, Cre, LDH, CPK, TNF-α and IL-6 elevation following HS. Acutely intoxicated rats exacerbated the histopathologic changes in the liver, kidneys, and lungs following HS.

  7. Is gender a risk factor for pesticide intoxications among farmers in Bolivia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; Hay-Younes, Jasmin; Condarco, Madelaine A

    2013-01-01

    This study compares gender differences regarding knowledge, practice, and symptoms of intoxication when handling pesticides in farming. Data were gathered in La Paz County, Bolivia, in 2008 and 2009. Poor knowledge on safe handling, hazardous working practices, and use of very toxic pesticides were...... symptoms. To minimize this gap, education and agricultural services should be made more accessible to female farmers in Bolivia....

  8. Women's condom use assertiveness and sexual risk-taking: effects of alcohol intoxication and adult victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Susan A; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Morrison, Diane M; Zawacki, Tina; Davis, Kelly Cue; Hessler, Danielle M

    2008-09-01

    This experiment examined relationships among adulthood victimization, sexual assertiveness, alcohol intoxication, and sexual risk-taking in female social drinkers (N=161). Women completed measures of sexual assault and intimate partner violence history and sexual assertiveness before random assignment to 1 of 4 beverage conditions: control, placebo, low dose (.04%), or high dose (.08%). After drinking, women read a second-person story involving a sexual encounter with a new partner. As protagonist of the story, each woman rated her likelihood of condom insistence and unprotected sex. Victimization history and self-reported sexual assertiveness were negatively related. The less sexually assertive a woman was, the less she intended to insist on condom use, regardless of intoxication. By reducing the perceived health consequences of unprotected sex, intoxication indirectly decreased condom insistence and increased unprotected sex. Findings extend previous work by elucidating possible mechanisms of the relationship between alcohol and unprotected sex - perceived health consequences and situational condom insistence - and support the value of sexual assertiveness training to enhance condom insistence, especially since the latter relationship was robust to intoxication.

  9. Compliance with the Legislation on Alcohol Serving and Selling and Alcohol Intoxications in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Boeynaems, Gerben; van der Lely, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: study the relation between compliance to the legal age limits for alcohol sales and alcohol intoxication in adolescents. Methods: from 2007 till 2012 we collected data on adolescents, with a positive BAC, treated in a hospital. Within the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System (NSCK),

  10. Are restrained eaters accurate monitors of their intoxication? Results from a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Laura J; Crowther, Janis H; Olds, R Scott; Smith, Kathryn E; Ridolfi, Danielle R

    2013-04-01

    Brief interventions encourage college students to eat more before drinking to prevent harm (Dimeff et al., 1999), although many women decrease their caloric intake (Giles et al., 2009) and the number of eating episodes (Luce et al., 2012) prior to drinking alcohol. Participants were 37 undergraduate women (24.3% Caucasian) who were recruited from a local bar district in the Midwest. This study examined whether changes in eating after intending to drink interacted with dietary restraint to predict accuracy of one's intoxication. Results indicated that changes in eating significantly moderated the relationship between dietary restraint and accuracy of one's intoxication level. After eating more food before intending to drink, women higher in restraint were more likely to overestimate their intoxication than women lower in restraint. There were no differences between women with high levels and low levels of dietary restraint in the accuracy of their intoxication after eating less food before intending to drink. Future research would benefit from examining interoceptive awareness as a possible mechanism involved in this relationship.

  11. A Cost Analysis of Web-Enhanced Training to Reduce Alcohol Sales to Intoxicated Bar Patrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Timothy F.; Nederhoff, Dawn M.; Ecklund, Alexandra M.; Horvath, Keith J.; Nelson, Toben F.; Erickson, Darin J.; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to document the development and testing costs of the Enhanced Alcohol Risk Management (eARM) intervention, a web enhanced training program to prevent alcohol sales to intoxicated bar patrons and to estimate its implementation costs in a "real world", non-research setting. Methods: Data for this…

  12. Corrections by melatonin of liver mitochondrial disorders under diabetes and acute intoxication in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshchevik, Vitali T; Dremza, Iosif K; Lapshina, Elena A; Zabrodskaya, Svetlana V; Kujawa, Jolanta; Zavodnik, Ilya B

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the mechanisms of oxidative damage of the liver mitochondria under diabetes and intoxication in rats as well as to evaluate the possibility of corrections of mitochondrial disorders by pharmacological doses of melatonin. The experimental (30 days) streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus caused a significant damage of the respiratory activity in rat liver mitochondria. In the case of succinate as a respiratory substrate, the ADP-stimulated respiration rate V₃ considerably decreased (by 25%, p diabetic liver damage. Acute rat carbon tetrachloride-induced intoxication resulted in considerable decrease of the phosphorylation coefficient because of uncoupling of the oxidation and phosphorylation processes in the liver mitochondria. The melatonin administration during diabetes (10 mg·kg⁻¹ body weight, 30 days, daily) showed a considerable protective effect on the liver mitochondrial function, reversing the decreased respiration rate V₃ and the diminished ACR to the control values both for succinate-dependent respiration and for glutamate-dependent respiration. The melatonin administration to intoxicated animals (10 mg·kg⁻¹ body weight, three times) partially increased the rate of succinate-dependent respiration coupled with phosphorylation. The impairment of mitochondrial respiratory plays a key role in the development of liver injury under diabetes and intoxication. Melatonin might be considered as an effector that regulates the mitochondrial function under diabetes.

  13. Hazards of Secondary Bromadiolone Intoxications Evaluated using High-performance Liquid Chromatography with Electrochemical Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Kizek

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reported on the possibility of intoxications of non-target wild animalsassociated with use of bromadiolone as the active component of rodenticides withanticoagulation effects. A laboratory test was done with earthworms were exposed tobromadiolone-containing granules under the conditions specified in the modified OECD207 guideline. No mortality of earthworms was observed during the fourteen days longexposure. When the earthworms from the above test became a part of the diet of commonvoles in the following experiment, no mortality of consumers was observed too. However,electrochemical analysis revealed higher levels of bromadiolone in tissues fromearthworms as well as common voles compared to control animals. There were determinedcomparable levels of bromadiolone in the liver tissue of common voles after primary(2.34±0.10 μg/g and secondary (2.20±0.53 μg/g intoxication. Therefore, the risk ofsecondary intoxication of small mammalian species feeding on bromadiolone-containing earthworms is the same as of primary intoxication through baited granules. Bromadiolone bio-accumulation in the food chain was monitored using the newly developed analytical procedure based on the use of a liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detector (HPLC-ED. The HPLC-ED method allowed to determine the levels of bromadiolone in biological samples and is therefore suitable for examining the environmental hazards of this substance.

  14. Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs: the emerging 'incense' and 'bath salt' phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry, Jason; Collins, Gregory; Streem, David

    2012-04-01

    Synthetic legal intoxicating drugs (SLIDs), such as those commonly contained in products sold over the counter as "bath salts" and "incense," have risen tremendously in popularity in the past few years. These drugs can have powerful adverse effects, including acute psychosis with delusions, hallucinations, and potentially dangerous, bizarre behavior.

  15. Fasting ameliorates metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in carbon tetrachloride-intoxicated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Km; Saleh, Ea

    2014-12-01

    Fasting has been recently discovered to improve overall health, but its beneficial effects in the presence of hepatic insufficiency have not been proven. The influence of fasting on the metabolism, immunological aspects, and oxidative stress of 40 male carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-intoxicated Wistar rats was investigated in the present study. The rats were divided into four groups, including a placebo group, CCl4-intoxicated rats, which were injected subcutaneously with 1.0 ml/kg of CCl4 solution, a fasting group, which was fasted 12 h/day for 30 days, and a fourth group, which was injected with CCl4 and fasted. The metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress improved in CCl4-intoxicated rats fasted for 12 h/day for 30 days, as evidenced in significant increase (p fasting improved metabolism, immunity, and oxidative stress in CCl4-intoxicated rats. Thus, fasting during Ramadan is safe for patients with hepatic disorders, as the prophet Mohammed (S) said "Keep the fast, keep your health". © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication on Anger Experience and Expression among Partner Assaultive Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Christopher I.

    2007-01-01

    The author investigated the acute effects of alcohol intoxication on anger experience and expression among 46 maritally violent (MV) and 56 maritally nonviolent (NV) men randomly assigned to receive alcohol, placebo, or no alcohol. Participants completed an anger-arousing articulated thoughts in simulated situations (ATSS) paradigm and imagined…

  17. Mercury Intoxication in Rats: Iron and Vitamin B6 as A Potential Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taimur Islam*

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mercury in any form is poisonous and mercury toxicity most commonly affects the nervous, gastrointestinal (GI and urinary systems. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific effect associated with mercury toxicity and to evaluate the effectiveness of iron and vitamin B6 supplement on mercury-induced toxicities in rats. Methods: This experiment was performed on 25 rats. All rats were randomly divided into five equal groups (5×5. Toxic signs and body weight change, hematological parameters like total erythrocyte count (TEC, total leukocyte count (TLC, hemoglobin content (Hb% and packed cell volume (PCV and postmortem changes in rats were investigated. Results: Rats treated with mercury intoxication showed severe toxic signs and significantly (P<0.01 reduced TEC, TLC, Hb content and PCV. However, rats treated with mercury intoxication in combination with iron and vitamin B6 showed physiological levels of hematological parameters. Mercury intoxication induced the congestion and necrosis in lung, liver, heart and kidney, whereas combined use of mercury intoxication, iron and vitamin B6 recovered the condition. Conclusion: Combined use of iron and vitamin B6 is highly protective against mercury toxicity.

  18. Assessing Driving while Intoxicated (DWI) Offender Characteristics and Drinking Problems Utilizing the Numerical Drinking Profile (NDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Adam E.; Misra, Ranjita; Dennis, Maurice

    2006-01-01

    Driving a vehicle under the influence of alcohol is a major public health concern. By distinguishing the type of individuals violating driving while intoxicated (DWI) sanctions, intervention programs will be better suited to reduce drinking and driving. The purpose of this study was to examine the personal characteristics of DWI offenders and…

  19. Statistical parametric mapping in brain single photon computed emission tomography after carbon monoxide intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, N; Nohara, S; Matsuda, H; Sumiya, H; Noguchi, K; Shimizu, M; Tsuji, S; Kinuya, S; Shuke, N; Yokoyama, K; Seto, H

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess regional cerebral blood flow in patients after carbon monoxide intoxication by using brain single photon emission computed tomography and statistical parametric mapping. Eight patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae and ten patients with no neuropsychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication were studied with brain single photon emission tomography imaging with 99mTc-hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime. Forty-four control subjects were also studied. We used the adjusted regional cerebral blood flow images in relative flow distribution (normalization of global cerebral blood flow for each subject to 50 ml x 100 g(-1) x min(-1) with proportional scaling) to compare these groups with statistical parametric mapping. Using this technique, significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow was noted extensively in the bilateral frontal lobes as well as the bilateral insula and a part of the right temporal lobe in the patients with delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae as compared with normal volunteers (Pparametric mapping is a useful technique for highlighting differences in regional cerebral blood flow in patients following carbon monoxide intoxication as compared with normal volunteers. The selectively reduced blood flow noted in this investigation supports the contention that the decrease following carbon monoxide intoxication may be prolonged and further worsen in the frontal lobe. In addition, the present study may help to clarify the characteristics of the pathophysiological alteration underlying delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae.

  20. Gender, male-typicality, and social norms predicting adolescent alcohol intoxication and marijuana use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran; Sims, Jacqueline; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lynch, Alicia Doyle

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the direct and interactive effects of gender, male-typicality, and social norms in predicting the initiation and longitudinal patterns of alcohol intoxication and marijuana use in U.S. youth. Data were drawn from a longitudinal survey of 10,588 youth who participated in the in-home survey of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Multilevel growth modeling used data from three time points to assess trajectories of substance use from adolescence to young adulthood. Analyses indicated that gender, male-typicality, as well as home availability, friend social norms, and schoolmate social norms predicted initial levels of intoxication and marijuana use, with gender, friend norms, and schoolmate norms also predicting differential rates of growth over time in intoxication and marijuana use. Interaction results indicated that gender moderated male-typicality's relationship to both substance use variables, and home availability's relationship to alcohol intoxication. These findings extend the literatures regarding interrelations among gender, gender roles, social norms, and health risk behaviors by (a) locating the genesis of those effects in adolescence, (b) identifying gender and social norms to be salient in terms of both initiation and growth of substance use over time, (c) suggesting that gender differences should be understood as moderated by other social-contextual variables, and (d) arguing that prevention efforts should address gender and gender roles more explicitly in programming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Catechol-Bisphosphonate Conjugates:New Potential Chelating Agents for Metal Intoxication Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang Yu XU; Chun Hao YANG; Bo LIU; Xi Han WU; Yu Yuan XIE

    2004-01-01

    In a quest for better chelating therapy drugs for the treatment of intoxication by Fe, Al, or actinides, two new series of mixed catechol-bisphosphonate through amide linkage were synthesized.Benzyl group was used as protecting group to avoid the breakage of amide by acid hydrolysis or imcomplete reaction in silylation-dealkylation using bromotrimethylsilane.

  2. The need for ICU admission in intoxicated patients : a prediction model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandenburg, Raya; Brinkman, Sylvia; de Keizer, Nicolette F; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Meulenbelt, Jan; de Lange, Dylan W

    CONTEXT: Intoxicated patients are frequently admitted from the emergency room to the ICU for observational reasons. The question is whether these admissions are indeed necessary. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a model that predicts the need of ICU treatment (receiving mechanical

  3. Brain MR finding of {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Young; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Seung Ro; Park, Dong Woo [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    {beta}-fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide intoxication can manifest as several different clinical abnormalities such as respiratory, neurologic, cardiologic and fluid-electrolyte problems. We report here on the MR findings of a case that showed symmetric cytotoxic edema in the while matter of the cerebral hemispheres after the ingestion of {beta} - fluoroethyl acetate rodenticide by a woman who was attempting suicide.

  4. Compliance with the Legislation on Alcohol Serving and Selling and Alcohol Intoxications in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van Joris J.; Boeynaems, Gerben; Vanderlely, Nicolaas

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: study the relation between compliance to the legal age limits for alcohol sales and alcohol intoxication in adolescents. Methods: from 2007 till 2012 we collected data on adolescents, with a positive BAC, treated in a hospital. Within the Dutch Pediatric Surveillance System (NSCK), pediatr

  5. The Effect of Vitamin C on the Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes in Intoxicated-Lead Rat Offsprings

    OpenAIRE

    Eshginia, Samira; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Lead exposure or lead poisoning is known to cause a large spectrum of physiological, biochemical, and behavioural disorders in animals. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of vitamin C on the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and the glutathione reductase activities in intoxicated- lead rat offsprings.

  6. Acute isoniazid intoxication: an uncommon cause of convulsion, coma and acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzman, Sinan; Uludağ Yanaral, Tümay; Toptaş, Mehmet; Koç, Alparslan; Taş, Aytül; Bican, Gülşen

    2013-01-01

    Despite the widespread use, suicidal ingestion of isoniazid is a rare condition in Turkey. We reported a case of acute isoniazid intoxication associated with alcohol intake presenting with convulsion, coma and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous pyridoxine administration. Early recognation and appropriate treatment in the intensive care unit is very important to prevent mortality in patients with acute isoniazid toxicity.

  7. The effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the cognitive mechanisms underlying false facial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloff, Melissa F; Flowe, Heather D

    2016-06-01

    False face recognition rates are sometimes higher when faces are learned while under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol myopia theory (AMT) proposes that acute alcohol intoxication during face learning causes people to attend to only the most salient features of a face, impairing the encoding of less salient facial features. Yet, there is currently no direct evidence to support this claim. Our objective was to test whether acute alcohol intoxication impairs face learning by causing subjects to attend to a salient (i.e., distinctive) facial feature over other facial features, as per AMT. We employed a balanced placebo design (N = 100). Subjects in the alcohol group were dosed to achieve a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.06 %, whereas the no alcohol group consumed tonic water. Alcohol expectancy was controlled. Subjects studied faces with or without a distinctive feature (e.g., scar, piercing). An old-new recognition test followed. Some of the test faces were "old" (i.e., previously studied), and some were "new" (i.e., not previously studied). We varied whether the new test faces had a previously studied distinctive feature versus other familiar characteristics. Intoxicated and sober recognition accuracy was comparable, but subjects in the alcohol group made more positive identifications overall compared to the no alcohol group. The results are not in keeping with AMT. Rather, a more general cognitive mechanism appears to underlie false face recognition in intoxicated subjects. Specifically, acute alcohol intoxication during face learning results in more liberal choosing, perhaps because of an increased reliance on familiarity.

  8. [Case report: kleptomania and other psychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Yüksel, Ebru; Taşkin, E Oryal; Yilmaz Ovali, Gülgün; Karaçam, Melek; Esen Danaci, Ayşen

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is usually a serious condition, which can result in neurological disturbances or death. In some patients with CO intoxication, but not usually, a biphasic pattern can be seen. In this condition, after antitoxic treatment, patients may completely recover and after a short recovery period, neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms appear again. This condition is known as delayed encephalopathy and its occurrence rate is between 0.06% and 11.8%. Herein, we report a case with delayed encephalopathy after CO intoxication, which began with neurological symptoms and continued with obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, kleptomania, and psychotic disorder. The 41-year-old female patient had no psychiatric or neurological symptoms or disorders prior to CO intoxication. Increased signal intensity changes in the basal region of the left temporal lobe (including the cortex and subcortical white matter), globus pallidus (bilateral), and cerebellar cortical and subcortical white matter (bilaterally symmetrical) was detected on axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, there were atrophic changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of kleptomania described after CO intoxication in the literature. We discuss the organic etiology of kleptomania and the other psychiatric symptoms of this patient in the light of recent research. We concluded that the kleptomania seen in this patient was related to concurrent lesions in the temporal lobe and globus pallidus; in other words, her kleptomania may have been related to dysfunction simultaneously seen in both the temporolimbic and frontal-subcortical circuits.

  9. The influence of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation on oxygen free radicals metabolism in rabbits with soman intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation (UBIO) on the metabolism of oxygen free radicals in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. Methods: One hundred rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group, UBIO therapy group and combined therapy group. After 14 d, the concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT)and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum were determined respectively. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of MDA and activity of CAT in the intoxication group were significantly higher (P < 0. 05 ), but SOD, GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly lower (P<0.05). After UBIO or combined therapy, serum MDA level was significantly lower in comparison with intoxication group (P<0.05), but the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T AOC were higher than intoxication group(P<0.05). Conclusion: There is an obvious oxygen free radical injury in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. UBIO can improve the antioxidation ability of rabbits and may be applied to treat acute soman intoxication as adjunctive therapy.

  10. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Vaidyanathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in

  11. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Selmi, Fahed

    2013-01-01

    Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in the long term. PMID

  12. Human health risks due to heavy metals through consumption of wild mushrooms from Macheke forest, Rail Block forest and Muganyi communal lands in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nharingo, Tichaona; Ndumo, Tafungwa; Moyo, Mambo

    2015-12-01

    The levels and sources of toxic heavy metals in Amanita loosii (AL) and Cantharellus floridulus (CF) mushrooms and their substrates were studied in some parts of Zimbabwe, Rail Block forest (mining town), Macheke forest (commercial farming), and Muganyi communal lands. The mushrooms and their associated soils were acid digested prior to Al, Pb, and Zn determination by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The transfer factors, mushrooms-soil metal correlation coefficients, daily intake rates, weekly intake rates, and target hazard quotients were calculated for each metal. The concentration of Zn, Al and Pb in mushrooms ranged from 1.045 ± 0.028 to 7.568 ± 0.322, 0.025 ± 0.001 to 0.654 ± 0.005, and a maximum of 5.78 ± 0.31 mg/kg, respectively, in all the three sampling areas. The mean heavy metal concentrations among the three sampling areas decreased as follows: Rail Block forest (mining town) > Macheke forest (commercial farming) > Muganyi communal lands for the concentrations in both mushrooms and total concentration in their substrates. C. floridulus accumulated higher concentrations of Al, Zn, and Pb than A. loosii at each site under study. Zn in both AL and CF (Muganyi communal lands) and Pb in AL (Rail Block forest) were absorbed only from the soils, while other sources of contamination were involved elsewhere. The consumption of 300 g of fresh A. loosii and C. floridulus per day by children less than 16 kg harvested from Rail Block forest would cause health problems, while mushrooms from Macheke Forest and Muganyi communal lands were found to be safe for human consumption. Due to non-biodegradability and bioaccumulation abilities of heavy metals, people are discouraged to consume A. loosii and C. floridulus from Rail Block forest for they have significant levels of heavy metals compared to those from Macheke forest and Muganyi communal lands.

  13. [Case report of the first world death due to a new strain of human influenza A H1N1 virus and behavior of human influenzae in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Sánchez, Marcelo Fidias; Karchmer Krivitzky, Samuel; EsliRabadán, Martínez Cesar; Antonio Sánchez, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A H1N1 is an acute respiratory illness caused by a new strain of H1N1. Human influenza is a subtype of influenza Avirus, from the family of Orthomyxoviridae. This strain is the cause of new influenza pandemic declared by the World Health Organization in June, 2009. This paper reports the first case occurred in Mexico: a 39-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus type 2 and obesity grade II, which suffered atypical and aggressive pneumonia positive to coronavirus. Patient died 98 hours after her admission to the hospital unit. Due to the clinical presentation of the case, the doctors sent samples to the Instituto Nacional de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológica that sent an aliquot of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases of theAgency of Public Health in Canada, that reported positivity to influenza virus, and catalogued it as a new global strain called influenza A virus H1N1. The notice of 229E/NL63 coronavirus and its relationship to the recent outbreaks of avian influenza in humans and the clinical presentation of the case were the epidemiological circumstances that prevented the nation epidemiology system to establish global containment strategies to prevent the spread of this emerging infection. The consequence was the declaration of WHO pandemic alert level 6. Its behavior in pregnancy, reported by Assistant General Direction of Epidemiology in Mexico, has placed this infection as a risk factor for women.

  14. Contaminants in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1978-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding excretion of contaminants in human milk, due to experimental difficulties and until recently a general lack of interest. Because of the high fat content of milk and as its acidity is higher than that of plasma, nearly all liposoluble and basic agents consumed by the mother will be excreted in the milk. Distinction must be made between, on the one hand drugs and social toxicants such as smoking and alcohol, whose intake can be stopped or limited during pregnancy and lactation, and ecological toxicants present in a polluted environment to which the mother is exposed. Cases have occurred of heavy prenatal and postnatal intoxication of infants with hexachlorobenzene in Turkey and methylmercury in Iraq due to consumption of fungicide-treated seed wheat by pregnant and lactating mothers. Recent attention has been concentrated on contamination of milk with organochlorine compounds such as DDT and PCB's, that are found in many parts of the world. The heaviest contamination with DDT has been found in Guatemala, resulting in suckling infants consuming many times the Acceptable Daily Intake of this compound proposed by WHO, with unknown future effects.

  15. Human health impacts due to using of energy resources according to the local Resource Integrated Planning (RIP); Avaliacao dos efeitos na saude humana do uso dos recursos energeticos dentro do PIR local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odongo, Fatuma Catherine Atieno [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IEE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia], e-mail: fatuma.odongo@usp.br; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], e-mail: aquiles@pea.usp.br, e-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br; Biague, Mario Fernandes [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Energia

    2008-07-01

    The human health impacts due to the use of energy resources are identified and characterized. Regarding the methodology, the impacts due to the use of energy resources worldwide were studied and analyzed, with great focus on the Brazilian reality. In this sense, the provoked impacts and, especially, the environmental ones were mostly discussed in the context of emissions issues and poor air quality. Mortality and morbidity were used as indicators for measuring the effects of poor air quality on human health. From these data it is concluded that an increase in the level of pollution increases mortality and morbidity. (author)

  16. Acrolein and Human Disease: Untangling the Knotty Exposure Scenarios Accompanying Several Diverse Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Philip C

    2017-01-17

    Acrolein is a highly toxic electrophile that participates in many diseases, yet efforts to delineate its precise mechanistic contributions to specific conditions are complicated by its wide distribution within human environments. This Perspective develops the proposal that due to its mixed status as environmental pollutant, metabolic byproduct, and endotoxicant which forms via ubiquitous pathophysiological processes, many diseases likely involve acrolein released from multiple sources. Although the category boundaries are indistinct, at least four identifiable exposure scenarios are identifiable. First, in some syndromes, such as those accompanying chronic or acute intoxication with smoke, whatever role acrolein plays in disease pathogenesis mainly traces to exogenous sources such as the combustion of tobacco or other organic matter. A second exposure category involves xenobiotics that undergo metabolism within the body to release acrolein. Still other health conditions, however, involve acrolein that forms via several endogenous pathways, some of which are activated upon intoxication with xenobiotics (i.e., Exposure Category 3), while still others accompany direct physical trauma to body tissues (Exposure Category 4). Further complicating efforts to clarify the role of endogenous acrolein in human disease is the likelihood that many such syndromes are complex phenomena that resemble "chemical mixture exposures" by involving multiple toxic substances simultaneously. This Perspective contends that while recent decades have witnessed much progress in describing the deleterious effects of acrolein at the cellular and molecular levels, more work is needed to define the contributions of different acrolein sources to "real-world" health conditions in human subjects.

  17. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison) with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Charlotte Mark; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2012-01-01

    Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison) caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) has been shown to augment infection with P....... aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found...

  18. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case seriesObjective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events.Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series.Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis.Conclusions and

  19. Intoxicated children at an intensive care unit: popular medicine risks, complications and costs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo de Rovetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Hospital Universitario del Valle (HUV at the Pediatrics Intensive Care Unit (PICU admits intoxicated patients, erroneously medicated by «teguas» or family members with serious aggravation of basic diseases or generating severe intoxications. Absent reports of these practices in Colombia motivated the publication of this case series Objective: To report a series of pediatric intoxication cases secondary to oral or dermatological application of varied substances by healers («teguas» or family members, leading to admission at the PICU, and to describe complications and hospital costs of these events. Methodology: Clinical charts of patients admitted to the PICU with diagnosis of exogenous intoxication during May 2001 to September 2004, were reviewed. Of 28 registered cases during that time, only 14 clinical charts were recovered. Variables evaluated included: age, gender, proceeding, administered substance, person responsible for the administration, complications, days of mechanical ventilation, total days at the intensive care unit and average costs. Of the 14 medical records with exogenous intoxications only 5 cases were involuntary and 9 were related to the administration of substances by quacks or family members; these are the ones reported in this series. Results: We report a total of 9 intoxicated patients, 5 girls and 4 boys, with an age range from 1 to 24 months, all from Cali. Topical administered substances: alcohol 6/9, vinegar 1/9; oral: aspirin 2/9, paico 1/9, and unidentified herbs 1/9. Administered substances by teguas: 6 patients; 3 by family members. All patients had metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap: 27 in average (range from 21 to 32. All required mechanical ventilation (2 to 32 day range. Average hospital day costs were $6’657,800 pesos (around U$3,000.oo. Three patients died and 4 presented acute renal failure, 2 convulsions, 2 nosocomial infections, 1 subglotic stenosis. Conclusions and

  20. Investigation of the presence of human or bovine respiratory syncytial virus in the lungs of mink (Neovison vison with hemorrhagic pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomonsen Charlotte M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hemorrhagic pneumonia is a disease of farmed mink (Neovison vison caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The disease is highly seasonal in Danish mink with outbreaks occurring almost exclusively in the autumn. Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV has been shown to augment infection with P. aeruginosa in mice and to promote adhesion of P. aeruginosa to human respiratory cells. Findings We tested 50 lung specimens from mink with hemorrhagic pneumonia for bovine RSV by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR and for human RSV by a commercial real-time PCR. RSV was not found. Conclusions This study indicates that human and bovine RSV is not a major co-factor for development of hemorrhagic pneumonia in Danish mink.